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Sample records for participatory computer-assisted approach

  1. Beyond the Melnikov method: A computer assisted approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capiński, Maciej J.; Zgliczyński, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    We present a Melnikov type approach for establishing transversal intersections of stable/unstable manifolds of perturbed normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds (NHIMs). The method is based on a new geometric proof of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold theorem, which establishes the existence of a NHIM, together with its associated invariant manifolds and bounds on their first and second derivatives. We do not need to know the explicit formulas for the homoclinic orbits prior to the perturbation. We also do not need to compute any integrals along such homoclinics. All needed bounds are established using rigorous computer assisted numerics. Lastly, and most importantly, the method establishes intersections for an explicit range of parameters, and not only for perturbations that are 'small enough', as is the case in the classical Melnikov approach.

  2. One Instructor's Approach to Computer Assisted Instruction in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    Discusses advantages of using computer-assisted instruction in a college general chemistry course. Advantages include using programs which generate random equations with double arrows (equilibrium systems) or generate alkane structural formula, asking for the correct IUPAC name of the structure. (Author/JN)

  3. Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping: A "Rationale" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping (CAAM) is a new way of understanding arguments. While still embryonic in its development and application, CAAM is being used increasingly as a training and development tool in the professions and government. Inroads are also being made in its application within education. CAAM claims to be helpful in an…

  4. A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Tolga

    2010-01-01

    Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…

  5. A Computer-Assisted Multiliteracies Programme as an Alternative Approach to EFL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungmee; Ardeshiri, Minoo; Cummins, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce a computer-assisted multiliteracies programme (CaMP) as an alternative approach to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instruction in order to overcome the educational limitations that are inherent in most EFL settings. In a number of monolingual societies with a dominant language other than English,…

  6. A Computer-Assisted Multiliteracies Programme as an Alternative Approach to EFL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungmee; Ardeshiri, Minoo; Cummins, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce a computer-assisted multiliteracies programme (CaMP) as an alternative approach to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instruction in order to overcome the educational limitations that are inherent in most EFL settings. In a number of monolingual societies with a dominant language other than English,…

  7. From computer-assisted intervention research to clinical impact: The need for a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Ourselin, Sébastien; Emberton, Mark; Vercauteren, Tom

    2016-10-01

    The early days of the field of medical image computing (MIC) and computer-assisted intervention (CAI), when publishing a strong self-contained methodological algorithm was enough to produce impact, are over. As a community, we now have substantial responsibility to translate our scientific progresses into improved patient care. In the field of computer-assisted interventions, the emphasis is also shifting from the mere use of well-known established imaging modalities and position trackers to the design and combination of innovative sensing, elaborate computational models and fine-grained clinical workflow analysis to create devices with unprecedented capabilities. The barriers to translating such devices in the complex and understandably heavily regulated surgical and interventional environment can seem daunting. Whether we leave the translation task mostly to our industrial partners or welcome, as researchers, an important share of it is up to us. We argue that embracing the complexity of surgical and interventional sciences is mandatory to the evolution of the field. Being able to do so requires large-scale infrastructure and a critical mass of expertise that very few research centres have. In this paper, we emphasise the need for a holistic approach to computer-assisted interventions where clinical, scientific, engineering and regulatory expertise are combined as a means of moving towards clinical impact. To ensure that the breadth of infrastructure and expertise required for translational computer-assisted intervention research does not lead to a situation where the field advances only thanks to a handful of exceptionally large research centres, we also advocate that solutions need to be designed to lower the barriers to entry. Inspired by fields such as particle physics and astronomy, we claim that centralised very large innovation centres with state of the art technology and health technology assessment capabilities backed by core support staff and open

  8. Interactive computer-assisted approach for evaluation of ultrastructural cilia abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Christoph; Siegmund, Heiko; Semmelmann, Matthias; Grafe, Claudia; Evert, Matthias; Schroeder, Josef A.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction - Diagnosis of abnormal cilia function is based on ultrastructural analysis of axoneme defects, especialy the features of inner and outer dynein arms which are the motors of ciliar motility. Sub-optimal biopsy material, methodical, and intrinsic electron microscopy factors pose difficulty in ciliary defects evaluation. We present a computer-assisted approach based on state-of-the-art image analysis and object recognition methods yielding a time-saving and efficient diagnosis of cilia dysfunction. Method - The presented approach is based on a pipeline of basal image processing methods like smoothing, thresholding and ellipse fitting. However, integration of application specific knowledge results in robust segmentations even in cases of image artifacts. The method is build hierarchically starting with the detection of cilia within the image, followed by the detection of nine doublets within each analyzable cilium, and ending with the detection of dynein arms of each doublet. The process is concluded by a rough classification of the dynein arms as basis for a computer-assisted diagnosis. Additionally, the interaction possibilities are designed in a way, that the results are still reproducible given the completion report. Results - A qualitative evaluation showed reasonable detection results for cilia, doublets and dynein arms. However, since a ground truth is missing, the variation of the computer-assisted diagnosis should be within the subjective bias of human diagnosticians. The results of a first quantitative evaluation with five human experts and six images with 12 analyzable cilia showed, that with default parameterization 91.6% of the cilia and 98% of the doublets were found. The computer-assisted approach rated 66% of those inner and outer dynein arms correct, where all human experts agree. However, especially the quality of the dynein arm classification may be improved in future work.

  9. Computer-assisted adjuncts for aneurysmal morphologic assessment: toward more precise and accurate approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabzadeh-Oghaz, Hamidreza; Varble, Nicole; Davies, Jason M.; Mowla, Ashkan; Shakir, Hakeem J.; Sonig, Ashish; Shallwani, Hussain; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Levy, Elad I.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Meng, Hui

    2017-03-01

    Neurosurgeons currently base most of their treatment decisions for intracranial aneurysms (IAs) on morphological measurements made manually from 2D angiographic images. These measurements tend to be inaccurate because 2D measurements cannot capture the complex geometry of IAs and because manual measurements are variable depending on the clinician's experience and opinion. Incorrect morphological measurements may lead to inappropriate treatment strategies. In order to improve the accuracy and consistency of morphological analysis of IAs, we have developed an image-based computational tool, AView. In this study, we quantified the accuracy of computer-assisted adjuncts of AView for aneurysmal morphologic assessment by performing measurement on spheres of known size and anatomical IA models. AView has an average morphological error of 0.56% in size and 2.1% in volume measurement. We also investigate the clinical utility of this tool on a retrospective clinical dataset and compare size and neck diameter measurement between 2D manual and 3D computer-assisted measurement. The average error was 22% and 30% in the manual measurement of size and aneurysm neck diameter, respectively. Inaccuracies due to manual measurements could therefore lead to wrong treatment decisions in 44% and inappropriate treatment strategies in 33% of the IAs. Furthermore, computer-assisted analysis of IAs improves the consistency in measurement among clinicians by 62% in size and 82% in neck diameter measurement. We conclude that AView dramatically improves accuracy for morphological analysis. These results illustrate the necessity of a computer-assisted approach for the morphological analysis of IAs.

  10. A Response Evaluation Approach: An Aid for Computer Assisted Instruction Lesson Writing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Arnheim, Rudolph, Visual Thinking, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: UniversiEy of California Press, 1969. Bruner , Jerome S ., Goodnow, Jacqueline J...pr 1 lO9V S71 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY C A F/ S 5/9 RESPONSE E VALUATION APPROACH: AN AID0 FOR COMPUTER ASSISTED IN--ETC(U) J NCASIFKO SEP...CATALOG NuN0601R *. TITLE rind iubeuaI.I S . TYPE or REPORT a PERIOD COVERED A Response Evaluation Approach: Master’s Thesis: An Aid for Computer

  11. A Brief Review of Computer-Assisted Approaches to Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Ashesh; Basak, Subhash C

    2016-05-04

    The growing incidences of new viral diseases and increasingly frequent viral epidemics have strained therapeutic and preventive measures; the high mutability of viral genes puts additional strains on developmental efforts. Given the high cost and time requirements for new drugs development, vaccines remain as a viable alternative, but there too traditional techniques of live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines have the danger of allergenic reactions and others. Peptide vaccines have, over the last several years, begun to be looked on as more appropriate alternatives, which are economically affordable, require less time for development and hold the promise of multi-valent dosages. The developments in bioinformatics, proteomics, immunogenomics, structural biology and other sciences have spurred the growth of vaccinomics where computer assisted approaches serve to identify suitable peptide targets for eventual development of vaccines. In this mini-review we give a brief overview of some of the recent trends in computer assisted vaccine development with emphasis on the primary selection procedures of probable peptide candidates for vaccine development.

  12. A Brief Review of Computer-Assisted Approaches to Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Ashesh; Basak, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    The growing incidences of new viral diseases and increasingly frequent viral epidemics have strained therapeutic and preventive measures; the high mutability of viral genes puts additional strains on developmental efforts. Given the high cost and time requirements for new drugs development, vaccines remain as a viable alternative, but there too traditional techniques of live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines have the danger of allergenic reactions and others. Peptide vaccines have, over the last several years, begun to be looked on as more appropriate alternatives, which are economically affordable, require less time for development and hold the promise of multi-valent dosages. The developments in bioinformatics, proteomics, immunogenomics, structural biology and other sciences have spurred the growth of vaccinomics where computer assisted approaches serve to identify suitable peptide targets for eventual development of vaccines. In this mini-review we give a brief overview of some of the recent trends in computer assisted vaccine development with emphasis on the primary selection procedures of probable peptide candidates for vaccine development. PMID:27153063

  13. Computer-Assisted Instruction and Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Shared Goals and Complementary Approaches. Technology in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jill H., Ed.; Chabay, Ruth W., Ed.

    The complementary, but distinct, approaches of computer assisted instruction (CAI) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) are first summarized, then followed by a collection of papers discussing shared issues toward which these complementary approaches are directed. The purpose of this book is to foster a mutual understanding of shared issues and…

  14. A New Approach to Teaching Reading Comprehension: Using Cloze and Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Bethany J.; Bell, D. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the Computer-Assisted Instruction Project, under the auspices of the All Indian Pueblo Project, designed to help elementary Pueblo students to develop better reading skills through culturally relevant reading and the cloze technique. (RAO)

  15. In My Shoes - Validation of a computer assisted approach for interviewing children.

    PubMed

    Fängström, Karin; Bokström, Pär; Dahlberg, Anton; Calam, Rachel; Lucas, Steven; Sarkadi, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Interviewing young children presents a challenge because they tend to provide incomplete accounts and are easily misled. Therefore there is a need for techniques to improve young children's recall, while maintaining accuracy and increasing completeness. The computer-assisted interview In My Shoes (IMS) is an aid that potentially offers a way for young children to provide accounts of their experiences. This study examined the validity of IMS, by comparing it with a forensic best practice interview approach using a real-life clinical situation to ensure high ecological validity. Children were randomly assigned to either method and both accuracy and completeness of statements made by 4- and 5-year-olds (N=54) regarding a video-documented health check-up were assessed. The In My Shoes interviews were as good as best practice interviews on all accuracy measures for both age groups, except for object accuracy that was better in the forensic interview condition. Events description completeness was similar in both interview conditions; however, IMS interviews generated more complete statements about people present at the visit. The findings suggest that the IMS approach yields comparable results to a best practice interview, and it can be used as an alternative aid in child interviews.

  16. A Review of Issues in Computer-Assisted Counseling and a New Approach to Its Applications in College Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colburn, Kenneth A.

    Issues and approaches in computer-assisted counseling are presented in this thesis. Reasons are considered for the ineffectiveness of school guidance counselors in helping students make college selections, and a reconceptualization of counseling as a technology of helping is suggested. The uses of computers in counseling are examined along with…

  17. Computer-Assisted, Counselor-Delivered Smoking Cessation Counseling for Community College Students: Intervention Approach and Sample Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; de Moor, Carl; Warneke, Carla L.; Luca, Mario; Jones, Mary Mullin; Rosenblum, Carol; Emmons, Karen M.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Yost, Tracey E.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the experimental approach and baseline findings from "Look at Your Health," an ongoing study to develop and evaluate a computer-assisted, counselor-delivered smoking cessation program for community college students. It describes the expert system software program used for data collection and for provision of tailored feedback,…

  18. Computer-Assisted, Counselor-Delivered Smoking Cessation Counseling for Community College Students: Intervention Approach and Sample Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; de Moor, Carl; Warneke, Carla L.; Luca, Mario; Jones, Mary Mullin; Rosenblum, Carol; Emmons, Karen M.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Yost, Tracey E.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the experimental approach and baseline findings from "Look at Your Health," an ongoing study to develop and evaluate a computer-assisted, counselor-delivered smoking cessation program for community college students. It describes the expert system software program used for data collection and for provision of tailored feedback,…

  19. A Computer-Assisted Personalized Approach in an Undergraduate Plant Physiology Class1

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Nancy N.; Nadler, Kenneth D.

    1999-01-01

    We used Computer-Assisted Personalized Approach (CAPA), a networked teaching and learning tool that generates computer individualized homework problem sets, in our large-enrollment introductory plant physiology course. We saw significant improvement in student examination performance with regular homework assignments, with CAPA being an effective and efficient substitute for hand-graded homework. Using CAPA, each student received a printed set of similar but individualized problems of a conceptual (qualitative) and/or quantitative nature with quality graphics. Because each set of problems is unique, students were encouraged to work together to clarify concepts but were required to do their own work for credit. Students could enter answers multiple times without penalty, and they were able to obtain immediate feedback and hints until the due date. These features increased student time on task, allowing higher course standards and student achievement in a diverse student population. CAPA handles routine tasks such as grading, recording, summarizing, and posting grades. In anonymous surveys, students indicated an overwhelming preference for homework in CAPA format, citing several features such as immediate feedback, multiple tries, and on-line accessibility as reasons for their preference. We wrote and used more than 170 problems on 17 topics in introductory plant physiology, cataloging them in a computer library for general access. Representative problems are compared and discussed. PMID:10198076

  20. Computer-Assisted Drug Formulation Design: Novel Approach in Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Abdelkader A; Hathout, Rania M

    2015-08-03

    We hypothesize that, by using several chemo/bio informatics tools and statistical computational methods, we can study and then predict the behavior of several drugs in model nanoparticulate lipid and polymeric systems. Accordingly, two different matrices comprising tripalmitin, a core component of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), and PLGA were first modeled using molecular dynamics simulation, and then the interaction of drugs with these systems was studied by means of computing the free energy of binding using the molecular docking technique. These binding energies were hence correlated with the loadings of these drugs in the nanoparticles obtained experimentally from the available literature. The obtained relations were verified experimentally in our laboratory using curcumin as a model drug. Artificial neural networks were then used to establish the effect of the drugs' molecular descriptors on the binding energies and hence on the drug loading. The results showed that the used soft computing methods can provide an accurate method for in silico prediction of drug loading in tripalmitin-based and PLGA nanoparticulate systems. These results have the prospective of being applied to other nano drug-carrier systems, and this integrated statistical and chemo/bio informatics approach offers a new toolbox to the formulation science by proposing what we present as computer-assisted drug formulation design (CADFD).

  1. Systematic Approach to Guidance; Computer Assisted Reporting. A Competency-Based Development Training Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Evan G.; And Others

    This module of a competency-based staff development training package is concerned with computer assisted reporting in a guidance, counseling, and placement program. The first goal of this module is to provide the participant with general knowledge of the process necessary to develop an effective computer information system. The second goal is to…

  2. The Lower Manhattan Project: A New Approach to Computer-Assisted Learning in History Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, William; Gaffield, Chad

    1990-01-01

    The Lower Manhattan Project, a computer-assisted undergraduate course in U.S. history, enhances student appreciation of the historical process through research and writing. Focuses on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries emphasizing massive immigration, rapid industrialization, and the growth of cities. Includes a reading list and…

  3. The Lower Manhattan Project: A New Approach to Computer-Assisted Learning in History Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, William; Gaffield, Chad

    1990-01-01

    The Lower Manhattan Project, a computer-assisted undergraduate course in U.S. history, enhances student appreciation of the historical process through research and writing. Focuses on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries emphasizing massive immigration, rapid industrialization, and the growth of cities. Includes a reading list and…

  4. Are They Numbers or VIPs? A Personalized, Computer-Assisted Approach to College Admissions and Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Evelyn P.; Reda, Denice A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Personalized Admissions and Advisement System introduced at Triton College, Illinois, to administer student recruitment, admissions, advising, and initial orientation. The article compares the old and the new systems and points out the benefits of the computer-assisted method, particularly as related to speed and ease of data…

  5. Computer Assisted Instruction in Economics: An Approach for Illustrating General Equilibrium Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Robert W.

    A market exchange simulation utilizing the PLATO computer-assisted instructional system at the University of Illinois has been designed to teach students the principles of a general equilibrium system. It serves a laboratory function which supplements traditional instruction by stimulating students' interests and providing them with illustrations…

  6. Thermodynamic Properties of Asphaltenes: A Predictive Approach Based On Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation and Atomistic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, Mamadou S.; Cagin, Tahir; Faulon, Jean Loup; Goddard, William A.

    2000-08-01

    The authors describe a new methodology for predicting the thermodynamic properties of petroleum geomacromolecules (asphaltenes and resins). This methodology combines computer assisted structure elucidation (CASE) with atomistic simulations (molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics and statistical mechanics). They use quantitative and qualitative structural data as input to a CASE program (SIGNATURE) to generate a sample of ten asphaltene model structures for a Saudi crude oil (Arab Berri). MM calculations and MD simulations are used to estimate selected volumetric and thermal properties of the model structures.

  7. Innovative approach in the development of computer assisted algorithm for spine pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Solitro, Giovanni F; Amirouche, Farid

    2016-04-01

    Pedicle screws are typically used for fusion, percutaneous fixation, and means of gripping a spinal segment. The screws act as a rigid and stable anchor points to bridge and connect with a rod as part of a construct. The foundation of the fusion is directly related to the placement of these screws. Malposition of pedicle screws causes intraoperative complications such as pedicle fractures and dural lesions and is a contributing factor to fusion failure. Computer assisted spine surgery (CASS) and patient-specific drill templates were developed to reduce this failure rate, but the trajectory of the screws remains a decision driven by anatomical landmarks often not easily defined. Current data shows the need of a robust and reliable technique that prevents screw misplacement. Furthermore, there is a need to enhance screw insertion guides to overcome the distortion of anatomical landmarks, which is viewed as a limiting factor by current techniques. The objective of this study is to develop a method and mathematical lemmas that are fundamental to the development of computer algorithms for pedicle screw placement. Using the proposed methodology, we show how we can generate automated optimal safe screw insertion trajectories based on the identification of a set of intrinsic parameters. The results, obtained from the validation of the proposed method on two full thoracic segments, are similar to previous morphological studies. The simplicity of the method, being pedicle arch based, is applicable to vertebrae where landmarks are either not well defined, altered or distorted.

  8. Computer-assisted neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Maciunas, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Computer-assisted neurosurgery has become so successful that it is rapidly becoming indistinguishable from, quite simply, neurosurgery. This trend promises to accelerate over the next several decades, bringing considerable benefit to the patients we care for. From a pragmatic point of view, can we identify specific instances in which clinical practice has been altered by computer assistance? During craniotomies for the resection of brain tumors, this technology has led to a greater standardization within and among practitioners for the expected degree of resection and the risk of morbidity and mortality. Minimally invasive approaches are transforming the practice of cranial base surgery. This technological trend has made craniotomy for biopsy virtually obsolete in the face of frameless stereotactic techniques. Functional neurosurgery has benefited from these technologies, as deep brain stimulation surgery has become the standard of care for most cases of movement disorder surgery. Extratemporal epilepsy due to cortical dysplasia has proven especially amenable to image-guided surgical techniques that integrate electrophysiological monitoring to refine the target of resection. New surgical procedures made possible by computer assistance include minimally invasive spine surgery, endovascular procedures, resections of low-grade nonenhancing gliomas, and stereotactic radiosurgery. A program for future research and development in this field would include: Electronic patient medical records. Automatic dynamic and elastic registration Novel surgical instrumentation guided by augmented reality Real-time feedback using anatomic and functional information Active robotic servo control systems to amplify neurosurgical capabilities Outcomes analysis-driven refinement of neurosurgical interventions. It is apparent that using computer assistance in neurosurgery has begun a process that will irrevocably transform all of neurosurgical practice itself. It must be neurosurgeons

  9. Teachers' Stories: Expanding the Boundaries with the Participatory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Lee; And Others

    Compiled by a group of teachers new to the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) field, this volume contains writing samples from teachers involved in the participatory approach to ESL classroom instruction. Introductory notes by Lee Hewitt cite the participatory approach as the most compelling method for teaching ESL adult learners. The…

  10. Participatory Research: New Approaches to the Research to Practice Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…

  11. Approaches to Participatory Literacy: A Campus Tutor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew; And Others

    A workbook for literacy tutors offers guidance on the principles and practices of a participatory teaching and learning approach. Specifically, the book is divided into three sections: Section 1 is an examination of the principles and practices of a participatory teaching and learning approach. Section 2 provides strategies and ideas for tutoring…

  12. Participatory Research: New Approaches to the Research to Practice Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…

  13. A framework for the selection of participatory approaches for SEA

    SciTech Connect

    Rauschmayer, Felix . E-mail: felix.rauschmayer@ufz.de; Risse, Nathalie . E-mail: nrisse@ulb.ac.be

    2005-08-15

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is now adopted as a formal procedure in various organisations. Nevertheless, the question of how to choose the most suitable SEA participatory approach for a given situation is far from being resolved. To shed light on this question, we briefly describe several participatory approaches used in environmental management and decision-making. A framework for evaluating these approaches is then adapted to SEA and used to assess the approaches selected. We conclude that participatory approaches within the SEA implementation process need to be chosen more systematically and we put forward our framework as a way of doing so.

  14. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of the Computer Assisted Method and the Interactionist Approach to Teaching Geometry Shapes to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaranis, Nicholas; Synodi, Evanthia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of computer assisted teaching of geometry shapes and an interactionist approach to teaching geometry in kindergarten versus other more traditional teaching methods. Our research compares the improvement of the children's geometrical competence using two teaching approaches. The…

  15. A Different Approach to Have Science and Technology Student-Teachers Gain Varied Methods in Laboratory Applications: A Sample of Computer Assisted POE Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saka, Arzu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach and assess the application for the science and technology student-teachers to gain varied laboratory methods in science and technology teaching. It is also aimed to describe the computer-assisted POE application in the subject of "Photosynthesis-Light" developed in the context of…

  16. The Impact of Asynchronous Computer-Assisted Language Learning Approaches on English as a Foreign Language High and Low Achievers' Vocabulary Retention and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjian, Bahman; Moosavinia, Seyyed Rahim; Kavari, Kamal Ebrahimi; Asgari, Parviz; Hydarei, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the impact of asynchronous computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches on high and low achievers' vocabulary retention and recall of English as foreign language learners. Fifty participants were assigned into two homogeneous groups. Both groups covered eight expository passages, which included "Select readings:…

  17. Species-Recognition Program: A Computer-Assisted Approach to Recognizing Species†

    PubMed Central

    Kelsch, Steven; Carmichael, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Species recognition is a crucial component for many types of biological studies. To that end, broadly trained students must be able to accurately identify many different types of organisms. Courses that focus on learning the names of different species traditionally rely on preserved specimens viewed during class or laboratory time. Unfortunately, reliance on preserved specimens comes with many challenges in providing students with an optimal learning experience. The curriculum activity described here uses a modified PowerPoint file (species-recognition program—SRP) as a means of helping students learn to recognize and identify fishes based on subtle visual cues. Our results indicate that students were better able to identify fish species when using the SRP as a learning approach than when using preserved specimens. We suggest that the SRP approach to species recognition is an effective, viable alternative or supplement to preserved specimens that can be easily implemented in any course that emphasizes species identification. Information and materials are provided to enable instructors to create their own species-recognition programs. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158308

  18. Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lyxell, Björn; Sahlén, Birgitta; Dahlström, Orjan; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Kallioinen, Petter; Uhlén, Inger

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included 48 children, 5, 6 and 7 years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children's reading ability at pre and post-intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year-olds compared to the DHH 7-year-olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children's beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Computer-Assisted Learning Program--A Novel Approach to Teaching Gynaecological Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jha, Vikram; Widdowson, Shelley; Duffy, Sean

    2002-01-01

    Discusses computer-assisted learning (CAL) in medical education and describes the development of an interactive CAL program on CD-ROM, combining video, illustrations, and three-dimensional images, to enhance understanding of vaginal hysterectomy in terms of the anatomy and steps of the surgical procedure. (Author/LRW)

  20. Validating a Computer-Assisted Language Learning Attitude Instrument Used in Iranian EFL Context: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2016-01-01

    A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…

  1. At Their Own Pace: Interim Findings from an Evaluation of a Computer-Assisted, Modular Approach to Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardenhire, Alissa; Diamond, John; Headlam, Camielle; Weiss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges nationwide are looking for solutions to help students complete developmental (remedial) math--a known barrier to graduation. Some are offering computer-assisted, modular developmental math courses that allow students to earn credits incrementally and move through the curriculum at their own pace. One of these modularized…

  2. A Randomized Rounding Approach for Optimization of Test Sheet Composing and Exposure Rate Control in Computer-Assisted Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chu-Fu; Lin, Chih-Lung; Deng, Jien-Han

    2012-01-01

    Testing is an important stage of teaching as it can assist teachers in auditing students' learning results. A good test is able to accurately reflect the capability of a learner. Nowadays, Computer-Assisted Testing (CAT) is greatly improving traditional testing, since computers can automatically and quickly compose a proper test sheet to meet user…

  3. Validating a Computer-Assisted Language Learning Attitude Instrument Used in Iranian EFL Context: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2016-01-01

    A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…

  4. Implications Of Computer Assisted Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Heinz U.

    1989-10-01

    Within the field of radiology, assistance with computer and communication systems may be applied to generation, storing, transmission, viewing, analyzing and interpreting of images. As a result, digital image management and communication systems will be applied at various levels in the health care system. Four groups of people are somehow involved or affected by this process. These are, first of all, the patients and the medical personnel, but also the scientific-engineering community and the group of professions involved with financing and/or administering these systems. Each group approaches computer assisted radiology from a particular point of view. The paper outlines some aspects as regards the different perceptions of these groups, which need to be clarified in order to successfully realise computer assisted radiology.

  5. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  6. A Participatory Action Research Approach To Evaluating Inclusive School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.

    2001-01-01

    This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…

  7. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  8. A Participatory Action Research Approach To Evaluating Inclusive School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.

    2001-01-01

    This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…

  9. Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corre, Le; Jacoud, R.

    The Paris Faculty of Science is developing programs in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Their first goal is to develop "questionnaires" (instructional sequences) administered by teletype machines which check on a student's knowledge in an area and draw his attention to basic concepts, definitions, and theorems in that area. Using an…

  10. CAA: Computer Assisted Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John H.

    Computers have been used in a variety of applications for athletics since the late 1950's. These have ranged from computer-controlled electric scoreboards to computer-designed pole vaulting poles. Described in this paper are a computer-based athletic injury reporting system and a computer-assisted football scouting system. The injury reporting…

  11. Community-Based Participatory Evaluation: The Healthy Start Approach

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Ronald L.; McKenzie, Robetta D.; Pruitt, Vikki; Holden, Kisha B.; Aaron, Katrina; Hollimon, Chavone

    2013-01-01

    The use of community-based participatory research has gained momentum as a viable approach to academic and community engagement for research over the past 20 years. This article discusses an approach for extending the process with an emphasis on evaluation of a community partnership–driven initiative and thus advances the concept of conducting community-based participatory evaluation (CBPE) through a model used by the Healthy Start project of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., in Augusta, Georgia. Application of the CBPE approach advances the importance of bilateral engagements with consumers and academic evaluators. The CBPE model shows promise as a reliable and credible evaluation approach for community-level assessment of health promotion programs. PMID:22461687

  12. Computer-assisted psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jesse H.; Wright, Andrew S.

    1997-01-01

    The rationale for using computers in psychotherapy includes the possibility that therapeutic software could improve the efficiency of treatment and provide access for greater numbers of patients. Computers have not been able to reliably duplicate the type of dialogue typically used in clinician-administered therapy. However, computers have significant strengths that can be used to advantage in designing treatment programs. Software developed for computer-assisted therapy generally has been well accepted by patients. Outcome studies have usually demonstrated treatment effectiveness for this form of therapy. Future development of computer tools may be influenced by changes in health care financing and rapid growth of new technologies. An integrated care delivery model incorporating the unique attributes of both clinicians and computers should be adopted for computer-assisted therapy. PMID:9292446

  13. Computer-assisted instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a project of research and development on strategies for optimizing the instructional process, and dissemination of information about the applications of such research to the instructional medium of computer-assisted instruction. Accomplishments reported include construction of the author language INSTRUCT, construction of a practical CAI course in the area of computer science, and a number of investigations into the individualization of instruction, using the course as a vehicle.

  14. Computer-assisted instruction to prevent early reading difficulties in students at risk for dyslexia: Outcomes from two instructional approaches.

    PubMed

    Torgesen, Joseph K; Wagner, Richard K; Rashotte, Carol A; Herron, Jeannine; Lindamood, Patricia

    2010-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of two computer-assisted instructional programs designed to provide instruction and practice in foundational reading skills was examined. First-grade students at risk for reading disabilities received approximately 80 h of small-group instruction in four 50-min sessions per week from October through May. Approximately half of the instruction was delivered by specially trained teachers to prepare students for their work on the computer, and half was delivered by the computer programs. At the end of first grade, there were no differences in student reading performance between students assigned to the different intervention conditions, but the combined-intervention students performed significantly better than control students who had been exposed to their school's normal reading program. Significant differences were obtained for phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, reading accuracy, rapid automatic naming, and reading comprehension. A follow-up test at the end of second grade showed a similar pattern of differences, although only differences in phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, and rapid naming remained statistically reliable.

  15. A new approach of building 3D visualization framework for multimodal medical images display and computed assisted diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenwei; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    As more and more CT/MR studies are scanning with larger volume of data sets, more and more radiologists and clinician would like using PACS WS to display and manipulate these larger data sets of images with 3D rendering features. In this paper, we proposed a design method and implantation strategy to develop 3D image display component not only with normal 3D display functions but also with multi-modal medical image fusion as well as compute-assisted diagnosis of coronary heart diseases. The 3D component has been integrated into the PACS display workstation of Shanghai Huadong Hospital, and the clinical practice showed that it is easy for radiologists and physicians to use these 3D functions such as multi-modalities' (e.g. CT, MRI, PET, SPECT) visualization, registration and fusion, and the lesion quantitative measurements. The users were satisfying with the rendering speeds and quality of 3D reconstruction. The advantages of the component include low requirements for computer hardware, easy integration, reliable performance and comfortable application experience. With this system, the radiologists and the clinicians can manipulate with 3D images easily, and use the advanced visualization tools to facilitate their work with a PACS display workstation at any time.

  16. The Palouse Basin Participatory Model Pilot Project: A Participatory Approach to Bi-state Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.

  17. From didactic teaching to participatory learning. An innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Mathabathe, Nkhensani C; Rudolph, Michael J; Ogunbodede, Eyitope O; Smuts, Bridget

    2004-03-01

    A course in Public Oral Health is currently offered by the Division of Public Oral Health (POH) to students in their final (6th year) of study for the degree of Bachelor of Dental Science. A fundamental aspect of this project was to shift the teaching methods from didactic to a participatory, student-centred approach, based on current local and international trends in medical, dental and general education. In 1999 the course covering core Public Health topics was presented over a period of 20 weeks to 49 students who were divided into three groups. Staff members were trained in participatory, student-centred teaching methods. An evaluation of students and staff was conducted at the end of the course. Results show that students were satisfied with the teaching methods employed and commended the Division on the organisation of the course. Students were unhappy with the amount of reading required in preparation for weekly seminars. They felt that the course was inappropriately positioned in their final year of study, due to pressure of achieving quotas for the clinical courses. Nevertheless, the main objectives of the Public Oral Health course were achieved through the adoption of a participatory, student-centred teaching approach.

  18. Community Capacity Assessment in Preventing Substance Abuse: A Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shahandeh, KH; Majdzadeh, R; Jamshidi, E; Loori, N

    2012-01-01

    Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to address health issues. Few evidence exist to indicate how builds the capacity of communities to function as health promoter and what resources are required to promote successful efforts. This article presents the result of a capacity assessment for preventing drug abuse through CBPR, which working with rather than in communities, to strengthen a community’s problem-solving capacity. For exploring the perception of stakeholders, a dynamic model of the dimensions of community and partnership capacity served as the theoretical framework. Methods: In this descriptive research, stakeholder analysis helps us to identify appropriate of stakeholders (Key stakeholders). Data were collected using a topic guide concerned with capacity for preventing drug abuse. Interviews were audiotape and transcribed. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: CBPR has been undertaken to involve local people in making decisions about the kind of change they want in their community and the allocation of resources to reduce substance abuse. We identified key stakeholders and examining their interests, resources and constraints of different stakeholders. Conclusion: The current study has shown the benefits of community-based participatory approach in assessing capacity. Through CBPR process people who affected by Drug issue engaged in analysis of their own situation and helps identity innovative solutions for their complex problem. This participatory approach to a capacity assessment resulted in a synergistic effort that provided a more accurate picture of community issues and concerns. PMID:23193506

  19. Interdisciplinary and participatory approaches: the key to effective groundwater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Roland; Foster, Stephen; Villholth, Karen G.

    2017-06-01

    The challenges of a changing world, which are progressively threatening sustainable use of groundwater resources, can only be rationally and effectively addressed through close collaboration between experts and practitioners from different disciplines. Furthermore, science and management need to build on stakeholder opinions and processes in order to generate useful knowledge and positive outcomes in terms of sustainable and equitable groundwater management. This essay provides a discussion of the status of and vision for participatory and inter-disciplinary approaches to groundwater evaluation and management as well as a conceptual framework and relevant research questions that will facilitate such approaches.

  20. Empowering women: participatory approaches in women's health and development projects.

    PubMed

    Manderson, L; Mark, T

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the experience of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and community-based organizations in implementing projects aimed at improving women's health. The study included 16 projects, reflecting Australian NGO experiences in Africa, China, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and South America. They illustrate the value of participatory approaches in determining needs and priorities, and the value of the continued involvement of women in implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Approaches that succeeded in increasing women's access to and use of health services addressed gender issues, set realistic and achievable objectives, and recognized and enhanced the roles and status of women.

  1. Reduce in Variation and Improve Efficiency of Target Volume Delineation by a Computer-Assisted System Using a Deformable Image Registration Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.S. Clifford . E-mail: cchao@mdanderson.org; Bhide, Shreerang FRCR; Chen, Hansen; Asper, Joshua PAC; Bush, Steven; Franklin, Gregg; Kavadi, Vivek; Liengswangwong, Vichaivood; Gordon, William; Raben, Adam; Strasser, Jon; Koprowski, Christopher; Frank, Steven; Chronowski, Gregory; Ahamad, Anesa; Malyapa, Robert; Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a computer-assisted target volume delineation (CAT) system using a deformable image registration approach can reduce the variation of target delineation among physicians with different head and neck (HN) IMRT experiences and reduce the time spent on the contouring process. Materials and Methods: We developed a deformable image registration method for mapping contours from a template case to a patient case with a similar tumor manifestation but different body configuration. Eight radiation oncologists with varying levels of clinical experience in HN IMRT performed target delineation on two HN cases, one with base-of-tongue (BOT) cancer and another with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), by first contouring from scratch and then by modifying the contours deformed by the CAT system. The gross target volumes were provided. Regions of interest for comparison included the clinical target volumes (CTVs) and normal organs. The volumetric and geometric variation of these regions of interest and the time spent on contouring were analyzed. Results: We found that the variation in delineating CTVs from scratch among the physicians was significant, and that using the CAT system reduced volumetric variation and improved geometric consistency in both BOT and NPC cases. The average timesaving when using the CAT system was 26% to 29% for more experienced physicians and 38% to 47% for the less experienced ones. Conclusions: A computer-assisted target volume delineation approach, using a deformable image-registration method with template contours, was able to reduce the variation among physicians with different experiences in HN IMRT while saving contouring time.

  2. Obesity Interventions in the Community : Engaged and Participatory Approaches.

    PubMed

    Economos, Christina; Blondin, Stacy

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is a pervasive global public health concern of utmost priority. Effective and efficient interventions are urgently needed to reverse current trends, especially among children. The past decade has witnessed increasing adoption and implementation of community-engaged and -participatory interventions that employ a bottom-up approach to identifying and realizing sustainable solutions within communities. It is argued herein that community-based approaches are most effective when implemented via a systems perspective that integrates across societal sectors. This approach seizes upon the synergistic effects that result from simultaneously mobilizing community assets at multiple levels. This paper provides an overview of the evolution and theory behind community-engaged, community-participatory, and systems-level interventions, discusses recent findings in the field, offers reflections based on first-hand experience, outlines advances in relevant resources, and lays forth potential and promising directions for future research. It emphasizes the centrality and necessity of community-engaged systems-level interventions in halting and reversing the obesity epidemic.

  3. [Computer-assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Micali, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The broad range of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) represents the integration of computer technology in surgical procedures for presurgical planning, guiding or manipulation. Surgical robots and surgical endoscopic navigation are the most challenging applications to urology. A surgical robot is defined as a computer-controlled manipulator with artificial sensing which can be programmed to move, and position tools to carry out surgical tasks. In urology, robots have been tested in two areas: endourology and laparoscopy. Surgical navigation allows the surgeon to process data from pre- and intraoperative sources, aiming at purification and presentation of the most relevant information. Image-guided systems (IGS), augmented reality (AR) and navigation in endoscopic soft tissue surgery represent the three main topics of surgical urological navigation. IGS involve matching the coordinates from medical imaging (preoperative registration) with coordinates from the patient in the operating room (registration and updating images). IGS have become the standard of care in providing navigational assistance during neurosurgery, offering subsurface and functional information to the surgeon.

  4. Computer Assisted Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Cosío, F.; Padilla Castañeda, M. A.

    2003-09-01

    Computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems can provide different levels of assistance to a surgeon during training and execution of a surgical procedure. This is done through the integration of : measurements taken on medical images; computer graphics techniques; and positioning or tracking mechanisms which accurately locate the surgical instruments inside the operating site. According to the type of assistance that is provided to the surgeon, CAS systems can be classified as: Image guided surgery systems; Assistant robots for surgery; and Training simulators for surgery. In this work are presented the main characteristics of CAS systems. It is also described the development of a computer simulator for training on Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) based on a computer model of the prostate gland which is able to simulate, in real time, deformations and resections of tissue. The model is constructed as a 3D mesh with physical properties such as elasticity. We describe the main characteristics of the prostate model and its performance. The prostate model will also be used in the development of a CAS system designed to assist the surgeon during a real TURP procedure. The system will provide 3D views of the shape of the prostate of the patient, and the position of the surgical instrument during the operation. The development of new computer graphics models which are able to simulate, in real time, the mechanical behavior of an organ during a surgical procedure, can improve significantly the training and execution of other minimally invasive surgical procedures such as laparoscopic gall bladder surgery.

  5. CARE: Computer Assisted Renewal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    CARE (Computer Assisted Renewal Education) is a mobile computer assisted instruction (CAI) program designed to train educators and inservice teachers in the education and handling of handicapped children. The program, developed by Pennsylvania State University and offering college credit, is carried in an expandable trailer with 16 individual…

  6. Computer-Assisted Discovery and Proof

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2007-12-10

    With the advent of powerful, widely-available mathematical software, combined with ever-faster computer hardware, we are approaching a day when both the discovery and proof of mathematical facts can be done in a computer-assisted manner. his article presents several specific examples of this new paradigm in action.

  7. Computer-Assisted Education System for Psychopharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, William Donald

    An approach to the use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) for teaching psychopharmacology is presented. A project is described in which, using the TUTOR programing language on the PLATO IV computer system, several computer programs were developed to demonstrate the concepts of aminergic transmitters in the central nervous system. Response…

  8. Distance Education and Computer-Assisted Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henri, France

    1988-01-01

    Examines the problems and promise of incorporating computer-assisted communications (CAC) into distance education programs. Discusses advantages gained by widely-scattered students using CAC for individual or group conferences. States that CAC can encourage training approaches in which the learning process is sustained by the dynamic of the social…

  9. Distance Education and Computer-Assisted Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henri, France

    1988-01-01

    Examines the problems and promise of incorporating computer-assisted communications (CAC) into distance education programs. Discusses advantages gained by widely-scattered students using CAC for individual or group conferences. States that CAC can encourage training approaches in which the learning process is sustained by the dynamic of the social…

  10. Computer Assisted Language Testing: On the Efficacy of Web-Based Approach in the Instruction of Elementary Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soleimani, Maryam; Gahhari, Shima

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness and efficacy of e-learning was evaluated through a web based approach. Two classes of elementary learners of English were selected for this study, one class received a six month instruction through the typical twice a week classes and the other one was instructed through internet, in other words, the first class did…

  11. Understanding Mothers' Experiences of Infant Daycare: A New Approach Using Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne; And Others

    This paper reports on a small-scale introductory study of Australian mothers' experiences of infant day care. Ten employed, middle- and lower-socioeconomic status women with an infant in center-based day care were interviewed. Brief narrative examples from the mothers' accounts are presented. Discussion then concentrates on a new approach to…

  12. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  13. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  14. Participatory methodologies in research with children: creative and innovative approaches.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Viviane Ribeiro; Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello; Cardoso, Clarissa de Souza; Oliveira, Naiana Alves; Vieira, Ana Cláudia Garcia; Nobre, Márcia de Oliveira; Nino, Magda Eliete Lamas

    2017-05-18

    To describe the use of participatory methodologies in research with children. Experience report with a qualitative approach, conducted with children between six and eleven years of age, from a municipal school in Pelotas and in the Psychosocial Children and Youth Care Center, in São Lourenço do Sul, both municipalities of the Rio Grande do Sul State. Data collection was based on records made in field and observation diaries, held from April to July 2016. The report pointed out that the Photovoice promoted motivation in the group, in addition to increasing the self-esteem and self-confidence of children. The Five Field Map made it possible to help children express feelings through the game. Photovoice and the Five Field Map are seen as tools that enable new methodological approaches in research with children, facilitating the construction of the proposed activities aimed at innovative and creative research processes in health/nursing.

  15. Comprehensive Case Analysis on Participatory Approaches, from Nexus Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine

  16. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.

  17. Participatory approaches to understanding practices of flood management across borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was

  18. Comprehensive change management concepts. Development of a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Zink, Klaus J; Steimle, Ulrich; Schröder, Delia

    2008-07-01

    During the last years, many change projects in organizations did not have the planned success. Therefore at first, the causes for these failures and the success factors contributing to organizational change have to be discussed. To get better results, a comprehensive change management concept has been developed and tested in an ongoing research project. By using concepts for an integrated assessment and design of organizations, an approach for analyzing the current situation has been elaborated to identify "lack of integration" in the change initiatives of a company. To realize an integrated overall approach of modernization by harmonizing different methods and concepts, first, one has to prove their relationship to policy and strategy (vertical harmonization). The second step is to take into account the fact that there has to be a logical fit between the single concepts (horizontal harmonization). But even if all elements are logically coherent, that does not mean that the people working in the company also see this coherence. Therefore, in addition to the "logical fit", one has to examine the "psychological fit". In the end, a concept for analyzing the status quo in an organization as a result of "objective data" and "subjective data" originated. Subsequently, instruments for harmonizing different modernizing concepts have been applied. As part of the comprehensive change management concept participatory ergonomic approaches have been used during the project. The present study shows this approach in the case of one company.

  19. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  20. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future. © 2015 The

  1. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  2. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  3. Technology for Large-Scale Translation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Pilot Study of the Performance of a Hybrid Human and Computer-Assisted Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The construction of EBMPracticeNet, a national electronic point-of-care information platform in Belgium, began in 2011 to optimize quality of care by promoting evidence-based decision making. The project involved, among other tasks, the translation of 940 EBM Guidelines of Duodecim Medical Publications from English into Dutch and French. Considering the scale of the translation process, it was decided to make use of computer-aided translation performed by certificated translators with limited expertise in medical translation. Our consortium used a hybrid approach, involving a human translator supported by a translation memory (using SDL Trados Studio), terminology recognition (using SDL MultiTerm terminology databases) from medical terminology databases, and support from online machine translation. This resulted in a validated translation memory, which is now in use for the translation of new and updated guidelines. Objective The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of the hybrid human and computer-assisted approach in comparison with translation unsupported by translation memory and terminology recognition. A comparison was also made with the translation efficiency of an expert medical translator. Methods We conducted a pilot study in which two sets of 30 new and 30 updated guidelines were randomized to one of three groups. Comparable guidelines were translated (1) by certificated junior translators without medical specialization using the hybrid method, (2) by an experienced medical translator without this support, and (3) by the same junior translators without the support of the validated translation memory. A medical proofreader who was blinded for the translation procedure, evaluated the translated guidelines for acceptability and adequacy. Translation speed was measured by recording translation and post-editing time. The human translation edit rate was calculated as a metric to evaluate the quality of the translation. A

  4. Computer-Assisted Placement System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Willis J.

    The detailed study deals with the two basic types of computer-assisted placement mechanisms now operating as components of the United State Employment Service (USTES). Job banks receive job orders, organize, edit, and display; job-matching systems perform similar functions but in addition attempt to screen and match jobs and job applicants. The…

  5. Two Computer-Assisted Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Two computer-assisted experiments are described: (i) determination of the speed of ultrasound waves in water and (ii) measurement of the thermal expansion of an aluminum-based alloy. A new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO scientific is used. In both experiments, the "Keep" mode of recording data is employed: the data are…

  6. Two Computer-Assisted Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Two computer-assisted experiments are described: (i) determination of the speed of ultrasound waves in water and (ii) measurement of the thermal expansion of an aluminum-based alloy. A new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO scientific is used. In both experiments, the "Keep" mode of recording data is employed: the data are…

  7. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    This index contains information on 456 computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects developed by 51 organizations. The information was obtained from correspondence, annual reports, technical reports, and questionnaires which were sent to the producers of the program. The material is organized to list: the name of each program or…

  8. Preparing for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Charles A.

    The general principles of cumputer operation and the concepts and methods of programing are described in this introductory text aimed at educators with little or no experience in the field of computer-assisted instruction. The principles and practical considerations involved in planning for and implementing the use of the computer in teaching…

  9. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  10. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  11. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    ScienceCinema

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  12. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2014-01-14

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  13. The DFMS sensor of ROSINA onboard Rosetta: A computer-assisted approach to resolve mass calibration, flux calibration, and fragmentation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhooghe, Frederik; De Keyser, Johan; Altwegg, Kathrin; Calmonte, Ursina; Fuselier, Stephen; Hässig, Myrtha; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Mall, Urs; Gombosi, Tamas; Fiethe, Björn

    2014-05-01

    Rosetta will rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in May 2014. The Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) instrument comprises three sensors: the pressure sensor (COPS) and two mass spectrometers (RTOF and DFMS). The double focusing mass spectrometer DFMS is optimized for mass resolution and consists of an ion source, a mass analyser and a detector package operated in analogue mode. The magnetic sector of the analyser provides the mass dispersion needed for use with the position-sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detector. Ions that hit the MCP release electrons that are recorded digitally using a linear electron detector array with 512 pixels. Raw data for a given commanded mass are obtained as ADC counts as a function of pixel number. We have developed a computer-assisted approach to address the problem of calibrating such raw data. Mass calibration: Ion identification is based on their mass-over-charge (m/Z) ratio and requires an accurate correlation of pixel number and m/Z. The m/Z scale depends on the commanded mass and the magnetic field and can be described by an offset of the pixel associated with the commanded mass from the centre of the detector array and a scaling factor. Mass calibration is aided by the built-in gas calibration unit (GCU), which allows one to inject a known gas mixture into the instrument. In a first, fully automatic step of the mass calibration procedure, the calibration uses all GCU spectra and extracts information about the mass peak closest to the centre pixel, since those peaks can be identified unambiguously. This preliminary mass-calibration relation can then be applied to all spectra. Human-assisted identification of additional mass peaks further improves the mass calibration. Ion flux calibration: ADC counts per pixel are converted to ion counts per second using the overall gain, the individual pixel gain, and the total data accumulation time. DFMS can perform an internal scan to determine

  14. A Participatory Design Approach to Develop an Interactive Sound Environment Simulator.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Geir K; Dahl, Yngve

    2016-10-01

    Our purpose is to provide insight into the added value of applying a participatory design approach in the design of an interactive sound environment simulator to facilitate communication and understanding between patients and audiologists in consultation situations. We have applied a qualitative approach, presenting results and discussion in the form of a story, following 3 consecutive steps: problem investigation, design, and evaluation. We provide an overview of lessons learned, emphasizing how patients and audiologists took roles and responsibilities in the design process and the effects of this involvement. Our results suggest that participatory design is a viable and practical approach to address multifaceted problems directly affecting patients and practitioners.

  15. Tackling perinatal loss, a participatory action research approach: research protocol.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Hueso-Montoro, César; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Toledano-Losa, Ana Cristina; Carnicer-Fuentes, Concepción; Ortegón-Gallego, José Alejo; Frandsen, Anna J

    2012-11-01

      The aim of this study was to promote changes to improve the care provided to parents who have experienced a perinatal loss through participatory action research.   The birth of a child is a joyful event for most families, however, unfortunately some pregnancies end in loss. Perinatal loss creates a heavy emotional impact not only on parents but also on health professionals, where in most cases there is an evident lack of skills, strategies and resources to cope with these kinds of situations.   Participatory action research is the methodology proposed to achieve the purpose of this study.   Participatory action research consists of five stages: outreach and awareness, induction, interaction, implementation and systematization. The working group will include professionals from the Mother and Child Unit for patients at a tertiary level public hospital in Spain. The duration of the study will be 3 years since the approval of the protocol in January 2011. The qualitative techniques used will include group dynamics such as the SWOT analysis the nominal group technique, focus groups and brainstorming, among others that will be recorded and transcribed, generating reports throughout the evolution of the group sessions and about the consensus reached. Content analysis will be conducted on the field diaries kept by the participants and researchers. This project has been funded by the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health.   Participatory action research is a methodological strategy that allows changes in clinical practice to conduct a comprehensive transformative action in the care process for perinatal loss. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

  17. "Say You Want a Revolution": A Call for Participatory Approach in EFL Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiee, Marzieh; Keihaniyan, Mahbube

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study investigated the language teachers' opinions on the inclusion of the principles of Participatory Approach in language classroom settings in Iran. Applying both quantitative and qualitative approaches of data collection procedures, the study explored the language teachers' attitude, on the perceived importance and use of the…

  18. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

  19. A Binary-Like Approach for the Computer Assisted Method Development of Isocratic and Programmed Ternary Solvent Elutions in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    García-Lavandeira, J.; Martinez-Pontevedra, J.A.; Cela, R.

    2012-01-01

    A specific tool to enable exploration of multisolvent isocratic and programmed elutions for the computer assisted method development of reversed-phase liquid chromatography separations is described. The tool is purposely identical to those used in the optimization of binary solvent systems, which are by far the most commonly used by chromatographers. Existing data from failed binary solvent optimization processes are reused to explore ternary solvent systems with a few additional isocratic and programmed runs. This allows the development of efficient retention models for ternary systems, although the work of the chromatographer remains identical to that for optimization of binary systems. The retention models are used to develop an unattended optimization process and finally, the chromatographer selects the most satisfactory solution for testing and implementing in routine analysis. The process is exemplified with a mixture of 12 compounds that cannot be separated satisfactorily in aqueous binary solvent systems with methanol and acetonitrile as modifiers. PMID:22291054

  20. Computer-assisted threat evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, Jatin S.; Davies, Livingston

    2006-05-01

    The use of a CATE (Computer Assisted Threat Evaluation) System in the Maritime Domain lends itself technically and operationally to data exploitation thru the use of domain forensics and link analysis of fragmented information utilizing data prioritization and suspicion indicators for an aggressor's method of operation. The timely availability of threat mitigating actionable information is one of the key tools for success in the Global War On Terror (GWOT). The global supply chain is vulnerable to exploitation by nefarious individuals, governments, and terrorist organizations. For example, Figure 1 illustrates one of many potential methods that could be used to circumvent regulations limiting proliferation of WMDs.

  1. A participatory approach to sanitation: experience of Bangladeshi NGOs.

    PubMed

    Hadi, A

    2000-09-01

    This study assesses the role of participatory development programmes in improving sanitation in rural Bangladesh. Data for this study came from a health surveillance system of BRAC covering 70 villages in 10 regions of the country. In-depth interviews were conducted with one adult member of a total of 1556 randomly selected households that provided basic socioeconomic information on the households and their involvement with NGO-led development programmes in the community. The findings reveal that households involved with credit programmes were more likely to use safe latrines than others who were equally poor but not involved in such programmes. The study indicates that an unmet need to build or buy safe and hygienic latrines existed among those who did not own one. Such latent need could be raised further if health education at the grassroots level along with supervised credit supports were provided to them. Unlike conventional belief, the concept of community-managed jointly owned latrines did not seem a very attractive alternative. The study argues that social and behavioural aspects of the participatory development programmes can significantly improve environmental sanitation in a traditional community.

  2. A Participatory Design Approach for a Mobile App-Based Personal Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…

  3. Critical Service Learning: A Participatory Pedagogical Approach to Global Citizenship and International Mindedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    International mindedness and global citizenship are two key terms within international education, which underpin much of the discourse within the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. This article proposes how a participatory approach to education for international mindedness and global citizenship can help educators within international…

  4. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment with High Schools for Obesity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…

  5. Bridging the Gap: A Participatory Approach to Health and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keehn, Martha, Ed.

    The manual is addressed to nutrition and health educators interested in trying out new participatory ways of working at the community level and describes simple techniques to train field staff to approach local communities more sensitively and involve them more fully in achieving better health. Techniques and materials are all experiential and…

  6. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment with High Schools for Obesity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…

  7. Critical Service Learning: A Participatory Pedagogical Approach to Global Citizenship and International Mindedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    International mindedness and global citizenship are two key terms within international education, which underpin much of the discourse within the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. This article proposes how a participatory approach to education for international mindedness and global citizenship can help educators within international…

  8. A Participatory Design Approach for a Mobile App-Based Personal Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…

  9. New Partnerships Require New Approaches to Participatory Program Evaluations: Planning for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHardy, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses this era of transition in program evaluation, which is marked by growing cooperation between government and civil society, and suggests participatory program evaluation as an approach to lessen undue influence by any one partner and promote a positive culture of evaluation. (SLD)

  10. Participatory development: an approach sensitive to class and gender.

    PubMed

    Connell, D

    1997-08-01

    This article begins by presenting development experience gained in the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya as a means of highlighting the centrality of popular participation to the development process. Important lessons from the ongoing development work in Irian Jaya were that it is not sufficient to consult beneficiaries and then act on their behalf or to engage in a development process unless the participants understand the project's conceptual orientation and language and have the tools to assess their needs and options for constructive change effectively. Also, developers must supply participants with information about the larger economic and political context in which they are operating. The article continues with an exploration of the ways in which a focus on class and gender raises participatory development to a new level. Constraints on transformative participation are then defined as 1) the political conditions and power structures existing in the country and community, 2) administrative opposition, 3) sociocultural impediments, and 4) limitations imposed by daily life. While it may be impossible to avoid the effects of such constraints, development agents can help villagers anticipate their impact and support efforts to cope with them. Participatory development challenges the status quo by enhancing economic equity and social equality and, if effective, will engender opposition, especially when a large amount of funding is at stake. Opposition can take many forms, including ridicule or resistance and can get personal. The demand to produce quick results also creates restraints on development agents. It is concluded that the development agent must engage key sectors of the local population in the development process and nurture this participation. Development agents should act as facilitators rather than independent initiators telling people what is best for them. Development agents must become very familiar with the community to earn the trust that is

  11. A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Manothum, Aniruth; Rukijkanpanich, Jittra

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers, a) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b) work practice improvement, and c) working condition improvement. This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1) the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2) the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (P less than 0.05). The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives. ‎

  12. Improving the quality of radiological examinations: effectiveness of an internal participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Mamede, Francisco Manuel Batista; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva; Saturno-Hernández, Pedro Jesus

    2017-06-01

    To assess the quality of radiological examinations (REs) and to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory continuous improvement approach to ensure best practices in a Portuguese hospital imaging department. At baseline, we found 232 (10.2%) non-compliances, mostly related to the criteria image centering and framing in chest radiography (CXR), proper use of radiological protection equipment in other conventional RE (CR) and X-ray beam collimation (CXR/CR). A baseline and three consecutive evaluations of the RE quality were conducted. Each assessment was followed by participatory focused interventions for improvement. For each evaluation, we selected a random sample (n = 60) of cases for four types of examination (total n = 240 for each assessment, and 960 for the whole project). Both the building of quality criteria and the design of interventions for improvement were participatory, involving the radiology technicians. Estimates of criteria compliance were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance of absolute and relative improvements was tested using one-tail z-tests. After the intervention, non-compliances decreased to 48 (2.1%). Compliance estimates improved in 25 of 38 criteria assessed, with statistical significance for 5 criteria in CXR and 3 in CR and digestive examination. The internal participatory approach enabled the identification of existing quality problems and, by focusing on the more frequent quality defects, was effective in improving the quality of RE.

  13. The application of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in developing MSD interventions.

    PubMed

    Tappin, D C; Vitalis, A; Bentley, T A

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics projects are traditionally applied within one organisation. In this study, a participative approach was applied across the New Zealand meat processing industry, involving multiple organisations and geographical regions. The purpose was to develop interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk. This paper considers the value of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in achieving this. The main rationale for a participative approach included the need for industry credibility, and to generate MSD interventions that address industry level MSD risk factors. An industry key stakeholder group became the primary vehicle for formal participation. The study resulted in an intervention plan that included the wider work system and industry practices. These interventions were championed across the industry by the key stakeholder group and have extended beyond the life of the study. While this approach helped to meet the study aim, the existence of an industry-supported key stakeholder group and a mandate for the initiative are important prerequisites for success.

  14. Ultrasound-based liver computer assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Windyga, P; Hiransakolwong, N; Vu, K; Medina, R; Onik, G

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research toward development of a computer-assisted, ultrasound-based software/hardware tool to improve instrument positioning in moving organs during minimally invasive abdominal surgery is presented. The main objective of this research is to calculate, in real time and without user intervention, the pre-/intra-operative 3D/2D image misalignment due to patient respiration and the shift induced by the surgical instrument. Our methodology applied to the particular case of the liver, and partial results related to the image registration approach, based on organ segmentation and shape description, are presented. Preliminary results are highly encouraging. Among other benefits, use of this tool will increase surgeon confidence and improve surgery outcomes.

  15. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2014-05-01

    Advances in technology have provided new approaches for data collection methods and analysis for researchers. Data collection is no longer limited to paper-and-pencil format, and numerous methods are now available through Internet and electronic resources. With these techniques, researchers are not burdened with entering data manually and data analysis is facilitated by software programs. Quantitative research is supported by the use of computer software and provides ease in the management of large data sets and rapid analysis of numeric statistical methods. New technologies are emerging to support qualitative research with the availability of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).CAQDAS will be presented with a discussion of advantages, limitations, controversial issues, and recommendations for this type of software use.

  16. Computer assistance for the structural chemist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carhart, R. E.; Varkony, T. H.; Smith, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of the approaches used to modify the molecular structure generator program, CONGEN. The CONGEN program for constructing structures under constraints has been discussed by Carhart et al. (1975). The modifications reported are to lead to a more efficient structure generation on the basis of a translation of structural data input to the program. From an algorithmic standpoint, CONGEN is successful if it can, in a reasonable amount of time and without exhausting storage resources, produce a list of candidate structures satisfying the chemist's constraints. However, this list is often quite large, and it remains for the chemist to discriminate among the candidates, eventually reducing the possibilities to just one structure. Ways are studied for providing computer assistance in examining and further constraining lists of structural candidates.

  17. Emergent Literacy Development and Computer Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotti, Judy; Hendricks, Randy; Bledsoe, Christie

    2017-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, researchers examined the literacy development of prekindergarten students (N = 162) randomly placed in one of two treatment groups with each receiving 15 minutes of computer-assisted literacy instruction for four months. Literacy development of a control group of children not receiving computer-assisted instruction was…

  18. A Computer-Assisted Method of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Frederick J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted method of counseling was applied to cases of stuttering and hypertension. Although both symptom complexes had previously resisted therapy, results indicated that computer-assisted counseling eliminated the stuttering and reduced diastolic blood pressure to normal levels. (Author)

  19. A Computer-Assisted Method of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Frederick J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted method of counseling was applied to cases of stuttering and hypertension. Although both symptom complexes had previously resisted therapy, results indicated that computer-assisted counseling eliminated the stuttering and reduced diastolic blood pressure to normal levels. (Author)

  20. Designing and Creating Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeen, George R.

    Designed to encourage the use of a defined methodology and careful planning in creating computer-assisted instructional programs, this paper describes the instructional design process, compares computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and programmed instruction (PI), and discusses pragmatic concerns in computer programming. Topics addressed include:…

  1. Social Choice in a Computer-Assisted Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2009-01-01

    Pursuing a line of inquiry suggested by Crookall, Martin, Saunders, and Coote, the author applied, within the framework of design science, an optimal-design approach to incorporate into a computer-assisted simulation two innovative social choice processes: the multiple period double auction and continuous voting. Expectations that the…

  2. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  3. Computer-Assisted Microscopy in Science Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radice, Gary P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technological approach to teaching the relationships between biological form and function. Computer-assisted image analysis was integrated into a microanatomy course. Students spend less time memorizing and more time observing, measuring, and interpreting, building technical and analytical skills. Appendices list hardware and software…

  4. Social Choice in a Computer-Assisted Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2009-01-01

    Pursuing a line of inquiry suggested by Crookall, Martin, Saunders, and Coote, the author applied, within the framework of design science, an optimal-design approach to incorporate into a computer-assisted simulation two innovative social choice processes: the multiple period double auction and continuous voting. Expectations that the…

  5. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  6. Computer-Assisted Microscopy in Science Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radice, Gary P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technological approach to teaching the relationships between biological form and function. Computer-assisted image analysis was integrated into a microanatomy course. Students spend less time memorizing and more time observing, measuring, and interpreting, building technical and analytical skills. Appendices list hardware and software…

  7. Computer-Assisted Assignments in a Large Physics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoennessen, M.; Harrison, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes CAPA, a software tool to implement a computer-assisted personalized approach for homework assignments and examinations in a large introductory physics class at Michigan State University. Highlights include increased individual attention for students; correlation between homework performance and results of the final exam; feedback for…

  8. What can a participatory approach to evaluation contribute to the field of integrated care?

    PubMed

    Eyre, Laura; Farrelly, Michael; Marshall, Martin

    2016-12-08

    Better integration of care within the health sector and between health and social care is seen in many countries as an essential way of addressing the enduring problems of dwindling resources, changing demographics and unacceptable variation in quality of care. Current research evidence about the effectiveness of integration efforts supports neither the enthusiasm of those promoting and designing integrated care programmes nor the growing efforts of practitioners attempting to integrate care on the ground. In this paper we present a methodological approach, based on the principles of participatory research, that attempts to address this challenge. Participatory approaches are characterised by a desire to use social science methods to solve practical problems and a commitment on the part of researchers to substantive and sustained collaboration with relevant stakeholders. We describe how we applied an emerging practical model of participatory research, the researcher-in-residence model, to evaluate a large-scale integrated care programme in the UK. We propose that the approach added value to the programme in a number of ways: by engaging stakeholders in using established evidence and with the benefits of rigorously evaluating their work, by providing insights for local stakeholders that they were either not familiar with or had not fully considered in relation to the development and implementation of the programme and by challenging established mindsets and norms. While there is still much to learn about the benefits and challenges of applying participatory approaches in the health sector, we demonstrate how using such approaches have the potential to help practitioners integrate care more effectively in their daily practice and help progress the academic study of integrated care.

  9. Computer-assisted personalized sedation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Kethu, Sripathi R; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M

    2011-03-01

    The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee provides reviews of new or emerging endoscopic technologies that have the potential to have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent preclinical and clinical studies on the topic, and a MAUDE (Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience; U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through January 2010 using the keywords "computer," "computerized," "computer-assisted," "sedation," "propofol." Reports on Emerging Technology are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. These reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Reports on Emerging Technology are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment.

  10. A participatory systems approach to design for safer integrated medicine management.

    PubMed

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Canham, Aneurin; Altuna-Palacios, Ander; Ward, James R; Bhamra, Ran; Rogers, Stephen; Dutt, Amalin; Shah, Priyal

    2017-06-02

    It is recognised that whole systems approaches are required in the design and development of complex health care services. Application of a systems approach benefits from the involvement of key stakeholders. However, participation in the context of community based health care is particularly challenging due to busy and geographically distributed stakeholders. This study used action research to investigate what processes and methods were needed to successfully employ a participatory systems approach. Three participatory workshops planned and facilitated by method experts were held with 30 representative stakeholders. Various methods were used with them and evaluated through an audit of workshop outputs and a qualitative questionnaire. Findings on the method application and participation are presented and methodological challenges are discussed with reference to further research. Practitioner Summary: This study provides practical insights on how to apply a participatory systems approach to complex health care service design. Various template-based methods for systems thinking and risk-based thinking were efficiently and effectively applied with stakeholders.

  11. Supporting a community-based participatory evaluation approach to violence prevention in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Watson-Thompson, Jomella; Jones, Marvia D; Colvin, Jeffrey D; McClendon-Cole, Tracie; Schober, Daniel J; Johnson, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in rates of firearm-related homicide exist for some segments of the population and by geographic area. There are interrelated factors across multiple social-ecological levels that increase the risk of violence for some individuals and groups, which may suggest the importance of comprehensive community intervention approaches for addressing violence. Participatory approaches can aid in the implementation of community interventions by engaging community and researcher partners in collaboratively addressing community-identified concerns. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the application of a participatory evaluation framework used to support the Aim4Peace Violence Prevention Project in Kansas City, Missouri. The study presents data from the second year of program implementation to examine the contributions of the program in addressing violence.

  12. Researching children's health experiences: The place for participatory, child-centered, arts-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Carter, Bernie; Ford, Karen

    2013-02-01

    A central concern when conducting qualitative health research with children is eliciting data that genuinely reflect their perspectives. Invariably, this involves being child-centered and participatory. Drawing and photography increasingly accompany dialogic methods to facilitate children's communication through arts-based and verbal modes of expression. However, little literature is available on how arts-based tools shape data. We suggest that researchers need to be attentive to how such tools can liberate, constrain and frame data generated by children, drawing attention to the promises of such approaches as well as the conundrums that can arise from their use. We explore the place for participatory, child-centered, arts-based approaches using examples of the use of drawing and photography in our own studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Conceptualizing Stakeholders' Perceptions of Ecosystem Services: A Participatory Systems Mapping Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rita; Videira, Nuno

    2015-12-01

    A participatory system dynamics modelling approach is advanced to support conceptualization of feedback processes underlying ecosystem services and to foster a shared understanding of leverage intervention points. The process includes systems mapping workshop and follow-up tasks aiming at the collaborative construction of causal loop diagrams. A case study developed in a natural area in Portugal illustrates how a stakeholder group was actively engaged in the development of a conceptual model depicting policies for sustaining the climate regulation ecosystem service.

  14. Computer-assisted innovations in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Kelli; Hoekzema, Craig; Rhee, John

    2011-08-01

    Reconstructive surgery for complex craniofacial defects challenges even the most experienced surgeons. Preoperative reconstructive planning requires consideration of both functional and aesthetic properties of the mandible, orbit, and midface. Technological innovations allow for computer-assisted preoperative planning, computer-aided manufacturing of patient-specific implants (PSIs), and computer-assisted intraoperative navigation. Although many case reports discuss computer-assisted preoperative planning and creation of custom implants, a general overview of computer-assisted innovations is not readily available. This article reviews innovations in computer-assisted reconstructive surgery including anatomic considerations when using PSIs, technologies available for preoperative planning, work flow and process of obtaining a PSI, and implant materials available for PSIs. A case example follows illustrating the use of this technology in the reconstruction of an orbital-frontal-temporal defect with a PSI. Computer-assisted reconstruction of complex craniofacial defects provides the reconstructive surgeon with innovative options for challenging reconstructive cases. As technology advances, applications of computer-assisted reconstruction will continue to expand.

  15. OC39 - The efficacy of a participatory approach in reducing pain related to venepuncture in children.

    PubMed

    Gazzelloni, Andrea; Maio, Mariagrazia; Romano, Maria; Marcone, Iolanda; Marino, Franca; Labalestra, Monia Cosima

    2016-05-09

    Theme: dignity and humanity. Venepuncture represents traumatic experience in childhood due to pain and discomfort. To compare the efficacy of a participatory approach with preliminary ice application to the skin. Two age-groups (respectively 3-7 and *8 years) were considered during day-hospital, hospitalization, and ER accesses. Venepuncture was described to patients with fables or illustration according to the age-group. Ice or cool-water-pack was randomly applied to skin for one minute before venepuncture. Pain measurement scales were Wong-Baker and VAS. Preliminary data (55 patients) showed that the 3-7 years age group had better pain tolerance with a participatory approach, whilst ice was better in the older group. Generally previous venepunctures seem to worsen pain feeling. Imagination seems to influence pain feeling in the 3-7 age group, while ice is more important in the older group. Previous experiences mark negatively successive venepunctures. Participatory approaches can be cost-effective and influences positively venepuncture in the future.

  16. Evaluation models and Brazilian health reform: a qualitative-participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Mercado-Martinez, Francisco Javier

    2010-06-01

    Throughout the last years, there has been a growing interest in ongoing assessment proposals in Latin America, which are more far-reaching and not traditional. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of qualitative-participatory evaluation in view of the challenge of strengthening health reforms in the region, particularly those considered progressive, such as the Brazilian case. There is the need to assess health reforms in a rigorous and permanent way, especially the incongruity when using normative models to evaluate health systems based on principles of universality, comprehensiveness, humanization and democratic management. In addition to the demand for assessment instruments and strategies, the Brazilian health reform requires the adoption of evaluation proposals and practices that are founded on other paradigms, distinct from the hegemonic one, in the sphere of health assessment. It is recommended that emerging evaluative models be used, such as those with a qualitative-participatory approach.

  17. [Computer-assisted gnatho-prosthodontic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Burlui, V; Rädäuceanu, C; Orhei, G; Dumitraşcu, C

    1991-01-01

    The program is very useful by its rapidity, reliability and releasing the dentist from calculating the multiple variants of some clinico-biological indices. The computer-assisted gnatho-prosthetic diagnosis also makes possible a more adequate therapeutical plan.

  18. Conceptualizing Skill within a Participatory Ecological Approach to Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…

  19. Conceptualizing Skill within a Participatory Ecological Approach to Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…

  20. A Youth Development Approach to Evaluation: Critical Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller-Berkman, Sarah; Muñoz-Proto, Carolina; Torre, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Across the U.S., youth development approaches are being tested in out-of-school time programs as a strategy to combat the growing opportunity gap between privileged and underprivileged youth (Gardner, Roth, & Brooks-Gunn, 2009). Along with increased recognition of the value of youth development programming has come increased financial support…

  1. Computer assisted optical biopsy for colorectal polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Avila, Fernando J.; Saint-Hill-Febles, Yadira; Renner, Janis; Klare, Peter; von Delius, Stefan; Navab, Nassir; Mateus, Diana

    2017-03-01

    We propose a method for computer-assisted optical biopsy for colorectal polyps, with the final goal of assisting the medical expert during the colonoscopy. In particular, we target the problem of automatic classification of polyp images in two classes: adenomatous vs non-adenoma. Our approach is based on recent advancements in convolutional neural networks (CNN) for image representation. In the paper, we describe and compare four different methodologies to address the binary classification task: a baseline with classical features and a Random Forest classifier, two methods based on features obtained from a pre-trained network, and finally, the end-to-end training of a CNN. With the pre-trained network, we show the feasibility of transferring a feature extraction mechanism trained on millions of natural images, to the task of classifying adenomatous polyps. We then demonstrate further performance improvements when training the CNN for our specific classification task. In our study, 776 polyp images were acquired and histologically analyzed after polyp resection. We report a performance increase of the CNN-based approaches with respect to both, the conventional engineered features and to a state-of-the-art method based on videos and 3D shape features.

  2. Community participatory approach: an important managerial role in cancer control.

    PubMed

    Latiff, Khalib Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Despite the mountain of information generated by researchers, the cancer problem has not significantly declined and perhaps in certain situations it is gradually increasing, affecting those who are previously at low risk. There is a tendency to believe that positive outcomes can always be expected once intervention activities, like exercise promotion, are carried out, but practical experience gives rise to serious doubt. A greater understanding of the biological mechanisms operating in the physical activity, cancer relation, complete measurement of physical activity through a subject's life, assessment of all potential confounders and association modifiers are needed to confirm a protective role of physical activity in cancer development and allow specific exercise prescriptions for community-based prevention in particular cancer sites. Furthermore, the most important impetus of any community intervention approach should be oriented in the form of 'from people to the people'. More emphasis needs to be placed on effective management and parameters for assessment of management success.

  3. Knowledge mobilisation for policy development: implementing systems approaches through participatory dynamic simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Freebairn, Louise; Rychetnik, Lucie; Atkinson, Jo-An; Kelly, Paul; McDonnell, Geoff; Roberts, Nick; Whittall, Christine; Redman, Sally

    2017-10-02

    Evidence-based decision-making is an important foundation for health policy and service planning decisions, yet there remain challenges in ensuring that the many forms of available evidence are considered when decisions are being made. Mobilising knowledge for policy and practice is an emergent process, and one that is highly relational, often messy and profoundly context dependent. Systems approaches, such as dynamic simulation modelling can be used to examine both complex health issues and the context in which they are embedded, and to develop decision support tools. This paper reports on the novel use of participatory simulation modelling as a knowledge mobilisation tool in Australian real-world policy settings. We describe how this approach combined systems science methodology and some of the core elements of knowledge mobilisation best practice. We describe the strategies adopted in three case studies to address both technical and socio-political issues, and compile the experiential lessons derived. Finally, we consider the implications of these knowledge mobilisation case studies and provide evidence for the feasibility of this approach in policy development settings. Participatory dynamic simulation modelling builds on contemporary knowledge mobilisation approaches for health stakeholders to collaborate and explore policy and health service scenarios for priority public health topics. The participatory methods place the decision-maker at the centre of the process and embed deliberative methods and co-production of knowledge. The simulation models function as health policy and programme dynamic decision support tools that integrate diverse forms of evidence, including research evidence, expert knowledge and localised contextual information. Further research is underway to determine the impact of these methods on health service decision-making.

  4. Hunter disease eClinic: interactive, computer-assisted, problem-based approach to independent learning about a rare genetic disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Clinic employs a CBT model providing the trainee with realistic clinical problems, coupled with comprehensive basic and clinical reference information by instantaneous access to an electronic textbook, the eBook. The program was rated highly by attendees at national and international presentations. It provides a potential model for use as an educational approach to other rare genetic diseases. PMID:20973983

  5. Male infertility and copy number variants (CNVs) in the dog: a two-pronged approach using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility affects ~10-15% of couples trying to have children, in which the rate of male fertility problems is approximately at 30-50%. Copy number variations (CNVs) are DNA sequences greater than or equal to 1 kb in length sharing a high level of similarity, and present at a variable number of copies in the genome; in our study, we used the canine species as an animal model to detect CNVs responsible for male infertility. We aim to identify CNVs associated with male infertility in the dog genome with a two-pronged approach: we performed a sperm analysis using the CASA system and a cytogenetic-targeted analysis on genes involved in male gonad development and spermatogenesis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using dog-specific clones. This analysis was carried out to evaluate possible correlations between CNVs on targeted genes and spermatogenesis impairments or infertility factors. Results We identified two genomic regions hybridized by BACs CH82-321J09 and CH82-509B23 showing duplication patterns in all samples except for an azoospermic dog. These two regions harbor two important genes for spermatogenesis: DNM2 and TEKT1. The genomic region encompassed by the BAC clone CH82-324I01 showed a single-copy pattern in all samples except for one dog, assessed with low-quality sperm, displaying a marked duplication pattern. This genomic region harbors SOX8, a key gene for testis development. Conclusion We present the first study involving functional and genetic analyses in male infertility. We set up an extremely reliable analysis on dog sperm cells with a highly consistent statistical significance, and we succeeded in conducting FISH experiments on sperm cells using BAC clones as probes. We found copy number differences in infertile compared with fertile dogs for genomic regions encompassing TEKT1, DNM2, and SOX8, suggesting those genes could have a role if deleted or duplicated with respect to the reference copy number in fertility biology

  6. Development of an interprofessional program for cardiovascular prevention in primary care: A participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    Goudreau, Johanne; Hudon, Éveline; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse; Bareil, Céline; Duhamel, Fabie; Lévesque, Lise; Turcotte, Alain; Lalonde, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Background: The chronic care model provides a framework for improving the management of chronic diseases. Participatory research could be useful in developing a chronic care model–based program of interventions, but no one has as yet offered a description of precisely how to apply the approach. Objectives: An innovative, structured, multi-step participatory process was applied to select and develop (1) chronic care model–based interventions program to improve cardiovascular disease prevention that can be adapted to a particular regional context and (2) a set of indicators to monitor its implementation. Methods: Primary care clinicians (n = 16), administrative staff (n = 2), patients and family members (n = 4), decision makers (n = 5), researchers, and a research coordinator (n = 7) took part in the process. Additional primary care actors (n = 26) validated the program. Results: The program targets multimorbid patients at high or moderate risk of cardiovascular disease with uncontrolled hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes. It comprises interprofessional follow-up coordinated by case-management nurses, in which motivated patients are referred in a timely fashion to appropriate clinical and community resources. The program is supported by clinical tools and includes training in motivational interviewing. A set of 89 process and clinical indicators were defined. Conclusion: Through a participatory process, a contextualized interventions program to optimize cardiovascular disease prevention and a set of quality indicators to monitor its implementation were developed. Similar approach might be used to develop other health programs in primary care if program developers are open to building on community strengths and priorities. PMID:26770705

  7. Evaluation of soil salinity amelioration technologies in Timpaki, Crete: a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2015-10-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.

  8. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  9. A participatory modelling approach to developing a numerical sediment dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nicholas; McEwen, Lindsey; Parker, Chris; Staddon, Chad

    2016-04-01

    Fluvial geomorphology is recognised as an important consideration in policy and legislation in the management of river catchments. Despite this recognition, limited knowledge exchange occurs between scientific researchers and river management practitioners. An example of this can be found within the limited uptake of numerical models of sediment dynamics by river management practitioners in the United Kingdom. The uptake of these models amongst the applied community is important as they have the potential to articulate how, at the catchment-scale, the impacts of management strategies of land-use change affect sediment dynamics and resulting channel quality. This paper describes and evaluates a new approach which involves river management stakeholders in an iterative and reflexive participatory modelling process. The aim of this approach was to create an environment for knowledge exchange between the stakeholders and the research team in the process of co-constructing a model. This process adopted a multiple case study approach, involving four groups of river catchment stakeholders in the United Kingdom. These stakeholder groups were involved in several stages of the participatory modelling process including: requirements analysis, model design, model development, and model evaluation. Stakeholders have provided input into a number of aspects of the modelling process, such as: data requirements, user interface, modelled processes, model assumptions, model applications, and model outputs. This paper will reflect on this process, in particular: the innovative methods used, data generated, and lessons learnt.

  10. Future Prospects for Computer-Assisted Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-10-26

    The recent rise of ''computer-assisted'' and ''experimental'' mathematics raises intriguing questions as to the future role of computation in mathematics. These results also draw into question the traditional distinctions that have been drawn between formal proof and computationally-assisted proof. This article explores these questions in the context of the growing consensus among computer technologists that Moore's Law is likely to continue unabated for quite some time into the future, producing hardware and software much more powerful than what is available today.

  11. Computer-assisted cartography: an overview.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.; Starr, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment of the current status of computer-assisted cartography, in part, is biased by one's view of the cartographic process as a whole. From a traditional viewpoint we are concerned about automating the mapping process; from a progressive viewpoint we are concerned about using the tools of computer science to convey spatial information. On the surface these viewpoints appear to be in opposition. However, it is postulated that in the final analysis, they face the same goal. This overview uses the perspectives from two viewpoints to depict the current state of computer-assisted cartography and speculate on future goals, trends, and challenges.-Authors

  12. [Computer-assisted temporomandibular joint reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zwetyenga, N; Mommers, X-A; Cheynet, F

    2013-08-02

    Prosthetic replacement of TMJ is gradually becoming a common procedure because of good functional and aesthetic results and low morbidity. Prosthetic models available can be standard or custom-made. Custom-made prosthesis are usually reserved for complex cases, but we think that computer assistance for custom-made prosthesis should be indicated for each case because it gives a greater implant stability and fewer complications. Computer assistance will further enlarge TMJ prosthesis replacement indications. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

    Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations

  14. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR).

    PubMed

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-06-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of 'Zero-acreage farming' (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article "Application and evaluation of a participatory "open innovation" approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin" (Specht et al., 2016) [1].

  15. Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo

    SciTech Connect

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Fantoni, Moris; Busto, Mirko; Genon, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

  16. Impacts of a participatory approach to developing national level sustainable development indicators in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rosenström, Ulla; Kyllönen, Simo

    2007-08-01

    The paper explores the role of a participatory approach in the outcome of the Finnish sustainable development indicator (SDI) exercise in 1998-2002. The process is analysed through three main objectives: to achieve stronger democracy, better quality of the end product and a more effective process. The analysis is further structured by a set of criteria needed for successful participation and differentiation of types of participants. The criteria comprise three main aspects: fairness, competence and social learning. In addition to the normally mentioned stakeholders (e.g. citizens and interest groups) participants also include experts and civil servants. Using the set of criteria above the participatory approach of the Finnish SDI process is then evaluated, and in the light of this evaluation the paper also discusses the specifications needed as evaluation criteria for national level policy programme processes like developing the SDIs. The results are based on documentation of the indicator task force meetings, written comments and a study of the putative end-users conducted after the publication of the indicators. The results show that the intense and broad participation of experts and civil servants increased the competence of the outcome and led to greater efficiency in working methods. However, this led to technocratic participation, absence of democratic participation and absence of social learning. Thus the ultimate goal of SDIs to contribute to achieving sustainability was not reached.

  17. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR)

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-01-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of ‘Zero-acreage farming’ (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article “Application and evaluation of a participatory “open innovation” approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin” (Specht et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27182542

  18. Creating a Novel Video Vignette Stroke Preparedness Outcome Measure Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach.

    PubMed

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2015-07-01

    Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity.

  19. Improving food provision in a Guyanese home for the elderly: a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Gillian; Draper, Alizon; Ismail, Suraiya; Patterson, Sybil

    2007-06-01

    To conduct a needs assessment of all aspects of food provision in a residential home and to evaluate a subsequent nutrition intervention. An intervention study using a before and after design. A participatory approach was adopted and quantitative and qualitative methods used throughout. The intervention involved a revised menu, kitchen equipment, and establishing wholesale shopping and food donations. A residential home for senior citizens in Guyana. Meals at the home were nutritionally inadequate and deeply unpopular with the residents. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low and the home was heavily reliant on donated soya mince and rice. Meals were served within an eight-hour period to accommodate the staff's hours of work. Cutbacks in the food budget indicated that the financial state of the home explained some of the problems. The intervention was unable to address all problems identified, but led to substantial improvements in the nutritional adequacy of the food provided following the inclusion in the menu of a number of nutrient-dense foods such as chicken liver. The new menu was acceptable to the cooks and largely popular with the residents, although some problems persisted. The results show that improvements in the nutrient profile of the diet could be achieved with a flexible, community-based, participatory approach that addressed all elements of a home's food provision system. The changes also proved largely popular with the residents, thus potentially contributing to their quality of life.

  20. Engaging Students in a Simulated Collaborative Action Research Project: An Evaluation of a Participatory Approach to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congdon, Graham John; Congdon, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an action research project designed to develop and implement a new participatory learning and teaching approach to enable postgraduate healthcare students to develop skills and knowledge in preparation for undertaking an action research study within their practice setting. The learning and teaching approach was based upon the…

  1. Using Concept Mapping in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been identified as a useful approach to increasing community involvement in research. Developing rigorous methods in conducting CBPR is an important step in gaining more support for this approach. The current article argues that concept mapping, a structured mixed methods approach, is useful in the initial development of a rigorous CBPR program of research aiming to develop culturally tailored and community-based health interventions for vulnerable populations. A research project examining social dynamics and consequences of alcohol and substance use in Newark, New Jersey, is described to illustrate the use of concept mapping methodology in CBPR. A total of 75 individuals participated in the study. PMID:26561484

  2. A Decade of Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. R.

    The Computer Assisted Teaching Unit (CATU) was instituted at Queen Mary College in 1973 to provide aid to the Faculty of Engineering in developing and implementing computer-based learning procedures to support the undergraduate teaching program. Earlier computer programs had simulated electrical and nuclear systems to give students the opportunity…

  3. Computer-Assisted Instruction at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    Programs for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) which were developed at Stanford University from 1963-70 are described, and prospects for CAI in the 1970's are considered briefly. The programs include ones in arithmetic, logic, and reading for elementary grades and in basic Russian and remedial algebra for college students. Of these, the logic…

  4. Vibrations and Waves: Using Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, M. J.; Lewis, D.

    Described is the development of computer assisted learning packages for nonscience major undergraduate students. The equipment needed to run the packages is described as well as the role and value of the packages. Several examples of the kind of computer graphics used in the computing laboratory are illustrated. The problems associated with the…

  5. Competency Reference for Computer Assisted Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Technical Education.

    This guide, developed in Oregon, lists competencies essential for students in computer-assisted drafting (CAD). Competencies are organized in eight categories: computer hardware, file usage and manipulation, basic drafting techniques, mechanical drafting, specialty disciplines, three dimensional drawing/design, plotting/printing, and advanced CAD.…

  6. Computer-Assisted Programmed Instruction in Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Rita C.; Laughlin, Joan

    Students in an introductory textiles course at the University of Nebraska's College of Home Economics actively participate in the learning experience through a self-paced instructional technique. Specific learning packets were developed adapting programmed instructional learning materials to computer assisted instruction (CAI). A study booklet…

  7. Computer-assisted photometric microplate analysis.

    PubMed

    Hörer, O L; Pop, D A

    1987-01-01

    The main algorithm of computer-assisted absorption and emission photometry of samples on a microplate is presented. The software can be used for the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and other virological tests. The performances of an SPF-500 (Aminco) spectrofluorometer/Felix M18 microcomputer system are discussed on the ground of some results obtained by using the implemented programs.

  8. Computer Assisted Instruction for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Providence Coll., RI.

    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for the mentally retarded is described; the advantages of CAI (which generally follows the pattern of programed instruction) are listed; and the roles of the teacher and the student are summarized. The coursewriter is explained, and its use as an experimental tool discussed. Guidelines are given covering…

  9. Computer-Assisted Education: What's Not Happening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Francis D.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the use of computer-assisted learning, discussing possibilities, programs available (illustrating exciting programs and those which have failed), reasons for courseware failures, problems for schools (teacher acceptance, funding), and use of computers outside the school. A list of activities worthy of investigation and support are…

  10. Computer Assisted Instruction in Linear Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallego, J. A. Jaen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system of computer assisted instruction geared primarily toward high school and university students involved in numerical analysis and optimization. Also describes (in detail) one of its modules to illustrate the general philosophy of the system. This module focuses on the simplex method. (JN)

  11. Inviting Success in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Catherine

    This paper reviews briefly the essential characteristics of both invitational education and computer assisted instruction (CAI) and the ways in which coordination of these two models can produce stimulating and valuable educational experiences for students. A matrix illustrates the characteristics of CAI which can support the major values of…

  12. Giraffe, a Computer Assisted Instruction Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Groot, Tineke

    In 1989 a two year collaborative project, CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) & Humanities, was initiated between the Faculty of Arts and IBM Netherlands during which General Information Retrieval All Faculties For Bibliographic Education (GIRAFFE), a program for the retrieval of information on general bibliographies, was developed. The…

  13. Computer Assisted Instruction Techniques for Screening Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, K. W.; Craft, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction at North Carolina Agriculture and Technical State University in freshman and remedial mathematics to cut down high attrition rates and weed out quickly the students who can't adapt to the vigors of engineering course work. (Author/DS)

  14. Research Guidelines for Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Albert E.

    Prepared for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), this report contains 59 recommendations for research and development in support of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The guidelines were derived from interviews with 14 leading education researchers. They cover the following learning and instruction variables: (1) learning…

  15. A Review of Computer-Assisted Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conole, Grainne; Warburton, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Pressure for better measurement of stated learning outcomes has resulted in a demand for more frequent assessment. The resources available are seen to be static or dwindling, but Information and Communications Technology is seen to increase productivity by automating assessment tasks. This paper reviews computer-assisted assessment (CAA) and…

  16. Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William F.; Forristall, Dorothy Z.

    The Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program (CASSIP) is designed to help students develop effective study skills and academic attitudes, thus increasing their potential for scholastic success. The program contains four integrated items: Study Skills Surveys; Study Skills Modules, Study Skills Notebook; and Study Skills Test. The surveys…

  17. Computer-assisted abdominal surgery: new technologies.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, H G; Wagner, M; Nickel, F; Wekerle, A L; Preukschas, A; Apitz, M; Schulte, T; Rempel, R; Mietkowski, P; Wagner, F; Termer, A; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2015-04-01

    Computer-assisted surgery is a wide field of technologies with the potential to enable the surgeon to improve efficiency and efficacy of diagnosis, treatment, and clinical management. This review provides an overview of the most important new technologies and their applications. A MEDLINE database search was performed revealing a total of 1702 references. All references were considered for information on six main topics, namely image guidance and navigation, robot-assisted surgery, human-machine interface, surgical processes and clinical pathways, computer-assisted surgical training, and clinical decision support. Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work. Based on their respective field of expertise, the authors chose 64 publications relevant for the purpose of this review. Computer-assisted systems are increasingly used not only in experimental studies but also in clinical studies. Although computer-assisted abdominal surgery is still in its infancy, the number of studies is constantly increasing, and clinical studies start showing the benefits of computers used not only as tools of documentation and accounting but also for directly assisting surgeons during diagnosis and treatment of patients. Further developments in the field of clinical decision support even have the potential of causing a paradigm shift in how patients are diagnosed and treated.

  18. Introduction: Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Alan; Levin, Lori

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of intelligent computer-assisted language instruction (ICALI) research as a type of artificial intelligence research. Outlines the components and kinds of ICALI systems. Examines practical research considerations such as personnel needs for development of ICALI software. (Author/LS)

  19. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  20. Learner Control in Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of how secondary students coped when taught binary arithmetic through a computer assisted instruction program used four treatment groups: learner control, learner control with advice; random program control, and adaptive program control. The random group performed less well, but no differences were found between learner and…

  1. Computer Assisted Instruction (ILS) for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Andrew

    In 1991, the Cumberland Campus of Nova Scotia Community College established a literacy research and development project to survey local industries and the community regarding training needs and to develop workplace and community-based programs to meet those needs. One effort involved the implementation of a computer-assisted learning program to…

  2. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  3. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Rehabilitation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crimando, William; Baker, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the use of computer assisted instruction in training rehabilitation students (N=30) in writing evaluation reports. Results showed students who learned the concepts of report writing with a computer based tutorial performed significantly better on a test than students who received a lecture on the material. (JAC)

  4. Inviting Success in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Catherine

    This paper reviews briefly the essential characteristics of both invitational education and computer assisted instruction (CAI) and the ways in which coordination of these two models can produce stimulating and valuable educational experiences for students. A matrix illustrates the characteristics of CAI which can support the major values of…

  5. Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches

  6. Applying a participatory approach to the promotion of a culture of respect during childbirth.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Sando, David; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana; McDonald, Kathleen P

    2016-07-18

    Disrespect and abuse (D&A) during facility-based childbirth is a topic of growing concern and attention globally. Several recent studies have sought to quantify the prevalence of D&A, however little evidence exists about effective interventions to mitigate disrespect and abuse, and promote respectful maternity care. In an accompanying article, we describe the process of selecting, implementing, and evaluating a package of interventions designed to prevent and reduce disrespect and abuse in a large urban hospital in Tanzania. Though that study was not powered to detect a definitive impact on reducing D&A, the results showed important changes in intermediate outcomes associated with this goal. In this commentary, we describe the factors that enabled this effect, especially the participatory approach we adopted to engage key stakeholders throughout the planning and implementation of the program. Based on our experience and findings, we conclude that a visible, sustained, and participatory intervention process; committed facility leadership; management support; and staff engagement throughout the project contributed to a marked change in the culture of the hospital to one that values and promotes respectful maternity care. For these changes to translate into dignified care during childbirth for all women in a sustainable fashion, institutional commitment to providing the necessary resources and staff will be needed.

  7. Development of a Wheelchair Skills Home Program for Older Adults Using a Participatory Action Design Approach

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Miller, William C.; Mitchell, Ian M.; Woodgate, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  8. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population.

  9. Using a Community-based Participatory Research Approach to Implement a Health Fair for Children.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kara C; Henderson Mitchell, Randi J; Workman, Rasheda; Peoples, Erika A; Higginbotham, John C

    2017-03-08

    When devising strategies to combat obesity, strategies focusing on children should be utilized since health-related behaviors track into adulthood. One strategy that begins to address, and brings awareness to, the rising obesity rates and other health disparities in adults is the utilization of community health fairs. Previous literature has described how to conduct an adult health fair using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, but no study has shown how to conduct a health fair for children. This article explains how a CBPR approach was used to develop a health fair focused on obesity prevention for children. A partnership between the community and a local university was formed to assist in the planning and implementation of a health fair. While the data obtained from the health fair served as a needs assessment for future projects, the health fair was also a good first step in developing relationships and trust among the partners.

  10. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work.

  11. Using a Participatory Action Research Approach to Create a Universally Designed Inclusive High School Science Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.

    2006-01-01

    Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…

  12. Youth Participatory Action Research as an Approach to Sociopolitical Development and the New Academic Standards: Considerations for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornbluh, Mariah; Ozer, Emily J.; Allen, Carrie D.; Kirshner, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Administrators and teachers face changes prompted by the shift to Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) offers a promising approach to supporting students in mastering new content standards, while also offering experiences that promote their sociopolitical…

  13. Youth Participatory Action Research as an Approach to Sociopolitical Development and the New Academic Standards: Considerations for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornbluh, Mariah; Ozer, Emily J.; Allen, Carrie D.; Kirshner, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Administrators and teachers face changes prompted by the shift to Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) offers a promising approach to supporting students in mastering new content standards, while also offering experiences that promote their sociopolitical…

  14. Using a Participatory Action Research Approach to Create a Universally Designed Inclusive High School Science Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.

    2006-01-01

    Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…

  15. Development and implementation of a culturally sensitive cervical health survey: a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adina; Christopher, Suzanne; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer mortality rates are higher for Great Plains Native American women than for Caucasian women and other Native women. Messengers for Health, a project based on the Apsáalooke (Crow Indian) reservation, utilizes a lay health advisor approach to decrease cervical cancer screening barriers, increase knowledge regarding screening and prevention, and increase the proportion of women receiving Pap tests among Apsáalooke women aged 18 and older. This project utilizes a community-based participatory research model, which emphasizes community member involvement in all phases of the project. The initial phase of this project was the development and implementation of a culturally sensitive survey used to guide the program and benefit the community. The process and preliminary results are presented.

  16. Developing a strategy for studying critical thinking in a nurse telehealth setting: a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Tuden, Danica; Gidora, Hanne; Quick, Peter D; Ebdon, Nikki; Glover, Karen; Harmer, Sherrill; Miller, Wendy; Taylor, Mary; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    Telehealth nursing is a specialized area of nursing practice that has grown in response to the emergence of new technologies and consumer demand for health care services in the community. HealthLinkBC Nursing Services provides symptom triage and health education to residents of British Columbia and Yukon over the phone. Unlike traditional nursing care, telenurses are limited in terms of information they receive from callers. Therefore, there is a need for critical thinking skills to be developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory approach towards identifying: (1) the factors that affect telehealth nursing practice including critical thinking, and (2) developing a research strategy aimed at identifying the ways in which critical thinking can be supported in a telehealth nursing environment. A HealthLinkBC working group has begun work in developing a definition of critical thinking specific to nursing, identifying future research opportunities and methodologies.

  17. The Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM): Achieving Sustainability in Organizational Intervention through a Participatory Evaluation Approach.

    PubMed

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Lundmark, Robert; Hasson, Henna

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there have been calls to develop ways of using a participatory approach when conducting interventions, including evaluating the process and context to improve and adapt the intervention as it evolves over time. The need to integrate interventions into daily organizational practices, thereby increasing the likelihood of successful implementation and sustainable changes, has also been highlighted. We propose an evaluation model-the Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM)-that takes this into consideration. In the model, evaluation is fitted into a co-created iterative intervention process, in which the intervention activities can be continuously adapted based on collected data. By explicitly integrating process and context factors, DIEM also considers the dynamic sustainability of the intervention over time. It emphasizes the practical value of these evaluations for organizations, as well as the importance of their rigorousness for research purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Computer-Assisted Surgery Using Telemanipulators

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators. The Technology The technology for computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators is a robotic arm that carries an endoscope while two other manipulator arms carry interchangeable tools, such as scissors and grippers. In a master-slave telemanipulator system, the master may consist of a joystick input system, or for surgery, may mimic the motion of the slave robot, such as the da Vinci and ZEUS surgical systems. These systems are capable of telerobotic surgery, or surgery from remote locations. Review Strategy The Cochrane and INAHTA databases yielded 4 health technology assessments or systematic reviews on computer-assisted surgery using telemanipulators. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE January 1, 2001 to November 24, 2003 was conducted. This search produced 448 studies, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Summary of Findings Published health technology assessments indicate that there are limited data from studies, although there is initial evidence of the safety and efficacy of telemanipulators in some procedures when they are used at large academic centres for surgery on selected patients. Most studies are Level 3 and 4 observational studies and assess a wide variety of surgical procedures. Limited studies indicate the promise of telemanipulators, but their efficacy is not fully established. In some procedures, the advantages that telemanipulators may offer may also be achieved by non-robotic minimally invasive/laparoscopic techniques. To date, cost-effectiveness has not been demonstrated. Patients who have undergone robotic surgery must be followed to further define outcomes (e.g., long-term quality of the graft after coronary arterial bypass graft [CABG] surgery). The exact role of computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators has not been fully defined

  19. Application of Computer Assisted Colposcopy Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-29

    avenue to enhance patient education and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction...significant pre- and post-test differences were found for six of the 10 items and for the total exam, suggesting the use of CAI as a valuable patient ... education tool for dysplasia and colposcopy. The unanimous recommendation by the participants for this type of program for future use suggests user friendliness and high satisfaction with this modality.

  20. Application of Computer Assisted Colposcopy Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    avenue to enhance patient education and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on...significant pre- and post-test differences were found for six of the 10 items and for the total exam, suggesting the use of CAI as a valuable patient ... education tool for dysplasia and colposcopy. The unanimous recommendation by the participants for this type of program for future use suggests user friendliness and high satisfaction with this modality.

  1. CASTAG - A Computer Assisted Interactive Naval Wargame.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Kelley CD March 1980 -. J Thesis Advisor: A . Andrus Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 80 7 14 106 UNCLASSIFIED SEC U RiTy CLASS fVC...f f fl LflflflflflL LEVELV NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL COMonterey, California THESIS CASTAG A COMPUTER ASSISTED INTERACTIVE NAVAL WARGAME by Kevin John...morass of detail. Although there was a constant temptation to improve SEATAG in writing this thesis , the computer program is as consistent as possible

  2. Computer-Assisted Literacy Instruction in Phonics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    NPRDC TR 80-21 April 1980 COMPUTER-ASSISTED LITERACY INSTRUCTION IN PHONICS Robert A. Wisher Reviewed by Edwin G. Aiken Released by Richard C. Sorenson...Reading instruction Automated instruction Literacy instruction Phonics 20. Ab"RACT (Cunhwo mn rom oldd " moseom mv~ IdboffeIV W~eek "awA.) Twenty-four...the first in a series that will assess the technological feasibility of automating literacy instruction. Subsequent reports will examine the

  3. A participatory approach to design monitoring indicators of production diseases in organic dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N

    2016-06-01

    Production diseases have an important negative effect on the health and welfare of dairy cows. Although organic animal production systems aim for high animal health levels, compliance with European organic farming regulations does not guarantee that this is achieved. Herd health and production management (HHPM) programs aim at optimizing herd health by preventing disease and production problems, but as yet they have not been consistently implemented by farmers. We hypothesize that one reason is the mismatch between what scientists propose as indicators for herd health monitoring and what farmers would like to use. Herd health monitoring is a key element in HHPM programs as it permits a regular assessment of the functioning of the different components of the production process. Planned observations or measurements of these components are indispensable for this monitoring. In this study, a participatory approach was used to create an environment in which farmers could adapt the indicators proposed by scientists for monitoring the five main production diseases on dairy cattle farms. The adaptations of the indicators were characterized and the farmers' explanations for the changes made were described. The study was conducted in France and Sweden, which differ in terms of their national organic regulations and existing advisory services. In both countries, twenty certified organic dairy farmers and their animal health management advisors participated in the study. All of the farmers adapted the initial monitoring plan proposed by scientists to specific production and animal health situation on their farm. This resulted in forty unique and farm-specific combinations of indicators for herd health monitoring. All but three farmers intended to monitor five health topics simultaneously using the constructed indicators. The qualitative analysis of the explanations given by farmers for their choices enabled an understanding of farmers' reasons for selecting and adapting

  4. Participatory approach in planning for low carbon and eco-village: A case of Felda Taib Andak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngah, I.; Zulkifli, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    Participatory approaches have becoming an important tool in planning of sustainable communities. Although participation is conceived as a malleable concept there are certain methods that planners can adopt to ensure a meaningful participation. This paper will provide some experiences and lessons on how participatory planning could be carried out with local people, the role of planners in the process of plan preparation, implementation and the outcome. This paper first explores some of the meanings of participation, the criteria of participation and the approaches of participation in planning for sustainable community. The second part is a description and discussion of how participatory approach in planning was applied in planning for low carbon and eco-village in Iskandar Malaysia based on a case study of planning of Felda Taib Andak scheme. The participatory approach involved a series of meetings, site visit and focus group discussions with representative of the Felda Village to come out with action plan and actual implementation. From focus group discussions a roadmap consisted of a vision and objectives and a dozen actions were formulated and adopted. In the process of implementation the main implementation & coordination committee was form in which the author (planner) is one of its members to look into fund raising & implementation strategies together with the local people. Several task forces or sub committees responsible to implement the dozen actions were also formed. The outcome was encouraging in which some of the actions such as planting of bamboo trees, reduction of pollution from oil palm factory and bicycling activities has been implemented and shown progress. The paper also highlights some of the issues and challenges in participatory planning.

  5. Computer-Assisted Exposure Treatment for Flight Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miguel; Bornas, Xavier; Llabres, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    This review introduces the state of the art in computer-assisted treatment for behavioural disorders. The core of the paper is devoted to describe one of these interventions providing computer-assisted exposure for flight phobia treatment, the Computer-Assisted Fear of Flying Treatment (CAFFT). The rationale, contents and structure of the CAFFT…

  6. Youth Participatory Action Research: A Transformative Approach to Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schensul, Jean J.; Berg, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a model of participatory action research and service-learning conducted with urban, high school African American, West Indian/Caribbean, and Puerto Rican/Latino youth and adult facilitators, in a nonclassroom setting, in a mid-sized northeastern city. Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) integrates critical theory,…

  7. Combining participatory and socioeconomic approaches to map fishing effort in small-scale fisheries.

    PubMed

    Thiault, Lauric; Collin, Antoine; Chlous, Frédérique; Gelcich, Stefan; Claudet, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Mapping the spatial allocation of fishing effort while including key stakeholders in the decision making process is essential for effective fisheries management but is difficult to implement in complex small-scale fisheries that are diffuse, informal and multifaceted. Here we present a standardized but flexible approach that combines participatory mapping approaches (fishers' spatial preference for fishing grounds, or fishing suitability) with socioeconomic approaches (spatial extrapolation of social surrogates, or fishing capacity) to generate a comprehensive map of predicted fishing effort. Using a real world case study, in Moorea, French Polynesia, we showed that high predicted fishing effort is not simply located in front of, or close to, main fishing villages with high dependence on marine resources; it also occurs where resource dependency is moderate and generally in near-shore areas and reef passages. The integrated approach we developed can contribute to addressing the recurrent lack of fishing effort spatial data through key stakeholders' (i.e., resource users) participation. It can be tailored to a wide range of social, ecological and data availability contexts, and should help improve place-based management of natural resources.

  8. Combining participatory and socioeconomic approaches to map fishing effort in small-scale fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Antoine; Chlous, Frédérique; Gelcich, Stefan; Claudet, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Mapping the spatial allocation of fishing effort while including key stakeholders in the decision making process is essential for effective fisheries management but is difficult to implement in complex small-scale fisheries that are diffuse, informal and multifaceted. Here we present a standardized but flexible approach that combines participatory mapping approaches (fishers’ spatial preference for fishing grounds, or fishing suitability) with socioeconomic approaches (spatial extrapolation of social surrogates, or fishing capacity) to generate a comprehensive map of predicted fishing effort. Using a real world case study, in Moorea, French Polynesia, we showed that high predicted fishing effort is not simply located in front of, or close to, main fishing villages with high dependence on marine resources; it also occurs where resource dependency is moderate and generally in near-shore areas and reef passages. The integrated approach we developed can contribute to addressing the recurrent lack of fishing effort spatial data through key stakeholders' (i.e., resource users) participation. It can be tailored to a wide range of social, ecological and data availability contexts, and should help improve place-based management of natural resources. PMID:28486509

  9. Neighborhoods on the move: a community-based participatory research approach to promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.

  10. Group model building: a participatory approach to understanding and acting on systems.

    PubMed

    Siokou, Christine; Morgan, Rebecca; Shiell, Alan

    2014-11-28

    With mounting appreciation of the complexity of chronic disease, there is a growing need to understand the systemic causes of current health trends. This will support the development of a prevention system and the use of systems thinking to achieve better, more equitable and more sustainable health outcomes. With new language and a need to change our thinking, the push towards systems practice in preventive health is challenging, and calls for a method to support its application. Group model building (GMB) is a participatory approach that is widely used to build the capacity of practitioners to think in a systems way. However, it is a resource-intensive approach that requires high-level buy-in and the investment of time. We discuss the evidence, including a systematic review of the literature examining the effectiveness of GMB approaches across a wide range of contexts. The results of the review are generally positive and suggest that GMB improves problem understanding, increases engagement in systems thinking, builds confidence in the use of systems ideas and develops consensus for action among diverse stakeholders.

  11. Participatory telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  12. Video-based computer-assisted learning.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, N M; Fairhurst, G; Pavett, S; Klein, S; Alexander, D; Koyabe, M; Samaraweera, N; Duguid, K; Keen, A

    2001-03-01

    As a relevant exemplar of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 digital video use, a multimedia computer-assisted learning (CAL) application dealing with Critical Communication Issues in medicine was developed. The application allowed the student to navigate through a series of high-quality digital video and audio clips that were delivered in near real-time from an Intranet server. This paper gives a brief background to the MPEG-2 video compression system and discusses the use of digital video in a CAL environment.

  13. [Computer-assisted optimization of dialysis treatment].

    PubMed

    Rieck, B; Reinschke, P

    1988-01-01

    In some dialysis centers of the GDR personal computers are introduced step by step. There are two main areas in the use of computers in dialysis centers: data management systems and computer-assisted individualization of dialysis. Type and size of data processing are the result of the specific information process in a dialysis center and the presence of a long-term constantly group of patients along with a stereotypical amount of data. In the mathematical modelling of dialysis it is possible to adapt the standard dialysis to each patient.

  14. Computer assisted myelography in disk disease.

    PubMed

    Coin, C G; Chan, Y S; Keranen, V; Pennink, M

    1977-10-01

    Computer assisted myelography (CAM) is a technique to examine the spinal subarachnoid space. Adjacent structures that may impinge on this space, such as the intervertebral disks, as well as structures contained in this space, such as the spinal cord, spinal roots, and vascular formation, may also be appraised by this method. At present, CAM is performed by subarachnoid introduction of water soluble contrast material followed by computed tomography in the axial transverse plane. The authors present their technique and their results with representative cases of intervertebral disk disease.

  15. Computer-assisted knee surgical navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhou, D. G.; Xiong, Chun-Yang; Huang, W. P.; Fang, J.

    2002-05-01

    Total knee replacement requires high measurement accuracy and fixation precision in surgical operation. Misplacement larger than 5 degrees in the force line alignment will lead to re- operation or long term deficits. Based on conventional operation facilities, it was not easy to ensure the necessary precision during het surgery. With the help of CT images, 3D images of patient's knee can be reconstructed. With IR localizer, computer- assisted knee surgical navigation can be realized by tracking that is useful for accurate alignment in surgery and in visualized training program.

  16. Computer-assisted general medicine clerkship evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bienia, R A; Bienia, B H; Mendelson, M A

    1987-03-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of a computer-assisted evaluation system designed to standardize and simplify student evaluations on a general medicine clerkship. Three standard clinical evaluation components were employed: written examination; oral examination; and clinical performance evaluation. Computer spread sheet technology was used to weight each component separately and calculate a final numerical grade for the clerkship. The system provides a consistent, well-documented and well-defined method for justifying individual grades of honours, pass or fail. It has been very helpful in identifying evaluation problems occurring in particular hospital sites or with particular evaluators.

  17. Hunters' acceptability of the surveillance system and alternative surveillance strategies for classical swine fever in wild boar - a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Katja; Calba, Clémentine; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J

    2016-09-06

    Surveillance measures can only be effective if key players in the system accept them. Acceptability, which describes the willingness of persons to contribute, is often analyzed using participatory methods. Participatory epidemiology enables the active involvement of key players in the assessment of epidemiological issues. In the present study, we used a participatory method recently developed by CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement) to evaluate the functionality and acceptability of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) surveillance in wild boar in Germany, which is highly dependent on the participation of hunters. The acceptability of alternative surveillance strategies was also analyzed. By conducting focus group discussions, potential vulnerabilities in the system were detected and feasible alternative surveillance strategies identified. Trust in the current surveillance system is high, whereas the acceptability of the operation of the system is medium. Analysis of the acceptability of alternative surveillance strategies showed how risk-based surveillance approaches can be combined to develop strategies that have sufficient support and functionality. Furthermore, some surveillance strategies were clearly rejected by the hunters. Thus, the implementation of such strategies may be difficult. Participatory methods can be used to evaluate the functionality and acceptability of existing surveillance plans for CSF among hunters and to optimize plans regarding their chances of successful implementation.

  18. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

  19. Rethinking vulnerability analysis and governance with emphasis on a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Nicolas; Delvenne, Pierre; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability for nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An analysis of the literature on vulnerability analysis allows us to formulate a three-fold critique: first, vulnerability analysis has been treated separately in the natural and the technological hazards fields. This separation prevents vulnerability from unleashing the full range of its potential, as it constrains appraisals into artificial categories and thus already closes down the outcomes of the analysis. Second, vulnerability analysis focused on assessment tools that are mainly quantitative, whereas qualitative appraisal is a key to assessing vulnerability in a comprehensive way and to informing policy making. Third, a systematic literature review of case studies reporting on participatory approaches to vulnerability analysis allows us to argue that participation has been important to address the above, but it remains too closed down in its approach and would benefit from embracing a more open, encompassing perspective. Therefore, we suggest rethinking vulnerability analysis as one part of a dynamic process between opening-up and closing-down strategies, in order to support a vulnerability governance framework. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Integrating knowledge exchange and the assessment of dryland management alternatives - A learning-centered participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Susana; Llovet, Joan; Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Mayor, Ángeles G; Murias, Cristina; Vallejo, V Ramón; Orr, Barron J

    2016-12-08

    The adoption of sustainable land management strategies and practices that respond to current climate and human pressures requires both assessment tools that can lead to better informed decision-making and effective knowledge-exchange mechanisms that facilitate new learning and behavior change. We propose a learning-centered participatory approach that links land management assessment and knowledge exchange and integrates science-based data and stakeholder perspectives on both biophysical and socio-economic attributes. We outline a structured procedure for a transparent assessment of land management alternatives, tailored to dryland management, that is based on (1) principles of constructivism and social learning, (2) the participation of stakeholders throughout the whole assessment process, from design to implementation, and (3) the combination of site-specific indicators, identified by local stakeholders as relevant to their particular objectives and context conditions, and science-based indicators that represent ecosystem services of drylands worldwide. The proposed procedure follows a pattern of eliciting, challenging, and self-reviewing stakeholder perspectives that aims to facilitate learning. The difference between the initial baseline perspectives and the final self-reviewed stakeholder perspectives is used as a proxy of learning. We illustrate the potential of this methodology by its application to the assessment of land uses in a Mediterranean fire-prone area in East Spain. The approach may be applied to a variety of socio-ecological systems and decision-making and governance scales.

  1. An adaptive community-based participatory approach to formative assessment with high schools for obesity intervention*.

    PubMed

    Kong, Alberta S; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L

    2012-03-01

    In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles to conduct formative research in identifying acceptable and potentially sustainable obesity intervention strategies in 8 New Mexico school communities. We collected formative data from 8 high schools on areas of community interest for school health improvement through collaboration with local School Health Advisory Councils (SHACs) and interviews with students and parents. A survey based on formative results was created to assess acceptability of specific intervention strategies and was provided to SHACs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were evaluated using an iterative analytic process for thematic identification. Key themes identified through the formative process included lack of healthy food options, infrequent curricular/extracurricular physical activity opportunities, and inadequate exposure to health/nutritional information. Key strategies identified as most acceptable by SHAC members included healthier food options and preparation, a healthy foods marketing campaign, yearly taste tests, an after-school noncompetitive physical activity program, and community linkages to physical activity opportunities. An adaptive CBPR approach for formative assessment can be used to identify obesity intervention strategies that address community school health concerns. Eight high school SHACs identified 6 school-based strategies to address parental and student concerns related to obesity. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  2. A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students.

  3. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment With High Schools for Obesity Intervention*

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles to conduct formative research in identifying acceptable and potentially sustainable obesity intervention strategies in 8 New Mexico school communities. METHODS We collected formative data from 8 high schools on areas of community interest for school health improvement through collaboration with local School Health Advisory Councils (SHACs) and interviews with students and parents. A survey based on formative results was created to assess acceptability of specific intervention strategies and was provided to SHACs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were evaluated using an iterative analytic process for thematic identification. RESULTS Key themes identified through the formative process included lack of healthy food options, infrequent curricular/extracurricular physical activity opportunities, and inadequate exposure to health/nutritional information. Key strategies identified as most acceptable by SHAC members included healthier food options and preparation, a healthy foods marketing campaign, yearly taste tests, an after-school noncompetitive physical activity program, and community linkages to physical activity opportunities. CONCLUSION An adaptive CBPR approach for formative assessment can be used to identify obesity intervention strategies that address community school health concerns. Eight high school SHACs identified 6 school-based strategies to address parental and student concerns related to obesity. PMID:22320339

  4. General purpose computer-assisted clustering and conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Justin; King, Gary

    2011-01-01

    We develop a computer-assisted method for the discovery of insightful conceptualizations, in the form of clusterings (i.e., partitions) of input objects. Each of the numerous fully automated methods of cluster analysis proposed in statistics, computer science, and biology optimize a different objective function. Almost all are well defined, but how to determine before the fact which one, if any, will partition a given set of objects in an “insightful” or “useful” way for a given user is unknown and difficult, if not logically impossible. We develop a metric space of partitions from all existing cluster analysis methods applied to a given dataset (along with millions of other solutions we add based on combinations of existing clusterings) and enable a user to explore and interact with it and quickly reveal or prompt useful or insightful conceptualizations. In addition, although it is uncommon to do so in unsupervised learning problems, we offer and implement evaluation designs that make our computer-assisted approach vulnerable to being proven suboptimal in specific data types. We demonstrate that our approach facilitates more efficient and insightful discovery of useful information than expert human coders or many existing fully automated methods. PMID:21292983

  5. Prospective of groundwater overexploitation through participatory approaches: Saiss Plain in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameur, Fatah; Lejars, Caroline; Dionnet, Mathieu; Quarouch, Hassan; Kuper, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    In the Saiss plain, groundwater overexploitation is often explained by two phenomena. The first one is a natural phenomenon (droughts), which seems therefore uncontrollable; the other one is human as groundwater is largely used by the agricultural sector. The main issue of groundwater governance is to find an acceptable balance in the use of the water resource without compromising the socio-economic development generated by this resource. Our study aims to contribute to understanding the differential contribution of different categories of groundwater users and the socio-economic and agrarian dynamics impacted by the overuse of groundwater. We adopted a participatory approach to explore with the different actors involved in the management and use of groundwater to identify the different viewpoints on the issue of overexploitation and to engage prospective and collective thinking of present situation of groundwater overexploitation. We organized multi-stakeholder workshops and designed a role-playing game to identify and qualify the existing links between the water resource, and the economic and social dynamics in order to better understand the human behavior to economic and environmental crises and the adaptive strategies of farmers confronted with an increasingly scarce groundwater resource. Our results showed considerable differences in the viewpoints of different categories of farmers regarding overexploitation. Agricultural investors who arrived over the past 5 years in the area practicing arboriculture consider themselves modern farmers using precise and water-saving irrigation technologies (drip irrigation, especially) who cannot be blamed for overexploitation of groundwater resources. Lessees practicing horticulture put considerable pressure on water resources, but were not interested in debates on overexploitation and the sustainability of groundwater resources. In fact, they did not turn up for the workshops. Finally, the local small-scale farmers who have

  6. Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham

    2013-08-01

    Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers.

  7. Potential of an outranking multi-criteria approach to support the participatory assessment of land management actions.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Bautista, Susana; Edward deSteiguer, J; Orr, Barron J

    2016-12-07

    We evaluated the potential of an outranking Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis approach for assisting in the participatory assessment of dryland management actions implemented in the San Simon watershed, in southeastern Arizona, USA. We compared an outranking-facilitated assessment of actions with a simple and direct (baseline) ranking of the same actions by the participating stakeholders in terms of: 1) internal homogeneity of each assessment approach, (2) similarity of individual assessments between methods, and (3) effects of the use of implicit/explicit assessment criteria. The actions assessed combined various management approaches, including livestock management (rotation, resting), vegetation management (grass seeding, brush control), and hydraulic structures (dams, dykes). The outranking-facilitated assessment discriminated better between actions and reduced the variability of results between individual stakeholders as compared with the direct ranking of actions. In general, the two assessments significantly differed in the relative preference of the five management actions assessed, yet both assessments identified rotational grazing combined with vegetation management (grass seeding and brush control) as the most preferred management action in the study area. The comparative analysis revealed inconsistencies between the use of implicit and explicit assessment criteria. Our findings highlight the opportunities offered by outranking approaches to help capture, structure, and make explicit stakeholder perspectives in the framework of a participatory environmental assessment process, which may facilitate the understanding of the multiple preferences involved. The outranking integration process, which resembles a voting procedure, proved simple and transparent, with potential for contributing to stakeholder engagement and trust in participatory assessment.

  8. The use of a participatory approach to develop a framework for assessing quality of care in children's mental health services.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Amy C; Sharrock, Patty J; Johnson, Melissa H; Armstrong, Mary I

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for assessing the quality of children's mental health services that reflects the primary concerns and perspectives of diverse stakeholders. A participatory research approach was adopted in order to incorporate caregivers of children with mental health problems, mental health service providers, and managed care administrators in identifying and developing quality of care indicators and methods for assessment. This research occurred in three phases that moved from very qualitative and exploratory to more quantitative as we sought to refine and verify the resulting Quality of Care Framework. We found that the use of a participatory approach was beneficial in ensuring the validity of research tools and utility of the framework, and also greatly increased the sense of ownership of research findings among participants.

  9. System-based participatory research in health care: an approach for sustainable translational research and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Schmittdiel, Julie A; Grumbach, Kevin; Selby, Joe V

    2010-01-01

    Translational research seeks to improve health care by promoting action and change in real-world health care settings. Although translational research advocates a break from the traditional researcher-initiated approach to science, strategies to successfully engage clinicians and leaders of health care delivery organizations in research are still under development. We propose that applying the principles of community-based participatory research in a way that considers delivery systems-including their leaders, clinicians, and staff-as a focal community can enhance the ability of translational research to improve health care. Applying participatory research methods, such as engaging in collaborative partnerships, building on existing community strengths, investing in long-term relationships, and engaging in research as a cyclical, iterative process, can be a successful approach to sustainable quality improvement at the systems level.

  10. [An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Cristina; Torres, Yisel; Cruz, Ana Margarita de la; Alvarez, Angel M; Piquero, María Eugenia; Valero, Aida; Fuentes, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.

  11. Play it forward! A community-based participatory research approach to childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hanson, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J

    2016-03-01

    To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in cocreating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the citizen action group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n = 12) to create and implement the Play It Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took 2 years. During Year 1 (2011-2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During Year 2 (2012-2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6-12 years participated in Play It Forward! Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play It Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Play it Forward!: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach to Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seokwon; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Background To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in co-creating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the Citizen Action Group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. Methods A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n=12) to create and implement the Play it Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took two years. During year 1 (2011–2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family-focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During year 2 (2012–2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6–12 years participated in Play it Forward! Results Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play it Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Conclusion Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. PMID:26618640

  13. Experiences of using a participatory action research approach to strengthen district local capacity in Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tetui, Moses; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2017-08-01

    To achieve a sustained improvement in health outcomes, the way health interventions are designed and implemented is critical. A participatory action research approach is applauded for building local capacity such as health management. Thereby increasing the chances of sustaining health interventions. This study explored stakeholder experiences of using PAR to implement an intervention meant to strengthen the local district capacity. This was a qualitative study featuring 18 informant interviews and a focus group discussion. Respondents included politicians, administrators, health managers and external researchers in three rural districts of eastern Uganda where PAR was used. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore stakeholders' experiences. 'Being awakened' emerged as an overarching category capturing stakeholder experiences of using PAR. This was described in four interrelated and sequential categories, which included: stakeholder involvement, being invigorated, the risk of wide stakeholder engagement and balancing the risk of wide stakeholder engagement. In terms of involvement, the stakeholders felt engaged, a sense of ownership, felt valued and responsible during the implementation of the project. Being invigorated meant being awakened, inspired and supported. On the other hand, risks such as conflict, stress and uncertainty were reported, and finally these risks were balanced through tolerance, risk-awareness and collaboration. The PAR approach was desirable because it created opportunities for building local capacity and enhancing continuity of interventions. Stakeholders were awakened by the approach, as it made them more responsive to systems challenges and possible local solutions. Nonetheless, the use of PAR should be considered in full knowledge of the undesirable and complex experiences, such as uncertainty, conflict and stress. This will enable adequate preparation and management of stakeholder expectations to maximize the benefits of the

  14. A participatory approach to designing and enhancing integrated health information technology systems for veterans: protocol.

    PubMed

    Haun, Jolie N; Nazi, Kim M; Chavez, Margeaux; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole; Gosline, Robert M; Martin, Tracey L

    2015-02-27

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed health information technologies (HIT) and resources to improve veteran access to health care programs and services, and to support a patient-centered approach to health care delivery. To improve VA HIT access and meaningful use by veterans, it is necessary to understand their preferences for interacting with various HIT resources to accomplish health management related tasks and to exchange information. The objective of this paper was to describe a novel protocol for: (1) developing a HIT Digital Health Matrix Model; (2) conducting an Analytic Hierarchy Process called pairwise comparison to understand how and why veterans want to use electronic health resources to complete tasks related to health management; and (3) developing visual modeling simulations that depict veterans' preferences for using VA HIT to manage their health conditions and exchange health information. The study uses participatory research methods to understand how veterans prefer to use VA HIT to accomplish health management tasks within a given context, and how they would like to interact with HIT interfaces (eg, look, feel, and function) in the future. This study includes two rounds of veteran focus groups with self-administered surveys and visual modeling simulation techniques. This study will also convene an expert panel to assist in the development of a VA HIT Digital Health Matrix Model, so that both expert panel members and veteran participants can complete an Analytic Hierarchy Process, pairwise comparisons to evaluate and rank the applicability of electronic health resources for a series of health management tasks. This protocol describes the iterative, participatory, and patient-centered process for: (1) developing a VA HIT Digital Health Matrix Model that outlines current VA patient-facing platforms available to veterans, describing their features and relevant contexts for use; and (2) developing visual model simulations based on

  15. A Participatory Approach to Designing and Enhancing Integrated Health Information Technology Systems for Veterans: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nazi, Kim M; Chavez, Margeaux; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole; Gosline, Robert M; Martin, Tracey L

    2015-01-01

    Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed health information technologies (HIT) and resources to improve veteran access to health care programs and services, and to support a patient-centered approach to health care delivery. To improve VA HIT access and meaningful use by veterans, it is necessary to understand their preferences for interacting with various HIT resources to accomplish health management related tasks and to exchange information. Objective The objective of this paper was to describe a novel protocol for: (1) developing a HIT Digital Health Matrix Model; (2) conducting an Analytic Hierarchy Process called pairwise comparison to understand how and why veterans want to use electronic health resources to complete tasks related to health management; and (3) developing visual modeling simulations that depict veterans’ preferences for using VA HIT to manage their health conditions and exchange health information. Methods The study uses participatory research methods to understand how veterans prefer to use VA HIT to accomplish health management tasks within a given context, and how they would like to interact with HIT interfaces (eg, look, feel, and function) in the future. This study includes two rounds of veteran focus groups with self-administered surveys and visual modeling simulation techniques. This study will also convene an expert panel to assist in the development of a VA HIT Digital Health Matrix Model, so that both expert panel members and veteran participants can complete an Analytic Hierarchy Process, pairwise comparisons to evaluate and rank the applicability of electronic health resources for a series of health management tasks. Results This protocol describes the iterative, participatory, and patient-centered process for: (1) developing a VA HIT Digital Health Matrix Model that outlines current VA patient-facing platforms available to veterans, describing their features and relevant contexts for use; and (2

  16. An artificial intelligence system for computer-assisted menu planning.

    PubMed

    Petot, G J; Marling, C; Sterling, L

    1998-09-01

    Planning nutritious and appetizing menus is a complex task that researchers have tried to computerize since the early 1960s. We have attempted to facilitate computer-assisted menu planning by modeling the reasoning an expert dietitian uses to plan menus. Two independent expert systems were built, each designed to plan a daily menu meeting the nutrition needs and personal preferences of an individual client. One system modeled rule-based, or logical, reasoning, whereas the other modeled case-based, or experiential, reasoning. The 2 systems were evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses identified. A hybrid system was built, combining the best of both systems. The hybrid system represents an important step forward because it plans daily menus in accordance with a person's needs and preferences; the Reference Daily Intakes; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans; and accepted aesthetic standards for color, texture, temperature, taste, and variety. Additional work to expand the system's scope and to enhance the user interface will be needed to make it a practical tool. Our system framework could be applied to special-purpose menu planning for patients in medical settings or adapted for institutional use. We conclude that an artificial intelligence approach has practical use for computer-assisted menu planning.

  17. Tailoring science outreach through E-matching using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Rumala, Bernice B; Hidary, Jack; Ewool, Linda; Emdin, Christopher; Scovell, Ted

    2011-03-01

    In an effort to increase science exposure for pre-college (K-12) students and as part of the science education reform agenda, many biomedical research institutions have established university-community partnerships. Typically, these science outreach programs consist of pre-structured, generic exposure for students, with little community engagement. However, the use of a medium that is accessible to both teachers and scientists, electronic web-based matchmaking (E-matching) provides an opportunity for tailored outreach utilizing a community-based participatory approach (CBPA), which involves all stakeholders in the planning and implementation of the science outreach based on the interests of teachers/students and scientists. E-matching is a timely and urgent endeavor that provides a rapid connection for science engagement between teachers/students and experts in an effort to fill the science outreach gap. National Lab Network (formerly National Lab Day), an ongoing initiative to increase science equity and literacy, provides a model for engaging the public in science via an E-matching and hands-on learning approach. We argue that science outreach should be a dynamic endeavor that changes according to the needs of a target school. We will describe a case study of a tailored science outreach activity in which a public school that serves mostly under-represented minority students from disadvantaged backgrounds were E-matched with a university, and subsequently became equal partners in the development of the science outreach plan. In addition, we will show how global science outreach endeavors may utilize a CBPA, like E-matching, to support a pipeline to science among under-represented minority students and students from disadvantaged backgrounds. By merging the CBPA concept with a practical case example, we hope to inform science outreach practices via the lens of a tailored E-matching approach.

  18. A computer-assisted preventive maintenance system.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, L

    1979-01-01

    With the growing number of hospitals developing in-house preventive maintenance capabilities, and the increasing number of pieces of equipment and instruments needing preventive maintenance, automatic data processing has emerged as a tool to aid the clinical engineer and hospital in planning preventive maintenance programs. Such a system is CAPMS, or Computer Assisted Preventive Maintenance System. Through the use of CAPMS, the department in charge of Preventive Maintenance can keep accurate records of PM history, safety testing, and year-to-year maintenance costs. Some of the special features of CAPMS include: information of availability of equipment for servicing, priorities, and a text file that can be used to print out the procedure form for use during the PM. These additional features make CAPMS a useful tool to the clinical engineer.

  19. Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzwiadek, Harry A.

    1981-11-01

    A computer-assisted photo interpretation research (CAPIR) system has been developed at the U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL), Fort Belvoir, Virginia. The system is based around the APPS-IV analytical plotter, a photogrammetric restitution device that was designed and developed by Autometric specifically for interactive, computerized data collection activities involving high-resolution, stereo aerial photographs. The APPS-IV is ideally suited for feature analysis and feature extraction, the primary functions of a photo interpreter. The APPS-IV is interfaced with a minicomputer and a geographic information system called AUTOGIS. The AUTOGIS software provides the tools required to collect or update digital data using an APPS-IV, construct and maintain a geographic data base, and analyze or display the contents of the data base. Although the CAPIR system is fully functional at this time, considerable enhancements are planned for the future.

  20. [The foundations of computer assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Langlotz, F; Nolte, L-P; Tannast, M

    2006-10-01

    Using navigation systems in general orthopaedic surgery and, in particular, knee replacement is becoming more and more accepted. This paper describes the basic technological concepts of modern computer assisted surgical systems. It explains the variation in currently available systems and outlines research activities that will potentially influence future products. In general, each navigation system is defined by three components: (1) the therapeutic object is the anatomical structure that is operated on using the navigation system, (2) the virtual object represents an image of the therapeutic object, with radiological images or computer generated models potentially being used, and (3) last but not least, the navigator acquires the spatial position and orientation of instruments and anatomy thus providing the necessary data to replay surgical action in real-time on the navigation system's screen.

  1. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a "Data Profiling" Tool for Electronic Health Data.

    PubMed

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a "data profiling" tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool's functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries.

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the risk and severity of injuries from manual handling.

    PubMed

    Carrivick, Philip J W; Lee, Andy H; Yau, Kelvin K W; Stevenson, Mark R

    2005-06-22

    Manual handling is the greatest contributor to non-fatal injury and disease in the workplace, commonly accounting for one-third of national injury counts. Interventional strategies that have focused on selecting or modifying the worker have been ineffective in reducing injury risk. In recent times, participatory ergonomics has been widely adopted as a process to reduce the risk of injury from manual handling but it is not well validated as an intervention. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics risk assessment approach in reducing the rate and severity of injuries from manual and non-manual handling sustained by a cohort of 137 cleaners within a hospital setting. The date of injury and the workers' compensation claim cost and hours lost from work were obtained for each injury incurred during the 4-year pre-intervention and 3-year intervention period. The age, gender and hours worked were ascertained for every cleaner whether injured or not. Using generalized linear mixed modelling analysis, reductions of rate of injury by two-thirds, workers' compensation claim costs by 62% and hours lost by 35% for manual handling injuries were found to be associated with the intervention period. Although the cleaners experienced a significant intervention period reduction in non-manual handling injury rate, the corresponding changes in severity of injury were not significant. The success of the intervention supports the adoption of a participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the rate and consequence of injuries in the workplace.

  3. Transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit: a participatory action research approach.

    PubMed

    Broom, Margaret; Gardner, Anne; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Kildea, Sue

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. In 2012, an Australian regional neonatal intensive care unit transitioned from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Research has reported single- and small-room neonatal intensive care unit design may negatively impact on the distances nurses walk, reducing the time they spend providing direct neonatal care. Studies have also reported nurses feel isolated and need additional support and education in such neonatal intensive care units. Staff highlighted their concerns regarding the impact of the new design on workflow and clinical practice. A participatory action research approach. A participatory action group titled the Change and Networking Group collaborated with staff over a four-year period (2009-2013) to facilitate the transition. The Change and Networking Group used a collaborative, cyclical process of planning, gathering data, taking action and reviewing the results to plan the next action. Data sources included meeting and workshop minutes, newsletters, feedback boards, subgroup reports and a staff satisfaction survey. The study findings include a description of (1) how the participatory action research cycles were used by the Change and Networking Group: providing examples of projects and strategies undertaken; and (2) evaluations of participatory action research methodology and Group by neonatal intensive care unit staff and Change and Networking members. This study has described the benefits of using participatory action research to facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Participatory action research methodology enabled the inclusion of staff to find solutions to design and clinical practice questions. Future research is required to assess the long-term effect of neonatal intensive care unit design on staff workload, maintaining and supporting a skilled workforce as well as

  4. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: An Explanation and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Franklin C.; Park, Ok-choon

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the structure of intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) systems, gives some examples of such systems, and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses. Four references are listed. (MBR)

  5. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: An Explanation and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Franklin C.; Park, Ok-choon

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the structure of intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) systems, gives some examples of such systems, and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses. Four references are listed. (MBR)

  6. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology.

  7. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-02-17

    To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors' and investigators' experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects

  8. Texture-based computer-assisted diagnosis for fiberscopic images.

    PubMed

    Munzenmayer, Christian; Winter, Christian; Rupp, Stephan; Kage, Andreas; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes based on fiber bundles are still widely used despite the recent success of so-called tipchip endoscopes. This is partly due to the costs and that for extremely thin diameters (below 3 mm) there are still only fiberscopes available. Due to the inevitable artifacts caused by the transition from the fiber bundles to the sensor chip, image and texture analysis algorithms are severely handicapped. Therefore, texture-based computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems could not be used in such domains without image preprocessing. We describe a CAD system approach that includes an image filtering algorithm to remove the fiber image artifacts first and then applies conventional color texture algorithms that have been applied to other endoscopic disciplines in the past. The concept is evaluated on an image database with artificially rendered fiber artifacts so that ground truth information is available.

  9. Enhancing Postgraduate Learning and Development: A Participatory Action Learning and Action Research Approach through Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lesley; Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2017-01-01

    As supervisors who advocate the transformational potential of research both to generate theory and practical and emancipatory outcomes, we practice participatory action learning and action research (PALAR). This paper offers an illustrative case of how supervision practices based on action learning can foster emancipatory and lifelong learning…

  10. An Approach to Participatory Instructional Design in Secondary Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konings, Karen D.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teachers have limited insight in students' perspectives on education, although these perspectives influence quality of learning. As students' and teachers' perspectives differ considerably, there is a need for teachers to learn more about students' experiences and ideas about education. Participatory design might be a good strategy for…

  11. Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A Participatory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitso, Constance

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that…

  12. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  13. [Computer-assisted surgery: assessment and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J

    The hospital in the future will be faced with the major problem of managing and optimizing the use of images provided from numerous sources examining both anatomy (MRI, CT-scan...) and function (gamma-camera, PET-scan...). One of the first to benefit from such rationalization will be the surgeon. After studying the results of the physical examination, the laboratory reports and the medical imaging, the surgeon will decide on the best curative measured and the best surgical route before operating. He thus needs a computer to assist him in integrating the multi-modal information available for his patient, in particular the imaging with automatic integration and visualisation in synoptic mode (perception step), showing the trajectory of possible access routes to the target organ, memorization of the chosen route (decision step) and real operation either using laser or a manuel tool, or with robot assistance under human control (action step). This close cooperation between surgery and computers is called computer-assisted surgery. A few examples of current uses an future perspectives of this new field of surgery are presented.

  14. Computer-assisted femoral head resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Antony J; Inkpen, Kevin B; Shekhman, Mark; Anglin, Carolyn; Tonetti, Jerome; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P; Garbuz, Donald S; Greidanus, Nelson V

    2005-01-01

    Femoral head resurfacing is re-emerging as a surgical option for younger patients who are not yet candidates for total hip replacement. However, this procedure is more difficult than total hip replacement, and the mechanical jigs typically used to align the implant produce significant variability in implant placement and take a significant amount of time to position properly. We propose that a computer-assisted surgical (CAS) technique could reduce implant variability with little or no increase in operative time. We describe a new CAS technique for this procedure and demonstrate in a cadaver study of five paired femurs that the CAS technique in the hands of a novice surgeon markedly reduced the varus/valgus variability of the implant relative to the pre-operative plan (2 degrees standard deviation for CAS versus 5 degrees for a mechanical jig operated by an expert surgeon). We also show that the mechanical jig resulted in significantly retroverted implant placement. There was no significant difference in operative time between the two techniques.

  15. Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris JW; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results — Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation — CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

  16. Program in Computer-Assisted Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.; Suppes, Patrick

    Applications of basic elements in a theory of individualized instruction to computer-assisted programs in mathematics, reading, and spelling are described and recent results obtained in an existing elementary school facility are reported. To optimize learning in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) a program model is provided in which content,…

  17. Adapting Computer-Assisted-Instruction to the Non-Programmer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Robert; And Others

    A means now exists which allows the authors of computer-assisted instructional (CAI) programs to enter new exercises into the computer even if they possess only a minimum of expertise about computers and programing. The routine, called Journalism Computer Assisted Instruction (JCAI), is used for computer analysis of student writing in journalism…

  18. CARLOS: Computer-Assisted Instruction in Spanish at Dartmouth College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald C.

    The computer-assisted instruction project in review Spanish, Computer-Assisted Review Lessons on Syntax (CARLOS), initiated at Dartmouth College in 1967-68, is described here. Tables are provided showing the results of the experiment on the basis of aptitude and achievement tests, and the procedure for implementing CARLOS as well as its place in…

  19. Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Math Accuracy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Students in the United States demonstrate low proficiency in their math skills. One promising intervention, computer-assisted instruction, may be used for remediation. There is growing support that computer-assisted instruction is effective for increasing addition and multiplication accuracy and fluency, but more research is necessary in order to…

  20. Computer Assisted Psychomotor Training in a Specialized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Computer assisted psychomotor training is recognized as an appropriate tool in motor skill acquisition in adults with and without physical limitations. In specialized populations of individuals with physical deficits such as Parkinson's disease, previous researchers have examined the application of computer assisted training during upper extremity…

  1. Proactive Guidance in Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A discussion of computer-assisted language learning focuses on management of individual learning processes. As distinct from a reference package, a computer-assisted teaching program has to assure that the student acquires and retains the complete information in the most efficient way, provide accurate and useful material, and pique the student's…

  2. Computer Assisted Psychomotor Training in a Specialized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Computer assisted psychomotor training is recognized as an appropriate tool in motor skill acquisition in adults with and without physical limitations. In specialized populations of individuals with physical deficits such as Parkinson's disease, previous researchers have examined the application of computer assisted training during upper extremity…

  3. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  4. Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Gamero-Ojeda, Pablo; Ascension Carmona, Maria; Berlanga, Jose; Fereres, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN Spain is the world's first and third largest producer of olive oil and almond, respectively. Despite huge efforts in the last years by the production sector towards intensification, cultural issues relative to the traditional rain-fed crop management know how, prevent farmers from adoption of sustainable irrigation management practices. Consequently, even though there has been progress in irrigation management research for these two crops, adoption of modern irrigation techniques by farmers has been slow. Sustainable irrigation strategies for olive and almond orchards are being designed, implemented, validated and disseminated under the framework of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN project, through a participatory approach. The implementation of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN innovative and demonstrative actions has been carried out in an irrigation district of Southern Spain (Genil-Cabra Irrigation Scheme, Andalusia). The approach designed has four phases: i) design and implementation of sustainable irrigation strategies in demonstration farms; ii) dissemination of best irrigation practices which were tested in the initial year throughout the irrigation scheme by the irrigation advisory service; iii) assessment of degree of adoption and re-design of the dissemination strategies; and, iv) based on the results obtained, elaboration of sustainable irrigation guidelines for knowledge transfer in the district at regional and national levels to promote changes in irrigation practices. Participatory approaches have proven to be effective tools for successful irrigation strategies design and diffusion, especially in traditional rain fed crops such as olive and almond trees in the Mediterranean countries. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  5. Computer-assisted TKA: greater precision, doubtful clinical efficacy: affirms.

    PubMed

    Berend, Michael E

    2009-09-01

    Component and limb alignment are essential surgical variables that influence the long-term performance of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Total knee arthroplasty failure remains multifactorial, and computer-assisted surgical techniques may address only part of the failure pathophysiology. Despite attempting to use computer-assisted surgical techniques to improve TKA alignment, recent evidence has reported that the entire nature of the computer-assisted experience is not particularly forgiving, as significant increases in time and complications remain problematic. It appears computer-assisted surgical techniques are not yet "ready for primetime" with reproducible and proven long-term benefits for patients. Further studies are needed to better determine the precise target toward which to aim computer-assisted surgery efforts.

  6. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  7. Computer-Assisted Scheduling of Army Unit Training: An Application of Simulated Annealing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Roland J.; Goehring, Dwight J.

    This report of an ongoing research project intended to provide computer assistance to Army units for the scheduling of training focuses on the feasibility of simulated annealing, a heuristic approach for solving scheduling problems. Following an executive summary and brief introduction, the document is divided into three sections. First, the Army…

  8. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Classroom Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2000-01-01

    Compares computer-assisted instruction in an online library tutorial with the traditional classroom approach to bibliographic instruction. Results of pretests and posttests were compared with students who did not participate in instruction and it is suggested that further research is needed in the area of confidence levels and library use.…

  9. Vocabulary Profiling with Electronic Corpora: A Case Study in Computer Assisted Needs Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodigovic, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Since the inception of computer assisted language learning (CALL), computers have been successfully used to provide leaning and assessment opportunities for groups or individual learners. This article describes a use of computer that is fundamentally different to most CALL approaches, and yet contributes to language learning. While presenting a…

  10. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  11. Development of Computer-Assisted Instruction Curriculum Materials. Results of a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrer, Urs

    Based on the premise that the production strategy and the production approach have a strong impact on quality courseware development, a survey was conducted in 1987 to evaluate the development processes used for computer-assisted instruction curriculum materials. Questionnaires were sent to 64 institutions of higher education in England, the…

  12. Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Intervention for Young Children with Attention and Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Marett, Katherine; Hessel, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    Children who are significantly inattentive and poor early readers require intervention, and traditional tutoring approaches may not be effective with this group. Using a single-subject, multiple-baseline-across-participants design, Study 1 examines whether a computer-assisted reading intervention increases performance for three first-grade…

  13. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed into ergonomic

  14. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.

  15. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection - Part 1: The participatory modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Dirk; Konrad, Wilfried; Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Noack, Vera

    2017-06-01

    Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the potential hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site selection process, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required, for example, for a risk assessment or the optimization of pressure management concepts. From the very beginning, this research on brine migration aimed at involving expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessment in simulating the impacts of injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers by means of a participatory modeling process. The involvement exercise made use of two approaches. First, guideline-based interviews were carried out, aiming at eliciting expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessments of geological structures and mechanisms affecting CO2-induced brine migration. Second, a stakeholder workshop including the World Café format yielded evaluations and judgments of the numerical modeling approach, scenario selection, and preliminary simulation results. The participatory modeling approach gained several results covering brine migration in general, the geological model sketch, scenario development, and the review of the preliminary simulation results. These results were included in revised versions of both the geological model and the numerical model, helping to improve the analysis of regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection.

  16. Participatory Literacy Education: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurmo, Paul

    A participatory approach to adult literacy education aims at getting the learner to function at the highest level of responsibility possible regarding program activities; it demands an active approach. Characteristics of a participatory literacy program include the following: activities that emphasize what learners already know, learners…

  17. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology. PMID:27134436

  18. Computer Assisted Thermography And Its Application In Ovulation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. H.; Shah, A. V.

    1984-08-01

    Hardware and software of a computer-assisted image analyzing system used for infrared images in medical applications are discussed. The application of computer-assisted thermography (CAT) as a complementary diagnostic tool in centralized diagnostic management is proposed. The authors adopted 'Computer Assisted Thermography' to study physiological changes in the breasts related to the hormones characterizing the menstrual cycle of a woman. Based on clinical experi-ments followed by thermal image analysis, they suggest that 'differential skin temperature (DST)1 be measured to detect the fertility interval in the menstrual cycle of a woman.

  19. Outcomes of an ecological and participatory approach to prevent alcohol and other drug "abuse" among multiethnic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dedobbeleer, N; Desjardins, S

    2001-12-01

    This study presents outcomes related to adolescents' alcohol use from an evaluation study testing the effectiveness of The Coalition for Youth Quality of Life Project (Le Regroupement pour la qualité de vie des jeunes). This project is an ecological and participatory approach developed to prevent alcohol and other drug use and misuse among multiethnic youth. The intervention was implemented through four channels of program delivery: families, schools, community organizations, and local government. The study involved 411 sixth graders from eight elementary schools and 380 eighth graders from two junior high schools, in two school districts of the Island of Montreal (province of Quebec, Canada). All students were enrolled in regular classes. Follow-up data were collected 18 months and 30 months after pre-test using a school survey. The findings indicated that the program had no significant impact on alcohol use. The program was, however, capable of producing a significant effect on several hypothesized mediating variables. At first follow-up, the sixth graders showed a higher self-esteem, better peer pressure resistance skills, and a more positive relationship with their father than the controls. The eighth graders were also more inclined to get involved in community activities related to substance abuse prevention and to choose more alternatives to "substance abuse" in their leisure time than the controls. The results are discussed by examining attrition effects and also reasons for program failure. Issues are raised about the evaluation of an ecological and participatory approach.

  20. Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    Yonas, Michael A.; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and

  1. Developing In-Service Science Teachers' Ownership of the Profiles Pedagogical Framework through a Technology-Supported Participatory Design Approach to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyza, E. A.; Georgiou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher ownership is crucial for the sustainability of science education reform efforts. This paper discusses participatory design as a bottom-up approach for promoting teachers' sense of ownership of inquiry-based learning and teaching approach as put forward by the PROFILES project. According to the prevalent argument in favor of participatory…

  2. A Computer Assisted Management System for the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.; Aguilu, Julian R.

    1973-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Management System for the Teacher (CAM) is a computer-managed instruction project of the Flowing Wells High School (Arizona). Statistical analysis indicates a significant increase in mean achievement scores on algebra tests using this method. (WM)

  3. A Computer Assisted Learning Project in Engineering Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesewright, R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A British project in engineering science is described. Computer assisted instruction packages are being developed to provide students with experience with models or systems of models related to lecture material on electrical, electronic, nuclear, and mechanical engineering. (SD)

  4. Research on the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent research studies related to computer assisted instruction (CAI). The studies concerned program effectiveness, teaching of psychomotor skills, tool availability, and factors affecting the adoption of CAI. (CT)

  5. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  6. Problems of Introducing Courses in Computer-Assisted Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kevin C.; Fleming, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses questions associated with the introduction of computer-assisted reporting (CAR) courses at universities. Briefly outlines the use of computers in newsrooms, and then details the authors' Delphi study of CAR's future in journalism programs. (SR)

  7. When computer-assisted knee replacement is the best alternative.

    PubMed

    Fehring, Thomas K; Mason, J Bohannon; Moskal, Joseph; Pollock, David C; Mann, John; Williams, Vincent J

    2006-11-01

    We studied whether computer-assisted surgery could properly align total knee arthroplasty when traditional instrumentation was not possible or appropriate. We identified 16 patients (18 knees) who we believed could not be treated using traditional instrumentation because of posttraumatic femoral deformity, retained femoral hardware, a history of osteomyelitis, or severe cardiopulmonary disease. Computer-assisted surgery was successfully used in 17 knees; we were unable to accurately register the hip in one morbidly obese patient. We judged the overall mechanical axis of the limb using computer-assisted surgery acceptable in 16 of 17 knees. One patient with a major posttraumatic biplane deformity had an overall mechanical axis in 4 degrees of varus. Computer-assisted navigation seemed helpful in difficult situations where accurate alignment remains crucial, yet traditional instrumentation is not applicable.

  8. Using Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignments for Freshman Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, D. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignment (CAPA) system which offers a way to apply computers to assist instructors and students in the framework of lectures and assigned problem sets without students being forced to use the computer system. (DDR)

  9. A Computer Assisted Learning Project in Engineering Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesewright, R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A British project in engineering science is described. Computer assisted instruction packages are being developed to provide students with experience with models or systems of models related to lecture material on electrical, electronic, nuclear, and mechanical engineering. (SD)

  10. Evolution of a Community-Based Participatory Approach in a Rural and Remote Dementia Care Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Debra; Crossley, Margaret; Stewart, Norma; Kirk, Andrew; Forbes, Dorothy; D’Arcy, Carl; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; McBain, Lesley; O’Connell, Megan; Bracken, Joanne; Kosteniuk, Julie; Cammer, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches are valuable strategies for addressing complex health and social problems and powerful tools to support effective transformation of social and health policy to better meet the needs of diverse stakeholders. Objectives Since 1997, our team has utilized CBPR approaches to improve health service delivery for persons with dementia and their caregivers in rural and remote settings. We describe the evolution of our approach, including benefits, challenges, and lessons learned over the last 15 years. Methods A multistage approach initiated an ongoing CBPR research program in rural dementia care and shaped its direction based on stakeholders’ recommendation to prioritize both community and facility-based care. Strategies to develop and foster collaborative partnerships have included travel to rural and remote regions, province-wide community meetings, stakeholder workshops, creation of a Decision-Maker Advisory Council to provide ongoing direction to the overall program, development of diverse project-specific advisory groups, and a highly successful and much anticipated annual knowledge exchange and team-building event. Lessons Learned Partnering with stakeholders in the full research process has enhanced the research quality, relevance, application, and sustainability. These benefits have supported the team’s evolution from a relatively traditional focus to an integrated approach guiding all aspects of our research. Conclusions Developing and sustaining the full range of stakeholder and decision-maker partnerships is resource-and time-intensive, but our experience shows that community-based participatory strategies are highly suited to health services research that is designed to support sustainable service delivery improvements. PMID:25435560

  11. [Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using computer-assisted techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X

    2017-02-18

    The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate

  12. Community-Based Participatory Research to Adapt Health Measures for Use by People With Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Raymaker, Dora; Katz, Marsha; Oschwald, Mary; Goe, Rebecca; Leotti, Sandra; Grantham, Leah; Plourde, Eddie; Salomon, Janice; Hughes, Rosemary B; Powers, Laurie E

    2015-01-01

    People with developmental disabilities (DD) are often not included as participants in research owing to a variety of ethical and practical challenges. One major challenge is that traditional measurement instruments may not be accessible to people with DD. Participatory research approaches promise to increase the participation of marginalized communities in research, but few partnerships have successfully used such approaches to conduct quantitative studies people with DD. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to create an accessible, computer-assisted survey about violence and health in people with DD, and to psychometrically test adapted health instruments. Our academic-community partnership, composed of academic researchers, people with DD, and supporters, collaboratively selected and modified data collection instruments, conducted cognitive interviews and pilot tests, and then administered the full survey to 350 people with DD. Although team members sometimes had opposing accommodation needs and adaptation recommendations, academic and community partners were able to work together successfully to adapt instruments to be accessible to participants with a wide range of DD. Results suggest the adapted health instruments had strong content validity and all but one had good to excellent internal consistency reliability (alpha, 0.81-0.94). The majority of participants (75%) responded that all or most of the questions were easy to understand. Researchers should consider using participatory approaches to adapting instruments so people with DD can be validly included in research.

  13. Defining adaptation measures collaboratively: A participatory approach in the Doñana socio-ecological system, Spain.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Lucia; Hernández-Mora, Nuria; Iglesias, Ana; Sánchez, Berta

    2017-06-15

    The uncertainty associated with the definition of strategies for climate change adaptation poses a challenge that cannot be faced by science alone. We present a participatory experience where, instead of having science defining solutions and eliciting stakeholders' feedback, local actors actually drove the process. While principles and methods of the approach are easily adaptable to different local contexts, this paper shows the contribution of participatory dynamics to the design of adaptation measures in the biodiversity-rich socio-ecological region surrounding the Doñana wetlands (Southern Spain). During the process, stakeholders and scientists collaboratively designed a common scenario for the future in which to define and assess a portfolio of potential adaptation measures, and found a safe, informal space for open dialogue and information exchange. Through this dialogue, points of connection among local actors emerged around the need for more integrated, transparent design of adaptation measures; for strengthening local capacity; and for strategies to diversify economic activities in order to increase the resilience of the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meta-evaluation of baseline studies of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy Expansion Project: a participatory and formative approach.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Ana Cláudia; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Dias, André Luiz Freitas

    2010-12-01

    A participatory, formative meta-evaluation of baseline studies in Brazil is presented. International standards recommended by associations of evaluators were used, along with "specificity" criteria built up using the terms of reference for proposals for the selection of studies. The methodological approach combined a "peer review" of baseline study reports, with a participatory (self) assessment for "primary" evaluators, the average of which provided the final score. Results revealed a classification of "good" and "very good" for the set of standards. The differences between the attribution of scores further highlight the importance of taking into account multiple points of view. Given the lack of pre-existing standards for the reports, the absence of standards and the incipient nature of evaluation focusing on utility, this meta-evaluation does not adequately reflect the quality or potential utility of the baseline studies, however, it will certainly contribute to overcoming these limitations and improving future impact studies of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy Expansion Project (PROESF).

  15. Computer-assisted collision avoidance using ARPA and ECDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froese, J.; Mathes, S.

    1997-12-01

    In the project entitled “Computer-Assisted Collision Avoidance”, which was funded by the German Mi nistry of Education, Research and Technology and was executed in cooperation with the industrial partner STN ATLAS Elektronik, the intention was to combine the tasks of track planning, track control and collision avoidance. The aim was to develop a system which would support the officer of the watch in the handling of complex traffic situations by suggesting collision-avoidance tracks. The main points of this project were in the following areas: p] Determination and display of danger areas The positions of possible collisions with other ships, and areas to be avoided on the basis of defined closest points of approach, are computed and displayed with geometrical exactness. The target ships are fed into the system via a standardized interface. Set of rules for the handling of multi- ship encounters The software for computer-assisted collision avoidance contains a set of rules for the creation of collisi on avoidance tracks, taking account of the existing traffic situation. This set of rules takes into account the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG) and nautical practice. In the process of generating a track suggestion, all other ships detected in the sea area concerned are included in the compu tation. Integration of ECDIS One of the main aims of the project was to combine the information and functionalities of ARPA and ECDIS. By the incorporation of chart data, the system is able to compute track suggestions, taking account of the sea area in which the ships are sailing. In this process, the own ship’s safety requirements are inclu ded. Accordingly, the track thus determined can actually be sailed. By the overlaid display of radar picture and ECDIS, the situation involving encounters with other vessels can at all times be assessed within the over all context. Economically designed man- machine interface One important subtask in the

  16. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  17. Image processing techniques in computer-assisted patch clamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Patel, Rajni; Gavrilovici, Cezar; Poulter, Michael O.

    2010-02-01

    Patch clamping is used in electrophysiology to study single or multiple ion channels in cells. Multiple micropipettes are used as electrodes to collect data from several cells. Placement of these electrodes is a time consuming and complicated task due to the lack of depth perception, limited view through the microscope lens and the possibility of collisions between micro-pipettes. To aid in this process, a computer-assisted approach is developed using image processing techniques applied to images obtained through the microscope. Image processing algorithms are applied to perform autofocusing, relative depth estimation, distance estimation and tracking of the micro-pipettes in the images without making any major changes in the existing patch clamp equipment. An autofocusing algorithm with a micrometer precision is developed and the relative depth estimation is performed based on autofocusing. A micro-pipette tip detection algorithm is developed which can be used to initialize or reset the tracking algorithm and to calibrate the system by registering the relative image and micro-manipulator coordinates. An image-based tracking algorithm is also developed to track a micro-pipette tip in real time. The real-time tracking data is then used for visual servoing the micro-pipette tips and updating the calibration information.

  18. Is Computer-assisted Distance Learning Possible in Nematology?

    PubMed

    Francl, L J

    1998-06-01

    In many institutions of higher education, introductory nematology is taught to small numbers of students. Nematology and other low-enrollment courses may be placed under scrutiny, reformatted, or dropped from the curriculum to cut costs and improve faculty efficiency. Computer-assisted distance education (CADE) offers a way to increase faculty productivity and job satisfaction, student learning and socialization, and cost-effectiveness. Participating institutions gain by sharing resources with other schools and may retain or even increase enrollments through broadened educational opportunities. CADE ranges from complete course offerings and video interaction to supplemental materials on a personal computer for independent learning. A modular approach to course development is the most successfuI model because of the flexibility it offers. While an entire hematology course through CADE is not possible without substantial institutional and faculty investment, supplemental materials can help remotely located students gain an appreciation for hematology. Nematological images, text, computer programs, and other resources can easily be placed on Internet web pages. Nematologists in all sectors need to continue to reach out to the next generation of leaders to tell them what nematologists do and why nematodes are important. The Society of Nematologists can be a leader in the systematic development of CADE in nematology.

  19. Exploring safety and quality in a hemodialysis environment with participatory photographic methods: a restorative approach.

    PubMed

    Marck, Patricia; Molzahn, Anita; Berry-Hauf, Rhonda; Hutchings, Loretta Gail; Hughes, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study used principles and methods of good ecological restoration, including participatory photographic research methods, to explore perceptions of safety and quality in one hemodialysis unit. Using a list of potential safety and quality issues developed during an initial focus group, a practitioner-led photo walkabout was conducted to obtain photographs of the patient care unit and nurses' stories (photo narration) about safety and quality in their environment. Following a process of iterative coding, photos were used to discuss preliminary themes in a photo elicitation focus group with four additional unit staff The major themes identified related to clutter, infection control, unit design, chemicals and air quality, lack of storage space, and health and safety hazards (including wet floors, tripping hazards from hoses, moving furniture/chairs). The visual methods engaged researchers and unit nurses in rich dialogue about safety in this complex environment and provides an ongoing basis for monitoring and enhancing safety.

  20. Identification and analysis of unsatisfactory psychosocial work situations: a participatory approach employing video-computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Hanse, J J; Forsman, M

    2001-02-01

    A method for psychosocial evaluation of potentially stressful or unsatisfactory situations in manual work was developed. It focuses on subjective responses regarding specific situations and is based on interactive worker assessment when viewing video recordings of oneself. The worker is first video-recorded during work. The video is then displayed on the computer terminal, and the filmed worker clicks on virtual controls on the screen whenever an unsatisfactory psychosocial situation appears; a window of questions regarding psychological demands, mental strain and job control is then opened. A library with pictorial information and comments on the selected situations is formed in the computer. The evaluation system, called PSIDAR, was applied in two case studies, one of manual materials handling in an automotive workshop and one of a group of workers producing and testing instrument panels. The findings indicate that PSIDAR can provide data that are useful in a participatory ergonomic process of change.

  1. Participatory action research (PAR): an approach for improving black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine B; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Oyinsan, Bunmi; Clow, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Women are among the most disadvantaged members of any community, and they tend to be at greatest risk of illness. Black women are particularly vulnerable and more prone than White women to illnesses associated with social and economic deprivation, including heart disease and diabetes. They utilize preventive health services less often, and when they fall ill, the health of their families and communities typically suffers as well. This article discusses the process of doing innovative participatory action research (PAR) in southwest Nova Scotia Black communities. The effort resulted in the generation of a database, community action, and interdisciplinary analysis of the intersecting inequities that compromise the health and health care of African Canadian women, their families, and their communities. This particular research effort serves as a case study for explicating the key tenets of PAR and the barriers to and contradictions in implementing PAR in a community-academic collaborative research project.

  2. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

  3. Promoting culturally targeted chronic disease prevention research through an adapted participatory research approach: The Qassim-Stanford Universities project.

    PubMed

    Winter, Sandra J; King, Abby C; Stafford, Randall S; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Haskell, William L; Farquhar, John W

    2011-06-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), similar to other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean, has been experiencing a recent rapid increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and associated risk factors. To begin to take advantage of the chronic disease prevention and health promotion (CDPHP) knowledge available from other nations, researchers at a newly established University in the Qassim Province of the KSA have partnered with Stanford University in the United States of America. To ensure that CDPHP research and interventions are culturally relevant and appropriate, a participatory research approach has been adopted where local researchers are the target "community." Contextual challenges of conducting CDPHP research in the KSA, at the individual, social/cultural, organizational and environmental/policy levels, are identified, as well as examples of CDPHP intervention strategies that may be culturally appropriate at each level.

  4. Community-based participatory research: a new approach to engaging community members to rapidly call 911 for stroke.

    PubMed

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Zimmerman, Marc A; Murphy, Jillian; Brown, Devin L; Kerber, Kevin A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2011-07-01

    Acute stroke treatments are underutilized primarily because of delayed hospital arrival. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored stroke self-efficacy, knowledge, and perceptions of stroke among a predominately African American population in Flint, Michigan. In March 2010, a survey was administered to youth and adults after religious services at 3 churches and during 1 church health day. The survey consisted of vignettes (12 stroke, 4 nonstroke) to assess knowledge of stroke warning signs and behavioral intent to call 911. The survey also assessed stroke self-efficacy, personal knowledge of someone who had experienced a stroke, personal history of stroke, and barriers to calling 911. Linear regression models explored the association of stroke self-efficacy with behavioral intent to call 911 among adults. Two hundred forty-two adults and 90 youths completed the survey. Ninety-two percent of adults and 90% of youth respondents were African American. Responding to 12 stroke vignettes, adults would call 911 in 72% (SD, 0.26) of the vignettes, whereas youths would call 911 in 54% of vignettes (SD, 0.29; P<0.001). Adults correctly identified stroke in 51% (SD, 0.32) of the stroke vignettes and youth correctly identified stroke in 46% (SD, 0.28) of the stroke vignettes (P=0.28). Stroke self-efficacy predicted behavioral intent to call 911 (P=0.046). In addition to knowledge of stroke warning signs, behavioral interventions to increase both stroke self-efficacy and behavioral intent may be useful for helping people make appropriate 911 calls for stroke. A community-based participatory research approach may be effective in reducing stroke disparities.

  5. Participatory approach to the development of a knowledge base for problem-solving in diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Smaldone, Arlene M; Davidson, Patricia R; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena

    2016-01-01

    To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Participatory approach to the development of a knowledge base for problem-solving in diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Davidson, Patricia R.; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D.; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. Materials and methods The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. Results The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. Discussion The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. Conclusion The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. PMID:26547253

  7. Development of a patient decision aid for the treatment of localised prostate cancer: a participatory design approach.

    PubMed

    Al-Itejawi, Hoda H M; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Vis, André N; Nieuwenhuijzen, Jakko A; Hofstee, Myrna J A; van Moorselaar, Reindert Jeroen A; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2016-04-01

    To develop a patient decision aid and to prepare an overview of requirements for implementation. We developed a decision aid that fits the preferences of patients and health care professionals to ensure adequate uptake in clinical practice. A participatory design approach was used to acquire insight into preferences regarding the content and design of a decision aid and into barriers and aspects of the decision aid that facilitate implementation in clinical practice. Three focus group interviews with patients, their partners and health care professionals were conducted. A prototype of the decision aid was developed and presented to patients (n = 14) and health care professionals (n = 13) in semi-structured interviews. Patients (n = 5) participated in a usability study. Data were analysed by two independent coders. Health care professionals considered medical information on treatments and side effects as the most important aspect to be included in the decision aid. Patients also focused on nonmedical considerations, such as location. Both expected the decision aid to support patients in making a treatment choice. According to health care professionals, the oncology nurse was the most suitable to discuss the decision aid with patients, while some patients preferred to discuss the patient decision aid with the urologist. The main barrier to implementation of the decision aid was said to be the expectation that it is time and money consuming, while the incorporation of the decision aid into clinical guidelines and basing the content on these guidelines, would promote implementation. By using a participatory design approach a patient decision aid was designed to meet patients' and health care professionals' needs. Insight was also gained on requirements for implementation. Wide-scale implementation of decision aids is desirable. An overview is provided of requirements for implementation to successfully incorporate a decision aid into clinical practice. © 2016 John

  8. Community Based Participatory Research: A New approach to engaging community members to rapidly call 911 for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Skolarus, Lesli E.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Murphy, Jillian; Brown, Devin L.; Kerber, Kevin A.; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acute stroke treatments are underutilized primarily due to delayed hospital arrival. Using a community based participatory research approach, we explored stroke self-efficacy, knowledge and perceptions of stroke among a predominately African American population in Flint, Michigan. Methods In March 2010, a survey was administered to youth and adults after religious services at three churches and one church health day. The survey consisted of vignettes (12 stroke, 4 non-stroke) to assess knowledge of stroke warning signs and behavioral intent to call 911. The survey also assessed stroke self-efficacy, personal knowledge of someone who had had a stroke, personal history of stroke and barriers to calling 911. Linear regression models explored the association of stroke self-efficacy with behavioral intent to call 911 among adults. Results Two hundred forty two adults and 90 youth completed the survey. Ninety two percent of adults and 90% of youth respondents were African American. Responding to 12 stroke vignettes, adults would call 911 in 72% (sd=0.26) of the vignettes while youth would call 911 in 54% (sd=0.29) (p<0.001). Adults correctly identified stroke in 51% (sd=0.32) of the stroke vignettes and youth in 46% (sd=0.28) of the stroke vignettes (p=0.28). Stroke self-efficacy predicted behavioral intent to call 911 (p=0.046). Conclusion In addition to knowledge of stroke warning signs, behavioral interventions to increase both stroke self-efficacy and behavioral intent may be useful for helping people make appropriate 911 calls for stroke. A community based participatory research approach may be effective in reducing stroke disparities. PMID:21617148

  9. Management of Lower Extremity and Pelvic Tumors Using Computer Assisted Modeling (CAM) A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Haskoor, John; Sinno, Sammy; Blank, Alan; Saadeh, Pierre; Rapp, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Computer assisted modeling (CAM) has become an important tool in surgical oncology and reconstructive surgery. The preservation of the limb is an important consideration when approaching the treatment of lower extremity and pelvic tumors. The use of cutting guides allows for optimal conservation of disease-free bone and maintenance of function. We present a small case series that illustrates the use of CAM in patients with lower extremity and pelvic bone tumors.

  10. [The history and development of computer assisted orthopaedic surgery].

    PubMed

    Jenny, J-Y

    2006-10-01

    Computer assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) was developed to improve the accuracy of surgical procedures. It has improved dramatically over the last years, being transformed from an experimental, laboratory procedure into a routine procedure theoretically available to every orthopaedic surgeon. The first field of application of computer assistance was neurosurgery. After the application of computer guided spinal surgery, the navigation of total hip and knee joints became available. Currently, several applications for computer assisted surgery are available. At the beginning of navigation, a preoperative CT-scan or several fluoroscopic images were necessary. The imageless systems allow the surgeon to digitize patient anatomy at the beginning of surgery without any preoperative imaging. The future of CAOS remains unknown, but there is no doubt that its importance will grow in the next 10 years, and that this technology will probably modify the conventional practice of orthopaedic surgery.

  11. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  12. Building the framework for climate change adaptation in the urban areas using participatory approach: the Czech Republic experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David

    2016-04-01

    The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach

  13. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2014-09-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera of the volcano inside Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the programme included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people to volcanic threats is linked to daily access to sources of livelihood, especially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk to their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such an objective, a participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participatory aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability of (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties in involving more

  14. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Organic Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snieckus, V.

    Using the Corey approach, retrosynthetic/synthetic schemes for six organic molecules of increasing complexity were programmed and tested in a module designed for a fourth year undergraduate course. A portion of a simple synthesis is presented and analyzed. Problems encountered were discussed and potential solutions are proposed. The module was…

  15. Literary Studies: A Computer Assisted Teaching Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon; Chandramohan, Balasubramanyam

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of TACT computer software to teach Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness." Employs TACT to reinforce understanding of the text achieved through a combination of analytic approaches to literary texts with linguistic methods. Argues that exposure to the software made students' interaction with the text more complex and…

  16. Computer-Assisted and Patient-Controlled Sedation Platforms.

    PubMed

    Pambianco, Daniel; Niklewski, Paul

    2016-07-01

    As the number and complexity of endoscopic procedures increase, the role of sedation has been integral in patient and physician satisfaction. This article discusses the advances of computer-assisted and patient-controlled platforms. These computer-assisted and patient-controlled platforms use different anesthetics and analgesics, all with the intent of achieving improved consistency in the level of sedation, appropriate to the needs of patients, while also improving patient safety. These systems have been around for decades; however, few are approved for use in the United States, and several still require further study before broad clinical application.

  17. Breast care screening for underserved African American women: Community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy; Darby, Kathleen; Moore, Matthew; Cadet, Tamara; Brown, Gwendolynn

    2017-01-01

    Traditional health promotion models often do not take into account the importance of shared cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and experiences unique to underserved African American women when designing community-based cancer screening and prevention programs. Thus, the purpose of this study was the development, implementation, and evaluation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) program designed to increase breast cancer screening awareness in an underserved African American population by providing culturally appropriate social support and information. The study includes 357 African American women who participated in the program and completed the 6-month follow-up questionnaire. The program consisted of a 45-minute play, using community members and storytelling to honor and incorporate five different cultural experiences (skits) with breast care and cancer. Overall, findings indicate that the educational intervention was effective. In addition, these findings are consistent with the literature that suggests that educational interventions that include knowledge to alleviate concerns, dispel myths, and create awareness can increase breast cancer screening participation rates. Furthermore, these findings confirm the importance of CBPR in health promotion activities in reducing health and cancer disparities.

  18. Using Participatory Approach to Improve Availability of Spatial Data for Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, T.; Cetl, V.; Tomič, H.; Lisiak, J.; Kliment, M.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, the availability of authoritative geospatial features of various data themes is becoming wider on global, regional and national levels. The reason is existence of legislative frameworks for public sector information and related spatial data infrastructure implementations, emergence of support for initiatives as open data, big data ensuring that online geospatial information are made available to digital single market, entrepreneurs and public bodies on both national and local level. However, the availability of authoritative reference spatial data linking the geographic representation of the properties and their owners are still missing in an appropriate quantity and quality level, even though this data represent fundamental input for local governments regarding the register of buildings used for property tax calculations, identification of illegal buildings, etc. We propose a methodology to improve this situation by applying the principles of participatory GIS and VGI used to collect observations, update authoritative datasets and verify the newly developed datasets of areas of buildings used to calculate property tax rates issued to their owners. The case study was performed within the district of the City of Požega in eastern Croatia in the summer 2015 and resulted in a total number of 16072 updated and newly identified objects made available online for quality verification by citizens using open source geospatial technologies.

  19. Popular participation in the mass media: an appraisal of a participatory approach to educational radio.

    PubMed

    Byram, M L

    1981-12-01

    This article discusses the concept of popular participation within the context of nonformal education and analyzes the use of the mass media as a tool for promoting such participation. It is argued that the central issue of popular participation is that of power; it is concerned with the struggle for the control of resources on the part of the oppressed masses. Participatory research principles emphasize the active involvement of people on whom the research is focused at all stages of the educational process and reject the possibility of scientific objectivity. Control of the mass media can be exercised over both the hardware itself and the program content. The latter form, which is more feasible in developing countries, includes several discrete stages where some degree of popular participation is possible: identification of the campaign topic, production of materials, and creation of a 2-way flow of communication. The role of the media person and the political climate in which the radio campaign is operating affect the degree to which authentic participation is possible. Popular participation must be organized; it does not just happen. Among the issues in this area that need to be addressed by future surveys are the role of the professional media person, the technical limitations on participation, and the extent to which a radio network needs to be decentralized to make participation an ongoing feature.

  20. Computer assisted thermal-vacuum testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrie, W.; Mikk, G.

    1977-01-01

    In testing complex systems and components under dynamic thermal-vacuum environments, it is desirable to optimize the environment control sequence in order to reduce test duration and cost. This paper describes an approach where a computer is utilized as part of the test control operation. Real time test data is made available to the computer through time-sharing terminals at appropriate time intervals. A mathematical model of the test article and environmental control equipment is then operated on using the real time data to yield current thermal status, temperature analysis, trend prediction and recommended thermal control setting changes to arrive at the required thermal condition. The data acquisition interface and the time-sharing hook-up to an IBM-370 computer is described along with a typical control program and data demonstrating its use.

  1. Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research: Reflections on the Research Approach Used to Understand the Complexity of Maternal Health Issues in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Byrne, Elaine; Manandhar, Mary; Hemmings, Joanne; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2017-07-01

    Many methodological approaches have been used to understand cultural dimensions to maternal health issues. Although a well-designed quantitative survey with a representative sample can provide essential information on trends in behavior, it does not necessarily establish a contextualized understanding of the complexity in which different behaviors occur. This article addresses how contextualized data can be collected in a short time and under conditions in which participants in conflict-affected zones might not have established, or time to establish, trust with the researchers. The solution, the Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research (PEER) approach, is illustrated through a study whereby South Sudanese marginalized women were trained to design research instruments, and collect and analyze qualitative data. PEER overcomes the problem that many ethnographic or participatory approaches face-the extensive time and resources required to develop trusting relationships with the community to understand the local context and the social networks they form.

  2. How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

  3. Community-Based Participatory Approach to Reduce Breast Cancer Disparities in South Dallas

    PubMed Central

    Cardarelli, Kathryn; Jackson, Rachael; Martin, Marcus; Linnear, Kim; Lopez, Roy; Senteio, Charles; Weaver, Preston; Hill, Anna; Banda, Jesse; Epperson-Brown, Marva; Morrison, Janet; Parrish, Deborah; Newton, JR; Royster, Marcene; Haley, Sheila; Lafayette, Camille; Harris, Phyllis; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.; Johnson, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Background South Dallas experiences significant disparities in breast cancer mortality, with a high proportion of stage III and IV diagnoses. To address these rates, the Dallas Cancer Disparities Community Research Coalition created an educational intervention to promote breast health and early detection efforts. Objectives The goals of the intervention were to increase (a) knowledge regarding the chief contributing factors for breast cancer, (b) awareness of the importance of screening for early detection, and (c) the proportion of women who have engaged in appropriate breast cancer screening practices. Methods Eligibility criteria for this nonrandomized, controlled trial included women age 40 and older, English-speaking, and having no personal history of cancer. Control participants received written breast health educational materials. Intervention participants attended 8 weekly sessions that included interactive educational materials, cooking demonstrations, and discussions emphasizing primary and secondary breast cancer prevention. All study participants completed a 1-hour survey at baseline and 4 months later. Results There were 59 women were enrolled in the intervention and 60 in the control group. At follow-up, after controlling for baseline mammography status, women in the intervention group were 10.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9–36.4) to have received a screening mammogram in the last year compared with the control group. Intervention participants demonstrated statistically significantly higher rates of breast self-examination (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0–8.6) and breast cancer knowledge (p = .003). Conclusion Lessons learned from this community-based participatory research (CBPR) study can be used to create sustainable cancer disparity reduction models that can be replicated in similar communities. PMID:22616205

  4. Community-based participatory approach to reduce breast cancer disparities in south Dallas.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, Kathryn; Jackson, Rachael; Martin, Marcus; Linnear, Kim; Lopez, Roy; Senteio, Charles; Weaver, Preston; Hill, Anna; Banda, Jesse; Epperson-Brown, Marva; Morrison, Janet; Parrish, Deborah; Newton, J R; Royster, Marcene; Haley, Sheila; Lafayette, Camille; Harris, Phyllis; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Johnson, Eric S

    2011-01-01

    South Dallas experiences significant disparities in breast cancer mortality, with a high proportion of stage III and IV diagnoses. To address these rates, the Dallas Cancer Disparities Community Research Coalition created an educational intervention to promote breast health and early detection efforts. The goals of the intervention were to increase (a) knowledge regarding the chief contributing factors for breast cancer, (b) awareness of the importance of screening for early detection, and (c) the proportion of women who have engaged in appropriate breast cancer screening practices. Eligibility criteria for this nonrandomized, controlled trial included women age 40 and older, English-speaking, and having no personal history of cancer. Control participants received written breast health educational materials. Intervention participants attended 8 weekly sessions that included interactive educational materials, cooking demonstrations, and discussions emphasizing primary and secondary breast cancer prevention. All study participants completed a 1-hour survey at baseline and 4 months later. There were 59 women were enrolled in the intervention and 60 in the control group. At follow-up, after controlling for baseline mammography status, women in the intervention group were 10.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-36.4) to have received a screening mammogram in the last year compared with the control group. Intervention participants demonstrated statistically significantly higher rates of breast self-examination (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0-8.6) and breast cancer knowledge (p=.003). Lessons learned from this community-based participatory research (CBPR) study can be used to create sustainable cancer disparity reduction models that can be replicated in similar communities.

  5. Computer-Assisted Periodical Routing and Renewal Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerkey, A. Neil

    1973-01-01

    A computer-assisted periodical control system was designed to reduce clerical time required to maintain records in three areas: renewal audit, routing, and records-keeping. The renewal audit features are unusual and are described in detail. (3 references) (Author/DH)

  6. Framework for Computer Assisted Instruction Courseware: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betlach, Judith A.

    1987-01-01

    Systematically investigates, defines, and organizes variables related to production of internally designed and implemented computer assisted instruction (CAI) courseware: special needs of users; costs; identification and definition of realistic training needs; CAI definition and design methodology; hardware and software requirements; and general…

  7. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Pitch and Rhythm Error Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, John J.

    1985-01-01

    Consistent with other programmed methods for teaching error detection skill, the computer-assisted program in error detection (CA-PED) appears to be a successful method of teaching that skill to college music education students. However, CA-PED is no more or less effective than Ramsey's PED, an effective, full-score, error detection program.…

  8. Evaluation of Three Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Morningstar, Mona

    This technical report is concerned with the evaluation of three Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Programs - The Drill-and practice Program in Elementary School Mathematics, The Brentwood Tutorial Mathematics Program, and the Russian Program. Among the results reported were (1) the drill-and-practice mathematics program used in Mississippi and…

  9. Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Selective Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen K.

    The history of some computer-assisted instruction (CAI) strategies is traced. A number of components of computerized instruction systems are described and explanations provided on the influence these components have in the development and production of a CAI system. A description of the interaction between a student and a CAI system is presented…

  10. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965-66 Arithmetic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A review of the possibilities and challenges of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and a brief history of CAI projects at Stanford serve to give the reader the context of the particular program described and analyzed in this book. The 1965-66 arithmetic drill-and-practice program is described, summarizing the curriculum and project operation. An…

  11. Computer-Assisted Instruction of Early Academic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Caryl H.; Noonan, Mary Jo

    2000-01-01

    Five preschool students with disabilities received direct instruction on matching shapes, colors, and numbers or letters, followed by guided practice using constant time delay under two conditions: computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with interactive software and teacher-assisted instruction (TAI). CAI was either equal or superior to TAI across…

  12. Applications of Parsing Theory to Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markosian, Lawrence Z.; Ager, Tryg A.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of an LR-1 parsing algorithm to intelligent programs for computer assisted instruction in symbolic logic and foreign languages are discussed. The system has been adequately used for diverse instructional applications, including analysis of student input, generation of pattern drills, and modeling the student's understanding of the…

  13. Technical Aspects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chaun; Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in Chinese is considered in relation to the design and recognition of Chinese characters, speech synthesis of the standard Chinese language, and the identification of Chinese tone. The PLATO work has shifted its orientation from provision of supplementary courseware to implementation of independent lessons and…

  14. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  15. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Medicine: A German View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Gunnar; And Others

    The following seven American programs of Computer Assisted Instruction in Medicine are among 20 implemented at the University of Bonn: OPHTHA and FUNDUS (programs of the tutorial mode), CARDI (presents information via three media on the clinical alterations of Mitral and Aortic Stenosis as well as Mitral and Aortal Incompetence), CARDIOPULMONARY…

  16. Computer-Assisted Law Instruction: Clinical Education's Bionic Sibling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Harry G.; Platt, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), like clinical education, has considerable potential for legal training. As an initial Cornell Law School experiment, a lesson in applying different corporate statutory dividend formulations, with a cross-section of balance sheets and other financial data, was used to supplement regular class assignments.…

  17. Ethical and Professional Issues in Computer-Assisted Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, B. Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ethical and professional issues in psychology regarding computer-assisted therapy (CAT). Topics addressed include an explanation of CAT; whether CAT is psychotherapy; software, including independent use, validation of effectiveness, and restricted access; clinician resistance; client acceptance; the impact on ethical standards; and a…

  18. User Interface Improvements in Computer-Assisted Instruction, the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies user interface problems as they relate to computer-assisted instruction (CAI); reviews the learning theories and instructional theories related to CAI user interface; and presents potential CAI user interface improvements for research and development based on learning and instructional theory. Focuses on screen design improvements.…

  19. Computer-Assisted Accent Modification: A Report on Practice Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Linda J.; Reid, Lawry N.; Chenausky, Karen

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of the computer-assisted accent-modification program, Speech Works, with beginning college students of English as a second language with a non-speech-language pathologist trainer. Students who had weekly one-on-one sessions with a teacher and independent practice, especially when the practice was computer monitored,…

  20. [Computer assisted radiological diagnostics of arthritic joint alterations].

    PubMed

    Kainberger, F; Langs, G; Peloschek, P; Schlager, T; Schüller-Weidekamm, C; Valentinitsch, A

    2006-12-01

    Computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) schemes are currently used in the field of musculoskeletal diseases to quantitatively assess vertebral fractures, joint space narrowing, andr erosion. Most systems work semi-automatically, i.e. they are operator dependent in the selection of anatomical landmarks. Fully automatic programs are currently under development. Some CAD products have already been successfully used in clinical trials.

  1. System/360 Computer Assisted Network Scheduling (CANS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer assisted scheduling techniques that produce conflict-free and efficient schedules have been developed and implemented to meet needs of the Manned Space Flight Network. CANS system provides effective management of resources in complex scheduling environment. System is automated resource scheduling, controlling, planning, information storage and retrieval tool.

  2. Perceptions of University Students regarding Computer Assisted Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamil, Mubashrah

    2012-01-01

    Computer assisted assessment (CAA) is a common technique of assessment in higher educational institutions in Western countries, but a relatively new concept for students and teachers in Pakistan. It was therefore interesting to investigate students' perceptions about CAA practices from different universities of Pakistan. Information was collected…

  3. An Infrastructure for Web-Based Computer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Mike; Muzykantskii, Boris; Rawles, Simon; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We describe an initiative under way at Warwick to provide a technical foundation for computer aided learning and computer-assisted assessment tools, which allows a rich dialogue sensitive to individual students' response patterns. The system distinguishes between dialogues for individual problems and the linking of problems. This enables a subject…

  4. Computer-Assisted Instruction Workshop at the Naval War College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entelek, Inc., Newburyport, MA.

    A workshop was held which was designed to review the state of computer-assisted instruction in terms of its application to the U.S. Navy, with special emphasis on the Navy's activities at Newport Naval Base. The workshop also offered practice in developing short computer programs and attempted to familiarize a staff group with advanced information…

  5. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Statistics. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, William W.

    A paper given at a conference on statistical computation discussed teaching statistics with computers. It concluded that computer-assisted instruction is most appropriately employed in the numerical demonstration of statistical concepts, and for statistical laboratory instruction. The student thus learns simultaneously about the use of computers…

  6. Functional Characteristics of Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: Intelligent Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ok-choon

    1988-01-01

    Examines the functional characteristics of intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) and discusses the requirements of a multidisciplinary cooperative effort of its development. A typical ICAI model is presented and intelligent features of ICAI systems are described, including modeling the student's learning process, qualitative decision…

  7. Computer Assisted Instruction. Education Automation Monograph Series, [Number One].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) attacks one of the greatest problems of education--how to get sufficient variety in educational materials to teach each individual without requiring a group of trained personnel to prepare all possible variations. CAI permits individualization electronically. CAI can be used to train problem solving, for drill…

  8. Computer-assisted information graphics from the graphic design perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.

    1983-11-01

    Computer-assisted information graphics can benefit by adopting some of the working processes, principles, and areas of concern typical of information-oriented graphic designers. A review of some basic design considerations is followed by a discussion of the creation and design of a prototype nonverbal narrative which combines symbols, charts, maps, and diagrams.

  9. Computer-Assisted Test Construction for the Decision Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplitz, Charles

    1983-01-01

    In quantitative courses, examinations measure a small portion of the students' subject mastery, and grading is difficult. Take-home examinations test more but their development is difficult. Computer assisted test construction, where a computer generates random data within relative constraints for preprogrammed examination questions, is proposed…

  10. Conversation Analysis in Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Lloret, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The use of Conversation Analysis (CA) in the study of technology-mediated interactions is a recent methodological addition to qualitative research in the field of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL). The expansion of CA in Second Language Acquisition research, coupled with the need for qualitative techniques to explore how people interact…

  11. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Math Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, K.; Haelermans, C.; Rogge, N.

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs are considered as a way to improve learning outcomes of students. However, little is known on the schools who implement such programs as well as on the effectiveness of similar information and communication technology programs. We provide a literature review that pays special attention to the existing…

  12. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  13. Planning and Authoring Computer-Assisted Instruction Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Robert M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that Gagne's nine events of instruction be incorporated into the systematic design of computer assisted instruction (CAI) for microcomputers and describes the nine events in relation to five different kinds of learning outcomes which occur frequently in CAI. Seven references are cited. (MER)

  14. Computer-Assisted Instruction Research: A Critical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado, Rafael J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews, analyzes, and critically assesses a sample of articles reporting research findings related to the instructional effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Problems in CAI research are described, including validity of the experimental research design, and current trends in CAI research are discussed. (31 references) (LRW)

  15. Computer-Assisted Law Instruction: Clinical Education's Bionic Sibling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Harry G.; Platt, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), like clinical education, has considerable potential for legal training. As an initial Cornell Law School experiment, a lesson in applying different corporate statutory dividend formulations, with a cross-section of balance sheets and other financial data, was used to supplement regular class assignments.…

  16. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  17. Computer-assisted coding and clinical documentation: first things first.

    PubMed

    Tully, Melinda; Carmichael, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Computer-assisted coding tools have the potential to drive improvements in seven areas: Transparency of coding. Productivity (generally by 20 to 25 percent for inpatient claims). Accuracy (by improving specificity of documentation). Cost containment (by reducing overtime expenses, audit fees, and denials). Compliance. Efficiency. Consistency.

  18. Students' Attitudes towards Control Methods in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, Hanne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study designed to investigate dental students' attitudes toward computer-assisted teaching as applied in programs for oral radiology in Denmark. Programs using personal computers and slide projectors with varying degrees of learner and teacher control are described, and differences in attitudes between male and female students are…

  19. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  20. Teaching Reading through Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Tariq Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the role of reading in secondary schools and how it may be improved through computers, a year-long study was conducted to examine which of two methods of teaching reading skills, an instructor-led class vs. computer-assisted language learning (CALL), aided secondary students in improving the literal, inferential, and evaluative levels of…

  1. Computer Assisted Financial Aid Disbursement and Loan Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the computer assisted system in use at Washington State University. It controls and reports funds requested by students, offered to students, and disbursed to students, writes financial aid checks, prepares fiscal year-end statements and performs loan collection processes according to federal government regulations, and provides internal…

  2. Programmed Learning and Computer-Assisted Instruction in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David M.

    Following an introductory review of foreign language teaching since the Second World War, the author discusses the cybernetic aspects and psychological basis of instructional technology; programmed learning/computer-assisted instruction and behavioral objectives; hardware versus software; linear programming; branching programs; programming verbal…

  3. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  4. Computer Assisted Job Skill Evaluation (CAJSE). 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant County Junior Coll. District, Ft. Worth, TX.

    The Computer-Assisted Job Skill Evaluation (CAJSE) project was conducted to develop an evaluation software instrument that could be used in career and technical education programs throughout Texas to provide immediate performance evaluations in vocational-technical and career education. Ten instructors selected from vocational-technical education…

  5. A Test of Simple Computer-Assisted Instructional Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neapolitan, Jerry

    1989-01-01

    Describes the results of an experiment designed to test the effectiveness of simple computer-assisted instructional software for sociology classes. Tests a computer tutorial on attribution theory. Found that students who took the computer tutorial did somewhat better on a quiz than the subjects did who only read the material. (KO)

  6. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Medicine: A German View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Gunnar; And Others

    The following seven American programs of Computer Assisted Instruction in Medicine are among 20 implemented at the University of Bonn: OPHTHA and FUNDUS (programs of the tutorial mode), CARDI (presents information via three media on the clinical alterations of Mitral and Aortic Stenosis as well as Mitral and Aortal Incompetence), CARDIOPULMONARY…

  7. Computer Assisted Learning in Basic Adult Education. Commissioned Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, R.; Hooper, P.

    A project was conducted to increase the use of microcomputers in basic adult education in Australia. The aims of the project were as follows: to establish an information network of practitioners working within Australia's Technical and Further Education (TAFE) system who have an interest in using computer-assisted learning in basic adult…

  8. Students' Attitudes towards Control Methods in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, Hanne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study designed to investigate dental students' attitudes toward computer-assisted teaching as applied in programs for oral radiology in Denmark. Programs using personal computers and slide projectors with varying degrees of learner and teacher control are described, and differences in attitudes between male and female students are…

  9. Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and CAI taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)

  10. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  11. OE-CAI: Computer-Assisted Instruction of Old English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    Provides a survey of computer assisted instruction as applied to the Old English language from the work of the late 1980's pioneers to December 2001. Each instructional item--whether a website, java exercise, or an online course--is reviewed and URLs are provided in footnotes. Reviews are accompanied by pertinent background and practical advice.…

  12. Computer-Assisted Synthesis of Psychometric Data in Vocational Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    This paper proposes computer assistance in the synthesis operation of vocational counseling. The goal of vocational counseling is to match the client with a vocation in which he will be both satisfied and satisfactory. The computer would, through its rapid scanning and computation, produce probabilities of satisfactoriness based on (1) the…

  13. Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and CAI taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)

  14. Computer-Assisted Instruction: What the Research Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1987-01-01

    Briefly reviews current research on the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and microcomputers. The Hawthorne Effect and research results for elementary, secondary, and college level students are discussed, courseware requirements are described, and research studies showing positive and negative effects of CAI are listed. (LRW)

  15. COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION, A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND KWIC INDEX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENGEL, GERALD L.

    THIS TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM SUPERSEDES TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM NO. K-49/66 (AD-638 892). THIS TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM ALSO PROVIDES AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, REFERENCED BY A KEY WORD IN CONTEXT (KWIC) INDEX TO SELECTED ARTICLES ON COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI). DOCUMENT AVAILABLE FROM THE CLEARINGHOUSE FOR FEDERAL SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL…

  16. Computer Assisted Reference Locator (CARL) System: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, William A.

    The Computer Assisted Reference Locator (CARL) is a computer-based information retrieval system which uses coordinate indexing. Objectives established in designing the system are: (1) simplicity of reference query and retrieval; (2) ease of system maintenance; and (3) adaptability for alternative computer systems. The source documents input into…

  17. Computer Assisted Instruction as an Enhancer of Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen R.; Cortez, Marion J.

    In the 1980-81 school year, the Title I program in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, initiated research into the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for mathematics in grades 3-6. Children from two lower socioeconomic area schools, who were one or more years below grade placement but were already making gains of 6-9 months due to an…

  18. Computer-Assisted Instruction in AIDS Infection Control for Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A microcomputer program to provide health care workers with instruction in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) infection control was assessed by medical residents. The experimental group (n=24) acquired more knowledge than controls (n=33). Response to the method was positive, and computer-assisted instruction is seen as useful for AIDS…

  19. Computer Assisted Instruction: A Support for the Mastery Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex A.; Stepp, Sidney L.

    It is argued that computer assisted instruction might be an answer to the scheduling problems resulting from the implementation of mastery learning programs in the public schools. The mastery learning model proposed by Carroll and the transformation of this model into a working model by Bloom are described. The difficulty of implementing mastery…

  20. A Computer-Assisted Oil Exploration and Production Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Gary John

    1987-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted oil exploration and production game for students involved in a short course in petroleum geology. Outlines the game and its procedures, and provides sample structure maps generated by the computer in the course of playing the game. (TW)

  1. The Teacher's Role in Effective Computer-Assisted Instruction Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006 the Billings (Montana) Public Schools adopted a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) intervention aimed at helping students recover credits that they had attempted but had not attained. The author volunteered to teach the algebra component in his high school. Through the following seven semesters, he came to better understand the…

  2. Collaboration and Computer-Assisted Acquisition of a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renie, Delphine; Chanier, Thierry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how collaborative learning (CL) can be used in a computer-assisted learning (CAL) environment for language learning, reviewing research in the fields of applied linguistics, educational psychology, and artificial intelligence. An application of CL and CAL in the learning of French as a Second Language, focusing on interrogative…

  3. Some Measurement and Instruction Related Considerations Regarding Computer Assisted Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterhof, Albert C.; Salisbury, David F.

    The Assessment Resource Center (ARC) at Florida State University provides computer assisted testing (CAT) for approximately 4,000 students each term. Computer capabilities permit a small proctoring staff to administer tests simultaneously to large numbers of students. Programs provide immediate feedback for students and generate a variety of…

  4. Computer-Assisted Testing in Counseling and Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.

    Computer-assisted testing (CAT) in counseling and therapy is becoming increasingly common due to dramatic improvements in cost-effectiveness and increased counselor familiarity with computer applications. The assumption underlying the use of CAT is that the effectiveness of counseling is improved by allocating repetitive computational and…

  5. The MUPET Lab: Computer Assisted Management of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Thomas D.

    Project Computer-Assisted Instructional Management (C-AIM) is being pilot tested on third grade mathematics students in the Jonesboro Public schools (Jonesboro, Arkansas). Each elementary building operates a MUPET Lab equipped with at least six Commodore Model 4016/4032 microcomputers, one Commodore Model 4040 dual disc drive, and one Commodore…

  6. Computer-assisted Elementary Chinese Learning for American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong-yan, Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Despite hopes and claims about benefits of computer-assisted language learning, few studies have documented actual cases about how American students learn elementary Chinese in a computer-equipped classroom. This paper deals with how to use computer as an educational tool to develop American students' Chinese language skills. The theoretical…

  7. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  8. Computer Assisted Instruction: A Selected Bibliography and KWIC Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Gerald L.

    References to literature published between 1958 and 1968, which was reviewed in a study of Computer-Assisted Instruction for the United States Naval Weapons Laboratory, are presented in this bibliography. In the first half, selections are arranged by Key Word in Context (KWIC) and are numbered to correspond with an annotated version of each of the…

  9. The Use of Computer Assisted Career Guidance with Injured Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Julia; Wigtil, James V.

    Injured workers are individuals whose injuries have resulted in residual impairment, making it impossible for them to return to their former jobs or to seek work in an allied field. This study investigated the differential effects of computer assisted career guidance (CACG) systems combined with a cognitive information processing strategy on…

  10. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: From Vision to Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Learning a second language is a challenging endeavor, and, for decades now, proponents of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) have declared that help is on the horizon. As documented not only in the "CALICO Journal" over its 25-year history but also in other scholarly venues, research has demonstrated the value of CALL. Nevertheless,…

  11. Remedial and Second Language English Teaching Using Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Gary; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a computer assisted learning system designed to help improve the writing skills of students at Concordia University who use English as a second language. Its history, methodological and conceptual problems, theoretical considerations, hardware, and software are discussed. A bibliography of 17 items is included. (CHC)

  12. Computer Assisted Drafting (CNC) Drawings. Drafting Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Missouri Vocational Instruction Management System instructor's drafting guide has been keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by state industry and education professionals. This unit contains information on computer-assisted drafting drawings. The guide contains a cross-reference table of instructional materials and 20 worksheets.…

  13. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  14. The MUPET Lab: Computer Assisted Management of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Thomas D.

    Project Computer-Assisted Instructional Management (C-AIM) is being pilot tested on third grade mathematics students in the Jonesboro Public schools (Jonesboro, Arkansas). Each elementary building operates a MUPET Lab equipped with at least six Commodore Model 4016/4032 microcomputers, one Commodore Model 4040 dual disc drive, and one Commodore…

  15. Computer-Assisted Learning in British Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertzani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The fact that language teaching can be operationalized through computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has directed researchers' attention to the learning task, which, in this case, is considered to be the unit that demands analysis of the communicative processes in which the learner is involved while working with CALL. Research focuses on…

  16. Integrating Computer-Assisted Translation Tools into Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Parra, María

    2016-01-01

    Although Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools play an important role in the curriculum in many university translator training programmes, they are seldom used in the context of learning a language, as a good command of a language is needed before starting to translate. Since many institutions often have translator-training programmes as well…

  17. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965-66 Arithmetic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A review of the possibilities and challenges of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and a brief history of CAI projects at Stanford serve to give the reader the context of the particular program described and analyzed in this book. The 1965-66 arithmetic drill-and-practice program is described, summarizing the curriculum and project operation. An…

  18. Detection of microcalcification in computer-assisted mammogram analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghdy, Golshah A.; Naghdy, Fazel; Yue, L.; Drijarkara, A. P.

    1999-07-01

    The latest trend in computer assisted mammogram analysis is reviewed and two new methods developed by the authors for automatic detection of microcalcifications (MCs) are presented. The first method is based on wavelet neurone feature detectors and ART classifiers while the second method utilized fuzzy rules for detection and grading of MCs.

  19. Computer-Assisted Instruction, Media Richness, and College Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, C. Erik; Kruepke, Kristine A.

    2006-01-01

    This meta analysis examines the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) upon college student performance, addresses the impact of various study characteristics upon effects, and explores how media richness theory may predict CAI performance gains. Findings indicate that student performance gains are larger for CAI than traditional…

  20. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Debate: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheckels, Theodore F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Presents justifications for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in debate. Suggests programs that could be written. Discusses one CAI application: the use of CAI drills to train negative team members and to instruct in cross-examination skills. Includes the "Listing of CAI Drill for 1st Negative Debater." (PD)

  1. The Spread of Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the vertical spread of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), i.e., a spread throughout language materials and curricula, makes it difficult to draw a clear distinction between CALL and other language materials. In view of the emphasis that teachers, researchers, and administrators have placed on evaluating CALL, I…

  2. Client Anticipations about Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes how 55 clients from a career center at a large, southeastern university anticipated using computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems to help in their career decision making and problem solving. Responses to a cued and a free response survey indicated that clients' most frequent anticipations included increased career…

  3. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  4. An Overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Walter

    After a detailed history and definition of Computer-Assisted Instruction (which identifies drill and practice, tutorial, and problem-solving activities as comprising CAI), the development and implementation of a college level computer based multimedia physics course is described as an example of tutorial activities in CAI for those interested in…

  5. "Intelligent" Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Applications. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; And Others

    Interim work is documented describing efforts to modify computer techniques used to recognize and process English language requests to an instructional simulator. The conversion from a hand-coded to a table driven technique are described in detail. Other modifications to a simulation based computer assisted instruction program to allow a gaming…

  6. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Math Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, K.; Haelermans, C.; Rogge, N.

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs are considered as a way to improve learning outcomes of students. However, little is known on the schools who implement such programs as well as on the effectiveness of similar information and communication technology programs. We provide a literature review that pays special attention to the existing…

  7. Identifying consumer's needs of health information technology through an innovative participatory design approach among English- and Spanish-speaking urban older adults.

    PubMed

    Lucero, R; Sheehan, B; Yen, P; Velez, O; Nobile-Hernandez, D; Tiase, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant's needs related to information technology. The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant's needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer's technology needs while taking into account core public health functions.

  8. Identifying Consumer’s Needs of Health Information Technology through an Innovative Participatory Design Approach among English- and Spanish-speaking Urban Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, B.; Yen, P.; Velez, O.; Nobile-Hernandez, D.; Tiase, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. Methods We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant’s needs related to information technology. Results The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant’s needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. Conclusions The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer’s technology needs while taking into account core public health functions. PMID:25589909

  9. Community-based participatory research for the study of air pollution: a review of motivations, approaches, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Commodore, Adwoa; Wilson, Sacoby; Muhammad, Omar; Svendsen, Erik; Pearce, John

    2017-08-01

    Neighborhood level air pollution represents a long-standing issue for many communities that, until recently, has been difficult to address due to the cost of equipment and lack of related expertise. Changes in available technology and subsequent increases in community-based participatory research (CBPR) have drastically improved the ability to address this issue. However, much still needs to be learned as these types of studies are expected to increase in the future. To assist, we review the literature in an effort to improve understanding of the motivations, approaches, and outcomes of air monitoring studies that incorporate CBPR and citizen science (CS) principles. We found that the primary motivations for conducting community-based air monitoring were concerns for air pollution health risks, residing near potential pollution sources, urban sprawl, living in "unmonitored" areas, and a general quest for improved air quality knowledge. Studies were mainly conducted using community led partnerships. Fixed site monitoring was primarily used, while mobile, personal, school-based, and occupational sampling approaches were less frequent. Low-cost sensors can enable thorough neighborhood level characterization; however, keeping the community involved at every step, understanding the limitations and benefits of this type of monitoring, recognizing potential areas of debate, and addressing study challenges are vital for achieving harmony between expected and observed study outcomes. Future directions include assessing currently unregulated pollutants, establishing long-term neighborhood monitoring sites, performing saturation studies, evaluating interventions, and creating CS databases.

  10. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Preventing Childhood Obesity: The Communities and Schools Together Project

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the project’s community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct school–community health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786

  11. Computer-assisted trauma care prototype.

    PubMed

    Holzman, T G; Griffith, A; Hunter, W G; Allen, T; Simpson, R J

    1995-01-01

    Each year, civilian accidental injury results in 150,000 deaths and 400,000 permanent disabilities in the United States alone. The timely creation of and access to dynamically updated trauma patient information at the point of injury is critical to improving the state of care. Such information is often non-existent, incomplete, or inaccurate, resulting in less than adequate treatment by medics and the loss of precious time by medical personnel at the hospital or battalion aid station as they attempt to reassess and treat the patient. The Trauma Care Information Management System (TCIMS) is a prototype system for facilitating information flow and patient processing decisions in the difficult circumstances of civilian and military trauma care activities. The program is jointly supported by the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and a consortium of universities, medical centers, and private companies. The authors' focus has been the human-computer interface for the system. We are attempting to make TCIMS powerful in the functions it delivers to its users in the field while also making it easy to understand and operate. To develop such a usable system, an approach known as user-centered design is being followed. Medical personnel themselves are collaborating with the authors in its needs analysis, design, and evaluation. Specifically, the prototype being demonstrated was designed through observation of actual civilian trauma care episodes, military trauma care exercises onboard a hospital ship, interviews with civilian and military trauma care providers, repeated evaluation of evolving prototypes by potential users, and study of the literature on trauma care and human factors engineering. This presentation at MedInfo '95 is still another avenue for soliciting guidance from medical information system experts and users. The outcome of this process is a system that provides the functions trauma care personnel desire in a manner that can be easily and

  12. Comparison of static and dynamic computer-assisted guidance methods in implantology.

    PubMed

    Mischkowski, R A; Zinser, M J; Neugebauer, J; Kübler, A C; Zöller, J E

    2006-01-01

    The planning of dental implant position and its transfer to the operation site can be considered as one of the most important factors for the long-term success of implant-supported prosthetic and epithetic restorations. This study compares computer-assisted fabricated surgical templates as the static method with intro-operative image guided navigation as the dynamic method for transfer of three-dimensional pre-operative planning. For the static method, the systems Med3D, coDiagnostix/ gonyX, and SimPlant were used. For the dynamic method, the systems RoboDent und VectorVision2 were applied. A total of 746 implants were inserted between August 1999 and December 2005 in 206 patients. The static approach was used most frequently, accounting for 611 fixtures in 168 patients. The failure ratios within the first 6 months were 1.31% in the statically controlled insertion group compared to 2.96% in the dynamically controlled insertion group. Complications related to an incorrect position of the implants have not been observed so far in either group. All computer-assisted methods included in this study were successfully applied in a clinical setting after a certain start-up period. The indications for application of computer-assisted methods in implantology are currently given in difficult anatomical situations. Due to uncomplicated handling and low resource demands, the static template technique can be recommended as the method of choice for the majority of all cases falling into this category.

  13. Developing a Health Information Technology Systems Matrix: A Qualitative Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim M; Antinori, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed various health information technology (HIT) resources to provide accessible veteran-centered health care. Currently, the VA is undergoing a major reorganization of VA HIT to develop a fully integrated system to meet consumer needs. Although extensive system documentation exists for various VA HIT systems, a more centralized and integrated perspective with clear documentation is needed in order to support effective analysis, strategy, planning, and use. Such a tool would enable a novel view of what is currently available and support identifying and effectively capturing the consumer’s vision for the future. Objective The objective of this study was to develop the VA HIT Systems Matrix, a novel tool designed to describe the existing VA HIT system and identify consumers’ vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. Methods This study utilized an expert panel and veteran informant focus groups with self-administered surveys. The study employed participatory research methods to define the current system and understand how stakeholders and veterans envision the future of VA HIT and interface design (eg, look, feel, and function). Directed content analysis was used to analyze focus group data. Results The HIT Systems Matrix was developed with input from 47 veterans, an informal caregiver, and an expert panel to provide a descriptive inventory of existing and emerging VA HIT in four worksheets: (1) access and function, (2) benefits and barriers, (3) system preferences, and (4) tasks. Within each worksheet is a two-axis inventory. The VA’s existing and emerging HIT platforms (eg, My HealtheVet, Mobile Health, VetLink Kiosks, Telehealth), My HealtheVet features (eg, Blue Button, secure messaging, appointment reminders, prescription refill, vet library, spotlight, vitals tracker), and non-VA platforms (eg, phone/mobile phone, texting, non-VA mobile apps, non-VA mobile electronic devices, non

  14. Developing a Health Information Technology Systems Matrix: A Qualitative Participatory Approach.

    PubMed

    Haun, Jolie N; Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim M; Antinori, Nicole

    2016-10-06

    The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed various health information technology (HIT) resources to provide accessible veteran-centered health care. Currently, the VA is undergoing a major reorganization of VA HIT to develop a fully integrated system to meet consumer needs. Although extensive system documentation exists for various VA HIT systems, a more centralized and integrated perspective with clear documentation is needed in order to support effective analysis, strategy, planning, and use. Such a tool would enable a novel view of what is currently available and support identifying and effectively capturing the consumer's vision for the future. The objective of this study was to develop the VA HIT Systems Matrix, a novel tool designed to describe the existing VA HIT system and identify consumers' vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. This study utilized an expert panel and veteran informant focus groups with self-administered surveys. The study employed participatory research methods to define the current system and understand how stakeholders and veterans envision the future of VA HIT and interface design (eg, look, feel, and function). Directed content analysis was used to analyze focus group data. The HIT Systems Matrix was developed with input from 47 veterans, an informal caregiver, and an expert panel to provide a descriptive inventory of existing and emerging VA HIT in four worksheets: (1) access and function, (2) benefits and barriers, (3) system preferences, and (4) tasks. Within each worksheet is a two-axis inventory. The VA's existing and emerging HIT platforms (eg, My HealtheVet, Mobile Health, VetLink Kiosks, Telehealth), My HealtheVet features (eg, Blue Button, secure messaging, appointment reminders, prescription refill, vet library, spotlight, vitals tracker), and non-VA platforms (eg, phone/mobile phone, texting, non-VA mobile apps, non-VA mobile electronic devices, non-VA websites) are organized by row. Columns

  15. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde, through a participatory approach: which out coming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2013-11-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction) of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010-January 2012) of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera of the volcano inside the Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the program included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people at volcanic threats is linked with daily access to sources of livelihood specially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk on their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such objective, a Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participative aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties to involve more marginalized people

  16. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  17. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  18. Sustained participatory design and implementation of ITHC.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector.

  19. Integrating community-based participatory research and informatics approaches to improve the engagement and health of underserved populations.

    PubMed

    Unertl, Kim M; Schaefbauer, Chris L; Campbell, Terrance R; Senteio, Charles; Siek, Katie A; Bakken, Suzanne; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2016-01-01

    We compare 5 health informatics research projects that applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches with the goal of extending existing CBPR principles to address issues specific to health informatics research. We conducted a cross-case analysis of 5 diverse case studies with 1 common element: integration of CBPR approaches into health informatics research. After reviewing publications and other case-related materials, all coauthors engaged in collaborative discussions focused on CBPR. Researchers mapped each case to an existing CBPR framework, examined each case individually for success factors and barriers, and identified common patterns across cases. Benefits of applying CBPR approaches to health informatics research across the cases included the following: developing more relevant research with wider impact, greater engagement with diverse populations, improved internal validity, more rapid translation of research into action, and the development of people. Challenges of applying CBPR to health informatics research included requirements to develop strong, sustainable academic-community partnerships and mismatches related to cultural and temporal factors. Several technology-related challenges, including needs to define ownership of technology outputs and to build technical capacity with community partners, also emerged from our analysis. Finally, we created several principles that extended an existing CBPR framework to specifically address health informatics research requirements. Our cross-case analysis yielded valuable insights regarding CBPR implementation in health informatics research and identified valuable lessons useful for future CBPR-based research. The benefits of applying CBPR approaches can be significant, particularly in engaging populations that are typically underserved by health care and in designing patient-facing technology. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical

  20. Integrating community-based participatory research and informatics approaches to improve the engagement and health of underserved populations

    PubMed Central

    Schaefbauer, Chris L; Campbell, Terrance R; Senteio, Charles; Siek, Katie A; Bakken, Suzanne; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We compare 5 health informatics research projects that applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches with the goal of extending existing CBPR principles to address issues specific to health informatics research. Materials and methods We conducted a cross-case analysis of 5 diverse case studies with 1 common element: integration of CBPR approaches into health informatics research. After reviewing publications and other case-related materials, all coauthors engaged in collaborative discussions focused on CBPR. Researchers mapped each case to an existing CBPR framework, examined each case individually for success factors and barriers, and identified common patterns across cases. Results Benefits of applying CBPR approaches to health informatics research across the cases included the following: developing more relevant research with wider impact, greater engagement with diverse populations, improved internal validity, more rapid translation of research into action, and the development of people. Challenges of applying CBPR to health informatics research included requirements to develop strong, sustainable academic-community partnerships and mismatches related to cultural and temporal factors. Several technology-related challenges, including needs to define ownership of technology outputs and to build technical capacity with community partners, also emerged from our analysis. Finally, we created several principles that extended an existing CBPR framework to specifically address health informatics research requirements. Conclusions Our cross-case analysis yielded valuable insights regarding CBPR implementation in health informatics research and identified valuable lessons useful for future CBPR-based research. The benefits of applying CBPR approaches can be significant, particularly in engaging populations that are typically underserved by health care and in designing patient-facing technology. PMID:26228766

  1. Inversion of the stereochemical configuration (3S, 5S)-clavaminic acid into (3R, 5R)-clavulanic acid: A computationally-assisted approach based on experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Restrepo, Albeiro; Cardona, Wilson; Junne, Stefan; Neubauer, Peter; Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2016-04-21

    Clavulanic acid (CA), a potent inhibitor of β-lactamase enzymes, is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (Sc) cultivation processes, for which low yields are commonly obtained. Improved knowledge of the clavam biosynthetic pathway, especially the steps involved in the inversion of 3S-5S into 3R-5R stereochemical configuration, would help to eventually identify bottlenecks in the pathway. In this work, we studied the role of acetate in CA biosynthesis by a combined continuous culture and computational simulation approach. From this we derived a new model for the synthesis of N-acetyl-glycyl-clavaminic acid (NAG-clavam) by Sc. Acetylated compounds, such as NAG-clavam and N-acetyl-clavaminic acid, have been reported in the clavam pathway. Although the acetyl group is present in the β-lactam intermediate NAG-clavam, it is unknown how this group is incorporated. Hence, under the consideration of the experimentally proven accumulation of acetate during CA biosynthesis, and the fact that an acetyl group is present in the NAG-clavam structure, a computational evaluation of the tentative formation of NAG-clavam was performed for the purpose of providing further understanding. The proposed reaction mechanism consists of two steps: first, acetate reacts with ATP to produce a reactive acylphosphate intermediate; second, a direct nucleophilic attack of the terminal amino group of N-glycyl-clavaminic on the carbonyl carbon of the acylphosphate intermediate leads to a tetrahydral intermediate, which collapses and produces ADP and N-acetyl-glycyl-clavaminic acid. The calculations suggest that for the proposed reaction mechanism, the reaction proceeds until completion of the first step, without the direct action of an enzyme, where acetate and ATP are involved. For this step, the computed activation energy was ≅2.82kcal/mol while the reaction energy was ≅2.38kcal/mol. As this is an endothermic chemical process with a relatively small activation energy, the reaction rate

  2. Multi-dimensional perspectives of flood risk - using a participatory framework to develop new approaches to flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollason, Edward; Bracken, Louise; Hardy, Richard; Large, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a major hazard across Europe which, since, 1998 has caused over €52 million in damages and displaced over half a million people. Climate change is predicted to increase the risks posed by flooding in the future. The 2007 EU Flood Directive cemented the use of flood risk maps as a central tool in understanding and communicating flood risk. Following recent flooding in England, an urgent need to integrate people living at risk from flooding into flood management approaches, encouraging flood resilience and the up-take of resilient activities has been acknowledged. The effective communication of flood risk information plays a major role in allowing those at risk to make effective decisions about flood risk and increase their resilience, however, there are emerging concerns over the effectiveness of current approaches. The research presented explores current approaches to flood risk communication in England and the effectiveness of these methods in encouraging resilient actions before and during flooding events. The research also investigates how flood risk communications could be undertaken more effectively, using a novel participatory framework to integrate the perspectives of those living at risk. The research uses co-production between local communities and researchers in the environmental sciences, using a participatory framework to bring together local knowledge of flood risk and flood communications. Using a local competency group, the research explores what those living at risk from flooding want from flood communications in order to develop new approaches to help those at risk understand and respond to floods. Suggestions for practice are refined by the communities to co-produce recommendations. The research finds that current approaches to real-time flood risk communication fail to forecast the significance of predicted floods, whilst flood maps lack detailed information about how floods occur, or use scientific terminology which people at risk

  3. Efficacy of Teachtown: Basics Computer-Assisted Intervention for the Intensive Comprehensive Autism Program in Los Angeles Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Christina; Moss, Debbie; Ilan, Aaron B.; Vaupel, Manya; Fielding, Paul; MacDonald, Kevin; Cernich, Shannon; Symon, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) has shown increased popularity recently and there are many studies showing promise for this approach for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there are no between-subject studies to date assessing the efficacy of CAI with this population. In this study, 47 preschool and K-1 students in ASD…

  4. Efficacy of Teachtown: Basics Computer-Assisted Intervention for the Intensive Comprehensive Autism Program in Los Angeles Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Christina; Moss, Debbie; Ilan, Aaron B.; Vaupel, Manya; Fielding, Paul; MacDonald, Kevin; Cernich, Shannon; Symon, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) has shown increased popularity recently and there are many studies showing promise for this approach for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there are no between-subject studies to date assessing the efficacy of CAI with this population. In this study, 47 preschool and K-1 students in ASD…

  5. A participatory approach of flood vulnerability assessment in the Banat Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balteanu, Dan; Costache, Andra; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Dragota, Carmen; Grigorescu, Ines

    2014-05-01

    The Banat Plain (western Romania) is a low, alluvial plain affected by neotectonic subsidence movements, being a critical region in terms of exposure to floods. The latest extreme event was the historic floods occcured in the spring of 2005, which caused significant economic damage in several rural communities. The response to 2005 floods has highlighted a number of weaknesses in the management of hazards, such as the deficiencies of the early warning system, people awareness or the inefficiency of some mitigation measures, besides the past structural measures which are obsolete. For a better understanding of the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to floods, the quantitative assessment of human vulnerability to floods was supplemented with a participatory research, in which there were involved five rural settlements from the Banat Plain (comprising 15 villages and a population of over 12,000 inhabitants). Thus, in the spring of 2013, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in approx. 100 households of the affected communities and structured interviews were held with local authorities, in the framework of VULMIN project, funded by the Ministry of National Education. The questionnaire was designed based on a pilot survey conducted in 2005, several months after the flood, and was focused on two major issues: a) perception of the local context of vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events; b) perception of human vulnerability to floods (personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding). The results were correlated with a number of specific variables of the households included in the sample, such as: household structure; income source; income level; location of the dwelling in relation to floodplains. In this way, we were able to draw general conclusions about the way in which local people perceive the extreme events, such as

  6. Applying community-based participatory research principles and approaches in clinical trials: forging a new model for cancer clinical research.

    PubMed

    Seifer, Sarena D; Michaels, Margo; Collins, Stacy

    2010-01-01

    Although an estimated 20% of adult cancer patients are medically eligible for a cancer treatment clinical trial (CCT), adult trial participation in the U.S. remains under 3%.- Participation rates are even lower among ethnic and racial minorities and the medically underserved, who tend to have higher cancer mortality rates than the population as a whole.- Given persistent cancer health disparities in these populations, cancer clinical trial participation is increasingly an issue of social justice. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been repeatedly recommended as a key strategy for increasing and diversifying cancer clinical trial participation and enhancing their relevance and quality. In 2006, Community-Campus Partnership for Health (CCPH) and the Education Network to Advance Cancer Clinical Trials (ENACCT) received funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), along with industry and nonprofit partners, to develop the first set of national recommendations to employ CBPR approaches in multisite, phase III cancer clinical trials. The Communities as Partners in Cancer Clinical Trials: Changing Research, Practice and Policy final report, developed through a national advisory committee, two stakeholder meetings and a public vetting process, makes more than fifty detailed recommendations to engage communities in specific and meaningful ways throughout the cancer clinical trial process.1 The report is the first to provide specific guidance as to how and why clinical trials should involve communities affected by cancer-from trial design to implementation to dissemination of results. This paper describes the background and rationale for the initiative, the process used to develop and disseminate the report, and the challenges and opportunities for implementing the report's community-based approaches to cancer clinical research.

  7. Group Problem Solving as a Different Participatory Approach to Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guérin, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The main goal of this article is to learning define and justify group problem solving as an approach to citizenship education. It is demonstrated that the choice of theoretical framework of democracy has consequences for the chosen learning goals, educational approach and learning activities. The framework used here is an epistemic theory…

  8. Resection of a physeal bar under computer-assisted guidance.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Yoon, S J; Kim, J R

    2010-10-01

    Excision of a physeal bar and filling the space with interposition material may allow resumption of normal growth. Both the extent and the location of the bar and the amount of growth remaining from physis must be determined. Computer-assisted surgery is being used increasingly in various fields of orthopaedics. We describe the management of a patient with premature physeal arrest of the right distal tibia in which resection of a physeal bar was achieved under real-time three-dimensional intra-operative monitoring by computer-assisted navigation. The advantage of this method over other means of imaging is that intra-operative identification can increase the accuracy of resection of the bar.

  9. Computer-Assisted Navigation in High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Computer-assisted navigation is used to improve the accuracy and precision of correction angles during high tibial osteotomy. Most studies have reported that this technique reduces the outliers of coronal alignment and unintended changes in the tibial posterior slope angle. However, more sophisticated studies are necessary to determine whether the technique will improve the clinical results and long-term survival rates. Knowledge of the navigation technology, surgical techniques and potential pitfalls, the clinical results of previous studies, and understanding of the advantages and limitations of the computer-assisted navigation are crucial to successful application of this new technique in high tibial osteotomy. Herein, we review the evidence concerning this technique from previous studies. PMID:27904715

  10. Triploidy in rainbow trout determined by computer-assisted analysis.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Emilio; Josa, Agustín; Gil, Lidia; Martí, José Ignacio

    2005-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the use of a computer-assisted system based on erythrocyte measurements as a possible alternative to flow cytometry for identifying triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Blood smears were prepared from 26 triploid and 26 diploid specimens, as determined by flow cytometry after staining blood cells with propidium iodide. The cell and nucleus lengths of 10 erythrocytes were determined in each fish. This was followed by discriminatory analysis to distinguish between diploids and triploids based on their score profiles. Triploid trout showed significantly larger erythrocyte cell and nucleus measurements than their diploid counterparts (N=52; P<0.0001). Erythrocyte length correctly identified 100% of the fish specimens as diploid or triploid, while nucleus length was a less accurate predictor of the level of ploidy. Our findings validate the potential use of computer-assisted analysis for this purpose.

  11. A Computer-Assisted Approach to Conducting Cooperative Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Jin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Haur

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning has been proven to be helpful in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning, which is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve the goal of cooperative…

  12. A Software Development Approach for Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushion, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 5 years we have developed, produced, tested, and evaluated an authoring software package to produce web-based, interactive, audio-enhanced language-learning material. That authoring package has been used to produce language-learning material in French, Spanish, German, Arabic, and Tamil. We are currently working on increasing…

  13. A Software Development Approach for Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushion, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 5 years we have developed, produced, tested, and evaluated an authoring software package to produce web-based, interactive, audio-enhanced language-learning material. That authoring package has been used to produce language-learning material in French, Spanish, German, Arabic, and Tamil. We are currently working on increasing…

  14. Computer-Assisted Diagnosis in Reading: An Expert Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts on which expert systems are based. Considers how expert systems might be productively applied in education. Describes an experimental expert system with applications in reading diagnosis and teacher training. (SR)

  15. Stress intensity estimates by a computer assisted photoelastic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Following an introductory history, the frozen stress photoelastic method is reviewed together with analytical and experimental aspects of cracks in photoelastic models. Analytical foundations are then presented upon which a computer assisted frozen stress photoelastic technique is based for extracting estimates of stress intensity factors from three-dimensional cracked body problems. The use of the method is demonstrated for two currently important three-dimensional crack problems.

  16. Challenges of technology integration and computer-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Gurion; Liebergall, Meir

    2009-02-01

    The rapid progress of modern computerized capabilities has not been paralleled by a similar progress in the operating room setting and in operating techniques. The major advance in orthopaedic surgery during the past fifty years has been the introduction of intraoperative fluoroscopic imaging, while surgical techniques have remained mostly unchanged. Orthopaedic procedures dealing with bones--a nondeformable tissue--are suitable for computerized guidance based on preoperatively and intraoperatively obtained images. Computer-assisted surgery progressed from the first-generation systems of the 1990 s to the present third-generation systems, enabling surgeons to implant a knee or hip prosthesis with high precision. However, most orthopaedic surgeons avoid using computer-navigation surgical techniques. Why has the implementation of computer-assisted surgery procedures met so many hurdles and obstacles? The factors that make up the answer to this question can be grouped into three categories: human, technological, and financial. Computer-assisted surgery has the potential to revolutionize orthopaedic surgery just as fluoroscopy did a few decades ago; however, its widespread use has been hampered by a lack of sufficient clinical data on the one hand and by a reluctance to use the technique and thereby collect and share data on the other. The challenge is to overcome the human, technological, and financial hurdles. Once these obstacles are addressed, we believe that computer-assisted surgery will set a new standard of care. Until that time, some will be willing to lead the revolution and pay the price of progress, and others will be reluctant to take part in this endeavor.

  17. [Computer-assisted surgery. The proposal of a surgical classification].

    PubMed

    Mosso-Vázquez, José Luis

    2003-01-01

    I present a proposal for a surgical classification in computer assisted surgery (CAS), with a surgical point of view to facilitate understanding and physicians, scientists, for and engineer to be able to communicate. I considered the system's participation into the CAS definition. In this classification, I find: simulated surgery, guided surgery, assisted surgery telepresence surgery, and semi-automated surgery. I describe the systems for each.

  18. The Improvement and Individualization of Computer-Assisted Instruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-15

    9^30$ M, CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Personnel & Training Research Programs Office of Naval Research (Code U58) Arlington, VA 22217...computer-assisted Instruction (CAI), Instruction control strategy, Instructional theory, optimized learning, tutorial CAE, second-lp.nguage vocabulary...StUdleS ln the Socl01 Scle "MS Stanford, California 91+305 (1+15) 1497-1*11? Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. . Reproduction in

  19. A novel mechatronic tool for computer-assisted arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dario, P; Carrozza, M C; Marcacci, M; D'Attanasio, S; Magnami, B; Tonet, O; Megali, G

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes a novel mechatronic tool for arthroscopy, which is at the same time a smart tool for traditional arthroscopy and the main component of a system for computer-assisted arthroscopy. The mechatronic arthroscope has a cable-actuated servomotor-driven multi-joint mechanical structure, is equipped with a position sensor measuring the orientation of the tip and with a force sensor detecting possible contact with delicate tissues in the knee, and incorporates an embedded microcontroller for sensor signal processing, motor driving and interfacing with the surgeon and/or the system control unit. When used manually, the mechatronic arthroscope enhances the surgeon's capabilities by enabling him/her to easily control tip motion and to prevent undesired contacts. When the tool is integrated in a complete system for computer-assisted arthroscopy, the trajectory of the arthroscope is reconstructed in real time by an optical tracking system using infrared emitters located in the handle, providing advantages in terms of improved intervention accuracy. The computer-assisted arthroscopy system comprises an image processing module for segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction of preoperative computer tomography or magnetic resonance images, a registration module for measuring the position of the knee joint, tracking the trajectory of the operating tools, and matching preoperative and intra-operative images, and a human-machine interface that displays the enhanced reality scenario and data from the mechatronic arthroscope in a friendly and intuitive manner. By integrating preoperative and intra-operative images and information provided by the mechatronic arthroscope, the system allows virtual navigation in the knee joint during the planning phase and computer guidance by augmented reality during the intervention. This paper describes in detail the characteristics of the mechatronic arthroscope and of the system for computer-assisted arthroscopy and discusses

  20. Computer Assisted Diagnosis of Chest Pain. Adjunctive Treatment Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-30

    public release; distribution unlimited SUMMARY PAGE THE PROBLEM To provide a manual of treatment protocols for use with the computer assisted...of chest pain project, a chest pain treatment manual has been formulated. It is anticipated that this manual will be used by the Independent...response to re-breathing techniques are diagnostic. The lung exam is normal. In psychoneurotic disorders, no physical etiology for chest pain is found

  1. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a “Data Profiling” Tool for Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a “data profiling” tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool’s functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651

  2. Computer-assisted TKA: greater precision, doubtful clinical efficacy: opposes.

    PubMed

    Mullaji, Arun; Shetty, Gautam M

    2009-09-01

    Despite improved precision of component placement and consistent and accurate restoration of neutral limb alignment, controversy persists regarding the clinical benefits of computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Computer-assisted TKA provides excellent information regarding gap equality and symmetry throughout the knee range of motion and allows precise, quantitative soft tissue release for deformities, especially in knees with severe flexion contractures and severe rigid valgus deformities. Hence accurate restoration of gap balance, joint line, and posterior femoral offset consequently improves functional results. Knee arthritis with complex extra-articular deformities and in situ hardware can be tackled appropriately using computer navigation where conventional techniques may be inadequate. It also allows intra-articular correction for extra-articular deformities due to malunions and facilitates extra-articular correction in cases with severe extra-articular tibial deformities. In obese patients, where the alignment of the limb is difficult to assess, computer navigation improves accuracy and reduces the number of outliers. The ability to quantify the precise amount of bone cuts and soft tissue releases needed to equalize gaps and restore alignment, reduced blood loss, and incidence of systemic emboli improves the safety of the procedure and hastens functional recovery of the patient. Hence, computer-assisted TKA not only provides greater precision, but also greater clinical benefit.

  3. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach.

    PubMed

    Mabunda, Jabu T; Khoza, Lunic B; Van den Borne, Hubertus B; Lebese, Rachel T

    2016-07-22

    Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community.

  4. Blind trials of computer-assisted structure elucidation software

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the largest challenges in chemistry today remains that of efficiently mining through vast amounts of data in order to elucidate the chemical structure for an unknown compound. The elucidated candidate compound must be fully consistent with the data and any other competing candidates efficiently eliminated without doubt by using additional data if necessary. It has become increasingly necessary to incorporate an in silico structure generation and verification tool to facilitate this elucidation process. An effective structure elucidation software technology aims to mimic the skills of a human in interpreting the complex nature of spectral data while producing a solution within a reasonable amount of time. This type of software is known as computer-assisted structure elucidation or CASE software. A systematic trial of the ACD/Structure Elucidator CASE software was conducted over an extended period of time by analysing a set of single and double-blind trials submitted by a global audience of scientists. The purpose of the blind trials was to reduce subjective bias. Double-blind trials comprised of data where the candidate compound was unknown to both the submitting scientist and the analyst. The level of expertise of the submitting scientist ranged from novice to expert structure elucidation specialists with experience in pharmaceutical, industrial, government and academic environments. Results Beginning in 2003, and for the following nine years, the algorithms and software technology contained within ACD/Structure Elucidator have been tested against 112 data sets; many of these were unique challenges. Of these challenges 9% were double-blind trials. The results of eighteen of the single-blind trials were investigated in detail and included problems of a diverse nature with many of the specific challenges associated with algorithmic structure elucidation such as deficiency in protons, structure symmetry, a large number of heteroatoms and poor quality

  5. A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Dialogic Methods as a Participatory Knowledge Translation Approach to Promote Integration of Nurse Practitioners in Primary Healthcare Settings.

    PubMed

    Oelke, Nelly D; Plamondon, Katrina M; Mendel, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nurse practitioners (NPs) were introduced in British Columbia (BC) in 2005 as a new category of health provider. Given the newness of NPs in our health system, it is not unexpected that continued work is required to better integrate NPs in healthcare in BC. Aim: This paper will focus on a research study using dialogic methods as a participatory knowledge translation approach to facilitate integration of NPs in primary healthcare (PHC) settings. Methods: Deliberative dialogue (DD) is a useful knowledge translation tool in health services delivery. Through facilitated conversations with stakeholders, invited to consider research evidence in the context of their experience and tacit knowledge, collective data are generated. DD is a powerful tool to engage stakeholders in the development and implementation of evidence-informed policies and services through discussion of issues, consideration of priorities and development of concrete actions that can be implemented by policy makers and decision-makers. Two DD sessions were held with stakeholders involved in supporting NP integration in a health authority in southern interior BC. Stakeholders were provided syntheses of a literature review and interview results. The first session resulted in the collective development of 10 actions to promote NP integration in PHC settings. The second session was conducted six months later to discuss progress and revisions to actions. Discussion: The use of the dialogic methods used in studying NP integration in PHC settings proved useful in promoting real conversation about the implications of research evidence in living contexts, enabling diverse stakeholders to co-create collaborative actions for further NP integration. The conversations and actions were used to support further NP integration during the study and beyond. Conclusion: DD is a useful approach for transforming health services policy and delivery. It has the potential to move change forward with co

  7. The Evolution of Instructional Design Principles for Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Christopher; Swigger, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses and compares the design and development of computer assisted instruction (CAI) and intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI). Topics discussed include instructional systems design (ISD), artificial intelligence, authoring languages, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), qualitative models, and emerging issues in instructional…

  8. Participatory Action Research and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.

    This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…

  9. A scenario framework to explore the future migration and adaptation in deltas: A multi-scale and participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Abiy S.; Nicholls, Robert J.; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hill, Chris T.; Hutton, Craig W.; Kay, Susan; Lawn, Jon; Lazar, Attila N.; Whitehead, Paul W.

    2017-04-01

    -economic factors), and (vi) delta-scale (e.g., future adaptation and migration policies) scenarios. The framework includes and combines expert-based and participatory approaches and provides improved specification of the role of scenarios to analyse the future state of adaptation and migration across the three deltas. It facilitates the development of appropriate and consistent endogenous and exogenous scenario futures: (i) at the delta-scale, (ii) across all deltas, and (iii) with wider climate change, environmental change, and adaptation & migration research. Key words: Coastal deltas, sea-level rise, migration and adaptation, multi-scale scenarios, participatory approach *DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability & Climate Change: Migration & Adaptation) project is part of the Collaborative ADAPTATION Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA), with financial support from the UK Government's Department for International Development (DFID) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.

  10. Participatory Cohort Group Health Fairs: A New Approach to an Old Standby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Susan E.; Brey, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    Health fairs, a component of health education programming for many years, generally offer an unstructured opportunity for participants to gather health information. This manuscript describes an alternative approach to a "traditional" health fair, which involves working with previously assessed and specifically targeted groups of people who move as…

  11. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  12. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Computer-Assisted Language Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Computer-Assisted English Abstract Words Learning Environment on the Web" (Wenli Tsou and…

  13. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  14. From theory to bench experiment by computer-assisted drug design.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gisbert

    2012-01-01

    Tight integration of computer-assisted molecular design with practical realization by medicinal chemistry will be essential for finding next-generation drugs that are optimized for multiple pharmaceutically relevant properties. ETH Zürich has established an interdisciplinary research group devoted to exploring the potential of this scientific approach by combining expertise from pharmaceutical chemistry and computer sciences. In this article, some of the group's activities and projects are presented. A current focus is on machine-learning applications aiming at hit and lead structure identification by virtual screening and de novo design. The central concept of 'adaptive fitness landscapes' is highlighted along with practical examples from drug discovery projects.

  15. Computer-Assisted Generation of Patterns and Virtual Reality Techniques for Fashion Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, Mickael; Richard, Paul; Chapeau-Blondeau, François

    2009-03-01

    We present a methodology for the design of aesthetic patterns and their visualization on virtual clothes. Generated patterns are directly mapped on the dress of a virtual mannequin. Furthermore, patterns sets may be interactively mapped on the virtual dress using a specific 3D interaction technique called Back-and-Forth. Pattern generation involves different mathematical approaches such as iterated function systems (IFS) and nonlinear trajectory models. Both model parameters and color space exploration is performed through a simple user interface. This work contributes to promote both computer assistance in the context of mass customization for fashion design.

  16. Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xinqi; Li, Yawen; Chen, Ruijia; Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research…

  17. Using a Participatory Approach to the Development of a School-Based Physical Activity Policy in an Indigenous Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Lindsay; Bengoechea, Enrique García; Salsberg, Jon; Jacobs, Judi; King, Morrison; Macaulay, Ann C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study is part of a larger community-based participatory research (CBPR) project to develop, implement, and evaluate the physical activity component of a school-based wellness policy. The policy intervention is being carried out by community stakeholders and academic researchers within the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention…

  18. An approach for the anticipatory and participatory management of current and future flood risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, J.

    2012-04-01

    Despite the fact that many measures to attenuate flood hazards and reduce vulnerabilities are being implemented, adverse effects of floods are ever-increasing in most parts of the world. On the one hand this holds true for economically and/or demographically growing regions. On the other hand this applies also to areas that face population shrinkage and economic problems. Such flood risks occur in human-environment systems and are subject to dynamics caused by a number of drivers such as climate change, land-use changes, and others. Many drivers evolve slowly over time or show time-lag effects and long return periods. Moreover, certain decisions may determine the control actions of the following decades. At present, current flood risks are mostly determined based on historic developments and the ex post analysis of flood events. Approaches that look at the future dynamics of both hazards and vulnerable elements ex ante in an integrated manner are rare. Instead, future hazard scenarios are often just overlaid with current socio-economic data, which poses a strong inconsistency. Usually the focus lies on rather short-term, specific or local problems. But many developments and measures show their effects only after long time periods and when considering the whole catchment area. This calls for a holistic and long-term view into the future and implies the challenge of dealing with many uncertainties due to the system's complexity. In order to anticipate and react to these developments, this contribution suggests developing a flexible, yet holistic approach to design, analyse and evaluate alternative futures of such human-environment systems. These futures follow a scenario understanding that considers both specific (current) factor constellations as well as consistent assumptions on autonomous developments (so-called development frameworks) and potentials for control (strategic alternatives) of the interacting entities that influence flood risk. Different scenario

  19. Insightful monitoring of natural flood risk management features using a low-cost and participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against

  20. Designing a framework for the evaluation of paediatric telepsychiatry: a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Boydell, Katherine M; Greenberg, Natasha; Volpe, Tiziana

    2004-01-01

    While there is a great deal of interest in evaluating participants' experiences of teleconsultation programmes, specific frameworks for such evaluations are scarce. We have conducted a multi-stage consultation to develop a framework for the study of a paediatric telepsychiatry programme. Emphasis was placed on ensuring the participation of stakeholders in the design and response stage of the evaluation. A three-part approach was taken that comprised an opinion scan, focus groups and individual interviews. This resulted in the identification of specific areas of enquiry for the evaluation. One of the key points to emerge was that attending to context is vital. In the case of telepsychiatry, it is critical to understand the nuances of the local community for whom consultations are being provided. This involves considering the 'social ecology' of each evaluation site. The evaluation should take the form of a dialogue between the evaluators and those being evaluated, in order to maximize the uptake and integration of its findings. The framework we have developed should be viewed as a guide that is general enough to be used in the design of many different types of telepsychiatry programme.

  1. [A participatory approach for the prevention of type 2 diabetes for francophone youth of New Brunswick].

    PubMed

    Villalon, Lita; Leclair, Cédée-Anne

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes, a serious public health problem, is on the rise, claiming millions of victims. A considerable body of research exists on diabetes, but the development of effective primary prevention strategies is just beginning. This article presents the results of a project, based on an innovative approach where health professionals and community groups have come together to address the issue. The purpose of the project is to develop an intervention strategy for the prevention of type 2 diabetes directed at young francophones living in a minority environment in New Brunswick and adapted to their needs. Qualitative data were gathered from two focus groups and submitted for a content analysis. The process was evaluated. The young francophones have identified the school environment as ideal for intervention. According to them, the intervention should be adapted to the age of the youths. For the 5-to-13-year-old group, the intervention should target healthy eating habits and physical activity whereas for the 14-to-18-year-old group, the emphasis should be on preventing diabetes. The youth and the professionals acquired a greater understanding of the problem of diabetes and its prevention. Youth can now proceed to action, with appropriate guidance. The experience and knowledge of the professionals contributed to the development of the strategy. A shortage of dietitians in public health to work in the area of the prevention of diabetes has been noted.

  2. Jump step - a community based participatory approach to physical activity & mental wellness.

    PubMed

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Vazirian, Sara; Li, Neville; Remick, Ronald; Khan, Karim

    2017-08-31

    There is a physical inactivity pandemic around the world despite the known benefits of engaging in physical activity. This is true for individuals who would receive notable benefits from physical activity, in particular those with mood disorders. In this study, we explored the factors that facilitate and impede engagement in physical activity for individuals with a mood disorder. The intent was to understand the key features of a community based physical activity program for these individuals. We recruited and interviewed 24 participants older than 18 with Major Depressive Disorder or Bipolar II. The interviews were conducted by peer researchers. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 10™. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The facilitators to physical activity include being socially connected with family and friends, building a routine in daily life, and exposure to nature. The barriers to physical activity include the inability to build a routine owing to a mood disorder, and high cost. The ideal exercise program comprises a variety of light-to-moderate activities, offers the opportunity to connect with other participants with a mood disorder, and brings participants to nature. The average age of our participants was 52 which could have influenced the preferred level of intensity. The individuals in this study felt that the key features of a physical activity program for individuals with a mood disorder must utilize a social network approach, take into account the preferences of potential participants, and incorporate nature (both green and blue spaces) as a health promotion resource.

  3. Computer assisted learning: a new paradigm in dental education.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Wainscott; Darnell, Laura A; Hottel, Timothy L

    2011-01-01

    Computer assisted simulation is an important teaching modality in the preclinical training of students. In order to maximize the potential of this learning tool, the University of Tennessee's College of Dentistry has successfully incorporated DentSim technology into the restorative curriculum and has recently acquired the technology to make image guided implantology available to students, residents and faculty. This article describes the university's history and experience with simulation as a learning tool. The purpose of this article is to provide information to other educational institutions on the use of virtual reality simulation in the classroom.

  4. [Computer-assisted video-endoscopic endonasal surgery].

    PubMed

    Schmerber, S; Chen, B; Lavallée, S; Coulomb, M; Chirossel, J P; Lavieille, J P; Reyt, E

    2001-02-01

    To make the surgical procedure safer and more precise in FESS, a non-invasive markerless computer-assisted system (CAS) is described for intra-operative navigation whenever the critical regions may be affected by surgical manipulation. Twenty patients with benign diseases of the paranasal sinuses were treated by Computer Assisted Video-endoscopic surgery, between December 1997 and March 1998. For the determination of accuracy and reproducibility of the system, ten anatomical landmarks on each side of the paranasal sinuses were chosen and measured. All of these points were identified on the direct live video-endoscopy image and compared to those obtained with the Optical Digitizing System (Flashpoint 5000(R)), on axial, coronal and sagittal view. The Optical Localizer we used detects the position of the relative coordinates of two rigid bodies made of IR-LED's each, one rigid body is secured to the head' of the patient with a headset, so that patient motion can be tracked, and the second rigid body attached to the operating instrument, leading to direct localization of the tip of the instrument. We use a markerless, skin surface-based registration method, which has the advantage to avoid doing a second CT scan examination usually performed to process the position of the fiducial markers. We register the data from the patient's usual paranasal CT scan. Computer-assisted surgery does not increase significantly the duration of the operation. Our markerless skin surface points registration method is reliable enabling of the movements patient's head during the procedure. Computer assistance can be used in almost any type of endoscopic sinonasal procedure. We obtained a registration and calibration accuracy of less than 1.5 mm in 89.2% of cases. CAS enables the surgeon to have a more thorough understanding of the complicated anatomy of paranasal sinuses, and may be especially helpful in revision surgery when normal anatomic landmarks are lacking. Due to the passive

  5. Computer-assisted design of flux-cored wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubtsov, Yu N.; Zorin, I. V.; Sokolov, G. N.; Antonov, A. A.; Artem'ev, A. A.; Lysak, V. I.

    2017-02-01

    The algorithm and description of the AlMe-WireLaB software for the computer-assisted design of flux-cored wires are introduced. The software functionality is illustrated with the selection of the components for the flux-cored wire, ensuring the acquisition of the deposited metal of the Fe-Cr-C-Mo-Ni-Ti-B system. It is demonstrated that the developed software enables the technologically reliable flux-cored wire to be designed for surfacing, resulting in a metal of an ordered composition.

  6. Computer-assisted cataloging: experiences at the UCLA Biomedical Library.

    PubMed Central

    Traister, R C

    1975-01-01

    The computer-assisted procedures developed in the UCLA Biomedical Library Cataloging Division have been in effect for approximately three years. The system utilizes a Delta Data System cathode ray tube terminal and cassette attachment for on or off-line input of data. Products of the system include catalog card sets arranged in filing order, a monthly Recent Acquisitions List, and computer-generated book catalogs. Planning, personnel, and equipment requirements are discussed, and preliminary cost figures for various parts of the system are given. Potential applications of the automated system on a regional level and in terms of the library's future automation plans are considered. PMID:1148443

  7. Vision-based augmented reality computer assisted surgery navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Kebin; Li, Xin; Xu, Wei

    2007-12-01

    A vision-based Augmented Reality computer assisted surgery navigation system is presented in this paper. It applies the Augmented Reality technique to surgery navigation system, so the surgeon's vision of the real world is enhanced. In the system, the camera calibration is adopted to calculate the cameras projection matrix, and then make the virtual-real registration by using the transformation relation. The merging of synthetic 3D information into user's vision is realized by texture technique. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the system we have designed.

  8. Computer-Assisted Management of the Hospital Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Glen L.; Miller, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Computer systems in hospital clinical laboratories historically have been used largely to manage medically-oriented patient data, particularly laboratory test requests and results. At The Johns Hopkins Hospital, effort has been devoted to the development of computer-assisted laboratory management applications in addition to routine medical data processing. This paper describes these development efforts in four areas: Workload Measurement and Reporting, Measurement of Personnel Productivity, Control of Expenses, and Laboratory Performance Measurement. Sample reports from each management subsystem are included, along with a discussion of the purpose and benefits of each application.

  9. Rapid methods and computer assisted diagnosis in medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Heizmann, W R

    1991-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis and reporting in medical microbiology is becoming more and more important. In recent years, introduction of automated instruments as well as of computer assisted diagnosis contributed to this aim. These methods, however, are very expensive. A more cost efficient and simple to perform method for rapid diagnosis is the use of specific fluorogenic substrates incorporated into culture media (solid or liquid) for identification of the most important pathogens, e.g. Escherichia coli. Investigation of Fluorocult ECD agar and Columbia agar revealed a high sensitivity (85%) and an excellent specificity (greater than 99%) of fluorescence in combination with a positive indole reaction for identification of E. coli.

  10. Participatory Research. An Introduction. Participatory Research Network Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi (India).

    Participatory research is an approach that calls for a democratic interaction between the researcher and those among whom the research is conducted. While this approach has been implemented with both individuals and groups in a wide variety of settings such as geographic communities, workplace situations, adult learning groups, community issue…

  11. Participatory Research. An Introduction. Participatory Research Network Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi (India).

    Participatory research is an approach that calls for a democratic interaction between the researcher and those among whom the research is conducted. While this approach has been implemented with both individuals and groups in a wide variety of settings such as geographic communities, workplace situations, adult learning groups, community issue…

  12. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On

  13. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  14. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  15. Learning through Dignity: Participatory Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Dennis

    This paper describes an alternative approach to traditional instructional design models by suggesting that participatory communication theory (PCT) creates a process that values the learner's voice. As a student develops a critical awareness of his or her environment, participatory media becomes a catalyst for cognition. Learners use media tools…

  16. Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education. Papers Presented at an International Conference on Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education (13th, London, England, April 10, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    Containing papers presented at a multinational conference, this document examines the development of computer assisted learning (CAL) in geography, and describes program and curriculum development, teacher education, and experiences and problems of countries using CAL. Specific papers include: "Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education…

  17. Computer-assisted self interviewing in sexual health clinics.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Christopher K; Sze, Jun Kit; Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Chen, Marcus Y

    2010-11-01

    This review describes the published information on what constitutes the elements of a core sexual history and the use of computer-assisted self interviewing (CASI) within sexually transmitted disease clinics. We searched OVID Medline from 1990 to February 2010 using the terms "computer assisted interviewing" and "sex," and to identify published articles on a core sexual history, we used the term "core sexual history." Since 1990, 3 published articles used a combination of expert consensus, formal clinician surveys, and the Delphi technique to decide on what questions form a core sexual health history. Sexual health histories from 4 countries mostly ask about the sex of the partners, the number of partners (although the time period varies), the types of sex (oral, anal, and vaginal) and condom use, pregnancy intent, and contraceptive methods. Five published studies in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom compared CASI with in person interviews in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In general, CASI identified higher risk behavior more commonly than clinician interviews, although there were substantial differences between studies. CASI was found to be highly acceptable and individuals felt it allowed more honest reporting. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine whether CASI results in differences in sexually transmitted infection testing, diagnosis, or treatment or if CASI improves the quality of sexual health care or its efficiency. The potential public health advantages of the widespread use of CASI are discussed.

  18. Historical review of computer-assisted cognitive retraining.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Bill

    2002-10-01

    This article details the introduction and development of the use of microcomputers as adjuncts to traditional cognitive rehabilitation of persons with acquired brain injury. The initial application of video games as therapeutic recreation in the late 1970s was soon followed in the early 1980s by the use of the first personal computers and available educational software. By the mid-1980s, both the IBM PC and Macintosh platforms were established, along with simplified programming languages that allowed individuals without extensive technical expertise to develop their own software. Several rehabilitation clinicians began to produce and market specially written cognitive retraining software for one or the other platform. Their work was detailed and reviewed, as was recently released software from commercial sources. The latter discussion included the latest developments in the rehabilitation applications of personal digital assistants and related organizing, reminding, and dictation devices. A summary of research on the general and specific efficacy of computer-assisted cognitive retraining illustrated the lingering controversy and skepticism that have been associated with this field since its inception. Computer-assisted cognitive retraining (CACR) can be an effective adjunct to a comprehensive program of cognitive rehabilitation. Training needs to be focused, structured, monitored, and as ecologically relevant as possible for optimum effect. Transfer or training or generalizability of skills remains a key issue in the field and should be considered the key criterion in evaluating whether to initiate or continue CACR.

  19. Foreign accent conversion in computer assisted pronunciation training.

    PubMed

    Felps, Daniel; Bortfeld, Heather; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2009-10-01

    Learners of a second language practice their pronunciation by listening to and imitating utterances from native speakers. Recent research has shown that choosing a well-matched native speaker to imitate can have a positive impact on pronunciation training. Here we propose a voice-transformation technique that can be used to generate the (arguably) ideal voice to imitate: the own voice of the learner with a native accent. Our work extends previous research, which suggests that providing learners with prosodically corrected versions of their utterances can be a suitable form of feedback in computer assisted pronunciation training. Our technique provides a conversion of both prosodic and segmental characteristics by means of a pitch-synchronous decomposition of speech into glottal excitation and spectral envelope. We apply the technique to a corpus containing parallel recordings of foreign-accented and native-accented utterances, and validate the resulting accent conversions through a series of perceptual experiments. Our results indicate that the technique can reduce foreign accentedness without significantly altering the voice quality properties of the foreign speaker. Finally, we propose a pedagogical strategy for integrating accent conversion as a form of behavioral shaping in computer assisted pronunciation training.

  20. Modeling the behavior of the computer-assisted instruction user

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The field of computer-assisted instruction CAI contains abundant studies on effectiveness of particular programs or systems. However, the nature of the field is such that the computer is the focus of research, not the users. Few research studies have focused on the behavior of the individual CAI user. Morgan (1981) stated that descriptive studies are needed to clarify what the important phenomena of user behavior are. The need for such studies is particularly acute in computer-assisted instruction. Building a behavioral model would enable us to understand problem-solving strategies and rules applied by the user during a CAI experience. Also, courseware developers could use this information to design tutoring systems that are more responsive to individual differences than our present CAI is. This paper proposes a naturalistic model for evaluating both affective and cognitive characteristics of the CAI user. It begins with a discussion of features of user behavior, followed by a description of evaluation methodology that can lead to modeling user behavior. The paper concludes with a discussion of how implementation of this model can contribute to the fields of CAI and cognitive psychology.

  1. Foreign accent conversion in computer assisted pronunciation training

    PubMed Central

    Felps, Daniel; Bortfeld, Heather; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Learners of a second language practice their pronunciation by listening to and imitating utterances from native speakers. Recent research has shown that choosing a well-matched native speaker to imitate can have a positive impact on pronunciation training. Here we propose a voice-transformation technique that can be used to generate the (arguably) ideal voice to imitate: the own voice of the learner with a native accent. Our work extends previous research, which suggests that providing learners with prosodically corrected versions of their utterances can be a suitable form of feedback in computer assisted pronunciation training. Our technique provides a conversion of both prosodic and segmental characteristics by means of a pitch-synchronous decomposition of speech into glottal excitation and spectral envelope. We apply the technique to a corpus containing parallel recordings of foreign-accented and native-accented utterances, and validate the resulting accent conversions through a series of perceptual experiments. Our results indicate that the technique can reduce foreign accentedness without significantly altering the voice quality properties of the foreign speaker. Finally, we propose a pedagogical strategy for integrating accent conversion as a form of behavioral shaping in computer assisted pronunciation training. PMID:21124807

  2. Automated image interpretation and computer-assisted diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Foran, David J; Chen, Wenjin; Yang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Much of the difficulty in reaching consistent evaluations of radiology and pathology imaging studies arises from subjective impressions of individual observers. Developing strategies that can reliably transform complex visual observations into well-defined algorithmic procedures is an active area of exploration which can advance clinical practice, investigative research and outcome studies. The literature shows that when characterizations are based upon computer-aided analysis, objectivity, reproducibility and sensitivity improve considerably. Advanced imaging and computational tools could potentially enable investigators to detect and track subtle changes in measurable parameters leading to the discovery of novel diagnostic and prognostic clues which are not apparent by human visual inspection alone. The overarching objective of this book chapter is to provide readers with a summary of the origin, evolution and future directions for the fields of automated image interpretation and computer-assisted diagnostics. The chapter begins with a high-level overview of the fields of image processing, pattern recognition, and computer vision followed by a description of how these disciplines relate to the more comprehensive fields of computer-assisted diagnostics and image guided decision support. Throughout the remainder of the chapter we have supplied multiple illustrative examples demonstrating how recent advances and innovations in each of these areas have impacted clinical and research activities throughout pathology and radiology including high-throughput tissue microarray analysis, multi-spectral imaging, and image co-registration.

  3. A computer-assisted, interactive radiology learning program.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, H I; Fell, S; Myers, H J; Taylor, R C

    1990-08-01

    A computer-assisted adjunct to traditional radiology teaching files is described. The student is presented with an image and questions with multiple choice answers. The student's choice leads to additional presentations that reinforce correct responses and provide a critique of incorrect answers. The process is under the control of a teaching script. Requirements for the system included the ability to present high-resolution radiology images along with text; high capacity for storing teaching scripts and images; ease of use by students and authors of teaching scripts; and reasonable cost. A prototype program was written in C-language and run on an IBM PS/2 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) with DOS. The hardware also included a 30 megabyte disk drive, an IBM Image Adapter/A and a 14 inch IBM 8514 monitor operating at a 1024 X 768 X 8 bit resolution. Image acquisition was accomplished with a high resolution Pulnix video camera (Pulnix Corp., Tokyo, Japan), with an Imaging Technology (Imaging Technology Corp., Weston, MA) frame grabber, attached to an IBM PC/AT. All hardware is available commercially. A sample teaching file was constructed using a case of ischemic colon after a cecal volvulus. Students used the system and provided a critique. Results indicate that computer-assisted teaching programs can be a valuable addition to traditional teaching methods in radiology.

  4. Computer assisted learning is an effective way of teaching endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Holt, R I; Miklaszewicz, P; Cranston, I C; Russell-Jones, D; Rees, P J; Sönksen, P H

    2001-10-01

    Computers are a part of everyday life and offer an exciting way of learning. The aim of our study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching undergraduate endocrinology using a Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) programme. One hundred and eighty-five first year clinical medical students were randomly assigned either to attend a series of conventional lectures (n = 77) or to have the same material available through a CAL programme. A multiple choice question examination was performed before and after the course. Lecture attendance and individual usage of the computer system were recorded. Students were asked to fill in an evaluation form at the end of the study. There was no significant difference in the first examination scores between the groups. Both groups improved their scores after the course. Students spent longer performing CAL than attending lectures. Those who scored lowest in the first examination spent the most time on the CAL course. Those who spent the most time on the CAL course showed the largest improvement in examination score. Thirty-six out of the 42 students, who completed an evaluation of the CAL programme, rated it better than the standard lectures. Computer assisted learning is an effective way of increasing knowledge in teaching undergraduate endocrinology. The course was easy to run and was valued more highly than conventional lectures. The module is now running routinely in the year 3 clinical firms at St Thomas' and has resulted in an increase in knowledge in the end of firm assessment.

  5. Computer-assisted navigation system in intranasal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Wojdas, Andrzej; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2005-02-01

    Due to anatomical variability and limited visibility of endoscopic image, endoscopic operations of nose and paranasal sinuses are ones of the most difficult surgical procedures. The field of operation often comprises anatomical structures, which often present anomalies. Computer-assisted navigational endoscopic surgery consists of routine tomography with the possibility of 3-axis projection allowing for localization of surgical instruments in proper relation to anatomic structures. This potential permits the surgeon to penetrate specific structures with surgical instruments and visualize their localization on computer tomography, which was earlier entered to the computer and projected. Projection of the images and endoscopic picture on the same monitor provides comfort to the operator and feeling of safety to the operated patient. The image analysis feature supplies a set of information necessary for safer and more effective procedure conduction and decreased number of complications. This technique may considerably contribute to training programs in endoscopic surgery. Computer-aided navigation in surgical procedures allows for precise biopsy specimen uptake for pathological examination, even in cases requiring precision up to 1 mm. The authors present an overview of surgical computer-aided navigation systems and their own experience in endoscopic ethmoid and maxillary sinus surgery performed with the use of computer-assisted navigation system.

  6. Culturally sensitive assessments as a strength-based approach to wellness in Native communities: A community-based participatory research project.

    PubMed

    Verney, Steven P; Avila, Magdalena; Espinosa, Patricia Rodríguez; Cholka, Cecilia Brooke; Benson, Jennifer G; Baloo, Aihsa; Pozernick, Caitlin Devin

    2016-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have a unique, traumatic, and alienating history of education in the U.S., which may be directly related to overall health and well-being. Community engagement is critical in well-being research with Native communities, especially when investigating culturally sensitive topics, such as early education experiences. This study investigates the value of a community-based participatory research approach in gaining valuable culturally sensitive information from Native people in a respectful manner. Assessment participation and feedback are analyzed and presented as indicators of Native participant engagement success in a potentially sensitive research project exploring early education experiences.

  7. Considerations for Conducting Web-Based Survey Research With People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Ibáñez-Carrasco, Francisco; Baxter, Larry; Nixon, Stephanie A; Baltzer-Turje, Rosalind; Robinson, Greg; Zack, Elisse

    2014-01-01

    Background Web or Internet-based surveys are increasingly popular in health survey research. However, the strengths and challenges of Web-based surveys with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unclear. Objective The aim of this article is to describe our experience piloting a cross-sectional, Web-based, self-administered survey with adults living with HIV using a community-based participatory research approach. Methods We piloted a Web-based survey that investigated disability and rehabilitation services use with a sample of adults living with HIV in Canada. Community organizations in five provinces emailed invitations to clients, followed by a thank you/reminder one week later. We obtained survey feedback in a structured phone interview with respondents. Participant responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using directed content analysis. Results Of 30 people living with HIV who accessed the survey link, 24/30 (80%) initiated and 16/30 (53%) completed the survey instrument. A total of 17 respondents participated in post-survey interviews. Participants described the survey instrument as comprehensive, suggesting content validity. The majority (13/17, 76%) felt instruction and item wording were clear and easy to understand, and found the software easy to navigate. Participants felt having a pop-up reminder directing them to missed items would be useful. Conclusions Strengths of implementing the Web-based survey included: our community-based participatory approach, ease of software use, ability for respondents to complete the questionnaire on one’s own time at one’s own pace, opportunity to obtain geographic variation, and potential for respondent anonymity. Considerations for future survey implementation included: respondent burden and fatigue, the potentially sensitive nature of HIV Web-based research, data management and storage, challenges verifying informed consent, varying computer skills among respondents, and the burden on

  8. Project Energise: Using participatory approaches and real time computer prompts to reduce occupational sitting and increase work time physical activity in office workers.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Nicholas D; Ng, Norman; Pavey, Toby G; Ryde, Gemma C; Straker, Leon; Brown, Wendy J

    2016-11-01

    This efficacy study assessed the added impact real time computer prompts had on a participatory approach to reduce occupational sedentary exposure and increase physical activity. Quasi-experimental. 57 Australian office workers (mean [SD]; age=47 [11] years; BMI=28 [5]kg/m(2); 46 men) generated a menu of 20 occupational 'sit less and move more' strategies through participatory workshops, and were then tasked with implementing strategies for five months (July-November 2014). During implementation, a sub-sample of workers (n=24) used a chair sensor/software package (Sitting Pad) that gave real time prompts to interrupt desk sitting. Baseline and intervention sedentary behaviour and physical activity (GENEActiv accelerometer; mean work time percentages), and minutes spent sitting at desks (Sitting Pad; mean total time and longest bout) were compared between non-prompt and prompt workers using a two-way ANOVA. Workers spent close to three quarters of their work time sedentary, mostly sitting at desks (mean [SD]; total desk sitting time=371 [71]min/day; longest bout spent desk sitting=104 [43]min/day). Intervention effects were four times greater in workers who used real time computer prompts (8% decrease in work time sedentary behaviour and increase in light intensity physical activity; p<0.01). Respective mean differences between baseline and intervention total time spent sitting at desks, and the longest bout spent desk sitting, were 23 and 32min/day lower in prompt than in non-prompt workers (p<0.01). In this sample of office workers, real time computer prompts facilitated the impact of a participatory approach on reductions in occupational sedentary exposure, and increases in physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Considerations for conducting Web-based survey research with people living with human immunodeficiency virus using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Ibáñez-Carrasco, Francisco; Baxter, Larry; Nixon, Stephanie A; Baltzer-Turje, Rosalind; Robinson, Greg; Zack, Elisse

    2014-03-13

    Web or Internet-based surveys are increasingly popular in health survey research. However, the strengths and challenges of Web-based surveys with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unclear. The aim of this article is to describe our experience piloting a cross-sectional, Web-based, self-administered survey with adults living with HIV using a community-based participatory research approach. We piloted a Web-based survey that investigated disability and rehabilitation services use with a sample of adults living with HIV in Canada. Community organizations in five provinces emailed invitations to clients, followed by a thank you/reminder one week later. We obtained survey feedback in a structured phone interview with respondents. Participant responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using directed content analysis. Of 30 people living with HIV who accessed the survey link, 24/30 (80%) initiated and 16/30 (53%) completed the survey instrument. A total of 17 respondents participated in post-survey interviews. Participants described the survey instrument as comprehensive, suggesting content validity. The majority (13/17, 76%) felt instruction and item wording were clear and easy to understand, and found the software easy to navigate. Participants felt having a pop-up reminder directing them to missed items would be useful. Strengths of implementing the Web-based survey included: our community-based participatory approach, ease of software use, ability for respondents to complete the questionnaire on one's own time at one's own pace, opportunity to obtain geographic variation, and potential for respondent anonymity. Considerations for future survey implementation included: respondent burden and fatigue, the potentially sensitive nature of HIV Web-based research, data management and storage, challenges verifying informed consent, varying computer skills among respondents, and the burden on community organizations. Overall, results provide

  10. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    Khoza, Lunic B.; Van den Borne, Hubertus B.; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing a directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim To apply a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods The community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community. PMID:27542290

  11. A participatory action research approach for identifying health service needs of Hispanic immigrants: implications for occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Martinez, Louise I; Casas-Byots, Clemencia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Recently, the field of Community Occupational Therapy has started to enter into new research areas, one being participatory research. This paper illustrates a participatory research methodology adapted by community residents and a research team to identify the service needs of an underserved Hispanic population as well as set action agendas to meet their needs. In order to plan and implement health programs, community residents participated actively in the needs assessment, action agenda development and brainstorming of solutions to address health and community needs and concerns. Concerns identified included the lack of affordable bilingual dentists and youth involvement in gangs, drugs, and alcohol. The results of the needs assessment were shared and discussed during five public forums in which 180 Hispanics from the community discussed the dimensions of the issues and alternative solutions. This process resulted in an agenda of health issues and ideas for improvement from the perspective of Hispanics. We emphasized the advantages of using participatory methodologies when developing health and community services within Hispanic communities. Additionally, the implications for advancing a Scholarship of Practice agenda for Community Occupational Therapy are discussed.

  12. Computer-assisted surgical planning and intraoperative navigation in the treatment of condylar osteochondroma.

    PubMed

    Yu, H B; Li, B; Zhang, L; Shen, S G; Wang, X D

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular condylar osteochondroma (OC) results in asymmetric prognathism with facial morphology and functional disturbances. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of computer-assisted surgical planning combined with intraoperative navigation in the treatment of condylar OC. Five patients with mandibular condylar OC were enrolled in this study. Surgical planning and simulation was performed based on a computed tomography reconstruction model using SurgiCase software. Under the guidance of navigation, a condylar OC resection and conservative condylectomy was carried out via intraoral approach. Simultaneous orthognathic surgery was used to correct the facial asymmetry and malocclusion. All patients healed uneventfully. No facial nerve injury or salivary fistula occurred. Facial symmetry and morphology were greatly improved and stable occlusion was obtained in all cases. Good matching between preoperative planning and postoperative results was achieved. Patients showed no signs of recurrence or temporomandibular joint ankylosis during follow-up of 12-30 months. Computer-assisted surgical planning and intraoperative navigation is a valuable option in the treatment of mandibular condylar OC. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Participatory Design Approach to Develop a Web-Based Self-Care Program Supporting Early Rehabilitation among Patients after Total Laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Eerenstein, Simone E J; Rinkel, Rico N P M; Aalders, Ijke J; van den Berg, Klaske; de Goede, Cees J T; van Stijgeren, Ans J; Cruijff-Bijl, Yvonne; de Bree, Remco; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2015-01-01

    To develop a Web-based self-care program for patients after total laryngectomy according to a participatory design approach. We conducted a needs assessment with laryngectomees (n = 9) and their partners (n = 3) by means of a focus group interview. In 4 focus group sessions, a requirement plan was formulated by a team of health care professionals (n = 10) and translated into a prototype. An e-health application was built including illustrated information on functional changes after total laryngectomy as well as video demonstrations of skills and exercises. Usability of the prototype was tested by end users (n = 4) and expert users (n = 10). Interviews were held to elicit the intention to use and the desired implementation strategy. Six main self-care topics were identified: (1) nutrition, (2) tracheostomy care, (3) voice prosthesis care, (4) speech rehabilitation, (5) smell rehabilitation, and (6) mobility of head, neck, and shoulder muscles. Expert users expressed concerns regarding tailored exercises, indicated a positive intent to implement the intervention in routine care, and expressed a need for guidance when implementing the intervention. End users and expert users appreciated the content completeness and multimedia-based information built into the application. The participatory design is a valuable approach to develop a self-care program to help meet users' needs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Evaluation of a tuberculosis education video among immigrants and refugees at an adult education center: a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Mark L; Nelson, Jonathan; Palmer, Tiffany; O'Hara, Connie; Weis, Jennifer A; Nigon, Julie A; Sia, Irene G

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis disproportionately affects immigrants and refugees to the United States. Upon arrival to the United States, many of these individuals attend adult education centers, but little is known about how to deliver tuberculosis health information at these venues. Therefore, the authors used a participatory approach to design and evaluate a tuberculosis education video in this setting. The authors used focus group data to inform the content of the video that was produced and delivered by adult learners and their teachers. The video was evaluated by learners for acceptability through 3 items with a 3-point Likert scale. Knowledge (4 items) and self-efficacy (2 items) about tuberculosis were evaluated before and after viewing the video. A total of 159 learners (94%) rated the video as highly acceptable. Knowledge about tuberculosis improved after viewing the video (56% correct vs. 82% correct; p <.001), as did tuberculosis-related self-efficacy (77% vs. 90%; p <.001). Adult education centers that serve large immigrant and refugee populations may be excellent venues for health education, and a video may be an effective tool to educate these populations. Furthermore, a participatory approach in designing health education materials may enhance the efficacy of these tools.

  15. Evaluation of a Tuberculosis Education Video among Immigrants and Refugees at an Adult Education Center: A Community-Based Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Mark L.; Nelson, Jonathan; Palmer, Tiffany; O’Hara, Connie; Weis, Jennifer A.; Nigron, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants and refugees to the United States. Upon arrival to the US, many of these individuals attend adult education centers, but little is known about how to deliver TB health information at these venues. Therefore, a participatory approach was used to design and evaluate a tuberculosis education video in this setting. Focus groups data were used to inform the content of the video that was produced and delivered by adult learners and their teachers. The video was evaluated by learners for acceptability through 3 items with a 3-point Likert scale. Knowledge (4 items) and self-efficacy (2 items) about TB were evaluated before and after viewing the video. A total of 159 learners (94%) rated the video as highly acceptable. Knowledge about TB improved after viewing the video (56% correct vs. 82% correct; p=<0.001), as did TB-related self-efficacy (77% vs. 90%; p=<0.001). Adult education centers that serve large immigrant and refugee populations may be excellent venues for health education, and a video may be an effective tool to educate these populations. Furthermore, a participatory approach in designing health education materials may enhance the efficacy of these tools. PMID:23237382

  16. Measuring coherence of computer-assisted likelihood ratio methods.

    PubMed

    Haraksim, Rudolf; Ramos, Daniel; Meuwly, Didier; Berger, Charles E H

    2015-04-01

    Measuring the performance of forensic evaluation methods that compute likelihood ratios (LRs) is relevant for both the development and the validation of such methods. A framework of performance characteristics categorized as primary and secondary is introduced in this study to help achieve such development and validation. Ground-truth labelled fingerprint data is used to assess the performance of an example likelihood ratio method in terms of those performance characteristics. Discrimination, calibration, and especially the coherence of this LR method are assessed as a function of the quantity and quality of the trace fingerprint specimen. Assessment of the coherence revealed a weakness of the comparison algorithm in the computer-assisted likelihood ratio method used.

  17. A Planning Guide to Computer-Assisted Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Michel; Perreault, Robert

    1983-01-01

    The ever lowering prices of microcomputers along with recent developments in display technology justify the exploitation of the computer as a support for public health education and health promotion. Although many experimental efforts are being conducted in this area, the focus has up to now remained on the technologies rather than on application planning, thereby limiting the access to these technologies to workers well versed in computer culture. The present paper analyses some of the implications related to the introduction of hitherto unavailable features in the planning of health promotion efforts. The impact of computer supported possibilities is examined and a model for program-planning is offered. An extension of existing conceptualizations in the field of health education, the model is designed as a tool to facilitate integration of computer-assisted media within the health planner's conceptual reach. A study presently being conducted by the authors is used as an operational illustration of how the model works.

  18. Cartographic Modeling: Computer-assisted Analysis of Spatially Defined Neighborhoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic models addressing a wide variety of applications are composed of fundamental map processing operations. These primitive operations are neither data base nor application-specific. By organizing the set of operations into a mathematical-like structure, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling framework can be developed. Among the major classes of primitive operations are those associated with reclassifying map categories, overlaying maps, determining distance and connectivity, and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods. The conceptual framework of cartographic modeling is established and techniques for characterizing neighborhoods are used as a means of demonstrating some of the more sophisticated procedures of computer-assisted map analysis. A cartographic model for assessing effective roundwood supply is briefly described as an example of a computer analysis. Most of the techniques described have been implemented as part of the map analysis package developed at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

  19. A computer assisted teleoperator control station with tactile feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Bliss, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    A computer-assisted teleoperator control system for making comparative performance evaluations is described. A local and a remote control station, each with decision-making capability, communicate with each other through a simulated time delay. Supervisory control at three increasingly automatic levels is possible. The highest level of programmed control is facilitated through the ARM language which was developed to permit easily readable program manuscripts to be written and assembled into programs of motions by novice programmers. Experimental results show the advantage of this form of supervisory control with both direct and delayed (3 sec) manipulation tasks. In addition, two systems to measure and reproduce force distributions have been designed. One system reproduces contact on the external surfaces of the remote hand using 21 airjet simulators. Another system reproduces the shape of the contact between object and jaws using 288 piezoelectric (bimorph) stimulators.

  20. Terrain analysis database generation through computer-assisted photo interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. L.

    1983-04-01

    The creation of digital terrain analysis databases through on-line photo interpretation has been the focus of computer-assisted photo interpretation research (CAPIR) at USAETL. An APPS IV analytical plotter equipped with stereo superposition linked to a minicomputer is used for photo interpretation and digitizing. Digital data is input in arc/node format with attributes and the points are stored in three dimensions; latitude, longitude, and elevation. To demonstrate these capabilities, high-altitude infrared photography of the Fort Belvoir, Virginia, area was used for photo interpretation and digitization, supplemented by large-scale photography and field data. Landforms, surface drainage, soils, and vegetation were individually interpreted and digitized. Digital elevations, measured from stereo imagery, were used to produce contour and slope overlays. The resultant digital database was readily accessed and used as a basis for analysis and modeling. This paper briefly describes the hardware, software and methods used to generate a digital terrain analysis database.