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Sample records for participatory computer-assisted approach

  1. Beyond the Melnikov method: A computer assisted approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capiński, Maciej J.; Zgliczyński, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    We present a Melnikov type approach for establishing transversal intersections of stable/unstable manifolds of perturbed normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds (NHIMs). The method is based on a new geometric proof of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold theorem, which establishes the existence of a NHIM, together with its associated invariant manifolds and bounds on their first and second derivatives. We do not need to know the explicit formulas for the homoclinic orbits prior to the perturbation. We also do not need to compute any integrals along such homoclinics. All needed bounds are established using rigorous computer assisted numerics. Lastly, and most importantly, the method establishes intersections for an explicit range of parameters, and not only for perturbations that are 'small enough', as is the case in the classical Melnikov approach.

  2. One Instructor's Approach to Computer Assisted Instruction in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    Discusses advantages of using computer-assisted instruction in a college general chemistry course. Advantages include using programs which generate random equations with double arrows (equilibrium systems) or generate alkane structural formula, asking for the correct IUPAC name of the structure. (Author/JN)

  3. A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Tolga

    2010-01-01

    Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…

  4. A Computer-Assisted Multiliteracies Programme as an Alternative Approach to EFL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungmee; Ardeshiri, Minoo; Cummins, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce a computer-assisted multiliteracies programme (CaMP) as an alternative approach to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instruction in order to overcome the educational limitations that are inherent in most EFL settings. In a number of monolingual societies with a dominant language other than English,…

  5. Interactive computer-assisted approach for evaluation of ultrastructural cilia abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Christoph; Siegmund, Heiko; Semmelmann, Matthias; Grafe, Claudia; Evert, Matthias; Schroeder, Josef A.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction - Diagnosis of abnormal cilia function is based on ultrastructural analysis of axoneme defects, especialy the features of inner and outer dynein arms which are the motors of ciliar motility. Sub-optimal biopsy material, methodical, and intrinsic electron microscopy factors pose difficulty in ciliary defects evaluation. We present a computer-assisted approach based on state-of-the-art image analysis and object recognition methods yielding a time-saving and efficient diagnosis of cilia dysfunction. Method - The presented approach is based on a pipeline of basal image processing methods like smoothing, thresholding and ellipse fitting. However, integration of application specific knowledge results in robust segmentations even in cases of image artifacts. The method is build hierarchically starting with the detection of cilia within the image, followed by the detection of nine doublets within each analyzable cilium, and ending with the detection of dynein arms of each doublet. The process is concluded by a rough classification of the dynein arms as basis for a computer-assisted diagnosis. Additionally, the interaction possibilities are designed in a way, that the results are still reproducible given the completion report. Results - A qualitative evaluation showed reasonable detection results for cilia, doublets and dynein arms. However, since a ground truth is missing, the variation of the computer-assisted diagnosis should be within the subjective bias of human diagnosticians. The results of a first quantitative evaluation with five human experts and six images with 12 analyzable cilia showed, that with default parameterization 91.6% of the cilia and 98% of the doublets were found. The computer-assisted approach rated 66% of those inner and outer dynein arms correct, where all human experts agree. However, especially the quality of the dynein arm classification may be improved in future work.

  6. A Brief Review of Computer-Assisted Approaches to Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Ashesh; Basak, Subhash C

    2016-05-04

    The growing incidences of new viral diseases and increasingly frequent viral epidemics have strained therapeutic and preventive measures; the high mutability of viral genes puts additional strains on developmental efforts. Given the high cost and time requirements for new drugs development, vaccines remain as a viable alternative, but there too traditional techniques of live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines have the danger of allergenic reactions and others. Peptide vaccines have, over the last several years, begun to be looked on as more appropriate alternatives, which are economically affordable, require less time for development and hold the promise of multi-valent dosages. The developments in bioinformatics, proteomics, immunogenomics, structural biology and other sciences have spurred the growth of vaccinomics where computer assisted approaches serve to identify suitable peptide targets for eventual development of vaccines. In this mini-review we give a brief overview of some of the recent trends in computer assisted vaccine development with emphasis on the primary selection procedures of probable peptide candidates for vaccine development.

  7. A Brief Review of Computer-Assisted Approaches to Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Ashesh; Basak, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    The growing incidences of new viral diseases and increasingly frequent viral epidemics have strained therapeutic and preventive measures; the high mutability of viral genes puts additional strains on developmental efforts. Given the high cost and time requirements for new drugs development, vaccines remain as a viable alternative, but there too traditional techniques of live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines have the danger of allergenic reactions and others. Peptide vaccines have, over the last several years, begun to be looked on as more appropriate alternatives, which are economically affordable, require less time for development and hold the promise of multi-valent dosages. The developments in bioinformatics, proteomics, immunogenomics, structural biology and other sciences have spurred the growth of vaccinomics where computer assisted approaches serve to identify suitable peptide targets for eventual development of vaccines. In this mini-review we give a brief overview of some of the recent trends in computer assisted vaccine development with emphasis on the primary selection procedures of probable peptide candidates for vaccine development. PMID:27153063

  8. A New Approach to Teaching Reading Comprehension: Using Cloze and Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Bethany J.; Bell, D. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the Computer-Assisted Instruction Project, under the auspices of the All Indian Pueblo Project, designed to help elementary Pueblo students to develop better reading skills through culturally relevant reading and the cloze technique. (RAO)

  9. A Review of Issues in Computer-Assisted Counseling and a New Approach to Its Applications in College Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colburn, Kenneth A.

    Issues and approaches in computer-assisted counseling are presented in this thesis. Reasons are considered for the ineffectiveness of school guidance counselors in helping students make college selections, and a reconceptualization of counseling as a technology of helping is suggested. The uses of computers in counseling are examined along with…

  10. Computer-Assisted, Counselor-Delivered Smoking Cessation Counseling for Community College Students: Intervention Approach and Sample Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; de Moor, Carl; Warneke, Carla L.; Luca, Mario; Jones, Mary Mullin; Rosenblum, Carol; Emmons, Karen M.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Yost, Tracey E.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the experimental approach and baseline findings from "Look at Your Health," an ongoing study to develop and evaluate a computer-assisted, counselor-delivered smoking cessation program for community college students. It describes the expert system software program used for data collection and for provision of tailored feedback,…

  11. A Computer-Assisted Personalized Approach in an Undergraduate Plant Physiology Class1

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Nancy N.; Nadler, Kenneth D.

    1999-01-01

    We used Computer-Assisted Personalized Approach (CAPA), a networked teaching and learning tool that generates computer individualized homework problem sets, in our large-enrollment introductory plant physiology course. We saw significant improvement in student examination performance with regular homework assignments, with CAPA being an effective and efficient substitute for hand-graded homework. Using CAPA, each student received a printed set of similar but individualized problems of a conceptual (qualitative) and/or quantitative nature with quality graphics. Because each set of problems is unique, students were encouraged to work together to clarify concepts but were required to do their own work for credit. Students could enter answers multiple times without penalty, and they were able to obtain immediate feedback and hints until the due date. These features increased student time on task, allowing higher course standards and student achievement in a diverse student population. CAPA handles routine tasks such as grading, recording, summarizing, and posting grades. In anonymous surveys, students indicated an overwhelming preference for homework in CAPA format, citing several features such as immediate feedback, multiple tries, and on-line accessibility as reasons for their preference. We wrote and used more than 170 problems on 17 topics in introductory plant physiology, cataloging them in a computer library for general access. Representative problems are compared and discussed. PMID:10198076

  12. The Lower Manhattan Project: A New Approach to Computer-Assisted Learning in History Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, William; Gaffield, Chad

    1990-01-01

    The Lower Manhattan Project, a computer-assisted undergraduate course in U.S. history, enhances student appreciation of the historical process through research and writing. Focuses on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries emphasizing massive immigration, rapid industrialization, and the growth of cities. Includes a reading list and…

  13. Are They Numbers or VIPs? A Personalized, Computer-Assisted Approach to College Admissions and Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Evelyn P.; Reda, Denice A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Personalized Admissions and Advisement System introduced at Triton College, Illinois, to administer student recruitment, admissions, advising, and initial orientation. The article compares the old and the new systems and points out the benefits of the computer-assisted method, particularly as related to speed and ease of data…

  14. Thermodynamic Properties of Asphaltenes: A Predictive Approach Based On Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation and Atomistic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, Mamadou S.; Cagin, Tahir; Faulon, Jean Loup; Goddard, William A.

    2000-08-01

    The authors describe a new methodology for predicting the thermodynamic properties of petroleum geomacromolecules (asphaltenes and resins). This methodology combines computer assisted structure elucidation (CASE) with atomistic simulations (molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics and statistical mechanics). They use quantitative and qualitative structural data as input to a CASE program (SIGNATURE) to generate a sample of ten asphaltene model structures for a Saudi crude oil (Arab Berri). MM calculations and MD simulations are used to estimate selected volumetric and thermal properties of the model structures.

  15. Teachers' Stories: Expanding the Boundaries with the Participatory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Lee; And Others

    Compiled by a group of teachers new to the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) field, this volume contains writing samples from teachers involved in the participatory approach to ESL classroom instruction. Introductory notes by Lee Hewitt cite the participatory approach as the most compelling method for teaching ESL adult learners. The…

  16. Participatory Research: New Approaches to the Research to Practice Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…

  17. A framework for the selection of participatory approaches for SEA

    SciTech Connect

    Rauschmayer, Felix . E-mail: felix.rauschmayer@ufz.de; Risse, Nathalie . E-mail: nrisse@ulb.ac.be

    2005-08-15

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is now adopted as a formal procedure in various organisations. Nevertheless, the question of how to choose the most suitable SEA participatory approach for a given situation is far from being resolved. To shed light on this question, we briefly describe several participatory approaches used in environmental management and decision-making. A framework for evaluating these approaches is then adapted to SEA and used to assess the approaches selected. We conclude that participatory approaches within the SEA implementation process need to be chosen more systematically and we put forward our framework as a way of doing so.

  18. Innovative approach in the development of computer assisted algorithm for spine pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Solitro, Giovanni F; Amirouche, Farid

    2016-04-01

    Pedicle screws are typically used for fusion, percutaneous fixation, and means of gripping a spinal segment. The screws act as a rigid and stable anchor points to bridge and connect with a rod as part of a construct. The foundation of the fusion is directly related to the placement of these screws. Malposition of pedicle screws causes intraoperative complications such as pedicle fractures and dural lesions and is a contributing factor to fusion failure. Computer assisted spine surgery (CASS) and patient-specific drill templates were developed to reduce this failure rate, but the trajectory of the screws remains a decision driven by anatomical landmarks often not easily defined. Current data shows the need of a robust and reliable technique that prevents screw misplacement. Furthermore, there is a need to enhance screw insertion guides to overcome the distortion of anatomical landmarks, which is viewed as a limiting factor by current techniques. The objective of this study is to develop a method and mathematical lemmas that are fundamental to the development of computer algorithms for pedicle screw placement. Using the proposed methodology, we show how we can generate automated optimal safe screw insertion trajectories based on the identification of a set of intrinsic parameters. The results, obtained from the validation of the proposed method on two full thoracic segments, are similar to previous morphological studies. The simplicity of the method, being pedicle arch based, is applicable to vertebrae where landmarks are either not well defined, altered or distorted.

  19. The Impact of Asynchronous Computer-Assisted Language Learning Approaches on English as a Foreign Language High and Low Achievers' Vocabulary Retention and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjian, Bahman; Moosavinia, Seyyed Rahim; Kavari, Kamal Ebrahimi; Asgari, Parviz; Hydarei, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the impact of asynchronous computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches on high and low achievers' vocabulary retention and recall of English as foreign language learners. Fifty participants were assigned into two homogeneous groups. Both groups covered eight expository passages, which included "Select readings:…

  20. A Different Approach to Have Science and Technology Student-Teachers Gain Varied Methods in Laboratory Applications: A Sample of Computer Assisted POE Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saka, Arzu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach and assess the application for the science and technology student-teachers to gain varied laboratory methods in science and technology teaching. It is also aimed to describe the computer-assisted POE application in the subject of "Photosynthesis-Light" developed in the context of…

  1. Species-Recognition Program: A Computer-Assisted Approach to Recognizing Species†

    PubMed Central

    Kelsch, Steven; Carmichael, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Species recognition is a crucial component for many types of biological studies. To that end, broadly trained students must be able to accurately identify many different types of organisms. Courses that focus on learning the names of different species traditionally rely on preserved specimens viewed during class or laboratory time. Unfortunately, reliance on preserved specimens comes with many challenges in providing students with an optimal learning experience. The curriculum activity described here uses a modified PowerPoint file (species-recognition program—SRP) as a means of helping students learn to recognize and identify fishes based on subtle visual cues. Our results indicate that students were better able to identify fish species when using the SRP as a learning approach than when using preserved specimens. We suggest that the SRP approach to species recognition is an effective, viable alternative or supplement to preserved specimens that can be easily implemented in any course that emphasizes species identification. Information and materials are provided to enable instructors to create their own species-recognition programs. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158308

  2. A Randomized Rounding Approach for Optimization of Test Sheet Composing and Exposure Rate Control in Computer-Assisted Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chu-Fu; Lin, Chih-Lung; Deng, Jien-Han

    2012-01-01

    Testing is an important stage of teaching as it can assist teachers in auditing students' learning results. A good test is able to accurately reflect the capability of a learner. Nowadays, Computer-Assisted Testing (CAT) is greatly improving traditional testing, since computers can automatically and quickly compose a proper test sheet to meet user…

  3. At Their Own Pace: Interim Findings from an Evaluation of a Computer-Assisted, Modular Approach to Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardenhire, Alissa; Diamond, John; Headlam, Camielle; Weiss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges nationwide are looking for solutions to help students complete developmental (remedial) math--a known barrier to graduation. Some are offering computer-assisted, modular developmental math courses that allow students to earn credits incrementally and move through the curriculum at their own pace. One of these modularized…

  4. Validating a Computer-Assisted Language Learning Attitude Instrument Used in Iranian EFL Context: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2016-01-01

    A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…

  5. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  6. A Participatory Action Research Approach To Evaluating Inclusive School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.

    2001-01-01

    This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…

  7. The Palouse Basin Participatory Model Pilot Project: A Participatory Approach to Bi-state Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.

  8. CAA: Computer Assisted Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John H.

    Computers have been used in a variety of applications for athletics since the late 1950's. These have ranged from computer-controlled electric scoreboards to computer-designed pole vaulting poles. Described in this paper are a computer-based athletic injury reporting system and a computer-assisted football scouting system. The injury reporting…

  9. Empowering women: participatory approaches in women's health and development projects.

    PubMed

    Manderson, L; Mark, T

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the experience of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and community-based organizations in implementing projects aimed at improving women's health. The study included 16 projects, reflecting Australian NGO experiences in Africa, China, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and South America. They illustrate the value of participatory approaches in determining needs and priorities, and the value of the continued involvement of women in implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Approaches that succeeded in increasing women's access to and use of health services addressed gender issues, set realistic and achievable objectives, and recognized and enhanced the roles and status of women.

  10. Computer-assisted psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jesse H.; Wright, Andrew S.

    1997-01-01

    The rationale for using computers in psychotherapy includes the possibility that therapeutic software could improve the efficiency of treatment and provide access for greater numbers of patients. Computers have not been able to reliably duplicate the type of dialogue typically used in clinician-administered therapy. However, computers have significant strengths that can be used to advantage in designing treatment programs. Software developed for computer-assisted therapy generally has been well accepted by patients. Outcome studies have usually demonstrated treatment effectiveness for this form of therapy. Future development of computer tools may be influenced by changes in health care financing and rapid growth of new technologies. An integrated care delivery model incorporating the unique attributes of both clinicians and computers should be adopted for computer-assisted therapy. PMID:9292446

  11. Computer-assisted instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a project of research and development on strategies for optimizing the instructional process, and dissemination of information about the applications of such research to the instructional medium of computer-assisted instruction. Accomplishments reported include construction of the author language INSTRUCT, construction of a practical CAI course in the area of computer science, and a number of investigations into the individualization of instruction, using the course as a vehicle.

  12. A new approach of building 3D visualization framework for multimodal medical images display and computed assisted diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenwei; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    As more and more CT/MR studies are scanning with larger volume of data sets, more and more radiologists and clinician would like using PACS WS to display and manipulate these larger data sets of images with 3D rendering features. In this paper, we proposed a design method and implantation strategy to develop 3D image display component not only with normal 3D display functions but also with multi-modal medical image fusion as well as compute-assisted diagnosis of coronary heart diseases. The 3D component has been integrated into the PACS display workstation of Shanghai Huadong Hospital, and the clinical practice showed that it is easy for radiologists and physicians to use these 3D functions such as multi-modalities' (e.g. CT, MRI, PET, SPECT) visualization, registration and fusion, and the lesion quantitative measurements. The users were satisfying with the rendering speeds and quality of 3D reconstruction. The advantages of the component include low requirements for computer hardware, easy integration, reliable performance and comfortable application experience. With this system, the radiologists and the clinicians can manipulate with 3D images easily, and use the advanced visualization tools to facilitate their work with a PACS display workstation at any time.

  13. Computer-assisted instruction to prevent early reading difficulties in students at risk for dyslexia: Outcomes from two instructional approaches.

    PubMed

    Torgesen, Joseph K; Wagner, Richard K; Rashotte, Carol A; Herron, Jeannine; Lindamood, Patricia

    2010-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of two computer-assisted instructional programs designed to provide instruction and practice in foundational reading skills was examined. First-grade students at risk for reading disabilities received approximately 80 h of small-group instruction in four 50-min sessions per week from October through May. Approximately half of the instruction was delivered by specially trained teachers to prepare students for their work on the computer, and half was delivered by the computer programs. At the end of first grade, there were no differences in student reading performance between students assigned to the different intervention conditions, but the combined-intervention students performed significantly better than control students who had been exposed to their school's normal reading program. Significant differences were obtained for phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, reading accuracy, rapid automatic naming, and reading comprehension. A follow-up test at the end of second grade showed a similar pattern of differences, although only differences in phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, and rapid naming remained statistically reliable.

  14. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  15. Comprehensive Case Analysis on Participatory Approaches, from Nexus Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine

  16. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.

  17. Participatory approaches to understanding practices of flood management across borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was

  18. [Computer-assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Micali, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The broad range of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) represents the integration of computer technology in surgical procedures for presurgical planning, guiding or manipulation. Surgical robots and surgical endoscopic navigation are the most challenging applications to urology. A surgical robot is defined as a computer-controlled manipulator with artificial sensing which can be programmed to move, and position tools to carry out surgical tasks. In urology, robots have been tested in two areas: endourology and laparoscopy. Surgical navigation allows the surgeon to process data from pre- and intraoperative sources, aiming at purification and presentation of the most relevant information. Image-guided systems (IGS), augmented reality (AR) and navigation in endoscopic soft tissue surgery represent the three main topics of surgical urological navigation. IGS involve matching the coordinates from medical imaging (preoperative registration) with coordinates from the patient in the operating room (registration and updating images). IGS have become the standard of care in providing navigational assistance during neurosurgery, offering subsurface and functional information to the surgeon.

  19. Computer Assisted Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Cosío, F.; Padilla Castañeda, M. A.

    2003-09-01

    Computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems can provide different levels of assistance to a surgeon during training and execution of a surgical procedure. This is done through the integration of : measurements taken on medical images; computer graphics techniques; and positioning or tracking mechanisms which accurately locate the surgical instruments inside the operating site. According to the type of assistance that is provided to the surgeon, CAS systems can be classified as: Image guided surgery systems; Assistant robots for surgery; and Training simulators for surgery. In this work are presented the main characteristics of CAS systems. It is also described the development of a computer simulator for training on Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) based on a computer model of the prostate gland which is able to simulate, in real time, deformations and resections of tissue. The model is constructed as a 3D mesh with physical properties such as elasticity. We describe the main characteristics of the prostate model and its performance. The prostate model will also be used in the development of a CAS system designed to assist the surgeon during a real TURP procedure. The system will provide 3D views of the shape of the prostate of the patient, and the position of the surgical instrument during the operation. The development of new computer graphics models which are able to simulate, in real time, the mechanical behavior of an organ during a surgical procedure, can improve significantly the training and execution of other minimally invasive surgical procedures such as laparoscopic gall bladder surgery.

  20. CARE: Computer Assisted Renewal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    CARE (Computer Assisted Renewal Education) is a mobile computer assisted instruction (CAI) program designed to train educators and inservice teachers in the education and handling of handicapped children. The program, developed by Pennsylvania State University and offering college credit, is carried in an expandable trailer with 16 individual…

  1. Computer-Assisted Education System for Psychopharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, William Donald

    An approach to the use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) for teaching psychopharmacology is presented. A project is described in which, using the TUTOR programing language on the PLATO IV computer system, several computer programs were developed to demonstrate the concepts of aminergic transmitters in the central nervous system. Response…

  2. Computer-Assisted Discovery and Proof

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2007-12-10

    With the advent of powerful, widely-available mathematical software, combined with ever-faster computer hardware, we are approaching a day when both the discovery and proof of mathematical facts can be done in a computer-assisted manner. his article presents several specific examples of this new paradigm in action.

  3. Distance Education and Computer-Assisted Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henri, France

    1988-01-01

    Examines the problems and promise of incorporating computer-assisted communications (CAC) into distance education programs. Discusses advantages gained by widely-scattered students using CAC for individual or group conferences. States that CAC can encourage training approaches in which the learning process is sustained by the dynamic of the social…

  4. Computer Assisted Language Testing: On the Efficacy of Web-Based Approach in the Instruction of Elementary Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soleimani, Maryam; Gahhari, Shima

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness and efficacy of e-learning was evaluated through a web based approach. Two classes of elementary learners of English were selected for this study, one class received a six month instruction through the typical twice a week classes and the other one was instructed through internet, in other words, the first class did…

  5. Understanding Mothers' Experiences of Infant Daycare: A New Approach Using Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne; And Others

    This paper reports on a small-scale introductory study of Australian mothers' experiences of infant day care. Ten employed, middle- and lower-socioeconomic status women with an infant in center-based day care were interviewed. Brief narrative examples from the mothers' accounts are presented. Discussion then concentrates on a new approach to…

  6. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  7. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future.

  8. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  9. Technology for Large-Scale Translation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Pilot Study of the Performance of a Hybrid Human and Computer-Assisted Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The construction of EBMPracticeNet, a national electronic point-of-care information platform in Belgium, began in 2011 to optimize quality of care by promoting evidence-based decision making. The project involved, among other tasks, the translation of 940 EBM Guidelines of Duodecim Medical Publications from English into Dutch and French. Considering the scale of the translation process, it was decided to make use of computer-aided translation performed by certificated translators with limited expertise in medical translation. Our consortium used a hybrid approach, involving a human translator supported by a translation memory (using SDL Trados Studio), terminology recognition (using SDL MultiTerm terminology databases) from medical terminology databases, and support from online machine translation. This resulted in a validated translation memory, which is now in use for the translation of new and updated guidelines. Objective The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of the hybrid human and computer-assisted approach in comparison with translation unsupported by translation memory and terminology recognition. A comparison was also made with the translation efficiency of an expert medical translator. Methods We conducted a pilot study in which two sets of 30 new and 30 updated guidelines were randomized to one of three groups. Comparable guidelines were translated (1) by certificated junior translators without medical specialization using the hybrid method, (2) by an experienced medical translator without this support, and (3) by the same junior translators without the support of the validated translation memory. A medical proofreader who was blinded for the translation procedure, evaluated the translated guidelines for acceptability and adequacy. Translation speed was measured by recording translation and post-editing time. The human translation edit rate was calculated as a metric to evaluate the quality of the translation. A

  10. Preparing for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Charles A.

    The general principles of cumputer operation and the concepts and methods of programing are described in this introductory text aimed at educators with little or no experience in the field of computer-assisted instruction. The principles and practical considerations involved in planning for and implementing the use of the computer in teaching…

  11. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  12. Two Computer-Assisted Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Two computer-assisted experiments are described: (i) determination of the speed of ultrasound waves in water and (ii) measurement of the thermal expansion of an aluminum-based alloy. A new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO scientific is used. In both experiments, the "Keep" mode of recording data is employed: the data are…

  13. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

  14. "Say You Want a Revolution": A Call for Participatory Approach in EFL Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiee, Marzieh; Keihaniyan, Mahbube

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study investigated the language teachers' opinions on the inclusion of the principles of Participatory Approach in language classroom settings in Iran. Applying both quantitative and qualitative approaches of data collection procedures, the study explored the language teachers' attitude, on the perceived importance and use of the…

  15. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2014-01-14

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  16. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    ScienceCinema

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  17. The DFMS sensor of ROSINA onboard Rosetta: A computer-assisted approach to resolve mass calibration, flux calibration, and fragmentation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhooghe, Frederik; De Keyser, Johan; Altwegg, Kathrin; Calmonte, Ursina; Fuselier, Stephen; Hässig, Myrtha; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Mall, Urs; Gombosi, Tamas; Fiethe, Björn

    2014-05-01

    Rosetta will rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in May 2014. The Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) instrument comprises three sensors: the pressure sensor (COPS) and two mass spectrometers (RTOF and DFMS). The double focusing mass spectrometer DFMS is optimized for mass resolution and consists of an ion source, a mass analyser and a detector package operated in analogue mode. The magnetic sector of the analyser provides the mass dispersion needed for use with the position-sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detector. Ions that hit the MCP release electrons that are recorded digitally using a linear electron detector array with 512 pixels. Raw data for a given commanded mass are obtained as ADC counts as a function of pixel number. We have developed a computer-assisted approach to address the problem of calibrating such raw data. Mass calibration: Ion identification is based on their mass-over-charge (m/Z) ratio and requires an accurate correlation of pixel number and m/Z. The m/Z scale depends on the commanded mass and the magnetic field and can be described by an offset of the pixel associated with the commanded mass from the centre of the detector array and a scaling factor. Mass calibration is aided by the built-in gas calibration unit (GCU), which allows one to inject a known gas mixture into the instrument. In a first, fully automatic step of the mass calibration procedure, the calibration uses all GCU spectra and extracts information about the mass peak closest to the centre pixel, since those peaks can be identified unambiguously. This preliminary mass-calibration relation can then be applied to all spectra. Human-assisted identification of additional mass peaks further improves the mass calibration. Ion flux calibration: ADC counts per pixel are converted to ion counts per second using the overall gain, the individual pixel gain, and the total data accumulation time. DFMS can perform an internal scan to determine

  18. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment with High Schools for Obesity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…

  19. Critical Service Learning: A Participatory Pedagogical Approach to Global Citizenship and International Mindedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    International mindedness and global citizenship are two key terms within international education, which underpin much of the discourse within the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. This article proposes how a participatory approach to education for international mindedness and global citizenship can help educators within international…

  20. A Participatory Design Approach for a Mobile App-Based Personal Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…

  1. A Binary-Like Approach for the Computer Assisted Method Development of Isocratic and Programmed Ternary Solvent Elutions in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    García-Lavandeira, J.; Martinez-Pontevedra, J.A.; Cela, R.

    2012-01-01

    A specific tool to enable exploration of multisolvent isocratic and programmed elutions for the computer assisted method development of reversed-phase liquid chromatography separations is described. The tool is purposely identical to those used in the optimization of binary solvent systems, which are by far the most commonly used by chromatographers. Existing data from failed binary solvent optimization processes are reused to explore ternary solvent systems with a few additional isocratic and programmed runs. This allows the development of efficient retention models for ternary systems, although the work of the chromatographer remains identical to that for optimization of binary systems. The retention models are used to develop an unattended optimization process and finally, the chromatographer selects the most satisfactory solution for testing and implementing in routine analysis. The process is exemplified with a mixture of 12 compounds that cannot be separated satisfactorily in aqueous binary solvent systems with methanol and acetonitrile as modifiers. PMID:22291054

  2. Computer-assisted threat evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, Jatin S.; Davies, Livingston

    2006-05-01

    The use of a CATE (Computer Assisted Threat Evaluation) System in the Maritime Domain lends itself technically and operationally to data exploitation thru the use of domain forensics and link analysis of fragmented information utilizing data prioritization and suspicion indicators for an aggressor's method of operation. The timely availability of threat mitigating actionable information is one of the key tools for success in the Global War On Terror (GWOT). The global supply chain is vulnerable to exploitation by nefarious individuals, governments, and terrorist organizations. For example, Figure 1 illustrates one of many potential methods that could be used to circumvent regulations limiting proliferation of WMDs.

  3. The application of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in developing MSD interventions.

    PubMed

    Tappin, D C; Vitalis, A; Bentley, T A

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics projects are traditionally applied within one organisation. In this study, a participative approach was applied across the New Zealand meat processing industry, involving multiple organisations and geographical regions. The purpose was to develop interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk. This paper considers the value of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in achieving this. The main rationale for a participative approach included the need for industry credibility, and to generate MSD interventions that address industry level MSD risk factors. An industry key stakeholder group became the primary vehicle for formal participation. The study resulted in an intervention plan that included the wider work system and industry practices. These interventions were championed across the industry by the key stakeholder group and have extended beyond the life of the study. While this approach helped to meet the study aim, the existence of an industry-supported key stakeholder group and a mandate for the initiative are important prerequisites for success.

  4. What can a participatory approach to evaluation contribute to the field of integrated care?

    PubMed

    Eyre, Laura; Farrelly, Michael; Marshall, Martin

    2016-12-08

    Better integration of care within the health sector and between health and social care is seen in many countries as an essential way of addressing the enduring problems of dwindling resources, changing demographics and unacceptable variation in quality of care. Current research evidence about the effectiveness of integration efforts supports neither the enthusiasm of those promoting and designing integrated care programmes nor the growing efforts of practitioners attempting to integrate care on the ground. In this paper we present a methodological approach, based on the principles of participatory research, that attempts to address this challenge. Participatory approaches are characterised by a desire to use social science methods to solve practical problems and a commitment on the part of researchers to substantive and sustained collaboration with relevant stakeholders. We describe how we applied an emerging practical model of participatory research, the researcher-in-residence model, to evaluate a large-scale integrated care programme in the UK. We propose that the approach added value to the programme in a number of ways: by engaging stakeholders in using established evidence and with the benefits of rigorously evaluating their work, by providing insights for local stakeholders that they were either not familiar with or had not fully considered in relation to the development and implementation of the programme and by challenging established mindsets and norms. While there is still much to learn about the benefits and challenges of applying participatory approaches in the health sector, we demonstrate how using such approaches have the potential to help practitioners integrate care more effectively in their daily practice and help progress the academic study of integrated care.

  5. Researching children's health experiences: The place for participatory, child-centered, arts-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Carter, Bernie; Ford, Karen

    2013-02-01

    A central concern when conducting qualitative health research with children is eliciting data that genuinely reflect their perspectives. Invariably, this involves being child-centered and participatory. Drawing and photography increasingly accompany dialogic methods to facilitate children's communication through arts-based and verbal modes of expression. However, little literature is available on how arts-based tools shape data. We suggest that researchers need to be attentive to how such tools can liberate, constrain and frame data generated by children, drawing attention to the promises of such approaches as well as the conundrums that can arise from their use. We explore the place for participatory, child-centered, arts-based approaches using examples of the use of drawing and photography in our own studies.

  6. Supporting a community-based participatory evaluation approach to violence prevention in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Watson-Thompson, Jomella; Jones, Marvia D; Colvin, Jeffrey D; McClendon-Cole, Tracie; Schober, Daniel J; Johnson, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in rates of firearm-related homicide exist for some segments of the population and by geographic area. There are interrelated factors across multiple social-ecological levels that increase the risk of violence for some individuals and groups, which may suggest the importance of comprehensive community intervention approaches for addressing violence. Participatory approaches can aid in the implementation of community interventions by engaging community and researcher partners in collaboratively addressing community-identified concerns. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the application of a participatory evaluation framework used to support the Aim4Peace Violence Prevention Project in Kansas City, Missouri. The study presents data from the second year of program implementation to examine the contributions of the program in addressing violence.

  7. Conceptualizing Stakeholders' Perceptions of Ecosystem Services: A Participatory Systems Mapping Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rita; Videira, Nuno

    2015-12-01

    A participatory system dynamics modelling approach is advanced to support conceptualization of feedback processes underlying ecosystem services and to foster a shared understanding of leverage intervention points. The process includes systems mapping workshop and follow-up tasks aiming at the collaborative construction of causal loop diagrams. A case study developed in a natural area in Portugal illustrates how a stakeholder group was actively engaged in the development of a conceptual model depicting policies for sustaining the climate regulation ecosystem service.

  8. Evaluation models and Brazilian health reform: a qualitative-participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Mercado-Martinez, Francisco Javier

    2010-06-01

    Throughout the last years, there has been a growing interest in ongoing assessment proposals in Latin America, which are more far-reaching and not traditional. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of qualitative-participatory evaluation in view of the challenge of strengthening health reforms in the region, particularly those considered progressive, such as the Brazilian case. There is the need to assess health reforms in a rigorous and permanent way, especially the incongruity when using normative models to evaluate health systems based on principles of universality, comprehensiveness, humanization and democratic management. In addition to the demand for assessment instruments and strategies, the Brazilian health reform requires the adoption of evaluation proposals and practices that are founded on other paradigms, distinct from the hegemonic one, in the sphere of health assessment. It is recommended that emerging evaluative models be used, such as those with a qualitative-participatory approach.

  9. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2014-05-01

    Advances in technology have provided new approaches for data collection methods and analysis for researchers. Data collection is no longer limited to paper-and-pencil format, and numerous methods are now available through Internet and electronic resources. With these techniques, researchers are not burdened with entering data manually and data analysis is facilitated by software programs. Quantitative research is supported by the use of computer software and provides ease in the management of large data sets and rapid analysis of numeric statistical methods. New technologies are emerging to support qualitative research with the availability of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).CAQDAS will be presented with a discussion of advantages, limitations, controversial issues, and recommendations for this type of software use.

  10. Computer assistance for the structural chemist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carhart, R. E.; Varkony, T. H.; Smith, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of the approaches used to modify the molecular structure generator program, CONGEN. The CONGEN program for constructing structures under constraints has been discussed by Carhart et al. (1975). The modifications reported are to lead to a more efficient structure generation on the basis of a translation of structural data input to the program. From an algorithmic standpoint, CONGEN is successful if it can, in a reasonable amount of time and without exhausting storage resources, produce a list of candidate structures satisfying the chemist's constraints. However, this list is often quite large, and it remains for the chemist to discriminate among the candidates, eventually reducing the possibilities to just one structure. Ways are studied for providing computer assistance in examining and further constraining lists of structural candidates.

  11. Ultrasound-based liver computer assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Windyga, P; Hiransakolwong, N; Vu, K; Medina, R; Onik, G

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research toward development of a computer-assisted, ultrasound-based software/hardware tool to improve instrument positioning in moving organs during minimally invasive abdominal surgery is presented. The main objective of this research is to calculate, in real time and without user intervention, the pre-/intra-operative 3D/2D image misalignment due to patient respiration and the shift induced by the surgical instrument. Our methodology applied to the particular case of the liver, and partial results related to the image registration approach, based on organ segmentation and shape description, are presented. Preliminary results are highly encouraging. Among other benefits, use of this tool will increase surgeon confidence and improve surgery outcomes.

  12. Designing and Creating Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeen, George R.

    Designed to encourage the use of a defined methodology and careful planning in creating computer-assisted instructional programs, this paper describes the instructional design process, compares computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and programmed instruction (PI), and discusses pragmatic concerns in computer programming. Topics addressed include:…

  13. Conceptualizing Skill within a Participatory Ecological Approach to Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…

  14. A Youth Development Approach to Evaluation: Critical Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller-Berkman, Sarah; Muñoz-Proto, Carolina; Torre, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Across the U.S., youth development approaches are being tested in out-of-school time programs as a strategy to combat the growing opportunity gap between privileged and underprivileged youth (Gardner, Roth, & Brooks-Gunn, 2009). Along with increased recognition of the value of youth development programming has come increased financial support…

  15. Social Choice in a Computer-Assisted Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2009-01-01

    Pursuing a line of inquiry suggested by Crookall, Martin, Saunders, and Coote, the author applied, within the framework of design science, an optimal-design approach to incorporate into a computer-assisted simulation two innovative social choice processes: the multiple period double auction and continuous voting. Expectations that the…

  16. Computer-Assisted Microscopy in Science Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radice, Gary P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technological approach to teaching the relationships between biological form and function. Computer-assisted image analysis was integrated into a microanatomy course. Students spend less time memorizing and more time observing, measuring, and interpreting, building technical and analytical skills. Appendices list hardware and software…

  17. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  18. Computer-Assisted Assignments in a Large Physics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoennessen, M.; Harrison, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes CAPA, a software tool to implement a computer-assisted personalized approach for homework assignments and examinations in a large introductory physics class at Michigan State University. Highlights include increased individual attention for students; correlation between homework performance and results of the final exam; feedback for…

  19. Computer-assisted personalized sedation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Kethu, Sripathi R; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M

    2011-03-01

    The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee provides reviews of new or emerging endoscopic technologies that have the potential to have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent preclinical and clinical studies on the topic, and a MAUDE (Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience; U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through January 2010 using the keywords "computer," "computerized," "computer-assisted," "sedation," "propofol." Reports on Emerging Technology are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. These reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Reports on Emerging Technology are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment.

  20. Computer-assisted innovations in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Kelli; Hoekzema, Craig; Rhee, John

    2011-08-01

    Reconstructive surgery for complex craniofacial defects challenges even the most experienced surgeons. Preoperative reconstructive planning requires consideration of both functional and aesthetic properties of the mandible, orbit, and midface. Technological innovations allow for computer-assisted preoperative planning, computer-aided manufacturing of patient-specific implants (PSIs), and computer-assisted intraoperative navigation. Although many case reports discuss computer-assisted preoperative planning and creation of custom implants, a general overview of computer-assisted innovations is not readily available. This article reviews innovations in computer-assisted reconstructive surgery including anatomic considerations when using PSIs, technologies available for preoperative planning, work flow and process of obtaining a PSI, and implant materials available for PSIs. A case example follows illustrating the use of this technology in the reconstruction of an orbital-frontal-temporal defect with a PSI. Computer-assisted reconstruction of complex craniofacial defects provides the reconstructive surgeon with innovative options for challenging reconstructive cases. As technology advances, applications of computer-assisted reconstruction will continue to expand.

  1. Evaluation of soil salinity amelioration technologies in Timpaki, Crete: a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2015-10-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.

  2. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  3. A participatory modelling approach to developing a numerical sediment dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nicholas; McEwen, Lindsey; Parker, Chris; Staddon, Chad

    2016-04-01

    Fluvial geomorphology is recognised as an important consideration in policy and legislation in the management of river catchments. Despite this recognition, limited knowledge exchange occurs between scientific researchers and river management practitioners. An example of this can be found within the limited uptake of numerical models of sediment dynamics by river management practitioners in the United Kingdom. The uptake of these models amongst the applied community is important as they have the potential to articulate how, at the catchment-scale, the impacts of management strategies of land-use change affect sediment dynamics and resulting channel quality. This paper describes and evaluates a new approach which involves river management stakeholders in an iterative and reflexive participatory modelling process. The aim of this approach was to create an environment for knowledge exchange between the stakeholders and the research team in the process of co-constructing a model. This process adopted a multiple case study approach, involving four groups of river catchment stakeholders in the United Kingdom. These stakeholder groups were involved in several stages of the participatory modelling process including: requirements analysis, model design, model development, and model evaluation. Stakeholders have provided input into a number of aspects of the modelling process, such as: data requirements, user interface, modelled processes, model assumptions, model applications, and model outputs. This paper will reflect on this process, in particular: the innovative methods used, data generated, and lessons learnt.

  4. Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

    Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations

  5. Impacts of a participatory approach to developing national level sustainable development indicators in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rosenström, Ulla; Kyllönen, Simo

    2007-08-01

    The paper explores the role of a participatory approach in the outcome of the Finnish sustainable development indicator (SDI) exercise in 1998-2002. The process is analysed through three main objectives: to achieve stronger democracy, better quality of the end product and a more effective process. The analysis is further structured by a set of criteria needed for successful participation and differentiation of types of participants. The criteria comprise three main aspects: fairness, competence and social learning. In addition to the normally mentioned stakeholders (e.g. citizens and interest groups) participants also include experts and civil servants. Using the set of criteria above the participatory approach of the Finnish SDI process is then evaluated, and in the light of this evaluation the paper also discusses the specifications needed as evaluation criteria for national level policy programme processes like developing the SDIs. The results are based on documentation of the indicator task force meetings, written comments and a study of the putative end-users conducted after the publication of the indicators. The results show that the intense and broad participation of experts and civil servants increased the competence of the outcome and led to greater efficiency in working methods. However, this led to technocratic participation, absence of democratic participation and absence of social learning. Thus the ultimate goal of SDIs to contribute to achieving sustainability was not reached.

  6. Creating a Novel Video Vignette Stroke Preparedness Outcome Measure Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach.

    PubMed

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2015-07-01

    Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity.

  7. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR)

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-01-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of ‘Zero-acreage farming’ (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article “Application and evaluation of a participatory “open innovation” approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin” (Specht et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27182542

  8. Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo

    SciTech Connect

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Fantoni, Moris; Busto, Mirko; Genon, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

  9. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR).

    PubMed

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-06-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of 'Zero-acreage farming' (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article "Application and evaluation of a participatory "open innovation" approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin" (Specht et al., 2016) [1].

  10. Using Concept Mapping in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been identified as a useful approach to increasing community involvement in research. Developing rigorous methods in conducting CBPR is an important step in gaining more support for this approach. The current article argues that concept mapping, a structured mixed methods approach, is useful in the initial development of a rigorous CBPR program of research aiming to develop culturally tailored and community-based health interventions for vulnerable populations. A research project examining social dynamics and consequences of alcohol and substance use in Newark, New Jersey, is described to illustrate the use of concept mapping methodology in CBPR. A total of 75 individuals participated in the study. PMID:26561484

  11. Development of a Wheelchair Skills Home Program for Older Adults Using a Participatory Action Design Approach

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Miller, William C.; Mitchell, Ian M.; Woodgate, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  12. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population.

  13. Using a Community-based Participatory Research Approach to Implement a Health Fair for Children.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kara C; Henderson Mitchell, Randi J; Workman, Rasheda; Peoples, Erika A; Higginbotham, John C

    2017-03-08

    When devising strategies to combat obesity, strategies focusing on children should be utilized since health-related behaviors track into adulthood. One strategy that begins to address, and brings awareness to, the rising obesity rates and other health disparities in adults is the utilization of community health fairs. Previous literature has described how to conduct an adult health fair using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, but no study has shown how to conduct a health fair for children. This article explains how a CBPR approach was used to develop a health fair focused on obesity prevention for children. A partnership between the community and a local university was formed to assist in the planning and implementation of a health fair. While the data obtained from the health fair served as a needs assessment for future projects, the health fair was also a good first step in developing relationships and trust among the partners.

  14. Hunter disease eClinic: interactive, computer-assisted, problem-based approach to independent learning about a rare genetic disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Clinic employs a CBT model providing the trainee with realistic clinical problems, coupled with comprehensive basic and clinical reference information by instantaneous access to an electronic textbook, the eBook. The program was rated highly by attendees at national and international presentations. It provides a potential model for use as an educational approach to other rare genetic diseases. PMID:20973983

  15. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work.

  16. Youth Participatory Action Research as an Approach to Sociopolitical Development and the New Academic Standards: Considerations for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornbluh, Mariah; Ozer, Emily J.; Allen, Carrie D.; Kirshner, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Administrators and teachers face changes prompted by the shift to Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) offers a promising approach to supporting students in mastering new content standards, while also offering experiences that promote their sociopolitical…

  17. Using a Participatory Action Research Approach to Create a Universally Designed Inclusive High School Science Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.

    2006-01-01

    Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…

  18. Computer-assisted cartography: an overview.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.; Starr, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment of the current status of computer-assisted cartography, in part, is biased by one's view of the cartographic process as a whole. From a traditional viewpoint we are concerned about automating the mapping process; from a progressive viewpoint we are concerned about using the tools of computer science to convey spatial information. On the surface these viewpoints appear to be in opposition. However, it is postulated that in the final analysis, they face the same goal. This overview uses the perspectives from two viewpoints to depict the current state of computer-assisted cartography and speculate on future goals, trends, and challenges.-Authors

  19. Future Prospects for Computer-Assisted Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-10-26

    The recent rise of ''computer-assisted'' and ''experimental'' mathematics raises intriguing questions as to the future role of computation in mathematics. These results also draw into question the traditional distinctions that have been drawn between formal proof and computationally-assisted proof. This article explores these questions in the context of the growing consensus among computer technologists that Moore's Law is likely to continue unabated for quite some time into the future, producing hardware and software much more powerful than what is available today.

  20. Developing a strategy for studying critical thinking in a nurse telehealth setting: a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Tuden, Danica; Gidora, Hanne; Quick, Peter D; Ebdon, Nikki; Glover, Karen; Harmer, Sherrill; Miller, Wendy; Taylor, Mary; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    Telehealth nursing is a specialized area of nursing practice that has grown in response to the emergence of new technologies and consumer demand for health care services in the community. HealthLinkBC Nursing Services provides symptom triage and health education to residents of British Columbia and Yukon over the phone. Unlike traditional nursing care, telenurses are limited in terms of information they receive from callers. Therefore, there is a need for critical thinking skills to be developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory approach towards identifying: (1) the factors that affect telehealth nursing practice including critical thinking, and (2) developing a research strategy aimed at identifying the ways in which critical thinking can be supported in a telehealth nursing environment. A HealthLinkBC working group has begun work in developing a definition of critical thinking specific to nursing, identifying future research opportunities and methodologies.

  1. Development and implementation of a culturally sensitive cervical health survey: a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adina; Christopher, Suzanne; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer mortality rates are higher for Great Plains Native American women than for Caucasian women and other Native women. Messengers for Health, a project based on the Apsáalooke (Crow Indian) reservation, utilizes a lay health advisor approach to decrease cervical cancer screening barriers, increase knowledge regarding screening and prevention, and increase the proportion of women receiving Pap tests among Apsáalooke women aged 18 and older. This project utilizes a community-based participatory research model, which emphasizes community member involvement in all phases of the project. The initial phase of this project was the development and implementation of a culturally sensitive survey used to guide the program and benefit the community. The process and preliminary results are presented.

  2. The Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM): Achieving Sustainability in Organizational Intervention through a Participatory Evaluation Approach.

    PubMed

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Lundmark, Robert; Hasson, Henna

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there have been calls to develop ways of using a participatory approach when conducting interventions, including evaluating the process and context to improve and adapt the intervention as it evolves over time. The need to integrate interventions into daily organizational practices, thereby increasing the likelihood of successful implementation and sustainable changes, has also been highlighted. We propose an evaluation model-the Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM)-that takes this into consideration. In the model, evaluation is fitted into a co-created iterative intervention process, in which the intervention activities can be continuously adapted based on collected data. By explicitly integrating process and context factors, DIEM also considers the dynamic sustainability of the intervention over time. It emphasizes the practical value of these evaluations for organizations, as well as the importance of their rigorousness for research purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A participatory approach to design monitoring indicators of production diseases in organic dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N

    2016-06-01

    Production diseases have an important negative effect on the health and welfare of dairy cows. Although organic animal production systems aim for high animal health levels, compliance with European organic farming regulations does not guarantee that this is achieved. Herd health and production management (HHPM) programs aim at optimizing herd health by preventing disease and production problems, but as yet they have not been consistently implemented by farmers. We hypothesize that one reason is the mismatch between what scientists propose as indicators for herd health monitoring and what farmers would like to use. Herd health monitoring is a key element in HHPM programs as it permits a regular assessment of the functioning of the different components of the production process. Planned observations or measurements of these components are indispensable for this monitoring. In this study, a participatory approach was used to create an environment in which farmers could adapt the indicators proposed by scientists for monitoring the five main production diseases on dairy cattle farms. The adaptations of the indicators were characterized and the farmers' explanations for the changes made were described. The study was conducted in France and Sweden, which differ in terms of their national organic regulations and existing advisory services. In both countries, twenty certified organic dairy farmers and their animal health management advisors participated in the study. All of the farmers adapted the initial monitoring plan proposed by scientists to specific production and animal health situation on their farm. This resulted in forty unique and farm-specific combinations of indicators for herd health monitoring. All but three farmers intended to monitor five health topics simultaneously using the constructed indicators. The qualitative analysis of the explanations given by farmers for their choices enabled an understanding of farmers' reasons for selecting and adapting

  4. Computer-Assisted Instruction at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    Programs for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) which were developed at Stanford University from 1963-70 are described, and prospects for CAI in the 1970's are considered briefly. The programs include ones in arithmetic, logic, and reading for elementary grades and in basic Russian and remedial algebra for college students. Of these, the logic…

  5. Learner Control in Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of how secondary students coped when taught binary arithmetic through a computer assisted instruction program used four treatment groups: learner control, learner control with advice; random program control, and adaptive program control. The random group performed less well, but no differences were found between learner and…

  6. Computer Assisted Instruction (ILS) for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Andrew

    In 1991, the Cumberland Campus of Nova Scotia Community College established a literacy research and development project to survey local industries and the community regarding training needs and to develop workplace and community-based programs to meet those needs. One effort involved the implementation of a computer-assisted learning program to…

  7. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  8. Computer-assisted photometric microplate analysis.

    PubMed

    Hörer, O L; Pop, D A

    1987-01-01

    The main algorithm of computer-assisted absorption and emission photometry of samples on a microplate is presented. The software can be used for the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and other virological tests. The performances of an SPF-500 (Aminco) spectrofluorometer/Felix M18 microcomputer system are discussed on the ground of some results obtained by using the implemented programs.

  9. Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William F.; Forristall, Dorothy Z.

    The Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program (CASSIP) is designed to help students develop effective study skills and academic attitudes, thus increasing their potential for scholastic success. The program contains four integrated items: Study Skills Surveys; Study Skills Modules, Study Skills Notebook; and Study Skills Test. The surveys…

  10. Computer-Assisted Programmed Instruction in Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Rita C.; Laughlin, Joan

    Students in an introductory textiles course at the University of Nebraska's College of Home Economics actively participate in the learning experience through a self-paced instructional technique. Specific learning packets were developed adapting programmed instructional learning materials to computer assisted instruction (CAI). A study booklet…

  11. Introduction: Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Alan; Levin, Lori

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of intelligent computer-assisted language instruction (ICALI) research as a type of artificial intelligence research. Outlines the components and kinds of ICALI systems. Examines practical research considerations such as personnel needs for development of ICALI software. (Author/LS)

  12. Computer Assisted Instruction Techniques for Screening Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, K. W.; Craft, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction at North Carolina Agriculture and Technical State University in freshman and remedial mathematics to cut down high attrition rates and weed out quickly the students who can't adapt to the vigors of engineering course work. (Author/DS)

  13. Giraffe, a Computer Assisted Instruction Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Groot, Tineke

    In 1989 a two year collaborative project, CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) & Humanities, was initiated between the Faculty of Arts and IBM Netherlands during which General Information Retrieval All Faculties For Bibliographic Education (GIRAFFE), a program for the retrieval of information on general bibliographies, was developed. The…

  14. Color in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.

    Color monitors are in wide use in computer systems. Thus, it is important to understand how to apply color effectively in computer assisted instruction (CAI) and computer based training (CBT). Color can enhance learning, but it does not automatically do so. Indiscriminate application of color can mislead a student and thereby even interfere with…

  15. Vibrations and Waves: Using Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, M. J.; Lewis, D.

    Described is the development of computer assisted learning packages for nonscience major undergraduate students. The equipment needed to run the packages is described as well as the role and value of the packages. Several examples of the kind of computer graphics used in the computing laboratory are illustrated. The problems associated with the…

  16. Competency Reference for Computer Assisted Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Technical Education.

    This guide, developed in Oregon, lists competencies essential for students in computer-assisted drafting (CAD). Competencies are organized in eight categories: computer hardware, file usage and manipulation, basic drafting techniques, mechanical drafting, specialty disciplines, three dimensional drawing/design, plotting/printing, and advanced CAD.…

  17. Inviting Success in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Catherine

    This paper reviews briefly the essential characteristics of both invitational education and computer assisted instruction (CAI) and the ways in which coordination of these two models can produce stimulating and valuable educational experiences for students. A matrix illustrates the characteristics of CAI which can support the major values of…

  18. Participatory approach in planning for low carbon and eco-village: A case of Felda Taib Andak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngah, I.; Zulkifli, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    Participatory approaches have becoming an important tool in planning of sustainable communities. Although participation is conceived as a malleable concept there are certain methods that planners can adopt to ensure a meaningful participation. This paper will provide some experiences and lessons on how participatory planning could be carried out with local people, the role of planners in the process of plan preparation, implementation and the outcome. This paper first explores some of the meanings of participation, the criteria of participation and the approaches of participation in planning for sustainable community. The second part is a description and discussion of how participatory approach in planning was applied in planning for low carbon and eco-village in Iskandar Malaysia based on a case study of planning of Felda Taib Andak scheme. The participatory approach involved a series of meetings, site visit and focus group discussions with representative of the Felda Village to come out with action plan and actual implementation. From focus group discussions a roadmap consisted of a vision and objectives and a dozen actions were formulated and adopted. In the process of implementation the main implementation & coordination committee was form in which the author (planner) is one of its members to look into fund raising & implementation strategies together with the local people. Several task forces or sub committees responsible to implement the dozen actions were also formed. The outcome was encouraging in which some of the actions such as planting of bamboo trees, reduction of pollution from oil palm factory and bicycling activities has been implemented and shown progress. The paper also highlights some of the issues and challenges in participatory planning.

  19. Youth Participatory Action Research: A Transformative Approach to Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schensul, Jean J.; Berg, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a model of participatory action research and service-learning conducted with urban, high school African American, West Indian/Caribbean, and Puerto Rican/Latino youth and adult facilitators, in a nonclassroom setting, in a mid-sized northeastern city. Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) integrates critical theory,…

  20. Participatory telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  1. Group model building: a participatory approach to understanding and acting on systems.

    PubMed

    Siokou, Christine; Morgan, Rebecca; Shiell, Alan

    2014-11-28

    With mounting appreciation of the complexity of chronic disease, there is a growing need to understand the systemic causes of current health trends. This will support the development of a prevention system and the use of systems thinking to achieve better, more equitable and more sustainable health outcomes. With new language and a need to change our thinking, the push towards systems practice in preventive health is challenging, and calls for a method to support its application. Group model building (GMB) is a participatory approach that is widely used to build the capacity of practitioners to think in a systems way. However, it is a resource-intensive approach that requires high-level buy-in and the investment of time. We discuss the evidence, including a systematic review of the literature examining the effectiveness of GMB approaches across a wide range of contexts. The results of the review are generally positive and suggest that GMB improves problem understanding, increases engagement in systems thinking, builds confidence in the use of systems ideas and develops consensus for action among diverse stakeholders.

  2. Participatory approaches to improving safety and health under trade union initiative--experiences of POSITIVE training program in Asia.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Kogi, Kazutaka; Toyama, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Toru

    2004-04-01

    The participatory, action-oriented training program in occupational safety and health named POSITIVE (Participation-Oriented Safety Improvements by Trade Union InitiatiVE) was established in Pakistan and extended to other countries in Asia. The steps taken in the development of the POSITIVE program included collecting local good examples in safety and health, developing an action-checklist, testing a participatory training program, and conducting follow-up activities to examine local achievements. Training manuals were compiled to provide workers with the practical, easy-to-understand information on safety and health improvements and on the positive roles of trade unions. Trade union trainers trained in the methodology conducted serial POSITIVE training workshops in Pakistan and then in Bangladesh, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines and Thailand and recently in China. These workshops resulted in many low-cost improvements at the workplace level. These improvements were carried out in the technical areas of materials handling, workstations, machine safety, physical environment, and welfare facilities. The trade union networks have been vital in reaching an increasing number of grass-root workplaces and in expanding the program to other countries. This included the visits to Mongolia and Thailand of Pakistani trade union trainers to demonstrate the POSITIVE training. The participatory training tools used in the POSITIVE program such as the action checklist and group discussion methods were commonly applied in different local situations. Participatory approaches adopted in the POSITIVE program have proven useful for providing practical problem-solving measures based on the local trade union initiative.

  3. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

  4. Integrating knowledge exchange and the assessment of dryland management alternatives - A learning-centered participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Susana; Llovet, Joan; Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Mayor, Ángeles G; Murias, Cristina; Vallejo, V Ramón; Orr, Barron J

    2016-12-08

    The adoption of sustainable land management strategies and practices that respond to current climate and human pressures requires both assessment tools that can lead to better informed decision-making and effective knowledge-exchange mechanisms that facilitate new learning and behavior change. We propose a learning-centered participatory approach that links land management assessment and knowledge exchange and integrates science-based data and stakeholder perspectives on both biophysical and socio-economic attributes. We outline a structured procedure for a transparent assessment of land management alternatives, tailored to dryland management, that is based on (1) principles of constructivism and social learning, (2) the participation of stakeholders throughout the whole assessment process, from design to implementation, and (3) the combination of site-specific indicators, identified by local stakeholders as relevant to their particular objectives and context conditions, and science-based indicators that represent ecosystem services of drylands worldwide. The proposed procedure follows a pattern of eliciting, challenging, and self-reviewing stakeholder perspectives that aims to facilitate learning. The difference between the initial baseline perspectives and the final self-reviewed stakeholder perspectives is used as a proxy of learning. We illustrate the potential of this methodology by its application to the assessment of land uses in a Mediterranean fire-prone area in East Spain. The approach may be applied to a variety of socio-ecological systems and decision-making and governance scales.

  5. A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students.

  6. Rethinking vulnerability analysis and governance with emphasis on a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Nicolas; Delvenne, Pierre; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability for nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An analysis of the literature on vulnerability analysis allows us to formulate a three-fold critique: first, vulnerability analysis has been treated separately in the natural and the technological hazards fields. This separation prevents vulnerability from unleashing the full range of its potential, as it constrains appraisals into artificial categories and thus already closes down the outcomes of the analysis. Second, vulnerability analysis focused on assessment tools that are mainly quantitative, whereas qualitative appraisal is a key to assessing vulnerability in a comprehensive way and to informing policy making. Third, a systematic literature review of case studies reporting on participatory approaches to vulnerability analysis allows us to argue that participation has been important to address the above, but it remains too closed down in its approach and would benefit from embracing a more open, encompassing perspective. Therefore, we suggest rethinking vulnerability analysis as one part of a dynamic process between opening-up and closing-down strategies, in order to support a vulnerability governance framework.

  7. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment With High Schools for Obesity Intervention*

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles to conduct formative research in identifying acceptable and potentially sustainable obesity intervention strategies in 8 New Mexico school communities. METHODS We collected formative data from 8 high schools on areas of community interest for school health improvement through collaboration with local School Health Advisory Councils (SHACs) and interviews with students and parents. A survey based on formative results was created to assess acceptability of specific intervention strategies and was provided to SHACs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were evaluated using an iterative analytic process for thematic identification. RESULTS Key themes identified through the formative process included lack of healthy food options, infrequent curricular/extracurricular physical activity opportunities, and inadequate exposure to health/nutritional information. Key strategies identified as most acceptable by SHAC members included healthier food options and preparation, a healthy foods marketing campaign, yearly taste tests, an after-school noncompetitive physical activity program, and community linkages to physical activity opportunities. CONCLUSION An adaptive CBPR approach for formative assessment can be used to identify obesity intervention strategies that address community school health concerns. Eight high school SHACs identified 6 school-based strategies to address parental and student concerns related to obesity. PMID:22320339

  8. Prospective of groundwater overexploitation through participatory approaches: Saiss Plain in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameur, Fatah; Lejars, Caroline; Dionnet, Mathieu; Quarouch, Hassan; Kuper, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    In the Saiss plain, groundwater overexploitation is often explained by two phenomena. The first one is a natural phenomenon (droughts), which seems therefore uncontrollable; the other one is human as groundwater is largely used by the agricultural sector. The main issue of groundwater governance is to find an acceptable balance in the use of the water resource without compromising the socio-economic development generated by this resource. Our study aims to contribute to understanding the differential contribution of different categories of groundwater users and the socio-economic and agrarian dynamics impacted by the overuse of groundwater. We adopted a participatory approach to explore with the different actors involved in the management and use of groundwater to identify the different viewpoints on the issue of overexploitation and to engage prospective and collective thinking of present situation of groundwater overexploitation. We organized multi-stakeholder workshops and designed a role-playing game to identify and qualify the existing links between the water resource, and the economic and social dynamics in order to better understand the human behavior to economic and environmental crises and the adaptive strategies of farmers confronted with an increasingly scarce groundwater resource. Our results showed considerable differences in the viewpoints of different categories of farmers regarding overexploitation. Agricultural investors who arrived over the past 5 years in the area practicing arboriculture consider themselves modern farmers using precise and water-saving irrigation technologies (drip irrigation, especially) who cannot be blamed for overexploitation of groundwater resources. Lessees practicing horticulture put considerable pressure on water resources, but were not interested in debates on overexploitation and the sustainability of groundwater resources. In fact, they did not turn up for the workshops. Finally, the local small-scale farmers who have

  9. Computer-Assisted Literacy Instruction in Phonics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    NPRDC TR 80-21 April 1980 COMPUTER-ASSISTED LITERACY INSTRUCTION IN PHONICS Robert A. Wisher Reviewed by Edwin G. Aiken Released by Richard C. Sorenson...Reading instruction Automated instruction Literacy instruction Phonics 20. Ab"RACT (Cunhwo mn rom oldd " moseom mv~ IdboffeIV W~eek "awA.) Twenty-four...the first in a series that will assess the technological feasibility of automating literacy instruction. Subsequent reports will examine the

  10. Application of Computer Assisted Colposcopy Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-29

    avenue to enhance patient education and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction...significant pre- and post-test differences were found for six of the 10 items and for the total exam, suggesting the use of CAI as a valuable patient ... education tool for dysplasia and colposcopy. The unanimous recommendation by the participants for this type of program for future use suggests user friendliness and high satisfaction with this modality.

  11. Application of Computer Assisted Colposcopy Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    avenue to enhance patient education and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on...significant pre- and post-test differences were found for six of the 10 items and for the total exam, suggesting the use of CAI as a valuable patient ... education tool for dysplasia and colposcopy. The unanimous recommendation by the participants for this type of program for future use suggests user friendliness and high satisfaction with this modality.

  12. Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham

    2013-08-01

    Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers.

  13. Potential of an outranking multi-criteria approach to support the participatory assessment of land management actions.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Bautista, Susana; Edward deSteiguer, J; Orr, Barron J

    2016-12-07

    We evaluated the potential of an outranking Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis approach for assisting in the participatory assessment of dryland management actions implemented in the San Simon watershed, in southeastern Arizona, USA. We compared an outranking-facilitated assessment of actions with a simple and direct (baseline) ranking of the same actions by the participating stakeholders in terms of: 1) internal homogeneity of each assessment approach, (2) similarity of individual assessments between methods, and (3) effects of the use of implicit/explicit assessment criteria. The actions assessed combined various management approaches, including livestock management (rotation, resting), vegetation management (grass seeding, brush control), and hydraulic structures (dams, dykes). The outranking-facilitated assessment discriminated better between actions and reduced the variability of results between individual stakeholders as compared with the direct ranking of actions. In general, the two assessments significantly differed in the relative preference of the five management actions assessed, yet both assessments identified rotational grazing combined with vegetation management (grass seeding and brush control) as the most preferred management action in the study area. The comparative analysis revealed inconsistencies between the use of implicit and explicit assessment criteria. Our findings highlight the opportunities offered by outranking approaches to help capture, structure, and make explicit stakeholder perspectives in the framework of a participatory environmental assessment process, which may facilitate the understanding of the multiple preferences involved. The outranking integration process, which resembles a voting procedure, proved simple and transparent, with potential for contributing to stakeholder engagement and trust in participatory assessment.

  14. [An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Cristina; Torres, Yisel; Cruz, Ana Margarita de la; Alvarez, Angel M; Piquero, María Eugenia; Valero, Aida; Fuentes, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.

  15. The use of a participatory approach to develop a framework for assessing quality of care in children's mental health services.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Amy C; Sharrock, Patty J; Johnson, Melissa H; Armstrong, Mary I

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for assessing the quality of children's mental health services that reflects the primary concerns and perspectives of diverse stakeholders. A participatory research approach was adopted in order to incorporate caregivers of children with mental health problems, mental health service providers, and managed care administrators in identifying and developing quality of care indicators and methods for assessment. This research occurred in three phases that moved from very qualitative and exploratory to more quantitative as we sought to refine and verify the resulting Quality of Care Framework. We found that the use of a participatory approach was beneficial in ensuring the validity of research tools and utility of the framework, and also greatly increased the sense of ownership of research findings among participants.

  16. Computer-Assisted Exposure Treatment for Flight Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miguel; Bornas, Xavier; Llabres, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    This review introduces the state of the art in computer-assisted treatment for behavioural disorders. The core of the paper is devoted to describe one of these interventions providing computer-assisted exposure for flight phobia treatment, the Computer-Assisted Fear of Flying Treatment (CAFFT). The rationale, contents and structure of the CAFFT…

  17. Tailoring science outreach through E-matching using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Rumala, Bernice B; Hidary, Jack; Ewool, Linda; Emdin, Christopher; Scovell, Ted

    2011-03-01

    In an effort to increase science exposure for pre-college (K-12) students and as part of the science education reform agenda, many biomedical research institutions have established university-community partnerships. Typically, these science outreach programs consist of pre-structured, generic exposure for students, with little community engagement. However, the use of a medium that is accessible to both teachers and scientists, electronic web-based matchmaking (E-matching) provides an opportunity for tailored outreach utilizing a community-based participatory approach (CBPA), which involves all stakeholders in the planning and implementation of the science outreach based on the interests of teachers/students and scientists. E-matching is a timely and urgent endeavor that provides a rapid connection for science engagement between teachers/students and experts in an effort to fill the science outreach gap. National Lab Network (formerly National Lab Day), an ongoing initiative to increase science equity and literacy, provides a model for engaging the public in science via an E-matching and hands-on learning approach. We argue that science outreach should be a dynamic endeavor that changes according to the needs of a target school. We will describe a case study of a tailored science outreach activity in which a public school that serves mostly under-represented minority students from disadvantaged backgrounds were E-matched with a university, and subsequently became equal partners in the development of the science outreach plan. In addition, we will show how global science outreach endeavors may utilize a CBPA, like E-matching, to support a pipeline to science among under-represented minority students and students from disadvantaged backgrounds. By merging the CBPA concept with a practical case example, we hope to inform science outreach practices via the lens of a tailored E-matching approach.

  18. [Computer-assisted optimization of dialysis treatment].

    PubMed

    Rieck, B; Reinschke, P

    1988-01-01

    In some dialysis centers of the GDR personal computers are introduced step by step. There are two main areas in the use of computers in dialysis centers: data management systems and computer-assisted individualization of dialysis. Type and size of data processing are the result of the specific information process in a dialysis center and the presence of a long-term constantly group of patients along with a stereotypical amount of data. In the mathematical modelling of dialysis it is possible to adapt the standard dialysis to each patient.

  19. General purpose computer-assisted clustering and conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Justin; King, Gary

    2011-01-01

    We develop a computer-assisted method for the discovery of insightful conceptualizations, in the form of clusterings (i.e., partitions) of input objects. Each of the numerous fully automated methods of cluster analysis proposed in statistics, computer science, and biology optimize a different objective function. Almost all are well defined, but how to determine before the fact which one, if any, will partition a given set of objects in an “insightful” or “useful” way for a given user is unknown and difficult, if not logically impossible. We develop a metric space of partitions from all existing cluster analysis methods applied to a given dataset (along with millions of other solutions we add based on combinations of existing clusterings) and enable a user to explore and interact with it and quickly reveal or prompt useful or insightful conceptualizations. In addition, although it is uncommon to do so in unsupervised learning problems, we offer and implement evaluation designs that make our computer-assisted approach vulnerable to being proven suboptimal in specific data types. We demonstrate that our approach facilitates more efficient and insightful discovery of useful information than expert human coders or many existing fully automated methods. PMID:21292983

  20. Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A Participatory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitso, Constance

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that…

  1. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  2. [The foundations of computer assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Langlotz, F; Nolte, L-P; Tannast, M

    2006-10-01

    Using navigation systems in general orthopaedic surgery and, in particular, knee replacement is becoming more and more accepted. This paper describes the basic technological concepts of modern computer assisted surgical systems. It explains the variation in currently available systems and outlines research activities that will potentially influence future products. In general, each navigation system is defined by three components: (1) the therapeutic object is the anatomical structure that is operated on using the navigation system, (2) the virtual object represents an image of the therapeutic object, with radiological images or computer generated models potentially being used, and (3) last but not least, the navigator acquires the spatial position and orientation of instruments and anatomy thus providing the necessary data to replay surgical action in real-time on the navigation system's screen.

  3. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed into ergonomic

  4. Participatory Literacy Education: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurmo, Paul

    A participatory approach to adult literacy education aims at getting the learner to function at the highest level of responsibility possible regarding program activities; it demands an active approach. Characteristics of a participatory literacy program include the following: activities that emphasize what learners already know, learners…

  5. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: An Explanation and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Franklin C.; Park, Ok-choon

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the structure of intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) systems, gives some examples of such systems, and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses. Four references are listed. (MBR)

  6. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.

  7. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology.

  8. Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    Yonas, Michael A.; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and

  9. Developing In-Service Science Teachers' Ownership of the Profiles Pedagogical Framework through a Technology-Supported Participatory Design Approach to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyza, E. A.; Georgiou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher ownership is crucial for the sustainability of science education reform efforts. This paper discusses participatory design as a bottom-up approach for promoting teachers' sense of ownership of inquiry-based learning and teaching approach as put forward by the PROFILES project. According to the prevalent argument in favor of participatory…

  10. [Computer-assisted surgery: assessment and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J

    The hospital in the future will be faced with the major problem of managing and optimizing the use of images provided from numerous sources examining both anatomy (MRI, CT-scan...) and function (gamma-camera, PET-scan...). One of the first to benefit from such rationalization will be the surgeon. After studying the results of the physical examination, the laboratory reports and the medical imaging, the surgeon will decide on the best curative measured and the best surgical route before operating. He thus needs a computer to assist him in integrating the multi-modal information available for his patient, in particular the imaging with automatic integration and visualisation in synoptic mode (perception step), showing the trajectory of possible access routes to the target organ, memorization of the chosen route (decision step) and real operation either using laser or a manuel tool, or with robot assistance under human control (action step). This close cooperation between surgery and computers is called computer-assisted surgery. A few examples of current uses an future perspectives of this new field of surgery are presented.

  11. Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris JW; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results — Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation — CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

  12. Program in Computer-Assisted Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.; Suppes, Patrick

    Applications of basic elements in a theory of individualized instruction to computer-assisted programs in mathematics, reading, and spelling are described and recent results obtained in an existing elementary school facility are reported. To optimize learning in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) a program model is provided in which content,…

  13. Computer Assisted Psychomotor Training in a Specialized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Computer assisted psychomotor training is recognized as an appropriate tool in motor skill acquisition in adults with and without physical limitations. In specialized populations of individuals with physical deficits such as Parkinson's disease, previous researchers have examined the application of computer assisted training during upper extremity…

  14. Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Math Accuracy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Students in the United States demonstrate low proficiency in their math skills. One promising intervention, computer-assisted instruction, may be used for remediation. There is growing support that computer-assisted instruction is effective for increasing addition and multiplication accuracy and fluency, but more research is necessary in order to…

  15. CARLOS: Computer-Assisted Instruction in Spanish at Dartmouth College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald C.

    The computer-assisted instruction project in review Spanish, Computer-Assisted Review Lessons on Syntax (CARLOS), initiated at Dartmouth College in 1967-68, is described here. Tables are provided showing the results of the experiment on the basis of aptitude and achievement tests, and the procedure for implementing CARLOS as well as its place in…

  16. Proactive Guidance in Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A discussion of computer-assisted language learning focuses on management of individual learning processes. As distinct from a reference package, a computer-assisted teaching program has to assure that the student acquires and retains the complete information in the most efficient way, provide accurate and useful material, and pique the student's…

  17. Computer-assisted TKA: greater precision, doubtful clinical efficacy: affirms.

    PubMed

    Berend, Michael E

    2009-09-01

    Component and limb alignment are essential surgical variables that influence the long-term performance of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Total knee arthroplasty failure remains multifactorial, and computer-assisted surgical techniques may address only part of the failure pathophysiology. Despite attempting to use computer-assisted surgical techniques to improve TKA alignment, recent evidence has reported that the entire nature of the computer-assisted experience is not particularly forgiving, as significant increases in time and complications remain problematic. It appears computer-assisted surgical techniques are not yet "ready for primetime" with reproducible and proven long-term benefits for patients. Further studies are needed to better determine the precise target toward which to aim computer-assisted surgery efforts.

  18. Evolution of a Community-Based Participatory Approach in a Rural and Remote Dementia Care Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Debra; Crossley, Margaret; Stewart, Norma; Kirk, Andrew; Forbes, Dorothy; D’Arcy, Carl; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; McBain, Lesley; O’Connell, Megan; Bracken, Joanne; Kosteniuk, Julie; Cammer, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches are valuable strategies for addressing complex health and social problems and powerful tools to support effective transformation of social and health policy to better meet the needs of diverse stakeholders. Objectives Since 1997, our team has utilized CBPR approaches to improve health service delivery for persons with dementia and their caregivers in rural and remote settings. We describe the evolution of our approach, including benefits, challenges, and lessons learned over the last 15 years. Methods A multistage approach initiated an ongoing CBPR research program in rural dementia care and shaped its direction based on stakeholders’ recommendation to prioritize both community and facility-based care. Strategies to develop and foster collaborative partnerships have included travel to rural and remote regions, province-wide community meetings, stakeholder workshops, creation of a Decision-Maker Advisory Council to provide ongoing direction to the overall program, development of diverse project-specific advisory groups, and a highly successful and much anticipated annual knowledge exchange and team-building event. Lessons Learned Partnering with stakeholders in the full research process has enhanced the research quality, relevance, application, and sustainability. These benefits have supported the team’s evolution from a relatively traditional focus to an integrated approach guiding all aspects of our research. Conclusions Developing and sustaining the full range of stakeholder and decision-maker partnerships is resource-and time-intensive, but our experience shows that community-based participatory strategies are highly suited to health services research that is designed to support sustainable service delivery improvements. PMID:25435560

  19. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Classroom Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2000-01-01

    Compares computer-assisted instruction in an online library tutorial with the traditional classroom approach to bibliographic instruction. Results of pretests and posttests were compared with students who did not participate in instruction and it is suggested that further research is needed in the area of confidence levels and library use.…

  20. Vocabulary Profiling with Electronic Corpora: A Case Study in Computer Assisted Needs Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodigovic, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Since the inception of computer assisted language learning (CALL), computers have been successfully used to provide leaning and assessment opportunities for groups or individual learners. This article describes a use of computer that is fundamentally different to most CALL approaches, and yet contributes to language learning. While presenting a…

  1. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  2. Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Intervention for Young Children with Attention and Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Marett, Katherine; Hessel, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    Children who are significantly inattentive and poor early readers require intervention, and traditional tutoring approaches may not be effective with this group. Using a single-subject, multiple-baseline-across-participants design, Study 1 examines whether a computer-assisted reading intervention increases performance for three first-grade…

  3. Defining adaptation measures collaboratively: A participatory approach in the Doñana socio-ecological system, Spain.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Lucia; Hernández-Mora, Nuria; Iglesias, Ana; Sánchez, Berta

    2016-11-08

    The uncertainty associated with the definition of strategies for climate change adaptation poses a challenge that cannot be faced by science alone. We present a participatory experience where, instead of having science defining solutions and eliciting stakeholders' feedback, local actors actually drove the process. While principles and methods of the approach are easily adaptable to different local contexts, this paper shows the contribution of participatory dynamics to the design of adaptation measures in the biodiversity-rich socio-ecological region surrounding the Doñana wetlands (Southern Spain). During the process, stakeholders and scientists collaboratively designed a common scenario for the future in which to define and assess a portfolio of potential adaptation measures, and found a safe, informal space for open dialogue and information exchange. Through this dialogue, points of connection among local actors emerged around the need for more integrated, transparent design of adaptation measures; for strengthening local capacity; and for strategies to diversify economic activities in order to increase the resilience of the region.

  4. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  5. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology. PMID:27134436

  6. Participatory action research (PAR): an approach for improving black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine B; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Oyinsan, Bunmi; Clow, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Women are among the most disadvantaged members of any community, and they tend to be at greatest risk of illness. Black women are particularly vulnerable and more prone than White women to illnesses associated with social and economic deprivation, including heart disease and diabetes. They utilize preventive health services less often, and when they fall ill, the health of their families and communities typically suffers as well. This article discusses the process of doing innovative participatory action research (PAR) in southwest Nova Scotia Black communities. The effort resulted in the generation of a database, community action, and interdisciplinary analysis of the intersecting inequities that compromise the health and health care of African Canadian women, their families, and their communities. This particular research effort serves as a case study for explicating the key tenets of PAR and the barriers to and contradictions in implementing PAR in a community-academic collaborative research project.

  7. Identification and analysis of unsatisfactory psychosocial work situations: a participatory approach employing video-computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Hanse, J J; Forsman, M

    2001-02-01

    A method for psychosocial evaluation of potentially stressful or unsatisfactory situations in manual work was developed. It focuses on subjective responses regarding specific situations and is based on interactive worker assessment when viewing video recordings of oneself. The worker is first video-recorded during work. The video is then displayed on the computer terminal, and the filmed worker clicks on virtual controls on the screen whenever an unsatisfactory psychosocial situation appears; a window of questions regarding psychological demands, mental strain and job control is then opened. A library with pictorial information and comments on the selected situations is formed in the computer. The evaluation system, called PSIDAR, was applied in two case studies, one of manual materials handling in an automotive workshop and one of a group of workers producing and testing instrument panels. The findings indicate that PSIDAR can provide data that are useful in a participatory ergonomic process of change.

  8. Computer Assisted Thermography And Its Application In Ovulation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. H.; Shah, A. V.

    1984-08-01

    Hardware and software of a computer-assisted image analyzing system used for infrared images in medical applications are discussed. The application of computer-assisted thermography (CAT) as a complementary diagnostic tool in centralized diagnostic management is proposed. The authors adopted 'Computer Assisted Thermography' to study physiological changes in the breasts related to the hormones characterizing the menstrual cycle of a woman. Based on clinical experi-ments followed by thermal image analysis, they suggest that 'differential skin temperature (DST)1 be measured to detect the fertility interval in the menstrual cycle of a woman.

  9. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

  10. Participatory approach to the development of a knowledge base for problem-solving in diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Davidson, Patricia R.; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D.; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. Materials and methods The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. Results The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. Discussion The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. Conclusion The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. PMID:26547253

  11. Problems of Introducing Courses in Computer-Assisted Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kevin C.; Fleming, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses questions associated with the introduction of computer-assisted reporting (CAR) courses at universities. Briefly outlines the use of computers in newsrooms, and then details the authors' Delphi study of CAR's future in journalism programs. (SR)

  12. Research on the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent research studies related to computer assisted instruction (CAI). The studies concerned program effectiveness, teaching of psychomotor skills, tool availability, and factors affecting the adoption of CAI. (CT)

  13. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  14. A Computer Assisted Learning Project in Engineering Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesewright, R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A British project in engineering science is described. Computer assisted instruction packages are being developed to provide students with experience with models or systems of models related to lecture material on electrical, electronic, nuclear, and mechanical engineering. (SD)

  15. Using Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignments for Freshman Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, D. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignment (CAPA) system which offers a way to apply computers to assist instructors and students in the framework of lectures and assigned problem sets without students being forced to use the computer system. (DDR)

  16. [Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using computer-assisted techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X

    2017-02-18

    The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate

  17. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2014-09-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera of the volcano inside Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the programme included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people to volcanic threats is linked to daily access to sources of livelihood, especially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk to their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such an objective, a participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participatory aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability of (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties in involving more

  18. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  19. Building the framework for climate change adaptation in the urban areas using participatory approach: the Czech Republic experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David

    2016-04-01

    The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach

  20. Popular participation in the mass media: an appraisal of a participatory approach to educational radio.

    PubMed

    Byram, M L

    1981-12-01

    This article discusses the concept of popular participation within the context of nonformal education and analyzes the use of the mass media as a tool for promoting such participation. It is argued that the central issue of popular participation is that of power; it is concerned with the struggle for the control of resources on the part of the oppressed masses. Participatory research principles emphasize the active involvement of people on whom the research is focused at all stages of the educational process and reject the possibility of scientific objectivity. Control of the mass media can be exercised over both the hardware itself and the program content. The latter form, which is more feasible in developing countries, includes several discrete stages where some degree of popular participation is possible: identification of the campaign topic, production of materials, and creation of a 2-way flow of communication. The role of the media person and the political climate in which the radio campaign is operating affect the degree to which authentic participation is possible. Popular participation must be organized; it does not just happen. Among the issues in this area that need to be addressed by future surveys are the role of the professional media person, the technical limitations on participation, and the extent to which a radio network needs to be decentralized to make participation an ongoing feature.

  1. Using Participatory Approach to Improve Availability of Spatial Data for Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, T.; Cetl, V.; Tomič, H.; Lisiak, J.; Kliment, M.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, the availability of authoritative geospatial features of various data themes is becoming wider on global, regional and national levels. The reason is existence of legislative frameworks for public sector information and related spatial data infrastructure implementations, emergence of support for initiatives as open data, big data ensuring that online geospatial information are made available to digital single market, entrepreneurs and public bodies on both national and local level. However, the availability of authoritative reference spatial data linking the geographic representation of the properties and their owners are still missing in an appropriate quantity and quality level, even though this data represent fundamental input for local governments regarding the register of buildings used for property tax calculations, identification of illegal buildings, etc. We propose a methodology to improve this situation by applying the principles of participatory GIS and VGI used to collect observations, update authoritative datasets and verify the newly developed datasets of areas of buildings used to calculate property tax rates issued to their owners. The case study was performed within the district of the City of Požega in eastern Croatia in the summer 2015 and resulted in a total number of 16072 updated and newly identified objects made available online for quality verification by citizens using open source geospatial technologies.

  2. How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

  3. Image processing techniques in computer-assisted patch clamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Patel, Rajni; Gavrilovici, Cezar; Poulter, Michael O.

    2010-02-01

    Patch clamping is used in electrophysiology to study single or multiple ion channels in cells. Multiple micropipettes are used as electrodes to collect data from several cells. Placement of these electrodes is a time consuming and complicated task due to the lack of depth perception, limited view through the microscope lens and the possibility of collisions between micro-pipettes. To aid in this process, a computer-assisted approach is developed using image processing techniques applied to images obtained through the microscope. Image processing algorithms are applied to perform autofocusing, relative depth estimation, distance estimation and tracking of the micro-pipettes in the images without making any major changes in the existing patch clamp equipment. An autofocusing algorithm with a micrometer precision is developed and the relative depth estimation is performed based on autofocusing. A micro-pipette tip detection algorithm is developed which can be used to initialize or reset the tracking algorithm and to calibrate the system by registering the relative image and micro-manipulator coordinates. An image-based tracking algorithm is also developed to track a micro-pipette tip in real time. The real-time tracking data is then used for visual servoing the micro-pipette tips and updating the calibration information.

  4. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Preventing Childhood Obesity: The Communities and Schools Together Project

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the project’s community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct school–community health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786

  5. A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies.

  6. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde, through a participatory approach: which out coming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2013-11-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction) of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010-January 2012) of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera of the volcano inside the Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the program included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people at volcanic threats is linked with daily access to sources of livelihood specially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk on their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such objective, a Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participative aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties to involve more marginalized people

  7. Developing a Health Information Technology Systems Matrix: A Qualitative Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim M; Antinori, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed various health information technology (HIT) resources to provide accessible veteran-centered health care. Currently, the VA is undergoing a major reorganization of VA HIT to develop a fully integrated system to meet consumer needs. Although extensive system documentation exists for various VA HIT systems, a more centralized and integrated perspective with clear documentation is needed in order to support effective analysis, strategy, planning, and use. Such a tool would enable a novel view of what is currently available and support identifying and effectively capturing the consumer’s vision for the future. Objective The objective of this study was to develop the VA HIT Systems Matrix, a novel tool designed to describe the existing VA HIT system and identify consumers’ vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. Methods This study utilized an expert panel and veteran informant focus groups with self-administered surveys. The study employed participatory research methods to define the current system and understand how stakeholders and veterans envision the future of VA HIT and interface design (eg, look, feel, and function). Directed content analysis was used to analyze focus group data. Results The HIT Systems Matrix was developed with input from 47 veterans, an informal caregiver, and an expert panel to provide a descriptive inventory of existing and emerging VA HIT in four worksheets: (1) access and function, (2) benefits and barriers, (3) system preferences, and (4) tasks. Within each worksheet is a two-axis inventory. The VA’s existing and emerging HIT platforms (eg, My HealtheVet, Mobile Health, VetLink Kiosks, Telehealth), My HealtheVet features (eg, Blue Button, secure messaging, appointment reminders, prescription refill, vet library, spotlight, vitals tracker), and non-VA platforms (eg, phone/mobile phone, texting, non-VA mobile apps, non-VA mobile electronic devices, non

  8. Management of Lower Extremity and Pelvic Tumors Using Computer Assisted Modeling (CAM) A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Haskoor, John; Sinno, Sammy; Blank, Alan; Saadeh, Pierre; Rapp, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Computer assisted modeling (CAM) has become an important tool in surgical oncology and reconstructive surgery. The preservation of the limb is an important consideration when approaching the treatment of lower extremity and pelvic tumors. The use of cutting guides allows for optimal conservation of disease-free bone and maintenance of function. We present a small case series that illustrates the use of CAM in patients with lower extremity and pelvic bone tumors.

  9. Integrating community-based participatory research and informatics approaches to improve the engagement and health of underserved populations

    PubMed Central

    Schaefbauer, Chris L; Campbell, Terrance R; Senteio, Charles; Siek, Katie A; Bakken, Suzanne; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We compare 5 health informatics research projects that applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches with the goal of extending existing CBPR principles to address issues specific to health informatics research. Materials and methods We conducted a cross-case analysis of 5 diverse case studies with 1 common element: integration of CBPR approaches into health informatics research. After reviewing publications and other case-related materials, all coauthors engaged in collaborative discussions focused on CBPR. Researchers mapped each case to an existing CBPR framework, examined each case individually for success factors and barriers, and identified common patterns across cases. Results Benefits of applying CBPR approaches to health informatics research across the cases included the following: developing more relevant research with wider impact, greater engagement with diverse populations, improved internal validity, more rapid translation of research into action, and the development of people. Challenges of applying CBPR to health informatics research included requirements to develop strong, sustainable academic-community partnerships and mismatches related to cultural and temporal factors. Several technology-related challenges, including needs to define ownership of technology outputs and to build technical capacity with community partners, also emerged from our analysis. Finally, we created several principles that extended an existing CBPR framework to specifically address health informatics research requirements. Conclusions Our cross-case analysis yielded valuable insights regarding CBPR implementation in health informatics research and identified valuable lessons useful for future CBPR-based research. The benefits of applying CBPR approaches can be significant, particularly in engaging populations that are typically underserved by health care and in designing patient-facing technology. PMID:26228766

  10. [The history and development of computer assisted orthopaedic surgery].

    PubMed

    Jenny, J-Y

    2006-10-01

    Computer assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) was developed to improve the accuracy of surgical procedures. It has improved dramatically over the last years, being transformed from an experimental, laboratory procedure into a routine procedure theoretically available to every orthopaedic surgeon. The first field of application of computer assistance was neurosurgery. After the application of computer guided spinal surgery, the navigation of total hip and knee joints became available. Currently, several applications for computer assisted surgery are available. At the beginning of navigation, a preoperative CT-scan or several fluoroscopic images were necessary. The imageless systems allow the surgeon to digitize patient anatomy at the beginning of surgery without any preoperative imaging. The future of CAOS remains unknown, but there is no doubt that its importance will grow in the next 10 years, and that this technology will probably modify the conventional practice of orthopaedic surgery.

  11. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Organic Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snieckus, V.

    Using the Corey approach, retrosynthetic/synthetic schemes for six organic molecules of increasing complexity were programmed and tested in a module designed for a fourth year undergraduate course. A portion of a simple synthesis is presented and analyzed. Problems encountered were discussed and potential solutions are proposed. The module was…

  12. A participatory approach of flood vulnerability assessment in the Banat Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balteanu, Dan; Costache, Andra; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Dragota, Carmen; Grigorescu, Ines

    2014-05-01

    The Banat Plain (western Romania) is a low, alluvial plain affected by neotectonic subsidence movements, being a critical region in terms of exposure to floods. The latest extreme event was the historic floods occcured in the spring of 2005, which caused significant economic damage in several rural communities. The response to 2005 floods has highlighted a number of weaknesses in the management of hazards, such as the deficiencies of the early warning system, people awareness or the inefficiency of some mitigation measures, besides the past structural measures which are obsolete. For a better understanding of the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to floods, the quantitative assessment of human vulnerability to floods was supplemented with a participatory research, in which there were involved five rural settlements from the Banat Plain (comprising 15 villages and a population of over 12,000 inhabitants). Thus, in the spring of 2013, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in approx. 100 households of the affected communities and structured interviews were held with local authorities, in the framework of VULMIN project, funded by the Ministry of National Education. The questionnaire was designed based on a pilot survey conducted in 2005, several months after the flood, and was focused on two major issues: a) perception of the local context of vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events; b) perception of human vulnerability to floods (personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding). The results were correlated with a number of specific variables of the households included in the sample, such as: household structure; income source; income level; location of the dwelling in relation to floodplains. In this way, we were able to draw general conclusions about the way in which local people perceive the extreme events, such as

  13. Computer-Assisted and Patient-Controlled Sedation Platforms.

    PubMed

    Pambianco, Daniel; Niklewski, Paul

    2016-07-01

    As the number and complexity of endoscopic procedures increase, the role of sedation has been integral in patient and physician satisfaction. This article discusses the advances of computer-assisted and patient-controlled platforms. These computer-assisted and patient-controlled platforms use different anesthetics and analgesics, all with the intent of achieving improved consistency in the level of sedation, appropriate to the needs of patients, while also improving patient safety. These systems have been around for decades; however, few are approved for use in the United States, and several still require further study before broad clinical application.

  14. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a “Data Profiling” Tool for Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a “data profiling” tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool’s functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651

  15. Participatory Action Research and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.

    This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…

  16. Perceptions of University Students regarding Computer Assisted Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamil, Mubashrah

    2012-01-01

    Computer assisted assessment (CAA) is a common technique of assessment in higher educational institutions in Western countries, but a relatively new concept for students and teachers in Pakistan. It was therefore interesting to investigate students' perceptions about CAA practices from different universities of Pakistan. Information was collected…

  17. Evaluation of Three Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Morningstar, Mona

    This technical report is concerned with the evaluation of three Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Programs - The Drill-and practice Program in Elementary School Mathematics, The Brentwood Tutorial Mathematics Program, and the Russian Program. Among the results reported were (1) the drill-and-practice mathematics program used in Mississippi and…

  18. Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Selective Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen K.

    The history of some computer-assisted instruction (CAI) strategies is traced. A number of components of computerized instruction systems are described and explanations provided on the influence these components have in the development and production of a CAI system. A description of the interaction between a student and a CAI system is presented…

  19. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965-66 Arithmetic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A review of the possibilities and challenges of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and a brief history of CAI projects at Stanford serve to give the reader the context of the particular program described and analyzed in this book. The 1965-66 arithmetic drill-and-practice program is described, summarizing the curriculum and project operation. An…

  20. System/360 Computer Assisted Network Scheduling (CANS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer assisted scheduling techniques that produce conflict-free and efficient schedules have been developed and implemented to meet needs of the Manned Space Flight Network. CANS system provides effective management of resources in complex scheduling environment. System is automated resource scheduling, controlling, planning, information storage and retrieval tool.

  1. Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and CAI taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)

  2. Computer-Assisted Instruction Workshop at the Naval War College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entelek, Inc., Newburyport, MA.

    A workshop was held which was designed to review the state of computer-assisted instruction in terms of its application to the U.S. Navy, with special emphasis on the Navy's activities at Newport Naval Base. The workshop also offered practice in developing short computer programs and attempted to familiarize a staff group with advanced information…

  3. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  4. Collaboration and Computer-Assisted Acquisition of a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renie, Delphine; Chanier, Thierry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how collaborative learning (CL) can be used in a computer-assisted learning (CAL) environment for language learning, reviewing research in the fields of applied linguistics, educational psychology, and artificial intelligence. An application of CL and CAL in the learning of French as a Second Language, focusing on interrogative…

  5. Programmed Learning and Computer-Assisted Instruction in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David M.

    Following an introductory review of foreign language teaching since the Second World War, the author discusses the cybernetic aspects and psychological basis of instructional technology; programmed learning/computer-assisted instruction and behavioral objectives; hardware versus software; linear programming; branching programs; programming verbal…

  6. The Use of Computer Assisted Career Guidance with Injured Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Julia; Wigtil, James V.

    Injured workers are individuals whose injuries have resulted in residual impairment, making it impossible for them to return to their former jobs or to seek work in an allied field. This study investigated the differential effects of computer assisted career guidance (CACG) systems combined with a cognitive information processing strategy on…

  7. Computer-Assisted Synthesis of Psychometric Data in Vocational Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    This paper proposes computer assistance in the synthesis operation of vocational counseling. The goal of vocational counseling is to match the client with a vocation in which he will be both satisfied and satisfactory. The computer would, through its rapid scanning and computation, produce probabilities of satisfactoriness based on (1) the…

  8. Computer-Assisted Law Instruction: Clinical Education's Bionic Sibling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Harry G.; Platt, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), like clinical education, has considerable potential for legal training. As an initial Cornell Law School experiment, a lesson in applying different corporate statutory dividend formulations, with a cross-section of balance sheets and other financial data, was used to supplement regular class assignments.…

  9. Computer-assisted Elementary Chinese Learning for American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong-yan, Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Despite hopes and claims about benefits of computer-assisted language learning, few studies have documented actual cases about how American students learn elementary Chinese in a computer-equipped classroom. This paper deals with how to use computer as an educational tool to develop American students' Chinese language skills. The theoretical…

  10. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  11. Computer Assisted Instruction. Education Automation Monograph Series, [Number One].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) attacks one of the greatest problems of education--how to get sufficient variety in educational materials to teach each individual without requiring a group of trained personnel to prepare all possible variations. CAI permits individualization electronically. CAI can be used to train problem solving, for drill…

  12. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Statistics. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, William W.

    A paper given at a conference on statistical computation discussed teaching statistics with computers. It concluded that computer-assisted instruction is most appropriately employed in the numerical demonstration of statistical concepts, and for statistical laboratory instruction. The student thus learns simultaneously about the use of computers…

  13. Functional Characteristics of Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: Intelligent Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ok-choon

    1988-01-01

    Examines the functional characteristics of intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) and discusses the requirements of a multidisciplinary cooperative effort of its development. A typical ICAI model is presented and intelligent features of ICAI systems are described, including modeling the student's learning process, qualitative decision…

  14. Computer-Assisted Instruction of Early Academic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Caryl H.; Noonan, Mary Jo

    2000-01-01

    Five preschool students with disabilities received direct instruction on matching shapes, colors, and numbers or letters, followed by guided practice using constant time delay under two conditions: computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with interactive software and teacher-assisted instruction (TAI). CAI was either equal or superior to TAI across…

  15. Technical Aspects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chaun; Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in Chinese is considered in relation to the design and recognition of Chinese characters, speech synthesis of the standard Chinese language, and the identification of Chinese tone. The PLATO work has shifted its orientation from provision of supplementary courseware to implementation of independent lessons and…

  16. The MUPET Lab: Computer Assisted Management of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Thomas D.

    Project Computer-Assisted Instructional Management (C-AIM) is being pilot tested on third grade mathematics students in the Jonesboro Public schools (Jonesboro, Arkansas). Each elementary building operates a MUPET Lab equipped with at least six Commodore Model 4016/4032 microcomputers, one Commodore Model 4040 dual disc drive, and one Commodore…

  17. The Teacher's Role in Effective Computer-Assisted Instruction Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006 the Billings (Montana) Public Schools adopted a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) intervention aimed at helping students recover credits that they had attempted but had not attained. The author volunteered to teach the algebra component in his high school. Through the following seven semesters, he came to better understand the…

  18. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  19. Computer Assisted Instruction as an Enhancer of Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen R.; Cortez, Marion J.

    In the 1980-81 school year, the Title I program in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, initiated research into the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for mathematics in grades 3-6. Children from two lower socioeconomic area schools, who were one or more years below grade placement but were already making gains of 6-9 months due to an…

  20. Computer Assisted Instruction. A Report to the Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert, Jr.

    This report presents the findings of an evaluation conducted in the Greater Albany Public School System 8J (Oregon) to determine the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in mathematics as delivered by the WICAT System 300 at the Periwinkle Elementary School. Evaluation activities were designed and conducted to determine whether the…

  1. Students' Attitudes towards Control Methods in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, Hanne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study designed to investigate dental students' attitudes toward computer-assisted teaching as applied in programs for oral radiology in Denmark. Programs using personal computers and slide projectors with varying degrees of learner and teacher control are described, and differences in attitudes between male and female students are…

  2. OE-CAI: Computer-Assisted Instruction of Old English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    Provides a survey of computer assisted instruction as applied to the Old English language from the work of the late 1980's pioneers to December 2001. Each instructional item--whether a website, java exercise, or an online course--is reviewed and URLs are provided in footnotes. Reviews are accompanied by pertinent background and practical advice.…

  3. Teaching Reading through Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Tariq Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the role of reading in secondary schools and how it may be improved through computers, a year-long study was conducted to examine which of two methods of teaching reading skills, an instructor-led class vs. computer-assisted language learning (CALL), aided secondary students in improving the literal, inferential, and evaluative levels of…

  4. Computer Assisted Learning in Basic Adult Education. Commissioned Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, R.; Hooper, P.

    A project was conducted to increase the use of microcomputers in basic adult education in Australia. The aims of the project were as follows: to establish an information network of practitioners working within Australia's Technical and Further Education (TAFE) system who have an interest in using computer-assisted learning in basic adult…

  5. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Math Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, K.; Haelermans, C.; Rogge, N.

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs are considered as a way to improve learning outcomes of students. However, little is known on the schools who implement such programs as well as on the effectiveness of similar information and communication technology programs. We provide a literature review that pays special attention to the existing…

  6. Computer-Assisted Instruction, Media Richness, and College Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, C. Erik; Kruepke, Kristine A.

    2006-01-01

    This meta analysis examines the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) upon college student performance, addresses the impact of various study characteristics upon effects, and explores how media richness theory may predict CAI performance gains. Findings indicate that student performance gains are larger for CAI than traditional…

  7. Framework for Computer Assisted Instruction Courseware: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betlach, Judith A.

    1987-01-01

    Systematically investigates, defines, and organizes variables related to production of internally designed and implemented computer assisted instruction (CAI) courseware: special needs of users; costs; identification and definition of realistic training needs; CAI definition and design methodology; hardware and software requirements; and general…

  8. An Overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Walter

    After a detailed history and definition of Computer-Assisted Instruction (which identifies drill and practice, tutorial, and problem-solving activities as comprising CAI), the development and implementation of a college level computer based multimedia physics course is described as an example of tutorial activities in CAI for those interested in…

  9. "Intelligent" Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Applications. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; And Others

    Interim work is documented describing efforts to modify computer techniques used to recognize and process English language requests to an instructional simulator. The conversion from a hand-coded to a table driven technique are described in detail. Other modifications to a simulation based computer assisted instruction program to allow a gaming…

  10. Computer-Assisted Accent Modification: A Report on Practice Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Linda J.; Reid, Lawry N.; Chenausky, Karen

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of the computer-assisted accent-modification program, Speech Works, with beginning college students of English as a second language with a non-speech-language pathologist trainer. Students who had weekly one-on-one sessions with a teacher and independent practice, especially when the practice was computer monitored,…

  11. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  12. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Medicine: A German View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Gunnar; And Others

    The following seven American programs of Computer Assisted Instruction in Medicine are among 20 implemented at the University of Bonn: OPHTHA and FUNDUS (programs of the tutorial mode), CARDI (presents information via three media on the clinical alterations of Mitral and Aortic Stenosis as well as Mitral and Aortal Incompetence), CARDIOPULMONARY…

  13. Ethical and Professional Issues in Computer-Assisted Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, B. Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ethical and professional issues in psychology regarding computer-assisted therapy (CAT). Topics addressed include an explanation of CAT; whether CAT is psychotherapy; software, including independent use, validation of effectiveness, and restricted access; clinician resistance; client acceptance; the impact on ethical standards; and a…

  14. User Interface Improvements in Computer-Assisted Instruction, the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies user interface problems as they relate to computer-assisted instruction (CAI); reviews the learning theories and instructional theories related to CAI user interface; and presents potential CAI user interface improvements for research and development based on learning and instructional theory. Focuses on screen design improvements.…

  15. An Infrastructure for Web-Based Computer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Mike; Muzykantskii, Boris; Rawles, Simon; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We describe an initiative under way at Warwick to provide a technical foundation for computer aided learning and computer-assisted assessment tools, which allows a rich dialogue sensitive to individual students' response patterns. The system distinguishes between dialogues for individual problems and the linking of problems. This enables a subject…

  16. Detection of microcalcification in computer-assisted mammogram analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghdy, Golshah A.; Naghdy, Fazel; Yue, L.; Drijarkara, A. P.

    1999-07-01

    The latest trend in computer assisted mammogram analysis is reviewed and two new methods developed by the authors for automatic detection of microcalcifications (MCs) are presented. The first method is based on wavelet neurone feature detectors and ART classifiers while the second method utilized fuzzy rules for detection and grading of MCs.

  17. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  18. Computer-Assisted Learning in British Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertzani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The fact that language teaching can be operationalized through computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has directed researchers' attention to the learning task, which, in this case, is considered to be the unit that demands analysis of the communicative processes in which the learner is involved while working with CALL. Research focuses on…

  19. Integrating Computer-Assisted Translation Tools into Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Parra, María

    2016-01-01

    Although Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools play an important role in the curriculum in many university translator training programmes, they are seldom used in the context of learning a language, as a good command of a language is needed before starting to translate. Since many institutions often have translator-training programmes as well…

  20. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Debate: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheckels, Theodore F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Presents justifications for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in debate. Suggests programs that could be written. Discusses one CAI application: the use of CAI drills to train negative team members and to instruct in cross-examination skills. Includes the "Listing of CAI Drill for 1st Negative Debater." (PD)

  1. Drug Treatment Centers in Afghanistan: Creating a Participatory Approach to Tackling the Drug Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Approaches , by Reid K Hester and William R Miller, 13–63. Boston: Allyn and Bacon , 2003. Mojumdar, Aunohita. “In Afghanistan, Drug Rehab for Children.” The...from a Cross-Cultural Perspective.” Third World Quarterly (Taylor & Francis , Ltd.) 23, no. 5 (2002): 961–975. Pain, Adam. Opium Poppy Strikes Back

  2. Participatory Cohort Group Health Fairs: A New Approach to an Old Standby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Susan E.; Brey, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    Health fairs, a component of health education programming for many years, generally offer an unstructured opportunity for participants to gather health information. This manuscript describes an alternative approach to a "traditional" health fair, which involves working with previously assessed and specifically targeted groups of people who move as…

  3. Computer-assisted trauma care prototype.

    PubMed

    Holzman, T G; Griffith, A; Hunter, W G; Allen, T; Simpson, R J

    1995-01-01

    Each year, civilian accidental injury results in 150,000 deaths and 400,000 permanent disabilities in the United States alone. The timely creation of and access to dynamically updated trauma patient information at the point of injury is critical to improving the state of care. Such information is often non-existent, incomplete, or inaccurate, resulting in less than adequate treatment by medics and the loss of precious time by medical personnel at the hospital or battalion aid station as they attempt to reassess and treat the patient. The Trauma Care Information Management System (TCIMS) is a prototype system for facilitating information flow and patient processing decisions in the difficult circumstances of civilian and military trauma care activities. The program is jointly supported by the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and a consortium of universities, medical centers, and private companies. The authors' focus has been the human-computer interface for the system. We are attempting to make TCIMS powerful in the functions it delivers to its users in the field while also making it easy to understand and operate. To develop such a usable system, an approach known as user-centered design is being followed. Medical personnel themselves are collaborating with the authors in its needs analysis, design, and evaluation. Specifically, the prototype being demonstrated was designed through observation of actual civilian trauma care episodes, military trauma care exercises onboard a hospital ship, interviews with civilian and military trauma care providers, repeated evaluation of evolving prototypes by potential users, and study of the literature on trauma care and human factors engineering. This presentation at MedInfo '95 is still another avenue for soliciting guidance from medical information system experts and users. The outcome of this process is a system that provides the functions trauma care personnel desire in a manner that can be easily and

  4. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  5. Efficacy of Teachtown: Basics Computer-Assisted Intervention for the Intensive Comprehensive Autism Program in Los Angeles Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Christina; Moss, Debbie; Ilan, Aaron B.; Vaupel, Manya; Fielding, Paul; MacDonald, Kevin; Cernich, Shannon; Symon, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) has shown increased popularity recently and there are many studies showing promise for this approach for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there are no between-subject studies to date assessing the efficacy of CAI with this population. In this study, 47 preschool and K-1 students in ASD…

  6. Participatory Research. An Introduction. Participatory Research Network Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi (India).

    Participatory research is an approach that calls for a democratic interaction between the researcher and those among whom the research is conducted. While this approach has been implemented with both individuals and groups in a wide variety of settings such as geographic communities, workplace situations, adult learning groups, community issue…

  7. Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xinqi; Li, Yawen; Chen, Ruijia; Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research…

  8. An approach for the anticipatory and participatory management of current and future flood risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, J.

    2012-04-01

    Despite the fact that many measures to attenuate flood hazards and reduce vulnerabilities are being implemented, adverse effects of floods are ever-increasing in most parts of the world. On the one hand this holds true for economically and/or demographically growing regions. On the other hand this applies also to areas that face population shrinkage and economic problems. Such flood risks occur in human-environment systems and are subject to dynamics caused by a number of drivers such as climate change, land-use changes, and others. Many drivers evolve slowly over time or show time-lag effects and long return periods. Moreover, certain decisions may determine the control actions of the following decades. At present, current flood risks are mostly determined based on historic developments and the ex post analysis of flood events. Approaches that look at the future dynamics of both hazards and vulnerable elements ex ante in an integrated manner are rare. Instead, future hazard scenarios are often just overlaid with current socio-economic data, which poses a strong inconsistency. Usually the focus lies on rather short-term, specific or local problems. But many developments and measures show their effects only after long time periods and when considering the whole catchment area. This calls for a holistic and long-term view into the future and implies the challenge of dealing with many uncertainties due to the system's complexity. In order to anticipate and react to these developments, this contribution suggests developing a flexible, yet holistic approach to design, analyse and evaluate alternative futures of such human-environment systems. These futures follow a scenario understanding that considers both specific (current) factor constellations as well as consistent assumptions on autonomous developments (so-called development frameworks) and potentials for control (strategic alternatives) of the interacting entities that influence flood risk. Different scenario

  9. Insightful monitoring of natural flood risk management features using a low-cost and participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against

  10. [A participatory approach for the prevention of type 2 diabetes for francophone youth of New Brunswick].

    PubMed

    Villalon, Lita; Leclair, Cédée-Anne

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes, a serious public health problem, is on the rise, claiming millions of victims. A considerable body of research exists on diabetes, but the development of effective primary prevention strategies is just beginning. This article presents the results of a project, based on an innovative approach where health professionals and community groups have come together to address the issue. The purpose of the project is to develop an intervention strategy for the prevention of type 2 diabetes directed at young francophones living in a minority environment in New Brunswick and adapted to their needs. Qualitative data were gathered from two focus groups and submitted for a content analysis. The process was evaluated. The young francophones have identified the school environment as ideal for intervention. According to them, the intervention should be adapted to the age of the youths. For the 5-to-13-year-old group, the intervention should target healthy eating habits and physical activity whereas for the 14-to-18-year-old group, the emphasis should be on preventing diabetes. The youth and the professionals acquired a greater understanding of the problem of diabetes and its prevention. Youth can now proceed to action, with appropriate guidance. The experience and knowledge of the professionals contributed to the development of the strategy. A shortage of dietitians in public health to work in the area of the prevention of diabetes has been noted.

  11. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On

  12. Resection of a physeal bar under computer-assisted guidance.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Yoon, S J; Kim, J R

    2010-10-01

    Excision of a physeal bar and filling the space with interposition material may allow resumption of normal growth. Both the extent and the location of the bar and the amount of growth remaining from physis must be determined. Computer-assisted surgery is being used increasingly in various fields of orthopaedics. We describe the management of a patient with premature physeal arrest of the right distal tibia in which resection of a physeal bar was achieved under real-time three-dimensional intra-operative monitoring by computer-assisted navigation. The advantage of this method over other means of imaging is that intra-operative identification can increase the accuracy of resection of the bar.

  13. Computer-Assisted Navigation in High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Computer-assisted navigation is used to improve the accuracy and precision of correction angles during high tibial osteotomy. Most studies have reported that this technique reduces the outliers of coronal alignment and unintended changes in the tibial posterior slope angle. However, more sophisticated studies are necessary to determine whether the technique will improve the clinical results and long-term survival rates. Knowledge of the navigation technology, surgical techniques and potential pitfalls, the clinical results of previous studies, and understanding of the advantages and limitations of the computer-assisted navigation are crucial to successful application of this new technique in high tibial osteotomy. Herein, we review the evidence concerning this technique from previous studies. PMID:27904715

  14. Triploidy in rainbow trout determined by computer-assisted analysis.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Emilio; Josa, Agustín; Gil, Lidia; Martí, José Ignacio

    2005-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the use of a computer-assisted system based on erythrocyte measurements as a possible alternative to flow cytometry for identifying triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Blood smears were prepared from 26 triploid and 26 diploid specimens, as determined by flow cytometry after staining blood cells with propidium iodide. The cell and nucleus lengths of 10 erythrocytes were determined in each fish. This was followed by discriminatory analysis to distinguish between diploids and triploids based on their score profiles. Triploid trout showed significantly larger erythrocyte cell and nucleus measurements than their diploid counterparts (N=52; P<0.0001). Erythrocyte length correctly identified 100% of the fish specimens as diploid or triploid, while nucleus length was a less accurate predictor of the level of ploidy. Our findings validate the potential use of computer-assisted analysis for this purpose.

  15. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  16. Learning through Dignity: Participatory Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Dennis

    This paper describes an alternative approach to traditional instructional design models by suggesting that participatory communication theory (PCT) creates a process that values the learner's voice. As a student develops a critical awareness of his or her environment, participatory media becomes a catalyst for cognition. Learners use media tools…

  17. A Computer-Assisted Approach to Conducting Cooperative Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Jin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Haur

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning has been proven to be helpful in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning, which is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve the goal of cooperative…

  18. A Software Development Approach for Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushion, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 5 years we have developed, produced, tested, and evaluated an authoring software package to produce web-based, interactive, audio-enhanced language-learning material. That authoring package has been used to produce language-learning material in French, Spanish, German, Arabic, and Tamil. We are currently working on increasing…

  19. Challenges of technology integration and computer-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Gurion; Liebergall, Meir

    2009-02-01

    The rapid progress of modern computerized capabilities has not been paralleled by a similar progress in the operating room setting and in operating techniques. The major advance in orthopaedic surgery during the past fifty years has been the introduction of intraoperative fluoroscopic imaging, while surgical techniques have remained mostly unchanged. Orthopaedic procedures dealing with bones--a nondeformable tissue--are suitable for computerized guidance based on preoperatively and intraoperatively obtained images. Computer-assisted surgery progressed from the first-generation systems of the 1990 s to the present third-generation systems, enabling surgeons to implant a knee or hip prosthesis with high precision. However, most orthopaedic surgeons avoid using computer-navigation surgical techniques. Why has the implementation of computer-assisted surgery procedures met so many hurdles and obstacles? The factors that make up the answer to this question can be grouped into three categories: human, technological, and financial. Computer-assisted surgery has the potential to revolutionize orthopaedic surgery just as fluoroscopy did a few decades ago; however, its widespread use has been hampered by a lack of sufficient clinical data on the one hand and by a reluctance to use the technique and thereby collect and share data on the other. The challenge is to overcome the human, technological, and financial hurdles. Once these obstacles are addressed, we believe that computer-assisted surgery will set a new standard of care. Until that time, some will be willing to lead the revolution and pay the price of progress, and others will be reluctant to take part in this endeavor.

  20. Stress intensity estimates by a computer assisted photoelastic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Following an introductory history, the frozen stress photoelastic method is reviewed together with analytical and experimental aspects of cracks in photoelastic models. Analytical foundations are then presented upon which a computer assisted frozen stress photoelastic technique is based for extracting estimates of stress intensity factors from three-dimensional cracked body problems. The use of the method is demonstrated for two currently important three-dimensional crack problems.

  1. Blind trials of computer-assisted structure elucidation software

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the largest challenges in chemistry today remains that of efficiently mining through vast amounts of data in order to elucidate the chemical structure for an unknown compound. The elucidated candidate compound must be fully consistent with the data and any other competing candidates efficiently eliminated without doubt by using additional data if necessary. It has become increasingly necessary to incorporate an in silico structure generation and verification tool to facilitate this elucidation process. An effective structure elucidation software technology aims to mimic the skills of a human in interpreting the complex nature of spectral data while producing a solution within a reasonable amount of time. This type of software is known as computer-assisted structure elucidation or CASE software. A systematic trial of the ACD/Structure Elucidator CASE software was conducted over an extended period of time by analysing a set of single and double-blind trials submitted by a global audience of scientists. The purpose of the blind trials was to reduce subjective bias. Double-blind trials comprised of data where the candidate compound was unknown to both the submitting scientist and the analyst. The level of expertise of the submitting scientist ranged from novice to expert structure elucidation specialists with experience in pharmaceutical, industrial, government and academic environments. Results Beginning in 2003, and for the following nine years, the algorithms and software technology contained within ACD/Structure Elucidator have been tested against 112 data sets; many of these were unique challenges. Of these challenges 9% were double-blind trials. The results of eighteen of the single-blind trials were investigated in detail and included problems of a diverse nature with many of the specific challenges associated with algorithmic structure elucidation such as deficiency in protons, structure symmetry, a large number of heteroatoms and poor quality

  2. Culturally sensitive assessments as a strength-based approach to wellness in Native communities: A community-based participatory research project.

    PubMed

    Verney, Steven P; Avila, Magdalena; Espinosa, Patricia Rodríguez; Cholka, Cecilia Brooke; Benson, Jennifer G; Baloo, Aihsa; Pozernick, Caitlin Devin

    2016-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have a unique, traumatic, and alienating history of education in the U.S., which may be directly related to overall health and well-being. Community engagement is critical in well-being research with Native communities, especially when investigating culturally sensitive topics, such as early education experiences. This study investigates the value of a community-based participatory research approach in gaining valuable culturally sensitive information from Native people in a respectful manner. Assessment participation and feedback are analyzed and presented as indicators of Native participant engagement success in a potentially sensitive research project exploring early education experiences.

  3. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    Khoza, Lunic B.; Van den Borne, Hubertus B.; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing a directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim To apply a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods The community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community. PMID:27542290

  4. Considerations for Conducting Web-Based Survey Research With People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Ibáñez-Carrasco, Francisco; Baxter, Larry; Nixon, Stephanie A; Baltzer-Turje, Rosalind; Robinson, Greg; Zack, Elisse

    2014-01-01

    Background Web or Internet-based surveys are increasingly popular in health survey research. However, the strengths and challenges of Web-based surveys with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unclear. Objective The aim of this article is to describe our experience piloting a cross-sectional, Web-based, self-administered survey with adults living with HIV using a community-based participatory research approach. Methods We piloted a Web-based survey that investigated disability and rehabilitation services use with a sample of adults living with HIV in Canada. Community organizations in five provinces emailed invitations to clients, followed by a thank you/reminder one week later. We obtained survey feedback in a structured phone interview with respondents. Participant responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using directed content analysis. Results Of 30 people living with HIV who accessed the survey link, 24/30 (80%) initiated and 16/30 (53%) completed the survey instrument. A total of 17 respondents participated in post-survey interviews. Participants described the survey instrument as comprehensive, suggesting content validity. The majority (13/17, 76%) felt instruction and item wording were clear and easy to understand, and found the software easy to navigate. Participants felt having a pop-up reminder directing them to missed items would be useful. Conclusions Strengths of implementing the Web-based survey included: our community-based participatory approach, ease of software use, ability for respondents to complete the questionnaire on one’s own time at one’s own pace, opportunity to obtain geographic variation, and potential for respondent anonymity. Considerations for future survey implementation included: respondent burden and fatigue, the potentially sensitive nature of HIV Web-based research, data management and storage, challenges verifying informed consent, varying computer skills among respondents, and the burden on

  5. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Computer-Assisted Language Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Computer-Assisted English Abstract Words Learning Environment on the Web" (Wenli Tsou and…

  6. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  7. From theory to bench experiment by computer-assisted drug design.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gisbert

    2012-01-01

    Tight integration of computer-assisted molecular design with practical realization by medicinal chemistry will be essential for finding next-generation drugs that are optimized for multiple pharmaceutically relevant properties. ETH Zürich has established an interdisciplinary research group devoted to exploring the potential of this scientific approach by combining expertise from pharmaceutical chemistry and computer sciences. In this article, some of the group's activities and projects are presented. A current focus is on machine-learning applications aiming at hit and lead structure identification by virtual screening and de novo design. The central concept of 'adaptive fitness landscapes' is highlighted along with practical examples from drug discovery projects.

  8. Computer-Assisted Generation of Patterns and Virtual Reality Techniques for Fashion Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, Mickael; Richard, Paul; Chapeau-Blondeau, François

    2009-03-01

    We present a methodology for the design of aesthetic patterns and their visualization on virtual clothes. Generated patterns are directly mapped on the dress of a virtual mannequin. Furthermore, patterns sets may be interactively mapped on the virtual dress using a specific 3D interaction technique called Back-and-Forth. Pattern generation involves different mathematical approaches such as iterated function systems (IFS) and nonlinear trajectory models. Both model parameters and color space exploration is performed through a simple user interface. This work contributes to promote both computer assistance in the context of mass customization for fashion design.

  9. A participatory action research approach for identifying health service needs of Hispanic immigrants: implications for occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Martinez, Louise I; Casas-Byots, Clemencia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Recently, the field of Community Occupational Therapy has started to enter into new research areas, one being participatory research. This paper illustrates a participatory research methodology adapted by community residents and a research team to identify the service needs of an underserved Hispanic population as well as set action agendas to meet their needs. In order to plan and implement health programs, community residents participated actively in the needs assessment, action agenda development and brainstorming of solutions to address health and community needs and concerns. Concerns identified included the lack of affordable bilingual dentists and youth involvement in gangs, drugs, and alcohol. The results of the needs assessment were shared and discussed during five public forums in which 180 Hispanics from the community discussed the dimensions of the issues and alternative solutions. This process resulted in an agenda of health issues and ideas for improvement from the perspective of Hispanics. We emphasized the advantages of using participatory methodologies when developing health and community services within Hispanic communities. Additionally, the implications for advancing a Scholarship of Practice agenda for Community Occupational Therapy are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of a tuberculosis education video among immigrants and refugees at an adult education center: a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Mark L; Nelson, Jonathan; Palmer, Tiffany; O'Hara, Connie; Weis, Jennifer A; Nigon, Julie A; Sia, Irene G

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis disproportionately affects immigrants and refugees to the United States. Upon arrival to the United States, many of these individuals attend adult education centers, but little is known about how to deliver tuberculosis health information at these venues. Therefore, the authors used a participatory approach to design and evaluate a tuberculosis education video in this setting. The authors used focus group data to inform the content of the video that was produced and delivered by adult learners and their teachers. The video was evaluated by learners for acceptability through 3 items with a 3-point Likert scale. Knowledge (4 items) and self-efficacy (2 items) about tuberculosis were evaluated before and after viewing the video. A total of 159 learners (94%) rated the video as highly acceptable. Knowledge about tuberculosis improved after viewing the video (56% correct vs. 82% correct; p <.001), as did tuberculosis-related self-efficacy (77% vs. 90%; p <.001). Adult education centers that serve large immigrant and refugee populations may be excellent venues for health education, and a video may be an effective tool to educate these populations. Furthermore, a participatory approach in designing health education materials may enhance the efficacy of these tools.

  11. Evaluation of a Tuberculosis Education Video among Immigrants and Refugees at an Adult Education Center: A Community-Based Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Mark L.; Nelson, Jonathan; Palmer, Tiffany; O’Hara, Connie; Weis, Jennifer A.; Nigron, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants and refugees to the United States. Upon arrival to the US, many of these individuals attend adult education centers, but little is known about how to deliver TB health information at these venues. Therefore, a participatory approach was used to design and evaluate a tuberculosis education video in this setting. Focus groups data were used to inform the content of the video that was produced and delivered by adult learners and their teachers. The video was evaluated by learners for acceptability through 3 items with a 3-point Likert scale. Knowledge (4 items) and self-efficacy (2 items) about TB were evaluated before and after viewing the video. A total of 159 learners (94%) rated the video as highly acceptable. Knowledge about TB improved after viewing the video (56% correct vs. 82% correct; p=<0.001), as did TB-related self-efficacy (77% vs. 90%; p=<0.001). Adult education centers that serve large immigrant and refugee populations may be excellent venues for health education, and a video may be an effective tool to educate these populations. Furthermore, a participatory approach in designing health education materials may enhance the efficacy of these tools. PMID:23237382

  12. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Calba, Clémentine; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Vanholme, Luc; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    added value of the participatory approach was highlighted. PMID:27462705

  13. Computer-assisted cataloging: experiences at the UCLA Biomedical Library.

    PubMed Central

    Traister, R C

    1975-01-01

    The computer-assisted procedures developed in the UCLA Biomedical Library Cataloging Division have been in effect for approximately three years. The system utilizes a Delta Data System cathode ray tube terminal and cassette attachment for on or off-line input of data. Products of the system include catalog card sets arranged in filing order, a monthly Recent Acquisitions List, and computer-generated book catalogs. Planning, personnel, and equipment requirements are discussed, and preliminary cost figures for various parts of the system are given. Potential applications of the automated system on a regional level and in terms of the library's future automation plans are considered. PMID:1148443

  14. Rapid methods and computer assisted diagnosis in medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Heizmann, W R

    1991-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis and reporting in medical microbiology is becoming more and more important. In recent years, introduction of automated instruments as well as of computer assisted diagnosis contributed to this aim. These methods, however, are very expensive. A more cost efficient and simple to perform method for rapid diagnosis is the use of specific fluorogenic substrates incorporated into culture media (solid or liquid) for identification of the most important pathogens, e.g. Escherichia coli. Investigation of Fluorocult ECD agar and Columbia agar revealed a high sensitivity (85%) and an excellent specificity (greater than 99%) of fluorescence in combination with a positive indole reaction for identification of E. coli.

  15. Computer-assisted design of flux-cored wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubtsov, Yu N.; Zorin, I. V.; Sokolov, G. N.; Antonov, A. A.; Artem'ev, A. A.; Lysak, V. I.

    2017-02-01

    The algorithm and description of the AlMe-WireLaB software for the computer-assisted design of flux-cored wires are introduced. The software functionality is illustrated with the selection of the components for the flux-cored wire, ensuring the acquisition of the deposited metal of the Fe-Cr-C-Mo-Ni-Ti-B system. It is demonstrated that the developed software enables the technologically reliable flux-cored wire to be designed for surfacing, resulting in a metal of an ordered composition.

  16. Participatory Budgeting in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Describes and analyzes a participatory approach to budgetary decision-making used by an exemplary high school. In spite of the budgetary forces dividing instructional departments, support units, and administration, an equitable division of resources provided to the school was consistently achieved each year. Includes 29 references. (MLH)

  17. Mobile Applications for Participatory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

  18. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  19. Examining barriers and supports to community living and participation after a stroke from a participatory action research approach.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Joy; Jones, Robin; Gossett, Andrea; Morgan, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This participatory action research study focused on identifying community participation goals, barriers, and supports/strategies in partnership with people who have experienced a stroke. Goals demonstrate that participation is more than activity performance in context; instead, it relates to "being a part of" the community and having access to participation opportunities and supports. Results of community site audits from the first 20 participants document environmental (physical, cognitive, social) and system level barriers, as well as effective strategies for promoting participation via environmental modification and systems level changes. A consumer-directed, Web-based tool for documenting participation barriers and sharing strategies is discussed.

  20. Foreign accent conversion in computer assisted pronunciation training

    PubMed Central

    Felps, Daniel; Bortfeld, Heather; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Learners of a second language practice their pronunciation by listening to and imitating utterances from native speakers. Recent research has shown that choosing a well-matched native speaker to imitate can have a positive impact on pronunciation training. Here we propose a voice-transformation technique that can be used to generate the (arguably) ideal voice to imitate: the own voice of the learner with a native accent. Our work extends previous research, which suggests that providing learners with prosodically corrected versions of their utterances can be a suitable form of feedback in computer assisted pronunciation training. Our technique provides a conversion of both prosodic and segmental characteristics by means of a pitch-synchronous decomposition of speech into glottal excitation and spectral envelope. We apply the technique to a corpus containing parallel recordings of foreign-accented and native-accented utterances, and validate the resulting accent conversions through a series of perceptual experiments. Our results indicate that the technique can reduce foreign accentedness without significantly altering the voice quality properties of the foreign speaker. Finally, we propose a pedagogical strategy for integrating accent conversion as a form of behavioral shaping in computer assisted pronunciation training. PMID:21124807

  1. A computer-assisted, interactive radiology learning program.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, H I; Fell, S; Myers, H J; Taylor, R C

    1990-08-01

    A computer-assisted adjunct to traditional radiology teaching files is described. The student is presented with an image and questions with multiple choice answers. The student's choice leads to additional presentations that reinforce correct responses and provide a critique of incorrect answers. The process is under the control of a teaching script. Requirements for the system included the ability to present high-resolution radiology images along with text; high capacity for storing teaching scripts and images; ease of use by students and authors of teaching scripts; and reasonable cost. A prototype program was written in C-language and run on an IBM PS/2 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) with DOS. The hardware also included a 30 megabyte disk drive, an IBM Image Adapter/A and a 14 inch IBM 8514 monitor operating at a 1024 X 768 X 8 bit resolution. Image acquisition was accomplished with a high resolution Pulnix video camera (Pulnix Corp., Tokyo, Japan), with an Imaging Technology (Imaging Technology Corp., Weston, MA) frame grabber, attached to an IBM PC/AT. All hardware is available commercially. A sample teaching file was constructed using a case of ischemic colon after a cecal volvulus. Students used the system and provided a critique. Results indicate that computer-assisted teaching programs can be a valuable addition to traditional teaching methods in radiology.

  2. Foreign accent conversion in computer assisted pronunciation training.

    PubMed

    Felps, Daniel; Bortfeld, Heather; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2009-10-01

    Learners of a second language practice their pronunciation by listening to and imitating utterances from native speakers. Recent research has shown that choosing a well-matched native speaker to imitate can have a positive impact on pronunciation training. Here we propose a voice-transformation technique that can be used to generate the (arguably) ideal voice to imitate: the own voice of the learner with a native accent. Our work extends previous research, which suggests that providing learners with prosodically corrected versions of their utterances can be a suitable form of feedback in computer assisted pronunciation training. Our technique provides a conversion of both prosodic and segmental characteristics by means of a pitch-synchronous decomposition of speech into glottal excitation and spectral envelope. We apply the technique to a corpus containing parallel recordings of foreign-accented and native-accented utterances, and validate the resulting accent conversions through a series of perceptual experiments. Our results indicate that the technique can reduce foreign accentedness without significantly altering the voice quality properties of the foreign speaker. Finally, we propose a pedagogical strategy for integrating accent conversion as a form of behavioral shaping in computer assisted pronunciation training.

  3. Economic motives to use a participatory design approach in the development of public-health information systems.

    PubMed

    Vimarlund, V; Eriksson, H; Timpka, T

    2001-01-01

    Within public health, there is a tradition of co-operation between researchers and communities in planning and implementation of health promotion programs. As a consequence, public-health organizations are characterized by having complex multidisciplinary structure and dynamic organizational goals. In this paper, we discuss the economic impacts from the use of Participatory Design for development of public-health information systems. Creation of systems that have both utility and usability is suggested to be highlighted as the central goal. The identified pre-requisites for a positive impact are that the new system should be of high quality, appropriate to the nature of the health promotion tasks, and to how activities are coordinated and integrated both between and within the stakeholder groups involved. We argue further that a method that minimizes the information asymmetry in the development process is necessary for avoiding market failures 1. The conclusion is that participatory design will diminish transaction costs, will help to avoid sunk costs, and will contribute to rich efficient use of human and economic resources in public-health organizations.

  4. A participatory approach to ecosystem conservation: fuzzy cognitive maps and stakeholder group analysis in Uluabat Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozesmi, Uygar; Ozesmi, Stacy

    2003-04-01

    Fuzzy cognitive mapping was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management plan for Uluabat Lake, Turkey. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders belonging to six different groups. Lake pollution was the most central and most mentioned variable for stakeholders. Stakeholder groups agree that lake pollution is negatively affecting ecosystem health and thereby local economies. Thus, reducing lake pollution was chosen as the overall goal for the management plan. Possible ways to reduce lake pollution and increase ecosystem health were seen differently by the different groups. Hunters, factory managers, NGO personnel, and local people thought industry was the main cause of lake pollution, while officials from the government and local municipalities thought roads and urban development contributed the most to lake pollution. Generally the stakeholder groups did not perceive their own actions as affecting the lake as strongly as other groups thought. For example, factory managers viewed factory pollution as negatively affecting the lake but less strongly than the other groups did. According to policy option simulations, reducing lake pollution had positive effects on all variables, especially fish, birds, animal husbandry, irrigation, agriculture, and the ecological balance of the lake. Results of this analysis were used to facilitate meetings among stakeholder groups and to develop a participatory ecosystem management plan. The analysis was useful for pointing out the similarities as well as the differences among the groups. It also helped the facilitators understand the focus of each stakeholder group and enabled them to suggest activities in which each group would want to participate.

  5. A participatory approach to the promotion of well-being in the workplace: lessons from empirical research.

    PubMed

    Munn-Giddings, C; Hart, C; Ramon, S

    2005-10-01

    Workplace stress and burnout are recognized phenomena which impact negatively on the delivery of care by health and social work organizations. In an attempt to address the negative consequences of stress in the workplace, a collaborative Participatory Action Research project (PAR), involving two large organizations, namely a Healthcare Trust and a Social Services Organization in the United Kingdom (England) was conducted. The project involved a team of professionals from Anglia Polytechnic University working with senior managers and employees of a health care organization and latterly with managers of a Social Services Organization (SSD) to develop a mental well-being strategy in each of these workplaces. This involved organizing and running of a series of five workshops in each of the two organizations and additionally surveys to determine the extent of the problem on staff and effects on their working and personal lives. An overview of the processes and reflective critique of the strengths and weaknesses of participatory action research methodology is provided. The short, medium and long-term strategies formulated by the active engagement of staff in the workshops, and the challenges in delivering and responding to these issues are carefully detailed. Recommendations are made for future collaborative work within hierarchical organizations and more importantly, the implications of delayed response to governmental policies.

  6. Moving from theory to practice: A participatory social network mapping approach to address unmet need for family planning in Benin.

    PubMed

    Igras, Susan; Diakité, Mariam; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2016-03-07

    In West Africa, social factors influence whether couples with unmet need for family planning act on birth-spacing desires. Tékponon Jikuagou is testing a social network-based intervention to reduce social barriers by diffusing new ideas. Individuals and groups judged socially influential by their communities provide entrée to networks. A participatory social network mapping methodology was designed to identify these diffusion actors. Analysis of monitoring data, in-depth interviews, and evaluation reports assessed the methodology's acceptability to communities and staff and whether it produced valid, reliable data to identify influential individuals and groups who diffuse new ideas through their networks. Results indicated the methodology's acceptability. Communities were actively and equitably engaged. Staff appreciated its ability to yield timely, actionable information. The mapping methodology also provided valid and reliable information by enabling communities to identify highly connected and influential network actors. Consistent with social network theory, this methodology resulted in the selection of informal groups and individuals in both informal and formal positions. In-depth interview data suggest these actors were diffusing new ideas, further confirming their influence/connectivity. The participatory methodology generated insider knowledge of who has social influence, challenging commonly held assumptions. Collecting and displaying information fostered staff and community learning, laying groundwork for social change.

  7. Development of a theory-guided pan-European computer-assisted safer sex intervention.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Borms, Ruth; Dec-Pietrowska, Joanna; Dias, Sonia; Rojas, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    HIV is a growing public health problem in Europe, with men-having-sex-with-men and migrants from endemic regions as the most affected key populations. More evidence on effective behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk is needed. This article describes the systematic development of a theory-guided computer-assisted safer sex intervention, aiming at supporting people living with HIV in sexual risk reduction. We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop this counseling intervention in the framework of a European multicenter study. We conducted a needs assessment guided by the information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills model, formulated change objectives and selected theory-based methods and practical strategies, i.e. interactive computer-assisted modules as supporting tools for provider-delivered counseling. Theoretical foundations were the IMB skills model, social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model, complemented by dual process models of affective decision making to account for the specifics of sexual behavior. The counseling approach for delivering three individual sessions was tailored to participants' needs and contexts, adopting elements of motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy. We implemented and evaluated the intervention using a randomized controlled trial combined with a process evaluation. IM provided a useful framework for developing a coherent intervention for heterogeneous target groups, which was feasible and effective across the culturally diverse settings. This article responds to the need for transparent descriptions of the development and content of evidence-based behavior change interventions as potential pillars of effective combination prevention strategies.

  8. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures. PMID:27127510

  9. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  10. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:26779486

  11. Computer-Assisted Detection of Infectious Lung Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges. PMID:21723090

  12. A Planning Guide to Computer-Assisted Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Michel; Perreault, Robert

    1983-01-01

    The ever lowering prices of microcomputers along with recent developments in display technology justify the exploitation of the computer as a support for public health education and health promotion. Although many experimental efforts are being conducted in this area, the focus has up to now remained on the technologies rather than on application planning, thereby limiting the access to these technologies to workers well versed in computer culture. The present paper analyses some of the implications related to the introduction of hitherto unavailable features in the planning of health promotion efforts. The impact of computer supported possibilities is examined and a model for program-planning is offered. An extension of existing conceptualizations in the field of health education, the model is designed as a tool to facilitate integration of computer-assisted media within the health planner's conceptual reach. A study presently being conducted by the authors is used as an operational illustration of how the model works.

  13. Computer-Assisted Resection and Reconstruction of Pelvic Tumor Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Paul, Laurent; Cartiaux, Olivier; Delloye, Christian; Banse, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Pelvic sarcoma is associated with a relatively poor prognosis, due to the difficulty in obtaining an adequate surgical margin given the complex pelvic anatomy. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography allow valuable surgical resection planning, but intraoperative localization remains hazardous. Surgical navigation systems could be of great benefit in surgical oncology, especially in difficult tumor location; however, no commercial surgical oncology software is currently available. A customized navigation software was developed and used to perform a synovial sarcoma resection and allograft reconstruction. The software permitted preoperative planning with defined target planes and intraoperative navigation with a free-hand saw blade. The allograft was cut according to the same planes. Histological examination revealed tumor-free resection margins. Allograft fitting to the pelvis of the patient was excellent and allowed stable osteosynthesis. We believe this to be the first case of combined computer-assisted tumor resection and reconstruction with an allograft. PMID:21127723

  14. Computer-assisted resection and reconstruction of pelvic tumor sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Paul, Laurent; Cartiaux, Olivier; Delloye, Christian; Banse, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Pelvic sarcoma is associated with a relatively poor prognosis, due to the difficulty in obtaining an adequate surgical margin given the complex pelvic anatomy. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography allow valuable surgical resection planning, but intraoperative localization remains hazardous. Surgical navigation systems could be of great benefit in surgical oncology, especially in difficult tumor location; however, no commercial surgical oncology software is currently available. A customized navigation software was developed and used to perform a synovial sarcoma resection and allograft reconstruction. The software permitted preoperative planning with defined target planes and intraoperative navigation with a free-hand saw blade. The allograft was cut according to the same planes. Histological examination revealed tumor-free resection margins. Allograft fitting to the pelvis of the patient was excellent and allowed stable osteosynthesis. We believe this to be the first case of combined computer-assisted tumor resection and reconstruction with an allograft.

  15. Evaluation of the Astronomy Workshop's Computer Assisted Learning Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, G. L.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2005-05-01

    The computer assisted learning tools at the Astronomy Workshop web site (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) have been available on the Internet since 1997. The site consists of 25 interactive tools designed primarily for undergraduate non-science majors. The site is popular with more than 87,000 hits to the main page since counting began in January 2000. A Google search for "collisions" lists one of the Astronomy Workshop's tools as its first item. We have begun a study of the impact of three of the tools on undergraduate learning as part of a NASA EPO grant. The first phase of our study involves student interviews, the results of which will be presented. We welcome feedback from the community. This work is funded by NASA EPO 04 410.

  16. Cartographic Modeling: Computer-assisted Analysis of Spatially Defined Neighborhoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic models addressing a wide variety of applications are composed of fundamental map processing operations. These primitive operations are neither data base nor application-specific. By organizing the set of operations into a mathematical-like structure, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling framework can be developed. Among the major classes of primitive operations are those associated with reclassifying map categories, overlaying maps, determining distance and connectivity, and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods. The conceptual framework of cartographic modeling is established and techniques for characterizing neighborhoods are used as a means of demonstrating some of the more sophisticated procedures of computer-assisted map analysis. A cartographic model for assessing effective roundwood supply is briefly described as an example of a computer analysis. Most of the techniques described have been implemented as part of the map analysis package developed at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

  17. Measuring coherence of computer-assisted likelihood ratio methods.

    PubMed

    Haraksim, Rudolf; Ramos, Daniel; Meuwly, Didier; Berger, Charles E H

    2015-04-01

    Measuring the performance of forensic evaluation methods that compute likelihood ratios (LRs) is relevant for both the development and the validation of such methods. A framework of performance characteristics categorized as primary and secondary is introduced in this study to help achieve such development and validation. Ground-truth labelled fingerprint data is used to assess the performance of an example likelihood ratio method in terms of those performance characteristics. Discrimination, calibration, and especially the coherence of this LR method are assessed as a function of the quantity and quality of the trace fingerprint specimen. Assessment of the coherence revealed a weakness of the comparison algorithm in the computer-assisted likelihood ratio method used.

  18. CAPA-An integrated computer-assisted personalized assignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashy, E.; Sherrill, B. M.; Tsai, Y.; Thaler, D.; Weinshank, D.; Engelmann, M.; Morrissey, D. J.

    1993-12-01

    A new integrated computer-assisted personalized assignment (CAPA) system that creates individual assignments for each student has been developed and found to be a powerful motivator. The CAPA system allows students to enter their answers to personalized assignments directly via networked terminals, gives immediate feedback and hints (allowing challenging questions), while providing the instructor with on-line performance information. The students are encouraged to study together which is known to be an effective learning strategy, but each must still obtain his/her own correct answers. Students are allowed to re-enter solutions to the problems before the due date without penalty, thus providing students with different skills levels the opportunity and incentive to understand the material without being judged during the learning process. The features and operation of the system are described, observations on its use in an introductory general physics class are reported, and some of the highly favorable student reactions are included.

  19. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined.

  20. A participatory approach to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool and the Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-01-01

    The electric powered wheelchair (EPW) is an indispensable assistive device that increases participation among individuals with disabilities. However, due to lack of standardized assessment tools, developing evidence based training protocols for EPW users to improve driving skills has been a challenge. In this study, we adopt the principles of participatory research and employ qualitative methods to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool (PMST) and Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment (PMCDA). Qualitative data from professional experts and expert EPW users who participated in a focus group and a discussion forum were used to establish content validity of the PMCDA and the PMST. These tools collectively could assess a user's current level of bodily function and their current EPW driving capacity. Further multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tests and develop EPW driving training protocols based on these assessment tools.

  1. A Participatory Approach to Develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool and the Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, Deepan C.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    The electric powered wheelchair (EPW) is an indispensable assistive device that increases participation among individuals with disabilities. However, due to lack of standardized assessment tools, developing evidence based training protocols for EPW users to improve driving skills has been a challenge. In this study, we adopt the principles of participatory research and employ qualitative methods to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool (PMST) and Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment (PMCDA). Qualitative data from professional experts and expert EPW users who participated in a focus group and a discussion forum were used to establish content validity of the PMCDA and the PMST. These tools collectively could assess a user's current level of bodily function and their current EPW driving capacity. Further multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tests and develop EPW driving training protocols based on these assessment tools. PMID:25276796

  2. Computer-assisted LAD bypass grafting at the open heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Christine; Gnahm, Claudia; Friedl, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Martin; Dietmayer, Klaus

    2009-02-01

    Open heart bypass surgery is the standard treatment in advanced coronary heart diseases. For an effective revascularization procedure, optimal placement of the bypass is very important. To accelerate the intraoperative localization of the anastomosis site and to increase the precision of the procedure, a concept for computer assistance in open heart bypass surgery has been developed comprising the following steps: 1. Preprocedural planning: A patient-specific coronary map with information on vessel paths and wall plaque formations is extracted from a multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). On this basis, the heart surgeon and the cardiac radiologist define the optimal anastomosis site prior to surgery. 2. Intraoperative navigation: During surgery, data are recorded at the beating heart using a stereo camera system. After registering the pre- and intraoperative data sets, preprocedural information can be transferred to the surgical site by overlaying the coronary map and the planned anastomosis site on the live video stream. With this visual guidance system, the surgeon can navigate to the planned anastomosis site. In this work, the proposed surgical assistance system has been validated for the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The accuracy of the registration mechanism has been evaluated in retrospective on patient data sets and the effects of breathing motion were quantified. The promising results of the retrospective evaluation led to the in-vivo application of the computer assistance system during several bypass grafting procedures. Intraoperative navigation has been performed successfully and postoperative evaluation confirms that the bypass grafts were accurately positioned to the preoperatively planned anastomosis sites.

  3. Stirring up the Mud: Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach to Address Health Disparities through a Faith-Based Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Sue A.; Ruddock, Charmaine; Golub, Maxine; Davis, Joyce; Foley, Robert; Devia, Carlos; Rosen, Rosa; Berry, Carolyn; Barretto, Brenda; Carter, Toni; Irish-Spencer, Evalina; Marchena, Maria; Purcaro, Ellenrita; Calman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This case study provides a mid-course assessment of the Bronx Health REACH faith-based initiative four years into its implementation. The study uses qualitative methods to identify lessons learned and to reflect on the benefits and challenges of using a community-based participatory approach for the development and evaluation of a faith-based program designed to address health disparities. Key findings concern the role of pastoral leadership, the importance of providing a religious context for health promotion and health equality messages, the challenges of creating a bilingual/bi-cultural program, and the need to provide management support to the lay program coordinators. The study also identifies lessons learned about community-based evaluation and the importance of addressing community concern about the balance between evaluation and program. Finally, the study identifies the challenges that lie ahead, including issues of program institution-alization and sustainability. PMID:20168022

  4. 'The stigma attached isn't true of real life': Challenging public perception of dementia through a participatory approach involving people with dementia (Innovative Practice).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Laura; Innes, Anthea; Poyner, Christopher; Hambidge, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential impact of viewing public performances of an orchestra comprising people with dementia, family members, student volunteers and professional symphony orchestra members in contributing to challenging negative perceptions of dementia. Negative perceptions of dementia abound despite recent policy attempts to challenge the stigma associated with the condition. This paper reports on the findings from the performance element of a music project for people with dementia, known as the BUDI Orchestra, designed to replicate the traditional rehearse and perform cycle of musicians. Data were collected via self-completion questionnaires from audience members ( N = 109) at three public performances. The performances exceeded the expectations of the general public, and findings suggest a positive impact on perceptions of dementia, demonstrating the power and potential of participatory approaches showcasing the achievements of those living with dementia when attempting to raise awareness of dementia and challenge negative perceptions.

  5. Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Estevez, Diego; Moret-Bonillo, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Automatic diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) has become an important area of research due to the growing interest in the field of sleep medicine and the costs associated with its manual diagnosis. The increment and heterogeneity of the different techniques, however, make it somewhat difficult to adequately follow the recent developments. A literature review within the area of computer-assisted diagnosis of SAHS has been performed comprising the last 15 years of research in the field. Screening approaches, methods for the detection and classification of respiratory events, comprehensive diagnostic systems, and an outline of current commercial approaches are reviewed. An overview of the different methods is presented together with validation analysis and critical discussion of the current state of the art. PMID:26266052

  6. Computer-assisted mechanistic structure-activity studies: application to diverse classes of chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Loew, G H; Poulsen, M; Kirkjian, E; Ferrell, J; Sudhindra, B S; Rebagliati, M

    1985-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we have indicated how the techniques and capabilities of theoretical chemistry, together with experimental results, can be used in a mechanistic approach to structure-activity studies of toxicity. In the second part, we have illustrated how this computer-assisted approach has been used to identify and calculate causally related molecular indicators of relative carcinogenic activity in five classes of chemical carcinogens: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their methyl derivatives, aromatic amines, chloroethanes, chloroalkenes and dialkyl nitrosamines. In each class of chemicals studied, candidate molecular indicators have been identified that could be useful in predictive screening of unknown compounds. In addition, further insights into some mechanistic aspects of chemical carcinogenesis have been obtained. Finally, experiments have been suggested to both verify the usefulness of the indicators and test their mechanistic implications. PMID:3905382

  7. At the Crossroads of Learning and Culture: Identifying a Construct for Effective Computer-Assisted Language Learning for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Many of the commercial Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programs available today typically take a generic approach. This approach standardizes the program so that it can be used to teach any language merely by translating the content from one language to another. These CALL programs rarely consider the cultural background or preferred…

  8. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    the problem-solving task, utilizing the computer to record their decisions and give feedback on the consequences. Students initially had to decide...Computer-Assisted Cooperative, Competitive, And Individualistic Learning Computer-assisted instruction brings with it the possibility that student ...The assumption that learning works best when one student works with one computer remains largely unquestioned. The possible use of computer-assisted

  9. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  10. The Application of Web-based Computer-assisted Instruction Courseware within Health Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiuyan, Guo

    Health assessment is a clinical nursing course and places emphasis on clinical skills. The application of computer-assisted instruction in the field of nursing teaching solved the problems in the traditional lecture class. This article stated teaching experience of web-based computer-assisted instruction, based upon a two-year study of computer-assisted instruction courseware use within the course health assessment. The computer-assisted instruction courseware could develop teaching structure, simulate clinical situations, create teaching situations and facilitate students study.

  11. Understanding the collaborative-participatory design.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Cristiele A; Heemann, Adriano; Padovani, Stephania

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the role of collaboration in design is discussed, placing emphasis on how to include end-users in the development process. The study is based on a literature review focusing on aspects of collaboration in design, usability and human factors. Thereby, it introduces, compares and contrasts the characteristics of both collaborative and user-centered design perspectives, leading to the collaborative-participatory design approach. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and precautions of implementing collaborative and participatory models are pointed out.

  12. Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1997-04-03

    This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

  13. A RFID specific participatory design approach to support design and implementation of real-time location systems in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Guédon, A C P; Wauben, L S G L; de Korne, D F; Overvelde, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

    2015-01-01

    Information technology, such as real-time location (RTL) systems using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) may contribute to overcome patient safety issues and high costs in healthcare. The aim of this work is to study if a RFID specific Participatory Design (PD) approach supports the design and the implementation of RTL systems in the Operating Room (OR). A RFID specific PD approach was used to design and implement two RFID based modules. The Device Module monitors the safety status of OR devices and the Patient Module tracks the patients' locations during their hospital stay. The PD principles 'multidisciplinary team', 'participation users (active involvement)' and 'early adopters' were used to include users from the RFID company, the university and the hospital. The design and implementation process consisted of two 'structured cycles' ('iterations'). The effectiveness of this approach was assessed by the acceptance in terms of level of use, continuity of the project and purchase. The Device Module included eight strategic and twelve tactical actions and the Patient Module included six strategic and twelve tactical actions. Both modules are now used on a daily basis and are purchased by the hospitals for continued use. The RFID specific PD approach was effective in guiding and supporting the design and implementation process of RFID technology in the OR. The multidisciplinary teams and their active participation provided insights in the social and the organizational context of the hospitals making it possible to better fit the technology to the hospitals' (future) needs.

  14. Computer-Assisted Synthetic Planning: The End of the Beginning.

    PubMed

    Szymkuć, Sara; Gajewska, Ewa P; Klucznik, Tomasz; Molga, Karol; Dittwald, Piotr; Startek, Michał; Bajczyk, Michał; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-05-10

    Exactly half a century has passed since the launch of the first documented research project (1965 Dendral) on computer-assisted organic synthesis. Many more programs were created in the 1970s and 1980s but the enthusiasm of these pioneering days had largely dissipated by the 2000s, and the challenge of teaching the computer how to plan organic syntheses earned itself the reputation of a "mission impossible". This is quite curious given that, in the meantime, computers have "learned" many other skills that had been considered exclusive domains of human intellect and creativity-for example, machines can nowadays play chess better than human world champions and they can compose classical music pleasant to the human ear. Although there have been no similar feats in organic synthesis, this Review argues that to concede defeat would be premature. Indeed, bringing together the combination of modern computational power and algorithms from graph/network theory, chemical rules (with full stereo- and regiochemistry) coded in appropriate formats, and the elements of quantum mechanics, the machine can finally be "taught" how to plan syntheses of non-trivial organic molecules in a matter of seconds to minutes. The Review begins with an overview of some basic theoretical concepts essential for the big-data analysis of chemical syntheses. It progresses to the problem of optimizing pathways involving known reactions. It culminates with discussion of algorithms that allow for a completely de novo and fully automated design of syntheses leading to relatively complex targets, including those that have not been made before. Of course, there are still things to be improved, but computers are finally becoming relevant and helpful to the practice of organic-synthetic planning. Paraphrasing Churchill's famous words after the Allies' first major victory over the Axis forces in Africa, it is not the end, it is not even the beginning of the end, but it is the end of the beginning for the

  15. Community-Based Participatory Research Approach to Evidence-Based Research: Lessons From the Pacific Islander American Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Panapasa, Sela; Jackson, James; Caldwell, Cleopatra; Heeringa, Steve; McNally, James; Williams, David; Coral, Debra; Taumoepeau, Leafa; Young, Louisa; Young, Setafano; Fa'asisila, Saia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Reports on the challenges and lessons learned from the Pacific Island American Health Study engagement with community-based organizations (CBOs) and faith-based organizations (FBOs) in Pacific Islander (PI) communities and mechanisms to facilitate the collection of robust data. Methods Academic–community partnership building was achieved with PI CBOs and FBOs. Focus group meetings were organized to plan various aspects of the study, develop questionnaire themes and protocols for survey, assist with the interviewer recruitment process, and strategize data dissemination plan. Lessons Learned The PIA-HS represents a model for overcoming challenges in data collection among small understudied populations. FBOs represent a valuable resource for community-based participatory research (CBPR) data collection and for effective interventions. Conclusion The study methodology can be replicated for other racial/ethnic groups with high levels of religiosity combined with concentrated levels of residential clustering. Expansion of the Pacific Islander American Health Study (PIA-HS) to include other PI subgroups is encouraged. PMID:22643788

  16. Participatory advocacy: a counter to media imperialism.

    PubMed

    Brown, M

    1996-01-01

    Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge.

  17. State of the art in computer-assisted planning, intervention, and assessment of liver-tumor ablation.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Christian; Rieder, Christian; Bieberstein, Jennifer; Weihusen, Andreas; Zidowitz, Stephan; Moltz, Jan Hendrik; Preusser, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Percutaneous, image-guided thermal tumor ablation procedures are used increasingly for minimally invasive, local treatment of tumors in the liver. The planning of these procedures; the support of targeting, monitoring, and controlling during the intervention itself; and the assessment of the treatment response can all benefit significantly from computer assistance. The outcome can be optimized by supporting the physician in the process of determining an intervention strategy that enables complete destruction of the targeted tumor while reducing the danger of complications. During the intervention, computer-assisted methods can be used to guide the physician in the implementation of the intended strategy by providing planning information. Assessment of the intervention result is carried out by comparison of the achieved coagulation with the target tumor volume. Supporting this comparison facilitates the early detection of potential recurrences. This report provides an overview of state-of-the-art computer-assisted methods for the support of thermal tumor ablations in the liver. Proper approaches for image segmentation, access-path determination, simulation, visualization, interventional guidance, and post-interventional assessment, as well as integrated work flow-oriented solutions, are reviewed with respect to technical aspects and applicability in the clinical setting.

  18. Computer-assisted reproductive surgery: microsurgery for the digital age.

    PubMed

    Choussein, S; Srouji, S S; Lipskind, S T; Gargiulo, A R

    2014-02-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the field of medically assisted reproduction, minimally invasive surgery remains of vital importance in optimizing and preserving fertility, as well as treating infertility. By definition, reproductive surgery employs microsurgical techniques with the objective of restoring natural fertility or enhancing assisted reproductive technologies. The avant-garde minimalist philosophy of this branch of gynecology has made it the natural trailblazer of laparoscopic surgery. Minimally invasive conservative treatment of uterine, tubal, ovarian and peritoneal pathology has long been the gold standard for women of reproductive age and those seeking fertility preservation. Robust surgical outcome data acknowledge clear advantages of advanced laparoscopic surgery over laparotomy. However, this comes at the cost of significant technical challenges. Computer-assisted laparoscopy, also known as robotic surgery, is posed to address the practical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery and bridge this technical gap. This enabling technology is a conceptual fusion of the practicality of conventional open surgery and the minimally invasive nature of laparoscopic surgery. With this comes the promise of simplifying complex minimally invasive fertility-sparing procedures so that they can be performed in a safe and reproducible manner by reproductive specialists.

  19. Computer-assisted diagnosis of chest radiographs for pneumoconioses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliz, Peter; Pattichis, Marios S.; Ramachandran, Janakiramanan; James, David S.

    2001-07-01

    A Computer-assisted Chest Radiograph Reader System (CARRS) was developed for the detection of pathological features in lungs presenting with pneumoconioses. CARRS applies novel techniques in automatic image segmentation, incorporates neural network-based pattern classification, and integrates these into a graphical user interface. The three aspects of CARRS are described: Chest radiograph digitization and display, rib and parenchyma characterization, and classification. The quantization of the chest radiograph film was optimized to maximize the information content of the digital images. Entropy was used as the benchmark for optimizing the quantization. From the rib-segmented images, regions of interest were selected by the pulmonologist. A feature vector composed of image characteristics such as entropy, textural statistics, etc. was calculated. A laterally primed adaptive resonance theory (LAPART) neural network was used as the classifier. LAPART classification accuracy averaged 86.8 %. Truth was determined by the two pulmonologists. The CARRS has demonstrated potential as a screening device. Today, 90% or more of the chest radiographs seen by the pulmonologist are normal. A computer-based system that can screen 50% or more of the chest radiographs represents a large savings in time and dollars.

  20. Computer-assisted ultrasonic tissue characterization of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Reinhard; Lieback, Evelin; Hetzer, Roland

    2000-04-01

    In ultrasonic tissue characterization the small reflections originating from the scattering structures inside the tissue are analyzed. To obtain diagnostic performance for tissue characterization by means of analysis of echocardiographic images we use methods of mathematical texture analysis. We investigate whether myocardial changes effect the texture of ultrasonic images and if this could be described using quantitative texture analysis. The texture analysis was computed in a single window of an ultrasound image/sequence covering the inner myocardial septum. Parameters from gray level histogram, co-occurrence matrices, run length statistics and run difference, from power spectrum and fractal dimensions were investigated to provide satisfying and generalizable results for classification of the myocardium. A set of parameters that could discriminate between normal and pathological myocardium were extracted. The results of 142 biopsies were compared with those of texture analysis in echocardiograms of 106 patients suspected having myocarditis. Using the reduced set of parameters the best sensitivity was 89.0% and the specificity was 83.6%. Myocarditis is associated with echocardiographic texture alteration. Texture analysis with methods of digital image processing can reliably identify myocarditis. A suitable solution for a computer-assisted non- invasive support for the diagnosis and detection of myocarditis was found.

  1. Complex radius shaft malunion: osteotomy with computer-assisted planning.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Andreas; Fürnstahl, Philipp; Harders, Matthias; Székely, Gábor; Nagy, Ladislav

    2010-06-01

    We report about two cases with a combined axial and angular malunion of the radius shaft with functional loss of pro-supination. For the preoperative planning, a computer simulation was developed that allows the quantification of the malunion by comparing the 3-d surface model of the impaired bone with the contralateral anatomy. The proximal parts of the left and right radii are superimposed, while the different positions of the distal parts are used to quantify the malunion. This task is performed fully automatically which reduces the overall planning time. The osteotomies were performed according to the results of the computer-aided planning. The first case showed 1 year postoperatively an increase of pronation from 40° to 70° at expense of supination from 95° to 90°. The patient was practically pain-free and reported functional improvement. The second case showed 6 months postoperatively an improvement of supination from 15° to 40° and of pronation from 50° to 60°. The computer-assisted operation planning facilitated the quantification of combined axial and angular malunions which were difficult to detect on plain radiographs.

  2. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming

    2017-01-01

    Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  3. Computer-Assisted Transgenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans for Deep Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Gilleland, Cody L; Falls, Adam T; Noraky, James; Heiman, Maxwell G; Yanik, Mehmet F

    2015-09-01

    A major goal in the study of human diseases is to assign functions to genes or genetic variants. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful tool because homologs of many human genes are identifiable, and large collections of genetic vectors and mutant strains are available. However, the delivery of such vector libraries into mutant strains remains a long-standing experimental bottleneck for phenotypic analysis. Here, we present a computer-assisted microinjection platform to streamline the production of transgenic C. elegans with multiple vectors for deep phenotyping. Briefly, animals are immobilized in a temperature-sensitive hydrogel using a standard multiwell platform. Microinjections are then performed under control of an automated microscope using precision robotics driven by customized computer vision algorithms. We demonstrate utility by phenotyping the morphology of 12 neuronal classes in six mutant backgrounds using combinations of neuron-type-specific fluorescent reporters. This technology can industrialize the assignment of in vivo gene function by enabling large-scale transgenic engineering.

  4. Computer-assisted diagnostic decision support: history, challenges, and possible paths forward.

    PubMed

    Miller, Randolph A

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References indicate the original sources of many of these ideas.

  5. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Program for Exercises on Finding Axioms. Technical Report Number 186.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele; Suppes, Patrick

    An interactive computer-assisted system for teaching elementary logic is described, which was designed to handle formalizations of first-order theories suitable for presentation in a computer-assisted instruction environment. The system provides tools with which the user can develop and then study a nonlogical axiomatic theory along whatever lines…

  6. Computer-Assisted Assessment in Higher Education. Staff and Educational Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Race, Phil, Ed.; Bull, Joanna, Ed.

    This book profiles how computer-assisted assessment can help both staff and students by drawing on the experience and expertise of practitioners, in the United Kingdom and internationally, who are already using computer-assisted assessment. The publication is organized into three main sections--"Pragmatics and Practicalities of CAA,""Using CAA for…

  7. Promoting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Chemistry Students Using Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka A.; Gbodi, Bimpe E.; Olakanmi, Eyitao U.; Abalaka, Eneojo N.

    2016-01-01

    The role of computer-assisted instruction in promoting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among Nigerian secondary school chemistry students was investigated in this study. The study employed two modes of computer-assisted instruction (computer simulation instruction and computer tutorial instructional packages) and two levels of gender (male and…

  8. Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Decision Support: History, Challenges, and Possible Paths Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References…

  9. Applications of NLP Techniques to Computer-Assisted Authoring of Test Items for Elementary Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin; Lin, Jen-Hsiang; Wang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The authors report an implemented environment for computer-assisted authoring of test items and provide a brief discussion about the applications of NLP techniques for computer assisted language learning. Test items can serve as a tool for language learners to examine their competence in the target language. The authors apply techniques for…

  10. A Model for Integrating Computer-Assisted Instruction Materials into the Music Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placek, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the design structure of total programs in computer assisted music instruction and presents a model for integrating computer assisted instruction materials into the music curriculum. Listed are objectives and their relevant behaviors for use in a CAI course of study in music education. (Author)

  11. A Meta Analysis on the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction: Turkey Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camnalbur, Mucahit; Erdogan, Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    Studies focusing on the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction have been growing recently in Turkey. In this research, quantitative studies comparing the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction to traditional teaching method and conducted between 1998 and 2007 are studied by meta analysis. Seventy eight studies that have eligible…

  12. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  13. Personalized Computer-Assisted Mathematics Problem-Solving Program and Its Impact on Taiwanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chiu-Jung; Liu, Pei-Lin

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a personalized computer-assisted mathematics problem-solving program on the performance and attitude of Taiwanese fourth grade students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the personalized computer-assisted program improved student performance and attitude over the nonpersonalized program.…

  14. Adaptive Computer-Assisted Mammography Training for Improved Breast Cancer Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    11-1-0755 TITLE: Adaptive Computer-Assisted Mammography Training for Improved Breast Cancer Screening PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Maciej...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Adaptive Computer-Assisted Mammography Training for Improved Breast Cancer Screening 5b. GRANT...propose to research the methodology for constructing adaptive computer-aided education systems for mammography . Improved mammography education could

  15. Middle School Teachers' Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Reading Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Kelli; Harmon, Janis

    2017-01-01

    Middle schools often turn to computer-assisted reading intervention programs to improve student reading. The questions guiding this study are (a) in what ways are computer-assisted reading intervention programs utilized, and (b) what are teachers' perceptions about these intervention programs? Nineteen secondary reading teachers were interviewed…

  16. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Teaching on Remedying Misconceptions: The Case of the Subject "Probability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuz, Ramazan; Birgin, Osman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of computer-assisted teaching (CAT) on remedying misconceptions students often have regarding some probability concepts in mathematics. Toward this aim, computer-assisted teaching materials were developed and used in the process of teaching. Within the true-experimental research method, a pre- and…

  17. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  18. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  19. Effect Sizes Associated with Micro-PROLOG-Based Computer-Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Teh, George P. L.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of effect sizes in computer-assisted learning research focuses on a study conducted in Singapore high school geography classes that used micro-PROLOG to determine the efficacy of computer-assisted learning. Topics include impact on achievement, student attitudes, and classroom environment. (53 references) (LRW)

  20. Highline Public Schools Computer-Assisted Instruction Project: A Program to Meet Disadvantaged Students' Individual Needs for Basic Skill Development: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maser, Arthur L.; And Others

    This description of a computer-assisted instruction project, which provides an alternative approach to individual instruction in basic skills for economically and educationally disadvantaged students at the secondary level, includes the results of evaluations conducted at the end of each of three school years. Instruction in priority…

  1. Interactive computer-assisted instruction in acid-base physiology for mobile computer platforms.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ∼20 screens of information, on the subjects of the CO2-bicarbonate buffer system, other body buffer systems, and acid-base disorders. Five clinical case modules were also developed. For the learning modules, the interactive, active learning activities were primarily step-by-step learner control of explanations of complex physiological concepts, usually presented graphically. For the clinical cases, the active learning activities were primarily question-and-answer exercises that related clinical findings to the relevant basic science concepts. The student response was remarkably positive, with the interactive, active learning aspect of the instruction cited as the most important feature. Also, students cited the self-paced instruction, extensive use of interactive graphics, and side-by-side presentation of text and graphics as positive features. Most students reported that it took less time to study the subject matter with this online instruction compared with subject matter presented in the lecture hall. However, the approach to learning was highly examination driven, with most students delaying the study of the subject matter until a few days before the scheduled examination. Wider implementation of active learning computer-assisted instruction will require that instructors present subject matter interactively, that students fully embrace the responsibilities of independent learning, and that institutional administrations measure instructional effort by criteria other than scheduled hours of instruction.

  2. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Habas, Piotr A.; Zurada, Jacek M.; Elmaghraby, Adel S.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2007-02-15

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  3. Accuracy of computer-assisted implant placement with insertion templates

    PubMed Central

    Naziri, Eleni; Schramm, Alexander; Wilde, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted implant insertion based on computed tomography and template-guided implant placement. Material and methods: A total of 246 implants were placed with the aid of 3D-based transfer templates in 181 consecutive partially edentulous patients. Five groups were formed on the basis of different implant systems, surgical protocols and guide sleeves. After virtual implant planning with the CoDiagnostiX Software, surgical guides were fabricated in a dental laboratory. After implant insertion, the actual implant position was registered intraoperatively and transferred to a model cast. Deviations between the preoperative plan and postoperative implant position were measured in a follow-up computed tomography of the patient’s model casts and image fusion with the preoperative computed tomography. Results: The median deviation between preoperative plan and postoperative implant position was 1.0 mm at the implant shoulder and 1.4 mm at the implant apex. The median angular deviation was 3.6º. There were significantly smaller angular deviations (P=0.000) and significantly lower deviations at the apex (P=0.008) in implants placed for a single-tooth restoration than in those placed at a free-end dental arch. The location of the implant, whether in the upper or lower jaw, did not significantly affect deviations. Increasing implant length had a significant negative influence on deviations from the planned implant position. There was only one significant difference between two out of the five implant systems used. Conclusion: The data of this clinical study demonstrate the accuracy and predictable implant placement when using laboratory-fabricated surgical guides based on computed tomography. PMID:27274440

  4. A Hybrid Segmentation Framework for Computer-Assisted Dental Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosntalab, Mohammad; Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Reza; Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard, Ali; Shirani, Gholamreza; Reza Asharif, Mohammad

    Teeth segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images is a major and challenging task for various computer assisted procedures. In this paper, we introduced a hybrid method for quantification of teeth in CT volumetric dataset inspired by our previous experiences and anatomical knowledge of teeth and jaws. In this regard, we propose a novel segmentation technique using an adaptive thresholding, morphological operations, panoramic re-sampling and variational level set algorithm. The proposed method consists of several steps as follows: first, we determine the operation region in CT slices. Second, the bony tissues are separated from other tissues by utilizing an adaptive thresholding technique based on the 3D pulses coupled neural networks (PCNN). Third, teeth tissue is classified from other bony tissues by employing panorex lines and anatomical knowledge of teeth in the jaws. In this case, the panorex lines are estimated using Otsu thresholding and mathematical morphology operators. Then, the proposed method is followed by calculating the orthogonal lines corresponding to panorex lines and panoramic re-sampling of the dataset. Separation of upper and lower jaws and initial segmentation of teeth are performed by employing the integral projections of the panoramic dataset. Based the above mentioned procedures an initial mask for each tooth is obtained. Finally, we utilize the initial mask of teeth and apply a variational level set to refine initial teeth boundaries to final contour. In the last step a surface rendering algorithm known as marching cubes (MC) is applied to volumetric visualization. The proposed algorithm was evaluated in the presence of 30 cases. Segmented images were compared with manually outlined contours. We compared the performance of segmentation method using ROC analysis of the thresholding, watershed and our previous works. The proposed method performed best. Also, our algorithm has the advantage of high speed compared to our previous works.

  5. Revisiting cognitive and learning styles in computer-assisted instruction: not so useful after all.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A

    2012-06-01

    In a previous systematic review, the author proposed that adaptation to learners' cognitive and learning styles (CLSs) could improve the efficiency of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). In the present article, he questions that proposition, arguing that CLSs do not make a substantive difference in CAI. To support this argument, the author performed an updated systematic literature search, pooled new findings with those from the previous review, and reinterpreted this evidence with a focus on aptitude-treatment interactions. (An aptitude-treatment interaction occurs when a student with attribute 1 learns better with instructional approach A than with approach B, whereas a student with attribute 2 learns better with instructional approach B).Of 65 analyses reported in 48 studies, only 9 analyses (14%) showed significant interactions between CLS and instructional approach. It seems that aptitude-treatment interactions with CLSs are at best infrequent and small in magnitude. There are several possible explanations for this lack of effect. First, the influence of strong instructional methods likely dominates the impact of CLSs. Second, current methods for assessing CLSs lack validity evidence and are inadequate to accurately characterize the individual learner. Third, theories are vague, and empiric evidence is virtually nonexistent to guide the planning of style-targeted instructional designs. Adaptation to learners' CLSs thus seems unlikely to enhance CAI. The author recommends that educators focus on employing strong instructional methods. Educators might also consider assessing and adapting to learners' prior knowledge or allowing learners to select among alternate instructional approaches.

  6. An In-Depth Examination of Perceptions of Physical Activity in Regularly Active and Insufficiently Active Older African American Women: A Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research and programmatic efforts to alleviate racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity (PA), disparities in PA among older minorities and major racial ethnic groups persist. This study explored perceptions of PA among regularly active (RA) and insufficiently active (IA) older African American women (AAW) and the factors that influence (positively and negatively) their physical participation in their socio-cultural environment. A total of 20 AAW aged 60 to 80 years participated in a cross-sectional mixed-methods study (i.e., qualitative and quantitative) employing participatory research approaches (i.e., photoelicitation) along with an objective assessment of PA. Nine women were considered RA and 11 IA according to current PA recommendations. RA and IA women held two major beliefs about the nature of PA (i.e., PA as a broadly defined construct that goes beyond traditional exercise routines; and PA and exercise are synonymous and can be used interchangeably) and had a good understanding of its benefits. Participants in both groups did not know about the importance of PA intensity for health benefits. Barriers and facilitator of PA were found to be similar among RA and IA participants. Special attention should be paid to providing access to no or low cost opportunities for PA participation in safe environments. PMID:26554842

  7. Issues in Teaching Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicoll, Paule

    1999-01-01

    Discusses participatory action research, a methodology incorporating subjects in the research and indexing results to transformation in the lives of those involved. The approach is gaining momentum and recognition in academic circles but is often limited to specialized training centers. Two years of experience teaching this approach in social work…

  8. Measurement Performance of a Computer Assisted Vertebral Motion Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Reginald J.; Lee, David C.; Cheng, Boyle

    2015-01-01

    Background Segmental instability of the lumbar spine is a significant cost within the US health care system; however current thresholds for indication of radiographic instability are not well defined. Purpose To determine the performance measurements of sagittal lumbar intervertebral measurements using computerassisted measurements of the lumbar spine using motion sequences from a video-fluoroscopic technique. Study design Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, prevalence, and test-retest reliability evaluation of digitized manual versus computer-assisted measurements of the lumbar spine. Patient sample A total of 2239 intervertebral levels from 509 symptomatic patients, and 287 intervertebral levels from 73 asymptomatic participants were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome measures Specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy, and prevalence between the two measurement techniques; Measurements of Coefficient of repeatability (CR), limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; type 3,1), and standard error of measurement for both measurement techniques. Methods Asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients were all evaluated using both the Vertebral Motion Analysis (VMA) system and fluoroscopic flexion extension static radiographs (FE). The analysis was compared to known thresholds of 15% intervertebral translation (IVT, equivalent to 5.3mm assuming a 35mm vertebral body depth) and 25° intervertebral rotation (IVR). Results The VMA measurements demonstrated greater specificity, % change in sensitivity, NPV, prevalence, and reliability compared with FE for radiographic evidence of instability. Specificity was 99.4% and 99.1% in the VMA compared to 98.3% and 98.2% in the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. Sensitivity in this study was 41.2% and 44.6% greater in the VMA compared to the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. NPV was 91% and 88% in the VMA compared to 62% and 66% in the FE for IVR and IVT

  9. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    PubMed

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in <2 minutes, store information for ≥ 30 frames and provide summary data for each spermatozoon and the population. A few systems evaluate sperm morphology concurrent with motion. CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible

  10. Computer-Assisted Handwriting Analysis: Interaction with Legal Issues in U.S. Courts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Kenneth A.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Advances in the development of computer-assisted handwriting analysis have led to the consideration of a computational system by courts in the United States. Computer-assisted handwriting analysis has been introduced in the context of Frye or Daubert hearings conducted to determine the admissibility of handwriting testimony by questioned document examiners, as expert witnesses, in civil and criminal proceedings. This paper provides a comparison of scientific and judicial methods, and examines concerns over reliability of handwriting analysis expressed in judicial decisions. Recently, the National Research Council assessed that “the scientific basis for handwriting comparisons needs to be strengthened”. Recent studies involving computer-assisted handwriting analysis are reviewed in light of the concerns expressed by the judiciary and National Research Council. A future potential role for computer-assisted handwriting analysis in the courts is identified.

  11. What's New in Software? Current Sources of Information Boost Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Nancy J.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews current resources on computer-assisted instruction. Included are sources of software and hardware evaluations, advances in current technology, research, an information hotline, and inventories of available technological assistance. (DB)

  12. Application of Computer-Assisted Learning Methods in the Teaching of Chemical Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscough, P. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the application of computer-assisted learning methods to the interpretation of infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectra; and outlines extensions into the area of integrated spectroscopy. (Author/CMV)

  13. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Technical Education: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaakub, Mohammad Naim; Finch, Curtis R.

    2001-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 21 studies compared the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with traditional instruction. Results showed that CAI focusing on higher-order learning in technical education was more effective. (Contains 38 references.) (JOW)

  14. Evaluation of a Computer-Assisted Dental Diagnostic System by Navy Hospital Corpsmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-23

    computer-assisted dental program valuable to the diagnosis and management of patients with dental pain . They would use the dental program in their...A computer-assisted dental program to assist independent duty corpsmen in the diagnosis and management of patients who are present at sea with dental ... pain produced diagnosis which were exact or logically consistent with the diagnosis made by the dentists 83% of the time. The corpsmen found the

  15. [Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using a computer-assisted techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X

    2017-02-18

    The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate

  16. Computer-Assisted Instruction and the Teaching of Mathematics. Proceedings of a National Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction (The Pennsylvania State University, September 24-26, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimer, Ralph T., Ed.

    The preface to this book notes the relationship of its contents to the 1968 conference "to appraise mathematics educators of the present status and future prospects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and its implications for the teaching of mathematics." The introduction, "Computers in Mathematics and Other Education," was the keynote address…

  17. Learner/Machine Interaction in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Report of the IEC/CILT Computer-Assisted Language Learning Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric, Comp.

    The proceedings of a conference on learner-machine interaction in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include the texts of four papers, descriptions of program demonstrations and talks given by participants, a report on the plenary session by Eric Brown, information sources about CALL, a comment on the workshop by Leslie Churchman, a review…

  18. Computer-assisted analysis of the structure of regular branched polysaccharides containing 2,3-disubstituted rhamnopyranose and mannopyranose residues on the basis of 13C NMR data.

    PubMed

    Lipkind, G M; Shashkov, A S; Nifant'ev, N E; Kochetkov, N K

    1992-12-31

    A computer-assisted approach to the analysis of the structure of branched polysaccharides that contain 2,3-di-O-glycosylated alpha-rhamnopyranose and alpha-mannopyranose residues is based on evaluation of the 13C NMR spectra, using glycosylation effects and their deviations from additivity (delta delta values) at the branch points. This approach, in combination with monosaccharide and methylation analysis data, has been verified on a series of bacterial polysaccharides of known structure.

  19. Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Holkup, Patricia A.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Salois, Emily Matt; Weinert, Clarann

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also suggest criteria that will enable evaluation of the project. PMID:15455579

  20. Insights and participatory actions driven by a socio-hydrogeological approach for groundwater management: the Grombalia Basin case study (Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringali, C.; Re, V.; Siciliano, G.; Chkir, N.; Tuci, C.; Zouari, K.

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable groundwater management strategies in water-scarce countries need to guide future decision-making processes pragmatically, by simultaneously considering local needs, environmental problems and economic development. The socio-hydrogeological approach named `Bir Al-Nas' has been tested in the Grombalia region (Cap Bon Peninsula, Tunisia), to evaluate the effectiveness of complementing hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations with the social dimension of the issue at stake (which, in this case, is the identification of groundwater pollution sources). Within this approach, the social appraisal, performed through social network analysis and public engagement of water end-users, allowed hydrogeologists to get acquainted with the institutional dimension of local groundwater management, identifying issues, potential gaps (such as weak knowledge transfer among concerned stakeholders), and the key actors likely to support the implementation of the new science-based management practices resulting from the ongoing hydrogeological investigation. Results, hence, go beyond the specific relevance for the Grombaila basin, showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the importance of including social assessment in any given hydrogeological research aimed at supporting local development through groundwater protection measures.

  1. Involving service users in intervention design: a participatory approach to developing a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christabel; Farrand, Paul; Darvill, Ruth; Emmens, Tobit; Hewis, Elaine; Aitken, Peter

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To engage a group of people with relevant lived experience in the development of a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm. BACKGROUND Contact-based interventions, such as follow-up letters, postcards and telephone calls, have shown potential to reduce repetition of self-harm in those who present at Accident and Emergency departments. Text messaging offers a low-cost alternative that has not been tested. We set out to develop a text-based intervention. The process of intervention development is rarely reported and little is known about the impact of service user involvement on intervention design. METHOD We held a series of six participatory workshops and invited service users and clinicians to help us work out how to get the right message to the right person at the right time, and to simulate and test prototypes of an intervention. RESULTS Service users rejected both the idea of a generic, 'one size fits all' approach and that of 'audience segmentation', maintaining that text messages could be safe and effective only if individualized. This led us to abandon our original thinking and develop a way of supporting individuals to author their own self-efficacy messages and store them in a personal message bank for withdrawal at times of crisis. CONCLUSIONS This paper highlights both the challenge and the impact of involving consumers at the development stage. Working with those with lived experience requires openness, flexibility and a readiness to abandon or radically revise initial plans, and may have unexpected consequences for intervention design.

  2. Involving service users in intervention design: a participatory approach to developing a text‐messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self‐harm

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christabel; Farrand, Paul; Darvill, Ruth; Emmens, Tobit; Hewis, Elaine; Aitken, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To engage a group of people with relevant lived experience in the development of a text‐messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self‐harm. Background  Contact‐based interventions, such as follow‐up letters, postcards and telephone calls, have shown potential to reduce repetition of self‐harm in those who present at Accident and Emergency departments. Text messaging offers a low‐cost alternative that has not been tested. We set out to develop a text‐based intervention. The process of intervention development is rarely reported and little is known about the impact of service user involvement on intervention design. Method  We held a series of six participatory workshops and invited service users and clinicians to help us work out how to get the right message to the right person at the right time, and to simulate and test prototypes of an intervention. Results  Service users rejected both the idea of a generic, ‘one size fits all’ approach and that of ‘audience segmentation’, maintaining that text messages could be safe and effective only if individualized. This led us to abandon our original thinking and develop a way of supporting individuals to author their own self‐efficacy messages and store them in a personal message bank for withdrawal at times of crisis. Conclusions  This paper highlights both the challenge and the impact of involving consumers at the development stage. Working with those with lived experience requires openness, flexibility and a readiness to abandon or radically revise initial plans, and may have unexpected consequences for intervention design. PMID:20860777

  3. Unsupervised clustering analyses of features extraction for a caries computer-assisted diagnosis using dental fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessani, Michel; da Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Maciel, Carlos D.

    2014-02-01

    Computer-assisted diagnoses (CAD) are performed by systems with embedded knowledge. These systems work as a second opinion to the physician and use patient data to infer diagnoses for health problems. Caries is the most common oral disease and directly affects both individuals and the society. Here we propose the use of dental fluorescence images as input of a caries computer-assisted diagnosis. We use texture descriptors together with statistical pattern recognition techniques to measure the descriptors performance for the caries classification task. The data set consists of 64 fluorescence images of in vitro healthy and carious teeth including different surfaces and lesions already diagnosed by an expert. The texture feature extraction was performed on fluorescence images using RGB and YCbCr color spaces, which generated 35 different descriptors for each sample. Principal components analysis was performed for the data interpretation and dimensionality reduction. Finally, unsupervised clustering was employed for the analysis of the relation between the output labeling and the diagnosis of the expert. The PCA result showed a high correlation between the extracted features; seven components were sufficient to represent 91.9% of the original feature vectors information. The unsupervised clustering output was compared with the expert classification resulting in an accuracy of 96.88%. The results show the high accuracy of the proposed approach in identifying carious and non-carious teeth. Therefore, the development of a CAD system for caries using such an approach appears to be promising.

  4. Participatory Pedagogy: A Compass for Transformative Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola; Barnard, Michelle; Fennema, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In the Fall 2009 term, we participated as students and instructor in a graduate education course modeled after participatory pedagogy. Siemens (2008) defines this approach as "one that does not fully define all curricular needs in advance of interacting with learners...Multiple perspectives, opinions, and active creation on the part of…

  5. Participatory Science: Encouraging Public Engagement in ONEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Lorna; Millerand, Florence; Liu, Xiao; Crespel, Élodie

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study of a participatory science project that involved collecting observations of a giant grasshopper and registering them online. Our objective is to reflect on conditions for meaningful amateur engagement on Web 2.0 science platforms. Our overall approach is qualitative and ethnographically informed and draws on…

  6. Multivariate Feature Selection of Image Descriptors Data for Breast Cancer with Computer-Assisted Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Tejada, Carlos E.; Zanella-Calzada, Laura A.; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.; Gamboa-Rosales, Hamurabi; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important global health problem, and the most common type of cancer among women. Late diagnosis significantly decreases the survival rate of the patient; however, using mammography for early detection has been demonstrated to be a very important tool increasing the survival rate. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a multivariate model to classify benign and malignant tumor lesions using a computer-assisted diagnosis with a genetic algorithm in training and test datasets from mammography image features. A multivariate search was conducted to obtain predictive models with different approaches, in order to compare and validate results. The multivariate models were constructed using: Random Forest, Nearest centroid, and K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) strategies as cost function in a genetic algorithm applied to the features in the BCDR public databases. Results suggest that the two texture descriptor features obtained in the multivariate model have a similar or better prediction capability to classify the data outcome compared with the multivariate model composed of all the features, according to their fitness value. This model can help to reduce the workload of radiologists and present a second opinion in the classification of tumor lesions. PMID:28216571

  7. Coverage planning in computer-assisted ablation based on Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongliang; Guo, Weian; Sam Ge, Shuzhi; Lim, Wancheng

    2014-06-01

    An ablation planning system plays a pivotal role in tumor ablation procedures, as it provides a dry run to guide the surgeons in a complicated anatomical environment. Over-ablation, over-perforation or under-ablation may result in complications during the treatments. An optimal solution is desired to have complete tumor coverage with minimal invasiveness, including minimal number of ablations and minimal number of perforation trajectories. As the planning of tumor ablation is a multi-objective problem, it is challenging to obtain optimal covering solutions based on clinician׳s experiences. Meanwhile, it is effective for computer-assisted systems to decide a set of optimal plans. This paper proposes a novel approach of integrating a computational optimization algorithm into the ablation planning system. The proposed ablation planning system is designed based on the following objectives: to achieve complete tumor coverage and to minimize the number of ablations, number of needle trajectories and over-ablation to the healthy tissue. These objectives are taken into account using a Genetic Algorithm, which is capable of generating feasible solutions within a constrained search space. The candidate ablation plans can be encoded in generations of chromosomes, which subsequently evolve based on a fitness function. In this paper, an exponential weight-criterion fitness function has been designed by incorporating constraint parameters that were reflective of the different objectives. According to the test results, the proposed planner is able to generate the set of optimal solutions for tumor ablation problem, thereby fulfilling the aforementioned multiple objectives.

  8. Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation Research At United States Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (USAETL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, George E.

    1981-11-01

    A program in computer-assisted photo interpretation research (CAPIR) has been initiated at the U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories. In a new laboratory, a photo interpreter (PI) analyzing high-resolution, aerial photography interfaces directly to a digital computer and geographic information system (GIS). A modified analytical plotter enables the PI to transmit encoded three-dimensional spatial data from the stereomodel to the computer. Computer-generated graphics are displayed in the stereomodel for direct feedback of digital spatial data to the PI. Initial CAPIR capabilities include point positioning, mensuration, stereoscopic area search, GIS creation and playback, and elevation data extraction. New capabilities under development include stereo graphic superposition, a digital image workstation, and integration of panoramic Optical Bar Camera photography as a primary GIS data source. This project has been conceived as an evolutionary approach to the digital cartographic feature extraction problem. As a working feature extraction system, the CAPIR laboratory can serve as a testbed for new concepts emerging from image understanding and knowledge-based systems research.

  9. Quantification of UV-induced erythema and pigmentation using computer-assisted digital image evaluation.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Sergio G; Miller, Sharon A; Zmudzka, Barbara Z; Beer, Janusz Z

    2006-01-01

    Photography has been used in human skin research for some time. With the advent of digital photography in recent years, its use has increased. However, the focus has now turned from documentation to actual analysis and quantification of skin color changes. The advantages of digital photography outweigh any shortcomings as long as consistent, standardized procedures are followed and quality control is implemented. We present a simple procedure to standardize images and discuss a computer-assisted digital image evaluation (CADIE) technique to quantify skin color changes following UV exposure. The CADIE approach is illustrated with examples from two different studies on UV responses in human skin. Using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* color coordinate system in combination with a personal computer and image-editing software, we analyzed digital images obtained in these two studies. We demonstrate the feasibility of using digital photography for objective evaluation of UV erythema in different racial/ethnic groups and for measuring pigmentation changes caused by repeated exposures over a period of several weeks. Our results indicate how objective assessment using CADIE can be an adjunct to visual and optical observation in clinical and scientific evaluations.

  10. Commercialization of computer assisted detection: the path from science to product.

    PubMed

    Menhardt, Wido

    2004-01-01

    Computer Assisted Detection (CAD) is a rapidly growing field with applications in a growing number of diseases, modalities, and anatomies. Academic and industrial research groups worldwide are proposing and publishing new approaches, techniques, and paradigms at an ever-increasing rate: The results are encouraging and imply the potential for dramatic improvements in disease detection and tracking. To researchers, it often seems curious that commercialization of these advances lags far behind academic progress, but there are many obstacles to be overcome, from IP management to QSR (Quality Systems Regulations) compliance, from image data and truth collection to GCP (Good Clinical Practices), from bio-statistics to proof of Safety & Effectiveness with regulatory agencies. This two-hour session is designed to shed light on experiences in CAD commercialization of innovative CAD technologies into the marketplace. The goal is to share best practices, non-competitive ideas, and "mistakes not to be repeated" among the seminar participants and with researchers in industry and academia. All speakers are involved in bringing a variety of CAD applications to market. Panelists are: Susan Wood--R2 Peter Whitehead--Quantitative Imaging Michael Yeh--Deus Chris Wood--Confirma Fred Lachmann--Medipattern Alok Gupta--Siemens Patrick Hess--Imatx Wido Menhardt--Eastman Kodak.

  11. The use of a computer-assisted rehabilitation environment (CAREN) for enhancing wounded warrior rehabilitation regimens

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, Brad M.; Swanson, Thomas M.; Pasquina, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper seeks to describe how novel technologies such as the computer-assisted research environment (CAREN) may improve physical and cognitive rehabilitation for wounded warfighters. Design/methodology/approach The CAREN system is a dynamic platform which may assist service members who have sustained improvised explosive device injuries during Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn. The complex nature of warfighter injuries present unique rehabilitation challenges that demand new tools for quick return to active duty or the civilian community. Findings Virtual reality-based gait training programs may directly influence physiological and biomechanical performance for those who have endured combat injuries. The CAREN system provides a safe, interactive environment for the user while capturing kinematic and kinetic data capture to improve rehabilitation regimens. Conclusions This paper provides an overview of the CAREN system and describes how this dynamic rehabilitation aid may be a translational tool for collecting biomechanical and physiological data during prosthetic training. The CAREN platform allows users to be fully immersed in a virtual environment while healthcare providers use these simulations to improve gait and stability, obstacle avoidance, or improved weight shifting. As such, rehabilitation regimens may be patient specific. PMID:23820145

  12. Effects of computer-assisted instruction on selected interaction skills related to responsible sexuality.

    PubMed

    Kann, L K

    1987-09-01

    This study examined effects of computer-assisted instruction on decision-making, assertiveness, and interpersonal communication related to responsible sexuality. Health science classes from four secondary schools in three midwestern states participated in the quasi-experimental study. The Experimental Group (n = 151) received simulation-based CAI, while Control Group #1 (n = 147) received regular classroom instruction, and Control Group #2 (n = 93) received no intervention. A 46-item questionnaire was administered to determine changes in the dependent variables. Findings indicated CAI, but not RCI, effectively improved decision-making knowledge and behavior, assertiveness knowledge and behavior, and interpersonal communication knowledge, attitude, and behavior. However, CAI did not improve assertiveness attitude. Over a five-week period, the effectiveness of CAI decayed for the knowledge variables. The effectiveness of CAI varied according to subject's gender, grade, and school-community setting. Results suggest simulation-based CAI provides an instructional approach that promotes positive change in some interaction skills related to responsible sexuality without many of the risks inherent in regular classroom instruction involving such sensitive topics.

  13. Multivariate Feature Selection of Image Descriptors Data for Breast Cancer with Computer-Assisted Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Galván-Tejada, Carlos E; Zanella-Calzada, Laura A; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I; Celaya-Padilla, José M; Gamboa-Rosales, Hamurabi; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L

    2017-02-14

    Breast cancer is an important global health problem, and the most common type of cancer among women. Late diagnosis significantly decreases the survival rate of the patient; however, using mammography for early detection has been demonstrated to be a very important tool increasing the survival rate. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a multivariate model to classify benign and malignant tumor lesions using a computer-assisted diagnosis with a genetic algorithm in training and test datasets from mammography image features. A multivariate search was conducted to obtain predictive models with different approaches, in order to compare and validate results. The multivariate models were constructed using: Random Forest, Nearest centroid, and K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) strategies as cost function in a genetic algorithm applied to the features in the BCDR public databases. Results suggest that the two texture descriptor features obtained in the multivariate model have a similar or better prediction capability to classify the data outcome compared with the multivariate model composed of all the features, according to their fitness value. This model can help to reduce the workload of radiologists and present a second opinion in the classification of tumor lesions.

  14. Computer-assisted structural analysis of regular glycopolymers on the basis of 13C NMR data.

    PubMed

    Toukach, F V; Shashkov, A S

    2001-09-28

    A computer-assisted approach to the prediction of the primary structures of regular glycopolymers is described. The analysis is based on comparing the calculated 13C NMR spectra of all the possible structures of the repeating unit (for the given monomeric composition) to an experimental 13C NMR spectrum. The spectra generation is based on the spectral database containing information on the 13C chemical shifts of monomers, di- and trimeric fragments. If the required data are missing from this database, the special database for average glycosylation effects is used. The analysis reveals those structures with the calculated 13C NMR spectrum most close to observed. The structures of repeating units of any topology containing up to six residues linked by glycosidic, amidic or phospho-diester bridges can be predicted. Unambiguous selection of the proper structure from the output list of possible structures may require additional experimental data. Testing the created program and databases on bacterial polysaccharides and their derivatives containing up to three non-sugar residues (alditols, amino acids, phosphate groups etc.) per repeating unit revealed the good convergence of prediction with independently obtained structural data.

  15. Quantitative resolution of spectroscopic systems using computer-assisted target factor analysis (CAT).

    PubMed

    Meinrath, G; Lis, S

    2001-01-02

    Factor analysis (FA) is widely applicable in analytical chemistry. For suitable data structures, the generality of the approach is a strong point of FA. Using target testing procedures, a wealth of specific informations on the components in a chemical system can be extracted without stating a specific model. Target testing, however, is time-consuming and often heuristic. In the following, application of a computer-assisted target factor analysis (CAT) algorithm is described. CAT estimates a rotation matrix that transforms abstract factors into physically meaningful informations by using general constraints, i.e. non-negativity of absorptions and/or concentrations. Thus, the rotation step in factor analysis is automated and allows application of target factor analysis to situations where none or only very limited information on the real factors and their respective contributions is available. Thus, a target testing procedure of guessing physically meaningful factors and iteratively adapting these factors is performed automatically. Nevertheless, CAT is not a black box procedure. The relative importance of different optimization constraints is balanced interactively. CAT can be applied to all situations where factor analysis can be used. CAT is demonstrated using UV-Vis absorption spectra of a Nd(III) polyoxometalate cryptate system and the system U(VI)-CO2-H2O as examples.

  16. Computer-Assisted Navigation During an Anterior-Posterior En Bloc Resection of a Sacral Tumor.

    PubMed

    Al Eissa, Sami; Al-Habib, Amro F; Jahangiri, Faisal R

    2015-11-04

    Previously, a computer-based navigation system has not been used routinely for en-bloc resection of sacral tumors. In order to improve the accuracy of tumor resection, O-arm navigation was used to join anterior and posterior osteotomies during an en-bloc resection of a sacral Ewing's sarcoma. This case study describes the technique for en-bloc resection of a sacral Ewing's sarcoma guided by O-arm computer navigation and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). An 18-year-old male presented with weakness in his left lower extremity. MRI of the patient's spine showed a sacral mass causing compression of left S1 and S2 roots. A surgical resection was planned with anterior and posterior approaches. An O-arm computer navigation system was used to assist in meeting anterior osteotomy cuts with the posterior cuts to ensure complete resection of the sacral tumor with a safe margin. Computer-assisted navigation was used along with IONM during this procedure to help guide the surgical team in an adequate tumor resection. There were no complications related to the use of the O-arm or the navigation system. Computer navigation guidance is both useful and safe in sacral tumor resections. It enhanced the accuracy of the en-bloc removal of a sacral tumor with safe margins while protecting neural function and minimizing recurrence.

  17. Computer assisted chronic disease management: does it work? A pilot study using mixed methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kay M; Biezen, Ruby; Piterman, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Background. Key factors for the effective chronic disease management (CDM) include the availability of practical and effective computer tools and continuing professional development/education. This study tested the effectiveness of a computer assisted chronic disease management tool, a broadband-based service known as cdmNet in increasing the development of care plans for patients with chronic disease in general practice. Methodology. Mixed methods are the breakthrough series methodology (workshops and plan-do-study-act cycles) and semistructured interviews. Results. Throughout the intervention period a pattern emerged suggesting GPs use of cdmNet initially increased, then plateaued practice nurses' and practice managers' roles expanded as they became more involved in using cdmNet. Seven main messages emerged from the GP interviews. Discussion. The overall use of cdmNet by participating GPs varied from "no change" to "significant change and developing many the GPMPs (general practice management plans) using cdmNet." The variation may be due to several factors, not the least, allowing GPs adequate time to familiarise themselves with the software and recognising the benefit of the team approach. Conclusion. The breakthrough series methodology facilitated upskilling GPs' management of patients diagnosed with a chronic disease and learning how to use the broadband-based service cdmNet.

  18. Creating "Buddy Partnerships" with 5- and 11-Year Old-Boys: A Methodological Approach to Conducting Participatory Research with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Rachael; Thompson, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Building on literature concerning participatory research, this article explores the use of "buddy partnership" as a technique to access the voices of young children. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old boys were paired with 11- to 12-year-old boys, and each dyad was asked to contribute towards the creation of an information DVD that would…

  19. Participatory Approaches to Program Development and Engaging Youth in Research: The Case of an Inter-Generational Urban Community Gardening Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne; Doyle, Rebekah

    2002-01-01

    Community educators in six cities involved youth in documenting ethnic gardening practices with master gardeners. Interviews with 29 educators, 28 participating youth, and 4 gardeners found that youth learned about gardening, developed positive relationships with elders, and enhanced skills. Implementing participatory research required more…

  20. A systems approach to modeling Community-Based Environmental Monitoring: a case of participatory water quality monitoring in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Ana; Páez, Rosaura; Carmona, Estela; Rivas, Hilda

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Environmental Monitoring (CBM) is a social practice that makes a valuable contribution to environmental management and construction of active societies for sustainable future. However, its documentation and analysis show deficiencies that hinder contrast and comparison of processes and effects. Based on systems approach, this article presents a model of CBM to orient assessment of programs, with heuristic or practical goals. In a focal level, the model comprises three components, the social subject, the object of monitoring, and the means of action, and five processes, data management, social learning, assimilation/decision making, direct action, and linking. Emergent properties were also identified in the focal and suprafocal levels considering community self-organization, response capacity, and autonomy for environmental management. The model was applied to the assessment of a CBM program of water quality implemented in rural areas in Mexico. Attributes and variables (indicators) for components, processes, and emergent properties were selected to measure changes that emerged since the program implementation. The assessment of the first 3 years (2010-2012) detected changes that indicated movement towards the expected results, but it revealed also the need to adjust the intervention strategy and procedures. Components and processes of the model reflected relevant aspects of the CBM in real world. The component called means of action as a key element to transit "from the data to the action." The CBM model offered a conceptual framework with advantages to understand CBM as a socioecological event and to strengthen its implementation under different conditions and contexts.

  1. Postediting prostate magnetic resonance imaging segmentation consistency and operator time using manual and computer-assisted segmentation: multiobserver study.

    PubMed

    Shahedi, Maysam; Cool, Derek W; Romagnoli, Cesare; Bauman, Glenn S; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Rodrigues, George; Ahmad, Belal; Lock, Michael; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D

    2016-10-01

    Prostate segmentation on T2w MRI is important for several diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for prostate cancer. Manual segmentation is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and subject to high interobserver variability. This study investigated the suitability of computer-assisted segmentation algorithms for clinical translation, based on measurements of interoperator variability and measurements of the editing time required to yield clinically acceptable segmentations. A multioperator pilot study was performed under three pre- and postediting conditions: manual, semiautomatic, and automatic segmentation. We recorded the required editing time for each segmentation and measured the editing magnitude based on five different spatial metrics. We recorded average editing times of 213, 328, and 393 s for manual, semiautomatic, and automatic segmentation respectively, while an average fully manual segmentation time of 564 s was recorded. The reduced measured postediting interoperator variability of semiautomatic and automatic segmentations compared to the manual approach indicates the potential of computer-assisted segmentation for generating a clinically acceptable segmentation faster with higher consistency. The lack of strong correlation between editing time and the values of typically used error metrics ([Formula: see text]) implies that the necessary postsegmentation editing time needs to be measured directly in order to evaluate an algorithm's suitability for clinical translation.

  2. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  3. Queering Participatory Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…

  4. Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using a computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing-produced titanium mesh supporting a free flap.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Battaglia, Salvatore; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Cipriani, Riccardo; Marchetti, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    The maxilla provides support to the overlying structures and contributes significantly to the overall facial appearance and to critical functions such as mastication, speech, and deglutition. Many different techniques have been used over the years to achieve this reconstructive goal. Modern computer-assisted surgery affords new methods for planning resections, as well as optimising reconstructive outcomes and functional rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to describe our experience with, and technique for, the functional, structural, and aesthetic reconstruction of maxillary bone defects using a computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM)-printed titanium mesh to provide structural support for free flap reconstruction. Four patients who underwent reconstruction with a CAD/CAM-printed titanium mesh were included in this study. The preoperative computed tomography (CT) data set used for virtual planning was superimposed onto the postoperative CT scan to calculate the difference between the virtually planned position and the postoperative position of the titanium mesh. The orbital floor and alveolus were the most frequent sites of deviation, and good reproducibility could be obtained with less than 1 mm of deviation between planning and results in most regions. Printed titanium meshes obtained with CAD/CAM technology and used to structurally support free flaps provide a valuable method for the achievement of good aesthetic, structural, and functional outcomes in maxillary reconstruction. Reconstructive accuracy using this technique is reasonably high. Further studies with a larger number of patients would be useful to confirm these results.

  5. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software: a review.

    PubMed

    Banner, Davina J; Albarrran, John W

    2009-01-01

    Over recent decades, qualitative research has become accepted as a uniquely valuable methodological approach for generating knowledge, particularly in relation to promoting understanding of patients' experiences and responses to illness. Within cardiovascular nursing such qualitative approaches have been widely adopted to systematically investigate a number of phenomena. Contemporary qualitative research practice comprises a diverse range of disciplines and approaches. Computer-aided qualitative data analysis software represents an important facet of this increasingly sophisticated movement. Such software offers an efficient means through which to manage and organize data while supporting rigorous data analysis. The increasing use of qualitative data analysis software has stimulated wide discussion. This research column includes a review of some of the advantages and debates related to the use and integration of qualitative data analysis software.

  6. Visualization of the Newly Designed Jig and Fixture for Computer-Assisted Knee Replacement Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Intan Syaherra; Arshad, Haslina; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Mohd. Yahaya, Nor Hamdan; Che Haron, Che Hassan

    Surgical training systems based on virtual reality (VR) are highly desired as they offer a cost effective and efficient alternative compared to traditional training methods. Traditional surgical training methods require cadavers or plastic models which are costly. Cadavers cannot be used repeatedly and training with plastic models cannot provide the realistic experience. This paper describes a visualization to show the use of newly design jig and fixture for computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Orthopedic surgeons found it difficult to align the existing jig with the computer-assisted device during the operation and it is time consuming to place it at the right position. A newly design jig and fixture has been proposed to solve this problem. Visualization is needed to show the surgeons on how it will be used in the computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Virtual models used in this visualization are constructed from the actual equipment and real human dataset.

  7. An assessment of attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Communities in South Sudan have endured decades of conflict. Protracted conflict exacerbated reproductive health disparities and gender inequities. This study, conducted prior to the country’s 2011 independence, aimed to assess attitudes toward gender inequitable norms related to sexual relationships and reproductive health and the effects of sex, age, and education on these attitudes. Methods Applying a community-based participatory research approach and quota sampling, 680 adult male and female respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009–2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age (≤35 years and >35 years), and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not indicate their sex. The majority of women (77%) and men (74%) agreed “a man needs other women, even if things with his wife are fine”. Respondents who reported no education (60%) were more likely than those who reported any education (45%) to agree “if a woman is married, she should have sex with her husband whenever he wants to, even if she doesn’t want to” (p = 0.002). The majority of women (74%) and men (73%) agreed “it is a woman’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant”. Respondents who reported no education (81%) were more likely than those who reported any education (72%) to agree with this statement (p = 0.04). When asked about condom use, the majority of respondents, across both sexes and both age groups, agreed “it would be outrageous for a wife to ask her husband to use a condom” and “women who carry condoms are easy”. There were no statistically significant differences between the two age groups for any of the assessed gender inequitable norms. Conclusion The study reveals differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms among those surveyed in South Sudan when

  8. An assessment of gender inequitable norms and gender-based violence in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following decades of conflict, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. Prolonged conflict, which included gender-based violence (GBV), exacerbated gender disparities. This study aimed to assess attitudes towards gender inequitable norms related to GBV and to estimate the frequency of GBV in sampled communities of South Sudan. Methods Applying a community-based participatory research approach, 680 adult male and female household respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009–2011. Sites were selected based on program catchment area for a non-governmental organization and respondents were selected by quota sampling. The verbally-administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Results were stratified by gender, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not provide gender data. Among respondents, 82% of females and 81% of males agreed that ‘a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together’. The majority, 68% of females and 63% of males, also agreed that ‘there are times when a woman deserves to be beaten’. Women (47%) were more likely than men (37%) to agree that ‘it is okay for a man to hit his wife if she won’t have sex with him’ (p=0.005). Agreement with gender inequitable norms decreased with education. Across sites, 69% of respondents knew at least one woman who was beaten by her husband in the past month and 42% of respondents knew at least one man who forced his wife or partner to have sex. Conclusion The study reveals an acceptance of violence against women among sampled communities in South Sudan. Both women and men agreed with gender inequitable norms, further supporting that GBV programming should address the attitudes of both women and men. The results support promotion of education as a strategy for addressing gender inequality and GBV. The findings reveal a high frequency of GBV across all

  9. Enhancing the IMS QTI to Better Support Computer Assisted Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Damien; Baillie-de Byl, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment is a common approach used by educational institutions. The benefits range into the design of teaching, learning, and instructional materials. While some such systems implement fully automated marking for multiple choice questions and fill-in-the-blanks, they are insufficient when human critiquing is required. Current…

  10. Comparison between two computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty: gap-balancing versus measured resection technique.

    PubMed

    Tigani, Domenico; Sabbioni, G; Ben Ayad, R; Filanti, M; Rani, N; Del Piccolo, N

    2010-10-01

    Two surgical strategies are possible in total knee arthroplasty (TKA): a measured resection technique, in which bone landmarks are used to guide resections equal to the distal and posterior thickness of the femoral component, or a gap-balancing approach, in which equal collateral ligament tension in flexion and extension is sought before and as a guide to final bone cuts. In this study performed with computer assisted system, we compared the 2 different methods in 126 patients followed prospectively in order to analyze the effect of both the techniques on joint-line (JL) maintenance, axial limb restoration and components position. The gap technique showed a statistical increase in the post-operative value when compared with the measured resection technique, (P = 0.008). When comparing the two groups regarding to the pre-operative deformity, we have found a statistical difference (P = 0.001) in case of moderate pre-operative deformity (less than 10 degrees), and the measured resection technique showed a slight superiority in preserving a joint line more faithful to the pre-operative. We found an ideal alignment for the mechanical axis (180 degrees ± 3 degrees) (95% of cases). In six cases (5%), the mean post-operative value exceeded (varus or valgus) the ideal value by more than 3 degrees. In the frontal plane, a good alignment was observed for both femoral and tibial components without a significant difference between the two techniques. In the sagittal plane was found more alignment variability due to the different implants used and their ideal starting slope, from 7 degrees to 3 degrees. Finally, the surgeon can use the approach with which he has more confidence; however, as the measured resection technique causes less reduction in the post-operative joint-line position, in case of shortening of patellar tendon or patella infera, this technique is preferable.

  11. Endovascular navigation based on real/virtual environments cooperation for computer-assisted TEAM procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goksu, Cemil; Haigron, Pascal; Acosta, Oscar; Lucas, Antoine

    2004-05-01

    Transfemoral Endovascular Aneurysm Management, the less invasive treatment of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysms (AAA), is a highly specialized procedure, using advanced devices and requiring a high degree of clinical expertise. There is a great need for a navigation guidance system able to make this procedure safer and more precise. In this context of computer-assisted minimally invasive interventional procedures, we propose a new framework based on the cooperation between the real environment where the intervention takes place and a patient-specific virtual environment, which contains a virtual operating room including a C-arm model as well as the 3D preoperative patient data. This approach aims to deal with the problem of lack of knowledge about soft tissue behavior by better exploiting available information before and during the intervention through a cooperative approach. In order to assist the TEAM procedure in standard interventional conditions, we applied this framework to design a 3D navigation guidance system, which has been successfully used during three TEAM interventions in the operating room. Intra-operatively, anatomical feature-based 2D/3D registration between a single 2D fluoroscopic view, reproduced from the pose planned in the virtual environment, and the preoperative CT volume, is performed by means of a chamfer distance map. The 3D localization of the endovascular devices (sheath, guide wire, prosthesis) tracked either interactively or automatically on 2D sequences, is constrained to either the 3D vascular tree or a 3D device model. Moreover, we propose a first solution to take into account the tissue deformations during this particular intervention and to update the virtual environment with the intraoperative data.

  12. Use of computer-assisted technologies (CAT) to enhance social, communicative, and language development in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ploog, Bertram O; Scharf, Alexa; Nelson, DeShawn; Brooks, Patricia J

    2013-02-01

    Major advances in multimedia computer technology over the past decades have made sophisticated computer games readily available to the public. This, combined with the observation that most children, including those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), show an affinity to computers, has led researchers to recognize the potential of computer technology as an effective and efficient tool in research and treatment. This paper reviews the use of computer-assisted technology (CAT), excluding strictly internet-based approaches, to enhance social, communicative, and language development in individuals with ASD by dividing the vast literature into four main areas: language, emotion recognition, theory of mind, and social skills. Although many studies illustrate the tremendous promise of CAT to enhance skills of individuals with ASD, most lack rigorous, scientific assessment of efficacy relative to non-CAT approaches.

  13. Evaluation of a computer-assisted medication refill reminder system for improving patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Heard, C; Blackburn, J L; Thompson, M S; Wallace, S M

    1984-10-01

    Computer-generated refill reminder notices were mailed to patients receiving continual medication for cardiovascular diseases to measure improved compliance and to discover whether a computer-assisted program was economically viable. Guidelines were established to define compliance. A computer-assisted compliance intervention program did not significantly improve the rate at which patients had their prescriptions filled "on time" and the mean compliance rate for both experimental and control groups was greater than 79%. Also discussed were cost and compliance strategy implications and the receptiveness of patients to the reminder program.

  14. [Computer-assisted navigation in orthognathic surgery. Application to Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Benassarou, M; Benassarou, A; Meyer, C

    2013-08-05

    Computer-assisted navigation is a tool that allows the surgeon to reach intraoperatively a previously defined target. This technique can be applied to the positioning of bone fragments in orthognathic surgery. It is not used routinely yet because there are no specifically dedicated systems available on the market for this kind of surgery. The goal of our study was to describe the various systems that could be used in orthognathic surgery and to report our experience of computer-assisted surgery in the positioning of the maxilla during maxillomandibular osteotomies.

  15. Computer-Assisted 3D Structure Elucidation of Natural Products using Residual Dipolar Couplings.

    PubMed

    Troche-Pesqueira, Eduardo; Anklin, Clemens; Gil, Roberto R; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando

    2017-03-20

    An enhanced computer-assisted procedure for the determination of the relative configuration of natural products, which starts from the molecular formula and uses a combination of conventional 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), is reported. Having already the data acquired (1D/2D NMR and RDCs), the procedure begins with the determination of the molecular constitution using standard computer-assisted structure elucidation (CASE) and is followed by fully automated determination of relative configuration through RDC analysis. In the case of moderately flexible molecules the simplest data-explaining conformational model is selected by the use of the Akaike information criterion.

  16. Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction (ICAI): Formative Evaluation of Two Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    ICAI research and devopment . 14 1-.i -: Evaluation Questions The evaluation questions guiding the study are presented below. In each of these...result in a very powerful instructional tool . PROUST takes an intention-based approach to analyzing a novice’s program. Rather than compare the student...developed sufficient strength of underlying technology, tools and science so that 83w Contracting Project Evaluation Technical Agency - Technology

  17. Computer-assisted education and interdisciplinary breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whatmough, Pamela; Gale, Alastair G.; Wilson, A. R. M.

    1996-04-01

    The diagnosis of breast disease for screening or symptomatic women is largely arrived at by a multi-disciplinary team. We report work on the development and assessment of an inter- disciplinary computer based learning system to support the diagnosis of this disease. The diagnostic process is first modelled from different viewpoints and then appropriate knowledge structures pertinent to the domains of radiologist, pathologist and surgeon are depicted. Initially the underlying inter-relationships of the mammographic diagnostic approach were detailed which is largely considered here. Ultimately a system is envisaged which will link these specialties and act as a diagnostic aid as well as a multi-media educational system.

  18. Computer-assisted initial diagnosis of rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Piñol, Marc; Vilaplana, Jordi; Teixidó, Ivan; Cruz, Joaquim; Comas, Jorge; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Sorribas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Most documented rare diseases have genetic origin. Because of their low individual frequency, an initial diagnosis based on phenotypic symptoms is not always easy, as practitioners might never have been exposed to patients suffering from the relevant disease. It is thus important to develop tools that facilitate symptom-based initial diagnosis of rare diseases by clinicians. In this work we aimed at developing a computational approach to aid in that initial diagnosis. We also aimed at implementing this approach in a user friendly web prototype. We call this tool Rare Disease Discovery. Finally, we also aimed at testing the performance of the prototype. Methods. Rare Disease Discovery uses the publicly available ORPHANET data set of association between rare diseases and their symptoms to automatically predict the most likely rare diseases based on a patient’s symptoms. We apply the method to retrospectively diagnose a cohort of 187 rare disease patients with confirmed diagnosis. Subsequently we test the precision, sensitivity, and global performance of the system under different scenarios by running large scale Monte Carlo simulations. All settings account for situations where absent and/or unrelated symptoms are considered in the diagnosis. Results. We find that this expert system has high diagnostic precision (≥80%) and sensitivity (≥99%), and is robust to both absent and unrelated symptoms. Discussion. The Rare Disease Discovery prediction engine appears to provide a fast and robust method for initial assisted differential diagnosis of rare diseases. We coupled this engine with a user-friendly web interface and it can be freely accessed at http://disease-discovery.udl.cat/. The code and most current database for the whole project can be downloaded from https://github.com/Wrrzag/DiseaseDiscovery/tree/no_classifiers. PMID:27547534

  19. Computer-assisted initial diagnosis of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rui; Piñol, Marc; Vilaplana, Jordi; Teixidó, Ivan; Cruz, Joaquim; Comas, Jorge; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Sorribas, Albert; Solsona, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Most documented rare diseases have genetic origin. Because of their low individual frequency, an initial diagnosis based on phenotypic symptoms is not always easy, as practitioners might never have been exposed to patients suffering from the relevant disease. It is thus important to develop tools that facilitate symptom-based initial diagnosis of rare diseases by clinicians. In this work we aimed at developing a computational approach to aid in that initial diagnosis. We also aimed at implementing this approach in a user friendly web prototype. We call this tool Rare Disease Discovery. Finally, we also aimed at testing the performance of the prototype. Methods. Rare Disease Discovery uses the publicly available ORPHANET data set of association between rare diseases and their symptoms to automatically predict the most likely rare diseases based on a patient's symptoms. We apply the method to retrospectively diagnose a cohort of 187 rare disease patients with confirmed diagnosis. Subsequently we test the precision, sensitivity, and global performance of the system under different scenarios by running large scale Monte Carlo simulations. All settings account for situations where absent and/or unrelated symptoms are considered in the diagnosis. Results. We find that this expert system has high diagnostic precision (≥80%) and sensitivity (≥99%), and is robust to both absent and unrelated symptoms. Discussion. The Rare Disease Discovery prediction engine appears to provide a fast and robust method for initial assisted differential diagnosis of rare diseases. We coupled this engine with a user-friendly web interface and it can be freely accessed at http://disease-discovery.udl.cat/. The code and most current database for the whole project can be downloaded from https://github.com/Wrrzag/DiseaseDiscovery/tree/no_classifiers.

  20. Computer-assisted system for the reconstruction of shattered objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Brenningmeyer, Todd

    2005-05-01

    Reconstruction for forensic purposes of shattered or otherwise damaged objects has been a painstaking, if not impossible, undertaking. The forensic crime scientist and the archaeologist share this challenge. A pilot project, funded by the National Institute of Justice experimented with several avenues of approach to this problem of reassembly by using the 627 fragmented pieces of a pane of glass from a crime scene. I was approached by staff members of the Forensic Laboratory of the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension because I was developing a means to restore a Greek Bronze Age wall painting (ca. 1350 B.C.E.) fragmented into 4750 pieces and a Greek temple (ca. 150 B.C.E.) demolished by vandals about 1500 years ago, leaving behind 1485 stone blocks, 1-3 tons each. The challenge was to develop an automated method to rapidly and effectively analyze a quantity of fragments of like kind separated one from the other and from the original object by violence and other means. The project established a set of mathematically and graphically definable characteristics held by the glass sherds which allowed for the making of joins between pieces. Preparation included the formulation of inventory check-sheets and a barcode label system with a unique identifier for each piece based on a x,y,z grid system. The next step involved experimentation with an array of proprietary GIS, SQL, and CAD software alternatives for the processing of data. In the end we settled on maximum likelihood analysis of SQL filtered results. This and shape indices were complied using ArcView and the scripting language, Avenue, products of ESRI, Redlands, California.

  1. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Statistics: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Giovanni W.; Berger, Dale E.; Saw, Amanda T.; Mary, Justin C.

    2011-01-01

    Although previous meta-analyses have documented the efficacy of computer-assisted statistics instruction, the current study examined a range of specific features that presumably influence its effectiveness, such as the level of learner engagement, learner control, and the nature of feedback. In 45 experimental studies with a control condition,…

  2. Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems: A Part of NCDA History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Bowlsbey, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    The first computer-assisted career planning systems were developed in the late 1960s and were based soundly on the best of career development and decision-making theory. Over the years, this tradition has continued as the technology that delivers these systems' content has improved dramatically and as they have been universally accepted as…

  3. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  4. Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Elementary Mathematics for Hearing-Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A sample of approximately 385 hearing-impaired elementary and secondary school students whose mathematical achievement ranged from second to sixth grades were examined to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted elementary mathematics program on the acquisition of computational skills. The students selected were from a population of over…

  5. Computer-Assisted Instruction in the Schools: Potentialities, Problems, Prospects. Psychology Series. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    Computer-assisted instruction has many potential applications, particularly at the elementary level, in the teaching of skill subjects such as mathematics, reading, and foreign languages. Since 1963 at Stanford a study has been made of programing a total curriculum for elementary mathematics, grades one through six, and for reading, grades one and…

  6. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Elementary Logic at the University Level. Technical Report No. 239.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele; Suppes, Patrick

    Earlier research by the authors in the design and use of computer-assisted instructional systems and curricula for teaching mathematical logic to gifted elementary school students has been extended to the teaching of university-level courses. This report is a description of the curriculum and problem types of a computer-based course offered at…

  7. The Relationship between Second Language Acquisition Theory and Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is the contrast between the theoretical landscape within view of language teaching professionals in 1991 and that of today. I argue that the pragmatic goal of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) developers and researchers to create and evaluate learning opportunities pushes them to consider a variety…

  8. Computer-Assisted Learning in Urban Classrooms: The Impact of Politics, Race, and Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Leal, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses data from 54 urban school districts to test hypotheses explaining the integration of computer technology into the classroom. Finds no statistically significant effects of funding on the provision of computer-assisted learning, but a higher percentage of black students reduces the percentage of district students receiving computer-assisted…

  9. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Tutorials in Hematology and Oncology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study comparing the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and small group instruction found no significant difference in medical student achievement in oncology but higher achievement through small-group instruction in hematology. Students did not view CAI as more effective, but saw it as a supplement to traditional methods. (MSE)

  10. Using a Dialogue System Based on Dialogue Maps for Computer Assisted Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sung-Kwon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2016-01-01

    In order to use dialogue systems for computer assisted second-language learning systems, one of the difficult issues in such systems is how to construct large-scale dialogue knowledge that matches the dialogue modelling of a dialogue system. This paper describes how we have accomplished the short-term construction of large-scale and…

  11. The Development of a Computer Assisted Distribution and Assignment (CADA) System for Navy Enlisted Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Randall F.; And Others

    This report describes the development of a computerized system to assist Navy personnel managers in carrying out the functions associated with the distribution and assignment of enlisted personnel. This Computer Assisted Distribution and Assignment (CADA) System is aimed at the most efficient interaction between the computer and human manager to…

  12. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  13. A Personal Application of Learning Theory to the Design of Computer Assisted Instruction in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Terry

    The application of behavioral and cognitive learning theories to the design of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at the college level is discussed. A model of instructional design and the unique qualities of computers are also briefly reviewed. The general model of instruction, which is used for designing a curriculum, has five major components:…

  14. A Compilation of Postgraduate Theses Written in Turkey on Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Demirbas, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study conducted is to present in-depth information about the postgraduate theses written within the context of Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education in Turkey. The theses collected in National Thesis Centre of Turkish Council of Higher Education were examined. As a result of an examination, it was found that about…

  15. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Support of Beginning Reading Instruction: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blok, H.; Oostdam, R.; Otter, M. E.; Overmaat, M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews 42 studies of computer-assisted instruction published from 1990 to the present, comprising 75 experimental comparisons. The corrected effect size estimate was 0.19. Two variables, effect size at the time of pretesting and language of instruction, accounted for 61% of the variability in effect sizes. Advises caution in interpreting results…

  16. Computer Assisted Instruction in Mathematics Can Improve Students' Test Scores: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    This research assessed the academic impact of a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) software program to teach mathematics. The research hypothesis states that the use of the CAI program will produce superior academic achievement in mathematics for students who use the program compared to students instructed in mathematics without the program.…

  17. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Potential for College Level Instruction and Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis M.

    Some basic concepts and types of computer assisted instruction (CAI) are presented, and their application in college and university settings is considered. CAI literature of the late 1960's--including descriptions of specific CAI systems together with studies of instructional effectiveness, learning time, and student attitudes--is then summarized.…

  18. Computer-Assisted Instruction In Dental Diagnosis; A Systematic Product Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Thomas K.; Sokolow, Sonya

    A developmental project created and field tested a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) unit in dental diagnosis. The main objectives were to determine 1) if, after having received CAI, the dental student could determine whether a patient had a clinical need for space management and 2) if the dental student's attitude toward CAI and space…

  19. Characteristics of an Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction Shell with an Example in Human Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Yochim, Jerome M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses exemplary teacher and student characteristics that can provide the base to generate an Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction (ICAI) shell. Outlines the expertise, learning, student-model, and inference modules of an ICAI shell. Describes the development of an ICAI shell for an undergraduate course in human physiology. (33 references)…

  20. The Accuracy of Computer-Assisted Feedback and Students' Responses to It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavolette, Elizabeth; Polio, Charlene; Kahng, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Various researchers in second language acquisition have argued for the effectiveness of immediate rather than delayed feedback. In writing, truly immediate feedback is impractical, but computer-assisted feedback provides a quick way of providing feedback that also reduces the teacher's workload. We explored the accuracy of feedback from…

  1. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Performance of Senior High School Biology Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, K. A.; Monney, K. A.; Appiah, J. Y.; Wilmot, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative efficiency of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and conventional teaching method in biology on senior high school students. A science class was selected in each of two randomly selected schools. The pretest-posttest non equivalent quasi experimental design was used. The students in the experimental group…

  2. Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Enhance Achievement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Hussein, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in English-Language environments offer practice time, motivates students, enhance student learning, increase authentic materials that students can study, and has the potential to encourage teamwork between students. The findings from this particular study suggested that students who used computer assisted…

  3. Integrating Graphics and Speech. A Neural Sciences Computer-Assisted Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    A new optometry-oriented program for the Macintosh computer has been written for the Neural Sciences Computer-Assisted Learning Package to include graphics and synthesized speech. It has 21 modules in 6 categories: anatomical drawings; diagrams illustrating physiological concepts; records from experiments; flow charts of neuroanatomical pathways;…

  4. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  5. Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' and Students' Views on Computer Assisted Mathematics Instruction in Turkey: Mathematica Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardiç, Mehmet Alper; Isleyen, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the secondary school mathematics teachers' and students' views on computer-assisted mathematics instruction (CAMI) conducted via Mathematica. Accordingly, three mathematics teachers in Adiyaman and nine 10th-grade students participated in the research. Firstly, the researchers trained the mathematics teachers in the…

  6. Teaching Pronunciation with Computer Assisted Pronunciation Instruction in a Technological University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Sze-Chu; Hung, Po-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of computer assisted pronunciation instruction in English pronunciation for students in vocational colleges and universities in Taiwan. The participants were fifty-one first-year undergraduate students from a technological university located in central Taiwan. The participants received an…

  7. Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction in Acid-Base Physiology for Mobile Computer Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ~20 screens of information, on the subjects…

  8. Computer Assisted Instruction of College Physics Students in Small Groups. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrell, Glen E.

    An experiment was performed in a two semester introductory college physics course for non-science majors. The goal of the experiment was to determine the extent to which computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and knowledge of group dynamics can overcome the serious instructional problems of large introductory lecture courses. Students were divided…

  9. Improving the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Grading through the Use of Computer-Assisted Grading Rubrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, Linda; Anglin, Kenneth; Schumann, Paul L.; Kaliski, John A.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the use of computer-assisted grading rubrics compared to other grading methods with respect to the efficiency and effectiveness of different grading processes for subjective assignments. The test was performed on a large Introduction to Business course. The students in this course were randomly assigned to four treatment groups…

  10. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Ecological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…

  11. Can Computer-Assisted Discovery Learning Foster First Graders' Fluency with the Most Basic Addition Combinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Eiland, Michael D.; Purpura, David J.; Reid, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    In a 9-month training experiment, 64 first graders with a risk factor were randomly assigned to computer-assisted structured discovery of the add-1 rule (e.g., the sum of 7 + 1 is the number after "seven" when we count), unstructured discovery learning of this regularity, or an active-control group. Planned contrasts revealed that the…

  12. "Test Driving" CARS: Addressing the Issues in the Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Reading Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Cathy

    1997-01-01

    Examines contributions of computer-assisted reading software (CARS) to current teaching practice. Presented framework for evaluating the technical and pedagogic characteristics of CARS. Described case study using proposed framework to evaluate the use of talking books software in British schools. Cognitive and affective benefits are identified.…

  13. Competition within Computer-Assisted Cooperative Learning Environments: Cognitive, Affective, and Social Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Fu-Yun

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects and implications of embedding the element of competition in computer-assisted cooperative learning situations on student cognitive, affective, and social outcomes. Results of statistical analyses of Taiwanese fifth graders show that cooperation without inter-group competition engendered better attitudes and promoted more…

  14. Listening Strategy Use and Influential Factors in Web-Based Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, L.; Zhang, R.; Liu, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates second and foreign language (L2) learners' listening strategy use and factors that influence their strategy use in a Web-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) system. A strategy inventory, a factor questionnaire and a standardized listening test were used to collect data from a group of 82 Chinese students…

  15. The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Teaching Mathematics to Students with Specific Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stultz, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Using computers to teach students is not a new idea. Computers have been utilized for educational purposes for over 80 years. However, the effectiveness of these programs for teaching mathematics to students with specific learning disability is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine if computer-assisted instruction was as effective as…

  16. A Computer-Assisted Test Design and Diagnosis System for Use by Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Q.; Tymms, P.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-assisted assessment (CAA) has become increasingly important in education in recent years. A variety of computer software systems have been developed to help assess the performance of students at various levels. However, such systems are primarily designed to provide objective assessment of students and analysis of test items, and focus…

  17. Correcting Spellings in Second Language Learners' Computer-Assisted Collaborative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musk, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The present study uses multimodal conversation analysis to examine how pupils studying English as a foreign language make spelling corrections in real time while doing collaborative computer-assisted project work. Unlike most previous related investigations, this study focuses on the "process" rather than evaluating the final…

  18. Improving Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Higher-Order Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Kelsey J.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been shown to enhance rote memory skills and improve higher order critical thinking skills. The challenge now is to identify what aspects of CAI improve which specific higher-order skills. This study focuses on the effectiveness of using CAI to teach logarithmic graphing and dimensional analysis. Two groups…

  19. The Use of Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems with Adults at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantine, Malcolm; Sampson, James, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An organizationally based career development model posits that considering both individual and organizational perspectives is problematic and planning must take both a causal and purposive perspective. Computer-assisted career guidance can assist in developing individual action plans and provide aggregate data for organizational development. (JOW)

  20. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  1. A Longitudinal Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Contraception for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Tymchyshyn, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Assessed changes in contraceptive knowledge of 58 white female undergraduate students following computer-assisted instruction program on contraception. At six-month follow-up, students evidenced knowledge gains on duration of pill use, rationale for triphasics and biphasics, appropriate contingencies for missing two days of pill, danger signs…

  2. Integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Saudi Schools: A Change Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alresheed, Saleh; Leask, Marilyn; Raiker, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) technology and pedagogy have gained recognition globally for their success in supporting second language acquisition (SLA). In Saudi Arabia, the government aims to provide most educational institutions with computers and networking for integrating CALL into classrooms. However, the recognition of CALL's…

  3. Using Java and Dynamic HTML To Develop Collaborative, Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Callum R.; Robinson, David A.; Hamilton, Neil M.

    The construction of a very fast network backbone between all Scottish universities, in conjunction with the formation of a common core curriculum for Scottish medical schools teaching child health, has provided the schools with an opportunity to provide collaborative, computer assisted learning (CAL) across the World Wide Web, delivered by a…

  4. Computer-Assisted Techniques to Enhance Transformative Learning in First-Year Literature Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Marguerite; Kajs, Rebecca; Agee, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates techniques to foster transformative learning in computer-assisted literature classes: (1) a lesson plan on John Donne's "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning"; (2) a plan to analyze "Oedipus Rex" using the "Daedalus" Interactive Writing Environment; and (3) a demonstration of how students engage in "meta-reflection" as they explore…

  5. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Journal of Computer Assisted Learning," 2002-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Kyle R.; Zabriskie, Grant D.; Ashton, Scott M.; Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed all research articles published between 2002 and 2011 in the "Journal of Computer Assisted Learning," in order to understand the research topics methods, major contributing authors, and most-cited publications. Over the 10-year period, they found the journal has explored educational uses of computer…

  6. A Framework for the Design of Computer-Assisted Simulation Training for Complex Police Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Söderström, Tor; Åström, Jan; Anderson, Greg; Bowles, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report progress concerning the design of a computer-assisted simulation training (CAST) platform for developing decision-making skills in police students. The overarching aim is to outline a theoretical framework for the design of CAST to facilitate police students' development of search techniques in…

  7. Evaluating a Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Training (CAPT) Technique for Efficient Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Beate

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) technique that combines oral reading with peer review to improve pronunciation of Taiwanese English major students. In addition to traditional in-class instruction, students were given a short passage every week along with a recording of the respective text, read by a native…

  8. Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Build Math Fact Fluency: An Implementation Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Collins, Tai; Hernan, Colleen; Flowers, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Research findings support the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as a curriculum supplement for improving math skills, including math fact fluency. There are a number of websites and mobile applications (i.e., apps) designed to build students' math fact fluency, but the options can become overwhelming. This article provides implementation…

  9. Computer-Assisted Audiovisual Training Methods for Rural Staff Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeece, C. Aaron

    The state-of-the art review suggests that human services agencies in rural areas can provide adequate staff training through the use of high technology training systems. Training equipment discussed includes: videotapes, microcomputers for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) or computer-managed instruction (CMI), solenoid-operated videocassette…

  10. Views of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers Regarding Computer Assisted Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Ilhan

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to highlight the importance of computer assisted instruction in environmental education. Recently, the importance of environmental education in many countries has begun to increase in parallel with environmental problems. This has led to increased interest in environmental education. The fact that computers were the…

  11. A Meta-Analytical Investigation of the Influence of Computer Assisted Instruction on Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Akdeniz, Ali Riza

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to determine the overall effectiveness of computer assisted instruction on students' academic achievement in science education from 2001 to 2007 in Turkey. The study reported the results of 65 effect sizes (ES) included in 52 studies. Grand mean for 65 ESs was found to be 1.12. This effect size can be interpreted…

  12. Moderators of Efficacy for a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System (CACGS) Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Molly Rae

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating career intervention efficacy has inadequately investigated the identification of important client factors which might moderate the effects of various career interventions. The current study had two aims. First it examined the efficacy of a newly developed Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System (CACGS) used alone, and the…

  13. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcinalp, Serpil; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, and their attitudes toward chemistry and CAI. Reports that students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher and demonstrated significant improvement in attitudes compared to the control group…

  14. Computer-Assisted Analysis of Spontaneous Speech: Quantification of Basic Parameters in Aphasic and Unimpaired Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussmann, Katja; Grande, Marion; Meffert, Elisabeth; Christoph, Swetlana; Piefke, Martina; Willmes, Klaus; Huber, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Although generally accepted as an important part of aphasia assessment, detailed analysis of spontaneous speech is rarely carried out in clinical practice mostly due to time limitations. The Aachener Sprachanalyse (ASPA; Aachen Speech Analysis) is a computer-assisted method for the quantitative analysis of German spontaneous speech that allows for…

  15. A Computer-Assisted Program for the Teaching of Modern Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Peter; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The use of PLATO computer assisted instructional materials to teach Modern Hebrew at the University of Illinois is considered. To enable students to progress toward competency with the full range of styles in use in Israel including conversation, journalistic, and literary Hebrew, an emphasis is placed on informal spoken Hebrew during the first…

  16. A Study of the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction in the High School Biology Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybarrondo, Brent A.

    This study ascertained whether or not computer assisted instruction (CAI) enhanced the quality of the educational experience and resulted in increased learning. The study involved the teaching of a 3-week instructional unit on population genetics and evolutionary processes to advanced placement biology students. The control group (N=38) received…

  17. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Libraries: Guidelines for Effective Lesson Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Briefly describes the benefits of computer-assisted instruction for library applications in bibliographic instruction and staff training and notes that little quality software is available that is appropriate. Detailed guidelines are provided for librarians to design their own courseware, including planning, designing, writing, programming, and…

  18. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction on Mathematics and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reglin, Gary L.

    South Carolina requires that prospective teachers pass an Education Entrance Examination (EEE) consisting of three parts--writing, reading, and mathematics. Minorities are having difficulty passing the mathematics portion of this test. This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on basic skills mathematics…

  19. Effects of Computer-Assisted Jigsaw II Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted Jigsaw II cooperative strategy on physics achievement and retention. The study also determined how moderating variables of achievement levels as it affects students' performance in physics when Jigsaw II cooperative learning is used as an instructional strategy. Purposive sampling technique…

  20. How Can We Assess Computer-Assisted Reading and Writing Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauthamer, Helene

    This paper addresses the lack of evaluative resources for computer-assisted reading and writing instruction (CARWI). It begins by discussing the benefits, drawbacks, and effectiveness of computer-based instruction. It then describes types of CARWI packages, including: (1) writing process software; (2) electronic handbooks; (3) interactive…

  1. A Computer-Assisted Teaching System in Pharmacology for Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazdernik, Thomas L.; Walaszek, Edward J.

    1983-01-01

    Experiences with a combined computer-assisted and computer-managed pharmacology course that allows both scheduled and individual pacing are described. Students with low aptitudes achieved significantly higher scores on the pharmacology portion of a national medical examination after participation. (Author/MSE)

  2. Response to House Joint Resolution No. 118 [To Advance Computer-Assisted Instruction].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond.

    This response by the Virginia Department of Education to House Joint Resolution No. 118 of the General Assembly of Virginia, which requested the Department of Education to study initiatives to advance computer-assisted instruction, is based on input from state and national task forces and on a 1986 survey of 80 Viriginia school divisions. The…

  3. Relationship between Pre-Service Music Teachers' Personality and Motivation for Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkmen, Serkan; Cevik, Beste

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pre-service music teachers' personalities and their motivation for computer-assisted music instruction (CAI). The "Big Five" Model of Personality served as the framework. Participants were 83 pre-service music teachers in Turkey. Correlation analysis revealed that three…

  4. Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Survey of the Literature, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Albert E., Ed.

    References to literature published before July 1968 on computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are presented in this survey. Nine subject area chapters, providing the framework for the references, deal with general statements on CAI (including benefits, state of the art, problems, roles in society, financial support, and trends); applications of CAI…

  5. Efficiency of Computer Assisted Cooperative Learning Method on Students' Performance in Using Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikici, Ayhan

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effects of computer assisted cooperative learning method on students' performance of using colours in art education were examined. 15 students at the ages between 12 and 15 who owned a personal computer and had access to the internet were selected to form the experimental group. 35 students at the same time age and education…

  6. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted STAD Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Problem Solving, Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students' Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students' achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools…

  7. Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Learning in a Collaborative Context: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pi-hua

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) software provides language learners with an individualized free environment where they can have access to unlimited input and repetitive practice pronunciation at their own pace. This study explores the impact of CAPT on 90 Taiwanese college students' pronunciation learning and examines if other…

  8. The Application of Electroencephalography to Computer Assisted Instruction: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schack, Edna O.

    This paper examines the possibility of developing a conceptual framework on which future research on the application of electroencephalography (EEG) to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) could be based. Consistent associations between EEG and cognitive functions for learning and instruction have the potential for bringing cognitivism into the…

  9. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  10. CHEMEX; Understanding and Solving Problems in Chemistry. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Program for General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    A brief overview of CHEMEX--a problem-solving, tutorial style computer-assisted instructional course--is provided and sample problems are offered. In CHEMEX, students receive problems in advance and attempt to solve them before moving through the computer program, which assists them in overcoming difficulties and serves as a review mechanism.…

  11. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  12. Using Simultaneous Prompting and Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach Story Writing to Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Robert C.; Ault, Melinda Jones; Schuster, John W.; Sanders, Ann

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the researchers evaluated the effects of simultaneous prompting and computer-assisted instruction on the story-writing responses of 3 males with autism, 7 to 10 ears of age. Classroom teachers conducted all probe and training sessions. The researchers used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the…

  13. SuperPILOT: A Comprehensive Computer-Assisted Instruction Programming Language for the Apple II Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleur, David M.

    This presentation describes SuperPILOT, an extended version of Apple PILOT, a programming language for developing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with the Apple II computer that includes the features of its early PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching) ancestors together with new features that make use of the Apple computer's advanced…

  14. Computer-Assisted Instruction Applied to English Spelling. Instructor's Manual and Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Red Deer Coll. (Alberta).

    Guidelines to the SPELLINGCLUES project are presented. This is a computer-assisted instructional program designed to help college students correct spelling errors by providing them with spelling drills. The booklet consists of two sections. Part I, the Instructor's Manual, covers four topics: 1) the type of student for whom the program is…

  15. The Differential Effects of Interactive versus Didactic Pedagogy Using Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tieja; Alexander, Kristopher; Jackson, Renee; Abrami, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a representative sample meta-analysis that explored the effects of interactive versus didactic pedagogy using computer-assisted instruction on measures of academic achievement. A systematic literature search revealed 40 studies, from which 55 effect sizes were extracted. The random effects model of analysis…

  16. A PERT/CPM of the Computer Assisted Completion of The Ministry September Report. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, J. D.

    Using two statistical analysis techniques (the Program Evaluation and Review Technique and the Critical Path Method), this study analyzed procedures for compiling the required yearly report of the Metropolitan Separate School Board (Catholic) of Toronto, Canada. The computer-assisted analysis organized the process of completing the report more…

  17. Experimentation with Computer-Assisted Instruction in Technical Education. Semi-Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitzel, Harold E.; Brandon, George L.

    Activities conducted during the period January 1966-June 1966 as part of the Pennsylvania State University computer-assisted instruction (CAI) project are reported. The objectives of the project are described in a previous document (IR 000 511). This report first provides information on the physical facilities and equipment used in this stage of…

  18. The Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Mathematics Achievement of Underachieving Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Simmons, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance of underachieving fifth-grade students in a rural school district in South Carolina. The instructional technology program ([IF) is South Carolina's response to addressing the needs of its young, struggling math students. The 449 fifth-grade students in…

  19. Religious Studies as a Test-Case For Computer-Assisted Instruction In The Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bruce William

    Experiences with computer-assisted instructional (CAI) programs written for religious studies indicate that CAI has contributions to offer the humanities and social sciences. The usefulness of the computer for presentation, drill and review of factual material and its applicability to quantifiable data is well accepted. There now exist…

  20. Improving English Pronunciation through Computer-Assisted Programs in Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qudah, Fatima Zaki Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of using computer- assisted programs for teaching English pronunciation on students' performance in English Language pronunciation in Jordanian universities. To achieve the purpose of the study, a pre/post-test was constructed to measure students' level in English pronunciation. The sample…

  1. English Language Teachers' Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Yu Lin

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of studies have reported the potential use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and other types of technology for ESL and EFL students. So far, most studies on CALL have focused on CALL-classroom comparisons (Chenoweth & Murday, 2003; Chenoweth, Ushida, & Murday, 2007; Fitze, 2006; Neri, Mich, Gerosa, &…

  2. The Computers-and-Effective-Writing Movement: Computer-Assisted Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Lynn Veach

    1987-01-01

    Presents the history of the development of computer-assisted composition (CAC) software and notes the problems with reserving some software for "basic" students while "brighter" students can use more complex modeling or simulation software. Concludes that, from experience with basic writers' success with the programs, there are some benefits to…

  3. Blogging in Teacher Professional Development: Its Role in Building Computer-Assisted Language Teaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugaiah, Puvaneswary; Azman, Hazita; Ya'acob, Azizah; Thang, Siew Ming

    2010-01-01

    Teaching in today's classroom is technology-driven. For language teachers, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is exciting yet challenging as they are required to possess appropriate skills and knowledge to teach in such an environment. Both technical skills and pedagogical knowledge are crucial for teaching and learning in a…

  4. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and the Traditional Method of Teaching Basic Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Carmelita Y.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine if there is a significant difference in the effects of the treatment and control groups on achievement as well as on attitude as measured by the posttest. A class of 38 sophomore college students in the basic statistics taught with the use of computer-assisted instruction and another class of 15 students…

  5. The Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Pronunciation Training for Foreign Language Learning by Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neri, Ambra; Mich, Ornella; Gerosa, Matteo; Giuliani, Diego

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether a computer assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) system can help young learners improve word-level pronunciation skills in English as a foreign language at a level comparable to that achieved through traditional teacher-led training. The pronunciation improvement of a group of learners of 11 years of age receiving…

  6. From Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) to Mobile Assisted Language Use (MALU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw; Achilleos, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by critiquing the long-established acronym CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning). We then go on to report on a small-scale study which examines how student non-native speakers of English use a range of digital devices beyond the classroom in both their first (L1) and second (L2) languages. We look also at the extent to…

  7. Effectiveness of Cognitive Skills-Based Computer-Assisted Instruction for Students with Disabilities: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Pei-Lin; Maeda, Yukiko; Bouck, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for students with disabilities can be categorized into the following categories: visual, auditory, mobile, and cognitive skills-based CAI. Cognitive-skills based CAI differs from other types of CAI largely in terms of an emphasis on instructional design features. We conducted both systematic review of…

  8. Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Muniya S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Camp Cope-A-Lot (CCAL), a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in youth. Method: Children (49; 33 males) ages 7-13 (M = 10.1 [plus or minus] 1.6; 83.7% Caucasian, 14.2% African American, 2% Hispanic) with a principal anxiety disorder were…

  9. Fabric of Life: The Design of a System for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, S. K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the establishment of a library of computer images of histological preparations and the use of this library for computer-assisted instruction. Images from various organ systems along with line diagrams are stored on a central file server which can be accessed from remote terminals. The Fabric of Life program allows testing on each image…

  10. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which…

  11. A Case for Assessing Motivation from Learning a Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    The purpose of this paper is to report specific motivational requirements within each motivation category of Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model (1991) based on data collected on students' reactions to a computer-assisted learning lesson that incorporated motivational strategies in its design. Interview techniques…

  12. Speech Technology in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Strengths and Limitations of a New CALL Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehsani, Farzad; Knodt, Eva

    1998-01-01

    Investigates suitability of deploying speech technology in computer-based systems that can be used to teach foreign language skills. In reviewing the current state of speech recognition and speech processing technology and by examining a number of voice-interactive computer-assisted language learning applications, suggests how to create robust…

  13. Computerized Games and Simulations in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article explores research on the use of computerized games and simulations in language education. The author examined the psycholinguistic and sociocultural constructs proposed as a basis for the use of games and simulations in computer-assisted language learning. Research in this area is expanding rapidly. However, to date, few studies have…

  14. Deconstructing the Discourse of Opportunity: Computer-Assisted Credit Recovery in Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative schools educate students who have previously been unsuccessful in the traditional school setting. Many alternative school students are behind on high school credits, and the schools provide options for credit recovery. Computer-assisted instruction is often used for this purpose. Using case study methodology and a critical theoretical…

  15. The Evaluation of Scholarly Activity in Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan; Lafford, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study provides guidance for both junior computer-assisted language learning (CALL) researchers as they decide on the most appropriate forms and placement of scholarly activity and also for decision makers attempting to evaluate the scholarly activity of these CALL researchers in their quest for promotion and tenure. In this study, data…

  16. Effects of Computer Assistance on Acquisition of Piagetian Conceptualization among Children of Ages Two to Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piel, John A.; Baller, William A.

    1986-01-01

    Designed to determine whether computer-assisted instruction could enhance performance on Piagetian classification and conservation tasks, this study divided 44 preschool children into an experimental group, which was exposed to computer lessons, and a control group. Both age and computer exposure were found to be significant variables. (LRW)

  17. Accuracy of a Computer Assisted Program for ’Classic’ Presentations of Dental Pain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-11

    A computer-assisted dental program to assist independent duty corpsmen in the diagnosis and management of patients who present at sea with dental ... pain produced the correct diagnosis 78% of the time when given information considered by dentists to be classic for the condition in question. The

  18. Benefits of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Support Reading Acquisition in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaruso, Paul; Rodman, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Young children who are English language learners (ELLs) face major challenges in learning to read English. This study examined whether computer-assisted instruction (CAI) can be beneficial to ELL kindergartners enrolled in bilingual classes. The CAI programs provided systematic and structured exercises in developing phonological awareness and…

  19. Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics Computer--Assisted Instruction Environment in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwei, Philip K.; Wando, Dave; Too, Jackson K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of research conducted in six classes (Form IV) with 205 students with a sample of 94 respondents. Data represent students' statements that describe (a) the role of Mathematics teachers in a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) environment and (b) effectiveness of CAI in Mathematics instruction. The results indicated…

  20. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…