The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice.
Rabkin, M T; Avakian, L
In the mid-1980s, the senior management of Boston's Beth Israel Hospital became concerned that continuous cost-cutting efforts could lower the quality of the hospital's services and the morale of its staff. This led them to investigate organizational approaches to "participatory management" to determine whether any of these might be of value to the hospital. They decided that an approach developed in the 1930s called the "Scanlon Plan" would be compatible with the workplace culture of Beth Israel, could help the hospital meet the ongoing problems of change, and could help the staff at all levels develop a sense that they owned the problems of quality, productivity, and efficiency, which would motivate them to address these problems constructively in the face of necessary budget constraints. This plan has two mechanisms to foster employees' positive participation: (1) a process to ensure that all members of the organization have the opportunity to improve productivity, primarily through an open suggestion system and a responsive committee structure, and (2) a means of providing equitable rewards for all members of the organization as productivity and quality improve. This essay describes in some detail the plan and why it was selected, explains how it was adapted, prepared for, and finally implemented in 1989, and reports its success, lessons learned, and future plans as of early 1992. The authors believe Beth Israel's experience with the Scanlon Plan is noteworthy as an example of a leading teaching hospital's taking a quality improvement program seriously and making it work.
Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.
In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.
de Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze scopes and limits of the use of participatory methodology of evaluation with municipal health managers and administrators. METHODS Qualitative research with health policymakers and managers of the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR – Regional Interagency Commission) of a health region of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Representatives from seven member cities participated in seven workshops facilitated by the researchers, with the aim of assessing a specific problem of the care line, which would be used as a tracer of the system integrality. The analysis of the collected empirical material was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic methodology and aimed at the evaluation of the applied participatory methodology, according to its capacity of promoting a process of assessment capable to be used as a support for municipal management. RESULTS With the participatory approach of evaluation, we were able to promote in-depth discussions with the group, especially related to the construction of integral care and to the inclusion of the user’s perspective in decision-making, linked to the search for solution to concrete problems of managers. By joint exploration, the possibility of using data from electronic information systems was opened, as well as information coming directly from the users of the services, to enhance discussions and negotiations between partners. The participants were disbelievers of the replication potential of this type of evaluation without the direct monitoring of the academy, given the difficulty of organizing the process in everyday life, already taken by emergency and political issues. CONCLUSIONS Evaluations of programs and services carried out within the Regional Interagency Commission, starting from the local interest and facilitating the involvement of its members by the use of participatory methodologies, can contribute to the construction of integral care. To the extent that the act of evaluating stay
Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.
The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was
Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L
We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future.
Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H O; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time-before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.
Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.
The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...
Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel
This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre
Ruechakul, Prayad; Erawan, Prawit; Siwarom, Manoon
The participatory learning and action: PLA was the process used for empowering in this program. This process has four steps: 1) create awareness, 2) specify problems or needs, 3) act and 4) present and reflect or monitor. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the conditions of communities in terms of context and problems or needs in…
Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret
Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management.
Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.
The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.
Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer
Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other
Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac
In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina…
San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.
Purpose: The paper aims to examine the effect of implementing participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) on the levels of empowerment among the educational stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach, combining the experimental design with empirical surveys, interviews and documentary analysis,…
San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.
This paper examines the impact of implementing Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management (PSALM) on the levels of trust among the educational stakeholders in Philippine public secondary schools. After an introductory section, the research context is provided by briefly reviewing relevant literature on PSALM and on trust and by…
Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John
Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…
Gamage, David; San Antonio, Diosdado
This paper reports upon a study on the effectiveness of participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) as perceived by 282 stakeholders in one school division in the Philippines. The study also examined the correlation between the indicators of PSALM effectiveness and the trust levels of the stakeholders. Questionnaires…
Powers, David R.; Powers, Mary F.
Participatory management (PM) is discussed in this step-by-step guide that shows how PM can be made to work effectively on a daily basis in academe. Suggestions are offered for helping higher education administrators consult efficiently with representatives of campus groups--faculty, other administrators, advisory board members, policy council…
Randall, Ruth E.; DeLong, James
A school district in Rosemont, Minnesota, cut 2.4 million dollars from its general fund budget in 1982-83, a cut of almost 10 percent. Instead of splitting the community, the district emerged from the process stronger than before. This was accomplished through a 4-month participatory management process involving staff, citizens, parents, and…
Kelly, Maggi; Ferranto, Shasta; Lei, Shufei; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Huntsinger, Lynn
Participatory adaptive management is widely promoted as the new paradigm in public lands management. It is grounded in two underlying principles - that management experiments and diverse sources of information should be used to continually refine management in complex ecological systems, and that the public must be included throughout the adaptive management process. Access to scientific results and exchange of information is at the core of both of these principles. The recent proliferation of Internet communities and web-based participation tools raises the question of how the Internet might help facilitate information exchange in participatory adaptive management. Using a case study approach, the role of web technologies in facilitating the flow of transparent and useful information was examined in a participatory adaptive management project focused on Forest Service vegetation management treatments in California's Sierra Nevada. Three evaluation methods were used: analysis of web usage and content, a survey of active participants, and a review of comments posted to the project website. Results suggest that the web played an important role throughout the adaptive management cycle by supporting communication through disseminating information to the public and increasing the transparency of the scientific process. The web played a small, but important role in public consultation, by providing a forum for targeted questions and feedback from the public. Internet technology did not actively support the two-way flow of information necessary for mutual learning. Web technology complements face-to-face interactions and public meetings, rather than replacing them.
Cinderby, Steve; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Kongo, Victor; Barron, Jennie
One of the keys to environmental management is to understand the impact and interaction of people with natural resources as a means to improve human welfare and the consequent environmental sustainability for future generations. In terms of water management one of the on-going challenges is to assess what impact interventions in agriculture, and in particularly different irrigation strategies, will have on livelihoods and water resources in the landscape. Whilst global and national policy provide the overall vision of desired outcomes for environmental management, agricultural development and water use strategies they are often presented with local challenges to embed these policies in the reality on the ground, with different stakeholder groups. The concept that government agencies, advocacy organizations, and private citizens should work together to identify mutually acceptable solutions to environmental and water resource issues is increasing in prominence. Participatory spatial engagement techniques linked to geographic information systems (commonly termed participatory GIS (PGIS)) offers one solution to facilitate such stakeholder dialogues in an efficient and consultative manner. In the context of agricultural water management multi-scale PGIS techniques have recently been piloted as part of the ‘Agricultural Water Management Solutions’ project to investigate the current use and dependencies of water by small-holder farmers a watershed in Tanzania. The piloted approach then developed PGIS scenarios describing the effects on livelihoods and water resources in the watershed when introducing different management technologies. These relatively rapid PGIS multi-scale methods show promise for assessing current and possible future agriculture water management technologies in terms of their bio-physical and socio-economic impacts at the watershed scale. The paper discusses the development of the methodology in the context of improved water management decision
Jucker Riva, Matteo; Schwilch, Gudrun; Liniger, Hanspeter
Regime shifts, defined as a radical and persistent reconfiguration of an ecosystem following a disturbance, have been acknowledged by scientists as a very important aspect of the dynamic of ecosystems. However, their consideration in land management planning remains marginal and limited to specific processes and systems. Current research focuses on mathematical modeling and statistical analysis of spatio-temporal data for specific environmental variables. These methods do not fulfill the needs of land managers, who are confronted with a multitude of processes and pressure types and require clear and simple strategies to prevent regime shift or to increase the resilience of their environment. The EU-FP7 CASCADE project is looking at regime shifts of dryland ecosystems in southern Europe and specifically focuses on rangeland and forest systems which are prone to various land degradation threats. One of the aims of the project is to evaluate the impact of different management practices on the dynamic of the environment in a participatory manner, including a multi-stakeholder evaluation of the state of the environment and of the management potential. To achieve this objective we have organized several stakeholder meetings and we have compiled a review of management practices using the WOCAT methodology, which enables merging scientific and land users knowledge. We highlight here the main challenges we have encountered in applying the notion of regime shift to real world socio-ecological systems and in translating related concepts such as tipping points, stable states, hysteresis and resilience to land managers, using concrete examples from CASCADE study sites. Secondly, we explore the advantages of including land users' knowledge in the scientific understanding of regime shifts. Moreover, we discuss useful alternative concepts and lessons learnt that will allow us to build a participatory method for the assessment of resilient management practices in specific socio
Blengini, Gian Andrea; Fantoni, Moris; Busto, Mirko; Genon, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Maria Chiara
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.
Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird
Health disparities among Native Americans persist despite efforts to translate evidence-based programs from research to practice. Few evidence-based, theory-driven prevention and management interventions have been successfully translated within Native American communities. The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has shown promise in this process. This article provides an overview of the use of CBPR with Native American communities and discusses the translation of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, using a CBPR approach, with an urban Native American community. This article highlights not only how the CBPR process facilitates the successful translation of the Stanford program but also how CBPR is used within this community to build community capacity. PMID:19376928
Both academic research and catchment management practice have now placed considerable emphasis upon the ways in which participation might be used with the objective of improving water management. It is often predicated upon the observation that, historically, water management decisions have been dominated by those who hold certain kinds of expertise, to the detriment of the expertise of others. Participation, then, is a means of opening up decision-making to capture a greater range of those implicated in water management. Scholars of Science Technology Studies have traditionally advocated participation as involving a diversified set of ideals and approaches, ones that are sensitive to the context within which they are practiced and the logics that surround them. But, STS scholars have also argued that as soon as participation, notably participation in a particular form, becomes proscribed, it loses its very raison d'être, that is as a space within which slightly different understandings of a problem may form, grow and take on meaning oustide of the institutional systems of decision-making that all to often dominate our lives. Here I argue that this implies a need to think through what can be called a 'logic of participation' in water management, that is why certain individuals or institutions advocate it, and under what conditions, for whom and with what end. In short, we need a political science analysis of who participation in water management might serve. This paper is motivated by one element of such an analysis linked to the observation that many models of how participation in water management might be done have developed without sufficient attention to the sometimes sophisticated and advanced levels of participation that already exist in many water management systems. Interventions to improve participation in such cases may be as much about displacing and replacing existing participatory systems, whether: intentional, because of concerns held by authorities
Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Bautista, Susana; Edward deSteiguer, J; Orr, Barron J
We evaluated the potential of an outranking Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis approach for assisting in the participatory assessment of dryland management actions implemented in the San Simon watershed, in southeastern Arizona, USA. We compared an outranking-facilitated assessment of actions with a simple and direct (baseline) ranking of the same actions by the participating stakeholders in terms of: 1) internal homogeneity of each assessment approach, (2) similarity of individual assessments between methods, and (3) effects of the use of implicit/explicit assessment criteria. The actions assessed combined various management approaches, including livestock management (rotation, resting), vegetation management (grass seeding, brush control), and hydraulic structures (dams, dykes). The outranking-facilitated assessment discriminated better between actions and reduced the variability of results between individual stakeholders as compared with the direct ranking of actions. In general, the two assessments significantly differed in the relative preference of the five management actions assessed, yet both assessments identified rotational grazing combined with vegetation management (grass seeding and brush control) as the most preferred management action in the study area. The comparative analysis revealed inconsistencies between the use of implicit and explicit assessment criteria. Our findings highlight the opportunities offered by outranking approaches to help capture, structure, and make explicit stakeholder perspectives in the framework of a participatory environmental assessment process, which may facilitate the understanding of the multiple preferences involved. The outranking integration process, which resembles a voting procedure, proved simple and transparent, with potential for contributing to stakeholder engagement and trust in participatory assessment.
Bautista, Susana; Llovet, Joan; Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Mayor, Ángeles G; Murias, Cristina; Vallejo, V Ramón; Orr, Barron J
The adoption of sustainable land management strategies and practices that respond to current climate and human pressures requires both assessment tools that can lead to better informed decision-making and effective knowledge-exchange mechanisms that facilitate new learning and behavior change. We propose a learning-centered participatory approach that links land management assessment and knowledge exchange and integrates science-based data and stakeholder perspectives on both biophysical and socio-economic attributes. We outline a structured procedure for a transparent assessment of land management alternatives, tailored to dryland management, that is based on (1) principles of constructivism and social learning, (2) the participation of stakeholders throughout the whole assessment process, from design to implementation, and (3) the combination of site-specific indicators, identified by local stakeholders as relevant to their particular objectives and context conditions, and science-based indicators that represent ecosystem services of drylands worldwide. The proposed procedure follows a pattern of eliciting, challenging, and self-reviewing stakeholder perspectives that aims to facilitate learning. The difference between the initial baseline perspectives and the final self-reviewed stakeholder perspectives is used as a proxy of learning. We illustrate the potential of this methodology by its application to the assessment of land uses in a Mediterranean fire-prone area in East Spain. The approach may be applied to a variety of socio-ecological systems and decision-making and governance scales.
Transformational socio-economic changes during the last decades of the 20th century led to the abandonment of mountainous areas in western Mediterranean countries (Puigdefábregas and Mendizábal, 1998). This process was accelerated in the Ayora Valley (inland Valencia province, E Spain) by a major forest fire in 1979. Restoration and management actions were implemented through the 1990's to promote the recovery of the area affected by this fire. In 2010 these past actions were assessed using an integrated and participatory evaluation protocol (IAPro). The selected actions were shrubland regenerated after the fire (no-action); pine plantation over the shrubland; pine forest regenerated after the fire (no-action); and thinning of densely regenerated pines. The assessment involved the identification and engagement of a comprehensive and representative set of local and regional stakeholders who provided a baseline assessment, identified and prioritized essential indicators, considered data collected against those indicators, and participated in re-assessment of actions after an outranking multi-criteria decision aiding integration (MCDA) conducted by the expert team (Roy and Bertier, 1973). This process facilitated a collaborative integration of biophysical indicators (i.e. carbon sequestration, water and soil conservation, soil quality, biodiversity, fire risk and forest health) and socio-economic indicators (i.e. productive, recreational and touristic, aesthetic, and cultural values, cost of the actions, and impact on family finances). It was completed with activities for exchanging experiences and sharing knowledge with the platform of stakeholders. Stakeholder platform suggested that fire risk was the most important indicator, followed by water conservation and soil conservation. Least important indicators were cost of actions, aesthetic value, and recreational and touristic value. Data collected on each action showed the thinned pine forest action with the lowest
Rohde, M. M.; Edmunds, W.; Sharma, O.; Davis, J.
Agriculture currently accounts for 70% of global water consumption, resulting in excessive groundwater pumping that surpasses the rate of groundwater renewal in many places. There is a pressing need for farmers to have a way to monitor water resources, so that they can manage and utilize water more sustainably to mitigate hardship and sustain water-related livelihoods. One of the most promising methods for quantifying groundwater supplies is the Chloride Mass Balance (CMB) approach. Although chloride can be easily quantified with ion chromatography in a laboratory, its application in developing countries remains a logistical challenge. The high costs and complexity associated with the current methodology limits its application in practice, since it requires highly specialized personnel to make advanced measurements and interpretations. In an effort to mitigate these caveats and simplify the CMB methodology such that spatial and temporal resolution can increase, this study exemplifies the use of Total Dissolved Solutes (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) meters as surrogates for ion chromatography as an extension of an on-going participatory watershed monitoring program in the Jaisamand Lake Basin, a UNESCO G-WADI pilot basin located in Rajasthan, India. Weekly EC measurements collected from 20 farmers within the Gangeshwar Watershed and Household data collection were collected in 2012 to elucidate well-well scale differences in groundwater recharge.
Butler, Cameron; Adamowski, Jan
Within the field of water resource management, Group Model Building (GMB) is a growing method used to engage stakeholders in the development of models that describe environmental and socioeconomic systems to create and test policy alternatives. While there is significant focus on improving stakeholder engagement, there is a lack of studies specifically looking at the experiences of marginalized communities and the barriers that prevent their fuller participation in the decision-making process. This paper explores the common issues and presents recommended improved practices, based on anti-oppression, related to the stages of problem framing, stakeholder identification and selection, workshop preparation, and workshop facilitation. For problem defining and stakeholder selection, the major recommendations are to engage diverse stakeholder communities from the earliest stages and give them control over framing the project scope. With regards to planning the model building workshops, it is recommended that the facilitation team work closely with marginalized stakeholders to highlight and address barriers that would prevent their inclusion. With the actual facilitation of the workshops, it is best to employ activities that allow stakeholders to provide knowledge and input in mediums that are most comfortable to them; additionally, the facilitation team needs to be able to challenge problematic interpersonal interactions as they manifest within conversations. This article focuses on building comfortability with political language so that the systemic oppression in which existing participatory processes occur can be understood, thus allowing GMB practitioners to engage in social justice efforts.
Linzalone, Nunzia; Coi, Alessio; Lauriola, Paolo; Luise, Daniela; Pedone, Alessandra; Romizi, Roberto; Sallese, Domenico; Bianchi, Fabrizio
The lack of participatory tools in Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to support decision-makers is a critical factor that negatively affects the impacts of waste policies. This study describes the participatory HIA used in deciding on the possible doubling of the municipal solid waste incinerating plant located near the city of Arezzo, Italy. Within the framework of the new waste management plan, a methodology for the democratic participation of stakeholders was designed adopting the Local Agenda 21 methodology. Communication and participation events with the stakeholders were set up from the plan's development to its implementation. Eleven different categories of stakeholders including individual citizens were involved in 21 local events, reaching over 500 participants in three years. Actions were performed to build the commitment and ownership of the local administrators. Then, together with the environment and health agencies and a representative from the local committees, the local administrators collaborated with scientists and technicians in the knowledge-building and scoping stages. Focus groups of voluntary citizens worked together with the researchers to provide qualitative and quantitative evidence in the assessment stage. Periodic public forums were held to discuss processes, methods and findings. The local government authority considered the HIA results in the final decision and a new waste strategy was adopted both in the short term (increased curbside collection, waste sustainability program) and in the long term (limited repowering of the incinerator, new targets for separate collection). In conclusion, an effective participatory HIA was carried out at the municipal level to support decision makers in the waste management plan. The HIA21 study contributed to evidence-based decisions and to make a broadly participatory experience. The authors are confident that these achievements may improve the governance of the waste cycle and the trust in the public
Mbogo, Charles; Mwangangi, Joseph; Imbahale, Susan; Kibe, Lydia; Orindi, Benedict; Girma, Melaku; Njui, Annah; Lwande, Wilber; Affognon, Hippolyte; Gichuki, Charity; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integrated vector management (IVM) as a strategy to improve and sustain malaria vector control. However, this approach has not been widely adopted. Objectives We comprehensively assessed experiences and findings on IVM in Kenya with a view to sharing lessons that might promote its wider application. Methods The assessment used information from a qualitative external evaluation of two malaria IVM projects implemented between 2006 and 2011 and an analysis of their accumulated entomological and malaria case data. The project sites were Malindi and Nyabondo, located in coastal and western Kenya, respectively. The assessment focused on implementation of five key elements of IVM: integration of vector control methods, evidence-based decision making, intersectoral collaboration, advocacy and social mobilization, and capacity building. Results IVM was more successfully implemented in Malindi than in Nyabondo owing to greater community participation and multistakeholder engagement. There was a significant decline in the proportion of malaria cases among children admitted to Malindi Hospital, from 23.7% in 2006 to 10.47% in 2011 (p < 0.001). However, the projects’ operational research methodology did not allow statistical attribution of the decline in malaria and malaria vectors to specific IVM interventions or other factors. Conclusions Sustaining IVM is likely to require strong participation and support from multiple actors, including community-based groups, non-governmental organizations, international and national research institutes, and various government ministries. A cluster-randomized controlled trial would be essential to quantify the effectiveness and impact of specific IVM interventions, alone or in combination. Citation Mutero CM, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Imbahale S, Kibe L, Orindi B, Girma M, Njui A, Lwande W, Affognon H, Gichuki C, Mukabana WR. 2015. An assessment of participatory integrated vector
Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; van der Zaag, Pieter; Anil, Kunnathu R.; Balan, Krishnan
This paper deals with participatory research on the introduction and use of coir geotextiles for soil and water conservation in a small community pond in a watershed in south India. The results demonstrate that a participatory approach enables the community to visualize and evaluate the impact of innovative technologies. As a result, farmers readily adapt a technology when they have experienced the positive research outcome. This reduces the adoption time, and can bring significant increase in yield, or decrease in labour costs, helping to enhance productivity, sustainability and improvement of livelihood.
Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah
Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…
Mendoza, Guillermo A.; Prabhu, Ravi
This paper describes an application of multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in assessing criteria and indicators adapted for a particular forest management unit. The methods include: ranking, rating, and pairwise comparisons. These methods were used in a participatory decision-making environment where a team representing various stakeholders and professionals used their expert opinions and judgements in assessing different criteria and indicators (C&I) on the one hand, and how suitable and applicable they are to a forest management unit on the other. A forest concession located in Kalimantan, Indonesia, was used as the site for the case study. Results from the study show that the multicriteria methods are effective tools that can be used as structured decision aids to evaluate, prioritize, and select sets of C&I for a particular forest management unit. Ranking and rating approaches can be used as a screening tool to develop an initial list of C&I. Pairwise comparison, on the other hand, can be used as a finer filter to further reduce the list. In addition to using these three MCA methods, the study also examines two commonly used group decision-making techniques, the Delphi method and the nominal group technique. Feedback received from the participants indicates that the methods are transparent, easy to implement, and provide a convenient environment for participatory decision-making.
Ribeiro, M A F M; Vieira, Z M C L; Ribeiro, M M R
The Brazilian Water Resources Policy (Law 9433/1997) establishes participatory and decentralized management, involving civil society, water users and governmental bodies, with the basin committees as the basis of this process. Fifteen years after its implementation, it is possible to perceive accomplishments, but, at the same time, there are some difficulties in regards to the operation of the basin committees in the country. Considering the North Paraíba River Basin - which is completely included in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, and presents great social and economic importance for the state - this article analyzes the process of formation, installation and functioning of its Basin Committee (CBH-PB), focusing on its composition, the reasons for the mobilization and demobilization of its members, the intra-relations between segments, and the inter-relations between the CBH-PB and other entities of the State Water Management System (the Water Executive Agency and the State Water Resources Council). The level of decentralization and the quality of participatory management (as it is being performed at the CBH-PB) are discussed and guidelines are suggested in order to allow greater effectiveness to the committee.
Sánchez Reparaz, Maite; de Vente, Joris; Famba, Sebastiao; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Barberá, Gonzalo G.
Integrated water and nutrient management are key factors to increase productivity and to reduce the yield gap in irrigated systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. These two elements are affected by an ensemble of abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors that need to be taken into account to reduce the yield gap, as well as farmers' perceptions and knowledge. In the framework of the project European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we are carrying out a participatory innovation process in Chókwè irrigation scheme (Mozambique) based on stakeholders engagement, to test new practices for soil fertility management that can increase yields reducing costs. Through a method combining interviews with three farmers' associations and other relevant stakeholders and soil sampling from the interviewed farmers' plots with the organization of Communities of Practices, we tried to capture how soil fertility is managed by farmers, the constraints they find as well as their perceptions about soil resources. This information was the basis to design and conduct a participatory innovation process where compost made with rice straw and manure is being tested by a farmers' association. Most important limitations of the method are also evaluated. Our results show that socio-economic characteristics of farmers condition how they manage soil fertility and their perceptions. The difficulties they face to adopt new practices for soil fertility management, mainly related to economic resources limitations, labour availability, knowledge time or farm structure, require a systemic understanding that takes into account abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors and their implication as active stakeholders in all phases of the innovation process.
Passos, Eduardo; Otanari, Thais Mikie de Carvalho; Emerich, Bruno Ferrari; Guerini, Lorena
The theme of users' rights has become a central issue in contemporary debate on mental health. Drawing from the experiences of "Comitê Cidadão" (Citizen Committee), consisting of users and family members in an international research alliance between Brazil and Canada, an attempt is made to discuss the effects of the experience of co-management of the so-called Autonomous Medication Administration (GAM - Gestão Autônoma da Medicação) participatory research project on these individuals. By means of a detailed description of the background of the Committee and interviews and analysis of the voice transcriptions of its members, the problems raised by the relation of dialogue between scientific knowledge and users' knowledge are examined in a methodological approach of participatory research. As a result of the research, it was established that the experience of the Citizens Committee in co-management of health research can be propitious to the increase in the degree of autonomy, greater empowerment and the exercise of leadership and citizenship, with the consequent emergence of subjects with rights.
Yoshikawa, Toru; Ogami, Ayumi; Muto, Takashi
Industry-specific primary prevention measures for promoting mental health of workers were undertaken in 2008 and 2009 as a result of participatory training involving 130 supervisory employees in workplaces of the financial industry. These measures included the following five points suggested to be effective in the industry: 1) proper opportunities for training and career building, 2) control of work time and improving work organization, 3) standardization of tasks, 4) job rotation for sharing work responsibilities, and 5) increasing communication and mutual support. A post-training follow-up survey revealed that participatory, action-oriented training facilitated sharing of feasible measures and mutual support, leading to the development of measures easily introduced and established at each workplace. We concluded that mutually supportive group work of teams composed of members who held similar duty positions and were engaged in similar operations, using the Mental Health Action Checklist as a guiding tool, was effective for realizing implementation of optimally practical and specific measures.
Halvorsen, K. E.; Kossak, D. J.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Robles-Morua, A.; Gamez Molina, V.; Dana, K.; Mirchi, A.
Climate change-related impacts on water resources are expected to be particularly severe in the arid developing world. As a result, we conducted a series of participatory modeling workshops on hydrologic and water resources systems modeling in the face of climate change in Sonora, Mexico. Pre-surveys were administered to participants on Day 1 of a series of four workshops spaced out over three months in 2013. Post-surveys repeated many pre-survey questions and included questions assessing the quality of the workshops and models. We report on significant changes in participant perceptions of water resource models and problems and their assessment of the workshops. These findings will be of great value to future participatory modeling efforts, particularly within the developing world.
Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...
Blaizot, Alessandra; Hamel, Olivier; Folliguet, Marysette; Herve, Christian; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Trentesaux, Thomas
Background: Cognitively impaired patients often present poor oral health status that may be explained by ethical tensions in oral healthcare management. This participatory study explored such tensions among adults with intellectual disabilities and with caregivers. The second objective was to specify, with caregivers, the points that should be…
Dyer, J; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Leventon, J; Nshimbi, M; Chama, F; Kafwifwi, A; Muledi, J I; Kaumbu, J-M K; Falcao, M; Muhorro, S; Munyemba, F; Kalaba, G M; Syampungani, S
The emphasis on participatory environmental management within international development has started to overcome critiques of traditional exclusionary environmental policy, aligning with shifts towards decentralisation and community empowerment. However, questions are raised regarding the extent to which participation in project design and implementation is meaningful and really engages communities in the process. Calls have been made for further local-level (project and community-scale) research to identify practices that can increase the likelihood of meaningful community engagement within externally initiated projects. This paper presents data from three community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) project case studies from southern Africa, which promote Joint Forest Management (JFM), tree planting for carbon and conservation agriculture. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, community-level meetings, focus groups and interviews. We find that an important first step for a meaningful community engagement process is to define 'community' in an open and participatory manner. Two-way communication at all stages of the community engagement process is shown to be critical, and charismatic leadership based on mutual respect and clarity of roles and responsibilities is vital to improve the likelihood of participants developing understanding of project aims and philosophy. This can lead to successful project outcomes through community ownership of the project goals and empowerment in project implementation. Specific engagement methods are found to be less important than the contextual and environmental factors associated with each project, but consideration should be given to identifying appropriate methods to ensure community representation. Our findings extend current thinking on the evaluation of participation by making explicit links between the community engagement process and project outcomes, and by
Cole-Lewis, Heather J.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Davidson, Patricia R.; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D.; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena
Objective To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. Materials and methods The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. Results The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. Discussion The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. Conclusion The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. PMID:26547253
Miranda, Miriam; Dieperink, Carel; Glasbergen, Pieter
The core element of the Costa Rican forestry policy is a financial instrument called the environmental service payment. This instrument rewards forest owners for the environmental services (the mitigation of greenhouse gases, the protection of watersheds and scenic beauty, and the development of biodiversity) their forests provide. In this article, the experiences with this new instrument are analyzed by focusing on the way interests are represented and access is granted, the openness of information exchange, whether social learning occurred, and whether decision-making authority is shared. The analysis is based on a survey conducted in the Huetar Norte Region and on in-depth interviews with the major stakeholders. The Costa Rican case indicates that financial instruments can be used to share responsibilities and that stakeholders can successfully cooperate on forest issues. It also shows that such a participatory approach is only promising if certain cultural, economic, organizational, and political conditions are met.
Coffin, Jeanne L; Monje, Fred; Asiimwe-Karimu, Grace; Amuguni, Hellen Janetrix; Odoch, Terence
Sporadic anthrax outbreaks have occurred in and around Uganda's Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) for years, affecting wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Reported outbreaks (2004-2005 and 2010) in QENP collectively killed over 500 wild animals and over 400 domestic animals. A 2011 outbreak in Sheema district temporarily froze local markets while killing two humans and seven bovines. One Health is multidisciplinary at its core, yet studies sometimes focus on the effects of animals on human health to the detriment of investigating the surrounding ecological and cultural contexts. Participatory methods connect problems - such as disease - to their context. A multidisciplinary team used participatory epidemiology and conventional structured questionnaires to investigate the impacts of anthrax on human livelihoods and the related perceptions of conservation, public health, and veterinary health efforts in the QENP area. Proximities to previous anthrax outbreaks and to QENP were treated as risk factors in the collection and evaluation of data. Participants' feedback indicates that anthrax prevalence may be greater than officially reported. Community member perceptions about anthrax and other diseases appear to be more closely related to their proximity to QENP than their proximity to anthrax outbreaks. Neither risk factor had a strong effect on knowledge of disease, nor any effect on behaviors associated with disease response or control. Instead, participants reported that social pressures, the economics of poverty, and the lack of health and veterinary infrastructure highly influenced responses to disease. The complex connections between the social needs and the economic context of these communities seem to be undermining current anthrax control and education measures. This livelihood-based decision-making may be unlikely to respond to educational intervention alone. This study provides a strong base for further research and for improvements in effective disease
Stringer, L. C.; Fleskens, L.; Reed, M. S.; de Vente, J.; Zengin, M.
Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be
Brown, Peter R; Jacobs, Brent; Leith, Peat
Natural resource (NR) outcomes at catchment scale rely heavily on the adoption of sustainable practices by private NR managers because they control the bulk of the NR assets. Public funds are invested in capacity building of private landholders to encourage adoption of more sustainable natural resource management (NRM) practices. However, prioritisation of NRM funding programmes has often been top-down with limited understanding of the multiple dimensions of landholder capacity leading to a failure to address the underlying capacity constraints of local communities. We argue that well-designed participatory monitoring and evaluation of landholder capacity can provide a mechanism to codify the tacit knowledge of landholders about the social-ecological systems in which they are embedded. This process enables tacit knowledge to be used by regional NRM bodies and government agencies to guide NRM investment in the Australian state of New South Wales. This paper details the collective actions to remove constraints to improved NRM that were identified by discrete groups of landholders through this process. The actions spanned geographical and temporal scales, and responsibility for them ranged across levels of governance.
Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.
We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.
Farmani, Raziyeh; Henriksen, Hans Jørgen; Savic, Dragan; Butler, David
An integrated participatory approach based on Bayesian belief network (BBN) and evolutionary multiobjective optimization is proposed as an efficient decision-making tool in complex management problems. The proposed methodology incorporates all the available evidence and conflicting objectives to evaluate implications of alternative actions in the decision-making process and suggests best decision pathways under uncertainty. A BBN provides a framework within which the contributions of stakeholders can be taken into account. It allows a range of different factors and their probabilistic relationship to be considered simultaneously. It takes into account uncertainty by assigning probability to those variables whose states are not certain. The integration of BBN with evolutionary multiobjective optimization allows the analysis of tradeoff between different objectives and incorporation and acknowledgement of a broader set of decision goals into the search and decision-making process. The proposed methodology can be used as a decision support tool to model decision-making processes for complex problems. It deals with uncertainties in decision making pertaining to human behavior and checks for consistency of the developed BBN structure and the parameters of the probabilistic relationship by uncovering discrepancies in the decision analysis process (e.g., bias in completeness or redundancy of the model based on a utility function). It generates a set of efficient management options (appropriate combinations of interventions) that balances conflicting objectives. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is discussed through application to a real case study. It is shown that it successfully identifies any inconsistencies in the developed BBN models and generates large numbers of management options that achieve an optimal tradeoff between different objectives.
Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.
Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.
Lupo Stanghellini, P. S.; Collentine, D.
participatory process. It provided a general framework consisting of a sequence of steps that helped the participants to reach the goal of the process: the identification and evaluation of measures to improve water management in the catchment. This test of the CATCH model showed it to be a dynamic and flexible tool, useful for structuring and guiding the participation process, without imposing undue restrictions on influencing the outcome of stakeholder participation in a small catchment.
Urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, and there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. For areas which are already developed, decentralization of stormwater management involves private property and poss...
Bernardes, Andrea; Cecílio, Luis Carlos de Oliveira; Nakao, Janete R S; Evora, Yolanda D Martinez
A path leading to management modernization is based on an approach stressing dialog and discussions of the construction of a healthcare enhancement project whose main characteristic is its emphasis on joint management concepts at all levels. This paper assesses almost ten years of management by committee in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, seeking impacts on its micro-policies. The intention is to identify and analyze how the nursing staff experienced the implantation of this management model in the hospital. Empirical matters were analyzed at two levels: initially the comments of the players were grouped into themes, followed by cross-theme readings that analyzed the concept of "noise". The remarks made by the respondents indicated that this "noise" functions within the organization, demonstrating that the selected management process and the manner in which it was conducted are not sufficient to penetrate and intervene in institutional micro-policies, leaving gaps between the proposals set forth by this management model and the real situation of the workers.
Hartmann, H.; Morino, K.; Bodner, G.; Markstein, A.; McFarlin, S.
extend and refine participatory scenario planning methods from the development of regional qualitative narratives to (1) development of scenario narratives that are relevant at the local management level, (2) creation and evaluation of portfolios of management options that can accommodate changes in management objectives, connect to formal agency planning processes, and that can be adjusted as the future evolves, and (3) explicit identification of the data and information that link qualitative narratives to quantitative scenario and adaptation assessments, which can be used to drive the timing and implementation of activities within the adaptation portfolios, and to prioritize monitoring and research activities to resolve near-term uncertainties. Project tasks are structured around four resource teams that focus on their specific management concerns (Montane, Riparian, Upland and Cultural), but that come together periodically to consider interaction and conflict among their scenarios or prospective adaptation. Participants are finding that embracing uncertainty enables them to approach climate change with a sense of empowerment rather than a sense of reacting to crises, and they appreciate the methods and opportunities for thinking differently and crossing boundaries that the scenario planning exercises provide.
Boisvert-Chouinard, J.; Halbe, J.; Baig, A. I.; Adamowski, J. F.
The principles of Integrated Water Resource Management outline the importance of stakeholder participation in water management processes, but in practice, there is a lack of meaningful engagement in water planning and implementation, and participation is often limited to public consultation and education. When models are used to support water planning, stakeholders are usually not involved in their development and use, and the models commonly fail to represent important feedbacks between socio-economic and physical processes. This paper presents the development of holistic models of the Du Chêne basin in Quebec, and the Rechna Doab basin in Pakistan, that simulate socio-economic and physical processes related to, respectively, water quality management, and soil salinity management. The models each consists of two sub-components: a System Dynamics (SD) model, and a physically based model. The SD component was developed in collaboration with key stakeholders in the basins. The Du Chêne SD model was coupled with a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, while the Rechna Doab SD model was coupled with SahysMod, a soil salinity model. The coupled models were used to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of different management scenarios proposed by stakeholders. Results indicate that coupled SD - physically-based models can be used as effective tools for participatory water planning and implementation. The participatory modeling process provides a structure for meaningful stakeholder engagement, and the models themselves can be used to transparently and coherently assess and compare different management options.
Liu, Benjamin M.; Abebe, Yitayew; McHugh, Oloro V.; Collick, Amy S.; Gebrekidan, Brhane; Steenhuis, Tammo S.
This study highlights two highly degraded watersheds in the semi-arid Amhara region of Ethiopia where integrated water resource management activities were carried out to decrease dependence on food aid through improved management of ‘green’ water. While top-down approaches require precise and centrally available knowledge to deal with the uncertainty in engineering design of watershed management projects, bottom-up approaches can succeed without such information by making extensive use of stakeholder knowledge. This approach works best in conjunction with the development of leadership confidence within local communities. These communities typically face a number of problems, most notably poverty, that prevent them from fully investing in the protection of their natural resources, so an integrated management system is needed to suitably address the interrelated problems. Many different implementing agencies were brought together in the two study watersheds to address water scarcity, crop production, and soil erosion, but the cornerstone was enabling local potential through the creation and strengthening of community watershed management organizations. Leadership training and the reinforcement of stakeholder feedback as a fundamental activity led to increased ownership and willingness to take on new responsibilities. A series of small short term successes ranging from micro-enterprise cooperatives to gully rehabilitation have resulted in the pilot communities becoming confident of their own capabilities and proud to share their successes and knowledge with other communities struggling with natural resource degradation.
de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens
It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and
dos Santos, Irenilda Angela; Berlinck, Christian Niel; de Santana Araujo, Symone Christine; Steinke, Ercilia Torres; Steinke, Valdir Adilson; Pianta, Taissa Ferreira; Graebner, Ivete Teresinha; Saito, Carlos Hiroo
This work presents questions related to the viability and the requirements for the implementation of a National Policy of Water Resources in Brazil, and identifies the means to bring about active participation by the population in the management of water resources. While social inequalities may be an impediment to the implementation of full…
Reeder, Blaine; Hills, Rebecca A.; Turner, Anne M.; Demiris, George
Objectives The objectives of the study were to use persona-driven and scenario-based design methods to create a conceptual information system design to support public health nursing. Design and Sample We enrolled 19 participants from two local health departments to conduct an information needs assessment, create a conceptual design, and conduct a preliminary design validation. Measures Interviews and thematic analysis were used to characterize information needs and solicit design recommendations from participants. Personas were constructed from participant background information, and scenario-based design was used to create a conceptual information system design. Two focus groups were conducted as a first iteration validation of information needs, personas, and scenarios. Results Eighty-nine information needs were identified. Two personas and 89 scenarios were created. Public health nurses and nurse managers confirmed the accuracy of information needs, personas, scenarios, and the perceived usefulness of proposed features of the conceptual design. Design artifacts were modified based on focus group results. Conclusion Persona-driven design and scenario-based design are feasible methods to design for common work activities in different local health departments. Public health nurses and nurse managers should be engaged in the design of systems that support their work. PMID:24117760
Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy
Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against
Discusses the use of participatory video in rural underdeveloped countries and describes a video project in Costa Rica that helped farmers with agricultural management and soil erosion problems. Video production considerations are described, and the use of role playing to supplement documentation is explained. (four references) (LRW)
concepts and the application of respective techniques are thus reviewed and incorporated with regard to their suitability for an integrated management of current and future flood risks. In particular, "hybrid scenarios" with qualitative and quantitative components represented by nested models as well as assumptions across different spatiotemporal scales, respectively, are suggested for dealing with the uncertainties when assessing flood risks throughout a system's possible evolution. The (initially top-down developed) approach and its components will be briefly presented. These "scenario products" could later serve as a stimulus for discussions that bring together different actors and enhance - and eventually legitimise - the scenarios further in a "scenario process": (1) A first step is the conceptualisation of a flood risk system following the SPRC-model. Its physical geographical and anthropogenic factors may either be subject to autonomous trends, target-oriented control, or facultative system behaviour (e.g. dike breaches). With this concept, the integration of different processes and scales is aspired. (2) Secondly, it is conceptually shown how the risk cascade for present and future states of the flood risk system can be calculated based on coupled models ranging from climate change projections to a damage simulation models. (3) Thirdly, ways to develop socioeconomic storylines for the development frameworks and guiding principles for the strategic alternatives are presented and the futures are combined. This involves making plausible and consistent assumptions for many system factors and their drivers and finding ways to harmonise existing data for the same areas and time steps. (4) Fourthly, selected futures can be analysed and evaluated ex ante applying the coupled models of the second step to derive the emerging flood risks. The evaluation addresses, amongst other aspects, the identification of (i) the sensitivity of all scenarios against the current strategic
Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau
Walker, Martha Lentz
Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…
Bautista, Susana; Zucca, Claudio; Urghege, Anna M.; Ramón Vallejo, V.
The participation of stakeholders and the integration of scientific and local knowledge in the assessment of environmental problems and potential solutions have been increasingly demanded by international institutions. Participatory assessment has the potential to engender social learning among all stakeholders, including scientists, which then has the potential to increase collaboration and the probability for adoption of good practices. Using PRACTICE participatory assessment tool, IAPro, a number of assessment criteria were identified, selected and weighted by local stakeholder platforms (SHPs) and scientists in 18 dryland sites distributed across 11 countries. These criteria were then applied to the assessment of a variety of local land management actions. In total, around 50 criteria were proposed by the SHPs, ranging from 6 to 14 per platform. The proposed criteria represented a wide variety of social, economic, cultural, and environmental aspects. Many of them were proposed by many of the SHPs, stressing their potential as universal assessment criteria across drylands. In most cases, these repeatedly proposed criteria were the same criteria proposed by the scientific panel. The relative importance given to the variety of criteria by each SHP was evenly distributed among the economic wealth criterion and each of the main categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, supporting & regulating, and cultural). In general, African and American sites where local people economies heavily rely on natural lands gave higher weights than European sites to "economic-wealth", "provision of goods", and "supporting and regulating services" criteria, and also to "socio-cultural services". All European SHPs selected and gave great importance to criteria that are related to security, such hydrogeological hazard, flood prevention, and fire risk. The participatory assessment process in IAPro facilitated social learning among the stakeholders, including scientists, and promoted
This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.
Carmona, Gema; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Bromley, John
A participatory modelling process has been conducted in two areas of the Guadiana river (the upper and the middle sub-basins), in Spain, with the aim of providing support for decision making in the water management field. The area has a semi-arid climate where irrigated agriculture plays a key role in the economic development of the region and accounts for around 90% of water use. Following the guidelines of the European Water Framework Directive, we promote stakeholder involvement in water management with the aim to achieve an improved understanding of the water system and to encourage the exchange of knowledge and views between stakeholders in order to help building a shared vision of the system. At the same time, the resulting models, which integrate the different sectors and views, provide some insight of the impacts that different management options and possible future scenarios could have. The methodology is based on a Bayesian network combined with an economic model and, in the middle Guadiana sub-basin, with a crop model. The resulting integrated modelling framework is used to simulate possible water policy, market and climate scenarios to find out the impacts of those scenarios on farm income and on the environment. At the end of the modelling process, an evaluation questionnaire was filled by participants in both sub-basins. Results show that this type of processes are found very helpful by stakeholders to improve the system understanding, to understand each other's views and to reduce conflict when it exists. In addition, they found the model an extremely useful tool to support management. The graphical interface, the quantitative output and the explicit representation of uncertainty helped stakeholders to better understand the implications of the scenario tested. Finally, the combination of different types of models was also found very useful, as it allowed exploring in detail specific aspects of the water management problems.
Fraser, Evan D G; Dougill, Andrew J; Mabee, Warren E; Reed, Mark; McAlpine, Patrick
The modern environmental management literature stresses the need for community involvement to identify indicators to monitor progress towards sustainable development and environmental management goals. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of participatory processes on sustainability indicator identification and environmental management in three disparate case studies. The first is a process of developing partnerships between First Nations communities, environmental groups, and forestry companies to resolve conflicts over forest management in Western Canada. The second describes a situation in Botswana where local pastoral communities worked with development researchers to reduce desertification. The third case study details an on-going government led process of developing sustainability indicators in Guernsey, UK, that was designed to monitor the environmental, social, and economic impacts of changes in the economy. The comparative assessment between case studies allows us to draw three primary conclusions. (1) The identification and collection of sustainability indicators not only provide valuable databases for making management decisions, but the process of engaging people to select indicators also provides an opportunity for community empowerment that conventional development approaches have failed to provide. (2) Multi-stakeholder processes must formally feed into decision-making forums or they risk being viewed as irrelevant by policy-makers and stakeholders. (3) Since ecological boundaries rarely meet up with political jurisdictions, it is necessary to be flexible when choosing the scale at which monitoring and decision-making occurs. This requires an awareness of major environmental pathways that run through landscapes to understand how seemingly remote areas may be connected in ways that are not immediately apparent.
Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Slimani, Imane; Joyce, Brian
Due to its geographical location and to the natural features of its climate, Morocco is known as a drought prone and water scarce country. However, the country now faces, in the current context of Climate Change, an increasing and alarming water scarcity due to the combined effects of a strong decline of precipitations and a growing pressure on water resources induced by the economic development and demographic growth. Aware of this pressing issue, Morocco implemented a national water strategy based on the decentralization of water management at the river basin level and the establishment of Integrated Water Resources Management master plans for each basin. Unfortunately, these plans often underestimate the impact of uncertainty and this may lead to inefficient and unsustainable water management strategies. In this context, the aim of this study is to develop an innovative approach for robust decision making in uncertain conditions by coupling the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) model and the "XLRM" robust decision making framework to support the evaluation of management options and promote long-term sustainable integrated water management strategies at the basin level. The Souss-Massa basin, located in the south-western part of the country was retained as a case study because of its strategic importance but also because it now faces, as a consequence of the irrational use of water resources during the last decades significant water resources management challenges mainly due to the overexploitation of ground water resources, the increased of water demand due to the irrigation development, the urban and industrial growth and the expansion of tourism. Thus, in this study, a three step methodology was developed. First, the WEAP model were developed and calibrated for the Souss-Massa basin. In a second step, a XLRM participatory workshop gathering the basin main stakeholders were organized in order to identify the EXogenous factors (key uncertainties
Ishikawa, Kiyomu; Konishi, Nakao; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Tsuru, Satoko; Kawamura, Akie; Iwata, Norikazu; Tanaka, Takeshi
We conducted a drastic change in our hospital information system to support patient participatory health care provided in the New Hiroshima University Hospital (HUH). The new information system in HUH (HU-MIND II-Hiroshima University Hospital Medical Intelligence and Notice Delivery system II) is designed as "clinical management system" (CMS). The core of this CMS is the electronic health record (EHR), which aims to assure both the patients' right to know, and the attendants' accountability. It is evident that the team practice including patients requires close communication. Data in the EHR are written not only by physicians, but also by all coworkers, which will enable them to realize the team communication and the ordering in a reliable way and to leave the evidence of conducted practices. Moreover, the bedside information systems were set-up at all 700 beds. Patients can access their anamnesis and future clinical care procedures themselves. Based on the demand outlined above, the new regulations of HUH are composed of 21 requirements, conditions of information collection, accumulation and use. Our focus was how to make patients' right compatible with attendants' accountability. As the data owners, patients have the facility to access their own data at their bedsides. They can view their own health condition and treatment program and can control the data flow.
Alhaji, N. B.; Babalobi, O. O.
Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953
Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D
A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; p<0.001) in pairwise ranking indicated that the diseases were a common problem in selected districts. East Coast fever had the highest median score for incidence (18% [range: 2, 33]) in Moroto, followed by anaplasmosis (17.5% [8,32]) and CBPP (9% [1,21]). Most animals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed
Holkup, Patricia A.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Salois, Emily Matt; Weinert, Clarann
Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also suggest criteria that will enable evaluation of the project. PMID:15455579
Background Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. Methods This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya’s largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention consisted of dissemination of locally adapted CPGs. The PRECEDE-PROCEED health education model was used as the conceptual framework to guide and examine further reinforcement activities to improve the uptake of the CPGs. Activities focussed on introduction of routine clinical audits and tailored educational sessions. Data were collected by a participant observer who also facilitated the PAR over an eighteen-month period. Naturalistic inquiry was utilized to obtain information from all hospital staff encountered while theoretical sampling allowed in-depth exploration of emerging issues. Data were analysed using interpretive description. Results Relevance of the CPGs to routine work and emergence of a champion of change facilitated uptake of best-practices. Mobilization of basic resources was relatively easily undertaken while activities that required real intellectual and professional engagement of the senior staff were a challenge. Accomplishments of the PAR were largely with the passive rather than active involvement of the hospital management. Barriers to implementation of best-practices included i) mismatch between the hospital’s vision and reality, ii) poor communication, iii) lack of objective mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating quality of clinical care, iv) limited capacity for planning strategic change, v) limited management skills to introduce and manage change, vi) hierarchical relationships, and vii) inadequate adaptation of the interventions to the local
Gubo, Qi; Xiuli, Xu; Ting, Zuo; Xiaoyun, Li; Keke, Chen; Xiaowei, Gao; Miao, Ji; Lin, Liu; Miankui, Mao; Jingsong, Li; Yiching, Song; Zhipu, Long; Min, Lu; Juanwen, Yuan; Vernooy, Ronnie
This article describes and reflects on a novel course developed at China Agricultural University to introduce Community-Based Natural Resource Management at the postgraduate level. This course, part of a larger educational renewal initiative addressing the current reform of China's higher education system, was developed through a participatory…
Tringali, C.; Re, V.; Siciliano, G.; Chkir, N.; Tuci, C.; Zouari, K.
Sustainable groundwater management strategies in water-scarce countries need to guide future decision-making processes pragmatically, by simultaneously considering local needs, environmental problems and economic development. The socio-hydrogeological approach named `Bir Al-Nas' has been tested in the Grombalia region (Cap Bon Peninsula, Tunisia), to evaluate the effectiveness of complementing hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations with the social dimension of the issue at stake (which, in this case, is the identification of groundwater pollution sources). Within this approach, the social appraisal, performed through social network analysis and public engagement of water end-users, allowed hydrogeologists to get acquainted with the institutional dimension of local groundwater management, identifying issues, potential gaps (such as weak knowledge transfer among concerned stakeholders), and the key actors likely to support the implementation of the new science-based management practices resulting from the ongoing hydrogeological investigation. Results, hence, go beyond the specific relevance for the Grombaila basin, showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the importance of including social assessment in any given hydrogeological research aimed at supporting local development through groundwater protection measures.
Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala
Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.
The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity
Rauschmayer, Felix . E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Risse, Nathalie . E-mail: email@example.com
Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is now adopted as a formal procedure in various organisations. Nevertheless, the question of how to choose the most suitable SEA participatory approach for a given situation is far from being resolved. To shed light on this question, we briefly describe several participatory approaches used in environmental management and decision-making. A framework for evaluating these approaches is then adapted to SEA and used to assess the approaches selected. We conclude that participatory approaches within the SEA implementation process need to be chosen more systematically and we put forward our framework as a way of doing so.
The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…
This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…
Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John
This paper describes a structured participatory process and associated evaluation protocol developed to detect systems learning by decision makers involved in the management of natural resources. A series of facilitated participatory workshops were conducted to investigate learning when decision makers and influencers were confronted with the multiple, complex interactions arising from decisions concerned with the nexus of water, food and energy security. The participatory process and evaluation of learning were trialled in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), where integrated scientific evidence was systematically presented to challenge existing beliefs concerned with the effectiveness of proposed policy actions and development investments. Consistent with theoretical propositions, individually held values, beliefs and attitudes were deployed as the primary factors (and psychometrics) that underpin and influence environmental management decision making. Observed and statistically significant changes in the three psychometrics expressed by decision makers in response to the facilitated presentation of scientific evidence during the participatory process, provided supportive evidence of systems learning and the evaluation protocol.
Kimmel, Michael; Irran, Christine; Luger, Martin A.
Feldenkrais and Shiatsu enable somatic learning through continuous tactile coupling, a real-time interpersonal dynamic unfolding in a safe dyadic sphere. The first part of our micro-ethnographic study draws on process vignettes and subjective theories to demonstrate how bodywork is infused with systemic sensitivities and awareness for non-linear process management. Expressed in dynamic systems parlance, both disciplines foster metastability, adaptivity, and self-organization in the client's somato-personal system by progressively reconfiguring systemic dispositions, i.e., an attractor landscape. Doing so requires a keen embodied apperception of hierarchies of somato-systemic order. Bodyworkers learn to explore these in their eigenfunction (joints, muscles, fascia), discriminate coordinative organization in small ensembles, and monitor large-scale dynamic interplay. The practitioner's “extended body” reaching forth into the client's through a resonance loop eventually becomes part of this. Within a bodywork session, practitioners modulate this hierarchical functional architecture. Their ability for sensorially staying apace of systemic emergence allows them to respond to minute changes and customize reactions in a zone of proximal development (dynamic immediacy). They stimulate the client's system with a mix of perturbing and stabilizing interventions that oscillate between eigenfunctions and their coordinative integration. Practical knowledge for “soft-assembling” non-linear synergies is crucial for this (cumulative local effects, high-level functions “slaving” the system, etc.). The paper's second part inventorizes the bodyworker's operative tool-box—micro-skills providing the wherewithal for context-intelligent intervention. Practitioners deploy “educated senses” and a repertoire of hands-on techniques (grips, stretches, etc.) against a backdrop of somatic habits (proper posture, muscle activation, gaze patterns, etc.). At this level, our study
Kimmel, Michael; Irran, Christine; Luger, Martin A
Feldenkrais and Shiatsu enable somatic learning through continuous tactile coupling, a real-time interpersonal dynamic unfolding in a safe dyadic sphere. The first part of our micro-ethnographic study draws on process vignettes and subjective theories to demonstrate how bodywork is infused with systemic sensitivities and awareness for non-linear process management. Expressed in dynamic systems parlance, both disciplines foster metastability, adaptivity, and self-organization in the client's somato-personal system by progressively reconfiguring systemic dispositions, i.e., an attractor landscape. Doing so requires a keen embodied apperception of hierarchies of somato-systemic order. Bodyworkers learn to explore these in their eigenfunction (joints, muscles, fascia), discriminate coordinative organization in small ensembles, and monitor large-scale dynamic interplay. The practitioner's "extended body" reaching forth into the client's through a resonance loop eventually becomes part of this. Within a bodywork session, practitioners modulate this hierarchical functional architecture. Their ability for sensorially staying apace of systemic emergence allows them to respond to minute changes and customize reactions in a zone of proximal development (dynamic immediacy). They stimulate the client's system with a mix of perturbing and stabilizing interventions that oscillate between eigenfunctions and their coordinative integration. Practical knowledge for "soft-assembling" non-linear synergies is crucial for this (cumulative local effects, high-level functions "slaving" the system, etc.). The paper's second part inventorizes the bodyworker's operative tool-box-micro-skills providing the wherewithal for context-intelligent intervention. Practitioners deploy "educated senses" and a repertoire of hands-on techniques (grips, stretches, etc.) against a backdrop of somatic habits (proper posture, muscle activation, gaze patterns, etc.). At this level, our study addresses a host
Helbing, D.; Bishop, S.; Conte, R.; Lukowicz, P.; McCarthy, J. B.
We have built particle accelerators to understand the forces that make up our physical world. Yet, we do not understand the principles underlying our strongly connected, techno-socio-economic systems. We have enabled ubiquitous Internet connectivity and instant, global information access. Yet we do not understand how it impacts our behavior and the evolution of society. To fill the knowledge gaps and keep up with the fast pace at which our world is changing, a Knowledge Accelerator must urgently be created. The financial crisis, international wars, global terror, the spreading of diseases and cyber-crime as well as demographic, technological and environmental change demonstrate that humanity is facing serious challenges. These problems cannot be solved within the traditional paradigms. Moving our attention from a component-oriented view of the world to an interaction-oriented view will allow us to understand the complex systems we have created and the emergent collective phenomena characterising them. This paradigm shift will enable new solutions to long-standing problems, very much as the shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric worldview has facilitated modern physics and the ability to launch satellites. The FuturICT flagship project will develop new science and technology to manage our future in a complex, strongly connected world. For this, it will combine the power of information and communication technology (ICT) with knowledge from the social and complexity sciences. ICT will provide the data to boost the social sciences into a new era. Complexity science will shed new light on the emergent phenomena in socially interactive systems, and the social sciences will provide a better understanding of the opportunities and risks of strongly networked systems, in particular future ICT systems. Hence, the envisaged FuturICT flagship will create new methods and instruments to tackle the challenges of the 21st century. FuturICT could indeed become one of the most
Bazley, Conne Mara; De Jong, Annelise; Vink, Peter
A human factors specialist researched the expectations of a culturally and professionally diverse team throughout a year long participatory design process of a large processing facility. For a deeper understanding of high-level team expectations and characteristics, the specialist collected data and information through in-situ ethnography and traditional case study methods, personal interviews, and a questionnaire that included a likert scale rating for expectation levels. Results found that expectation levels rated extremely satisfied for individual team members and the overall team itself before and during the participatory process. In contrast, expectations for upper management from the team were satisfied before the participatory process, but changed to uncertain, to unsatisfied, to extremely unsatisfied during the process. Additionally, the participatory design team exhibited high-level team characteristics to include honesty, competence, commitment, communication, creativity, and clear expectations.
McDowell, Elizabeth V.
The participatory planning process model developed by Peirce Junior College is described in this paper. First, the rationale for shifting from a traditional authoritarian style of institutional leadership to a participatory style which encourages a broader concern for the institution and lessens morale problems is offered. The development of a new…
A participatory approach to adult literacy education aims at getting the learner to function at the highest level of responsibility possible regarding program activities; it demands an active approach. Characteristics of a participatory literacy program include the following: activities that emphasize what learners already know, learners…
Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan
We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them.
Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila
Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.
Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.
Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy
Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations.
Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.
Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…
Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca
The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…
Smith, Justin G.; DuBois, Bryce; Corwin, Jason
This article presents a method for using mind mapping to assess social learning outcomes in collaborative environmental restoration and participatory natural resource management initiatives. Using mind mapping for preassessment and postassessment can reveal changes in individual and collective thinking about critical social and ecological issues.…
Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.
Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in
Kuziemsky, Craig; Astaraky, Davood; Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Andreev, Pavel
Participatory medicine refers to the equal participation of patients and interdisciplinary healthcare team (IHT) members as part of care delivery. Facilitating workflow execution is a significant challenge for participatory medicine because of the need to integrate IHT members into a common workflow. A further challenge is that patient preferences should be considered when executing a workflow. To date there is limited research on supporting patient workflow as part of participatory medicine practices. To address that shortcoming we used a two-phase approach to develop a framework for participatory medicine that integrates different IHT members and workflows including the incorporation of patient preferences about care delivery options. Our framework uses a domain ontology to define the patient, IHT concepts and relations, as well as a workflow for operationalizing participatory medicine via an IHT. Proof of concept of the proposed framework is illustrated with a palliative care pain management case study. PMID:25954390
Gaventa, John; And Others
The authors present perspectives on the employment of participatory research techniques in three areas: (1) North America (Gaventa); (2) Latin America (de Souza); and (3) Southern Europe (Orefice). Discussion focuses on participatory research strategies for popular groups, purposes and considerations regarding participatory research, and the role…
Wendel, Frederick C.
In order to identify more precisely the extent to which building principals adhere to participatory managerial practices, a study was conducted to assess their attitudes toward selected policies of participatory managerial practices. (Author)
Thibeault, Matthew D.
This article explores how the participatory field can complement and enhance even successful music education programs. The participatory field, part of Thomas Turino's four-field framework, conceptualizes the musical values and practices of societies where musical participation is nearly universal. The participatory field contrasts with the…
Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi (India).
Participatory research is an approach that calls for a democratic interaction between the researcher and those among whom the research is conducted. While this approach has been implemented with both individuals and groups in a wide variety of settings such as geographic communities, workplace situations, adult learning groups, community issue…
Sánchez, Jesús M.; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á.; Serrano, Emilio
Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911
Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio
Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services.
This discussion explores the journal's special issue from the construct of ownership and how it relates to participatory design. I examine the articles of researchers from Europe and the United States which offer data-centered perspectives and data-driven suggestions. These works suggest how to best involve different stakeholders and I examine how…
Harman, William T.
Describes and analyzes a participatory approach to budgetary decision-making used by an exemplary high school. In spite of the budgetary forces dividing instructional departments, support units, and administration, an equitable division of resources provided to the school was consistently achieved each year. Includes 29 references. (MLH)
Reid, Alban E.
Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…
Drill, Sabrina L.
Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…
Newlin Lew, Kelley; Mitchell, Emma McKim; Mclean, Yolanda
Objectives: To (1) describe barriers to diabetes prevention and self-management, (2) explore how religious beliefs inform diabetes prevention and self-management and (3) describe community action strategies to address the problem of diabetes locally. Design: Qualitative, descriptive design. Setting: Three Moravian Churches located, respectively,…
Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M
Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives
Lalonde, Lyne; Choinière, Manon; Martin, Elisabeth; Lévesque, Lise; Hudon, Eveline; Bélanger, Danielle; Perreault, Sylvie; Lacasse, Anaïs; Laliberté, Marie-Claude
Purpose There is evidence that the management of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) in primary care is far from being optimal. A 1-day workshop was held to explore the perceptions of key actors regarding the challenges and priority interventions to improve CNCP management in primary care. Methods Using the Chronic Care Model as a conceptual framework, physicians (n=6), pharmacists (n=6), nurses (n=6), physiotherapists (n=6), psychologists (n=6), pain specialists (n=6), patients (n=3), family members (n=3), decision makers and managers (n=4), and pain researchers (n=7) took part in seven focus groups and five nominal groups. Results Challenges identified in focus group discussions were related to five dimensions: knowledge gap, “work in silos”, lack of awareness that CNCP represents an important clinical problem, difficulties in access to health professionals and services, and patient empowerment needs. Based on the nominal group discussions, the following priority interventions were identified: interdisciplinary continuing education, interdisciplinary treatment approach, regional expert leadership, creation and definition of care paths, and patient education programs. Conclusion Barriers to optimal management of CNCP in primary care are numerous. Improving its management cannot be envisioned without considering multifaceted interventions targeting several dimensions of the Chronic Care Model and focusing on both clinicians and patients. PMID:25995648
Gennari, J. H.; Reddy, M.
For most medical informatics software products, insufficient effort is spent on the design phase of production. However, poor design often leads to systems that are either not well accepted, or far less effective than they could be. In this paper, we describe the ideas of participatory design and discuss why these ideas are especially applicable to medical informatics systems. In particular, we present a case study in the area of clinical trial protocol management. We designed and developed a tool aimed at increasing accrual to clinical trial protocols at an oncology center. However, the design evolved over time, and features of this design were only discovered through iterative development and interaction with the users within the context of the workplace. PMID:11079891
This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.
Pehkonen, Irmeli; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Ketola, Ritva; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Hopsu, Leila; Virtanen, Tuija; Haukka, Eija; Holtari-Leino, Merja; Nykyri, Elina; Riihimäki, Hilkka
We evaluated a participatory ergonomic intervention process applied in 59 municipal kitchens. In groups of three to five kitchens, the workers participated in eight workshops, and generated and evaluated solutions to optimize musculoskeletal load in their work. An ergonomist initiated and supported the process. By the end, 402 changes were implemented. Evaluative data were collected using research diaries, questionnaires, and focus group interviews. The intervention model proved feasible and the participatory approach was mostly experienced as motivating. The workers' knowledge and awareness of ergonomics increased, which improved their ability to tackle ergonomic problems by themselves. The changes in ergonomics were perceived to decrease physical load and improve musculoskeletal health. As hindering factors for implementation, lack of time and motivation, and insufficient financial resources were mentioned. In addition, the workers expressed a wish for more support from the management, technical staff, and ergonomists.
Participatory research methods aim to break down the distinction between researchers and the researched. Infants are increasingly being seen as participants in research, but the nature of their participation is being questioned following an increased interest in participatory research with children. This article offers a perspective on…
Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi
This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…
Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Hargrove, Tasha M.
Participatory adult education programs assist individuals to substitute interdependent, mutually beneficial relationships for unrewarding, dependent relationships. Indicators of changes in dependency, however, are absent or imprecise in evaluations of participatory projects. A study explored facets of dependency by relating practitioners'…
McTaggart, Robin, Ed.
The collection of essays in this book illustrate commonalties and differences among the theories, practices, and forms of organization of participatory action research in different countries. Participatory action research expresses the recognition that all research methodologies are implicitly political in nature, and this is reflected in the…
Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.
This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…
This paper describes an alternative approach to traditional instructional design models by suggesting that participatory communication theory (PCT) creates a process that values the learner's voice. As a student develops a critical awareness of his or her environment, participatory media becomes a catalyst for cognition. Learners use media tools…
Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F
Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa. PMID:17784963
Gagnon, Elizabeth; O'Sullivan, Tracey; Lane, Daniel E.; Paré, Nicole
Disasters happen worldwide, and it is necessary to engage emergency management agencies, health and social services, and community-based organizations in collaborative management activities to enhance community resilience. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been widely accepted in public health research as an approach to develop…
Chirowodza, Admire; van Rooyen, Heidi; Joseph, Philip; Sikotoyi, Sindisiwe; Richter, Linda; Coates, Thomas
Recent attempts to integrate geographic information systems (GIS) and participatory techniques, have given rise to terminologies such as "participatory GIS" and "community-integrated GIS". Although GIS was initially developed for physical geographic application, it can be used for the management and analysis of health and…
Ada, Alma Flor; And Others
The text of three papers are presented. The first, by Alma Ada Flor, focuses on the question "What is participatory research?" It is suggested that participatory research enriches the knowledge of participants and opens up new topics to them. The nature and theory fundmental to participatory research and the relation of participatory research to…
Groat, Michael; Forrest, Stephanie; Horey, James L; Edwards, Benjamin; He, Wenbo
Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share local and personal data with others to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy is an important consideration, and lack of privacy could discourage widespread adoption of many exciting applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme for multidimensional data which uses negative surveys. Multidimensional data, such as vectors of attributes that include location and environment fields, pose a particular challenge for privacy protection and are common in participatory sensing applications. When reporting data in a negative survey, an individual participant randomly selects a value from the set complement of the sensed data value, once for each dimension, and returns the negative values to a central collection server. Using algorithms described in this paper, the server can reconstruct the probability density functions of the original distributions of sensed values, without knowing the participants actual data. As a consequence, complicated encryption and key management schemes are avoided, conserving energy. We study trade-offs between accuracy and privacy, and their relationships to the number of dimensions, categories, and participants. We introduce dimensional adjustment, a method that reduces the magnification of error associated with earlier work. Two simulation scenarios illustrate how the approach can protect the privacy of a participant's multidimensional data while allowing useful population information to be aggregated.
Bhandari, K. P.
Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.
Applies Lev Vygotsky's concept of developmental learning to youth-led evaluation projects and discusses the role of participatory evaluation in supporting youth to move beyond socially determined roles to become active participants in evaluation and their own growth. (SLD)
Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge.
Communication activities in participatory development programs include (1) theater for development in Africa; (2) workshops on cultural identity and politics in Colombia; and (3) Project DELSILIFE, improving the quality of life in Manila. (SK)
Mulenga, Derek C.
Critically examines community development assumptions through historical analysis and mapping of political discourse. Using the methods of Foucault, Said, and Gramsci, demonstrates how participatory research, concerned with releasing people's knowledge through transformation, can expose and resist dominant discourses. (SK)
Scariot, Cristiele A; Heemann, Adriano; Padovani, Stephania
In this study, the role of collaboration in design is discussed, placing emphasis on how to include end-users in the development process. The study is based on a literature review focusing on aspects of collaboration in design, usability and human factors. Thereby, it introduces, compares and contrasts the characteristics of both collaborative and user-centered design perspectives, leading to the collaborative-participatory design approach. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and precautions of implementing collaborative and participatory models are pointed out.
Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K
Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.
LaChance, James; Hunter, Mitch; Finney, Denise
We describe a participatory co-learning exercise that can help elucidate and navigate the unique perspectives of farmers, researchers, Extension personnel, and other agricultural professionals engaged in managing complex systems. We developed the exercise to help a diverse advisory panel collaboratively identify and prioritize ecosystem services…
Azzarito, Laura; Simon, Mara; Marttinen, Risto
In today's school climate of accountability, researchers in Physical Education (PE) pedagogy have contested current fitness curricula that aim to manage, control, and normalize young people's bodies. This participatory visual research incorporated a Body Curriculum into a fitness unit in a secondary school (a) to assist young people critically…
Robson, Fiona; Forster, Gillian; Powell, Lynne
The context for this research is a residential learning weekend which is embedded into all postgraduate programmes at Newcastle Business School via a management development module entitled "Developing Self". The objective of this study was to identify and explore how participatory learning in multicultural groups enables international…
The participation of nonscientists in modeling projects/studies is increasingly employed to fulfill different functions. However, it is not well investigated if and how explicitly these functions and the dynamics of a participatory process are reflected by modeling projects in particular. In this review study, I explore participatory modeling projects from a functional-dynamic process perspective. The main differences among projects relate to the functions of participation-most often, more than one per project can be identified, along with the degree of explicit reflection (i.e., awareness and anticipation) on the dynamic process perspective. Moreover, two main approaches are revealed: participatory modeling covering diverse approaches and companion modeling. It becomes apparent that the degree of reflection on the participatory process itself is not always explicit and perfectly visible in the descriptions of the modeling projects. Thus, the use of common protocols or templates is discussed to facilitate project planning, as well as the publication of project results. A generic template may help, not in providing details of a project or model development, but in explicitly reflecting on the participatory process. It can serve to systematize the particular project's approach to stakeholder collaboration, and thus quality management.
Reverse auction results for implementation of decentralized retrofit best management practices in a small urban watershed (Cincinnati OH)Participatory storm water management and sustainability – what are the connections?
Urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, and there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. In this case we hypothesize that smaller-scale retrofit best management practices (BMPs) such as rain gardens and r...
Kaufman, Sanda; Ozawa, Connie P; Shmueli, Deborah F
Evaluating participatory decision processes serves two key purposes: validating the usefulness of specific interventions for stakeholders, interveners and funders of conflict management processes, and improving practice. However, evaluation design remains challenging, partly because when attempting to serve both purposes we may end up serving neither well. In fact, the better we respond to one, the less we may satisfy the other. Evaluations tend to focus on endogenous factors (e.g., stakeholder selection, BATNAs, mutually beneficial tradeoffs, quality of the intervention, etc.), because we believe that the success of participatory decision processes hinges on them, and they also seem to lend themselves to caeteris paribus statistical comparisons across cases. We argue that context matters too and that contextual differences among specific cases are meaningful enough to undermine conclusions derived solely from comparisons of process-endogenous factors implicitly rooted in the caeteris paribus assumption. We illustrate this argument with an environmental mediation case. We compare data collected about it through surveys geared toward comparability across cases to information elicited through in-depth interviews geared toward case specifics. The surveys, designed by the U.S. Institute of Environmental Conflict Resolution, feed a database of environmental conflicts that can help make the (statistical) case for intervention in environmental conflict management. Our interviews elicit case details - including context - that enable interveners to link context specifics and intervention actions to outcomes. We argue that neither approach can "serve both masters."
Chait, Richard P.
The Japanese theory of participatory management is seen as thriving on American campuses under the rubrics of shared governance and collegiality. Participatory management, quality control circles, lifetime employment, superordinate goals, and interdependent leadership are discussed. More commerce between academic administrators and corporate…
Reflecting the current international trends toward proactive risk assessment and control at work with practical procedures, participatory action-oriented approaches are gaining importance in various sectors. The roles of these approaches in promoting the safety and health at work are discussed based on their recent experiences in preventing work-related risks and improving the quality of work life, particularly in small-scale workplaces. The emphasis placed on the primary prevention at the initiative of workers and managers is commonly notable. Participatory steps, built on local good practices, can lead to many workplace improvements when the focus is on locally feasible low-cost options in multiple aspects. The design and use of locally adjusted action toolkits play a key role in facilitating these improvements in each local situation. The effectiveness of participatory approaches relying on these toolkits is demonstrated by their spread to many sectors and by various intervention studies. In the local context, networks of trainers are essential in sustaining the improvement activities. With the adequate support of networks of trainers trained in the use of these toolkits, participatory approaches will continue to be the key factor for proactive risk management in various work settings.
Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C; Svensson, B
To explore a medical hypermedia design process where requirements engineering and participatory design are used in a naturalistic setting, 5 years of participatory action research (PAR) have been performed in the development of a hypermedia system to be used in primary care practice. In PAR, the participating organizations cooperate with the researchers in deciding and later evaluating organizational actions, and the results are concluded cooperatively. A new type of system emerged from the study, in that the resulting design has its focus on the management of large volumes of hypermedia material, the traceability of authority in the documents, and teamwork support. Regarding the participatory design process, it was found to be essential to deal with social and organizational issues in the design group and its surroundings--and not to cover these over. For instance, an agreement was reached with the managers responsible for health care in the county where the design process took place, whereby the design activity was also given priority at the highest local administrative level. Since health care is a practice organization, there is a potential market for similar systems if only ways of organizing design and marketing the products of participatory design are further developed. Modified versions of structured product specification methods could be a valuable complement. The conclusion of the study is that the development and spread of hypermedia systems in health care may require considerable changes in current design routines and organizations.
Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.
Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…
Discusses participatory action research, a methodology incorporating subjects in the research and indexing results to transformation in the lives of those involved. The approach is gaining momentum and recognition in academic circles but is often limited to specialized training centers. Two years of experience teaching this approach in social work…
The ideals that are central to action research are not often explicitly addressed in writing about action research and participation. This article argues for a more explicit dialogue about the ideals of participation and how those ideals relate to participatory practices. The lack of such a dialogue can obscure both the process of participation…
In this article, the author, a doctoral candidate from the School of Information at the University of Texas-Austin, describes the experience gathered from her attempt to redesign her existing Web sites in order to supply online resources for Slavic and Byzantine studies. The use of participatory design, which involves the users in creating the…
Simmons, Nicola; Barnard, Michelle; Fennema, Wendy
In the Fall 2009 term, we participated as students and instructor in a graduate education course modeled after participatory pedagogy. Siemens (2008) defines this approach as "one that does not fully define all curricular needs in advance of interacting with learners...Multiple perspectives, opinions, and active creation on the part of…
Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.
Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…
Heaton, Lorna; Millerand, Florence; Liu, Xiao; Crespel, Élodie
This article provides a case study of a participatory science project that involved collecting observations of a giant grasshopper and registering them online. Our objective is to reflect on conditions for meaningful amateur engagement on Web 2.0 science platforms. Our overall approach is qualitative and ethnographically informed and draws on…
Fletcher, Jack K.
The results of this study indicate that, for the astronomical concepts used, no significant difference in the cognitive domain will occur between the achievement of students who experience a participatory planetarium program and students who experience a traditional lecture-demonstration program. (Author/MK)
Lewis, Rolla E.; Borunda, Rose
The article is a personal and professional account by 2 counselor educators who worked together as professional school counselors in the same high school setting. Both reflect on the "storied" nature of their professional development and define participatory leadership in school counseling as emerging from engagement and participation in…
Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran
There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…
Losh, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Henry
Participatory culture has many mechanisms to support peer-to-peer learning as young people enter interest-driven and friendship-driven networks. In this article, the authors argue that school librarians can help bridge the gap between the excitement of having students experiment with new forms of social learning and new digital-media practices,…
Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…
This article adds to the research on teachers' writing pedagogy. It reviews and challenges the research literature on scaffolding as an instructional practice and presents a more inclusive framework for analysis. As student participation and voice were absent from much of the literature, a participatory scaffolding framework was developed to…
Cassara, Beverly B.
Participatory research began as a reaction to traditional social science research methodology, which tended to make persons into objects of study. It had its beginnings in Tanzania around 1970, when a group of farmers participated in research to assess and solve the problem of losses of grain harvests. The process grew out of the philosophy of…
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) brings young people together with adult researchers to identify, study, and act on relevant social problems. In this chapter, the author draws on examples from a recent YPAR project, called Tracing Transitions, whose aim was to study the impact of school closure on students. After defining YPAR in terms…
Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M
Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st
Frerichs, L; Ataga, O; Corbie-Smith, G; Tessler Lindau, S
A growing number of childhood obesity interventions involve children and youth in participatory roles, but these types of interventions have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to identify child and youth participatory interventions in the peer-reviewed literature in order to characterize the approaches and examine their impact on obesity and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours. We searched PubMed/Medline, psychINFO and ERIC for quasi-experimental and randomized trials conducted from date of database initiation through May 2015 that engaged children or youth in implementing healthy eating, physical activity or weight management strategies. Eighteen studies met our eligibility criteria. Most (n = 14) trained youth to implement pre-defined strategies targeting their peers. A few (n = 4) assisted youth to plan and implement interventions that addressed environmental changes. Thirteen studies reported at least one statistically significant weight, physical activity or dietary change outcome. Participatory approaches have potential, but variation in strategies and outcomes leave questions unanswered about the mechanisms through which child and youth engagement impact childhood obesity. Future research should compare child-delivered or youth-delivered to adult-delivered health promotion interventions and more rigorously evaluate natural experiments that engage youth to implement environmental changes. With careful attention to theoretical frameworks, process and outcome measures, these studies could strengthen the effectiveness of child and youth participatory approaches.
McDuff, M D
Stakeholder participation has become a key factor in the success of grassroots conservation and natural resource management programs. Yet the majority of program evaluations are conducted by external consultants for the purposes of accountability, rather than program improvement. Too often, systematic evaluations of conservation programs are not conducted at all. The objective of this study was to build the capacity of a grassroots conservation organization to conduct participatory evaluation, involving project stakeholders in the design, implementation, and use of evaluation. The study applied a conceptual model for participatory evaluation to the Wildlife Clubs of Kenya (WCK), the largest grassroots conservation program for youth in Africa, involving more than one million youth since 1968. Seven trainings in participatory evaluation were conducted with WCK staff, teachers, and community members. The 120 participants, representing nine WCK regions with 800 clubs, showed a significant increase in attitudes and knowledge regarding evaluation, as reflected by mean test scores before and after training. To institutionalize evaluation at WCK, existing organizational practices were assessed and used as a foundation for developing an evaluation system. Based on club competitions, a new evaluation initiative was launched called the WCK Incentive Program. Participants in all seven workshops identified indicators and sources of evidence for this evaluation system, which now serves as a basis for rewarding outstanding performance in WCK. This study revealed the importance of incentives for evaluation, the need to build on existing structures to promote organizational learning, and the necessity for the conservation community to commit resources to capacity building in participatory evaluation.
Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin
Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.
Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin
Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.
Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar
The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.
Khanlou, N; Peter, E
This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research (PAR) in relation to ethical review requirements. As a framework for conducting research and reducing health disparities, PAR is gaining increased attention in community and public health research. As a result, PAR researchers and members of Research Ethics Boards could benefit from an increased understanding of the array of ethical concerns that can arise. We discuss these concerns in light of commonly held ethical requirements for clinical research (social or scientific value, scientific validity, fair subject/participant selection, favourable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, informed consent, and respect for potential and enrolled participants) and refer to guidelines specifically developed for participatory research in health promotion. We draw from our community-based experiences in mental health promotion research with immigrant and culturally diverse youth to illustrate the ethical advantages and challenges of applying a PAR approach. We conclude with process suggestions for Research Ethics Boards.
Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A. J. S.
We propose that participatory GIS (PGIS) activities including participatory urban planning can be made more efficient and effective if spatial reasoning rules are integrated with PGIS tools to simplify engagement for public contributors. Spatial reasoning is used to describe relationships between spatial entities. These relationships can be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively using geometrical algorithms, ontological relations, and topological methods. Semantic web services utilize tools and methods that can facilitate spatial reasoning. GeoSPARQL, introduced by OGC, is a spatial reasoning standard used to make declarations about entities (graphical contributions) that take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple or statement. GeoSPARQL uses three basic methods to infer topological relationships between spatial entities, including: OGC's simple feature topology, RCC8, and the DE-9IM model. While these methods are comprehensive in their ability to define topological relationships between spatial entities, they are often inadequate for defining complex relationships that exist in the spatial realm. Particularly relationships between urban entities, such as those between a bus route, the collection of associated bus stops and their overall surroundings as an urban planning pattern. In this paper we investigate common qualitative spatial reasoning methods as a preliminary step to enhancing the capabilities of GeoSPARQL in an online participatory GIS framework in which reasoning is used to validate plans based on standard patterns that can be found in an efficient/effective urban environment.
Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.
The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory…
Galvin, Kit; Krenz, Jen; Harrington, Marcy; Palmández, Pablo; Fenske, Richard A
Development of the Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety guide used participatory research strategies to identify and evaluate solutions that reduce pesticide exposures for workers and their families and to disseminate these solutions. Project principles were (1) workplace chemicals belong in the workplace, and (2) pesticide handlers and farm managers are experts, with direct knowledge of production practices. The project's participatory methods were grounded in self-determination theory. Practical solutions were identified and evaluated based on five criteria: practicality, adaptability, health and safety, novelty, and regulatory compliance. Research activities that had more personal contact provided better outcomes. The Expert Working Group, composed of farm managers and pesticide handlers, was key to the identification of solutions, as were farm site visits. Audience participation, hands-on testing, and orchard field trials were particularly effective in the evaluation of potential solutions. Small work groups in a Regional Advisory Committee provided the best direction and guidance for a "user-friendly" translational document that provided evidence-based practical solutions. The "farmer to farmer" format of the guide was endorsed by both the Expert Working Group and the Regional Advisory Committee. Managers and pesticide handlers wanted to share their solutions in order to "help others stay safe," and they appreciated attribution in the guide. The guide is now being used in educational programs across the region. The fundamental concept that farmers and farmworkers are innovators and experts in agricultural production was affirmed by this study. The success of this process demonstrates the value of participatory industrial hygiene in agriculture.
Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason
Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others
Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George
The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction/Management
Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a
Adams, Robert J; Appleton, Sarah; Wilson, David H; Ruffin, Richard E
Use of controller asthma medication and possession of asthma action plans remains suboptimal. Our aim was to investigate the association of the propensity of physicians to involve patients in their care (participatory decision-making style) and their asthma management in a representative population sample of 3015 adults. Current doctor-diagnosed asthma was reported by 393 (13.0%). People who rated their doctors as more participatory were significantly more likely to report more regular use of controller medications and possession of a written asthma action plan, but not less asthma morbidity. Possession of a written action plan was associated with more participatory interactions (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.7, for upper tertile scores compared to lowest tertile); more severe symptoms (OR 4.8; 95% CI 1.7-13.0), being female (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.3), those with higher education, and residence outside the metropolitan area (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). Increasing patient participation in their own care is associated with better asthma management, independent of asthma symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine if increasing participation in decisions can also improve asthma outcomes.
Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Mercado-Martinez, Francisco Javier
Throughout the last years, there has been a growing interest in ongoing assessment proposals in Latin America, which are more far-reaching and not traditional. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of qualitative-participatory evaluation in view of the challenge of strengthening health reforms in the region, particularly those considered progressive, such as the Brazilian case. There is the need to assess health reforms in a rigorous and permanent way, especially the incongruity when using normative models to evaluate health systems based on principles of universality, comprehensiveness, humanization and democratic management. In addition to the demand for assessment instruments and strategies, the Brazilian health reform requires the adoption of evaluation proposals and practices that are founded on other paradigms, distinct from the hegemonic one, in the sphere of health assessment. It is recommended that emerging evaluative models be used, such as those with a qualitative-participatory approach.
Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.
Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…
Burke, Anne; McMillan, Jane; Cummins, Lorraine; Thompson, Agnes; Forsyth, Watson; McLellan, James; Snot, Linda; Fraser, Anne; Fraser, Mary; Fulton, Charity; McGrindel, Elizabeth; Gillies, Lorraine; LeFort, Shelley; Miller, Gail; Whitehall, John; Wilson, John; Smith, Janet; Wright, David
A participatory research project was designed to teach eight British adults with learning disabilities about keeping healthy. The development of the project, the recruitment of the participants, and the involvement of the participants in the project are discussed, along with the role of researchers and support workers in participatory research.…
Kraai, Ziki; And Others
The use of popular theatre to overcome community development problems in underdeveloped countries through adult education is introduced and its relationship to the concept of participatory research is explored. Material is arranged in four sections. The first of these presents an introduction to popular theatre and participatory research. Stemming…
Irizarry, Jason G.
This article explores youth participatory action research as a promising instructional practice with the potential to reverse the depoliticizing and "softening" of multicultural education. It demonstrates how, with its explicit commitment to action, youth participatory action research can help to improve the educational experiences and…
Much of the literature about participatory learning in schools and libraries is dominated by adult voices. What do sites of participatory learning look like from the student perspective? What does it mean to student learners to develop and apply the four practices of participation--create, circulate, collaborate, and connect? How does…
Hewitt, Lee; And Others
Compiled by a group of teachers new to the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) field, this volume contains writing samples from teachers involved in the participatory approach to ESL classroom instruction. Introductory notes by Lee Hewitt cite the participatory approach as the most compelling method for teaching ESL adult learners. The…
Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth
This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…
The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) offers an unparalleled opportunity for improving river basin management. Active participation is essential for its delivery. "End-of-pipe" solutions will not deliver the improvements needed to achieve its ambitious goals. This research tested DesignWays, a toolkit for participatory planning, as a mechanism for maximizing the long-term social and environmental benefits of such stakeholder and community participation. It examined the emerging role of "planning for sustainability" in the context of river catchments. Sustainable management of water requires integration, and recognition of interconnections between systems at different levels of scale. This is an endeavour in which systems thinking provides useful tools. The development of DesignWays was a conscious attempt to embed 'new paradigm' living systems metaphors into a practical planning tool. This paper begins with a description of DesignWays and its development in Southern Africa. An outline of the context of the action research in North-West England is followed by a description of the stages of the process, with highlights of the outcomes. This research had two major outcomes: a contribution to theory through an in-depth exploration of the theoretical basis of participatory, ecologically informed design; and a contribution to practice through investigating DesignWays' potential to meet key challenges of the WFD. This research points to the importance of understanding participatory planning as a societal process, aiming to make the process engaging and meaningful. It has pointed to the need to see participatory planning and education for sustainability as an integrated process. It demonstrated the benefits of an iterative process in which planning at the landscape level of scale informs, and is informed by, work at the site level. It has shown that an approach consistent with a living systems paradigm can contribute to the development of more integrated
Newig, Jens; Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Jager, Nicolas W
The importance of designing suitable participatory governance processes is generally acknowledged. However, less emphasis has been put on how decision-makers design such processes, and how they learn about doing so. While the policy learning literature has tended to focus on the substance of policy, little research is available on learning about the design of governance. Here, we explore different approaches to learning among German policymakers engaged in implementing the European Floods Directive. We draw on official planning documents and expert interviews with state-level policymakers to focus on learning about the procedural aspects of designing and conducting participatory flood risk management planning. Drawing on the policy learning and evidence-based governance literatures, we conceptualise six types of instrumental 'governance learning' according to sources of learning (endogenous and exogenous) and modes of learning (serial and parallel). We empirically apply this typology in the context of diverse participatory flood risk management planning processes currently unfolding across the German federal states. We find that during the first Floods Directive planning cycle, policymakers have tended to rely on prior experience in their own federal states with planning under the Water Framework Directive to inform the design and carrying out of participatory processes. In contrast, policymakers only sporadically look to experiences from other jurisdictions as a deliberate learning strategy. We argue that there is scope for more coordinated and systematic learning on designing effective governance, and that the latter might benefit from more openness to experimentation and learning on the part of policymakers.
DJALALINIA, Shirin; RAMEZANI TEHRANI, Fahimeh; MALEKAFZALI, Hossein; PEYKARI, Niloofar
Abstract Background In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators. Methods Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held. Results The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs. Conclusion The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers. PMID:26060644
Döll, Petra; Romero-Lankao, Patricia
The Earth's future depends on how we manage the manifold risks of climate change (CC). It is state-of-the-art to assume that risk reduction requires participatory management involving a broad range of stakeholders and scientists. However, there is still little knowledge about the optimal design of participatory climate change risk management processes (PRMPs), in particular with respect to considering the multitude of substantial uncertainties that are relevant for PRMPs. To support the many local to regional PRMPs that are necessary for a successful global-scale reduction of CC risks, we present a roadmap for designing such transdisciplinary knowledge integration processes. The roadmap suggests ways in which uncertainties can be comprehensively addressed within a PRMP. We discuss the concept of CC risks and their management and propose an uncertainty framework that distinguishes epistemic, ontological, and linguistic uncertainty as well as ambiguity. Uncertainties relevant for CC risk management are identified. Communicative and modeling methods that support social learning as well as the development of risk management strategies are proposed for each of six phases of a PRMP. Finally, we recommend how to evaluate PRMPs as such evaluations and their publication are paramount for achieving a reduction of CC risks.
This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…
Higgitt, D. L.
Singapore is a highly urbanised environment experiencing tropical monsoon hydrological regimes. A heavily engineered fluvial system has been developed over time to provide efficient drainage and reduce the area subject to flood risk. However, recent interest in ecosystem-based approaches to river management and the enhancement of the aesthetic and ecological 'quality' of riverine landscape, coupled with concerns about climate change, has challenged the prevailing engineering view. This is reflected in the Public Utility Board (PUB) ABC Waters Programme, which also seeks to develop community interest in riverine environments and engagement with water-related concerns. As part of a programme developing participatory GIS (PGIS) with school and university students, we have undertaken applications involving participant observation, reporting and analysis of water quality data and habitat quality based on a simplified version of the UK Environment Agency's River Habitat Survey. From an educational perspective, there is evidence that these PGIS initiatives raise environmental awareness and enhance geospatial thinking, particularly in relation to catchment management concepts. The extent to which participant-derived data can contribute to a citizen science of urban water quality and hence deliver some aspects of the community engagement sought after by the authorities, is a topic of debate.
Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol
Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems
van Manen, S. M.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.; de Moor, M. J.
Communication is key to disaster risk management before, during and after a hazardous event occurs. In this study we used a participatory design approach to increase disaster preparedness levels around Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in collaboration with local communities. We organised five participatory workshops in communities around Turrialba volcano, 2 in February 2014 and a further 3 in May 2014. A total of 101 people attended and participants included the general public, decision makers and relevant government employees. The main finding of the workshops was that people want more information, specifically regarding 1) the activity level at the volcano and 2) how to prepare. In addition, the source of information was identified as an important factor in communication, with credibility and integrity being key. This outcome highlights a communication gap between the communities at risk and the institutions monitoring the volcano, who publish their scientific results monthly. This strong and explicitly expressed desire for more information should be acknowledged and responded to. However, this gives rise to the challenge of how to communicate: how to change the delivery and/or content of the messages already disseminated for greater effectiveness. In our experience, participatory workshops provide a successful mechanism for effective communication. However, critically evaluating the workshops reveals a number of challenges and opportunities, with the former arising from human, cultural and resource factors, specifically the need to develop people's capacity to participate, whereas the latter is predominantly represented by participant empowerment. As disasters are mostly felt at individual, household and community levels, improving communication, not at but with these stakeholders, is an important component of a comprehensive disaster resilience strategy. This work provides an initial insight into the potential value of participatory design approaches for
Jones, Nicholas; McEwen, Lindsey; Parker, Chris; Staddon, Chad
Fluvial geomorphology is recognised as an important consideration in policy and legislation in the management of river catchments. Despite this recognition, limited knowledge exchange occurs between scientific researchers and river management practitioners. An example of this can be found within the limited uptake of numerical models of sediment dynamics by river management practitioners in the United Kingdom. The uptake of these models amongst the applied community is important as they have the potential to articulate how, at the catchment-scale, the impacts of management strategies of land-use change affect sediment dynamics and resulting channel quality. This paper describes and evaluates a new approach which involves river management stakeholders in an iterative and reflexive participatory modelling process. The aim of this approach was to create an environment for knowledge exchange between the stakeholders and the research team in the process of co-constructing a model. This process adopted a multiple case study approach, involving four groups of river catchment stakeholders in the United Kingdom. These stakeholder groups were involved in several stages of the participatory modelling process including: requirements analysis, model design, model development, and model evaluation. Stakeholders have provided input into a number of aspects of the modelling process, such as: data requirements, user interface, modelled processes, model assumptions, model applications, and model outputs. This paper will reflect on this process, in particular: the innovative methods used, data generated, and lessons learnt.
Brütt, Anna Levke; Buschmann-Steinhage, Rolf; Kirschning, Silke; Wegscheider, Karl
Shaping one's own life and feeling equal in society is an essential aspect of participation. Based on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Social Security Code IX and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), participation is relevant for the German health system. The cross-sectional discipline of participation research investigates conditions for self-determined and equal participation in society. Research results can reinforce and promote the participation of humans with disabilities. Participation research uses established quantitative and qualitative approaches. Moreover, participatory research is a relevant approach that demands involving persons with disabilities in decisions in the research process. In the future, it will be important to concentrate findings and to connect researchers. The participation research action alliance (Aktionsbündnis Teilhabeforschung), which was established in 2015, aims to make funding accessible as well as strengthen and profile participation research.
Coughlan, E.; Suarez, P.; Mendler de Suarez, J.; Bachofen, C.
While the benefits of multi-disciplinary education have been extolled, there is more to success than producing students who are able to articulate the theorems of all pertinent disciplines. Here, we will describe case studies in which participatory scenario exercises and games can make the difference between memorizing information from an "outside" discipline, and actually internalizing the priorities and complications of the issue from an alien perspective. Case studies include teaching Red Cross community-based volunteers the Probability Distribution Function of seasonal rainfall forecasts, as well as requiring students of Columbia University's Master's Program in Climate and Society to study both natural and social aspects of climate. Games create a model system of the world, in which players assume a role and make decisions with consequences, facing complex feedback loops. Taking such roles catalyzes "AHA" moments that effectively bring home the intricacies of disciplinary paradigms outside of one's own.
Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work.
Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.
Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)
Outlines the participatory self-evaluation methods of the People's Participation Programme of the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation. Benefits, six steps for introducing the method, and problems of language, comparability of numbers, and objectivity are described. (SK)
Park, Hyun-Sook; Meyer, Luanna; Goetz, Lori
This introductory article discusses the benefits of participatory action research (PAR), including the empowerment of participants in research and the research process, the difficulties PAR presents, and summarizes following articles in a special series on the facets of PAR. (CR)
Rekhis, J; Saaidane, F; Laamouri, M; Ben Hamida, K; Mabrouk, W; Slimane, N
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out by a multidisciplinary team on a total of 60 smallholder dairy farms in three different geographical areas of Tunisia. Farms with less than three cows were excluded. Those participating had between three and 10 cows. Average milk production ranged between 8 and 32 litres per cow per day. 70% or over of milk produced was sold off the farms. Average intercalving intervals--measured from month of calving only--ranged from 12.9 months to 19. Age at first calving varied from two to nearly three years. Most work was done by the families. PRA revealed that the farmers in all three regions perceived unbalanced nutrition, which included availability of forages, to be the most important constraint, followed by poor reproductive efficiency. Reseeding with new species was instituted for grazing and hay. Farmers from the different regions were taken on exchange visits to see how these approaches worked. Training in reproductive management and milking hygiene was introduced. Seasonal ration formulation depending on local forage analysis was instituted. Two farms are participating in a programme of evaluation of olive oil extraction by-product as a ruminant feed. Partial budget analysis of these interventions will be carried out.
García, Ana M; Sevilla, María José; Gadea, Rafael; Casañ, Consuelo
We describe a participatory ergonomics program that started in April 2010 in a chemical company located in the autonomous region of Valencia, Spain. The program was introduced in the company, the intervention level was agreed (two working lines, 24 workers) and a working group was established (Ergo Group, including managers, technicians and safety representatives in the company) with the aim of leading the intervention. A questionnaire was applied to collect information on ergonomic injuries and exposures in workers at the selected working lines. This information was analyzed by the Ergo Group and was later discussed at prevention circles with the direct participation of affected workers. When the present article was being drafted, 16 improvements to working conditions had already been proposed. Some of these improvements had been implemented and, in the opinion of some of the participants, were effective. To develop this kind of program, which could benefit a substantial number of workers in Spain, a firm commitment to prevention by companies is required.
Participatory Classification in a System for Assessing Multimodal Transportation Patterns Kalyanaraman Shankari Mogeng Yin Randy H. Katz David E...Participatory Classification in a System for Assessing Multimodal Transportation Patterns 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...share, for use by urban planners. With this prototype, we collected 7439 labelled sections from 44 unpaid volunteers over a total period of 3 months
While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...
Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; Kotejoshyer, Rajashree; Fleishman, Jane; Henning, Robert; Punnett, Laura
Nursing home employees experience high physical and psychosocial workloads, resulting in poor health outcomes. An occupational health/health promotion program, designed to facilitate employee participation, was initiated in three nursing homes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate facilitators and barriers of the program after 3-year implementation. Focus groups with employees and in-depth interviews with top and middle managers were conducted. The Social Ecological Model was used to organize the evaluation. Facilitators and barriers were reported from both managers' and employees' perspectives, and were categorized as intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and corporate level. Management support, financial resources, and release time for participation were identified as the three most important factors. Supports from multiple levels including both human and environment, and managers and employees, are important for a successful participatory occupational health/health promotion program. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 34-42.].
Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.
Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved
Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.
The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.
Caille, F.; Riera, J. L.; Rodríguez-Labajos, B.; Middelkoop, H.; Rosell-Melé, A.
Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain), as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993-2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e., through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives) for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also presented. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Caille, F.; Riera, J. L.; Rodríguez-Labajos, B.; Middelkoop, H.; Rosell-Melé, A.
Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain), as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of narrative socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993-2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e. through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives) for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also discussed. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Brown, Robin S
Introducing the 'participatory' paradigm associated with the work of transpersonalists Richard Tarnas and Jorge Ferrer, the author outlines an approach to Jung's archetypal thinking that might offer a more adequate basis in which to ground a non-reductive approach to practice. In order to demonstrate the relevance of this outlook at the present time, the author begins by examining recent debates concerning the nature of 'truth' in the clinical setting. Reflecting on the difficulties analysts face in attempting to maintain professional authority without falling into an implicit authoritarianism, it is argued that any approach to therapy seeking to orient itself towards 'the unconscious' must posit the challenges of pluralism as a central concern for practice. With reference to the relationship between analytical psychology and the psychoanalytic mainstream, attention is drawn to the theoretical problems raised by the relational commitment to constructivist epistemologies, and a consequent tendency towards biological reductionism. Turning to the Jungian literature, similar tensions are observed at play in the present state of analytical psychology. Drawing attention to the process-oriented qualities of Jung's work, it is suggested that the speculative nature of Jung's psychology offers a more adequate basis for contemporary practice than might be assumed.
Löfman, Päivi; Pelkonen, Marjaana; Pietilä, Anna-Maija
The purpose of this article is to describe the ethical issues arising out of participatory action research (PAR), on the basis of both an empirical study and the research literature, and to discuss how to deal with these issues. The data consist of the experiences and results of three phases of PAR relating to orthopaedic patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the analysis of 20 articles on the ethics of action research. As a result, the following ethical issues and the ways to treat them were discussed: informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, protecting an individual from harm, the role of the researcher, the location of 'power' in PAR, and the ownership of the research. The flexibility of PAR in use and its main features are also related to the decisions made and actions taken in response to ethical issues. It is particularly important in PAR to proceed according to the participants, and to involve them from the beginning of the process, in order to insure the equal balance of power between participants and researcher.
Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca
The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102
Rodríguez, Claudia Isabel Rojas
This work describes the experience of application of a procedural initiative, which aimed to identify and address technical assistance needs progressively in therapy and rehabilitation activities. The proposal theoretical axes are the basics of participatory ergonomics and interdisciplinary work, was raised with the intention of addressing important issues for the entire design process including: perception, attention, memory and human being comfort, and the interrelationships that create objects in the context in which they are used. This project was done in collaboration with leading institutes for the rehabilitation of Colombia: Cirec and Roosevelt, through two investigative stages: a first ethnographic stage, during which were observed one hundred forty four (144) procedures of rehabilitation and therapy to build a bank of assistive technology needs, justified on the project observation variables. And a second stage of action research in which they were designed elements that facilitate the implementation of rehabilitation procedures efficiently. Currently being developed experiential situations in different hospitals to examine the reliability of the proposed solutions.
Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai Muki; Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D P; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca
The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments.
Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Tsinakos, Avgoustos
The participatory culture of Web 2.0 and the implicit empowerment of the learners have not been yet associated with participatory design projects that involve learners in the design and development of the new mediating tools. In this paper, we examine students' projections of Web 2.0 in higher education. Ninety seven undergraduate students participated in 20 design sessions exploiting two needs' elicitation techniques with the aim of envisioning of a course website that meets their learning particularities, that incorporates and exploits their new technological habits and which can be harmoniously situated in the daily routine of a modern, active student. 583 needs were produced and their abstract categorization is presented. Students proved that they had refined views about the elements that can render successful the next wave of e-learning applications and provided directions that can help designers and researchers in developing more informed designs. Students are the main agents of educational change and, hence, they deserve a more active and contributive role in the knowledge society.
This paper describes the effects of one U.S.-based public psychiatry clinic's shift to a centralized, corporate style of management, in response to pressures to cut expenditures by focusing on "evidence based" treatments. Participant observation research conducted between 2008 and 2012 for a larger study involving 127 interviews with policy makers, clinic managers, clinical practitioners and patients revealed that the shift heralded the decline of arts based therapies in the clinic, and of the social networks that had developed around them. It also inspired a participatory video self-documentary project among art group members, to portray the importance of arts-based therapies and garner public support for such therapies. Group members found a way to take action in the face of unilateral decision making, but experienced subsequent restrictions on clinic activities and discharge of core members from the clinic. The paper ends with a discussion of biopolitics, central legibility through corporate standardization, and the potential and risks of participatory documentaries to resist these trends.
This paper describes the effects of one U.S.-based public psychiatry clinic’s shift to a centralized, corporate style of management, in response to pressures to cut expenditures by focusing on “evidence based” treatments. Participant observation research conducted between 2008 and 2012 for a larger study involving 127 interviews with policy makers, clinic managers, clinical practitioners and patients revealed that the shift heralded the decline of arts based therapies in the clinic, and of the social networks that had developed around them. It also inspired a participatory video self-documentary project among art group members, to portray the importance of arts-based therapies and garner public support for such therapies. Group members found a way to take action in the face of unilateral decision making, but experienced subsequent restrictions on clinic activities and discharge of core members from the clinic. The paper ends with a discussion of biopolitics, central legibility through corporate standardization, and the potential and risks of participatory documentaries to resist these trends. PMID:23932854
Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.
Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.
Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.
Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.
Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther
This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS.
Díaz, Cristina; Torres, Yisel; Cruz, Ana Margarita de la; Alvarez, Angel M; Piquero, María Eugenia; Valero, Aida; Fuentes, Omar
Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.
Vargo, Amy C; Sharrock, Patty J; Johnson, Melissa H; Armstrong, Mary I
The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for assessing the quality of children's mental health services that reflects the primary concerns and perspectives of diverse stakeholders. A participatory research approach was adopted in order to incorporate caregivers of children with mental health problems, mental health service providers, and managed care administrators in identifying and developing quality of care indicators and methods for assessment. This research occurred in three phases that moved from very qualitative and exploratory to more quantitative as we sought to refine and verify the resulting Quality of Care Framework. We found that the use of a participatory approach was beneficial in ensuring the validity of research tools and utility of the framework, and also greatly increased the sense of ownership of research findings among participants.
Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.
In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together
Bohr, Paula C
Health and safety literature stresses the value of programs aimed at preventing musculoskeletal injuries. The concepts of empowerment learning are often recommended as guidelines for worker education yet these approaches are largely untested. The present study compares the traditional approach involving lecture and discussion with a participatory method. A sample of 102 participants employed at a centralized reservation facility was used. Participants were randomly assigned to either the traditional education group or the participatory education group. Data collection utilized surveys completed by study participants and observational checklists completed by a trained observer. Data were collected prior to intervention and at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Results of data analysis provide no evidence that participatory methods are more effective than traditional methods in encouraging workers to position their work equipment correctly or to maintain good working postures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries.
Harnar, Michael A.
Stakeholder participation in evaluation, where the evaluator engages stakeholders in the process, is prevalent in evaluation practice and is an important focus of evaluation research. Cousins and Whitmore proposed a bifurcation of participatory evaluation into the two streams of transformative participatory and practical participatory evaluation…
This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…
Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.
Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…
Mandl, Kenneth D; McNabb, Marion; Marks, Norman; Weitzman, Elissa R; Kelemen, Skyler; Eggleston, Emma M; Quinn, Maryanne
Background and objective Malfunctions or poor usability of devices measuring glucose or delivering insulin are reportable to the FDA. Manufacturers submit 99.9% of these reports. We test online social networks as a complementary source to traditional FDA reporting of device-related adverse events. Methods Participatory surveillance of members of a non-profit online social network, TuDiabetes.org, from October 2011 to September 2012. Subjects were volunteers from a group within TuDiabetes, actively engaged online in participatory surveillance. They used the free TuAnalyze app, a privacy-preserving method to report detailed clinical information, available through the network. Network members were polled about finger-stick blood glucose monitors, continuous glucose monitors, and insulin delivery devices, including insulin pumps and insulin pens. Results Of 549 participants, 75 reported device-related adverse events, nearly half (48.0%) requiring intervention from another person to manage the event. Only three (4.0%) of these were reported by participants to the FDA. All TuAnalyze reports contained outcome information compared with 22% of reports to the FDA. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were experienced by 48.0% and 49.3% of participants, respectively. Discussion Members of an online community readily engaged in participatory surveillance. While polling distributed online populations does not yield generalizable, denominator-based rates, this approach can characterize risk within online communities using a bidirectional communication channel that enables reach-back and intervention. Conclusions Engagement of distributed communities in social networks is a viable complementary approach to traditional public health surveillance for adverse events related to medical devices. PMID:24355131
Panke, Stefanie; Kohls, Christian; Gaiser, Birgit
Stefanie Panke, Christian Kohls, and Birgit Gaiser maintain that effective strategies for the development of educational technology can only arise when the process is understood, analyzed, and assessed as a social phenomenon, and when the experience of users is integrated within the design process. To illustrate, they describe the early…
Forrest, Stephanie; He, Wenbo; Groat, Michael; Edwards, Benjamin; Horey, James L
Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.
In this paper, practical means of facilitating participatory steps taken in workplace improvement programs in small workplaces were reviewed. The reviewed programs included those organized by partners of our Asian inter-country network for small enterprises, construction sites, home workplaces and agricultural farms. Trainers who commonly acted as facilitators were found to play multiple roles in helping managers, workers and farmers take initiative and achieve immediate improvements. The participatory steps were more successfully facilitated when the trainers supported (a) building on local good practice, (b) focusing on a range of basic ergonomics principles, and (c) stepwise progress through feedback of achievements. The use of action-oriented toolkits comprising low-cost action checklists and group work guides was commonly helpful. The locally adjusted nature of the toolkits seemed essential. Trainers could thus help people build local initiative, plan and implement low-cost ideas through serial group work steps and confirm benefits in a stepwise manner. The review of the results suggested that a local network of trainers trained in the use of locally adjusted toolkits was vital for facilitating effective improvements in different small workplaces.
Reed, Mark S; Dougill, Andrew J; Baker, Timothy R
Given the growing popularity of indicators among policy-makers to measure progress toward conservation and sustainability goals, there is an urgent need to develop indicators that can be used accurately by both specialists and nonspecialists, drawing from the knowledge possessed by each group. This paper uses a case study from the Kalahari, Botswana to show how participatory and ecological methods can be combined to develop robust indicators that are accessible to a range of users to monitor and enhance the sustainability of land management. First, potential environmental sustainability indicators were elicited from pastoralists in three study sites. This knowledge was then evaluated by pastoralists, before being tested empirically using ecological and soil-based techniques. Despite the wealth of local knowledge about indicators, this knowledge was thinly spread. The knowledge was more holistic than published indicator lists for monitoring rangelands, encompassing vegetation, soil, livestock, wild animal, and socioeconomic indicators. Pastoralist preferences for vegetation and livestock indicators match recent shifts in ecological theory suggesting that livestock populations reach equilibrium with key forage resources in semiarid environments. Although most indicators suggested by pastoralists were validated through empirical work (e.g., decreased grass cover and soil organic matter content, and increased abundance of Acacia mellifera and thatching grass), they were not always sufficiently accurate or reliable for objective degradation assessment, showing that local knowledge cannot be accepted unquestioningly. We suggest that, by combining participatory and ecological approaches, it is possible to derive more accurate and relevant indicators than either approach could achieve alone.
Harris, Carol E.
In the context of information and communication technologies in five Newfoundland coastal communities, this article deals with participatory research and outreach. Outreach in these communities, reeling from the near-collapse of the fishery and struggling to survive in a climate of neo-liberal restructuring, is considered to be a holistic…
de Reuck, John; Joseph, Richard
Discusses universal service policy in telecommunications in Australia in an historical context. Maintains that given the dynamic growth in information technologies, universal service should be reconceptualized within a knowledge-based discourse critically linked to considerations for deepening participatory democracy and that funding should be…
Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Forde, Sarah; Theobald, Sally
This paper describes the process of developing a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy for a Kenyan youth-based NGO. The iterative nature of the study including the process of narrowing down indicators to measure and methods to monitor/evaluate these is well documented. A discussion on the extent to which the process achieved…
Trefz, Steven G.
The "Picturing Lay Ministry" project uses the visual methodology of photovoice as a way of generating participatory laity discernment around the topics of calling, rural ministry, and spiritual gifts. The project involves working with curriculum action research embedded within one-day ministry discernment events for laity. Measurement…
Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…
Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas
Multi-site evaluations are becoming increasingly common in federal funding portfolios. Although much thought has been given to multi-site evaluation, there has been little emphasis on how it might interact with participatory evaluation. Therefore, this paper reviews several National Science Foundation educational, multi-site evaluations for the…
Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry
Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…
Dickson, Geraldine; Green, Kathryn L.
Twelve older Aboriginal women in a Canadian city were trained to be co-researchers as part of a participatory health assessment and health promotion project involving 40 such women. Lessons were learned about project ownership, Native perceptions of research, use of traditions, participants' capacity to engage in research and analysis, conflict…
This article expands upon themes addressed in the 2012 CALICO opening plenary that I delivered at the University of Notre Dame. This extended interpretation allows me the opportunity to further explore the nature of participatory human communication and collaboration and offer some clarification of the proposed instructional model for promoting…
Duke, Adrienne M.; Sollie, Donna L.; Silva, Kelcie
We conducted a youth participatory evaluation of a bullying prevention curriculum before the curriculum was implemented in communities. We partnered with youths from a young women leaders' program to reduce the number of lessons in an existing curriculum and determine which activities were likely to have the greatest impact. To evaluate the…
Ashton, Carolyn; Arnold, Mary E.; Wells, Elissa E.
4-H has long emphasized the importance of civic engagement and community service for positive youth development. One pathway to this ideal is youth action research and evaluation. This article demonstrates how participatory youth research and evaluation can lead to the successful implementation of community action projects. It describes the…
Fox, Janet; Cater, Melissa
This article provides a critical perspective on the increasing involvement of young people in participatory evaluation as well as identifies the factors to consider when designing a youth-led evaluation project. Through this avenue, young people will increase their participation in organizational development and community change. Youth-led…
Disterheft, Antje; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M.; Filho, Walter Leal; Caeiro, Sandra
Purpose: This paper aims to connect participatory sustainability implementation with sustainability assessment, exploring learning theories, the principles of Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD) and respective indicators applied in the university context. Even though participation is partly considered in existing assessment…
This paper is a course description of a Digital Literacies class offered to both undergraduate and graduate students at an American university. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the pedagogical bones of this course, drawing upon theories of learning in a participatory culture, including a discussion of how, and where, the course fell…
McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.
Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…
Lyon, Alexandra; Bell, Michael; Croll, Nora Swan; Jackson, Randall; Gratton, Claudio
Justifiably concerned about power dynamics between researchers and participants in participatory research, much of the literature proposes guidelines for including participant voices at every step of the research process. We find these guidelines insufficient for dealing with constraints set up by the social organizational structures in which…
In this article I outline different elements of action research in an attempt to describe and define participatory action research (PAR). There is a lot more material available to readers these days, some of which I will refer you to in this article. I see my role here is to summarise enough of this material to help support your reading of the…
Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith
Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…
Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux
This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…
Jordan, Steven; Stocek, Christine; Mark, Rodney; Matches, Stacy
The paper will present findings from a Social Science and Humanities Research (SSHRC) funded participatory evaluation conducted over the past four years in the Cree nation of Wemindji in Quebec, Canada. COOL (Challenging Our Own Limits) or "Nigawchiisuun" in Cree, was launched in 2003 as part of a broader program of governance…
This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…
Grushka, Kathryn Meyer; Bellette, Aaron; Holbrook, Allyson
This article focuses on the use of Photographic Participatory Inquiry (PPI) in researching the teaching and learning of photography in the e-learning environment. It is an arts-informed method drawing on digital tools to capture collective information as digital artefacts, which can then be accessed and harnessed to build critical and reflective…
Background: The emergence of a participatory culture, brought about mainly by the use of Web2.0 technology, is challenging us to reconsider aspects of teaching and learning. Adapting the learning-as-digital-game-building approach, this paper explores how new educational practices can help students build skills for the 21st century. Purpose: This…
Discusses user participation and participatory design in the context of formal education for computing professionals. Topics include the current curriculum debate; mathematical- and engineering-based education; traditional system-development training; and an example of a course program that includes computers and society, and prototyping. (53…
Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy
This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…
This article invites a conversation about how critical participatory research transforms the production of knowledge, enables a complex chronicling of counter stories, and nurtures the contestation of dominant narratives with the very people who have been misrepresented as Others. Through a series of research stories fomented in prison,…
Green, Lawrence W.
The author comments on Meredith Minkler's article, "Ethical Challenges for the "Outside" Researcher in Community-Based Participatory Research," Health Education & Behavior 31(6):684-697, 2004 [see EJ824234]. Specifically, this commentary notes along with Minkler that, in relation to the relatively uncharted territory of Community-Based…
Kelley, Deirdre M.
Examines conditions that foster and hinder participatory research using examples from a student research project aimed at drop-out reduction undertaken with students in a "last chance" high school. Concludes that students need to be taken seriously as researchers and potential agents of change. (ACM)
Arvind, Gaysu R.
This article considers the indigenization of democracy in India by conceptualizing participatory deliberative decision-making practice as a tool to strengthen the functioning of local schools and to enhance democratic responsiveness within communities. Drawing on case-studies of bottom-up approaches to school governance, this study examines an…
Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem
This article traces the development of the "second" and arguably more well-known "genre" of participatory action research (PAR). The article argues that the origins of PAR are highly distributed and cannot really be traced back to the ideas of a single person or even a single group of researchers. Instead, the development of…
Bocci, Melissa Cochrane
Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) requires students to use language in myriad ways as they define a problem, design and conduct an original research project, disseminate their findings, and take change-seeking actions in their community. YPAR embeds language development in community-centered and cross-disciplinary work and empowers youth…
Dold, Claudia J.; Chapman, Richard A.
Interest in participatory action research (PAR) is rising among academics, researchers, families, and youth themselves who are involved in the system of care. PAR combines systematic research and professional guidance with the development of a practical intervention tailored to the user population in collaboration with the user population. We…
The article focuses on the realisation of participatory evaluation (PE) in national educational evaluation activity. The realisation of PE is examined by adapting the Daigneault and Jacob model (2009; originally Cousins & Whitmore, 1998) to five national-level educational evaluations carried out in Finland. According to the chosen frame of…
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
Rosales, Jennifer Ann
The Echo Park Film Center, a Los Angeles nonprofit media education organization, teaches underprivileged youth how to comprehend and make media in order to empower them to speak and be heard. Due to the organization's nonmainstream media courses and its connection to its community, the Center is able to create a participatory and socially…
Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen
Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…
Jocson, Korina; Rosa, Jonathan; Curwood, Jen Scott
Growing efforts in the study of digital literacies push for continued (re)shaping of policy and pedagogical interventions. In this column, we take up concerns in participatory cultures to revisit a longstanding issue pertaining to language. Evident in the literature on digital literacies is an implicit treatment of language, particularly around…
Northway, Ruth; Hurley, Karen; O'Connor, Chris; Thomas, Helen; Howarth, Joyce; Langley, Emma; Bale, Sue
While recent years have seen an increase in the number of participatory and inclusive research studies being undertaken where people with learning disabilities are active members of the research team, little has been published about how teams decide what to research. This paper aims to fill this gap by discussing how in one area of Wales a…
A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…
Dymond, Stacy K.
This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…
Sitter, Kathleen C.
Using the new conceptual framework of participatory visual media as method, advocacy and voice (MAV), the author explores an action research study using an exemplar in which advocates from the disability community created and distributed a series of videos about love and sexuality as a critical human rights issue in the disability community. The…
Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen
This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…
Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.
This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…
Taking part in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project was a genuine team effort for the group of people supporting Rose, a primary school student with Asperger syndrome. The following excerpts are from interviews with some of Rose's team. This is a collaborative approach to telling the story of the team's…
Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey
This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…
Lyons, Wanda E.
This participatory action research study engaged classroom teachers, special education teachers, teacher assistants, and a principal in examining and resolving role issues within inclusive classrooms. Analysis of data from multiple sources revealed three predominant findings: (a) when teachers were confronted with role problems, they identified an…
Bertelsen, Pernille; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Madsen, Jacob
This paper explores participatory design walks (PD walks) as a first step toward a participatory design of health information technology (HIT) aimed at tackling health inequality in a neighbourhood identified as a high-risk health area. Existing research shows that traditional methods for health promotion, such as campaigns and teaching, have little to no effect in high-risk health areas. Rather, initiatives must be locally anchored - integrated into the local culture, and based on social relationships and group activities. This paper explains how we conducted PD walks with residents and community workers in the neighbourhood and how this participatory approach supported a first step toward HIT design that tackles health inequality. This is important, as people in neighbourhoods with high health risks are not the target audience for the health technology innovation currently taking place despite the fact that this group suffers the most from health inequality and weigh most on the public healthcare services and costs. The study identifies social and cultural aspects that influence everyday health management and presents how a citizen-driven approach like PD walks, can contribute valuable insights for design of HIT. The paper provides concrete methodological recommendations on how to conduct PD walks that are valuable to HIT designers and developers who aim to do PD with neighbourhoods.
Ozesmi, Uygar; Ozesmi, Stacy
Fuzzy cognitive mapping was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management plan for Uluabat Lake, Turkey. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders belonging to six different groups. Lake pollution was the most central and most mentioned variable for stakeholders. Stakeholder groups agree that lake pollution is negatively affecting ecosystem health and thereby local economies. Thus, reducing lake pollution was chosen as the overall goal for the management plan. Possible ways to reduce lake pollution and increase ecosystem health were seen differently by the different groups. Hunters, factory managers, NGO personnel, and local people thought industry was the main cause of lake pollution, while officials from the government and local municipalities thought roads and urban development contributed the most to lake pollution. Generally the stakeholder groups did not perceive their own actions as affecting the lake as strongly as other groups thought. For example, factory managers viewed factory pollution as negatively affecting the lake but less strongly than the other groups did. According to policy option simulations, reducing lake pollution had positive effects on all variables, especially fish, birds, animal husbandry, irrigation, agriculture, and the ecological balance of the lake. Results of this analysis were used to facilitate meetings among stakeholder groups and to develop a participatory ecosystem management plan. The analysis was useful for pointing out the similarities as well as the differences among the groups. It also helped the facilitators understand the focus of each stakeholder group and enabled them to suggest activities in which each group would want to participate.
Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.; Brewington, L.
For the last century, the island of Maui, Hawaii, has been the center of environmental, agricultural, and legal conflict with respect to surface and groundwater allocation. Planning for adequate future freshwater resources requires flexible and adaptive policies that emphasize partnerships and knowledge transfer between scientists and non-scientists. In 2012 the Hawai'i state legislature passed the Climate Change Adaptation Priority Guidelines (Act 286) law requiring county and state policy makers to include island-wide climate change scenarios in their planning processes. This research details the ongoing work by researchers in the NOAA funded Pacific RISA to support the development of Hawaii's first island-wide water use plan under the new climate adaptation directive. This integrated project combines several models with participatory future scenario planning. The dynamically downscaled triply nested Hawaii Regional Climate Model (HRCM) was modified from the WRF community model and calibrated to simulate the many microclimates on the Hawaiian archipelago. For the island of Maui, the HRCM was validated using 20 years of hindcast data, and daily projections were created at a 1 km scale to capture the steep topography and diverse rainfall regimes. Downscaled climate data are input into a USGS hydrological model to quantify groundwater recharge. This model was previously used for groundwater management, and is being expanded utilizing future climate projections, current land use maps and future scenario maps informed by stakeholder input. Participatory scenario planning began in 2012 to bring together a diverse group of over 50 decision-makers in government, conservation, and agriculture to 1) determine the type of information they would find helpful in planning for climate change, and 2) develop a set of scenarios that represent alternative climate/management futures. This is an iterative process, resulting in flexible and transparent narratives at multiple scales
Scantlebury, C E; Zerfu, A; Pinchbeck, G P; Reed, K; Gebreab, F; Aklilu, N; Mideksa, K; Christley, R
Epizootic lymphangitis (EZL) is reported to have a significant impact upon livelihoods within resource-poor settings. This study used a participatory approach to explore peoples' experiences of EZL and examine the perceived impact of disease, owner knowledge and understanding of EZL, lay management of disease and, attitudes and strategies towards disease prevention. Focus-group discussions were held with 358 cart-horse owners and drivers recruited from 7 towns attended by SPANA (Society for the protection of animals abroad) mobile veterinary clinics and 2 unexposed towns where no SPANA clinics were available. Focus group discussions explored four main research questions: (1) Is EZL recognised by animal owners, and is this considered an important disease in equids? (2) What factors do animal owners associate with the development of disease? (3) What happens to an animal with clinical disease and how does this impact upon the owner/community? (4) Are measures taken to reduce disease occurrence? These key areas were explored using photographs, disease ranking, matrices and open discussion. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The results are presented thematically and include: recognition and descriptions of EZL, treatment strategies used, disease priorities and ranking, impact of disease, disease transmission and attitudes and approaches to disease prevention. EZL was widely recognised and ranked highly as an important disease of equids. However, there was uncertainty around identifying early cases of EZL, and this could impact upon the timing of initiating treatment and separating potentially infectious animals. People had varying knowledge of effective methods for disease prevention and reported particular difficulties with isolating infected animals. The impact of EZL was multi-dimensional and encompassed effects upon the horse, the individual owner and the wider society. Working equids provide a vital utility and source of income
Homsin, Nawattakorn; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawatta
This research uses Mixed-Methodology applied research and development together with participatory action research. The model is appropriate for the context environment. The participants were able to complete the learning activities in participatory forms of knowledge management, using the following five-step model: 1) Knowledge Identification, 2)…
Groundwater depletion is a major problem in the Arkavathy Basin in South India. It is also the probable cause of declining flows in the Arkavathy River. However, investigating groundwater and developing sustainable management strategies is extremely challenging in a data-scarce environment where there is very little historical data; often the data are missing, flawed or biased. Almost nothing is known about the structure of fracture aquifers, which makes modeling groundwater flows impossible. No aquifer maps are available from government agencies and a review of the available literature and discussions with experts suggests several contradicting views on the structure of fracture aquifers. Using data from over a hundred borewell camera scans in a milli-watershed covering 6 sq km, we tested multiple hypothesis on possible structures. We are able to recreate the 3-D structure of fracture aquifers. Using data from a participatory groundwater monitoring program we are also able to interpret seasonal changes in water levels and possible recharge pathways.
Westhues, Anne; Ochocka, Joanna; Jacobson, Nora; Simich, Laura; Maiter, Sarah; Janzen, Rich; Fleras, Augie
Research studies are increasingly complex: They draw on multiple methods to gather data, generate both qualitative and quantitative data, and frequently represent the perspectives of more than one stakeholder. The teams that generate them are increasingly multidisciplinary. A commitment to engaging community members in the research process often adds a further layer of complexity. How to approach a synthesizing analysis of these multiple and varied data sources with a large research team requires considerable reflection and dialogue. In this article, we outline the strategies used by one multidisciplinary team committed to a participatory action research (PAR) approach and engaged in a mixed method program of research to synthesize the findings from four subprojects into a conceptual framework that could guide practice in community mental health organizations. We also summarize factors that hold promise for increasing productivity when managing complex research projects.
Nobrega, Suzanne; Kernan, Laura; Plaku-Alakbarova, Bora; Robertson, Michelle; Warren, Nicholas; Henning, Robert
Growing interest in Total Worker Health(®) (TWH) programs to advance worker safety, health and well-being motivated development of a toolkit to guide their implementation. Iterative design of a program toolkit occurred in which participatory ergonomics (PE) served as the primary basis to plan integrated TWH interventions in four diverse organizations. The toolkit provided start-up guides for committee formation and training, and a structured PE process for generating integrated TWH interventions. Process data from program facilitators and participants throughout program implementation were used for iterative toolkit design. Program success depended on organizational commitment to regular design team meetings with a trained facilitator, the availability of subject matter experts on ergonomics and health to support the design process, and retraining whenever committee turnover occurred. A two committee structure (employee Design Team, management Steering Committee) provided advantages over a single, multilevel committee structure, and enhanced the planning, communication, and teamwork skills of participants.
Wallace, Tanner LeBaron
This article describes an effectiveness evaluation of an intensive case management intervention coordinated by a non-profit organization in a midsize Midwest City. As an effectiveness evaluation, the primary evaluation question was causal in nature; the key task of the evaluative study was to establish and probe connections between the…
Gore, Meredith L.; Kahler, Jessica S.
This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1) gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in a participatory conservation context, and (2) highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal conservancies in Caprivi, Namibia served as case study sites. We analyzed data from focus groups (n = 2) to create gendered concept maps about risks to wildlife and livelihoods and any associations of those risks with HWC, and semi-structured interviews (n = 76; men = 38, women = 38) to measure explicit risk attitudes associated with HWC. Concept maps indicated some divergent perceptions in how groups characterized risks to wildlife and livelihoods; however, not only were identified risks to wildlife (e.g., pollution, hunting) dissimilar in some instances, descriptions of risks varied as well. Study groups reported similar risk perceptions associated with HWC with the exception of worry associated with HWC effects on local livelihoods. Gendered differences in risk perceptions may signal different priorities or incentives to participate in efforts to resolve HWC-related risks. Thus, although shared goals and interests may seem to be an obvious reason for cooperative wildlife management, it is not always obvious that management goals are shared. Opportunity exists to move beyond thinking about gender as an explanatory variable for understanding how different groups think about participating in conservation activities. PMID:22403722
Keener, V. W.; Brewington, L.; Finucane, M.
For the last century, the island of Maui in Hawai'i has been the center of environmental, agricultural, and legal conflict with respect to both surface and groundwater allocation. Planning for sustainable future freshwater supply in Hawai'i requires adaptive policies and decision-making that emphasizes private and public partnerships and knowledge transfer between scientists and non-scientists. We have downscaled dynamical climate models to 1 km resolution in Maui and coupled them with a USGS Water Budget model and a participatory scenario building process to quantify future changes in island-scale climate and groundwater recharge under different land uses. Although these projections are uncertain, the integrated nature of the Pacific RISA research program has allowed us to take a multi-pronged approach to facilitate the uptake of climate information into policy and management. This presentation details the ongoing work to support the development of Hawai'i's first island-wide water use plan under the new climate adaptation directive. Participatory scenario planning began in 2012 to bring together a diverse group of ~100 decision-makers in state and local government, watershed restoration, agriculture, and conservation to 1) determine the type of information (climate variables, land use and development, agricultural practices) they would find helpful in planning for climate change, and 2) develop a set of nested scenarios that represent alternative climate and management futures. This integration of knowledge is an iterative process, resulting in flexible and transparent narratives of complex futures comprised of information at multiple scales. We will present an overview of the downscaling, scenario building, hydrological modeling processes, and stakeholder response.
Gore, Meredith L; Kahler, Jessica S
This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1) gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in a participatory conservation context, and (2) highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal conservancies in Caprivi, Namibia served as case study sites. We analyzed data from focus groups (n = 2) to create gendered concept maps about risks to wildlife and livelihoods and any associations of those risks with HWC, and semi-structured interviews (n = 76; men = 38, women = 38) to measure explicit risk attitudes associated with HWC. Concept maps indicated some divergent perceptions in how groups characterized risks to wildlife and livelihoods; however, not only were identified risks to wildlife (e.g., pollution, hunting) dissimilar in some instances, descriptions of risks varied as well. Study groups reported similar risk perceptions associated with HWC with the exception of worry associated with HWC effects on local livelihoods. Gendered differences in risk perceptions may signal different priorities or incentives to participate in efforts to resolve HWC-related risks. Thus, although shared goals and interests may seem to be an obvious reason for cooperative wildlife management, it is not always obvious that management goals are shared. Opportunity exists to move beyond thinking about gender as an explanatory variable for understanding how different groups think about participating in conservation activities.
Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N
Production diseases have an important negative effect on the health and welfare of dairy cows. Although organic animal production systems aim for high animal health levels, compliance with European organic farming regulations does not guarantee that this is achieved. Herd health and production management (HHPM) programs aim at optimizing herd health by preventing disease and production problems, but as yet they have not been consistently implemented by farmers. We hypothesize that one reason is the mismatch between what scientists propose as indicators for herd health monitoring and what farmers would like to use. Herd health monitoring is a key element in HHPM programs as it permits a regular assessment of the functioning of the different components of the production process. Planned observations or measurements of these components are indispensable for this monitoring. In this study, a participatory approach was used to create an environment in which farmers could adapt the indicators proposed by scientists for monitoring the five main production diseases on dairy cattle farms. The adaptations of the indicators were characterized and the farmers' explanations for the changes made were described. The study was conducted in France and Sweden, which differ in terms of their national organic regulations and existing advisory services. In both countries, twenty certified organic dairy farmers and their animal health management advisors participated in the study. All of the farmers adapted the initial monitoring plan proposed by scientists to specific production and animal health situation on their farm. This resulted in forty unique and farm-specific combinations of indicators for herd health monitoring. All but three farmers intended to monitor five health topics simultaneously using the constructed indicators. The qualitative analysis of the explanations given by farmers for their choices enabled an understanding of farmers' reasons for selecting and adapting
This exploration of the racial power dynamics in a participatory action research project with women who had experienced intimate partner violence discusses the challenges inherent in doing participatory action with antiracist intent and offers suggestions for overcoming these challenges. To engage in this type of research, explicit commitment to the goals of an antiracist intent needs to be shared as widely as possible. Fostering such shared commitment demands that the social locations of all involved be interrogated continuously. Such interrogation, however, needs to be prefaced with understanding that individuals are not representative of particular power positions or social identities or locations and with critical attention to how language and social structures shape racism and other forms of dominance. Being inclusive must be understood as complex and the influence of diverse agendas and perspectives acknowledged and taken into account. In the face of such complexity, "success" in research may need redefinition.
Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.
Ozer, Emily J
Youth-led participatory action research (YPAR) is an approach to scientific inquiry and social change grounded in principles of equity that engages young people in identifying problems relevant to their own lives, conducting research to understand the problems, and advocating for changes based on research evidence. This chapter provides an introduction to YPAR followed by consideration of the (a) developmental relevance of YPAR for marginalized youth, (b) implications of YPAR for developmental science research on inequities experienced by youth, and (c) potential opportunities and impact of YPAR for improving key developmental settings such as schools and youth-serving organizations. Resources for conducting YPAR projects are discussed, as well as the need for potential integration of YPAR and other participatory approaches to engaging youth and their expertise-at a significant enough scale to have a meaningful impact on policies and practices that affect youth development.
Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán
The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system.
The pioneering work of Jean Dausset on the HLA system established several principles that were later reflected in the Human Genome Project and contributed to the foundations of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine. To effectively develop systems medicine, we should take advantage of the lessons of the HLA saga, emphasizing the importance of exploring a fascinating but mysterious biology, now using systems principles, pioneering new technology developments and creating shared biological and information resources. PMID:20804580
Allen, Barbara L; Cohen, Alison K; Ferrier, Yolaine; Lees, Johanna; Richards, Travis
The Marseille, France, metropolitan area is home to a heavily concentrated industrial region directly adjacent to residential communities. These towns have been subjected to a wide variety of social science and public health studies, but residents continue to have many questions about health concerns for which they currently have primarily anecdotal evidence. Reflecting on our in-progress research in two of these towns, we argue that community-based participatory research that draws from both social science and public health science can be successfully adapted to the French political and cultural context and is key for developing environmental health research that is relevant for community residents and local leaders. Understanding and working within the customs of the local values and practices culture is critical for community-based participatory research regardless of location but is particularly paramount when working in non-United States contexts, since local values and practices will shape the particular techniques used within the community-based participatory research framework.
Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.
Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations
Background Antimicrobial resistance poses a threat to patient safety worldwide. To stop antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs; programs for optimizing antimicrobial use), need to be implemented. Within these programs, nurses are important actors, as they put antimicrobial treatment into effect. To optimally support nurses in ASPs, they should have access to information that supports them in their preparation, administration and monitoring tasks. In addition, it should help them to detect possible risks or adverse events associated with antimicrobial therapy. In this formative study, we investigate how nurses’ can be supported in ASPs by means of an eHealth intervention that targets their information needs. Methods We applied a participatory development approach that involves iterative cycles in which health care workers, mostly nurses, participate. Focus groups, observations, prototype evaluations (via a card sort task and a scenario-based information searching task) and interviews are done with stakeholders (nurses, managers, pharmacist, and microbiologist) on two pulmonary wards of a 1000-bed teaching hospital. Results To perform the complex antimicrobial-related tasks well, nurses need to consult various information sources on a myriad of occasions. In addition, the current information infrastructure is unsupportive of ASP-related tasks, mainly because information is not structured to match nurse tasks, is hard to find, out of date, and insufficiently supportive of awareness. Based our findings, we created a concept for a nurse information application. We attuned the application’s functionality, content, and structure to nurse work practice and tasks. Conclusions By applying a participatory development approach, we showed that task support is a basic need for nurses. Participatory development proved useful regarding several aspects. First, it allows for combining bottom-up needs (nurses’) and top-down legislations (medical
Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Morasae, Esmaeil Khedmati; Shahandeh, Khandan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Seydali, Elham; Aramesh, Kiarash; Abknar, Nina Loori
Background: The nature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) poses distinctive ethical challenges. In the absence of organized guidelines, a remarkable amount of researchers’ time and energy will be spent tackling these ethical challenges. The study aimed to explore ethical issues and principles potentially arising when conducting CBPR. Methods: This qualitative study conducted in CBPR Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Required data were gathered through systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews. Representatives of community, academia, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) participated in our study. Ten interviews with representatives of partner organizations, four group interviews with academic staff, and four with representatives of community were conducted. Repeated thematic analysis was used to elicit ethics-related overarching themes from transcribed interviews. As recommendations, these themes were then organized into a set of CBPR-related ethical issues and principles. Results: Four CBPR ethical guidelines (including 173 articles) were selected from a systematic review. Overarching themes relating to ethical principles which emerged from interviews were as follows: Trust, transparency and accountability, equity and inclusion, power imbalance, tolerance and conflict management, and attention to cultural sensitivity. Practical principles that emerged included: Consensus rather than informed consent, ownership of data and research achievements, and sustainability and maintenance of relationships. According to findings and in comparison to international guidelines, the present study put more emphasis on cultural sensitivity and sustainability as CBPR ethical tangles. Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and
Munn-Giddings, C; Hart, C; Ramon, S
Workplace stress and burnout are recognized phenomena which impact negatively on the delivery of care by health and social work organizations. In an attempt to address the negative consequences of stress in the workplace, a collaborative Participatory Action Research project (PAR), involving two large organizations, namely a Healthcare Trust and a Social Services Organization in the United Kingdom (England) was conducted. The project involved a team of professionals from Anglia Polytechnic University working with senior managers and employees of a health care organization and latterly with managers of a Social Services Organization (SSD) to develop a mental well-being strategy in each of these workplaces. This involved organizing and running of a series of five workshops in each of the two organizations and additionally surveys to determine the extent of the problem on staff and effects on their working and personal lives. An overview of the processes and reflective critique of the strengths and weaknesses of participatory action research methodology is provided. The short, medium and long-term strategies formulated by the active engagement of staff in the workshops, and the challenges in delivering and responding to these issues are carefully detailed. Recommendations are made for future collaborative work within hierarchical organizations and more importantly, the implications of delayed response to governmental policies.
Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale; Cox, Elizabeth D; Cartmill, Randi; Li, Yaqiong; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Kelly, Michelle M
Participatory ergonomics (PE) can promote the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) principles to healthcare system redesign. This study applied a PE approach to redesigning the family-centred rounds (FCR) process to improve family engagement. Various FCR stakeholders (e.g. patients and families, physicians, nurses, hospital management) were involved in different stages of the PE process. HFE principles were integrated in both the content (e.g. shared mental model, usability, workload consideration, systems approach) and process (e.g. top management commitment, stakeholder participation, communication and feedback, learning and training, project management) of FCR redesign. We describe activities of the PE process (e.g. formation and meetings of the redesign team, data collection activities, intervention development, intervention implementation) and present data on PE process evaluation. To demonstrate the value of PE-based FCR redesign, future research should document its impact on FCR process measures (e.g. family engagement, round efficiency) and patient outcome measures (e.g. patient satisfaction).
Cooper, Jessie; Kierans, Ciara; Defres, Sylviane; Easton, Ava; Kneen, Rachel; Solomon, Tom
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is a potentially devastating disease, with significant rates of mortality and co-morbidities. Although the prognosis for people with HSV encephalitis can be improved by prompt treatment with aciclovir, there are often delays involved in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. In response, National Clinical Guidelines have been produced for the UK which make recommendations for improving the management of suspected viral encephalitis. However, little is currently known about the everyday experiences and processes involved in the diagnosis and care of HSV encephalitis. The reported study aimed to provide an account of the diagnosis and treatment of HSV encephalitis from the perspective of people who had been affected by the condition. Thirty narrative interviews were conducted with people who had been diagnosed with HSV encephalitis and their significant others. The narrative accounts reveal problems with gaining access to a diagnosis of encephalitis and shortfalls in care for the condition once in hospital. In response, individuals and their families work hard to obtain medical recognition for the problem and shape the processes of acute care. As a consequence, we argue that the diagnosis and management of HSV encephalitis needs to be considered as a participatory process, which is co-produced by health professionals, patients, and their families. The paper concludes by making recommendations for developing the current management guidelines by formalising the critical role of patients and their significant others in the identification, and treatment of, HSV encephalitis. PMID:26960197
Oviedo, Antonio F. P.; Bursztyn, Marcel
This paper applies a participatory approach in evaluating small-scale fisheries, focusing on the Arapaima gigas fishery in the Brazilian Amazon. The evaluation uses the social-ecological system (SES) framework, adopted to explain the conditions needed for sustainability and user cooperation in natural resources management, as a more suitable alternative to the `blueprint' or `panaceas' approaches, based only on property rights or governmental intervention. However, managers and users often do not have the necessary information compiled and available for a specific SES while some actions need to be taken immediately. Thus, consensus and negotiation among stakeholders about SES variables may be useful to evaluate system performance and indicate actions to promote sustainability. In the case study, using a consensus-building model, we found that arapaima SES leads to sustainability and is far from being a case of `tragedy of the commons.' More investments in suitable monitoring and enforcement for adaptive management are recommended. Adopting an SES framework based on stakeholders' prospects may be useful until complete interdisciplinary studies become available so as to seek of sustainability in the long term.
Howe, Peter D.; Yarnal, Brent; Coletti, Alex; Wood, Nathan J.
Natural hazards and climate change present growing challenges to community water system (CWS) managers, who are increasingly turning to vulnerability assessments to identify, prioritize, and adapt to risks. Effectively assessing CWS vulnerability requires information and participation from various sources, one of which is stakeholders. In this article, we present a deliberative risk-ranking methodology, the participatory vulnerability scoping diagram (P-VSD), which allows rapid assessment and integration of multiple stakeholder perspectives of vulnerability. This technique is based on methods of deliberative risk evaluation and the vulnerability scoping diagram. The goal of the methodology is to engage CWS managers and stakeholders collectively to provide qualitative contextual risk rankings as a first step in a vulnerability assessment. We conduct an initial assessment using a case study of CWS in two U.S. counties, sites with broadly similar exposures but differences in population, land use, and other social sensitivity factors. Results demonstrate that CWS managers and stakeholders in the two case study communities all share the belief that their CWS are vulnerable to hazards but differ in how this vulnerability manifests itself in terms of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of the system.
An emphasis on personal narratives characterises a great deal of participatory theatre practice with refugee groups. It is important to understand how these narratives are conditioned by bureaucratic performance if practitioners are to avoid re-enactments of victimhood in participatory projects. Bureaucratic performance concerns the legal and…
Saiter, Sean M. Avila
This phenomenological inquiry into the felt experience of participatory sense-making and collaborative presence in small groups explores where and when a common field of resonance is generated among individuals. The experience is named "participatory reality constitution" (PRC). Nine co-participants who met criteria of having experienced…
Mulwa, David M.; Kimosop, Maurice K.; Kasivu, Gedion M.
The purpose of the study was to determine the students' view on participatory school governance in secondary schools of the Eastern region, Kenya. Participatory school governance implies the involvement of stakeholders in the decision making process in schools. The objectives of the study were to identify the key decision makers in selected…
Torre, Maria Elena
Drawing on the intersections of a justice oriented participatory action research and critical race theory, this essay explores the possibilities for research embedded in the theoretical, ethical and methodological overlaps between the two. Using the Echoes project as a case study, a participatory collective of intentionally diverse youth from New…
Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari
This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…
Morales, Marie Paz E.
This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…
Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lim, Gentatsu; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Foo, Schubert
Challenges posed by infectious disease outbreaks have led to a range of participatory mobile phone-based innovations that use the power of crowdsourcing for disease surveillance. However, the dynamics of participatory behavior by crowds in such interventions have yet to be examined. This article reports results from a baseline evaluation of one…
Kahne, Joseph; Hodgin, Erica; Eidman-Aadahl, Elyse
The digital revolution has enabled important changes in political life. Opportunities to engage in "participatory politics" have expanded significantly. Participatory politics differ from institutional politics in that they are peer-based, interactive, and not guided by deference to traditional elites and institutions. These changes…
Chesnay, Catherine T.
An emerging literature has been building bridges between poststructuralism and participatory action research, highlighting the latter's potential for transformative action. Using examples from participative action research projects with incarcerated or previously incarcerated women, this article discusses how participatory action research is a…
Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.
How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…
Orr, Sarah Hunter
"Training the peer facilitator: using participatory theatre to promote engagement in peer education" examines the role of participatory theatre in a peer education setting in relation to the goal of young people engaging and empowering their peers to create new knowledge together. Extending research about the use of applied theatre…
Jill Chouinard, in her article "The Case for Participatory Evaluation in an Era of Accountability" (this issue, p. 237), may be re-iterating what has often been claimed and arguably is infused already in much of our theory and practice: the value of participatory approaches in some, perhaps many situations. She summarizes these claims eloquently…
Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce
We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…
Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia; Lester, Leanne; Midford, Richard; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne
Objective: Participatory learning strategies are integral to the effectiveness of school-based health education programmes; however, use of such methods is not the norm in teaching. The omission of participatory learning strategies is a common form of programme breakdown leading to erosion of positive learning and behavioural outcomes. Based on a…
Imanuel-Noy, Dalia; Wagner, Tili
The research presents a Residency Math teacher education program that has been developed in Israel in search of transforming initial teacher preparation on the Clinical-Participatory continuum. It is a "multi-phase" mixed-method research aiming to present the clinical and participatory dimensions of the TMR: the way in which they are…
Tobias, Evan S.
Knowing how students engage with music outside school music programs can help music educators and their programs evolve. This article offers a look at music teaching and learning in terms of how people are increasingly interacting with music in participatory ways that involve digital technologies and media. This participatory culture offers a…
Vanden Berk, Eric J.; Cassata, Jennifer Coyne; Moye, Melinda J.; Yarbrough, Donald B.; Siddens, Stephanie K.
As an evaluation team trained in educational psychology and committed to participatory evaluation and its evolution, the researchers have found the parallel between evaluator-stakeholder roles in the participatory evaluation process and educator-student roles in educational psychology theory to be important. One advantage then is that the theories…
The recent study Polling for Justice (PFJ) used a multigenerational participatory action research approach with embodied methodologies to document youth experiences of education, criminal justice, and public health in New York City. Through an exploration of the PFJ project, this column demonstrates how participatory action research and embodied…
Tsurkan, Marina V.; Sotskova, Svetlana I.; Aksinina, Olga S.; Lyubarskaya, Maria A.; Tkacheva, Oksana N.
The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need for the advancing of participatory budgeting practice in the Russian Federation. Due to insufficient development of theoretical, scientific, and methodological aspects of the participatory budgeting, very few territories in the Russian Federation use this tool effectively. The most…
Hatley, Richard V.
Discusses the viability of participatory democracy and representative democracy for educational decision-making and argues that pure representative democracy would be preferable to the combination of participatory and representative democracy that now predominates. (Available from the Kansas Association of School Boards, 825 Western, Topeka, KS…
Foster, Nancy Fried, Ed.
This report is based on a series of presentations at the second CLIR Seminar on "Participatory Design of Academic Libraries," held at the University of Rochester's River Campus June 5-7, 2013. Participatory design is a relatively recent approach to understanding library user behavior. It is based on techniques used in anthropological and…
Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin
There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…
Schensul, Jean J.; Berg, Marlene
This article describes a model of participatory action research and service-learning conducted with urban, high school African American, West Indian/Caribbean, and Puerto Rican/Latino youth and adult facilitators, in a nonclassroom setting, in a mid-sized northeastern city. Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) integrates critical theory,…
Cober, Rebecca; Tan, Esther; Slotta, Jim; So, Hyo-Jeong; Könings, Karen D.
Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what…
Peppler, Kylie; Danish, Joshua; Zaitlen, Benjamin; Glosson, Diane; Jacobs, Alexander; Phelps, David
New technologies have enabled students to become active participants in computational simulations of dynamic and complex systems (called Participatory Simulations), providing a "first-person"perspective on complex systems. However, most existing Participatory Simulations have targeted older children, teens, and adults assuming that such concepts…
Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Lewis Ellison, Tisha; Welch, Meghan M.; Allen, Mindy; Bauer, Dennis
This qualitative participatory action research study provides two case studies to demonstrate how teachers in Grades 4 and 6 integrated digital tools into everyday, content-focused classroom instruction. The study demonstrates how teachers' technological pedagogical knowledge might combine with a participatory stance to encourage students to…
In this paper, I respond to the call to articulate experiences of the messy realities of participatory research. I reflect on my engagement and struggle with the realities and ethics of a piece of case study research, which set out with a participatory approach. The project involved a group of young people from an isolated rural community who…
In "Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture" Henry Jenkins defines participatory culture as having "relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement, strong support for creating and sharing with others, and informal mentorship whereby experienced participants pass along knowledge to novices. Members believe their…
Park, Hyun-Sook; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Hoffman, Stacey; Whaley, Susan; Yount, Michael
A study used participatory action research (PAR) to explore social inclusion/relationships at worksites of 10 students (ages 17-21). The participatory intervention process assisted teachers and job coaches in making constructive changes in transition work experience programs to provide social opportunities for students and help them become part of…
Warger, Cynthia; Burnette, Jane
This brief paper defines participatory action research, reviews the literature on its use, and offers examples of how researchers and practitioners are applying principles of participatory action research data to select effective practices and support change and innovation in schools. Generation of data-based strategies in natural environments is…
Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.
Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…
Chouinard, Jill Anne; Cousins, J. Bradley
In this paper, we focus on participatory evaluation in the context of international development and specifically on the emerging empirical knowledge base. In a prior review and critique of research on participatory evaluation (Cousins and Chouinard 2012), we examined 121 studies, with only 21 (17%) situated in development contexts. However, the…
Elwick, Sheena; Sumsion, Jennifer
Drawing on Thomas, Whybrow and Scharber's four participatory perspectives, this paper describes and complicates endeavours to move beyond utilitarian perspectives of infant participation in participatory research. It proposes that film-mediated encounters between researchers and infants have the potential to be more than sites that privilege…
Chowdhury, Ataharul Huq; Odame, Helen Hambly; Hauser, Michael
Recent experiences in participatory video-making raise the question of how best to use this medium for enhancing local seed innovation systems. Embedded in a mini-process of participatory action research, two styles of participatory video--scripted and scriptless--were tested and assessed together with farmers and facilitators in Bogra District,…
Moreno-John, Gina; Fleming, Candace; Ford, Marvella E; Lichtenberg, Peter; Mangione, Carole M; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Tilley, Barbara; Washington, Olivia G M; Carrasquillo, Olveen
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been identified as a useful strategy to overcome disparities in minority elders. However, little consensus exists with respect to appropriate CBPR training and mentoring mechanisms. In this paper, we summarize the mentoring activities in each of the six currently funded Resource Centers on Minority Aging Research (RCMAR). In addition to mentoring trainees and/or junior faculty, we also explore the bi-directional mentoring that occurs when faculty at academic health centers develop partnerships with members of their target communities.
Kelly, Patricia J
Advanced practice nurses and nurse researchers with experience in clinical settings may encounter challenges in the initial development and implementation of community-based projects. Participatory action research methodology, a user-friendly framework for community-based research activities, provides a way for researchers and community members to work together to define a problem, take action, and evaluate their work. This article attempts to bridge the theory-implementation gap by describing background steps that researchers can use when conceptualizing and initiating a research project with community partners. Suggestions for initial steps and the planning and review cycles are presented, along with examples from the literature.
Davis, Sally M; Reid, Raymond
The purpose of this article is to explore the historical issues that affect research in American Indian communities and examine the implications of these issues as they relate to culturally sensitive, respectful, and appropriate research with this population. Methods include review and analysis of the literature and examination of our collective experience and that of our colleagues. Recommendations are given for conducting culturally sensitive, participatory research. We conclude that research efforts must build on the establishment of partnerships between investigators and American Indian communities to ensure accurate findings and analyses and to implement culturally relevant benefits. PMID:10195598
Morales-Campos, Daisy Y; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A
Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve physical activity behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of physical activity. The purpose of this article was to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving.
Manderson, L; Mark, T
The authors describe the experience of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and community-based organizations in implementing projects aimed at improving women's health. The study included 16 projects, reflecting Australian NGO experiences in Africa, China, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and South America. They illustrate the value of participatory approaches in determining needs and priorities, and the value of the continued involvement of women in implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Approaches that succeeded in increasing women's access to and use of health services addressed gender issues, set realistic and achievable objectives, and recognized and enhanced the roles and status of women.
Reix, Christine E.; Dikshit, Amit K.; Hockenhull, Jo; Parker, Richard M. A.; Banerjee, Anindo; Burn, Charlotte C.; Pritchard, Joy C.; Whay, Helen R.
Background Participatory methods are increasingly used in international human development, but scientific evaluation of their efficacy versus a control group is rare. Working horses support families in impoverished communities. Lameness and limb abnormalities are highly prevalent in these animals and a cause for welfare concern. We aimed to stimulate and evaluate improvements in lameness and limb abnormalities in horses whose owners took part in a 2-year participatory intervention project to reduce lameness (PI) versus a control group (C) in Jaipur, India. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 439 owners of 862 horses participated in the study. PI group owners from 21 communities were encouraged to meet regularly to discuss management and work practices influencing lameness and poor welfare and to track their own progress in improving these. Lameness examinations (41 parameters) were conducted at the start of the study (Baseline), and after 1 year and 2 years. Results were compared with control horses from a further 21 communities outside the intervention. Of the 149 horses assessed on all three occasions, PI horses showed significantly (P<0.05) greater improvement than C horses in 20 parameters, most notably overall lameness score, measures of sole pain and range of movement on limb flexion. Control horses showed slight but significantly greater improvements in four parameters, including frog quality in fore and hindlimbs. Conclusions/Significance This participatory intervention succeeded in improving lameness and some limb abnormalities in working horses, by encouraging changes in management and work practices which were feasible within owners’ socioeconomic and environmental constraints. Demonstration of the potentially sustainable improvements achieved here should encourage further development of participatory intervention approaches to benefit humans and animals in other contexts. PMID:25898014
Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers.
Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A.
Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve PA behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of PA. The purpose of this article is to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping (PPM) to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving. PMID:25423243
Farooq, M. S.; Akhtar, M. S.; Ullah, S. Zia; Memon, R. A.
The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm "Total Quality Management" (TQM), and its application in the field of education. The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question(s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. Reviewing fresh literature from the internet …
Background Since its initiation in 2005, the Harvard Personal Genome Project has enrolled thousands of volunteers interested in publicly sharing their genome, health and trait data. Because these data are highly identifiable, we use an ‘open consent’ framework that purposefully excludes promises about privacy and requires participants to demonstrate comprehension prior to enrollment. Discussion Our model of non-anonymous, public genomes has led us to a highly participatory model of researcher-participant communication and interaction. The participants, who are highly committed volunteers, self-pursue and donate research-relevant datasets, and are actively engaged in conversations with both our staff and other Personal Genome Project participants. We have quantitatively assessed these communications and donations, and report our experiences with returning research-grade whole genome data to participants. We also observe some of the community growth and discussion that has occurred related to our project. Summary We find that public non-anonymous data is valuable and leads to a participatory research model, which we encourage others to consider. The implementation of this model is greatly facilitated by web-based tools and methods and participant education. Project results are long-term proactive participant involvement and the growth of a community that benefits both researchers and participants. PMID:24713084
Wilson, Eric A.
Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become "sustainability natives." Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability-literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenological perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year long professional development experience - commencing with an intense, participatory two-day workshop -the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability. Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top-down and bottom-up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy-in, and excitement vis-a-vis sustainability. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K-12 sustainability coordinators ideally need administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor, or through work with student groups and projects.
Cristancho, María Yanire León
The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems.
Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C
Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning.
François, Mathilde; Osiurak, François; Fort, Alexandra; Crave, Philippe; Navarro, Jordan
Automotive human-machine interface (HMI) design is facing new challenges due to the technological advances of the last decades. The design process has to be adapted in order to address human factors and road safety challenges. It is now widely accepted that user involvement in the HMI design process is valuable. However, the current form of user involvement in industry remains at the stages of concept assessment and usability tests. Moreover, the literature in other fields (e.g. information systems) promotes a broader user involvement with participatory design (i.e. the user is fully involved in the development process). This article reviews the established benefits of participatory design and reveals perspectives for automotive HMI quality improvement in a cognitive ergonomic framework. Practitioner Summary: Automotive HMI quality determines, in part, drivers' ability to perform primary driving tasks while using in-vehicle devices. User involvement in the design process is a key point to contribute to HMI quality. This article reports the potential benefits of a broad involvement from drivers to meet automotive HMI design challenges.
Daveler, Brandon; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Candiotti, Jorge; Wang, Hongwu; Cooper, Rory A
The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot) was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW) users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD) prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31) during the participatory design study. Feedback of the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12) showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%), traction control (83%), and curb climbing (75%). The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances.
Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; West, Cheryl; Punnett, Laura
The long-term care sector is characterized by high morbidity and employee turnover, along with associated costs. Effective health protection and health promotion are important to improve physical and psychosocial well-being of caregivers. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is an essential precursor to the successful implementation of workplace programs addressing work climate, structure of tasks and relationships, and other issues that may be perceived as challenging by some within the institution. This study qualitatively assessed readiness of five skilled nursing facilities for a participatory occupational health/health promotion intervention. Selection criteria were developed to screen for program feasibility and ability to conduct prospective evaluations, and information was collected from managers and employees (interviews and focus groups). Three centers were selected for the program, and the first year of formative evaluation and intervention experience was then reviewed to evaluate and modify our selection criteria after the fact. Lessons learned include adding assessment of communication and the structure of problem solving to our selection criteria, improving methods to assess management support in a concrete (potentially nonverbal) form, and obtaining a stated financial commitment and resources to enable the team to function. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is challenging, although necessary to implement effective and sustainable health promotion programs in specific organizations.
Boynton, Teresa; Darragh, Amy Rowntree
The following case study describes an ergonomics intervention program, designed and implemented by an occupational therapist (OT), which included principles of participatory ergonomics, had full support of management and administration, and addressed the work, worker, and environment. The ergonomics program took place in the Sterile Processing Center (SPC) of a 398 bed, mid-western hospital. The SPC was responsible for the collection, sterilization, and reassembling of hospital surgical equipment. The 30 employees of the SPC were vulnerable to injury, having experienced 19 in only two years (of the 19 injuries, 9 were WMSD or ergonomics-related injuries). Over a two and a half year period, the OT and SPC manager conducted ergonomic evaluations, implemented employee training, designed a new SPC department, and modified work processes and equipment. In the year following the training and changes, the SPC staff experienced no injuries. Because of it's success, the program is continuing on a quarterly basis to ensure new problems are addressed quickly, new processes or equipment are evaluated, and new staff are properly trained.
Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Ceja-Adame, Maria de la Paz; Reyes-García, Victoria
Strengthening links between school and community is critical for improving people's participation in environmental issues. However, Mexican education programmes are generally unrelated to rural students' life experience and are planned without considering either teachers' or students' opinions. This article describes the participatory construction of a preparatory school environmental education (EE) programme in Ixtlan de Juarez, a Mexican indigenous community internationally recognised for sustainable forest management. The qualitative research methods used are based on the action research methodology. Results from interviews conducted with the preparatory school's headmaster, the coordinator, and nine teachers provided the needed documentation of the school site for contextualising learning activities. Feedback during focus groups with six students, three teachers, five local communal authorities, and two researchers highlighted that all participants perceived the need for creating an educational programme focused on local forest management. The contents and activities of the programme were designed by the focus group's participants. The programme has been continuously taught by teachers and forest workers since 2005 and was officially integrated with the preparatory school science curriculum in 2006. This participative educational experience has thus transformed the mandatory school curriculum in Ixtlan.
Warner, Jeroen; Oré, Maria Teresa
Climate change is expected to lead to greater extremes (droughts and floods) in river regimes around the world. While the number of major calamities is predicted to rise, the efforts of the public sector, experts and local stakeholders are badly coordinated. Consequently, aid does not reach target groups, resulting in unnecessary losses. Hence, there is a need for more participatory and integrative approaches. To ensure a more concerted response to climate-induced disasters, stakeholders could coordinate and negotiate within Multi-Stakeholder Platforms. Such roundtables are increasingly being established for vision-building and integrated water resource management, but could be employed in disaster management as well. After discussing the advantages and disadvantages of participation, this article trace the rise of and the problems facing two 'El Niño' platforms: one in Ica, a city on the Peruvian coast that flooded unexpectedly in January 1998, and one in Ayacucho, which saw a climate change-induced drought around the same time. The issue of internal and external legitimacy receives particular emphasis.
Goldstein, Roberta Argento; Barcellos, Christovam; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Gracie, Renata; Viacava, Francisco
Maps and mapping procedures are useful tools for systematic interpretation and evaluation and for reporting of results to management. Applied to the Family Health Strategy (FHS), these maps permit the demarcation of the territory and the establishment of links between the territory, its population and health services. In this paper the use of maps by the FHS in 17 municipalities in northern and northeastern Brazil is studied and the process of demarcation and digitization of areas with the participation of teams is described. The survey conducted using questionnaires and discussion workshops showed that difficulties still prevail in reconciling the map (drawing) produced at the local level with maps produced by other government sectors. In general, the maps used at local level employ their own references, which prevent the interplay of information with other cartographic documents and their full use as a tool for evaluation and management. The combination of participatory mapping tools, associated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications proposed in this paper, represents an alternative to mapping the territory of operations of FHS teams, as well as a reflection on the concept of territory and operation by the FHS.
Groussard, Pierre-Yves; Pigot, Hélène; Giroux, Sylvain
Adults with cognitive impairments lack the means to organise their daily life, plan their appointments, cope with fatigue, and manage their budget. They manifest interest in using new technologies to be part of society. Unfortunately, the applications offered on smart phones are often beyond their cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to design a mobile cognitive assistant to enhance autonomy of people living with acquired traumatic brain injury. Participatory design methodologies guided this research by involving adults with cognitive impairments (CI) and their caregivers in the early stages of the design process. The population of the study is composed of four male adults who present cognitive impairments (three with head injury and one with stroke) and three caregivers. The first phase of this research was to design the Services Assistance Mobile and Intelligent (SAMI) application based on the needs expressed by the participants. During three focus groups, needs emerged concerning planning, health monitoring and money management and led to the implementation of assistive solutions on an Android mobile phone. During the second phase, the participants evaluated the mobile assistant SAMI at home for eight weeks. The results demonstrate that the participants were able to participate actively in the conception of SAMI and to use it successfully. People with CI showed a slight improvement in their life satisfaction. Due to the small number of participants, these promising results need to be confirmed by a larger-scale study.
Knibbe, Mare; de Vries, Marten; Horstman, Klasien
Community-based participatory media projects form a promising new strategy for mental health promotion that can help address the mental health-gap identified by the World Health Organization. (2008b) mhGAP, Mental Health Gap Action Programme: Scaling Up Care for Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders. World Health Organization, Geneva. In this article we present an ethnographic study about a participatory media project that was developed to promote mental health in selected Dutch low socio-economic status neighborhoods. Through narrowcastings (group film viewings), participant observation and interviews we mapped the ways in which the media project effected and facilitated the collective sense-making process of the audience with regard to sources of stress impacting mental health and opportunities for action. These determinants of mental health are shaped by cultural dimensions, since the cultural context shapes everyday experiences of stress as well as the resources and skills to manage them. Our analysis shows that the media project engaged cultural resources to challenge stressful social scripts. We conclude that more attention should be paid to cultural narratives in a community to understand how health promotion strategies can support social resilience.
Ekowati, Dian; Hofstee, Carola; Praputra, Andhika Vega; Sheil, Douglas
Participatory Measurement, Reporting and Verification (PMRV), in the context of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with its co-benefits (REDD+) requires sustained monitoring and reporting by community members. This requirement appears challenging and has yet to be achieved. Other successful, long established, community self-monitoring and reporting systems may provide valuable lessons. The Indonesian integrated village healthcare program (Posyandu) was initiated in the 1980s and still provides effective and successful participatory measurement and reporting of child health status across the diverse, and often remote, communities of Indonesia. Posyandu activities focus on the growth and development of children under the age of five by recording their height and weight and reporting these monthly to the Ministry of Health. Here we focus on the local Posyandu personnel (kaders) and their motivations and incentives for contributing. While Posyandu and REDD+ measurement and reporting activities differ, there are sufficient commonalities to draw useful lessons. We find that the Posyandu kaders are motivated by their interests in health care, by their belief that it benefits the community, and by encouragement by local leaders. Recognition from the community, status within the system, training opportunities, competition among communities, and small payments provide incentives to sustain participation. We examine these lessons in the context of REDD+.
Chang, Charlotte; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pam Tau; Liu, Shaw San; Tom, Alex T; Morales, Alvaro; Baker, Robin; Minkler, Meredith
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly being used to better understand and improve the health of diverse communities. A key strength of this research orientation is its adaptability to community contexts and characteristics. To date, however, few studies explicitly discuss adaptations made to CBPR principles and processes in response to community context and partners' needs. Using data from our CBPR study, the San Francisco Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Project, and drawing from literature on immigrant political incorporation, we examine the links between the contexts of the Chinese immigrant worker community, adaptations made by our collaborative, and study outcomes. In particular, we explore the concepts of contexts of reception and participatory starting points, which may be especially relevant for partnerships with immigrant communities whose members have historically had lower rates of civic and political participation in the US. We discuss contextual findings such as worker partner accounts of language barriers, economic and social marginalization, and civic skills and participation, as well as subsequent adaptations made by the partnership. We also describe the relative effectiveness of these adaptations in yielding equitable participation and building partners' capacity. We conclude by sharing lessons learned and their implications for CBPR and partnerships with immigrant communities more broadly.
Ekowati, Dian; Hofstee, Carola; Praputra, Andhika Vega; Sheil, Douglas
Participatory Measurement, Reporting and Verification (PMRV), in the context of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with its co-benefits (REDD+) requires sustained monitoring and reporting by community members. This requirement appears challenging and has yet to be achieved. Other successful, long established, community self-monitoring and reporting systems may provide valuable lessons. The Indonesian integrated village healthcare program (Posyandu) was initiated in the 1980s and still provides effective and successful participatory measurement and reporting of child health status across the diverse, and often remote, communities of Indonesia. Posyandu activities focus on the growth and development of children under the age of five by recording their height and weight and reporting these monthly to the Ministry of Health. Here we focus on the local Posyandu personnel (kaders) and their motivations and incentives for contributing. While Posyandu and REDD+ measurement and reporting activities differ, there are sufficient commonalities to draw useful lessons. We find that the Posyandu kaders are motivated by their interests in health care, by their belief that it benefits the community, and by encouragement by local leaders. Recognition from the community, status within the system, training opportunities, competition among communities, and small payments provide incentives to sustain participation. We examine these lessons in the context of REDD+. PMID:27806053
Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils
Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.
Gray, Ross E.; Fitch, Margaret; Davis, Christine; Phillips, Catherine
Objective To review and discuss issues related to participatory research, as they apply within the arena of cancer control. Design A participatory research study with breast cancer self‐help groups is referred to for description and discussion purposes. That study employed primarily individual and group interviews to assess benefits and limitations of self‐help groups. Settings Four breast cancer self‐help groups in Ontario communities provided the core involvement in the participatory research project. Results The values and practices of mainstream academic research often conflict with those of research emphasizing participation and control of communities under study, leading to a variety of challenges for the latter approaches. Practical constraints faced by many community groups have important implications for participatory research approaches. Conclusions A balance needs to be found for participatory research within cancer control – one that ensures that the core aims of participatory research are maintained, while simultaneously acknowledging the various challenges that make a fully participatory project unrealistic. Steps can be taken to achieve a workable balance. PMID:11281935
Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils
Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.
Freire's theory of social change informs analysis of youth-focused participatory research, with researchers describing links between participation and young people's critical thinking. There is less analysis of how youth move from the safe social space of a participatory research project to take health-promoting action in difficult real-world contexts. This article analyses a project conducted with Papua New Guinean youth, disrupting assumptions that critical thinking inevitably leads to critical action on health. Findings suggest the need to shift the focus of participatory research from supporting 'safe social spaces' to supporting 'transformative action in context' to concretely contribute to improving youth health.
Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Unanswered questions about racial and socioeconomic health disparities may be addressed using community-based participatory research and systems science. Community-based participatory research is an orientation to research that prioritizes developing capacity, improving trust, and translating knowledge to action. Systems science provides research methods to study dynamic and interrelated forces that shape health disparities. Community-based participatory research and systems science are complementary, but their integration requires more research. We discuss paradigmatic, socioecological, capacity-building, colearning, and translational synergies that help advance progress toward health equity.
Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Unanswered questions about racial and socioeconomic health disparities may be addressed using community-based participatory research and systems science. Community-based participatory research is an orientation to research that prioritizes developing capacity, improving trust, and translating knowledge to action. Systems science provides research methods to study dynamic and interrelated forces that shape health disparities. Community-based participatory research and systems science are complementary, but their integration requires more research. We discuss paradigmatic, socioecological, capacity-building, colearning, and translational synergies that help advance progress toward health equity. PMID:26691110
Repede, Elizabeth J
Dreaming is a universal phenomenon in human experience and one that carries multiple meanings in the narrative discourse across disciplines. Dreams can be collective, communal, and emancipatory, as well as individual. While individual dreaming has been extensively studied in the literature, the participatory nature of dreaming as a unitary phenomenon is limited. The concept of participatory dreaming within a unitary appreciative framework for healing is explored from perspectives in anthropology, psychology, and nursing. A participatory model of dreaming is proposed from a synthesis of the literature for use in future research using unitary appreciative inquiry.
Wallerstein, Nina B; Duran, Bonnie
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the past decades as an alternative research paradigm, which integrates education and social action to improve health and reduce health disparities. More than a set of research methods, CBPR is an orientation to research that focuses on relationships between academic and community partners, with principles of colearning, mutual benefit, and long-term commitment and incorporates community theories, participation, and practices into the research efforts. As CBPR matures, tensions have become recognized that challenge the mutuality of the research relationship, including issues of power, privilege, participation, community consent, racial and/or ethnic discrimination, and the role of research in social change. This article focuses on these challenges as a dynamic and ever-changing context of the researcher-community relationship, provides examples of these paradoxes from work in tribal communities, discusses the evidence that CBPR reduces disparities, and recommends transforming the culture of academia to strengthen collaborative research relationships.
Yang, K Wayne
This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math preparation and accelerate students into higher-order math literacy. This study differs from and extends other studies that describe mathematics as a tool for social critique. It considers youth research in and through mathematics as a more ideologically open endeavor in that youth do not simply reproduce predetermined criticisms of social inequality. Thus, this project translates extensive work in critical literacy, new media literacy, and youth participatory action research to a mathematics context.
Fisher, Philip A; Ball, Thomas J
Although much social science research has been conducted within American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities, relatively little research has been conducted by or for those communities. We describe an approach that facilitates the active involvement of AIAN communities in the research process, from conceptualizing the issues to be investigated to developing a research design, and from collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data to disseminating the results. The Tribal Participatory Research (TPR) approach is consistent with recent developments in psychology that emphasize the inclusion of community members and the social construction of knowledge. We describe the foundations of the approach and present specific mechanisms that can be employed in collaborations between researchers and AIAN communities. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the use of TPR regarding project timelines and budgets, interpretation of the data, and ultimately the relationships between tribes and researchers.
Fowler, Cathrine; Wu, Cynthia; Lam, Winsome
Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity.
Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.
According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine
Principles for participatory community development are as follows: humility and respect; power of local knowledge; democratic practice; diverse ways of knowing; sustainability; reality before theory; uncertainty; relativity of time and efficiency; holistic approach; and decisions rooted in the community. (SK)
Fox, Madeline; Fine, Michelle
The authors trace the connections between multigenerational participatory action research and relational approaches to shared leadership, illustrating how the collective production of knowledge through research builds youth leadership capacity.
Graham, Reginald A.; And Others
Describes procedures for participatory examinations, a method for achieving student collaboration in marketing education. Suggests that the method teaches students group process, persuasion, teamwork, and other skills needed in the contemporary workplace. (SK)
Pollack, Ari H; Miller, Andrew; Mishra, Sonali R.; Pratt, Wanda
Participatory design, a method by which system users and stakeholders meaningfully contribute to the development of a new process or technology, has great potential to revolutionize healthcare technology, yet has seen limited adoption. We conducted a design session with eleven physicians working to create a novel clinical information tool utilizing participatory design methods. During the two-hour session, the physicians quickly engaged in the process and generated a large quantity of information, informing the design of a future tool. By utilizing facilitators experienced in design methodology, with detailed domain expertise, and well integrated into the healthcare organization, the participatory design session engaged a group of users who are often disenfranchised with existing processes as well as health information technology in general. We provide insight into why participatory design works with clinicians and provide guiding principles for how to implement these methods in healthcare organizations interested in advancing health information technology. PMID:28269900
Balbale, Salva N.; Locatelli, Sara M.; LaVela, Sherri L.
In this methodological article, we examine participatory methods in-depth to demonstrate how these methods can be adopted for quality improvement (QI) projects in health care. We draw on existing literature and our QI initiatives in the Department of Veterans Affairs to discuss the application of photovoice and guided tours in QI efforts. We highlight lessons learned and several benefits of using participatory methods in this area. Using participatory methods, evaluators can engage patients, providers and other stakeholders as partners to enhance care. Participant involvement helps yield actionable data that can be translated into improved care practices. Use of these methods also helps generate key insights to inform improvements that truly resonate with stakeholders. Using participatory methods is a valuable strategy to harness participant engagement and drive improvements that address individual needs. In applying these innovative methodologies, evaluators can transcend traditional approaches to uniquely support evaluations and improvements in health care. PMID:26667882
Salmon, Amy; Browne, Annette J; Pederson, Ann
In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces.
Yates, Katherine L.; Schoeman, David S.
Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers’ spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers’ willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision
In urban ecosystems, the ecological system has become completely unbalanced; this, in turn, has led to an increase in well-known problems such as air pollution, ground pollution, and water pollution. This imbalance has also led to the growth and spread of pathogens harmful to man, animals, and plants. Urban sustainability indicators, both global and local, also "indicate" the percentage of population, but these refer only to the human population, not the animal population. Cities need good waste, water, and air management, effective traffic planning, and good zoning of businesses, crafts, and services; over and above these activities, cities also need for planning to take into account the existence of pets (dogs, cats, and etc.) and nonpet animals (insects, birds, mice, etc.). Cities tend to be designed around humans and "on a human scale," without taking into account the fact that a huge animal population is living side by side with people. That explains why overcrowding tends to go hand in hand with urbanization; all these populations, including humans, need to adapt to new spaces and often need to drastically change their behavior. This is a fact that must be included when drafting sustainable city plans. The supposed strategy is that of "integrated-participatory" control of the interactions between the environment and animals in the cities. Strategy will focus on the development of integrated approaches and tools for environment and animal management in the context of urban settings. This will require such specific methods as ecological balance sheets and ecoplans for the planning, management, and control of the interrelation among environment, animal, and public health. The objective is to develop a better understanding of urban biodiversity and of urban ecosystem functioning, in order to understand and minimize the negative impacts of human activities on them. The research will focus on assessing and forecasting changes in urban biodiversity, structure
There is increasing recognition of the importance for local biodiversity of post-mining sites, many of which lie near communities that have suffered significant social and economic deprivation as the result of mine closures. However, no studies to date have actively used the knowledge of local communities to relate the history and treatment of post-mining sites to their current ecological status. We report a study of two post-mining sites in the Yorkshire coalfield of the UK in which the local community were involved in developing site histories and assessing plant and invertebrate species composition. Site histories developed using participatory GIS revealed that the sites had a mixture of areas of spontaneous succession and technical reclamation, and identified that both planned management interventions and informal activities influenced habitat heterogeneity and ecological diversity. Two groups of informal activity were identified as being of particular importance. Firstly, there has been active protection by the community of flower-rich habitats of conservation value (e.g. calcareous grassland) and distinctive plant species (e.g. orchids) which has also provided important foraging resources for butterfly and bumblebee species. Secondly, disturbance by activities such as use of motorbikes, informal camping, and cutting of trees and shrubs for fuel, as well as planned management interventions such as spreading of brick rubble, has provided habitat for plant species of open waste ground and locally uncommon invertebrate species which require patches of bare ground. This study demonstrates the importance of informal, and often unrecorded, activities by the local community in providing diverse habitats and increased biodiversity within a post-mining site, and shows that active engagement with the local community and use of local knowledge can enhance ecological interpretation of such sites and provide a stronger basis for successful future management. PMID:26309041
Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S
Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process
Rich, Kevin J; Ridealgh, Michael; West, Sarah E; Cinderby, Steve; Ashmore, Mike
There is increasing recognition of the importance for local biodiversity of post-mining sites, many of which lie near communities that have suffered significant social and economic deprivation as the result of mine closures. However, no studies to date have actively used the knowledge of local communities to relate the history and treatment of post-mining sites to their current ecological status. We report a study of two post-mining sites in the Yorkshire coalfield of the UK in which the local community were involved in developing site histories and assessing plant and invertebrate species composition. Site histories developed using participatory GIS revealed that the sites had a mixture of areas of spontaneous succession and technical reclamation, and identified that both planned management interventions and informal activities influenced habitat heterogeneity and ecological diversity. Two groups of informal activity were identified as being of particular importance. Firstly, there has been active protection by the community of flower-rich habitats of conservation value (e.g. calcareous grassland) and distinctive plant species (e.g. orchids) which has also provided important foraging resources for butterfly and bumblebee species. Secondly, disturbance by activities such as use of motorbikes, informal camping, and cutting of trees and shrubs for fuel, as well as planned management interventions such as spreading of brick rubble, has provided habitat for plant species of open waste ground and locally uncommon invertebrate species which require patches of bare ground. This study demonstrates the importance of informal, and often unrecorded, activities by the local community in providing diverse habitats and increased biodiversity within a post-mining site, and shows that active engagement with the local community and use of local knowledge can enhance ecological interpretation of such sites and provide a stronger basis for successful future management.
Kusunoki, Diana; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Zhang, Zhan; Yala, Maria
Prior CSCW research on awareness in clinical settings has mostly focused on higher-level team coordination spanning across longer-term trajectories at the department and inter-department levels. In this paper, we offer a perspective on what awareness means within the context of an ad hoc, time- and safety-critical medical setting by looking at teams treating severely ill patients with urgent needs. We report findings from four participatory design workshops conducted with emergency medicine clinicians at two regional emergency departments. Workshops were developed to elicit design ideas for information displays that support awareness in emergency medical situations. Through analysis of discussions and clinicians’ sketches of information displays, we identified five features of teamwork that can be used as a foundation for supporting awareness from the perspective of clinicians. Based on these findings, we contribute rich descriptions of four facets of awareness that teams manage during emergency medical situations: team member awareness, elapsed time awareness, teamwork-oriented and patient-driven task awareness, and overall progress awareness. We then discuss these four awareness types in relation to awareness facets found in the CSCW literature. PMID:25870498
Bell, Jacqueline S; Marais, Debbi
In the context of slow progress towards Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health, an innovative participatory training programme in the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Maternal and Newborn Health programmes was developed and delivered in six developing countries. The training, for health professionals and programme managers, aimed: (i) to strengthen participants' skills in M&E to enable more effective targeting of resources, and (ii) to build the capacity of partner institutions hosting the training to run similar courses. This review aims to assess the extent to which these goals were met and elicit views on ways to improve the training. An online survey of training participants and structured interviews with stakeholders were undertaken. Data from course reports were also incorporated. There was clearly a benefit to participants in terms of improved knowledge and skills. There is also some evidence that this translated into action through M&E implementation and tool development. Evidence of capacity-building at an institutional level was limited. Lessons for professional development training can be drawn from several aspects of the training programme that were found to facilitate learning, engagement and application. These include structuring courses around participant material, focussing on the development of practical action plans and involving multi-disciplinary teams. The need for strengthening follow-up and embedding it throughout the training was highlighted to overcome the challenges to applying learning in the 'real world'.
Kusters, Koen; Buck, Louise; de Graaf, Maartje; Minang, Peter; van Oosten, Cora; Zagt, Roderick
Integrated landscape initiatives typically aim to strengthen landscape governance by developing and facilitating multi-stakeholder platforms. These are institutional coordination mechanisms that enable discussions, negotiations, and joint planning between stakeholders from various sectors in a given landscape. Multi-stakeholder platforms tend to involve complex processes with diverse actors, whose objectives and focus may be subjected to periodic re-evaluation, revision or reform. In this article we propose a participatory method to aid planning, monitoring, and evaluation of such platforms, and we report on experiences from piloting the method in Ghana and Indonesia. The method is comprised of three components. The first can be used to look ahead, identifying priorities for future multi-stakeholder collaboration in the landscape. It is based on the identification of four aspirations that are common across multi-stakeholder platforms in integrated landscape initiatives. The second can be used to look inward. It focuses on the processes within an existing multi-stakeholder platform in order to identify areas for possible improvement. The third can be used to look back, identifying the main outcomes of an existing platform and comparing them to the original objectives. The three components can be implemented together or separately. They can be used to inform planning and adaptive management of the platform, as well as to demonstrate performance and inform the design of new interventions.
Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F
Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.
Bell, Jacqueline S.; Marais, Debbi
In the context of slow progress towards Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health, an innovative participatory training programme in the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Maternal and Newborn Health programmes was developed and delivered in six developing countries. The training, for health professionals and programme managers, aimed: (i) to strengthen participants’ skills in M&E to enable more effective targeting of resources, and (ii) to build the capacity of partner institutions hosting the training to run similar courses. This review aims to assess the extent to which these goals were met and elicit views on ways to improve the training. An online survey of training participants and structured interviews with stakeholders were undertaken. Data from course reports were also incorporated. There was clearly a benefit to participants in terms of improved knowledge and skills. There is also some evidence that this translated into action through M&E implementation and tool development. Evidence of capacity-building at an institutional level was limited. Lessons for professional development training can be drawn from several aspects of the training programme that were found to facilitate learning, engagement and application. These include structuring courses around participant material, focussing on the development of practical action plans and involving multi-disciplinary teams. The need for strengthening follow-up and embedding it throughout the training was highlighted to overcome the challenges to applying learning in the ‘real world’. PMID:25716377
Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M.; Pontuschka, Nídia N.; Felipone, Sonia M. N.; dos Santos, Tereza L. F.
Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672
Participatory GIS (PGIS) has been prescribed by scholars who sought to find a means to enable more equitable access to GIS data, diversifying the types of knowledge captured by a GIS and re-engineering GIS software. The popularity of PGIS is evident in the various studies and contexts in which it has been utilised. These include studies in risk assessment, land administration, resource management, crime mapping and urban design to mention but a few. Despite the popularity of PGIS as a body of research, little has been done in the analysis of the quality of PGIS information. The study investigated the use of data quality criteria commonly used in traditional GIS systems and shows that it is possible to apply the criteria used in traditional GIS to PGIS. It provides a starting point for PGIS studies to assess the quality of the product. Notably, this a reflective exercise on one case study, but the methodologies used in this study have been replicated in many others undertaken by Community Based Organisations as well as Non-Governmental Organisations. Therefore the findings are relevant to such projects.
Fatland, D. R.; Kuntz, L.
Participatory System Science: Multi-Level Comprehension Through a Game-like Process We built a time-series game that permits the player to make water management decisions concerning the Skagit River (north-central Washington state) every five years for 60 years. This work was inspired by the integrative efforts of the Skagit Climate Science Consortium and the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington. Our principle guiding concepts have been - Construct a reasonable system description with -- wherever possible -- Events / Consequences rendered both visually and in terms of financial impact. - Base the system description on peer reviewed publications - Emphasize both connection and absence of connection between player Actions and subsequent Consequences in the catchment basin. Player choices center around dam flow levels and steps to mitigate negative impacts of sediment transport into the lower (populated) reaches of the Skagit River and into Puget Sound (levees, new dams, estuary restoration, etcetera). With this work we hope to explore scientific results in public awareness by engaging the game Player as a problem solver.
Ameur, Fatah; Lejars, Caroline; Dionnet, Mathieu; Quarouch, Hassan; Kuper, Marcel
In the Saiss plain, groundwater overexploitation is often explained by two phenomena. The first one is a natural phenomenon (droughts), which seems therefore uncontrollable; the other one is human as groundwater is largely used by the agricultural sector. The main issue of groundwater governance is to find an acceptable balance in the use of the water resource without compromising the socio-economic development generated by this resource. Our study aims to contribute to understanding the differential contribution of different categories of groundwater users and the socio-economic and agrarian dynamics impacted by the overuse of groundwater. We adopted a participatory approach to explore with the different actors involved in the management and use of groundwater to identify the different viewpoints on the issue of overexploitation and to engage prospective and collective thinking of present situation of groundwater overexploitation. We organized multi-stakeholder workshops and designed a role-playing game to identify and qualify the existing links between the water resource, and the economic and social dynamics in order to better understand the human behavior to economic and environmental crises and the adaptive strategies of farmers confronted with an increasingly scarce groundwater resource. Our results showed considerable differences in the viewpoints of different categories of farmers regarding overexploitation. Agricultural investors who arrived over the past 5 years in the area practicing arboriculture consider themselves modern farmers using precise and water-saving irrigation technologies (drip irrigation, especially) who cannot be blamed for overexploitation of groundwater resources. Lessees practicing horticulture put considerable pressure on water resources, but were not interested in debates on overexploitation and the sustainability of groundwater resources. In fact, they did not turn up for the workshops. Finally, the local small-scale farmers who have
Participatory evaluation models that invite community coalitions to take an active role in developing evaluations of their programs are a natural fit with Healthy Communities initiatives. The author describes the development of a participatory evaluation model for New Mexico's Healthier Communities program. She describes evaluation principles, research questions, and baseline findings. The evaluation model shows the links between process, community-level system impacts, and population health changes.
Simonds, Vanessa W; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia
The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009-2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research.
García, Ana M; Gadea, Rafael; Sevilla, Maria José; Genís, Susana; Ronda, Elena
Participatory ergonomics is an intervention strategy acting on physical load exposures occurring in occupational settings, scarcely known in Spain but with a number of experiences and evidences coming from other countries. There are several reasons justifying the interest of this approach. First, participatory ergonomics focuses on one of the categories of occupational exposures with the largest impact on workers' health in a majority of countries all over the world, in terms of incidence, prevalence and disability. Secondly, basic principle in participatory ergonomics is empowerment of workers for them to participate identifying risks and injuries caused by physical exposures at work as well as proposing and evaluating proper control measures for each situation. Thirdly, it allows dealing and solving a number of problems without the use of complex technical protocols. From a public health perspective, participatory ergonomics is a largely tried model of community empowerment for the control of (occupational) factors affecting health and wellbeing. In this paper we revise some basic principles of participatory ergonomics, we comment on the keys leading to success or failing of the interventions and we present some main results coming from participatory ergonomics experiences developed for a long time in countries such as Canada, United Kingdom, Netherlands or Finland.
Chouinard, Jill Anne; Milley, Peter
In participatory or collaborative evaluation practice, context is considered a complex, relational and social phenomenon that frames the parameters of the inquiry process in profound ways. To help us expand upon our understanding of context, we borrow the concept of "space" from the critical geographers, as it provides a bridge between the social and geographic complexities of context, enabling us to more fully capture the social and relational dynamic that fundamentally defines participatory evaluation. Our focus is on understanding context and relationships as two interconnected, dynamic and constituent parts of evaluation practices that feature participatory spaces. We then turn to a comparative analysis of participatory practice across two published reviews of distinct sets of empirical studies as a way to extend our understanding of participatory evaluation in relation to its practical, and frequently complex, contextual expressions in the field. This comparative analysis enables us to develop a set of five dimensions (epistemic, temporal/historical, cultural, economic/organizational, political) that we believe captures the spatial and contextual characteristics and contours of participatory practice.
Nelson, G; Ochocka, J; Griffin, K; Lord, J
Participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors is reviewed. We begin by tracing the origins of and defining both participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid. In so doing, the degree of correspondence between the assumptions/values of participatory action research and those of self-help/mutual aid for psychiatric consumer/survivors is examined. We argue that participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid share four values in common: (a) empowerment, (b) supportive relationships, (c) social change, and (d) learning as an ongoing process. Next, selected examples of participatory action research with psychiatric consumer/survivor-controlled self-help/mutual aid organizations which illustrate these shared values are provided. We conclude with recommendations of how the key values can be promoted in both the methodological and substantive aspects of future participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors.
Barthel, Roland; Büttner, Hannah; Nickel, Darla; Seidl, Roman
Participatory modeling (PM) has become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources research and management. This is mainly because of the notion that models developed by scientists for scientific purposes are often not suitable for practical management for several reasons, such as (too) high complexity, low user-friendliness and lack of problem/solution orientation. Participation is seen as a key concept for bridging the gap between modelers and stakeholders. In this submission we focus on the PM-process in the GLOWA-Danube (GD) project (German Ministry of Education and Research, 2001-2011). GD was carried out by an interdisciplinary consortium of 17 research organizations. The main goal was to develop and to use the integrated modelling system DANUBIA as a tool to evaluate the impact of global change on the Upper Danube Catchment (Southern Germany, 77,000 km^2) and to discuss the implications with relevant stakeholders. An intensive stakeholder dialoged was carried out to include the perspective of stakeholders and end-users in the model and scenario development - with the final goal of facilitating implementation of DANUBIA in practical management after termination of the scientific project. This contribution looks at the specific conditions for PM in the field of global change scenarios and complex integrated models. The different phases of the PM process in GD are presented along with a discussion of the respective results. Overall, the impact of stakeholder interaction on the model development was much lower than expected. The ultimate goal of using the PM process to develop DANUBIA as a tool used in practical management after termination of the scientific project was not reached. However, implications of climate change and modelling could be discussed with the stakeholders involved and relevant learning processes on both sides (scientists and stakeholders) were facilitated in the final phase. In the
Flum, Marian R.; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; DeCaro, Anthony; Redway, Scott
Background Photovoice, a photographic participatory action research methodology was used in a workplace setting to assess hazards that were creating extremely high injury and incidents rates for university custodians and to promote the conditions to eliminate or reduce those hazards. Methods University custodians participated in a Photovoice project to identify, categorize and prioritize occupational hazards and to discuss and propose solutions to these problems. Results were presented to management and to all custodians for further discussion. The effort was led by a worker-based union-sponsored participatory evaluation team in partnership with a university researcher. Results Visual depiction of hazardous tasks and exposures among custodians and management focused primarily on improper or unsafe equipment, awkward postures, lifting hazards, and electrical hazards. The process of taking pictures and presenting them created an ongoing discussion among workers and management regarding the need for change and for process improvements, and resulted in greater interest and activity regarding occupational health among the workers. In a follow-up evaluation one year later, a number of hazards identified through Photovoice had been corrected. Injury rates for custodians had decreased from 39% to 26%. Conclusions Photovoice can be an important tool, not just for identifying occupational hazards, but also empowering workers to be more active around health and safety and may facilitate important changes in the workplace. PMID:20632314
Dolinska, Aleksandra; d'Aquino, Patrick; Imache, Amar; Dionnet, Mathieu; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel
In the framework of the European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we conducted a participatory research on the possible innovative practices to increase production of dairy farms in the irrigation scheme El Brahmi in Tunisia in the face of changing economic, political and environmental conditions. Our aim was to find effective research method to stimulate farmers' participation in the innovation process. Although the capacities of farmers in producing knowledge and in innovating are recognized and the shift from the linear model of technology transfer towards more participatory approaches to innovation is postulated, in which the role of researchers changes from providing solutions towards supporting farmers in finding their own solutions, in practice, the position of farmers in shaping innovation practice and process remains weak. After a series of participatory workshops and in-depth interviews with the actors of the local innovation system we developed and tested a simple open simulation game Laitconomie for farmers. The game proved to be effective in increasing our understanding of the system as the farmers were adding new elements and rules while playing, and in mobilizing farmers' knowledge (including tacit knowledge) in the simulated innovation process. The result reported by the participants was learning how to improve farm management, soil fertility management and cow nutrition practices. Some of the participants used the game as a decision support tool. While our game and its scope were modest and mobilized only two types of players (farmers and extension agent), open simulation proved to be a useful tool to analyze a local innovation system. Designing similar type of tools that would mobilize more diverse players and hence have a larger scope can be imagined.
Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.
As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights
Wario, Hussein T; Roba, Hassan G; Kaufmann, Brigitte
Understanding the perception of environmental resources by the users is an important element in planning its sustainable use and management. Pastoralist communities manage their vast grazing territories and exploit resource variability through strategic mobility. However, the knowledge on which pastoralists' resource management is based and their perception of the grazing areas has received limited attention. To improve this understanding and to document this knowledge in a way that can be communicated with 'outsiders', we adopted a participatory mapping approach using satellite imagery to explore how Borana pastoralists of southern Ethiopia differentiated and characterized their grazing areas. The Borana herders conceptualized their grazing areas as set of distinctive grazing units each having specific names and characteristics. The precise location and the borders of each grazing unit were identified on the satellite image. In naming of the grazing units, the main differentiating criteria were landforms, vegetation types, prevalence of wildlife species, and manmade features. Based on the dominant soil type, the grazing units were aggregated into seasonal grazing areas that were described using factors such as soil drainage properties, extent of woody cover, main grass species, and prevalence of ecto-parasites. Pastoralists ranking of the seasonal grazing areas according to their suitability for cattle grazing matched with vegetation assessment results on the abundance of desirable fodder varieties. Approaching grazing area differentiation from the pastoralists' perspectives improves the understanding of rangeland characteristics that pastoralists considered important in their grazing management and visualization of their mental representation in digital maps eases communication of this knowledge.
Wario, Hussein T.; Roba, Hassan G.; Kaufmann, Brigitte
Understanding the perception of environmental resources by the users is an important element in planning its sustainable use and management. Pastoralist communities manage their vast grazing territories and exploit resource variability through strategic mobility. However, the knowledge on which pastoralists' resource management is based and their perception of the grazing areas has received limited attention. To improve this understanding and to document this knowledge in a way that can be communicated with `outsiders', we adopted a participatory mapping approach using satellite imagery to explore how Borana pastoralists of southern Ethiopia differentiated and characterized their grazing areas. The Borana herders conceptualized their grazing areas as set of distinctive grazing units each having specific names and characteristics. The precise location and the borders of each grazing unit were identified on the satellite image. In naming of the grazing units, the main differentiating criteria were landforms, vegetation types, prevalence of wildlife species, and manmade features. Based on the dominant soil type, the grazing units were aggregated into seasonal grazing areas that were described using factors such as soil drainage properties, extent of woody cover, main grass species, and prevalence of ecto-parasites. Pastoralists ranking of the seasonal grazing areas according to their suitability for cattle grazing matched with vegetation assessment results on the abundance of desirable fodder varieties. Approaching grazing area differentiation from the pastoralists' perspectives improves the understanding of rangeland characteristics that pastoralists considered important in their grazing management and visualization of their mental representation in digital maps eases communication of this knowledge.
Ford-Thompson, Adriana E S; Snell, Carolyn; Saunders, Glen; White, Piran C L
Stakeholders are increasingly involved in species conservation. We sought to understand what features of a participatory conservation program are associated with its ecological and social outcomes. We conducted a case study of the management of invasive vertebrates in Australia. Invasive vertebrates are a substantial threat to Australia's native species, and stakeholder participation in their management is often necessary for their control. First, we identified potential influences on the ecological and social outcomes of species conservation programs from the literature. We used this information to devise an interview questionnaire, which we administered to managers of 34 participatory invasive-vertebrate programs. Effects of invasive species were related to program initiator (agency or citizen), reasons for use of a participatory approach, and stakeholder composition. Program initiator was also related to the participation methods used, level of governance (i.e., governed by an agency or citizens), changes in stakeholder interactions, and changes in abundance of invasive species. Ecological and social outcomes were related to changes in abundance of invasive species and stakeholder satisfaction. We identified relations between changes in the number of participants, stakeholder satisfaction, and occurrence of conflict. Potential ways to achieve ecological and social goals include provision of governmental support (e.g., funding) to stakeholders and minimization of gaps in representation of stakeholder groups or individuals to, for example, increase conflict mitigation. Our findings provide guidance for increasing the probability of achieving ecological and social objectives in management of invasive vertebrates and may be applicable to other participatory conservation programs.
Hu, Mingyuan; Che, Weitao; Zhang, Qiuju; Luo, Qingli; Lin, Hui
Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment), and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1) spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2) multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3) dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for
Background Participatory Research (PR) entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness), or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers). Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships. Methods We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research) and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods. Results The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs) were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies), comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist review methods. Discussion
Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502
Spears Johnson, C R; Kraemer Diaz, A E; Arcury, T A
This analysis describes the nature of community participation in National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects, and explores the scientific and social implications of variation in community participation. We conducted in-depth interviews in 2012 with professional and community researchers from 25 CBPR projects in the Southeast US. Interview topics focused on participants' experiences with the nature and conduct of their CBPR project. Projects were rated on community participation in 13 components of research. Projects varied substantially in community participation. Some projects had community participation in only two to three components; others had participation in every component. Some professional researchers were deliberate in their inclusion of community participation in all aspects of research, others had community participation in some aspects, and others were mainly concerned that community members had the opportunity to participate in the study. Findings suggest a need for a standardized rubric for community-based research that facilitates delineation of approaches and procedures that are effective and efficient. Little actual community participation may also result in negative social impacts for communities.
Castleden, Heather; Garvin, Theresa
Scientific research occurs within a set of socio-political conditions, and in Canada research involving Indigenous communities has a historical association with colonialism. Consequently, Indigenous peoples have been justifiably sceptical and reluctant to become the subjects of academic research. Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is an attempt to develop culturally relevant research models that address issues of injustice, inequality, and exploitation. The work reported here evaluates the use of Photovoice, a CBPR method that uses participant-employed photography and dialogue to create social change, which was employed in a research partnership with a First Nation in Western Canada. Content analysis of semi-structured interviews (n=45) evaluated participants' perspectives of the Photovoice process as part of a larger study on health and environment issues. The analysis revealed that Photovoice effectively balanced power, created a sense of ownership, fostered trust, built capacity, and responded to cultural preferences. The authors discuss the necessity of modifying Photovoice, by building in an iterative process, as being key to the methodological success of the project.
Wang, Wendong; Xi, Teng; Ngai, Edith C-H; Song, Zheng
Location information is a key element of participatory sensing. Many mobile and sensing applications require location information to provide better recommendations, object search and trip planning. However, continuous GPS positioning consumes much energy, which may drain the battery of mobile devices quickly. Although WiFi and cell tower positioning are alternatives, they provide lower accuracy compared to GPS. This paper solves the above problem by proposing a novel localization scheme through the collaboration of multiple mobile devices to reduce energy consumption and provide accurate positioning. Under our scheme, the mobile devices are divided into three groups, namely the broadcaster group, the location information receiver group and the normal participant group. Only the broadcaster group and the normal participant group use their GPS. The location information receiver group, on the other hand, makes use of the locations broadcast by the broadcaster group to estimate their locations. We formulate the broadcaster set selection problem and propose two novel algorithms to minimize the energy consumption in collaborative localization. Simulations with real traces show that our proposed solution can save up to 68% of the energy of all of the participants and provide more accurate locations than WiFi and cellular network positioning.
Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris
The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263
Ui, S; Leng, K; Aoyama, A
This qualitative study examines the significance and effectiveness of participatory health training as a tool for peace building. It does so by analysing a case of training for 'health promoters' run by a Cambodian government health agency. The authors observed participants during the training and interviewed those involved in the courses. A developing capacity for coexistence and reconciliation between individuals who had been on opposite sides during the years of Khmer Rouge terror and continuous internal war was observed among both participants and trainers. Factors embodied in the training that facilitated favourable changes in self and in relations with others were identified as: (1) 'space for dialogue' was created by concrete common public health interests and urgent needs; (2) training took place 'live-in' style in a rural setting; (3) course contents and methods were consistent with peace education; (4) trainers had a conscious function as role models; and (5) there was continuity of effort and consequent accumulation of experience. To build peace, as well as conducting training directly on a technical topic, these essential factors need to be incorporated in the training programmes.
Andrews, Jeannette O; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J; Bunting, Shelia
The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 participants) were conducted with academic and community participants who had experiences with CBPR partnerships. A 'framework analysis' approach was used to analyze the data and generate a new model, CBPR Partnership Readiness Model. Antecedents of CBPR partnership readiness are a catalyst and mutual interest. The major dimensions of the CBPR Partnership Readiness Model are (i) goodness of fit, (ii) capacity, and (iii) operations. Preferred outcomes are sustainable partnership and product, mutual growth, policy and social and health impact on the community. CBPR partnership readiness is an iterative and dynamic process, partnership and issue specific, influenced by a range of environmental and contextual factors, amenable to change and essential for sustainability and promotion of health and social change in the community.
Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris
The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution.
Treves, Adrian; Wallace, R B; White, S
Conservation of wildlife is especially challenging when the targeted species damage crops or livestock, attack humans, or take fish or game. Affected communities may retaliate and destroy wildlife or their habitats. We summarize recommendations from the literature for 13 distinct types of interventions to mitigate these human-wildlife conflicts. We classified eight types as direct (reducing the severity or frequency of encounters with wildlife) and five as indirect (raising human tolerance for encounters with wildlife) interventions. We analyzed general cause-and-effect relationships underlying human-wildlife conflicts to clarify the focal point of intervention for each type. To organize the recommendations on interventions we used three standard criteria for feasibility: cost-effective design, wildlife specificity and selectivity, and sociopolitical acceptability. The literature review and the feasibility criteria were integrated as decision support tools in three multistakeholder workshops. The workshops validated and refined our criteria and helped the participants select interventions. Our approach to planning interventions is systematic, uses standard criteria, and optimizes the participation of experts, policy makers, and affected communities. We argue that conservation action generally will be more effective if the relative merits of alternative interventions are evaluated in an explicit, systematic, and participatory manner.
Wang, Wendong; Xi, Teng; Ngai, Edith C.-H.; Song, Zheng
Location information is a key element of participatory sensing. Many mobile and sensing applications require location information to provide better recommendations, object search and trip planning. However, continuous GPS positioning consumes much energy, which may drain the battery of mobile devices quickly. Although WiFi and cell tower positioning are alternatives, they provide lower accuracy compared to GPS. This paper solves the above problem by proposing a novel localization scheme through the collaboration of multiple mobile devices to reduce energy consumption and provide accurate positioning. Under our scheme, the mobile devices are divided into three groups, namely the broadcaster group, the location information receiver group and the normal participant group. Only the broadcaster group and the normal participant group use their GPS. The location information receiver group, on the other hand, makes use of the locations broadcast by the broadcaster group to estimate their locations. We formulate the broadcaster set selection problem and propose two novel algorithms to minimize the energy consumption in collaborative localization. Simulations with real traces show that our proposed solution can save up to 68% of the energy of all of the participants and provide more accurate locations than WiFi and cellular network positioning. PMID:27231916
Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.
Costa-Font, Joan; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa
Budget experiments can provide additional guidance to health system reform requiring the identification of a subset of programs and services that accrue the highest social value to 'communities'. Such experiments simulate a realistic budget resource allocation assessment among competitive programs, and position citizens as decision makers responsible for making 'collective sacrifices'. This paper explores the use of a participatory budget experiment (with 88 participants clustered in social groups) to model public health care reform, drawing from a set of realistic scenarios for potential health care users. We measure preferences by employing a contingent ranking alongside a budget allocation exercise (termed 'willingness to assign') before and after program cost information is revealed. Evidence suggests that the budget experiment method tested is cognitively feasible and incentive compatible. The main downside is the existence of ex-ante "cost estimation" bias. Additionally, we find that participants appeared to underestimate the net social gain of redistributive programs. Relative social value estimates can serve as a guide to aid priority setting at a health system level.
Olshansky, Ellen; Sacco, Diane; Braxter, Betty; Dodge, Pamela; Hughes, Ebony; Ondeck, Michele; Stubbs, Margaret L; Upvall, Michele J
Participatory action research (PAR) is an excellent way to systematically learn about the conditions under which people experience health disparities, what it is like from the perspective of those experiencing such disparities and, even more importantly, how to ameliorate this major public health problem and create a more equitable and effective health care system. This article describes the method of PAR, supports the appropriateness of PAR to learn about and reduce health disparities, and then presents some specific examples of research projects that have employed or are planning to employ PAR. These examples are from the work of several authors of this article, who are members of an interdisciplinary working group that serves as a forum for discussion of issues related to qualitative research methods and facilitates the development of qualitative studies. All of the authors of this article are part of a task force of this working group that is focusing specifically on community outreach with the goal of reducing health disparities within specific communities.
In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed.
Furaus, J.P.; Shirley, C.G.
A characteristic of team implementation of projects is some type of participatory decision-making. Opinions differ on whether this is a valuable tool for project managers or whether it is only a management fad that blurs accountability. This paper recounts experience and offers observations about the effectiveness of participatory decision-making in project management. The basis of the paper is approximately a decade of projects in construction of specialized facilities for research and development (RandD) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Over the time we have developed a participatory style that distributes a balance of authority and accountability. It is a style that has worked well in our environment and is evidence that shared decision-making can be made to work. 4 figs.
Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David
The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach
Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne
This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements.
Terp, Malene; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz; Jørgensen, Rikke; Mainz, Jan; Bjørnes, Charlotte D
Smartphone technology is being increasingly viewed as key to engaging young adults with schizophrenia in their own mental health care. In an attempt to use smartphones as an engagement tool, we conducted a participatory design process, where young adults with schizophrenia (n = 4), healthcare providers (n = 7), software designers (n = 3), graphic designer (n = 1), graphic recorder (n = 1), and team leader (n = 1) co-designed a smartphone application for use in early phase schizophrenia care. This paper reports the co-design process. Based on a variety of written data-sources, the paper describes if, and how, participatory design can help construct a physical and relational environment that enables young adults with schizophrenia to become active participants in the design of a more participatory mental health practice. Guided by Etienne Wenger's construct of Community of Practice, three major categories of characteristics and construction of a physical and relational environment supporting and inspiring participation and engagement were identified: (i) a pre-narrative about a community of practice, (ii) the room for design is a community of practice and (iii) the community of practice as a practice of special qualities. It is concluded that participatory design can support and inspire participation and engagement in the development of mental health care with young adults with schizophrenia, given that the environment in which participatory design unfolds is transparent, flexible, secure and informal.
Bardwell, Genevieve; Morton, Cathy; Chester, Ann; Pancoska, Petr; Buch, Shama; Cecchetti, Alfred; Vecchio, Marcella; Paulsen, Stephanie; Groark, Stephen; Branch, Robert A.
Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) has been advocated to translate advances in health care sciences to the community. We describe a novel approach applied to obesity management and diabetes prevention. This takes advantage of a network of science clubs organized by the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) for extracurricular activity of disadvantaged high school students in rural Appalachia. Physician scientists and educators provided an intensive summer course on CBPR, ethics, and study design on obesity management and diabetes prevention. Ethical certification for CBPR investigation was obtained for 210 students and 18 mentors for a study on the prevalence of obesity and Type II diabetes within their community. Over a 6-month period, 989 had a collection of complete analyzable data, of which 103 had diabetes. The proportion with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was over 50%. The frequency of diabetes was related to increasing BMI. When BMI ≥ 40, the frequency approached 50%, and exhibited a clear familial distribution. We conclude that trained adolescents can effectively conduct CBPR, and obesity and diabetes are more prevalent than previously reported in this community. This experience provides encouragement to conduct future studies to influence weight management from high-risk populations in this medically disadvantaged community. PMID:20443917
Frauenberger, Christopher; Good, Judith; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine; Iversen, Ole Sejer
The field of Participatory Design (PD) has greatly diversified and we see a broad spectrum of approaches and methodologies emerging. However, to foster its role in designing future interactive technologies, a discussion about accountability and rigour across this spectrum is needed. Rejecting the traditional, positivistic framework, we take inspiration from related fields such as Design Research and Action Research to develop interpretations of these concepts that are rooted in PD׳s own belief system. We argue that unlike in other fields, accountability and rigour are nuanced concepts that are delivered through debate, critique and reflection. A key prerequisite for having such debates is the availability of a language that allows designers, researchers and practitioners to construct solid arguments about the appropriateness of their stances, choices and judgements. To this end, we propose a “tool-to-think-with” that provides such a language by guiding designers, researchers and practitioners through a process of systematic reflection and critical analysis. The tool proposes four lenses to critically reflect on the nature of a PD effort: epistemology, values, stakeholders and outcomes. In a subsequent step, the coherence between the revealed features is analysed and shows whether they pull the project in the same direction or work against each other. Regardless of the flavour of PD, we argue that this coherence of features indicates the level of internal rigour of PD work and that the process of reflection and analysis provides the language to argue for it. We envision our tool to be useful at all stages of PD work: in the planning phase, as part of a reflective practice during the work, and as a means to construct knowledge and advance the field after the fact. We ground our theoretical discussions in a specific PD experience, the ECHOES project, to motivate the tool and to illustrate its workings. PMID:26109833
While carrying out a study aimed at understanding the contribution of participatory action research (PAR) to the political realm in contemporary higher education, a problematic situation was found when doing a literature review in the field of action research. This problem concerns the intermittent appearance of the "participatory"…
Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume
This study focuses on Kenyan student-teachers' professional learning and development in health education in a participatory action research project conducted in one Kenyan teacher training college. The aim was to explore the potential of participatory action research to instigate change in student-teachers' health education practices in a…
This mixed method participatory action research study investigated the relationships of effective teaching strategies and gender based learning environments to pre-adolescent females' self-efficacy of mathematical ability, classroom participatory behaviors, and academic achievement in the area of mathematics. Research-based teaching…
Mathews, Sarah A.
Digital Participatory Research (DPR) combines grass-roots participatory research and photojournalism, asks students to investigate assets and issues within their community, and facilitates civic participation by using problem-posing and praxis-orientated methods. Although there is a vast amount of research documenting the impact of DPR at the…
Palaigeorgiou, G.; Triantafyllakos, G.; Tsinakos, A.
Following the increasing calls for a more skeptical analysis of web 2.0 and the empowerment of learners' voices in formulating upcoming technologies, this paper elaborates on the participatory design of a web learning environment. A total of 117 undergraduate students from two Greek Informatics Departments participated in 25 participatory design…
Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Greenberg, Daphne; Roach, Andrew T.
The Participatory Culture-Specific Model of Course Development (PCSMCD), adapted from the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model, is a proposed framework to address challenges to social justice education by addressing the following four course variables: instructor characteristics, instructor experiences, student characteristics, and…
Puma, Jini; Bennett, Laurie; Cutforth, Nick; Tombari, Chris; Stein, Paul
This instrumental case study documents a community-based participatory evaluation research (CBPER) project that involved a community partner, two graduate students, a faculty member, and an external funder. It highlights the fact that a participatory evaluation model is a viable way to conduct community-based research (CBR) when a community…
Lau, Sunny Man Chu; Stille, Saskia
Participatory research in education provides an opportunity for university-based researchers to collaborate with teachers to develop understandings and to overcome the school-university and research-practice divides. Several studies illuminate the challenges inherent in conducting participatory research within the institutional context of schools,…
Jurkowski, Janine M.
People with intellectual disabilities have few opportunities to actively participate in research affecting programs and policies. Employment of participatory action research has been recommended. Although use of this approach with people who have intellectual disabilities is growing, articles on specific participatory research methods are rare.…
Lankard, Bettina A.
Total Quality Management (TQM) establishes business and industry standards and techniques that ensure the quality of products leaving and reaching firms through continuous actions rather than one final inspection. Deming, Juran, and Crosby, who initiated the process, share a common theme of participatory management. Management participation and…
Formea, Christine M.; Mohamed, Ahmed A.; Hassan, Abdullahi; Osman, Ahmed; Weis, Jennifer A.; Sia, Irene G.; Wieland, Mark L.
Background Surveys are frequently implemented in community-based participatory research (CBPR), but adaptation and translation of surveys can be logistically and methodologically challenging when working with immigrant and refugee populations. Objective To describe a process of participatory survey adaptation and translation. Methods Within an established CBPR partnership, a survey about diabetes was adapted for health literacy and local relevance and then translated through a process of forward translation, group deliberation, and back translation. Lessons Learned The group deliberation process was the most time-intensive and important component of the process. The process enhanced community ownership of the larger project while maximizing local applicability of the product. Conclusions A participatory process of survey adaptation and translation resulted in significant revisions to approximate semantic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence with the original surveys. This approach is likely to enhance community acceptance of the survey instrument during the implementation phase. PMID:25435559
The 21st century has seen the rise of Internet-based participatory surveillance systems for infectious diseases. These systems capture voluntarily submitted symptom data from the general public and can aggregate and communicate that data in near real-time. We reviewed participatory surveillance systems currently running in 13 different countries. These systems have a growing evidence base showing a high degree of accuracy and increased sensitivity and timeliness relative to traditional healthcare-based systems. They have also proven useful for assessing risk factors, vaccine effectiveness, and patterns of healthcare utilization while being less expensive, more flexible, and more scalable than traditional systems. Nonetheless, they present important challenges including biases associated with the population that chooses to participate, difficulty in adjusting for confounders, and limited specificity because of reliance only on syndromic definitions of disease limits. Overall, participatory disease surveillance data provides unique disease information that is not available through traditional surveillance sources. PMID:24991229
Fava, Nicole M; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Felicetti, Irene L; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S; Pardee, Michelle; Helman, Abigail; Trucco, Elisa M; Martyn, Kristy K
Research informed by individuals' lived experiences is a critical component of participatory research and nursing interventions for health promotion. Yet, few examples of participatory research in primary care settings with adolescents and young adults exist, especially with respect to their sexual health and health-risk behaviors. Therefore, we implemented a validated patient-centered clinical assessment tool to improve the quality of communication between youth patients and providers, sexual risk assessment, and youths' health-risk perception to promote sexual health and reduce health-risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults in three community health clinic settings, consistent with national recommendations as best practices in adolescent health care. We describe guiding principles, benefits, challenges, and lessons learned from our experience. Improving clinical translation of participatory research requires consideration of the needs and desires of key stakeholders (e.g., providers, patients, and researchers) while retaining flexibility to successfully navigate imperfect, real-world conditions.
Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Ibáñez-Carrasco, Francisco; Baxter, Larry; Nixon, Stephanie A; Baltzer-Turje, Rosalind; Robinson, Greg; Zack, Elisse
Background Web or Internet-based surveys are increasingly popular in health survey research. However, the strengths and challenges of Web-based surveys with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unclear. Objective The aim of this article is to describe our experience piloting a cross-sectional, Web-based, self-administered survey with adults living with HIV using a community-based participatory research approach. Methods We piloted a Web-based survey that investigated disability and rehabilitation services use with a sample of adults living with HIV in Canada. Community organizations in five provinces emailed invitations to clients, followed by a thank you/reminder one week later. We obtained survey feedback in a structured phone interview with respondents. Participant responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using directed content analysis. Results Of 30 people living with HIV who accessed the survey link, 24/30 (80%) initiated and 16/30 (53%) completed the survey instrument. A total of 17 respondents participated in post-survey interviews. Participants described the survey instrument as comprehensive, suggesting content validity. The majority (13/17, 76%) felt instruction and item wording were clear and easy to understand, and found the software easy to navigate. Participants felt having a pop-up reminder directing them to missed items would be useful. Conclusions Strengths of implementing the Web-based survey included: our community-based participatory approach, ease of software use, ability for respondents to complete the questionnaire on one’s own time at one’s own pace, opportunity to obtain geographic variation, and potential for respondent anonymity. Considerations for future survey implementation included: respondent burden and fatigue, the potentially sensitive nature of HIV Web-based research, data management and storage, challenges verifying informed consent, varying computer skills among respondents, and the burden on
Many health professions education programs in high-income countries (HICs) have adopted a competency-based approach to learning. Although global health programs have followed this trend, defining and assessing competencies has proven problematic, particularly in resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HIC students and trainees perform elective work. In part, this is due to programs failing to take sufficient account of local learning, cultural, and health contexts.A major divide between HIC and LMIC settings is that the learning contexts of HICs are predominantly individualist, whereas those of LMICs are generally collectivist. Individualist cultures view learning as something that the individual acquires independent of context and can possess; collectivist cultures view learning as arising dynamically from specific contexts through group participation.To bridge the individualist-collectivist learning divide, the author proposes that competencies be classified as either acquired or participatory. Acquired competencies can be transferred across contexts and assessed using traditional psychometric approaches; participatory competencies are linked to contexts and require alternative assessment approaches. The author proposes assessing participatory competencies through the approach of self-directed assessment seeking, which includes multiple members of the health care team as assessors.The proposed classification of competencies as acquired or participatory may apply across health professions. The author suggests advancing participatory competencies through mental models of sharing. In global health education, the author recommends developing three new competency domains rooted in participatory learning, collectivism, and sharing: resourceful learning; transprofessionalism and transformative learning; and social justice and health equity.
Chin, George, Jr.
Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.
Jurkowski, Janine M
People with intellectual disabilities have few opportunities to actively participate in research affecting programs and policies. Employment of participatory action research has been recommended. Although use of this approach with people who have intellectual disabilities is growing, articles on specific participatory research methods are rare. Photovoice is a participatory method often used with underrepresented groups and is effective for engaging people with intellectual disabilities in research or program development. A literature review is presented for use with this population as is a description of Photovoice as a participatory research tool for engaging people with intellectual disabilities. An example of a participatory study among people with intellectual disabilities is provided. Benefits and challenges of employing Photovoice with this population are discussed.
Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C
Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health.
Gray, Norma; Oré de Boehm, Christina; Farnsworth, Angela; Wolf, Denise
Involvement in creative expression has the potential of engaging individuals in personal and community level change through reflection, empowerment, and the facilitation of connectedness. It is a process that can be a powerful component of community based participatory research as it can facilitate and support the principles of co-learning, egalitarian relationships, and respect for non-academic knowledge. It is also a valuable means of appreciating culture and strengthening identity, which enhances health. This article reviews and discusses methods and benefits of incorporating creative expression into health promotion programs and community based participatory research with Native Americans. PMID:20531099
Harmon, Brook E.; Adams, Swann A.; Scott, Dolores; Gladman, Yvonne S.; Ezell, Bernice; Hebert, James R.
The Dash of Faith pilot used a community-based participatory research approach to design an experiential dietary intervention based in two African-American churches, one intervention and one comparison. Congregation members identified components that were incorporated into 12 weekly and 4 monthly sessions, with a goal of increasing fruit and vegetable and lowering fat intake. At two months, a marginally significant (p=0.07) increase in fruit and vegetable consumption was observed in the intervention group but was not maintained at study conclusion. We propose that these mixed findings may be attributable, in part, to bias introduced by the participatory nature of the design. PMID:23224838
Leal-Neto, Onicio B; Dimech, George S; Libel, Marlo; Oliveira, Wanderson; Ferreira, Juliana Perazzo
ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the digital disease detection and participatory surveillance in different countries. The systems or platforms consolidated in the scientific field were analyzed by describing the strategy, type of data source, main objectives, and manner of interaction with users. Eleven systems or platforms, developed from 1996 to 2016, were analyzed. There was a higher frequency of data mining on the web and active crowdsourcing as well as a trend in the use of mobile applications. It is important to provoke debate in the academia and health services for the evolution of methods and insights into participatory surveillance in the digital age. PMID:27191153
Andersen, Tariq O; Bansler, Jørgen P; Kensing, Finn; Moll, Jonas
This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product. In particular, we draw attention to four major challenges of (a) aligning the different concerns of patients and clinicians, (b) designing according to clinical accountability, (c) ensuring commercial interest, and (d) dealing with regulatory constraints when prototyping safety critical health Information Technology. Using four illustrative cases, we discuss what these challenges entail and the implications they pose to Participatory Design. We conclude the paper by presenting lessons learned.
Whay, Helen R.; Dikshit, Amit K.; Hockenhull, Jo; Parker, Richard M. A.; Banerjee, Anindo; Hughes, Sue I.; Pritchard, Joy C.; Reix, Christine E.
Background Previous studies have found the prevalence of lameness in working horses to be 90–100%. Risk factors for lameness in this important equine population, together with risk-reduction strategies adopted by their owners, are poorly understood. The objective was to uncover risk factors for lameness and limb abnormalities in working horses, by associating clinical lameness examination findings on three occasions over two years with owner reported changes in equine management and work practices over this period. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-one communities of horse owners in Jaipur, India, took part in a participatory intervention (PI) project aiming to reduce risk factors for poor welfare, particularly lameness and limb problems. Associations between quantitative measures of equine lameness/limb abnormalities and reported changes in management and work practices were compared with 21 control (C) communities of owners where no intervention had taken place. Key findings from ‘complete cases’, where the same horse stayed with the same owner for the whole study period (PI group = 73 owners of 83 horses, C group = 58 owners of 66 horses), were that more positive statements of change in equine management and work practices were made by PI group owners than C group owners. A mixed picture of potential risk factors emerged: some reported management improvements, for example reducing the weight of the load for cart animals, were associated with improved limbs and lameness, and others, such as making improvements in shoeing and increasing the age at which their animals started work, with negative outcomes. Conclusions/Significance This study illustrates the complexity and interacting nature of risk factors for lameness in working horses, and highlights the importance of longitudinal investigations that recognise and address this. PI group owners found the project useful and requested similar inputs in future. Our findings demonstrate the value of
Roberts, Erica B.; Jette, Shannon L.
Objective: Participatory research has proven an effective method for improving health equity among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) by addressing power imbalances between communities and researchers, incorporating community knowledge and theory, ensuring mutual benefit and improving community capacity and programme sustainability. However,…
Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Draper, Roni Jo; Hall, Kendra; Smith, Leigh K.; Young, Janet; Sabey, Brenda; Brooks, Shaun
Desiring to overcome sharp feelings of disconnection, a year-long participatory action research seminar involving both clinical and tenure-track teacher education faculty was formed. Working in teams with tenure-track faculty support, clinical faculty set research questions but they were reluctant to assume project leadership. In part, because of…
This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…
Banegas, Dario Luis
In this article I investigate the process of an in-service programme for English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teachers in Argentina started in 2007. Teachers began to feel uneasy about the EFL curriculum for secondary education at the time, feeling that something should be done to develop a participatory curriculum to be implemented in the future.…
Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…
Kapitan, Lynn; Litell, Mary; Torres, Anabel
When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced…
Yin, Chengjiu; Song, Yanjie; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Hiroaki; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
This paper proposes a conceptual framework, scaffolding participatory simulation for mobile learning (SPSML), used on mobile devices for helping students learn conceptual knowledge in the classroom. As the pedagogical design, the framework adopts an experiential learning model, which consists of five sequential but cyclic steps: the initial stage,…
Jacobsen, Michele; Lock, Jennifer; Friesen, Sharon
Intellectual engagement is an absorbing, creatively energized focus resulting in a deep personal commitment to exploration, investigation, problem-solving and inquiry over a sustained period of time. In this article, the authors argue that participatory learning environments with a focus on knowledge building offer clear learning benefits to…
Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche
American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points."…
This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that…
James, E. Alana; Milenkiewicz, Margaret T.; Bucknam, Alan
The participatory action research (PAR) process discussed in the text represents the next evolutionary stage for action research and practitioner research in education. The authors integrate process with methodology to provide an overview of the PAR process similar to professional learning communities in schools. Results of the original PAR study…
This paper looks at the role participatory action research played in beginning curriculum conversations in sexual health for young Australian Muslims. Sexual health education has been the cause of much dissension among the local, national and international Muslim community. There is also a general lack of consensus in many Australian Islamic…
In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…
In South Africa, democratic consolidation involves not only building a new state, but also new interfaces between state and society. To strengthen the agency of citizens at these interfaces, recent approaches to development stress the notion of "participatory citizenship." The purpose of this article is to explore the links, rarely…
Cappella, Elise; Jackson, Daisy R.; Bilal, Caroline; Hamre, Bridget K.; Soule, Carles
Guided by participatory research and implementation science, we conducted a two-phase study to contextualize a school mental health intervention for its implementation settings. Drawing from research and existing programs, we created a teacher consultation and coaching intervention delivered by indigenous school and community mental health…
Our purpose was to assess the sustainability of biologic and anthropometric effects on participants enrolled in a 6-month walking intervention developed through a community participatory process in a rural Mississippi Delta community. Participants in walking groups led by trained volunteers were ev...
Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.
Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…
Samuelson, Beth Lewis; Smith, Ross; Stevenson, Eleanor; Ryan, Caitlin
This paper examines the practice of participatory evaluation through an exploratory single case study of the Evaluation Team of Books & Beyond, a co-curricular service-learning program of the Global Village Living-Learning Center at Indiana University. The paper, which is authored by three undergraduate members of the evaluation team and their…
Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Henrich, Christopher C.; Graybill, Emily C.; Dew, Brian J.; Marshall, Megan L.; Williamson, Zachary; Skoczylas, Rebecca B.; Avant, Marty
The purpose of the Peer Victimization Intervention (PVI) was to develop and implement a culture-specific pilot intervention to address the effects of bullying on middle school students who are victims utilizing the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004). The involvement of participants who serve…
Brown-Sica, Margaret S.
A data-gathering project using elements of Participatory Action Research was conducted at the Auraria Library, which serves the University of Colorado Denver, the Metropolitan State College of Denver and the Community College of Denver. The project was administered in order to shape a plan to develop a Learning Commons environment at the library.…
Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…
Ryan, Charlotte; Anastario, Mike; DaCunha, Alfredo
Stressing relation-building and participatory communication approaches, the Rhode Island Coalition against Domestic Violence worked with journalists to develop a best practices handbook on news coverage of domestic violence murders. This study compares print coverage of domestic violence murders prehandbook (1996-1999) and posthandbook…
Salsberg, Jon; Seller, Robbyn; Shea, Laura; Macaulay, Ann C.
University-based researchers are finding they need a new set of skills to collaborate meaningfully with non-academic research partners, and to compete for funding opportunities that require community and end-user partnerships. This article describes a needs assessment conducted to develop a participatory research faculty development workshop at…
Livingstone, Anne-Marie; Celemencki, Jacqueline; Calixte, Melissa
The article discusses the implementation and results of a youth participatory action research (YPAR) project carried out with black high school students in 2009 and 2010 in Montreal, QC. The aim of the project was to involve black youth in studying the factors that either enhance or impede their success in school and thereby have them identify…
Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell
This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…
Minh, Thai Thi; Larsen, Carl Erik Schou; Neef, Andreas
Purpose: The objective of this article is to analyze the introduction of participatory extension approaches (PEA) in the predominantly supply-driven, hierarchical Vietnamese extension system. Drawing on the case of the so-called Farmer Livestock School (FLS) concept, the authors investigate the potential and challenges of scaling up and out the…
Peace Corps, 2010
This idea book addresses key concepts in two earlier Peace Corps' publications, "Participatory Analysis for Community Action (PACA) Manual" [ICE No. M0053], and the "Gender and Development Training Manual" [ICE No. M0054]. These previous resources were large training manuals that introduced PACA to staff and Volunteers in the context of the Peace…
Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce
This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…
The core empirical basis of this paper is based upon my recent participatory action research case study, sponsored by my university, conducted in a rural school in one of the most disadvantageous districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The paper argues that the current climate in most of the schools across the country reflects "apathy" and…
This article examines the role of intergenerational relationships in the lives of experienced poets and writers ("soldiers") and emerging poets and writers in what the author terms Participatory Literacy Communities (PLCs). Drawing from Wenger's (1998) concept of communities of practice, the author uses data from two examples of PLCs--Black…
Buck, Gayle A.; Cook, Kristin L.; Quigley, Cassie F.; Prince, Pearl; Lucas, Yvonne
In this participatory action research study, we answered the question, How can we improve attitudes toward science education of the African American girls at an elementary school? Girls in grades 3-6 completed the Modified Attitudes toward Science Inventory. A purposeful sample of 30 girls participated in several focus-group interviews throughout…
Participatory mapping attempts to engage youth in the generation of personalized maps, as a way to both harness the value of individual knowledge about geographic space, and to concurrently empower the research participants by inviting them to take an active stake in the representation and explication of their spatial environment. Engagement in…
International mindedness and global citizenship are two key terms within international education, which underpin much of the discourse within the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. This article proposes how a participatory approach to education for international mindedness and global citizenship can help educators within international…
Krutka, Daniel G.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.
The microblogging service Twitter offers a platform that social studies educators increasingly use for professional development, communication, and class activities, but to what ends? The authors drew on Deweyan conceptions of participatory learning and citizenship aims of the field as lenses through which to consider social media activities. To…
Community based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that has gained attention in health and public health research. Community members and researchers partnering in a CBPR project recognized the need for community education about the research process and research eth...
The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive process evaluation of Fit for Life Steps (FFLS), a community based participatory research (CBPR) influenced intervention focused on improving physical activity and health in residents of the Lower Mississippi Delta. A comprehensive framework f...
This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) project carried out with three transnational Latina youth in northern California and how the university researcher incorporated Chicana feminist strategies in the study. PAR and Chicana feminism place at the heart of research the knowledge that ordinary people produce, referring to this…
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
Stickley, Theodore; Crosbie, Brian; Hui, Ada
The Stage Life was a participatory arts programme for people attending a day services provision in Nottinghamshire. The uniqueness of this programme was that it was provided in a local disused cinema acquired by the local authority for community-based activities amongst disadvantaged groups. The Stage Life aimed to build the community arts…
Doyle, Eva; Rager, Robin; Bates, Denise; Cooper, Cheryl
Principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) were applied among migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) in a seven-county region of east Texas. The study purpose was to establish community-based partnerships for CBPR and conduct a preliminary qualitative assessment of perceived health needs and capacities. Key informant interviews…
Tracy, Frances; Carmichael, Patrick
This account identifies some of the tensions that became apparent in a large interdisciplinary technology-enhanced learning project as its members attempted to maintain their commitment to responsive, participatory research and development in naturalistic research settings while also "enacting" these commitments in formal research review…
Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony
The discipline and practice of participatory, practice-led research has grown rapidly in recent years and it is now widely accepted as making an important and serious contribution to the knowledge base of early childhood. Despite this progress recently we have come to understand that our worldview has needed to shift again in response to the…
Gray, Colette; Winter, Eileen
The present study seeks to extend current thinking on participatory research by actively engaging 36 young children with and without a known disability in all aspects of a research project. Matched according to age and gender, six dyads of children attending four early years settings in Northern Ireland chose the research question, selected the…
Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young
This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…
Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.
Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…
Backman, Chantal; Bruce, Natalie; Marck, Patricia; Vanderloo, Saskia
The purpose of this quality improvement project was to determine the feasibility of using provider-led participatory visual methods to scrutinize 4 hospital units' infection prevention and control practices. Methods included provider-led photo walkabouts, photo elicitation sessions, and postimprovement photo walkabouts. Nurses readily engaged in using the methods to examine and improve their units' practices and reorganize their work environment.
McMurray, Alan; Niens, Ulrike
Participatory citizenship education has been highlighted as a strategy to promote social cohesion in divided societies whereby collaborations with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and inter-school links have been proposed as tools to improve social networks between schools and communities. This article explores the role and meaning of…
Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Caspi, Opher; Miller, Ariel
The current understanding that the key for successful healthcare is an integrated approach, involving predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine, is leading major changes. These are: a shift from medical decisions based on 'trial and error' to informed therapeutics based on diagnostics (theranostics); a shift from a 'disease-centered' to a 'patient-centered' approach; and a shift from a 'reactive' to 'proactive' medical approach. It is essential that not only the physician, but also the patient, becomes proactive. Therefore, beyond the integration of genomic medicine and predictive biomarkers into practice, patient empowerment and participatory medicine are gaining increasing attention. This requires, besides appropriate sharing of information between patients and healthcare providers, new insights in patient involvement, such as patient-reported outcomes, both at the clinical trial stage of drug development and during post-marketing follow-up assessments. Patient empowerment and participatory medicine, as part of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine, are especially crucial in paving the way towards optimized healthcare in complex and chronic neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
Botha, Carolina S.; Hay, Johnnie
This article documents the (often counter-normative) narrative journey of four South African adolescent girls whose biological parents had divorced--and one (or both) parent(s) remarried. Through purposive sampling within a qualitative research paradigm of feminist participatory action research, they were supported in group context by the primary…
Mäkelä, Tiina; Helfenstein, Sacha
The present study shows how the mixed-methods approach can be used in capturing and organising learning environment (LE) characteristics for the participatory design of psychosocial and physical LEs involving learners. Theoretical constructs were tested and further elaborated on in the analysis of two similar educational design research studies:…
Keyes, Sarah E.; Brandon, Toby
Mutual Support, a model of peer support by and for people with learning difficulties, was constructed through a participatory research process. The research focussed on individual narratives from people with learning difficulties. These narratives were then brought together to form a collective model of support. This paper outlines the detailed…
Lowry, Kelly Walker; Ford-Paz, Rebecca
Early career faculty members at academic medical centers face unique obstacles when engaging in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Challenges and opportunities for solutions pertaining to mentorship, time demands, unfamiliarity of colleagues with CBPR approaches, ethical review regulations, funding, and publication and promotion are discussed.