Science.gov

Sample records for participatory workspace design

  1. Queering Participatory Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…

  2. Optimal Design of a 3-Leg 6-DOF Parallel Manipulator for a Specific Workspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianxun; Gao, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Researchers seldom study optimum design of a six-degree-of-freedom(DOF) parallel manipulator with three legs based upon the given workspace. An optimal design method of a novel three-leg six-DOF parallel manipulator(TLPM) is presented. The mechanical structure of this robot is introduced, with this structure the kinematic constrain equations is decoupled. Analytical solutions of the forward kinematics are worked out, one configuration of this robot, including position and orientation of the end-effector are graphically displayed. Then, on the basis of several extreme positions of the kinematic performances, the task workspace is given. An algorithm of optimal designing is introduced to find the smallest dimensional parameters of the proposed robot. Examples illustrate the design results, and a design stability index is introduced, which ensures that the robot remains a safe distance from the boundary of sits actual workspace. Finally, one prototype of the robot is developed based on this method. This method can easily find appropriate kinematic parameters that can size a robot having the smallest workspace enclosing a predefined task workspace. It improves the design efficiency, ensures that the robot has a small mechanical size possesses a large given workspace volume, and meets the lightweight design requirements.

  3. Optimal design of a 3-leg 6-DOF parallel manipulator for a specific workspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianxun; Gao, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Researchers seldom study optimum design of a six-degree-of-freedom(DOF) parallel manipulator with three legs based upon the given workspace. An optimal design method of a novel three-leg six-DOF parallel manipulator(TLPM) is presented. The mechanical structure of this robot is introduced, with this structure the kinematic constrain equations is decoupled. Analytical solutions of the forward kinematics are worked out, one configuration of this robot, including position and orientation of the end-effector are graphically displayed. Then, on the basis of several extreme positions of the kinematic performances, the task workspace is given. An algorithm of optimal designing is introduced to find the smallest dimensional parameters of the proposed robot. Examples illustrate the design results, and a design stability index is introduced, which ensures that the robot remains a safe distance from the boundary of sits actual workspace. Finally, one prototype of the robot is developed based on this method. This method can easily find appropriate kinematic parameters that can size a robot having the smallest workspace enclosing a predefined task workspace. It improves the design efficiency, ensures that the robot has a small mechanical size possesses a large given workspace volume, and meets the lightweight design requirements.

  4. Creating the optimal workspace for hospital staff using human centred design.

    PubMed

    Cawood, T; Saunders, E; Drennan, C; Cross, N; Nicholl, D; Kenny, A; Meates, D; Laing, R

    2016-07-01

    We were tasked with creating best possible non-clinical workspace solutions for approximately 450 hospital staff across 11 departments encompassing medical, nursing, allied health, administrative and other support staff. We used a Human-Centred Design process, involving 'Hear, Create and Deliver' stages. We used observations, contextual enquiry and role-specific workshops to understand needs, key interactions and drivers of behaviour. Co-design workshops were then used to explore and prototype-test concepts for the final design. With extensive employee engagement and design process expertise, an innovative solution was created that focussed on meeting the functional workspace needs of a diverse group of staff requiring a range of different spaces, incorporating space constraints and equity. This project demonstrated the strength of engaging employees in an expert-led Human-Centred Design process. We believe this is a successful blueprint process for other institutions to embrace when facing similar workspace design challenges. PMID:27405891

  5. Creating the optimal workspace for hospital staff using human centred design.

    PubMed

    Cawood, T; Saunders, E; Drennan, C; Cross, N; Nicholl, D; Kenny, A; Meates, D; Laing, R

    2016-07-01

    We were tasked with creating best possible non-clinical workspace solutions for approximately 450 hospital staff across 11 departments encompassing medical, nursing, allied health, administrative and other support staff. We used a Human-Centred Design process, involving 'Hear, Create and Deliver' stages. We used observations, contextual enquiry and role-specific workshops to understand needs, key interactions and drivers of behaviour. Co-design workshops were then used to explore and prototype-test concepts for the final design. With extensive employee engagement and design process expertise, an innovative solution was created that focussed on meeting the functional workspace needs of a diverse group of staff requiring a range of different spaces, incorporating space constraints and equity. This project demonstrated the strength of engaging employees in an expert-led Human-Centred Design process. We believe this is a successful blueprint process for other institutions to embrace when facing similar workspace design challenges.

  6. The Importance of Structuring Information and Resources within Shared Workspaces during Collaborative Design Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David; Littlejohn, Allison; Grierson, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how the organization or structure of information and resources in shared workspaces influences team sharing and design learning. Two groupware products, BSCW and TikiWiki, were configured so that teams could structure and share resources. In BSCW the resources were structured hierarchically using folders and subfolders…

  7. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  8. Using Participatory Design to Improve Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolova-Houston, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author, a doctoral candidate from the School of Information at the University of Texas-Austin, describes the experience gathered from her attempt to redesign her existing Web sites in order to supply online resources for Slavic and Byzantine studies. The use of participatory design, which involves the users in creating the…

  9. Optimal Design of a Y-Star Robot for the Prescribed Cylindrical Dexterous Workspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuehua; Wang, Guan; Ji, Shiming; Wang, Zhongfei

    2009-08-01

    This paper determines a set of optimal design parameters of a Y-Star robot whose workspace is as close as possible of being equal to a prescribed cylindrical dexterous workspace (PCDW). Two requirements should be satisfied: (i) the local or global performance index; (ii) a regular shape. The kinematic problem is analysed in brief to determine the design parameters and their relation. The optimal design problem is discussed and then translated into two linear problems. Then, an optimal design procedure which adopts the generalized pattern search algorithm in the genetic algorithm and direct search toolbox of Matlab is adopted to solve these problems. As applying example, the results of four cases PCDW to the robot are presented. And the design result is compared with a concept of the distance between the best state of the robot and the requirement of the operation task. The method and result of this paper are very useful for the design and comparison of the Y-Star robot.

  10. Using a Shared Workspace and Wireless Laptops to Improve Collaborative Project Learning in an Engineering Design Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David J.; MacLeod, Iain A.

    2005-01-01

    Two different technologies, groupware (a shared workspace) and shared wireless laptop computers, were implemented in a project design class in a civil engineering course. The research interest was in the way these technologies supported resource sharing within and across project groups and in the forms of group collaboration that resulted. The…

  11. Intermediary objects in the workspace design process: means of experience transfer in the offshore sector.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Carolina; Silva, Gislaine; Broberg, Ole; Duarte, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the use of intermediary objects in the workspace design process of offshore accommodations module. The integration of ergonomics in the design process can lead to better work conditions, more effectiveness in the work process and less health and safety issues. Moreover, it is more efficient in terms of cost if ergonomics is considered from the initial phases of the project, as the potential costs of the redesign, the possible losses and the down-time in the operation of the platform would be more increased. The goal, then, is to discuss the integration of ergonomics and users involvement in the design process of accommodations modules, focusing on the transfer of information from reference situations by the use of intermediary objects during the process. In this paper we will present two tools developed to be used as intermediary object(s) aiming at transferring the experience from the use to the design in the specific field of offshore accommodations module.

  12. Workspace design for crane cabins applying a combined traditional approach and the Taguchi method for design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Veljković, Zorica A; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar Dj; Kosić Šotić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Procedures in the development process of crane cabins are arbitrary and subjective. Since approximately 42% of incidents in the construction industry are linked to them, there is a need to collect fresh anthropometric data and provide additional recommendations for design. In this paper, dimensioning of the crane cabin interior space was carried out using a sample of 64 crane operators' anthropometric measurements, in the Republic of Serbia, by measuring workspace with 10 parameters using nine measured anthropometric data from each crane operator. This paper applies experiments run via full factorial designs using a combined traditional and Taguchi approach. The experiments indicated which design parameters are influenced by which anthropometric measurements and to what degree. The results are expected to be of use for crane cabin designers and should assist them to design a cabin that may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue for operators, thus improving safety and accident prevention.

  13. Design principles for innovative workspaces to increase efficiency in pharmaceutical R&D: lessons learned from the Novartis campus.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Frank A; Boutellier, Roman

    2013-04-01

    When managing R&D departments for increased efficiency and effectiveness the focus has often been on organizational structure. Space is, however, of outstanding importance in an environment of large task uncertainty, which is the case in pharmaceutical R&D. Based on case studies about the Novartis campus in Basel, Switzerland, we propose some design principles for laboratory and office workspace to support the strong and weak ties of scientist networks. We address the diversity of technologies and specialization, as well as the pressure on time-to-market, as major challenges in pharmaceutical R&D. PMID:23318251

  14. Design principles for innovative workspaces to increase efficiency in pharmaceutical R&D: lessons learned from the Novartis campus.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Frank A; Boutellier, Roman

    2013-04-01

    When managing R&D departments for increased efficiency and effectiveness the focus has often been on organizational structure. Space is, however, of outstanding importance in an environment of large task uncertainty, which is the case in pharmaceutical R&D. Based on case studies about the Novartis campus in Basel, Switzerland, we propose some design principles for laboratory and office workspace to support the strong and weak ties of scientist networks. We address the diversity of technologies and specialization, as well as the pressure on time-to-market, as major challenges in pharmaceutical R&D.

  15. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315

  16. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements.

  17. Making Games after School: Participatory Game Design in Non-Formal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kevin; Brandt, Jami; Hopkins, Rhonda; Wilhelm, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Participatory design principles were used with primarily African-American and Latino children in the Washington, DC area in the development of sports-themed digital game prototypes in an after-school program. The three stages in participatory design are the discovery stage, the evaluative stage, and prototyping. Within the participatory design…

  18. Participatory design for drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system.

  19. Participatory design for drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system. PMID:25991099

  20. Participatory Design Activities and Agile Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    This paper contributes to the studies of design activities in information systems development. It provides a case study of a large agile development project and focusses on how customers and users participated in agile development and design activities in practice. The investigated project utilized the agile method eXtreme Programming. Planning games, user stories and story cards, working software, and acceptance tests structured the customer and user involvement. We found genuine customer and user involvement in the design activities in the form of both direct and indirect participation in the agile development project. The involved customer representatives played informative, consultative, and participative roles in the project. This led to their functional empowerment— the users were enabled to carry out their work to their own satisfaction and in an effective, efficient, and economical manner.

  1. Designing, Supporting, and Sustaining an Online Community of Practice: NASA EPO Workspace as an Ongoing Exploration of the Value of Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, B.; Davis, H. B.

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly, geographically diverse organizations, like NASA's Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach personnel (SMD EPO), are looking for ways to facilitate group interactions in meaningful ways while limiting costs. Towards this end, of particular interest, and showing great potential are communities of practice. Communities of practice represent relationships in real-time between and among people sharing a common practice. They facilitate the sharing of information, building collective knowledge, and growing of the principles of practice. In 2010-11, SMD EPO established a website to support EPO professionals, facilitate headquarters reporting, and foster a community of practice. The purpose of this evaluation is to examine the design and use of the workspace and the value created for both individual community members and SMD EPO, the sponsoring organization. The online workspace was launched in 2010-11 for the members of NASA's SMDEPO community. The online workspace was designed to help facilitate the efficient sharing of information, be a central repository for resources, help facilitate and support knowledge creation, and ultimately lead to the development of an online community of practice. This study examines the role of the online workspace component of a community in the work of a community of practice. Much has been studied revealing the importance of communities of practice to organizations, project success, and knowledge management and some of these same successes hold true for virtual communities of practice. Additionally, we look at the outcomes of housting the online community for these past years in respect to knowledge building and personal and organizational value, the affects on professional dvelopment opportunities, how community members have benefited, and how the workspace has evolved to better serve the community.

  2. Participatory design and validation of mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Daveler, Brandon; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Candiotti, Jorge; Wang, Hongwu; Cooper, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot) was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW) users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD) prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31) during the participatory design study. Feedback of the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12) showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%), traction control (83%), and curb climbing (75%). The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances. PMID:26562492

  3. Teachers as Participatory Designers: Two Case Studies with Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cober, Rebecca; Tan, Esther; Slotta, Jim; So, Hyo-Jeong; Könings, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what…

  4. Participatory Design in Academic Libraries: New Reports and Findings. CLIR Publication No. 161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Nancy Fried, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This report is based on a series of presentations at the second CLIR Seminar on "Participatory Design of Academic Libraries," held at the University of Rochester's River Campus June 5-7, 2013. Participatory design is a relatively recent approach to understanding library user behavior. It is based on techniques used in anthropological and…

  5. Using Participatory Design in a Health Information System.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Leonor; Saavedra, Vasco; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the experience of developing an interactive Health Information System (iHIS) currently under test in a hospital, which benefited from the practices of the User-Centred Design (UCD), in a Participatory Design (PD) approach. Techniques from the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and/or Usability Engineering (UE), combined with traditional Software Engineering (SE), allowed an effective and usable solution from the user's point of view. The good results usually achieved with this approach were confirmed. Despite these good results, we deem that if there is not some control of the procedure by the project manager, it may be difficult to end the requirement analysis, since requirement reformulation is fostered.

  6. Parallel algorithm for computing 3-D reachable workspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alameldin, Tarek K.; Sobh, Tarek M.

    1992-03-01

    The problem of computing the 3-D workspace for redundant articulated chains has applications in a variety of fields such as robotics, computer aided design, and computer graphics. The computational complexity of the workspace problem is at least NP-hard. The recent advent of parallel computers has made practical solutions for the workspace problem possible. Parallel algorithms for computing the 3-D workspace for redundant articulated chains with joint limits are presented. The first phase of these algorithms computes workspace points in parallel. The second phase uses workspace points that are computed in the first phase and fits a 3-D surface around the volume that encompasses the workspace points. The second phase also maps the 3- D points into slices, uses region filling to detect the holes and voids in the workspace, extracts the workspace boundary points by testing the neighboring cells, and tiles the consecutive contours with triangles. The proposed algorithms are efficient for computing the 3-D reachable workspace for articulated linkages, not only those with redundant degrees of freedom but also those with joint limits.

  7. What if Undergraduate Students Designed Their Own Web Learning Environment? Exploring Students' Web 2.0 Mentality through Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaigeorgiou, G.; Triantafyllakos, G.; Tsinakos, A.

    2011-01-01

    Following the increasing calls for a more skeptical analysis of web 2.0 and the empowerment of learners' voices in formulating upcoming technologies, this paper elaborates on the participatory design of a web learning environment. A total of 117 undergraduate students from two Greek Informatics Departments participated in 25 participatory design…

  8. Participatory design in the project of virtual learning environment of histology.

    PubMed

    Santa-Rosa, José Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    This present article describes a research on the development, under the approach of participatory design, a virtual teaching-learning of Histology in which students and teachers participated actively in all stages of development of the educational environment. We postulates that the development of virtual learning environment of Histology, through the Participatory Design approach, contributes to greater acceptance and use by students and that the adoption of virtual environment for teaching and learning by teachers is a determining factor of use by students.

  9. A case study in the participatory design of a collaborative science-based learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, George, Jr.

    Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.

  10. Using Participatory Design in the Development of a Language Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Constantinou, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how participatory design methodologies can be used for the design of interactive learning tools for children. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the methodology employed for the design of a multimedia tool for teaching Greek to young children aged 6 to 12. The preliminary data collection…

  11. A Participatory Design Approach for a Mobile App-Based Personal Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…

  12. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 5 - Workspaces

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Smith; J. K. Knudsen; D. O'Neal

    2011-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Version 8 is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment using a personal computer running the Microsoft Windows™ operating system. SAPHIRE 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The role of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in this project is that of software developer and tester. In older versions of SAPHIRE, the model creation and analysis functions were intermingled. However, in SAPHIRE 8, the act of creating a model has been separated from the analysis of that model in order to improve the quality of both the model (e.g., by avoiding inadvertent changes) and the analysis. Consequently, in SAPHIRE 8, the analysis of models is performed by using what are called Workspaces. Currently, there are Workspaces for three types of analyses: (1) the NRC’s Accident Sequence Precursor program, where the workspace is called “Events and Condition Assessment (ECA);” (2) the NRC’s Significance Determination Process (SDP); and (3) the General Analysis (GA) workspace. Workspaces for each type are created and saved separately from the base model which keeps the original database intact. Workspaces are independent of each other and modifications or calculations made within one workspace will not affect another. In addition, each workspace has a user interface and reports tailored for their intended uses.

  13. Design Considerations of Help Options in Computer-Based L2 Listening Materials Informed by Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica Stella

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of two qualitative exploratory studies that sought to investigate design features of help options in computer-based L2 listening materials. Informed by principles of participatory design, language learners, software designers, language teachers, and a computer programmer worked collaboratively in a series of…

  14. The Participatory Design of a (Today and) Future Digital Entomology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai-Jew, Shalin

    2011-01-01

    This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…

  15. Affective Dimensions of Participatory Design Research in Informal Learning Environments: Placemaking, Belonging, and Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…

  16. Texting as a Channel for Personalized Youth Support: Participatory Design Research by City Youth and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica; Amaechi, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most school districts are out to regulate and restrict student texting and fear student-teacher texting as particularly inappropriate. But might this youth-dominated channel in fact be a twenty-first century portal to personalized support for youth struggling in school? This article shares first findings from participatory design research on…

  17. Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Leykum, Luci K; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Harmon, Joel; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-01-01

    Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process. PMID:19852784

  18. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  19. Performance of Personal Workspace Controls Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila; Loffeld, John; Pettler,Pete; Snook, Joel

    2004-12-01

    One of the key deliverables for the DOE-funded controls research at LBNL for FY04 was the development of a prototype Personal Workspace Control system. The successful development of this system is a critical milestone for the LBNL Lighting Controls Research effort because this system demonstrates how IBECS can add value to today's Task Ambient lighting systems. LBNL has argued that by providing both the occupant and the facilities manager with the ability to precisely control the operation of overhead lighting and all task lighting in a coordinated manner, that task ambient lighting can optimize energy performance and occupant comfort simultaneously [Reference Task Ambient Foundation Document]. The Personal Workspace Control system is the application of IBECS to this important lighting problem. This report discusses the development of the Personal Workspace Control to date including descriptions of the different fixture types that have been converted to IBECS operation and a detailed description of the operation of PWC Scene Controller, which provides the end user with precise control of his task ambient lighting system. The objective, from the Annual Plan, is to demonstrate improvements in efficiency, lighting quality and occupant comfort realized using Personal Workspace Controls (PWC) designed to optimize the delivery of lighting to the individual's workstation regardless of which task-ambient lighting solution is chosen. The PWC will be capable of controlling floor-mounted, desk lamps, furniture-mounted and overhead lighting fixtures from a personal computer and handheld remote. The PWC will use an environmental sensor to automatically monitor illuminance, temperature and occupancy and to appropriately modulate ambient lighting according to daylight availability and to switch off task lighting according to local occupancy. [Adding occupancy control to the system would blunt the historical criticism of occupant-controlled lighting - the tendency of the occupant

  20. Participatory Pattern Workshops: A Methodology for Open Learning Design Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor, Yishay; Warburton, Steven; Winters, Niall

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their…

  1. Evaluating goals in worker health protection using a participatory design and an evaluation checklist.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Zanoni, Joseph; Forst, Linda; Ochsner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Ringholm, Elisa; Rodríguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Sokas, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking immigrant workers in construction are considered hard to reach and at high risk for work-related injury and fatality. This evaluation study describes the use of participatory methods and an evaluation checklist to consider a health and safety (H&S) training program for these workers. A previously developed training manual and model were disseminated to eight worker centers (WCs) through participatory research collaboration. It incorporated H&S training for workers while strengthening the role of WCs as sources for leadership development and worker empowerment. Design, delivery, reaction, application, and extension were assessed through individual interviews with participants, trained trainers, and center staff and through observation of training sessions and partner debriefs; pre- and post-training tests assessed participant learning. Results indicate moderate learning and application by participants and strong evidence for structural gains in and among WCs. We conclude that such partnerships and models are valuable tools for collaborating with hard-to-reach workers.

  2. Participatory Design in Grand Rapids: Second Generation Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Aase

    1979-01-01

    The Central Park Project, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, illustrates the importance of participation in the design process and the impact of school sites on children as well as on the surrounding neighborhood. (Author/MLF)

  3. Impact of Participatory Design for Drug-Drug Interaction Alerts. A Comparison Study Between Two Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Risk, Marcelo; Stanziola, Enrique; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2016-01-01

    Decision support systems for alert drug-drug interactions have been shown as valid strategy to reduce medical error. Even so the use of these systems has not been as expected, probably due to the lack of a suitable design. This study compares two interfaces, one of them developed using participatory design techniques (based on user centered design processes). This work showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction with the system.

  4. Middle School Program and Participatory Planning Drive School Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Uses the example of award-winning Black Hawk Middle School in Minnesota to examine: (1) developing a middle school architecture; (2) benefits of the house concept; (3) the need for staff involvement in school design; (4) assembling houses into schools; (5) reduced discipline problems; (6) fostering teacher collaboration; and (7) measuring success.…

  5. Flyover Animation of Phoenix Workspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animated 'flyover' of the workspace of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's was created from images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), or the 14th Martian day after landing.

    The visualization uses both of the camera's 'eyes' to provide depth perception and ranging. The camera is looking north over the workspace.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. Aim To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Design and setting Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. Method A multiprofessional ‘expert’ group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. Results A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Conclusion Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. PMID:25918338

  7. Workspace Analysis and Optimization of 3-PUU Parallel Mechanism in Medicine Base on Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A novel 3-PUU parallel robot was put forward, on which kinematic analysis was conducted to obtain its inverse kinematics solution, and on this basis, the limitations of the sliding pair and the Hooke joint on the workspace were analyzed. Moreover, the workspace was solved through the three dimensional limit search method, and then optimization analysis was performed on the workspace of this parallel robot, which laid the foundations for the configuration design and further analysis of the parallel mechanism, with the result indicated that this type of robot was equipped with promising application prospect. In addition that, the workspace after optimization can meet more requirements of patients. PMID:26628930

  8. Participatory Design of Human-Centered Cyberinfrastructure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, D. D.; Gates, A. Q.

    2010-12-01

    collaborative research design process and illustrate their application in designing and developing useful end-to-end data solutions for scientists. Lastly, we will outline areas of future investigation within CyberShARE that we believe have the potential for high impact.

  9. User-centric incentive design for participatory mobile phone sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Lu, Haoyang

    2014-05-01

    Mobile phone sensing is a critical underpinning of pervasive mobile computing, and is one of the key factors for improving people's quality of life in modern society via collective utilization of the on-board sensing capabilities of people's smartphones. The increasing demands for sensing services and ambient awareness in mobile environments highlight the necessity of active participation of individual mobile users in sensing tasks. User incentives for such participation have been continuously offered from an application-centric perspective, i.e., as payments from the sensing server, to compensate users' sensing costs. These payments, however, are manipulated to maximize the benefits of the sensing server, ignoring the runtime flexibility and benefits of participating users. This paper presents a novel framework of user-centric incentive design, and develops a universal sensing platform which translates heterogenous sensing tasks to a generic sensing plan specifying the task-independent requirements of sensing performance. We use this sensing plan as input to reduce three categories of sensing costs, which together cover the possible sources hindering users' participation in sensing.

  10. Participatory design in lean production: which contribution from employees? For what end?

    PubMed

    Perez Toralla, M S; Falzon, P; Morais, A

    2012-01-01

    The proponents of lean production have pointed to the positive effects of the work organization on employees in terms of autonomy, enhanced skills and empowerment mainly by their participation into the continuous improvement of work process. But studies that have examined this issue suggest that the increase in autonomy is not sufficient to compensate for increases work intensity. Participatory design has grown extensively in manufacturing since the 1980's under the impulsion of the Scandinavian socio-technical system approach and it's central in the model of lean production performance. Its main objectives are to improve quality, increase productivity and safety through employee's participation to the reduction of non-value added activities, such as defined by lean production. In the line of the studies on participatory design and continuous improvement the present study examines the functioning of work groups, based on the kaizen model, the aim of which was to improve the proportion of "value-added activities" and working conditions, essentially physical constraints. The main results are consistent with the literature and show that accelerated forms of re-conception activities give employees limited room for maneuver to elaborate solutions based on the analysis of the real activity. This study is part of a broader initiative that goes in the direction of continuous improvement of the design process itself so that it integrates the real constraints of work and propose changes bases on work as it actually takes place, beyond pre-established performance goals bases on the reduction of "non added value activities".

  11. A User Assessment of Workspaces in Selected Music Education Computer Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badolato, Michael Jeremy

    A study of 120 students selected from the user populations of four music education computer laboratories was conducted to determine the applicability of current ergonomic and environmental design guidelines in satisfying the needs of users of educational computing workspaces. Eleven categories of workspace factors were organized into a…

  12. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  13. Development of a Wheelchair Skills Home Program for Older Adults Using a Participatory Action Design Approach

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Miller, William C.; Mitchell, Ian M.; Woodgate, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  14. Is participatory design associated with the effectiveness of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion? A meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents ac...

  15. Evaluating goals in worker health protection using a participatory design and an evaluation checklist.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Zanoni, Joseph; Forst, Linda; Ochsner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Ringholm, Elisa; Rodríguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Sokas, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking immigrant workers in construction are considered hard to reach and at high risk for work-related injury and fatality. This evaluation study describes the use of participatory methods and an evaluation checklist to consider a health and safety (H&S) training program for these workers. A previously developed training manual and model were disseminated to eight worker centers (WCs) through participatory research collaboration. It incorporated H&S training for workers while strengthening the role of WCs as sources for leadership development and worker empowerment. Design, delivery, reaction, application, and extension were assessed through individual interviews with participants, trained trainers, and center staff and through observation of training sessions and partner debriefs; pre- and post-training tests assessed participant learning. Results indicate moderate learning and application by participants and strong evidence for structural gains in and among WCs. We conclude that such partnerships and models are valuable tools for collaborating with hard-to-reach workers. PMID:24704811

  16. Appreciating the Persona paradox: lessons from participatory design sessions with HIV+ gay men.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Phillips, Craig; Currie, Leanne M

    2014-01-01

    Eliciting user requirements from HIV-positive gay men who smoke can be challenging. This is because of the complex relationship between social stigma and gender identities (e.g., gay, masculine, HIV+, and smoking status). Inspired to engage HIV-positive gay men in the development of a web-assisted tobacco intervention, we used personas as a main communication tool in our participatory design sessions. Personas are characters created by users that embody part of their own behaviours, thoughts, and motivations. In an apparent paradox, this article is a description of how the use of personas to ensure less realistic self-representation provided an impetus for more self-disclosure. Findings and feedbacks from this study reveal that personas are an effective design tool to engage users in sensitive topics. Implications for future work are also discussed.

  17. Appreciating the Persona paradox: lessons from participatory design sessions with HIV+ gay men.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Phillips, Craig; Currie, Leanne M

    2014-01-01

    Eliciting user requirements from HIV-positive gay men who smoke can be challenging. This is because of the complex relationship between social stigma and gender identities (e.g., gay, masculine, HIV+, and smoking status). Inspired to engage HIV-positive gay men in the development of a web-assisted tobacco intervention, we used personas as a main communication tool in our participatory design sessions. Personas are characters created by users that embody part of their own behaviours, thoughts, and motivations. In an apparent paradox, this article is a description of how the use of personas to ensure less realistic self-representation provided an impetus for more self-disclosure. Findings and feedbacks from this study reveal that personas are an effective design tool to engage users in sensitive topics. Implications for future work are also discussed. PMID:24943535

  18. Design in mind: eliciting service user and frontline staff perspectives on psychiatric ward design through participatory methods

    PubMed Central

    Csipke, Emese; Papoulias, Constantina; Vitoratou, Silia; Williams, Paul; Rose, Diana; Wykes, Til

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Psychiatric ward design may make an important contribution to patient outcomes and well-being. However, research is hampered by an inability to assess its effects robustly. This paper reports on a study which deployed innovative methods to capture service user and staff perceptions of ward design. Method: User generated measures of the impact of ward design were developed and tested on four acute adult wards using participatory methodology. Additionally, inpatients took photographs to illustrate their experience of the space in two wards. Data were compared across wards. Results: Satisfactory reliability indices emerged based on both service user and staff responses. Black and minority ethnic (BME) service users and those with a psychosis spectrum diagnosis have more positive views of the ward layout and fixtures. Staff members have more positive views than service users, while priorities of staff and service users differ. Inpatient photographs prioritise hygiene, privacy and control and address symbolic aspects of the ward environment. Conclusions: Participatory and visual methodologies can provide robust tools for an evaluation of the impact of psychiatric ward design on users. PMID:26886239

  19. Participatory design in lean production: which contribution from employees? For what end?

    PubMed

    Perez Toralla, M S; Falzon, P; Morais, A

    2012-01-01

    The proponents of lean production have pointed to the positive effects of the work organization on employees in terms of autonomy, enhanced skills and empowerment mainly by their participation into the continuous improvement of work process. But studies that have examined this issue suggest that the increase in autonomy is not sufficient to compensate for increases work intensity. Participatory design has grown extensively in manufacturing since the 1980's under the impulsion of the Scandinavian socio-technical system approach and it's central in the model of lean production performance. Its main objectives are to improve quality, increase productivity and safety through employee's participation to the reduction of non-value added activities, such as defined by lean production. In the line of the studies on participatory design and continuous improvement the present study examines the functioning of work groups, based on the kaizen model, the aim of which was to improve the proportion of "value-added activities" and working conditions, essentially physical constraints. The main results are consistent with the literature and show that accelerated forms of re-conception activities give employees limited room for maneuver to elaborate solutions based on the analysis of the real activity. This study is part of a broader initiative that goes in the direction of continuous improvement of the design process itself so that it integrates the real constraints of work and propose changes bases on work as it actually takes place, beyond pre-established performance goals bases on the reduction of "non added value activities". PMID:22317130

  20. Participatory design with children in the development of a support system for patient-centered care in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Ruland, Cornelia M; Starren, Justin; Vatne, Torun M

    2008-08-01

    Developing software for children with severe illness poses a number of design challenges. In this paper we describe participatory design methods used in the development of SISOM, a support system for children with cancer age 7-12 to help children elicit and report their symptoms/problems in a child-friendly, age-adjusted manner, and to assist clinicians at the point of care in addressing and integrating children's reported symptoms and problems in patient care. The particular design challenges in the development of a clinical support tool for seriously ill children are described, followed by the participatory design techniques we used to meet these challenges. Healthy children and children with cancer participated actively in different stages of the design process. We describe how children contributed to the graphical design of the system's interface; selection of understandable, child-friendly terms used in the system; iconic and graphical representations; and its usability. The methods applied helped us to significantly improve and adapt SISOM to children's cognitive and emotional developmental stage. Working with children as partners in the design also provided important insights into the role children can play in participatory design that may be helpful for other system developers who wish to design support applications for ill children. Children had very creative design ideas that considerably improved the software. However, system development for seriously ill children also requires psychological and pedagogical insights and design and usability expertise. This limits the role children can play as full design partners.

  1. Using a Participatory Action Research Approach to Create a Universally Designed Inclusive High School Science Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.

    2006-01-01

    Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…

  2. Participatory Design Research as a Practice for Systemic Repair: Doing Hand-in-Hand Math Research with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…

  3. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  4. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a "Data Profiling" Tool for Electronic Health Data.

    PubMed

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a "data profiling" tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool's functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651

  5. Participatory Design of Mass Health Communication in Three Languages for Seniors and People With Disabilities on Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Beccah; Graham, Carrie; Ivey, Susan L.; Konishi, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We used participatory design methods to develop and test guidebooks about health care choices intended for 600 000 English-, Spanish-, and Chinese-speaking seniors and people with disabilities receiving Medicaid in California. Methods. Design and testing processes were conducted with consumers and professionals; they included 24 advisory group interviews, 36 usability tests, 18 focus groups (105 participants), 51 key informant interviews, guidebook readability and suitability testing, linguistic adaptation, and iterative revisions of 4 prototypes. Results. Participatory design processes identified preferences of intended audiences for guidebook content, linguistic adaptation, and format; guidebook readability was scored at the sixth- to eighth-grade level and suitability at 95%. These findings informed the design of a separate efficacy study that showed high guidebook usage and satisfaction, and better gains in knowledge, confidence, and intended behaviors among intervention participants than among control participants. Conclusions. Participatory design can be used effectively in mass communication to inform vulnerable audiences of health care choices. The techniques described can be adapted for a broad range of health communication interventions. PMID:19833990

  6. Sketching Awareness: A Participatory Study to Elicit Designs for Supporting Ad Hoc Emergency Medical Teamwork

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Diana; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Zhang, Zhan; Yala, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Prior CSCW research on awareness in clinical settings has mostly focused on higher-level team coordination spanning across longer-term trajectories at the department and inter-department levels. In this paper, we offer a perspective on what awareness means within the context of an ad hoc, time- and safety-critical medical setting by looking at teams treating severely ill patients with urgent needs. We report findings from four participatory design workshops conducted with emergency medicine clinicians at two regional emergency departments. Workshops were developed to elicit design ideas for information displays that support awareness in emergency medical situations. Through analysis of discussions and clinicians’ sketches of information displays, we identified five features of teamwork that can be used as a foundation for supporting awareness from the perspective of clinicians. Based on these findings, we contribute rich descriptions of four facets of awareness that teams manage during emergency medical situations: team member awareness, elapsed time awareness, teamwork-oriented and patient-driven task awareness, and overall progress awareness. We then discuss these four awareness types in relation to awareness facets found in the CSCW literature. PMID:25870498

  7. A Participatory Approach to Designing and Enhancing Integrated Health Information Technology Systems for Veterans: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nazi, Kim M; Chavez, Margeaux; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole; Gosline, Robert M; Martin, Tracey L

    2015-01-01

    Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed health information technologies (HIT) and resources to improve veteran access to health care programs and services, and to support a patient-centered approach to health care delivery. To improve VA HIT access and meaningful use by veterans, it is necessary to understand their preferences for interacting with various HIT resources to accomplish health management related tasks and to exchange information. Objective The objective of this paper was to describe a novel protocol for: (1) developing a HIT Digital Health Matrix Model; (2) conducting an Analytic Hierarchy Process called pairwise comparison to understand how and why veterans want to use electronic health resources to complete tasks related to health management; and (3) developing visual modeling simulations that depict veterans’ preferences for using VA HIT to manage their health conditions and exchange health information. Methods The study uses participatory research methods to understand how veterans prefer to use VA HIT to accomplish health management tasks within a given context, and how they would like to interact with HIT interfaces (eg, look, feel, and function) in the future. This study includes two rounds of veteran focus groups with self-administered surveys and visual modeling simulation techniques. This study will also convene an expert panel to assist in the development of a VA HIT Digital Health Matrix Model, so that both expert panel members and veteran participants can complete an Analytic Hierarchy Process, pairwise comparisons to evaluate and rank the applicability of electronic health resources for a series of health management tasks. Results This protocol describes the iterative, participatory, and patient-centered process for: (1) developing a VA HIT Digital Health Matrix Model that outlines current VA patient-facing platforms available to veterans, describing their features and relevant contexts for use; and (2

  8. BAMS2 Workspace: a comprehensive and versatile neuroinformatic platform for collating and processing neuroanatomical connections

    PubMed Central

    Bota, Mihail; Talpalaru, Ştefan; Hintiryan, Houri; Dong, Hong-Wei; Swanson, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    We present in this paper a novel neuroinformatic platform, the BAMS2 Workspace (http://brancusi1.usc.edu), designed for storing and processing information about gray matter region axonal connections. This de novo constructed module allows registered users to directly collate their data by using a simple and versatile visual interface. It also allows construction and analysis of sets of connections associated with gray matter region nomenclatures from any designated species. The Workspace includes a set of tools allowing the display of data in matrix and networks formats, and the uploading of processed information in visual, PDF, CSV, and Excel formats. Finally, the Workspace can be accessed anonymously by third party systems to create individualized connectivity networks. All features of the BAMS2 Workspace are described in detail, and are demonstrated with connectivity reports collated in BAMS and associated with the rat sensory-motor cortex, medial frontal cortex, and amygdalar regions. PMID:24668342

  9. BAMS2 workspace: a comprehensive and versatile neuroinformatic platform for collating and processing neuroanatomical connections.

    PubMed

    Bota, Mihail; Talpalaru, Stefan; Hintiryan, Houri; Dong, Hong-Wei; Swanson, Larry W

    2014-10-01

    We describe a novel neuroinformatic platform, the BAMS2 Workspace (http://brancusi1.usc.edu), designed for storing and processing information on gray matter region axonal connections. This de novo constructed module allows registered users to collate their data directly by using a simple and versatile visual interface. It also allows construction and analysis of sets of connections associated with gray matter region nomenclatures from any designated species. The Workspace includes a set of tools allowing the display of data in matrix and networks formats and the uploading of processed information in visual, PDF, CSV, and Excel formats. Finally, the Workspace can be accessed anonymously by third-party systems to create individualized connectivity networks. All features of the BAMS2 Workspace are described in detail and are demonstrated with connectivity reports collated in BAMS and associated with the rat sensory-motor cortex, medial frontal cortex, and amygdalar regions. PMID:24668342

  10. How to Frame Universal Workspace Lighting.

    PubMed

    Mathiasen, Nanet; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 the headquarters for the umbrella organisation 'Disabled people's organisation Denmark' opened, an office building that offers workspace for the administrations of all the member organisations. The ambition for the building was to be the most accessible office building in the world; regardless of disability everybody should be able to move around in the house and work in any of the offices. One, of many ambitions, was to design a functional and effective lighting scheme using as much daylight as possible, and integrating the artificial lighting design and daylight design. The lighting was intended to support all work stations in both one-man offices and open-plan offices with a functional and comfortable visual environment, fit for all users, regardless of disability. Based on a post occupancy evaluation conducted 2 years after the organisations moved in, the present paper evaluates the lighting design in the offices. It reveals that not all the people working in the offices have the same needs and preferences of lighting conditions; these differ even among users with the same disability. Accordingly the findings lead to a discussion on how to understand the concept of Universal Design. Based on the lighting theory of Peter Boyce, the paper discusses the idea of encompassing everyone in the same solution. PMID:27534330

  11. Participatory Design of an Integrated Information System Design to Support Public Health Nurses and Nurse Managers

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Hills, Rebecca A.; Turner, Anne M.; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study were to use persona-driven and scenario-based design methods to create a conceptual information system design to support public health nursing. Design and Sample We enrolled 19 participants from two local health departments to conduct an information needs assessment, create a conceptual design, and conduct a preliminary design validation. Measures Interviews and thematic analysis were used to characterize information needs and solicit design recommendations from participants. Personas were constructed from participant background information, and scenario-based design was used to create a conceptual information system design. Two focus groups were conducted as a first iteration validation of information needs, personas, and scenarios. Results Eighty-nine information needs were identified. Two personas and 89 scenarios were created. Public health nurses and nurse managers confirmed the accuracy of information needs, personas, scenarios, and the perceived usefulness of proposed features of the conceptual design. Design artifacts were modified based on focus group results. Conclusion Persona-driven design and scenario-based design are feasible methods to design for common work activities in different local health departments. Public health nurses and nurse managers should be engaged in the design of systems that support their work. PMID:24117760

  12. Beyond Borders: Participatory Design Research and the Changing Role of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair-Early, Adream

    2010-01-01

    University art and design programs are branching out and creating cross-disciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to…

  13. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care: Identifying Parental Needs Through Participatory Design

    PubMed Central

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte; Clemensen, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. Objective To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. Methods The study used participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care with telemedicine support. A total of 9 parents with preterm infants assigned to a neonatal home care program and 10 parents with preterm infants admitted to a neonatal unit participated in individual interviews and focus group interviews, respectively. Results Three overall themes were identified: being a family, parent self-efficacy, and nurse-provided security. Parents expressed desire for the following: (1) a telemedicine device to serve as a “bell cord” to the neonatal unit, giving 24-hour access to nurses, (2) video-conferencing to provide security at home, (3) timely written email communication with the neonatal unit, and (4) an online knowledge base on preterm infant care, breastfeeding, and nutrition. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of neonatal home care. NH provides parents with a feeling of being a family, supports their self-efficacy, and gives them a feeling of security when combined with nursing guidance. Parents did not request hands-on support for infant care, but instead expressed a need for communication and guidance, which could be met using

  14. A Community-Based Participatory Planning Process and Multilevel Intervention Design: Toward Eliminating Cardiovascular Health Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Coombe, Chris M.; Gaines, Causandra; Reyes, Angela G.; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon; Strong, Larkin L.; Weir, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    The elimination of persistent health inequities requires the engagement of multiple perspectives, resources and skills. Community-based participatory research is one approach to developing action strategies that promote health equity by addressing contextual as well as individual level factors, and that can contribute to addressing more fundamental factors linked to health inequity. Yet many questions remain about how to implement participatory processes that engage local insights and expertise, are informed by the existing public health knowledge base, and build support across multiple sectors to implement solutions. We describe a CBPR approach used to conduct a community assessment and action planning process, culminating in development of a multilevel intervention to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Detroit, Michigan. We consider implications for future efforts to engage communities in developing strategies toward eliminating health inequities. PMID:21873580

  15. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  16. Participatory Multimedia Learning: Engaging Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiili, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a participatory multimedia learning model for use in designing multimedia learning environments that support an active learning process, creative participation, and learner engagement. Participatory multimedia learning can be defined as learning with systems that enable learners to produce part of the…

  17. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-434-1655, Ruan Transport Corporation, Des Moines, Iowa. [Improper lighting, workspace design, and excessive cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Koonce, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Following a request by an employee of the Ruan Transport Corporation, Des Moines, Iowa, symtoms including watery eyes, headaches, blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, sneezing, and coughing among keypunch operators working at video display terminals were investigated. Carbon-monoxide and carbon-dioxide samples were taken. Work station design and seating were evaluated. Room lighting was measured. Short medical histories were obtained all 25 keypunch operators. Carbon monoxide was not detectable in the work area, but a carbon-dioxide concentration of 3000 parts/million was measured. Many employees were observed smoking while entering data. The illumination exceeded 600 LUX in most general work areas even though the survey day was overcast. Air temperatures of 72/sup 0/-F or higher were measured. Insufficient leg space was found under work tables. Work stations had inadequate adjustments to compensate for individual variations. The night crew had fewer symptoms than the day shift except that 90% of night workers reported headaches compared with 75 percent of day workers. The author concludes that improper lighting, work space design, and excessive cigarette smoke may be responsible for the reported symptoms. Reduction of light levels, reduction of smoking, replacement of work station furniture with adjustable models, and improved ventilation are recommended.

  18. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and

  19. A Virtual Information-Action Workspace for Command and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintern, Gavan; Naikar, Neelam

    2002-10-01

    Information overload has become a critical challenge within military Command and Control. However, the problem is not so much one of too much information but of abundant information that is poorly organized and poorly represented. In addition, the capabilities to test the effects of decisions before they are implemented and to monitor the progress of events after a decision is implemented are primitive. A virtual information-action workspace could be designed to resolve these issues. The design of such a space would require a detailed understanding of the specific information needed to support decision making in Command and Control. That information can be obtained with the use of knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation tools from the field of applied cognitive psychology. In addition, it will be necessary to integrate forms for perception and action into a virtual space that will support access to the information and that will provide means for testing and implementing decisions. This paper presents a rationale for a virtual information-action workspace and outlines an approach to its design.

  20. Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Davies, Emma C; Chandler, Clare I R; Innocent, Simeon H S; Kalumuna, Charles; Terlouw, Dianne J; Lalloo, David G; Staedke, Sarah G; Haaland, Ane

    2012-01-01

    The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality

  1. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  2. Developing In-Service Science Teachers' Ownership of the Profiles Pedagogical Framework through a Technology-Supported Participatory Design Approach to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyza, E. A.; Georgiou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher ownership is crucial for the sustainability of science education reform efforts. This paper discusses participatory design as a bottom-up approach for promoting teachers' sense of ownership of inquiry-based learning and teaching approach as put forward by the PROFILES project. According to the prevalent argument in favor of…

  3. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  4. Visualizing Cyber Security: Usable Workspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; North, Christopher L.; Endert, Alexander; Rose, Stuart J.

    2009-10-11

    An environment that supports cyber analytics work should enable multiple, simultaneous investigations, information foraging, and provide a solution space for organizing data. We describe our study of cyber security professionals and visualizations in a large, high-resolution display work environment. We discuss the tasks and needs of analysts that such an environment can support and present several prototypes designed to support these needs. We conclude with a usability evaluation of the prototypes and additional lessons learned.

  5. Participatory Research as One Piece of the Puzzle: A Systematic Review of Consumer Involvement in Design of Technology-Based Youth Mental Health and Well-Being Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Winsall, Megan; Jones, Gabrielle M; Wyld, Kaisha; Damarell, Raechel A; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Smith, David; Collin, Philippa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of technology-based mental health interventions for young people, limited uptake and/or adherence is a significant challenge. It is thought that involving young people in the development and delivery of services designed for them leads to better engagement. Further research is required to understand the role of participatory approaches in design of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Objective To investigate consumer involvement processes and associated outcomes from studies using participatory methods in development of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Methods Fifteen electronic databases, using both resource-specific subject headings and text words, were searched describing 2 broad concepts-participatory research and mental health/illness. Grey literature was accessed via Google Advanced search, and relevant conference Web sites and reference lists were also searched. A first screening of titles/abstracts eliminated irrelevant citations and documents. The remaining citations were screened by a second reviewer. Full text articles were double screened. All projects employing participatory research processes in development and/or design of (ICT/digital) technology-based youth mental health and well-being interventions were included. No date restrictions were applied; English language only. Data on consumer involvement, research and design process, and outcomes were extracted via framework analysis. Results A total of 6210 studies were reviewed, 38 full articles retrieved, and 17 included in this study. It was found that consumer participation was predominantly consultative and consumerist in nature and involved design specification and intervention development, and usability/pilot testing. Sustainable participation was difficult to achieve. Projects reported clear dichotomies around designer/researcher and consumer assumptions of effective and acceptable

  6. Identifying Consumer’s Needs of Health Information Technology through an Innovative Participatory Design Approach among English- and Spanish-speaking Urban Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, B.; Yen, P.; Velez, O.; Nobile-Hernandez, D.; Tiase, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. Methods We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant’s needs related to information technology. Results The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant’s needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. Conclusions The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer’s technology needs while taking into account core public health functions. PMID:25589909

  7. Participatory telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  8. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a “Data Profiling” Tool for Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a “data profiling” tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool’s functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651

  9. NASA's MERBoard: An Interactive Collaborative Workspace Platform. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Wales, Roxana; Gossweiler, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This chapter describes the ongoing process by which a multidisciplinary group at NASA's Ames Research Center is designing and implementing a large interactive work surface called the MERBoard Collaborative Workspace. A MERBoard system involves several distributed, large, touch-enabled, plasma display systems with custom MERBoard software. A centralized server and database back the system. We are continually tuning MERBoard to support over two hundred scientists and engineers during the surface operations of the Mars Exploration Rover Missions. These scientists and engineers come from various disciplines and are working both in small and large groups over a span of space and time. We describe the multidisciplinary, human-centered process by which this h4ERBoard system is being designed, the usage patterns and social interactions that we have observed, and issues we are currently facing.

  10. False Color Terrain Model of Phoenix Workspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a terrain model of Phoenix's Robotic Arm workspace. It has been color coded by depth with a lander model for context. The model has been derived using images from the depth perception feature from Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Red indicates low-lying areas that appear to be troughs. Blue indicates higher areas that appear to be polygons.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Getting the Most from Working with Higher Education: A Review of Methods Used within a Participatory Design Activity Involving KS3 Special School Pupils and Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Industrial Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, George Edward; Newton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides education-based researchers and practitioners with the preferred research and design methods used by Higher Education Institute (HEI) students and Key Stage 3 (KS3) pupils applied within a participatory approach to a design activity. The outcomes were that both pupils and students found informal (unstructured) interview to be…

  12. How does the context and design of participatory decision-making processes affect their outcomes? Evidence from sustainable land management in global drylands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and

  13. Participatory Design in Open Education: A Workshop Model for Developing a Pattern Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor, Yishay; Winters, Niall

    2008-01-01

    Technologically enhanced learning environments raise complex challenges for their designers, developers and users. Design patterns and pattern languages have recently emerged as a potential framework for addressing some of these challenges. However, the uptake of design patterns has been slow outside of the computer science community. We argue…

  14. 3D active workspace of human hand anatomical model

    PubMed Central

    Dragulescu, Doina; Perdereau, Véronique; Drouin, Michel; Ungureanu, Loredana; Menyhardt, Karoly

    2007-01-01

    Background If the model of the human hand is created with accuracy by respecting the type of motion provided by each articulation and the dimensions of articulated bones, it can function as the real organ providing the same motions. Unfortunately, the human hand is hard to model due to its kinematical chains submitted to motion constraints. On the other hand, if an application does not impose a fine manipulation it is not necessary to create a model as complex as the human hand is. But always the hand model has to perform a certain space of motions in imposed workspace architecture no matter what the practical application does. Methods Based on Denavit-Hartenberg convention, we conceived the kinematical model of the human hand, having in mind the structure and the behavior of the natural model. We obtained the kinematical equations describing the motion of every fingertip with respect to the general coordinate system, placed on the wrist. For every joint variable, a range of motion was established. Dividing these joint variables to an appropriate number of intervals and connecting them, the complex surface bordering the active hand model workspace was obtained. Results Using MATLAB 7.0, the complex surface described by fingertips, when hand articulations are all simultaneously moving, was obtained. It can be seen that any point on surface has its own coordinates smaller than the maximum length of the middle finger in static position. Therefore, a sphere having the centre in the origin of the general coordinate system and the radius which equals this length covers the represented complex surface. Conclusion We propose a human hand model that represents a new solution compared to the existing ones. This model is capable to make special movements like power grip and dexterous manipulations. During them, the fingertips do not exceed the active workspace encapsulated by determined surfaces. The proposed kinematical model can help to choose which model joints could be

  15. Learner-Generated Designs in Participatory Culture: What They Are and How They Are Shaping Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Beaumie; Tan, Lynde; Bielaczyc, Katerine

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue, the authors purport to interrogate and further their understanding of the commonly cited term, "design," specifically "learner-generated designs." This issue brings together scholars from multiple disciplines, including learning sciences, literacy studies, science education, digital media, and pedagogy,…

  16. Communities of Practice Transition Online - Lessons learned from NASA's EPO Online Workspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth Forum Education and Public Outreach (EP/O) community has long interacted to better their practice as a community as well as individually. Working together to share knowledge and grow, they function as a community of practice. In 2009, NASA designed and implemented an online workspace in hopes of promoting the communities continued interactions. This study examines the role of an online workspace component of a community in the work of a community of practice. Much has been studied revealing the importance of communities of practice to organizations, project success, and knowledge management and some of these same successes hold true for virtual communities of practice. Study participants were 75 Education and Public Outreach community members of NASA's Science Mission Directorate Earth Forum. In this mixed methods study, online workspace metrics were used to track participation and a survey completed by 21 members was used to quantify participation. For a more detailed analysis, 15 community members (five highly active users, five average users, and five infrequent users) selected based on survey responses, were interviewed. Finally, survey data was gathered from seven online facilitators to understand their role in the community. Data collected from these 21 community members and five facilitating members suggest that highly active users (logging into the workspace daily), were more likely to have transformative experiences, co-create knowledge, feel ownership of community knowledge, have extended opportunities for community exchange, and find new forms of evaluation. Average users shared some similar characteristics with both the highly active members and infrequent users, representing a group in transition as they become more engaged and active in the online workspace. Inactive users viewed the workspace as having little value, being difficult to navigate, being mainly for gaining basic information about events and community news, and as another demand

  17. A RFID specific participatory design approach to support design and implementation of real-time location systems in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Guédon, A C P; Wauben, L S G L; de Korne, D F; Overvelde, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

    2015-01-01

    Information technology, such as real-time location (RTL) systems using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) may contribute to overcome patient safety issues and high costs in healthcare. The aim of this work is to study if a RFID specific Participatory Design (PD) approach supports the design and the implementation of RTL systems in the Operating Room (OR). A RFID specific PD approach was used to design and implement two RFID based modules. The Device Module monitors the safety status of OR devices and the Patient Module tracks the patients' locations during their hospital stay. The PD principles 'multidisciplinary team', 'participation users (active involvement)' and 'early adopters' were used to include users from the RFID company, the university and the hospital. The design and implementation process consisted of two 'structured cycles' ('iterations'). The effectiveness of this approach was assessed by the acceptance in terms of level of use, continuity of the project and purchase. The Device Module included eight strategic and twelve tactical actions and the Patient Module included six strategic and twelve tactical actions. Both modules are now used on a daily basis and are purchased by the hospitals for continued use. The RFID specific PD approach was effective in guiding and supporting the design and implementation process of RFID technology in the OR. The multidisciplinary teams and their active participation provided insights in the social and the organizational context of the hospitals making it possible to better fit the technology to the hospitals' (future) needs.

  18. IDR: A Participatory Methodology for Interdisciplinary Design in Technology Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Niall; Mor, Yishay

    2008-01-01

    One of the important themes that emerged from the CAL'07 conference was the failure of technology to bring about the expected disruptive effect to learning and teaching. We identify one of the causes as an inherent weakness in prevalent development methodologies. While the problem of designing technology for learning is irreducibly…

  19. The Development of SCORM-Conformant Learning Content Based on the Learning Cycle Using Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Wang, T. I.

    2010-01-01

    This study incorporates the 5E learning cycle strategy to design and develop Sharable Content Object Reference Model-conformant materials for elementary science education. The 5E learning cycle that supports the constructivist approach has been widely applied in science education. The strategy consists of five phases: engagement, exploration,…

  20. Living Action Research in Course Design: Centering Participatory and Social Justice Principles and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Morgan; Hammett, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Action research (AR) courses provide openings in higher education to engage students, schools and communities in democratic and socially just ways within the contexts of research, classroom learning and broader social interactions. Such opportunities are strengthened when instructors design AR courses with the goal of enabling students to…

  1. Reachable Workspace in Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) by Kinect

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jay J.; Kurillo, Gregorij; Abresch, Richard T.; de Bie, Evan; Nicorici, Alina; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A depth-ranging sensor (Kinect) based upper extremity motion analysis system was applied to determine the spectrum of reachable workspace encountered in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Methods Reachable workspaces were obtained from 22 individuals with FSHD and 24 age- and height-matched healthy controls. To allow comparison, total and quadrant reachable workspace relative surface areas (RSA) were obtained by normalizing the acquired reachable workspace by each individual’s arm length. Results Significantly contracted reachable workspace and reduced RSAs were noted for the FSHD cohort compared to controls (0.473±0.188 vs. 0.747±0.082; P<0.0001). With worsening upper extremity function as categorized by the FSHD evaluation subscale II+III, the upper quadrant RSAs decreased progressively, while the lower quadrant RSAs were relatively preserved. There were no side-to-side differences in reachable workspace based on hand-dominance. Discussion This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential of using an innovative Kinect-based reachable workspace outcome measure in FSHD. PMID:24828906

  2. From Human Factors to Human Actors to Human Crafters: A Meta-Design Inspired Participatory Framework for Designing in Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceli, Monica Grace

    2012-01-01

    Meta-design theory emphasizes that system designers can never anticipate all future uses of their system at design time, when systems are being developed. Rather, end users shape their environments in response to emerging needs at use time. Meta-design theory suggests that systems should therefore be designed to adapt to future conditions in the…

  3. The participatory design of a performance oriented monitoring and evaluation system in an international development environment.

    PubMed

    Guerra-López, Ingrid; Hicks, Karen

    2015-02-01

    This article illustrates the application of the impact monitoring and evaluation process for the design and development of a performance monitoring and evaluation framework in the context of human and institutional capacity development. This participative process facilitated stakeholder ownership in several areas including the design, development, and use of a new monitoring and evaluation system, as well their targeted results and accomplishments through the use of timely performance data gathered through ongoing monitoring and evaluation. The process produced a performance indicator map, a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework, and data collection templates to promote the development, implementation, and sustainability of the monitoring and evaluation system of a farmer's trade union in an African country.

  4. Learning through Dignity: Participatory Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Dennis

    This paper describes an alternative approach to traditional instructional design models by suggesting that participatory communication theory (PCT) creates a process that values the learner's voice. As a student develops a critical awareness of his or her environment, participatory media becomes a catalyst for cognition. Learners use media tools…

  5. Participatory Design and Development of a Patient-centered Toolkit to Engage Hospitalized Patients and Care Partners in their Plan of Care.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Patricia C; Stade, Diana; Chang, Frank; Dalal, Anuj; Getty, George; Kandala, Ravali; Lee, Jaeho; Lehman, Lisa; Leone, Kathleen; Massaro, Anthony F; Milone, Marsha; McNally, Kelly; Ohashi, Kumiko; Robbins, Katherine; Bates, David W; Collins, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Patient engagement has been identified as a key strategy for improving patient outcomes. In this paper, we describe the development and pilot testing of a web-based patient centered toolkit (PCTK) prototype to improve access to health information and to engage hospitalized patients and caregivers in the plan of care. Individual and group interviews were used to identify plan of care functional and workflow requirements and user interface design enhancements. Qualitative methods within a participatory design approach supported the development of a PCTK prototype that will be implemented on intensive care and oncology units to engage patients and professional care team members developing their plan of care during an acute hospitalization.

  6. Design Lessons about Participatory Self-Directed Online Learning in a Graduate-Level Instructional Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.; Do, Jaewoo; Skutnik, Anne L.; Thompson, Duren J.; Stephens, Adam F.; Tays, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a case of participatory self-directed online learning within the context of a graduate-level instructional technology course. The course was about online learning environments and relied on both asynchronous and synchronous technologies. In this case, the instructor and students engaged in collaborative course design…

  7. Participatory action research designs in applied disability and rehabilitation science: protecting against threats to social validity.

    PubMed

    Seekins, Tom; White, Glen W

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and disability advocates have been debating consumer involvement in disability and rehabilitation science since at least 1972. Despite the length of this debate, much confusion remains. Consumer involvement may represent a spirit of democracy or even empowerment, but as a tool of science, it is necessary to understand how to judge its application. To realize consumer involvement as a design element in science, researchers need a framework for understanding how it can contribute to the scientific process. The thesis of this article is that a primary scientific function of consumer involvement is to reduce threats to the social validity of research, the extent to which those expected to use or benefit from research products judge them as useful and actually use them. Social validity has traditionally not been treated with the same rigor as concerns for internal and external validity. This article presents a framework that describes 7 threats to social validity and explains how 15 forms of consumer involvement protect against those threats. We also suggest procedures for reporting and reviewing consumer involvement in proposals and manuscripts. This framework offers tools familiar to all scientists for identifying threats to the quality of research, and for judging the effectiveness of strategies for protecting against those threats. It may also enhance the standing of consumer involvement strategies as tools for protecting research quality by organizing them in a way that allows for systematic criticism of their effectiveness and subsequent improvement.

  8. Global workspace model of consciousness and its electromagnetic correlates

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Prakash, Om; Prakash, Shashi; Abhishek, Priyadarshi; Gandotra, Sachin

    2008-01-01

    The global workspace of consciousness was proposed in its elementary framework by Baars, in 1982. Since the time of inception, there have been many speculations and modifications of this theory, but the central theme has remained the same, which refers to the global availability of information in the brain. However, the present understanding about the origin of this global workspace or its mechanism of operation is still deficient. One of the less-studied candidates for this global workspace is the electromagnetic field of the brain. The present work is a brief review of the theoretical underpinnings of the Global workspace model, in terms of its theoretical framework and neuroimaging evidences. Subsequently, we turn towards another broad group of theories of consciousness, in the form of electromagnetic field theories. We then proceed to highlight some electromagnetic correlates derived from these theories for this global access phenomenon. PMID:19893660

  9. Is Participatory Design Associated with the Effectiveness of Serious Digital Games for Healthy Lifestyle Promotion? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Palmeira, Antonio; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    Background Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents active user involvement as informant (ie, users are asked for input and feedback) or codesigner (ie, users as equal partners in the design) early on and throughout the game development, may be associated with higher game effectiveness, as opposed to no user involvement or limited user involvement. Objective This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis examining the moderating role of PD in the effectiveness of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion. Methods Four databases were searched for peer-reviewed papers in English that were published or in press before October 2014, using a (group-) randomized controlled trial design. Effectiveness data were derived from another meta-analysis assessing the role of behavior change techniques and game features in serious game effectiveness. Results A total of 58 games evaluated in 61 studies were included. As previously reported, serious digital games had positive effects on healthy lifestyles and their determinants. Unexpectedly, PD (g=0.075, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.133) throughout game development was related to lower game effectiveness on behavior (Q=6.74, P<.05) than when users were only involved as testers (g=0.520, 95% CI 0.150 to 0.890, P<.01). Games developed with PD (g=0.171, 95% CI 0.061 to 0.281, P<.01) were also related to lower game effectiveness on self-efficacy (Q=7.83, P<.05) than when users were not involved in game design (g=0.384, 95% CI 0.283 to 0.485, P<.001). Some differences were noted depending on age group, publication year of the study, and on the specific role in PD (ie, informant or codesigner), and depending on the game design element. Games developed with PD were more effective in

  10. A Global Workspace perspective on mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent developments in Global Workspace theory suggest that human consciousness can suffer interpenetrating dysfunctions of mutual and reciprocal interaction with embedding environments which will have early onset and often insidious staged developmental progression, possibly according to a cancer model, in which a set of long-evolved control strategies progressively fails. Methods and results A rate distortion argument implies that, if an external information source carries a damaging 'message', then sufficient exposure to it, particularly during critical developmental periods, is sure to write a sufficiently accurate image of it on mind and body in a punctuated manner so as to initiate or promote similarly progressively punctuated developmental disorder, in essence either a staged failure affecting large-scale brain connectivity, which is the sine qua non of human consciousness, or else damaging the ability of embedding goal contexts to contain conscious dynamics. Conclusion The key intervention, at the population level, is clearly to limit exposure to factors triggering developmental disorders, a question of proper environmental sanitation, in a large sense, primarily a matter of social justice which has long been known to be determined almost entirely by the interactions of cultural trajectory, group power relations, and economic structure, with public policy. Intervention at the individual level appears limited to triggering or extending periods of remission, representing reestablishment of an extensive, but largely unexplored, spectrum of evolved control strategies, in contrast with the far better-understood case of cancer. PMID:16371149

  11. A “Community Fit” Community-Based Participatory Research Program for Family Health, Happiness, and Harmony: Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Cissy SS; Wang, Man Ping; Mui, Moses; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia SC

    2015-01-01

    Background A principal factor in maintaining positive family functioning and well-being, family communication time is decreasing in modern societies such as Hong Kong, where long working hours and indulgent use of information technology are typical. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe an innovative study protocol, “Happy Family Kitchen,” under the project, “FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society,” aimed at improving family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs) through enhancement of family communication. Methods This study employed the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, and adopted 5 principles of positive psychology and the traditional Chinese concepts of cooking and dining, as a means to connect family members to promote family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs). Results In-depth collaboration took place between an academic institution and a large nongovernmental community organization association (NGO association) with 400 social service agency members. Both groups were deeply involved in the project design, implementation, and evaluation of 23 community-based interventions. From 612 families with 1419 individuals’ findings, significant increases in mean communication time per week (from 153.44 to 170.31 minutes, P=.002) at 6 weeks after the intervention and mean communication scores (from 67.18 to 69.56 out of 100, P<.001) at 12 weeks after the intervention were shown. Significant enhancements were also found for mean happiness scores 12 weeks after the intervention (from 7.80 to 7.82 out of 10, P<.001), and mean health scores (from 7.70 to 7.73 out of 10, P<.001) and mean harmony scores (from 7.70 to 8.07 out of 10, P<.001) 6 weeks after the intervention. Conclusions This was the first CBPR study in a Hong Kong Chinese community. The results should be useful in informing collaborative intervention programs and engaging public health researchers and community social service providers, major

  12. Designing Participatory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartiainen, Henriikka

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the twenty-first century has been described as a time of development for social innovations through which people use, share, and create knowledge in ways that differ fundamentally from those of previous eras. The topical and widely accepted focus of education should be toward twenty-first-century skills. However, there is no…

  13. Inclusive Ownership of Participatory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druin, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This discussion explores the journal's special issue from the construct of ownership and how it relates to participatory design. I examine the articles of researchers from Europe and the United States which offer data-centered perspectives and data-driven suggestions. These works suggest how to best involve different stakeholders and I…

  14. The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) Program: Design of a participatory research intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American churches

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; Parrott, Allen W.; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Addy, Cheryl L.; Evans, Rebecca; Baruth, Meghan; Samuel, May

    2010-01-01

    Background African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and healthy dietary practices can reduce this risk. The church is a promising setting to address health disparities, and community-based participatory research is a preferred approach. Objectives Using a community-based participatory approach and the social ecologic model, the FAN trial aims to increase self-reported moderate-intensity physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce blood pressure in African American church members. Secondary aims are to increase objectively measured moderate-intensity physical activity and fiber/whole grain consumption and reduce fat consumption. Design FAN is a group randomized trial (GRT) with two levels of clustering: participants (N=1,279; n=316 accelerometer subgroup) within church and church within church cluster. In the first wave, seven clusters including 23 churches were randomized to an immediate intervention or delayed intervention. In subsequent waves, 51 churches were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention. Methods Church committee members, pastors, and cooks participate in full-day trainings to learn how to implement physical activity and dietary changes in the church. Monthly mailings and technical assistance calls are delivered over the 15-month intervention. Members complete measurements at baseline and 15-months. A detailed process evaluation is included. Summary FAN focuses on modifying the social, cultural, and policy environment in a faith-based setting. The use of a community-based participatory research approach, engagement of church leaders, inclusion of a detailed process evaluation, and a formal plan for sustainability and dissemination make FAN unique. PMID:20359549

  15. A Community-Based, Technology-Supported Health Service for Detecting and Preventing Frailty among Older Adults: A Participatory Design Development Process.

    PubMed

    van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services.

  16. A Community-Based, Technology-Supported Health Service for Detecting and Preventing Frailty among Older Adults: A Participatory Design Development Process

    PubMed Central

    van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services. PMID:26346580

  17. Design and Testing of Novel Lethal Ovitrap to Reduce Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes: Community-Based Participatory Research between Industry, Academia and Communities in Peru and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yukich, Josh; Soonthorndhada, Amara; Giron, Maziel; Apperson, Charles S.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Morrison, Amy C.; Keating, Joseph; Wesson, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (and Chikungunya and Zika viruses) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes considerable human morbidity and mortality. As there is currently no vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to protect people from dengue virus infection, vector control is the only viable option for disease prevention. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the design and placement process for an attractive lethal ovitrap to reduce vector populations and to describe lessons learned in the development of the trap. Methods This study was conducted in 2010 in Iquitos, Peru and Lopburi Province, Thailand and used an iterative community-based participatory approach to adjust design specifications of the trap, based on community members’ perceptions and feedback, entomological findings in the lab, and design and research team observations. Multiple focus group discussions (FGD) were held over a 6 month period, stratified by age, sex and motherhood status, to inform the design process. Trap testing transitioned from the lab to within households. Results Through an iterative process of working with specifications from the research team, findings from the laboratory testing, and feedback from FGD, the design team narrowed trap design options from 22 to 6. Comments from the FGD centered on safety for children and pets interacting with traps, durability, maintenance issues, and aesthetics. Testing in the laboratory involved releasing groups of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti in walk-in rooms and assessing what percentage were caught in traps of different colors, with different trap cover sizes, and placed under lighter or darker locations. Two final trap models were mocked up and tested in homes for a week; one model was the top choice in both Iquitos and Lopburi. Discussion The community-based participatory process was essential for the development of novel traps that provided effective vector control, but also met the needs and concerns of community

  18. Multi-level participatory design of land use policies in African drylands: a method to embed adaptability skills of drylands societies in a policy framework.

    PubMed

    d'Aquino, Patrick; Bah, Alassane

    2014-01-01

    The participatory modelling method described here focuses on how to enable stakeholders to incorporate their own perception of environmental uncertainty and how to deal with it to design innovative environmental policies. This "self-design" approach uses role playing games and agent based modelling to let participants design their own conceptual framework, and so modelling supports, of issues. The method has a multi-scale focus I order to enable the whole multi-scale Sahelian logic to be expressed and on the other hand to encourage the players to deal with possible region-wide changes implied by their "local" policy objectives. This multi-level participatory design of land use policies has been under experimentation in Senegal since 2008 in different local and national arenas. The process has resulted in the "self-design" of a qualitative and relatively simple model of Sahelian uncertainty, which can be played like a role playing game as well a computerized model. Results are shown in perceptible autonomous organisational learning at the local level. Participants were also able to incorporate their own ideas for new rules for access to resources. They designed innovative collective rules, organised follow up and monitoring of these new land uses. Moreover, meaningful ideas for environmental policies are beginning to take shape. This work raises the epistemological question of what is meant by the term "indigenous knowledge" in environmental management, ranging from knowledge based on practical experience being included in the scholar's framing of knowledge, to a legitimate local ability to contextualize and re-arrange scientific expertise, to profoundly different worldviews which do not match ours. PMID:24316752

  19. Multi-level participatory design of land use policies in African drylands: a method to embed adaptability skills of drylands societies in a policy framework.

    PubMed

    d'Aquino, Patrick; Bah, Alassane

    2014-01-01

    The participatory modelling method described here focuses on how to enable stakeholders to incorporate their own perception of environmental uncertainty and how to deal with it to design innovative environmental policies. This "self-design" approach uses role playing games and agent based modelling to let participants design their own conceptual framework, and so modelling supports, of issues. The method has a multi-scale focus I order to enable the whole multi-scale Sahelian logic to be expressed and on the other hand to encourage the players to deal with possible region-wide changes implied by their "local" policy objectives. This multi-level participatory design of land use policies has been under experimentation in Senegal since 2008 in different local and national arenas. The process has resulted in the "self-design" of a qualitative and relatively simple model of Sahelian uncertainty, which can be played like a role playing game as well a computerized model. Results are shown in perceptible autonomous organisational learning at the local level. Participants were also able to incorporate their own ideas for new rules for access to resources. They designed innovative collective rules, organised follow up and monitoring of these new land uses. Moreover, meaningful ideas for environmental policies are beginning to take shape. This work raises the epistemological question of what is meant by the term "indigenous knowledge" in environmental management, ranging from knowledge based on practical experience being included in the scholar's framing of knowledge, to a legitimate local ability to contextualize and re-arrange scientific expertise, to profoundly different worldviews which do not match ours.

  20. Participatory Design With Seniors: Design of Future Services and Iterative Refinements of Interactive eHealth Services for Old Citizens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing social isolation among the elderly today. This will be an even larger issue in the future with growing numbers of elderly and less resources, for example, in terms of economy and staff. Loneliness and social isolation can, however, be addressed in several ways using different interactive eHealth services. Objective This case study investigated novel eHealth services for the elderly, and their usage of a social interactive device designed especially for them. Methods In this work, we used an innovative mobile communication device connected to the television (TV), which worked as a remotely controlled large interactive screen. The device was tested by 8 volunteers who visited a senior center. They were between 65 and 80 years of age and lived in their own homes. Throughout the 1.5 year-long project, 7 design workshops were held with the seniors and the staff at the center. During these workshops, demands and preferences regarding existing and new services were gathered. At the end of the project the participants’ experience of the device and of the services was elaborated in 3 workshops to get ideas for improved or new meaningful services. During the data analyses and development process, what seniors thought would be useful in relation to what was feasible was prioritized by the development company. Results Regarding daily usage, the seniors reported that they mainly used the service for receiving information from the senior center and for communication with other participants in the group or with younger relatives. They also read information about events at the senior center and they liked to perform a weekly sent out workout exercise. Further, they played games such as Memory and Sudoku using the device. The service development focused on three categories of services: cognitive activities, social activities, and physical activities. A cognitive activity service that would be meaningful to develop was a game for practicing

  1. Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1997-04-03

    This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

  2. User-generated quality standards for youth mental health in primary care: a participatory research design using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Tanya; Rose, Diana; Murray, Joanna; Ashworth, Mark; Tylee, André

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop user-generated quality standards for young people with mental health problems in primary care using a participatory research model. Methods 50 young people aged 16–25 from community settings and primary care participated in focus groups and interviews about their views and experiences of seeking help for mental health problems in primary care, cofacilitated by young service users and repeated to ensure respondent validation. A second group of young people also aged 16–25 who had sought help for any mental health problem from primary care or secondary care within the last 5 years were trained as focus groups cofacilitators (n=12) developed the quality standards from the qualitative data and participated in four nominal groups (n=28). Results 46 quality standards were developed and ranked by young service users. Agreement was defined as 100% of scores within a two-point region. Group consensus existed for 16 quality standards representing the following aspects of primary care: better advertising and information (three); improved competence through mental health training and skill mix within the practice (two); alternatives to medication (three); improved referral protocol (three); and specific questions and reassurances (five). Alternatives to medication and specific questions and reassurances are aspects of quality which have not been previously reported. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of using participatory research methods in order to develop user-generated quality standards. The development of patient-generated quality standards may offer a more formal method of incorporating the views of service users into quality improvement initiatives. This method can be adapted for generating quality standards applicable to other patient groups. PMID:24920648

  3. Random issues in workspace analysis for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stǎnescu, Tony; Dolga, Valer; Mondoc, Alina

    2014-12-01

    Evolution of the mobile robot is currently characterized by multiple applications in dynamic workspaces and low initial knowledge. In this paper presents aspects of approaching random processes of evolution of a mobile robot in an unstructured environment . The experimental results are used for modeling an infrared sensor (integrated in the mobile robot structure) and to assess the probability of locating obstacles in the environment.

  4. [The "Participatory" Movement].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the trajectory of the Participatory Movement (MP), which was created in opposition to the policies carried out by the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn). This article, written by the first president elected of the "participatory" movement, presents the principles of the movement, its organization, the struggle for leadership, and the work developed in the first administration.

  5. Development of kinematic equations and determination of workspace of a 6 DOF end-effector with closed-kinematic chain mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents results from the research grant entitled Active Control of Robot Manipulators, funded by the Goddard Space Flight Center, under Grant NAG5-780, for the period July 1, 1988 to January 1, 1989. An analysis is presented of a 6 degree-of-freedom robot end-effector built to study telerobotic assembly of NASA hardware in space. Since the end-effector is required to perform high precision motion in a limited workspace, closed-kinematic mechanisms are chosen for its design. A closed-form solution is obtained for the inverse kinematic problem and an iterative procedure employing Newton-Raphson method is proposed to solve the forward kinematic problem. A study of the end-effector workspace results in a general procedure for the workspace determination based on link constraints. Computer simulation results are presented.

  6. Participatory Action Research in the Implementing Process of Evidence-Based Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Project Design of the “Healthy Future” Study

    PubMed Central

    Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design of the developmental project Healthy Future that aims to implement a new evidence-based program for the prevention of childhood obesity and collaboration and sharing of work between specialist and community health care professionals in parts of a county in western Norway. Methods. Comprehensive participatory planning and evaluation (CPPE) process as an action-oriented research approach was chosen, using mixed data sources, mixed methods, and triangulation. Discussion. A bottom-up approach might decrease the barriers when new evidence-based childhood prevention interventions are going to be implemented. It is crucial not only to build partnership and shared understanding, motivation, and vision, but also to consider the frames of the organizations, such as competencies, and time to carry out the interventions at the right level of health care service and adapt to the overweight children and their families needs. Conclusion. The developmental process of new health care programs is complex and multileveled and requires a framework to guide the process. By CPPE approach evidence-based health care practice can be delivered based on research, user knowledge, and provider knowledge in the field of childhood overweight and obesity in a certain context. PMID:23956843

  7. Computer Based Testing Using "Digital Ink": Participatory Design of a Tablet PC Based Assessment Application for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siozos, Panagiotis; Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Despotakis, Theofanis

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we identify key challenges faced by computer-based assessment (CBA) in secondary education and we put forward a framework of design considerations: design with the students and teachers, select the most appropriate media platform and plan an evolution rather than a revolution of prior practices. We present the CBA application…

  8. Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.

    PubMed

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-07-01

    Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries.

  9. Involving service users in intervention design: a participatory approach to developing a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christabel; Farrand, Paul; Darvill, Ruth; Emmens, Tobit; Hewis, Elaine; Aitken, Peter

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To engage a group of people with relevant lived experience in the development of a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm. BACKGROUND Contact-based interventions, such as follow-up letters, postcards and telephone calls, have shown potential to reduce repetition of self-harm in those who present at Accident and Emergency departments. Text messaging offers a low-cost alternative that has not been tested. We set out to develop a text-based intervention. The process of intervention development is rarely reported and little is known about the impact of service user involvement on intervention design. METHOD We held a series of six participatory workshops and invited service users and clinicians to help us work out how to get the right message to the right person at the right time, and to simulate and test prototypes of an intervention. RESULTS Service users rejected both the idea of a generic, 'one size fits all' approach and that of 'audience segmentation', maintaining that text messages could be safe and effective only if individualized. This led us to abandon our original thinking and develop a way of supporting individuals to author their own self-efficacy messages and store them in a personal message bank for withdrawal at times of crisis. CONCLUSIONS This paper highlights both the challenge and the impact of involving consumers at the development stage. Working with those with lived experience requires openness, flexibility and a readiness to abandon or radically revise initial plans, and may have unexpected consequences for intervention design.

  10. The Participatory Process: Producing Photo-Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, B. J.; Comings, John P.

    On the assumption that client-centered participatory education is pedagogically superior to other methods designed for adults of low reading ability, this manual outlines classroom-tested techniques for developing "fotonovelas"--printed media in which photos are arranged in the sequence of a dramatic story and the plot is conveyed through dialogue…

  11. ‘Much clearer with pictures’: using community-based participatory research to design and test a Picture Option Grid for underserved patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Alam, Shama; Grande, Stuart W; Elwyn, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Women of low socioeconomic status (SES) diagnosed with early stage breast cancer experience decision-making, treatment and outcome disparities. Evidence suggests that decision aids can benefit underserved patients, when tailored to their needs. Our aim was to develop and test the usability, acceptability and accessibility of a pictorial encounter decision aid targeted at women of low SES diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Design Community-based participatory research (CBPR) using think-aloud protocols (phases 1 and 2) and semistructured interviews (phase 3). Setting Underserved community settings (eg, knitting groups, bingo halls, senior centres) and breast clinics. Participants In phase 1, we recruited a convenience sample of clinicians and academics. In phase 2, we targeted women over 40 years of age, of low SES, regardless of breast cancer history, and in phase 3, women of low SES, recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Intervention The pictorial encounter decision aid was derived from an evidence-based table comparing treatment options for breast cancer (http://www.optiongrid.org). Outcome measures We assessed the usability, acceptability and accessibility of the pictorial decision aid prototypes using the think-aloud protocol and semistructured interviews. Results After initial testing of the first prototype with 18 academics and health professionals, new versions were developed and tested with 53 lay individuals in community settings. Usability was high. In response to feedback indicating that the use of cartoon characters was considered insensitive, a picture-only version was developed and tested with 23 lay people in phase 2, and 10 target users in phase 3. Conclusions and relevance Using CBPR methods and iterative user testing cycles improved usability and accessibility, and led to the development of the Picture Option Grid, entirely guided by multiple stakeholder feedback. All women of low SES recently diagnosed with early stage breast

  12. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  13. Shadow netWorkspace: An Open Source Intranet for Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, James M.; Musser, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Shadow netWorkspace (SNS) is a web application system that allows a school or any type of community to establish an intranet with network workspaces for all members and groups. The goal of SNS has been to make it easy for schools and other educational organizations to provide network services in support of implementing a learning community. SNS is…

  14. Applying Workspace Limitations in a Velocity-Controlled Robotic Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robotic mechanism responsive to velocity control signals, and a permissible workspace defined by a convex-polygon boundary. A host machine determines a position of a reference point on the mechanism with respect to the boundary, and includes an algorithm for enforcing the boundary by automatically shaping the velocity control signals as a function of the position, thereby providing smooth and unperturbed operation of the mechanism along the edges and corners of the boundary. The algorithm is suited for application with higher speeds and/or external forces. A host machine includes an algorithm for enforcing the boundary by shaping the velocity control signals as a function of the reference point position, and a hardware module for executing the algorithm. A method for enforcing the convex-polygon boundary is also provided that shapes a velocity control signal via a host machine as a function of the reference point position.

  15. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. Methods/Design The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. Discussion The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance

  16. Upper Extremity 3D Reachable Workspace Assessment in ALS by Kinect sensor

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Bjorn; Joyce, Nanette C.; de Bie, Evan; Nicorici, Alina; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Kurillo, Gregorij; Han, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reachable workspace is a measure that provides clinically meaningful information regarding arm function. In this study, a Kinect sensor was used to determine the spectrum of 3D reachable workspace encountered in a cross-sectional cohort of individuals with ALS. Method Bilateral 3D reachable workspace was recorded from 10 subjects with ALS and 23 healthy controls. The data were normalized by each individual's arm length to obtain a reachable workspace relative surface area (RSA). Concurrent validity was assessed by correlation with ALSFRSr scores. Results The Kinect-measured reachable workspace RSA differed significantly between the ALS and control subjects (0.579±0.226 vs. 0.786±0.069; P<0.001). The RSA demonstrated correlation with ALSFRSr upper extremity items (Spearman correlation ρ=0.569; P=0.009). With worsening upper extremity function as categorized by the ALSFRSr, the reachable workspace also decreased progressively. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential of using a novel Kinect-based reachable workspace outcome measure in ALS. PMID:25965847

  17. Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity

  18. Higher-order continuation for the determination of robot workspace boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentz, Gauthier; Charpentier, Isabelle; Renaud, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    In the medical and surgical fields, robotics may be of great interest for safer and more accurate procedures. Space constraints for a robotic assistant are however strict. Therefore, roboticists study non-conventional mechanisms with advantageous size/workspace ratios. The determination of mechanism workspace, and primarily its boundaries, is thus of major importance. This Note builds on boundary equation definition, continuation and automatic differentiation to propose a general, accurate, fast and automated method for the determination of mechanism workspace. The method is illustrated with a planar RRR mechanism and a three-dimensional Orthoglide parallel mechanism.

  19. Making Sense of Participatory Evaluation: Framing Participatory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.; Cousins, J. Bradley; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This chapter begins with a commentary by King, a longtime admirer of Cousins and Whitmore, in which she discusses why their 1998 article on participatory evaluation is considered an important contribution to the field. Participatory evaluation was not a new idea in 1998. By the mid-1990s articles, chapters, and books that described evaluations…

  20. Head-Up; An interdisciplinary, participatory and co-design process informing the development of a novel head and neck support for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Reed, Heath; Langley, Joe; Stanton, Andy; Heron, Nicola; Clarke, Zoe; Judge, Simon; McCarthy, Avril; Squire, Gill; Quinn, Ann; Wells, Oliver; Tindale, Wendy; Baxter, Susan; Shaw, Pamela J; McDermott, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Head-Up project, that aims to provide innovative head support to help improve posture, relieve pain and aid communication for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness. The initial focus is motor neurone disease. The case study illustrates collaborative, interdisciplinary research and new product development underpinned by participatory design. The study was initiated by a 2-day stakeholder workshop followed by early proof-of-concept modelling and patient need evidence building. The work subsequently led to a successful NIHR i4i application funding a 24-month iterative design process, patenting, CE marking and clinical evaluation. The evaluation has informed amendments to the proposed design refered to here as the Sheffield Support Snood (SSS). The outcome positively demonstrates use and performance improvements over current neck orthoses and the process of multidisciplinary and user engagement has created a sense of ownership by MND participants, who have since acted as advocates for the product.

  1. Head-Up; An interdisciplinary, participatory and co-design process informing the development of a novel head and neck support for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Reed, Heath; Langley, Joe; Stanton, Andy; Heron, Nicola; Clarke, Zoe; Judge, Simon; McCarthy, Avril; Squire, Gill; Quinn, Ann; Wells, Oliver; Tindale, Wendy; Baxter, Susan; Shaw, Pamela J; McDermott, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Head-Up project, that aims to provide innovative head support to help improve posture, relieve pain and aid communication for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness. The initial focus is motor neurone disease. The case study illustrates collaborative, interdisciplinary research and new product development underpinned by participatory design. The study was initiated by a 2-day stakeholder workshop followed by early proof-of-concept modelling and patient need evidence building. The work subsequently led to a successful NIHR i4i application funding a 24-month iterative design process, patenting, CE marking and clinical evaluation. The evaluation has informed amendments to the proposed design refered to here as the Sheffield Support Snood (SSS). The outcome positively demonstrates use and performance improvements over current neck orthoses and the process of multidisciplinary and user engagement has created a sense of ownership by MND participants, who have since acted as advocates for the product. PMID:26453038

  2. Participatory Practices in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.

    Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…

  3. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenhuener, Bernd . E-mail: bernd.siebenhuener@uni-oldenburg.de; Barth, Volker . E-mail: volker.barth@uni-oldenburg.de

    2005-05-15

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes.

  4. Upper extremity 3D reachable workspace analysis in dystrophinopathy using Kinect

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jay J.; Kurillo, Gregorij; Abresch, Richard T.; de Bie, Evan; Nicorici, Alina; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An innovative upper extremity 3D reachable workspace outcome measure acquired using Kinect sensor is applied towards Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). The validity, sensitivity, and clinical meaningfulness of the novel outcome is examined. Methods Upper extremity function assessment (Brooke scale, NeuroQOL questionnaire) and Kinect-based reachable workspace analyses were conducted in 43 individuals with dystrophinopathy (30-DMD, 13-BMD; ages 7–60) and 46 controls (ages 6–68). Results The reachable workspace measure reliably captured a wide-range of upper extremity impairments encountered in both pediatric and adult, as well as ambulatory and non-ambulatory individuals with dystrophinopathy. Reduced reachable workspaces were noted for the dystrophinopathy cohort compared to controls, and they correlated with Brooke grades. Additionally, progressive reduction in reachable workspace directly correlated with worsening ability to perform activities of daily living, as self-reported on the NeuroQOL. Discussion This study demonstrates the utility and potential of the novel sensor-acquired reachable workspace outcome measure in dystrophinopathy. PMID:25597487

  5. A novel scanning system using an industrial robot and the workspace measurement and positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ziyue; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui

    2015-10-01

    The present scanning system consists of an industrial robot and a line-structured laser sensor which uses the industrial robot as a position instrument to guarantee the accuracy. However, the absolute accuracy of an industrial robot is relatively poor compared with the good repeatability in the manufacturing industry. This paper proposes a novel method using the workspace measurement and positioning system (wMPS) to remedy the lack of accuracy of the industrial robot. In order to guarantee the positioning accuracy of the system, the wMPS which is a laser-based measurement technology designed for large-volume metrology applications is brought in. Benefitting from the wMPS, this system can measure different cell-areas by the line-structured laser sensor and fuse the measurement data of different cell-areas by using the wMPS accurately. The system calibration which is the procedure to acquire and optimize the structure parameters of the scanning system is also stated in detail in this paper. In order to verify the feasibility of the system for scanning the large free-form surface, an experiment is designed to scan the internal surface of the door of a car-body in white. The final results show that the measurement data of the whole measuring areas have been jointed perfectly and there is no mismatch in the figure especially in the hole measuring areas. This experiment has verified the rationality of the system scheme, the correctness and effectiveness of the relevant methods.

  6. Participatory and persuasive telehealth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations.

  7. Participatory and persuasive telehealth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations. PMID:21893945

  8. Design of the Bottom-up Innovation project - a participatory, primary preventive, organizational level intervention on work-related stress and well-being for workers in Dutch vocational education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the educational sector job demands have intensified, while job resources remained the same. A prolonged disbalance between demands and resources contributes to lowered vitality and heightened need for recovery, eventually resulting in burnout, sickness absence and retention problems. Until now stress management interventions in education focused mostly on strengthening the individual capacity to cope with stress, instead of altering the sources of stress at work at the organizational level. These interventions have been only partly effective in influencing burnout and well-being. Therefore, the “Bottom-up Innovation” project tests a two-phased participatory, primary preventive organizational level intervention (i.e. a participatory action approach) that targets and engages all workers in the primary process of schools. It is hypothesized that participating in the project results in increased occupational self-efficacy and organizational efficacy. The central research question: is an organization focused stress management intervention based on participatory action effective in reducing the need for recovery and enhancing vitality in school employees in comparison to business as usual? Methods/Design The study is designed as a controlled trial with mixed methods and three measurement moments: baseline (quantitative measures), six months and 18 months (quantitative and qualitative measures). At first follow-up short term effects of taking part in the needs assessment (phase 1) will be determined. At second follow-up the long term effects of taking part in the needs assessment will be determined as well as the effects of implemented tailored workplace solutions (phase 2). A process evaluation based on quantitative and qualitative data will shed light on whether, how and why the intervention (does not) work(s). Discussion “Bottom-up Innovation” is a combined effort of the educational sector, intervention providers and researchers. Results will

  9. Participatory Evaluation: Implications for Improving Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robyn; Samarawickrema, Gayani; O'Connell, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the participatory approach used by a group of academic support staff in evaluating an academic professional development resource designed to support e-learning and teaching. The resource, titled Designing Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches (DELTA), showcases examples of electronic learning and teaching approaches…

  10. Workspace Safe Operation of a Force- or Impedance-Controlled Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of controlling a robotic manipulator of a force- or impedance-controlled robot within an unstructured workspace includes imposing a saturation limit on a static force applied by the manipulator to its surrounding environment, and may include determining a contact force between the manipulator and an object in the unstructured workspace, and executing a dynamic reflex when the contact force exceeds a threshold to thereby alleviate an inertial impulse not addressed by the saturation limited static force. The method may include calculating a required reflex torque to be imparted by a joint actuator to a robotic joint. A robotic system includes a robotic manipulator having an unstructured workspace and a controller that is electrically connected to the manipulator, and which controls the manipulator using force- or impedance-based commands. The controller, which is also disclosed herein, automatically imposes the saturation limit and may execute the dynamic reflex noted above.

  11. A collaborative resource management workspace and project management application for data collection, analysis and visualization: OpenNRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osti, A.

    2013-12-01

    During the process of research and design for OpenNRM, we imagined a place where diverse groups of people and communities could effectively and efficiently collaborate to manage large-scale environmental problems and projects. Our research revealed the need to combine a variety of software components. Users can explore and analyze a topic while simultaneously develop stories and solve problems in a way that the end result is consumable by their colleagues and the general public. To do this we brought together software modules that are typically separate: Document and Asset Management, GIS and Interactive Mapping, WIKI and Information Libraries, Data Catalogs and Services, Project Management Tools and Storytelling templates. These components, along with others are supported by extensive data catalogs (NWIS, Storet, CDEC, Cuahsi), data analysis tools and web services for a turn-key workspace that will allow you to quickly build project communities and data stories. In this presentation we will show you how our investigation into these collaborative efforts are implemented and working for some of our clients, including the State of California's Sacramento San Joaquin Bay-Delta and San Joaquin River Basin. The case study will display the use of the OpenNRM workspace for real time environmental conditions management, data visualization, project operations, environmental restoration, high frequency monitoring and data reporting. We will demonstrate how scientists and policy makers are working together to tell the story of this complicated and divisive system and how they are becoming better managers of that system. Using the genius of web services, we will show you how OpenNRM was designed to allow you to build your own community while easily sharing data stories, project data, monitoring results, document libraries, interactive maps and datasets with others. We will get into more technical detail by presenting how our data interpolation tools can show high frequency

  12. Design of a singularity-free articulated arm subassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Remis, S.J.; Stanisic, M.M. . Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    Adding a redundant degree of freedom to the shoulder pointing system complex of an articulated arm subassembly makes it possible to achieve a maximal workspace that is free of singularities. This paper derives a functional constraint between three of the four joints of this new type of arm, achieving a singularity-free workspace encompassing the entire reachable volume between the maximal- and minimal-reach surfaces. The large volume of dexterous workspace is verified by animation of the resulting arm design. Graphical results from the animation are presented comparing the dexterous workspace of this new arm to that of the standard nonredundant articulated arm subassembly such as found in the Puma manipulator.

  13. Global workspace dynamics: cortical "binding and propagation" enables conscious contents.

    PubMed

    Baars, Bernard J; Franklin, Stan; Ramsoy, Thomas Zoega

    2013-01-01

    A global workspace (GW) is a functional hub of binding and propagation in a population of loosely coupled signaling elements. In computational applications, GW architectures recruit many distributed, specialized agents to cooperate in resolving focal ambiguities. In the brain, conscious experiences may reflect a GW function. For animals, the natural world is full of unpredictable dangers and opportunities, suggesting a general adaptive pressure for brains to resolve focal ambiguities quickly and accurately. GW theory aims to understand the differences between conscious and unconscious brain events. In humans and related species the cortico-thalamic (C-T) core is believed to underlie conscious aspects of perception, thinking, learning, feelings of knowing (FOK), felt emotions, visual imagery, working memory, and executive control. Alternative theoretical perspectives are also discussed. The C-T core has many anatomical hubs, but conscious percepts are unitary and internally consistent at any given moment. Over time, conscious contents constitute a very large, open set. This suggests that a brain-based GW capacity cannot be localized in a single anatomical hub. Rather, it should be sought in a functional hub - a dynamic capacity for binding and propagation of neural signals over multiple task-related networks, a kind of neuronal cloud computing. In this view, conscious contents can arise in any region of the C-T core when multiple input streams settle on a winner-take-all equilibrium. The resulting conscious gestalt may ignite an any-to-many broadcast, lasting ∼100-200 ms, and trigger widespread adaptation in previously established networks. To account for the great range of conscious contents over time, the theory suggests an open repertoire of binding coalitions that can broadcast via theta/gamma or alpha/gamma phase coupling, like radio channels competing for a narrow frequency band. Conscious moments are thought to hold only 1-4 unrelated items; this small

  14. Global workspace dynamics: cortical "binding and propagation" enables conscious contents.

    PubMed

    Baars, Bernard J; Franklin, Stan; Ramsoy, Thomas Zoega

    2013-01-01

    A global workspace (GW) is a functional hub of binding and propagation in a population of loosely coupled signaling elements. In computational applications, GW architectures recruit many distributed, specialized agents to cooperate in resolving focal ambiguities. In the brain, conscious experiences may reflect a GW function. For animals, the natural world is full of unpredictable dangers and opportunities, suggesting a general adaptive pressure for brains to resolve focal ambiguities quickly and accurately. GW theory aims to understand the differences between conscious and unconscious brain events. In humans and related species the cortico-thalamic (C-T) core is believed to underlie conscious aspects of perception, thinking, learning, feelings of knowing (FOK), felt emotions, visual imagery, working memory, and executive control. Alternative theoretical perspectives are also discussed. The C-T core has many anatomical hubs, but conscious percepts are unitary and internally consistent at any given moment. Over time, conscious contents constitute a very large, open set. This suggests that a brain-based GW capacity cannot be localized in a single anatomical hub. Rather, it should be sought in a functional hub - a dynamic capacity for binding and propagation of neural signals over multiple task-related networks, a kind of neuronal cloud computing. In this view, conscious contents can arise in any region of the C-T core when multiple input streams settle on a winner-take-all equilibrium. The resulting conscious gestalt may ignite an any-to-many broadcast, lasting ∼100-200 ms, and trigger widespread adaptation in previously established networks. To account for the great range of conscious contents over time, the theory suggests an open repertoire of binding coalitions that can broadcast via theta/gamma or alpha/gamma phase coupling, like radio channels competing for a narrow frequency band. Conscious moments are thought to hold only 1-4 unrelated items; this small

  15. Music Education for All through Participatory Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the participatory field can complement and enhance even successful music education programs. The participatory field, part of Thomas Turino's four-field framework, conceptualizes the musical values and practices of societies where musical participation is nearly universal. The participatory field contrasts with the…

  16. An adaptive workspace hypothesis about the neural correlates of consciousness: insights from neuroscience and meditation studies.

    PubMed

    Raffone, Antonino; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    While enormous progress has been made to identify neural correlates of consciousness (NCC), crucial NCC aspects are still very controversial. A major hurdle is the lack of an adequate definition and characterization of different aspects of conscious experience and also its relationship to attention and metacognitive processes like monitoring. In this paper, we therefore attempt to develop a unitary theoretical framework for NCC, with an interdependent characterization of endogenous attention, access consciousness, phenomenal awareness, metacognitive consciousness, and a non-referential form of unified consciousness. We advance an adaptive workspace hypothesis about the NCC based on the global workspace model emphasizing transient resonant neurodynamics and prefrontal cortex function, as well as meditation-related characterizations of conscious experiences. In this hypothesis, transient dynamic links within an adaptive coding net in prefrontal cortex, especially in anterior prefrontal cortex, and between it and the rest of the brain, in terms of ongoing intrinsic and long-range signal exchanges, flexibly regulate the interplay between endogenous attention, access consciousness, phenomenal awareness, and metacognitive consciousness processes. Such processes are established in terms of complementary aspects of an ongoing transition between context-sensitive global workspace assemblies, modulated moment-to-moment by body and environment states. Brain regions associated to momentary interoceptive and exteroceptive self-awareness, or first-person experiential perspective as emphasized in open monitoring meditation, play an important modulatory role in adaptive workspace transitions.

  17. Revolute manipulator workspace optimization using a modified bacteria foraging algorithm: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S.; Mishra, D.; Biswal, B. B.; Tripathy, M.

    2014-02-01

    Robotic manipulators with three-revolute (3R) motions to attain desired positional configurations are very common in industrial robots. The capability of these robots depends largely on the workspace of the manipulator in addition to other parameters. In this study, an evolutionary optimization algorithm based on the foraging behaviour of the Escherichia coli bacteria present in the human intestine is utilized to optimize the workspace volume of a 3R manipulator. The new optimization method is modified from the original algorithm for faster convergence. This method is also useful for optimization problems in a highly constrained environment, such as robot workspace optimization. The new approach for workspace optimization of 3R manipulators is tested using three cases. The test results are compared with standard results available using other optimization algorithms, i.e. the differential evolution algorithm, the genetic algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The present method is found to be superior to the other methods in terms of computational efficiency.

  18. Investigating Uses and Perceptions of an Online Collaborative Workspace for the Dissertation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to investigate 93 doctoral candidates' perceptions and use of an online collaboration workspace and content management server, Microsoft Office SharePoint, for dissertation process. All candidates were enrolled in an Ed.D. programme in the United States. Descriptive statistics demonstrate that candidates frequently use…

  19. Participatory Evaluation: Factors to Consider when Involving Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janet; Cater, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a critical perspective on the increasing involvement of young people in participatory evaluation as well as identifies the factors to consider when designing a youth-led evaluation project. Through this avenue, young people will increase their participation in organizational development and community change. Youth-led…

  20. Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dezhi; Bieber, Michael; Hiltz, Starr Roxanne

    2008-01-01

    The online participatory exam transforms the traditional exam into a constructivist, cooperative and engaging learning experience. Students learn from designing and answering exam questions, from evaluating their peers' performance, and from reading questions, answers and evaluations. This paper, aimed at faculty who teach online and at…

  1. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  2. Participatory Evaluation of an Educational Game for Social Skills Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…

  3. China Earthquake Relief: Participatory Action Work with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…

  4. Force Sensor-less Workspace Virtual Impedance Control Considering Resonant Vibration for Industrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungpataratanawong, Somsawas; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa; Katsura, Seiichiro

    The motion control paradigm provides sufficient performance in many elementary industrial tasks. However, only stiff motion the robot cannot accommodate the interaction force under constrained motion. In such situation, the robot is required to perform interaction behavior with the environment. The conventional impedance control schemes require force-sensing devices to feedback force signals to the controllers. The force-sensing device is therefore indispensable and the performance of the system also depends on the quality of this device. This paper proposes a novel strategy for force sensor-less impedance control using disturbance observer and dynamic model of the robot to estimate the external force. In motion task, the robust D-PD (derivative-PD) control is used with feedforward inverse-dynamic torque compensation to ensure robustness and high-speed response with flexible joint model. When robot is in contact with environment, the proposed force sensor-less scheme impedance control with inner-loop D-PD control is utilized. D-PD control uses both position and speed as the references to implement the damping and stiffness characteristic of the virtual impedance model. In addition, the gravity and friction force-feedback compensation is computed by the same dynamic model, which is used in external force estimation. The flexible-joint robot model is utilized in both disturbance observer and motion control design. The workspace impedance control for robot interaction with human operator is implemented on the experimental setup three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) robot manipulator to assure the ability and performance of the proposed force sensor-less scheme for flexible-joint industrial robot.

  5. Implementation of the Participatory Approach to increase supervisors’ self-efficacy in supporting employees at risk for sick leave; design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of sick leave for society and organisations underlines the urgent need to prevent sick leave. An effective workplace intervention for organisations to shorten sick leave episodes is the Participatory Approach (PA). In this study, we hypothesize that implementation of the PA for supervisors within organisations may prevent sick leave as well. However, implementation of the PA within an organisation is difficult, and barriers at different levels (employee, supervisor and organisational) exist. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA. Methods In a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) a multifaceted implementation of the PA will be compared with a minimal implementation strategy of the PA. Participating organisations are a university medical centre, a university and a steel factory. Randomisation will take place at department level. Intervention departments will receive a multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA, which incorporates a working group, supervisor training, and supervisor coaching. Control departments will receive the minimal implementation strategy of the PA, consisting of written information only. The primary outcome measure is self-efficacy of supervisors in joint problem solving to improve work functioning of employees with health complaints and to prevent sick leave. A secondary outcome measure at supervisor level is self-efficacy in communicating with employees about situations of reduced work functioning or being at risk for sick leave. Secondary outcome measures at employee level are attitude, self-efficacy, and social influence, with regard to addressing situations of reduced work functioning or being at risk for sick leave, as well as work functioning, psychological well being, and sick leave. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after six and twelve months follow-up. A process evaluation will be performed as well

  6. Mobile Applications for Participatory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

  7. Participatory Video in Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of participatory video in rural underdeveloped countries and describes a video project in Costa Rica that helped farmers with agricultural management and soil erosion problems. Video production considerations are described, and the use of role playing to supplement documentation is explained. (four references) (LRW)

  8. Peer Education: Participatory Qualitative Educational Needs Assessment

    PubMed Central

    DJALALINIA, Shirin; RAMEZANI TEHRANI, Fahimeh; MALEKAFZALI, Hossein; PEYKARI, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators. Methods Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held. Results The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs. Conclusion The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers. PMID:26060644

  9. Broadening and Deepening the Definition of Outreach Scholarship: Linking Popular Education and Community-Based Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Kalyani

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a Community-based Participatory Action Research model designed and implemented by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Continuing Education with two community-based agencies in Milwaukee. In two participatory action learning seminars, research was combined with action to improve the educational experience of…

  10. "Producing Different Knowledge and Producing Knowledge Differently": Rethinking Physical Education Research and Practice through Participatory Visual Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Eimear; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from a three-year Participatory Action Research project, undertaken with 41 teenage girls within and beyond the boundaries of a designated disadvantaged urban school, this article is an effort to critique the use of participatory methods as a means of producing different knowledge, and producing knowledge differently with students.…

  11. Online Workspace to Connect Scientists with NASA's Science E/PO Efforts and Practitioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, Stephanie; Bartolone , Lindsay; Peticolas, Laura; Woroner, Morgan; Dalton, Heather; Schwerin, Theresa; Smith, Denise

    2014-11-01

    There is a growing awareness of the need for a scientifically literate public in light of challenges facing society today, and also a growing concern about the preparedness of our future workforce to meet those challenges. Federal priorities for science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education call for improvement of teacher training, increased youth and public engagement, greater involvement of underrepresented populations, and investment in undergraduate and graduate education. How can planetary scientists contribute to these priorities? How can they “make their work and findings comprehensible, appealing, and available to the public” as called for in the Planetary Decadal Survey?NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) workspace provides the SMD E/PO community of practice - scientists and educators funded to conduct SMD E/PO or those using NASA’s science discoveries in E/PO endeavors - with an online environment in which to communicate, collaborate, and coordinate activities, thus helping to increase effectiveness of E/PO efforts. The workspace offers interested scientists avenues to partner with SMD E/PO practitioners and learn about E/PO projects and impacts, as well as to advertise their own efforts to reach a broader audience. Through the workspace, scientists can become aware of opportunities for involvement and explore resources to improve professional practice, including literature reviews of best practices for program impact, mechanisms for engaging diverse audiences, and large- and small-scale program evaluation. Scientists will find “how to” manuals for getting started and increasing impact with public presentations, classroom visits, and other audiences, as well as primers with activity ideas and resources that can augment E/PO interactions with different audiences. The poster will introduce the workspace to interested scientists and highlight pathways to resources of interest that can help

  12. Mathematically gifted adolescents mobilize enhanced workspace configuration of theta cortical network during deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Gan, J Q; Wang, H

    2015-03-19

    Previous studies have established the importance of the fronto-parietal brain network in the information processing of reasoning. At the level of cortical source analysis, this eletroencepalogram (EEG) study investigates the functional reorganization of the theta-band (4-8Hz) neurocognitive network of mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning. Depending on the dense increase of long-range phase synchronizations in the reasoning process, math-gifted adolescents show more significant adaptive reorganization and enhanced "workspace" configuration in the theta network as compared with average-ability control subjects. The salient areas are mainly located in the anterior cortical vertices of the fronto-parietal network. Further correlation analyses have shown that the enhanced workspace configuration with respect to the global topological metrics of the theta network in math-gifted subjects is correlated with the intensive frontal midline theta (fm theta) response that is related to strong neural effort for cognitive events. These results suggest that by investing more cognitive resources math-gifted adolescents temporally mobilize an enhanced task-related global neuronal workspace, which is manifested as a highly integrated fronto-parietal information processing network during the reasoning process. PMID:25595993

  13. Fundamentally Distributed Information Processing Integrates the Motor Network into the Mental Workspace during Mental Rotation.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander; Konuthula, Dedeepya; Alexander, Prescott; Blackwood, Ethan; Tse, Peter U

    2016-08-01

    The manipulation of mental representations in the human brain appears to share similarities with the physical manipulation of real-world objects. In particular, some neuroimaging studies have found increased activity in motor regions during mental rotation, suggesting that mental and physical operations may involve overlapping neural populations. Does the motor network contribute information processing to mental rotation? If so, does it play a similar computational role in both mental and manual rotation, and how does it communicate with the wider network of areas involved in the mental workspace? Here we used multivariate methods and fMRI to study 24 participants as they mentally rotated 3-D objects or manually rotated their hands in one of four directions. We find that information processing related to mental rotations is distributed widely among many cortical and subcortical regions, that the motor network becomes tightly integrated into a wider mental workspace network during mental rotation, and that motor network activity during mental rotation only partially resembles that involved in manual rotation. Additionally, these findings provide evidence that the mental workspace is organized as a distributed core network that dynamically recruits specialized subnetworks for specific tasks as needed. PMID:27054403

  14. Mathematically gifted adolescents mobilize enhanced workspace configuration of theta cortical network during deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Gan, J Q; Wang, H

    2015-03-19

    Previous studies have established the importance of the fronto-parietal brain network in the information processing of reasoning. At the level of cortical source analysis, this eletroencepalogram (EEG) study investigates the functional reorganization of the theta-band (4-8Hz) neurocognitive network of mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning. Depending on the dense increase of long-range phase synchronizations in the reasoning process, math-gifted adolescents show more significant adaptive reorganization and enhanced "workspace" configuration in the theta network as compared with average-ability control subjects. The salient areas are mainly located in the anterior cortical vertices of the fronto-parietal network. Further correlation analyses have shown that the enhanced workspace configuration with respect to the global topological metrics of the theta network in math-gifted subjects is correlated with the intensive frontal midline theta (fm theta) response that is related to strong neural effort for cognitive events. These results suggest that by investing more cognitive resources math-gifted adolescents temporally mobilize an enhanced task-related global neuronal workspace, which is manifested as a highly integrated fronto-parietal information processing network during the reasoning process.

  15. Reducing depth uncertainty in large surgical workspaces, with applications to veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audette, Michel A.; Kolahi, Ahmad; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gatti, Claudio; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents on-going research that addresses uncertainty along the Z-axis in image-guided surgery, for applications to large surgical workspaces, including those found in veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine lags human medicine in using image guidance, despite MR and CT data scanning of animals. The positional uncertainty of a surgical tracking device can be modeled as an octahedron with one long axis coinciding with the depth axis of the sensor, where the short axes are determined by pixel resolution and workspace dimensions. The further a 3D point is from this device, the more elongated is this long axis, and the greater the uncertainty along Z of this point's position, in relation to its components along X and Y. Moreover, for a triangulation-based tracker, its position error degrades with the square of distance. Our approach is to use two or more Micron Trackers to communicate with each other, and combine this feature with flexible positioning. Prior knowledge of the type of surgical procedure, and if applicable, the species of animal that determines the scale of the workspace, would allow the surgeon to pre-operatively configure the trackers in the OR for optimal accuracy. Our research also leverages the open-source Image-guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK).

  16. Lead users’ ideas on core features to support physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a first step in the development of an internet service using participatory design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the growing evidence of the benefits of physical activity (PA) in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the majority is not physically active enough. An innovative strategy is to engage lead users in the development of PA interventions provided over the internet. The aim was to explore lead users’ ideas and prioritization of core features in a future internet service targeting adoption and maintenance of healthy PA in people with RA. Methods Six focus group interviews were performed with a purposively selected sample of 26 individuals with RA. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and quantification of participants’ prioritization of most important content. Results Six categories were identified as core features for a future internet service: up-to-date and evidence-based information and instructions, self-regulation tools, social interaction, personalized set-up, attractive design and content, and access to the internet service. The categories represented four themes, or core aspects, important to consider in the design of the future service: (1) content, (2) customized options, (3) user interface and (4) access and implementation. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study involving people with RA in the development of an internet service to support the adoption and maintenance of PA. Participants helped identifying core features and aspects important to consider and further explore during the next phase of development. We hypothesize that involvement of lead users will make transfer from theory to service more adequate and user-friendly and therefore will be an effective mean to facilitate PA behavior change. PMID:24655757

  17. Indicators of Dependency in Participatory Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Hargrove, Tasha M.

    Participatory adult education programs assist individuals to substitute interdependent, mutually beneficial relationships for unrewarding, dependent relationships. Indicators of changes in dependency, however, are absent or imprecise in evaluations of participatory projects. A study explored facets of dependency by relating practitioners'…

  18. Participatory Action Research: International Contexts and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin, Ed.

    The collection of essays in this book illustrate commonalties and differences among the theories, practices, and forms of organization of participatory action research in different countries. Participatory action research expresses the recognition that all research methodologies are implicitly political in nature, and this is reflected in the…

  19. Participatory Action Research and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.

    This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…

  20. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  1. Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Holkup, Patricia A.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Salois, Emily Matt; Weinert, Clarann

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also suggest criteria that will enable evaluation of the project. PMID:15455579

  2. Tools for Scientist Engagement in E/PO: NASA SMD Community Workspace and Online Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Grier, J.; Gross, N. A.; Buxner, S.; Bartolone, L.; Peticolas, L. M.; Woroner, M.; Schwerin, T. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums are here to help you get involved in E/PO! The Forums have been developing several online resources to support scientists who are - or who are interested in becoming - involved in E/PO. These include NASA Wavelength, EarthSpace, and the SMD E/PO online community workspace. NASA Wavelength is the one-stop shop of all peer-reviewed NASA education resources to find materials you - or your audiences - can use. Browse by audience (pre-K through 12, higher education, and informal education) or topic, or choose to search for something specific by keyword and audience. http://nasawavelength.org. EarthSpace, an online clearinghouse of Earth and space materials for use in the higher education classroom, is driven by a powerful search engine that allows you to browse the collection of resources by science topic, audience, type of material or key terms. All materials are peer-reviewed before posting, and because all submissions receive a digital object identifier (doi), submitted materials can be listed as publications. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace. The SMD E/PO online community workspace contains many resources for scientists. These include one-page guides on how to get involved, tips on how to make the most of your time spent on E/PO, and sample activities, as well as news on funding, policy, and what's happening in the E/PO community. The workspace also provides scientists and the public pathways to find opportunities for participation in E/PO, to learn about SMD E/PO projects and their impacts, to connect with SMD E/PO practitioners, and to explore resources to improve professional E/PO practice, including literature reviews, information about the Next Generation Science Standards, and best practices in evaluation and engaging diverse audiences. http://smdepo.org.

  3. The Educator as Researcher: Principles and Practice of Participatory Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Alma Flor; And Others

    The text of three papers are presented. The first, by Alma Ada Flor, focuses on the question "What is participatory research?" It is suggested that participatory research enriches the knowledge of participants and opens up new topics to them. The nature and theory fundmental to participatory research and the relation of participatory research to…

  4. Negotiating Change: Participatory Curriculum Design in Emergencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkin, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines an important component of the developing field of education in emergencies: curriculum decision-making processes. The paper argues that in order to fully meet the commitment articulated by the INEE Minimum Standards to provide quality education for all, curricula decisions cannot be ignored or postponed until after a crisis has…

  5. Kinematic, workspace and singularity analysis of a new parallel robot used in minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Alin; Pisla, Doina; Andras, Szilaghyi; Gherman, Bogdan; Gyurka, Bela-Zoltan; Plitea, Nicolae

    2013-03-01

    In the last ten years, due to development in robotic assisted surgery, the minimally invasive surgery has greatly changed. Until now, the vast majority of robots used in surgery, have serial structures. Due to the orientation parallel module, the structure is able to reduce the pressure exerted on the entrance point in the patient's abdominal wall. The parallel robot can also handle both a laparoscope as well an active instrument for different surgical procedures. The advantage of this parallel structure is that the geometric model has been obtained through an analytical approach. The kinematic modelling of a new parallel architecture, the inverse and direct geometric model and the inverse and direct kinematic models for velocities and accelerations are being determined. The paper will demonstrate that with this parallel structure, one can obtain the necessary workspace required for a minimally invasive operation. The robot workspace was generated using the inverse geometric model. An indepth study of different types of singularity is performed, allowing the development of safe control algorithms of the experimental model. Some kinematic simulation results and the experimental model of the robot are presented in the paper.

  6. Participatory advocacy: a counter to media imperialism.

    PubMed

    Brown, M

    1996-01-01

    Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge.

  7. Participatory Citizenship in the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, JoAnn C.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Student Advisory Council which was established to address the problems of the Cottage Lane Elementary School (Blauvelt, New York) and its students. Contends that through this participatory activity, students are learning how to solve public problems. (SLM)

  8. PSALM for Empowering Educational Stakeholders: Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to examine the effect of implementing participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) on the levels of empowerment among the educational stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach, combining the experimental design with empirical surveys, interviews and documentary analysis,…

  9. The Role of a Facilitated Online Workspace Component of a Community of Practice: Knowledge Building and Value Creation for NASA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Bradford Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of an online workspace component of a community in the work of a community of practice. Much has been studied revealing the importance of communities of practice to organizations, project success, and knowledge management and some of these same successes hold true for virtual communities of…

  10. Experiences with the BSCW Shared Workspace System as the Backbone of a Virtual Learning Environment for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelt, Wolfgang; Mambrey, Peter

    The GMD (German National Research Center for Information Technology) has developed the BSCW (Basic Support for Cooperative Work) Shared Workspace system within the last four years with the goal of transforming the Web from a primarily passive information repository to an active cooperation medium. The BSCW system is a Web-based groupware tool for…

  11. Awareness and Learning in Participatory Noise Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  12. Awareness and learning in participatory noise sensing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai Muki; Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D P; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  13. An architectural model of conscious and unconscious brain functions: Global Workspace Theory and IDA.

    PubMed

    Baars, Bernard J; Franklin, Stan

    2007-11-01

    While neural net models have been developed to a high degree of sophistication, they have some drawbacks at a more integrative, "architectural" level of analysis. We describe a "hybrid" cognitive architecture that is implementable in neuronal nets, and which has uniform brainlike features, including activation-passing and highly distributed "codelets," implementable as small-scale neural nets. Empirically, this cognitive architecture accounts qualitatively for the data described by Baars' Global Workspace Theory (GWT), and Franklin's LIDA architecture, including state-of-the-art models of conscious contents in action-planning, Baddeley-style Working Memory, and working models of episodic and semantic longterm memory. These terms are defined both conceptually and empirically for the current theoretical domain. The resulting architecture meets four desirable goals for a unified theory of cognition: practical workability, autonomous agency, a plausible role for conscious cognition, and translatability into plausible neural terms. It also generates testable predictions, both empirical and computational.

  14. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life.

  15. Extracting and Utilizing Social Networks from Log Files of Shared Workspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasirifard, Peyman; Peristeras, Vassilios; Hayes, Conor; Decker, Stefan

    Log files of online shared workspaces contain rich information that can be further analyzed. In this paper, log-file information is used to extract object-centric and user-centric social networks. The object-centric social networks are used as a means for assigning concept-based expertise elements to users based on the documents that they created, revised or read. The user-centric social networks are derived from users working on common documents. Weights, called the Cooperation Index, are assigned to links between users in a user-centric social network, which indicates how closely two people have collaborated together, based on their history. We also present a set of tools that was developed to realize our approach.

  16. Collision-free motion of two robot arms in a common workspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basta, Robert A.; Mehrotra, Rajiv; Varanasi, Murali R.

    1987-01-01

    Collision-free motion of two robot arms in a common workspace is investigated. A collision-free motion is obtained by detecting collisions along the preplanned trajectories using a sphere model for the wrist of each robot and then modifying the paths and/or trajectories of one or both robots to avoid the collision. Detecting and avoiding collisions are based on the premise that: preplanned trajectories of the robots follow a straight line; collisions are restricted to between the wrists of the two robots (which corresponds to the upper three links of PUMA manipulators); and collisions never occur between the beginning points or end points on the straight line paths. The collision detection algorithm is described and some approaches to collision avoidance are discussed.

  17. The Secure Medical Research Workspace: An IT Infrastructure to Enable Secure Research on Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Shoffner, Michael; Owen, Phillips; Mostafa, Javed; Lamm, Brent; Wang, Xiaoshu; Schmitt, Charles P.; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical data has tremendous value for translational research, but only if security and privacy concerns can be addressed satisfactorily. A collaboration of clinical and informatics teams, including RENCI, NC TraCS, UNC’s School of Information and Library Science, Information Technology Service’s Research Computing and other partners at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have developed a system called the Secure Medical Research Workspace (SMRW) that enables researchers to use clinical data securely for research. SMRW significantly minimizes the risk presented when using of identified clinical data, thereby protecting patients, researchers, and institutions associated with the data. The SMRW is built on a novel combination of virtualization and data leakage protection and can be combined with other protection methodologies and scaled to production levels. PMID:23751029

  18. Singularity and workspace analysis of three isoconstrained parallel manipulators with schoenflies motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Po-Chih; Lee, Jyh-Jone

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis of three parallel manipulators with Schoenflies-motion. Each parallel manipulator possesses two limbs in structure and the end-effector has three DOFs (degree of freedom) in the translational motion and one DOF in rotational motion about a given direction axis with respect to the world coordinate system. The three isoconstrained parallel manipulators have the structures denoted as C{u/u}UwHw-//-C{v/v}UwHw, CuR{u/u}Uhw-//-CvR{v/v}Uhw and CuPuUhw-//-CvPvUhw. The kinematic equations are first introduced for each manipulator. Then, Jacobian matrix, singularity, workspace, and performance index for each mechanism are subsequently derived and analysed for the first time. The results can be helpful for the engineers to evaluate such kind of parallel robots for possible application in industry where pick-and-place motion is required.

  19. Participatory management of waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Noosorn, Narongsak

    2005-05-01

    The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice.

  20. Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M.; Pontuschka, Nídia N.; Felipone, Sonia M. N.; dos Santos, Tereza L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672

  1. Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F

    2013-10-01

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672

  2. Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F

    2013-09-27

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

  3. Mobile Phone Based Participatory Sensing in Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.; Böhlen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Although many observations in the hydrologic sciences are easy to obtain, requiring very little training or equipment, spatial and temporally-distributed data collection is hindered by associated personnel and telemetry costs. Lack of data increases the uncertainty and can limit applications of both field and modeling studies. However, modern society is much more digitally connected than the past, which presents new opportunities to collect real-time hydrologic data through the use of participatory sensing. Participatory sensing in this usage refers to citizens contributing distributed observations of physical phenomena. Real-time data streams are possible as a direct result of the growth of mobile phone networks and high adoption rates of mobile users. In this research, we describe an example of the development, methodology, barriers to entry, data uncertainty, and results of mobile phone based participatory sensing applied to groundwater and surface water characterization. Results are presented from three participatory sensing experiments that focused on stream stage, surface water temperature, and water quality. Results demonstrate variability in the consistency and reliability across the type of data collected and the challenges of collecting research grade data. These studies also point to needed improvements and future developments for widespread use of low cost techniques for participatory sensing.

  4. Designing Brave New Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of designing settings for children that encourage hands-on creativity through play. Suggests the designs are art forms requiring a participatory art teaching style. Describes the technique and provides proven design ideas. (CMK)

  5. The Role of A Facilitated Online Workspace Component of A Community of Practice: Knowledge Building and Value Creation for NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, B.

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the role of an online workspace component of a community in the work of a community of practice. Much has been studied revealing the importance of communities of practice to organizations, project success, and knowledge management and some of these same successes hold true for virtual communities of practice. Study participants were 75 Education and Public Outreach community members of NASA's Science Mission Directorate Earth Forum. In this mixed methods study, online workspace metrics were used to track participation and a survey completed by 21 members was used to quantify participation. For a more detailed analysis, 15 community members (5 highly active users, 5 average users, and 5 infrequent users) selected based on survey responses, were interviewed. Finally, survey data was gathered from 7 online facilitators to understand their role in the community. Data collected from these 21 community members and 5 facilitating members suggest that highly active users (logging into the workspace daily), were more likely to have transformative experiences, co-create knowledge, feel ownership of community knowledge, have extended opportunities for community exchange, and find new forms of evaluation. Average users shared some similar characteristics with both the highly active members and infrequent users, representing a group in transition as they become more engaged and active in the online workspace. Inactive users viewed the workspace as having little value, being difficult to navigate, being mainly for gaining basic information about events and community news, and as another demand on their time. Results show the online workspace component of the Earth Science Education and Outreach Forum is playing an important and emerging role for this community by supporting knowledge building and knowledge sharing, and growing in value for those that utilizing it more frequently. The evidence suggests that with increased participation or "usage" comes

  6. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment with High Schools for Obesity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…

  7. Developing and Implementing a Framework of Participatory Simulation for Mobile Learning Using Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Chengjiu; Song, Yanjie; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Hiroaki; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework, scaffolding participatory simulation for mobile learning (SPSML), used on mobile devices for helping students learn conceptual knowledge in the classroom. As the pedagogical design, the framework adopts an experiential learning model, which consists of five sequential but cyclic steps: the initial stage,…

  8. Prospects for the Future: The Use of Participatory Action Research to Study Educational Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Emily Alana

    2005-01-01

    Of all the varieties of educational disadvantage, issues involving students who are homeless, or who move frequently because of poverty, are perhaps some of the most difficult for public school educators in the US to address. Using a pragmatic mixed methods design, this study evaluates the efficacy of participatory action research (PAR): (1) as a…

  9. The Pleasures and Pitfalls of a "Participatory" Documentation Project: An Experience in Northwestern Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenzel, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    This article adds a voice from Amazonia to the reflective discussion on documentation projects designed within a "participatory" or "collaborative" paradigm of language research. It offers a critical assessment of one such documentation project carried out from 2007-2011 with the Kotiria and Wa'ikhana (East Tukano) language…

  10. Urban Indian Voices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Health and Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…

  11. Participatory Action Research: Reflections on Critical Incidents in a PAR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, Betsy; Singer, George H. S.; DiVenere, Nancy; Ginsberg, Connie; Powers, Laurie E.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes a participatory action research (PAR) project designed to evaluate Parent to Parent programs in five states. The process of developing a shared understanding of the program and of the purpose for evaluating them, along with an on-going willingness of parents and researchers to compromise, led to creative solutions to…

  12. Participatory and Anticipatory Stages of Mathematical Concept Learning: Further Empirical and Theoretical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora; Avitzur, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Tzur and Simon (2004) postulated 2 stages of development in learning a mathematical concept: participatory and anticipatory. The authors discuss the affordances for research of this stage distinction related to data analysis, task design, and assessment as demonstrated in a 2-year teaching experiment.

  13. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  14. Culture Change in Long-Term Care: Participatory Action Research and the Role of the Resident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents' competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents. Design and Methods: Seven unit-specific PAR…

  15. Real-time telemedicine using shared three-dimensional workspaces over ATM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoon, Peter; Forsey, David R.; Hutchison, Susan

    1999-03-01

    During the past five years a high speed ATM network has been developed at UBC that provides a campus testbed, a local testbed to the hospitals, and a National testbed between here and the BADLAB in Ottawa. This testbed has been developed to combine a commercial shared audio/video/whiteboard environment coupled with a shared interactive 3-dimensional solid model. This solid model ranges from a skull reconstructed from a CT scan with muscles and an overlying skin, to a model of the ventricle system of the human brain. Typical interactions among surgeon, radiologist and modeler consist of having image slices of the original scan shared by all and the ability to adjust the surface of the model to conform to each individuals perception of what the final object should look like. The purpose of this interaction can range from forensic reconstruction from partial remains to pre-maxillofacial surgery. A joint project with the forensic unit of the R.C.M.P. in Ottawa using the BADLAB is now in the stages of testing this methodology on a real case beginning with a CT scan of partial remains. A second study underway with the department of Maxiofacial reconstruction at Dalhousie University in Halifax Nova Scotia and concerns a subject who is about to undergo orthognathic surgery, in particular a mandibular advancement. This subject has been MRI scanned, a solid model constructed of the mandible and the virtual surgery constructed on the model. This model and the procedure have been discussed and modified by the modeler and the maxillofacial specialist using these shared workspaces. The procedure will be repeated after the actual surgery to verify the modeled procedure. The advantage of this technique is that none of the specialists need be in the same room, or city. Given the scarcity of time and specialists this methodology shows great promise. In November of this last year a shared live demonstration of this facial modeler was done between Vancouver and Dalhousie University in

  16. Can Public Education Coexist with Participatory Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Participatory culture has many mechanisms to support peer-to-peer learning as young people enter interest-driven and friendship-driven networks. In this article, the authors argue that school librarians can help bridge the gap between the excitement of having students experiment with new forms of social learning and new digital-media practices,…

  17. Participatory Management of Co-Curricular Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLenighan, Harry

    This paper argues that, for both practical and philosophical reasons, high school activities ought to be managed by participatory principles. It further argues that the responsibility for bringing this about belongs to principals and activities directors through appropriate modeling and in-service education. In addition, obstacles to the…

  18. Using Participatory Photo Novels to Teach Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Kallol

    2012-01-01

    Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…

  19. Principled Challenges for a Participatory Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The ideals that are central to action research are not often explicitly addressed in writing about action research and participation. This article argues for a more explicit dialogue about the ideals of participation and how those ideals relate to participatory practices. The lack of such a dialogue can obscure both the process of participation…

  20. Evaluation of Complex Programs Using Participatory Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhon, Karen; And Others

    Summaries are presented of papers from a symposium entitled "The Evaluation of Complex Programs Using Participatory Evaluation" that focused on a comprehensive school service program in a south Texas alternative high school. "Theoretical Framework and Objectives" explores the problems of evaluating such programs. Problems result from the…

  1. Participatory Action Research: A View from Xerox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Larry A.; Argona, Dominick R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Quality of Work Life (QWL) program at the North American Manufacturing Division of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. States that the story of QWL is a description of participatory action research. Notes that the process has become an integral and flexible approach to solving problems and…

  2. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  3. Using Participatory Action Research to Address Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.

    2014-01-01

    Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…

  4. Teaching Writing: A Multilayered Participatory Scaffolding Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to the research on teachers' writing pedagogy. It reviews and challenges the research literature on scaffolding as an instructional practice and presents a more inclusive framework for analysis. As student participation and voice were absent from much of the literature, a participatory scaffolding framework was developed to…

  5. Participatory Research: A Tool for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Given their positions in communities across the United States, Extension educators are poised to have meaningful partnerships with the communities they serve. This article presents a case for the use of participatory research, which is a departure from more conventional forms of research based on objectivity, researcher distance, and social…

  6. Participatory Pedagogy: A Compass for Transformative Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola; Barnard, Michelle; Fennema, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In the Fall 2009 term, we participated as students and instructor in a graduate education course modeled after participatory pedagogy. Siemens (2008) defines this approach as "one that does not fully define all curricular needs in advance of interacting with learners...Multiple perspectives, opinions, and active creation on the part of…

  7. 7 CFR 1944.259 - Participatory agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Participatory agreement. 1944.259 Section 1944.259... service coordinator in developing supportive services case plans. A participant has the option of accepting any of the services under the case plan. (b) Once the plan is approved by the PAC and the...

  8. Effect of Tendon Vibration on Hemiparetic Arm Stability in Unstable Workspaces

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Megan O.; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A.; Schmit, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity. PMID:26633892

  9. Effect of Tendon Vibration on Hemiparetic Arm Stability in Unstable Workspaces.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Megan O; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity.

  10. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  11. A multi-sensorial hybrid control for robotic manipulation in human-robot workspaces.

    PubMed

    Pomares, Jorge; Perea, Ivan; García, Gabriel J; Jara, Carlos A; Corrales, Juan A; Torres, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:22163729

  12. A multi-sensorial hybrid control for robotic manipulation in human-robot workspaces.

    PubMed

    Pomares, Jorge; Perea, Ivan; García, Gabriel J; Jara, Carlos A; Corrales, Juan A; Torres, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  13. A Multi-Sensorial Hybrid Control for Robotic Manipulation in Human-Robot Workspaces

    PubMed Central

    Pomares, Jorge; Perea, Ivan; García, Gabriel J.; Jara, Carlos A.; Corrales, Juan A.; Torres, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:22163729

  14. Digital map and situation surface: a team-oriented multidisplay workspace for network enabled situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Geisler, Jürgen; Bader, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof- interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were connected to the system.

  15. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research.

    PubMed

    Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning.

  16. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research.

    PubMed

    Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning. PMID:23438266

  17. Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2011-09-01

    Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st

  18. Implementing participatory decision making in forest planning.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein's public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  19. Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  20. Investigating Geosparql Requirements for Participatory Urban Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A. J. S.

    2015-06-01

    We propose that participatory GIS (PGIS) activities including participatory urban planning can be made more efficient and effective if spatial reasoning rules are integrated with PGIS tools to simplify engagement for public contributors. Spatial reasoning is used to describe relationships between spatial entities. These relationships can be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively using geometrical algorithms, ontological relations, and topological methods. Semantic web services utilize tools and methods that can facilitate spatial reasoning. GeoSPARQL, introduced by OGC, is a spatial reasoning standard used to make declarations about entities (graphical contributions) that take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple or statement. GeoSPARQL uses three basic methods to infer topological relationships between spatial entities, including: OGC's simple feature topology, RCC8, and the DE-9IM model. While these methods are comprehensive in their ability to define topological relationships between spatial entities, they are often inadequate for defining complex relationships that exist in the spatial realm. Particularly relationships between urban entities, such as those between a bus route, the collection of associated bus stops and their overall surroundings as an urban planning pattern. In this paper we investigate common qualitative spatial reasoning methods as a preliminary step to enhancing the capabilities of GeoSPARQL in an online participatory GIS framework in which reasoning is used to validate plans based on standard patterns that can be found in an efficient/effective urban environment.

  1. Assessing the influence of researcher-partner involvement on the process and outcomes of participatory research in autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-10-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations.

  2. A brain-machine interface to navigate a mobile robot in a planar workspace: enabling humans to fly simulated aircraft with EEG.

    PubMed

    Akce, Abdullah; Johnson, Miles; Dantsker, Or; Bretl, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an interface for navigating a mobile robot that moves at a fixed speed in a planar workspace, with noisy binary inputs that are obtained asynchronously at low bit-rates from a human user through an electroencephalograph (EEG). The approach is to construct an ordered symbolic language for smooth planar curves and to use these curves as desired paths for a mobile robot. The underlying problem is then to design a communication protocol by which the user can, with vanishing error probability, specify a string in this language using a sequence of inputs. Such a protocol, provided by tools from information theory, relies on a human user's ability to compare smooth curves, just like they can compare strings of text. We demonstrate our interface by performing experiments in which twenty subjects fly a simulated aircraft at a fixed speed and altitude with input only from EEG. Experimental results show that the majority of subjects are able to specify desired paths despite a wide range of errors made in decoding EEG signals.

  3. A brain-machine interface to navigate a mobile robot in a planar workspace: enabling humans to fly simulated aircraft with EEG.

    PubMed

    Akce, Abdullah; Johnson, Miles; Dantsker, Or; Bretl, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an interface for navigating a mobile robot that moves at a fixed speed in a planar workspace, with noisy binary inputs that are obtained asynchronously at low bit-rates from a human user through an electroencephalograph (EEG). The approach is to construct an ordered symbolic language for smooth planar curves and to use these curves as desired paths for a mobile robot. The underlying problem is then to design a communication protocol by which the user can, with vanishing error probability, specify a string in this language using a sequence of inputs. Such a protocol, provided by tools from information theory, relies on a human user's ability to compare smooth curves, just like they can compare strings of text. We demonstrate our interface by performing experiments in which twenty subjects fly a simulated aircraft at a fixed speed and altitude with input only from EEG. Experimental results show that the majority of subjects are able to specify desired paths despite a wide range of errors made in decoding EEG signals. PMID:23268384

  4. Mathematics, critical literacy, and youth participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Yang, K Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math preparation and accelerate students into higher-order math literacy. This study differs from and extends other studies that describe mathematics as a tool for social critique. It considers youth research in and through mathematics as a more ideologically open endeavor in that youth do not simply reproduce predetermined criticisms of social inequality. Thus, this project translates extensive work in critical literacy, new media literacy, and youth participatory action research to a mathematics context.

  5. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed. PMID:26294566

  6. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.

  7. Participatory approaches to understanding practices of flood management across borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was

  8. Using participatory mapping to inform a community-randomized trial of HIV counseling and testing

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; Lane, Tim; Ntogwisangu, Jacob; Modiba, Precious; vanRooyen, Heidi; Timbe, Andrew; Visrutaratna, Surasing; Fritz, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Participatory mapping and transect walks were used to inform the research and intervention design and to begin building community relations in preparation for Project Accept, a community-randomized trial sponsored by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). NIMH Project Accept is being conducted in five sites within four countries including Thailand, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Tanzania. Results from the mapping exercises informed decisions about the research design such as defining community boundaries, and identifying appropriate criteria for matching community pairs for the trial. The mapping also informed intervention related decisions such as where to situate the services. The participatory methods enabled each site to develop an understanding of the communities that could not have been derived from existing data or data collected through standard data collection techniques. Furthermore, the methods lay the foundation for collaborative community research partnerships. PMID:25328451

  9. Participatory Research: An Emerging Alternative Methodology in Social Science Research. Participatory Research Network Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam, Yusuf, Ed.; Mustafa, Kemal, Ed.

    This book, consisting of a series of discussion papers and case studies, is a compilation of the papers presented at a region 1 workshop on participatory research in Africa. Included in the volume are the following discussion papers: "The Concept of Development in the Social Sciences," by Kemal Mustafa and Deborah Bryceson; "The Politics of…

  10. Creating Knowledge: A Monopoly? Participatory Research in Development. Participatory Research Network Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd, Ed.; And Others

    This book, consisting of 13 papers, deals with the theory, practice, and reactions to participatory research in the area of social research for development. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Breaking the Monopoly of Knowledge: Research Methods, Participation, and Development," by Budd Hall; "Creating Alternative Research Methods:…

  11. Participatory ergonomics that builds on local solutions.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1995-06-01

    Ergonomic interventions must be a local process that responds to the particular needs of local people. In view of the many constraints, a special attention is drawn to participatory ergonomics as an effective means of finding locally workable solutions. Recent experiences show that the best way to utilize its practical advantage is to focus on solutions. The practical steps in providing necessary support for participatory ergonomics should include (1) a good starting point for group discussion and subsequent participatory action based on locally achieved examples; (2) prioritizing different elements of the workplace by means of checklists of available solutions; and (3) making small improvements with a view to learning-by-doing through small wins. Good local examples that have been achieved in the given local conditions can show how improvements can be done in the local conditions and thus motivate people in making improvements. The next important step is to help the participants determine priority solutions by means of "action checklists" that list the available solutions. It is necessary to concentrate on those aspects in which both better working conditions and higher productivity are accessible simultaneously. They include operational, cognitive and organizational aspects. Through learning-by-doing, the participants must be able to base their judgement on the results of relative assessment of locally available solutions and to implement the chosen solutions. To sustain active initiatives of the participants, support and advice must be provided which are suitable for working in small groups, sharing experiences and identifying workable solutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in

  13. The i5k Workspace@NAL--enabling genomic data access, visualization and curation of arthropod genomes.

    PubMed

    Poelchau, Monica; Childers, Christopher; Moore, Gary; Tsavatapalli, Vijaya; Evans, Jay; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Lin, Jun-Wei; Hackett, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's genome hosting needs. Any i5k member is encouraged to contact the i5k Workspace with their genome project details. Once submitted, new content will be accessible via organism pages, genome browsers and BLAST search engines, which are implemented via the open-source Tripal framework, a web interface for the underlying Chado database schema. We also implement the Web Apollo software for groups that choose to curate gene models. New content will add to the existing body of 35 arthropod species, which include species relevant for many aspects of arthropod genomic research, including agriculture, invasion biology, systematics, ecology and evolution, and developmental research.

  14. The i5k Workspace@NAL--enabling genomic data access, visualization and curation of arthropod genomes.

    PubMed

    Poelchau, Monica; Childers, Christopher; Moore, Gary; Tsavatapalli, Vijaya; Evans, Jay; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Lin, Jun-Wei; Hackett, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's genome hosting needs. Any i5k member is encouraged to contact the i5k Workspace with their genome project details. Once submitted, new content will be accessible via organism pages, genome browsers and BLAST search engines, which are implemented via the open-source Tripal framework, a web interface for the underlying Chado database schema. We also implement the Web Apollo software for groups that choose to curate gene models. New content will add to the existing body of 35 arthropod species, which include species relevant for many aspects of arthropod genomic research, including agriculture, invasion biology, systematics, ecology and evolution, and developmental research. PMID:25332403

  15. The i5k Workspace@NAL—enabling genomic data access, visualization and curation of arthropod genomes

    PubMed Central

    Poelchau, Monica; Childers, Christopher; Moore, Gary; Tsavatapalli, Vijaya; Evans, Jay; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Lin, Jun-Wei; Hackett, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's genome hosting needs. Any i5k member is encouraged to contact the i5k Workspace with their genome project details. Once submitted, new content will be accessible via organism pages, genome browsers and BLAST search engines, which are implemented via the open-source Tripal framework, a web interface for the underlying Chado database schema. We also implement the Web Apollo software for groups that choose to curate gene models. New content will add to the existing body of 35 arthropod species, which include species relevant for many aspects of arthropod genomic research, including agriculture, invasion biology, systematics, ecology and evolution, and developmental research. PMID:25332403

  16. An Attractive Choice: Education Researchers' Use of Participatory Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersohn, L.; Ferreira, R.; Beukes, J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are often favoured in education research. This study aimed to determine collaborative partnership trends between education researchers and teachers in order to understand the use of participatory theory and practice in education studies. Seven symposium presentations by education scholars from various higher education…

  17. Participatory Decisionmaking: Working Models in Virginia Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    Described are six elementary schools in Virginia that were judged as meeting nine criteria for programs facilitating participatory decision-making by teachers. The term "participatory decision-making" refers to the sharing of decisions on school policies and practices between teachers and school administrators. Information on the schools' programs…

  18. PLAYful Practices: Students at Creekview High School Discuss Participatory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Buffy

    2012-01-01

    Much of the literature about participatory learning in schools and libraries is dominated by adult voices. What do sites of participatory learning look like from the student perspective? What does it mean to student learners to develop and apply the four practices of participation--create, circulate, collaborate, and connect? How does…

  19. Participatory Research: New Approaches to the Research to Practice Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…

  20. Methodological Immaturity in Childhood Research?: Thinking through "Participatory Methods"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallacher, Lesley-Anne; Gallagher, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Much of the recent literature on social research with children advocates the use of participatory techniques. This article attempts to rethink such techniques in several ways. The authors argue that participatory approaches, in their insistence that children should take part in research, may in fact involve children in processes that aim to…

  1. The Challenges of Participatory Research with "Tech-Savvy" Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallan, Kerry Margaret; Singh, Parlo; Giardina, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on participatory research and how it can be understood and employed when researching children and youth. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretically and empirically grounded discussion of participatory research methodologies with respect to investigating the dynamic and evolving phenomenon of young people growing up in…

  2. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  3. Exploring social inclusion strategies for public health research and practice: The use of participatory visual methods to counter stigmas surrounding street-based substance abuse in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ritterbusch, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the participatory visual research design and findings from a qualitative assessment of the social impact of bazuco and inhalant/glue consumption among street youth in Bogotá, Colombia. The paper presents the visual methodologies our participatory action research (PAR) team employed in order to identify and overcome the stigmas and discrimination that street youth experience in society and within state-sponsored drug rehabilitation programmes. I call for critical reflection regarding the broad application of the terms 'participation' and 'participatory' in visual research and urge scholars and public health practitioners to consider the transformative potential of PAR for both the research and practice of global public health in general and rehabilitation programmes for street-based substance abuse in Colombia in particular. The paper concludes with recommendations as to how participatory visual methods can be used to promote social inclusion practices and to work against stigma and discrimination in health-related research and within health institutions.

  4. Developing a community-based participatory research model to engage transition age youth using mental health service in research.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Alisa K; Borg, Ryan; Delman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for the development and conduct of a community-based participatory research project with transition age youth (TAY) mental health service users. Community-based participatory research frameworks can facilitate equitable partnerships and meaningful inclusion but have not been fully drawn upon in mental health research. The model included TAY as trained research associates involved in every aspect of the research process. We describe the development of the project, creation of the research team, training, the design and conduct of the study, and challenges faced. The methods developed successfully provided support for the meaningful participation of TAY in the project.

  5. Giving Student Groups a Stronger Voice: Using Participatory Research and Action (PRA) to Initiate Change to a Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Geraldine; McMahon, Sinead

    2012-01-01

    Traditional student feedback mechanisms have been criticised for being teacher-centred in design and, in particular, for their absence of transparent follow-up actions. In contrast, this study describes the process and the evaluation of a participatory research and action (PRA) approach used in an undergraduate physiotherapy degree. This approach…

  6. Video Games and Learning: Teaching and Participatory Culture in the Digital Age. Technology, Education--Connections (the TEC Series)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Can we learn socially and academically valuable concepts and skills from video games? How can we best teach the "gamer generation?" This accessible book describes how educators and curriculum designers can harness the participatory nature of digital media and play. The author presents a comprehensive model of games and learning that integrates…

  7. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterk, B.; Christian, A. K.; Gogan, A. C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001-2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Baseline data and controls were not available. In…

  8. Explore Locally, Excel Digitally: A Participatory Learning After-School Program for Enriching Citizenship On- and Offline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felt, Laurel J.; Vartabedian, Vanessa; Literat, Ioana; Mehta, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a participatory culture pedagogy in the context of a pilot after-school program at LAUSD's Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools. Ethnographic fieldnotes, instructor and student reflections, photographs, video recordings, and student work illustrate the program's culture of participatory…

  9. "It's a Bit like Flying": Developing Participatory Theatre with the Under-Twos--A Case Study of Oily Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a new venture by the children's theatre company Oily Cart to develop a participatory theatre piece for carers and their under-two-year-olds, entitled Clouds. Given what little is known about how to design and conduct arts events with this age phase, a case study offered the opportunity to identify features…

  10. Engaging Students in a Simulated Collaborative Action Research Project: An Evaluation of a Participatory Approach to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congdon, Graham John; Congdon, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an action research project designed to develop and implement a new participatory learning and teaching approach to enable postgraduate healthcare students to develop skills and knowledge in preparation for undertaking an action research study within their practice setting. The learning and teaching approach was based upon the…

  11. Diffusion, decolonializing, and participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Woodward, William R; Hetley, Richard S

    2007-03-01

    Miki Takasuna describes knowledge transfer between elite communities of scientists, a process by which ideas become structurally transformed in the host culture. By contrast, a process that we have termed knowledge transfer by deelitization occurs when (a) participatory action researchers work with a community to identify a problem involving oppression or exploitation. Then (b) community members suggest solutions and acquire the tools of analysis and action to pursue social actions. (c) Disadvantaged persons thereby become more aware of their own abilities and resources, and persons with special expertise become more effective. (d) Rather than detachment and value neutrality, this joint process involves advocacy and structural transformation. In the examples of participatory action research documented here, Third World social scientists collaborated with indigenous populations to solve problems of literacy, community-building, land ownership, and political voice. Western social scientists, inspired by these non-Western scientists, then joined in promoting PAR both in the Third World and in Europe and the Americas, e.g., adapting it for solving problems of people with disabilities or disenfranchised women. Emancipatory goals such as these may even help North American psychologists to break free of some methodological chains and to bring about social and political change.

  12. Diffusion, decolonializing, and participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Woodward, William R; Hetley, Richard S

    2007-03-01

    Miki Takasuna describes knowledge transfer between elite communities of scientists, a process by which ideas become structurally transformed in the host culture. By contrast, a process that we have termed knowledge transfer by deelitization occurs when (a) participatory action researchers work with a community to identify a problem involving oppression or exploitation. Then (b) community members suggest solutions and acquire the tools of analysis and action to pursue social actions. (c) Disadvantaged persons thereby become more aware of their own abilities and resources, and persons with special expertise become more effective. (d) Rather than detachment and value neutrality, this joint process involves advocacy and structural transformation. In the examples of participatory action research documented here, Third World social scientists collaborated with indigenous populations to solve problems of literacy, community-building, land ownership, and political voice. Western social scientists, inspired by these non-Western scientists, then joined in promoting PAR both in the Third World and in Europe and the Americas, e.g., adapting it for solving problems of people with disabilities or disenfranchised women. Emancipatory goals such as these may even help North American psychologists to break free of some methodological chains and to bring about social and political change. PMID:17992874

  13. Towards a Collaborative Online Workspace and Unified Standards for Geochemical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernagh, T. P.; Treloar, A.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    stores at the institution or elsewhere. They are developing a national discovery service that enables access to data in institutional stores with rich context. No data is stored in this system, only metadata with pointers back to the original data. This enables researchers to keep their own data but also enables access to many repositories at once. Such a system will require standardisation at all phases of the process of analytical geochemistry. The geochemistry community needs to work together to develop standards for attributes as the data are collected from the instrument, to develop more standardised processing of the raw data and to agree on what is required for publishing. An online-collaborative workspace such as this would be ideal for geochemical data and the provision of standardised, open source software would greatly enhance the persistence of individual geochemistry data collections and facilitate reuse and repurposing. This conforms to the guidelines from Geoinformatics for Geochemistry (http://www.geoinfogeochem.org/) which requires metadata on how the samples were analysed.

  14. Global Workspace Dynamics: Cortical “Binding and Propagation” Enables Conscious Contents

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Bernard J.; Franklin, Stan; Ramsoy, Thomas Zoega

    2013-01-01

    A global workspace (GW) is a functional hub of binding and propagation in a population of loosely coupled signaling elements. In computational applications, GW architectures recruit many distributed, specialized agents to cooperate in resolving focal ambiguities. In the brain, conscious experiences may reflect a GW function. For animals, the natural world is full of unpredictable dangers and opportunities, suggesting a general adaptive pressure for brains to resolve focal ambiguities quickly and accurately. GW theory aims to understand the differences between conscious and unconscious brain events. In humans and related species the cortico-thalamic (C-T) core is believed to underlie conscious aspects of perception, thinking, learning, feelings of knowing (FOK), felt emotions, visual imagery, working memory, and executive control. Alternative theoretical perspectives are also discussed. The C-T core has many anatomical hubs, but conscious percepts are unitary and internally consistent at any given moment. Over time, conscious contents constitute a very large, open set. This suggests that a brain-based GW capacity cannot be localized in a single anatomical hub. Rather, it should be sought in a functional hub – a dynamic capacity for binding and propagation of neural signals over multiple task-related networks, a kind of neuronal cloud computing. In this view, conscious contents can arise in any region of the C-T core when multiple input streams settle on a winner-take-all equilibrium. The resulting conscious gestalt may ignite an any-to-many broadcast, lasting ∼100–200 ms, and trigger widespread adaptation in previously established networks. To account for the great range of conscious contents over time, the theory suggests an open repertoire of binding1 coalitions that can broadcast via theta/gamma or alpha/gamma phase coupling, like radio channels competing for a narrow frequency band. Conscious moments are thought to hold only 1–4 unrelated items; this

  15. Participatory ergonomic intervention for prevention of low back pain: assembly line redesign case.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain. PMID:22317739

  16. Turning Participatory Microbiome Research into Usable Data: Lessons from the American Gut Project.

    PubMed

    Debelius, Justine W; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; McDonald, Daniel; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wolfe, Elaine; Knight, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond.

  17. Turning Participatory Microbiome Research into Usable Data: Lessons from the American Gut Project

    PubMed Central

    Debelius, Justine W.; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; McDonald, Daniel; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wolfe, Elaine; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond. PMID:27047589

  18. Turning Participatory Microbiome Research into Usable Data: Lessons from the American Gut Project.

    PubMed

    Debelius, Justine W; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; McDonald, Daniel; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wolfe, Elaine; Knight, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond. PMID:27047589

  19. Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

  20. Improving hazard communication through collaborative participatory workshops: challenges and opportunities experienced at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.; de Moor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Communication is key to disaster risk management before, during and after a hazardous event occurs. In this study we used a participatory design approach to increase disaster preparedness levels around Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in collaboration with local communities. We organised five participatory workshops in communities around Turrialba volcano, 2 in February 2014 and a further 3 in May 2014. A total of 101 people attended and participants included the general public, decision makers and relevant government employees. The main finding of the workshops was that people want more information, specifically regarding 1) the activity level at the volcano and 2) how to prepare. In addition, the source of information was identified as an important factor in communication, with credibility and integrity being key. This outcome highlights a communication gap between the communities at risk and the institutions monitoring the volcano, who publish their scientific results monthly. This strong and explicitly expressed desire for more information should be acknowledged and responded to. However, this gives rise to the challenge of how to communicate: how to change the delivery and/or content of the messages already disseminated for greater effectiveness. In our experience, participatory workshops provide a successful mechanism for effective communication. However, critically evaluating the workshops reveals a number of challenges and opportunities, with the former arising from human, cultural and resource factors, specifically the need to develop people's capacity to participate, whereas the latter is predominantly represented by participant empowerment. As disasters are mostly felt at individual, household and community levels, improving communication, not at but with these stakeholders, is an important component of a comprehensive disaster resilience strategy. This work provides an initial insight into the potential value of participatory design approaches for

  1. How Physical Design Can Influence Copyright Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Most school librarians do not think of copyright compliance and facilities planning in the same breath. Yet the design of space--physical and virtual--can discourage or promote compliance, or even help police it. Placement of and access to equipment, traffic patterns, signage, and student workspace all may influence copyright-compliance behavior…

  2. Using participatory methods to examine policy and women prisoners' health.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Diane C; Fisher, Anastasia A

    2011-05-01

    This article describes how community-based participatory research (CBPR) led to the discovery of the unintended consequences of jail and prison copayment policy on women prisoners' health. The article addresses (a) a working definition of participatory research; (b) the importance of research with women prisoners; (c) the origins and development of our work and its grounding in CBPR; (d) issues related to research with prisoners; and (e) recommendations for using participatory methods to bring women prisoners into the discourse about the practices and policies that impact their lives. These methods have the potential to minimize the invisibility of prisoners and their health disparities. PMID:21903718

  3. A framework for the selection of participatory approaches for SEA

    SciTech Connect

    Rauschmayer, Felix . E-mail: felix.rauschmayer@ufz.de; Risse, Nathalie . E-mail: nrisse@ulb.ac.be

    2005-08-15

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is now adopted as a formal procedure in various organisations. Nevertheless, the question of how to choose the most suitable SEA participatory approach for a given situation is far from being resolved. To shed light on this question, we briefly describe several participatory approaches used in environmental management and decision-making. A framework for evaluating these approaches is then adapted to SEA and used to assess the approaches selected. We conclude that participatory approaches within the SEA implementation process need to be chosen more systematically and we put forward our framework as a way of doing so.

  4. Kinematic Analysis and Synthesis of a 3-URU Pure Rotational Parallel Mechanism with Respect to Singularity and Workspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Syamsul; Takeda, Yukio

    This paper concerns kinematics and dimensional synthesis of a three universal-revolute-universal (3-URU) pure rotational parallel mechanism. The mechanism is composed of a base, a platform and three symmetric limbs consisting of U-R-U joints. This mechanism is a spatial non-overconstrained mechanism with three degrees of freedom. The joints in each limb are so arranged to perform pure rotational motion of the platform around a specific point. Equations for inverse displacement analysis and singularities were derived to investigate the relationship of the kinematic constants to the solution of the inverse kinematics and singularities. Based on the results, a dimensional synthesis procedure for the 3-URU parallel mechanism considering singularities and the workspace was proposed. A numerical example was also presented to illustrate the synthesis method.

  5. Participatory Games: Experiential learning to bridge disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan, E.; Suarez, P.; Mendler de Suarez, J.; Bachofen, C.

    2014-12-01

    While the benefits of multi-disciplinary education have been extolled, there is more to success than producing students who are able to articulate the theorems of all pertinent disciplines. Here, we will describe case studies in which participatory scenario exercises and games can make the difference between memorizing information from an "outside" discipline, and actually internalizing the priorities and complications of the issue from an alien perspective. Case studies include teaching Red Cross community-based volunteers the Probability Distribution Function of seasonal rainfall forecasts, as well as requiring students of Columbia University's Master's Program in Climate and Society to study both natural and social aspects of climate. Games create a model system of the world, in which players assume a role and make decisions with consequences, facing complex feedback loops. Taking such roles catalyzes "AHA" moments that effectively bring home the intricacies of disciplinary paradigms outside of one's own.

  6. [Participatory research : Meaning, concept, objectives and methods].

    PubMed

    Brütt, Anna Levke; Buschmann-Steinhage, Rolf; Kirschning, Silke; Wegscheider, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Shaping one's own life and feeling equal in society is an essential aspect of participation. Based on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Social Security Code IX and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), participation is relevant for the German health system. The cross-sectional discipline of participation research investigates conditions for self-determined and equal participation in society. Research results can reinforce and promote the participation of humans with disabilities. Participation research uses established quantitative and qualitative approaches. Moreover, participatory research is a relevant approach that demands involving persons with disabilities in decisions in the research process. In the future, it will be important to concentrate findings and to connect researchers. The participation research action alliance (Aktionsbündnis Teilhabeforschung), which was established in 2015, aims to make funding accessible as well as strengthen and profile participation research. PMID:27503496

  7. The pursuit of excellence: engaging the community in participatory health research.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Vivian R; McKay, Shari; Crowe, Jackie

    2010-12-01

    Community-based participatory research approaches are designed to improve health and well-being in communities and to minimize health disparities in general. It is this partnership approach to research that equitably involves community members, organizational representatives and researchers in all aspects of the research process and in which all partners contribute expertise, decision-making and ownership. Further to this, community-based participatory research is utilized to study and address community-identified issues through a collaborative and empowering action-oriented process that builds on the strengths of the community. The results of this research endeavour highlight the need for integrating community-based participatory research, primary health care and social accountability in the pursuit of excellence. The process and the results/findings provide ways that the community are able to enhance their health and wellness, increase capacity and be empowered to direct their education, research and service activities towards addressing and meeting the health priorities of the community. PMID:21510097

  8. Participatory Evaluation of a Community-Academic Partnership to Inform Capacity-building and Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B.; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M.; Jackson, Nia T.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D.; Gwede, Clement K.

    2015-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN’s primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships’ priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships’ adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners’ perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability. PMID:25863014

  9. Forming social capital--does participatory planning foster trust in institutions?

    PubMed

    Menzel, Susanne; Buchecker, Matthias; Schulz, Tobias

    2013-12-15

    Participatory planning that includes interest groups and municipal representatives has been presented as a means to deal with the increasing difficulty to reach arrangements due to progressively scarce land resources. Under dispute is whether collaborative forms of planning augment social capital or whether they might actually cause the destruction of such a valuable social commodity. In this paper we focus on trust in institution as a specific dimension of social capital because we argue that this is one of the effects the convenors of such participatory planning procedures are most interested in. We pursue a pre-post design and survey advisory group members of five on-going river-related planning processes in Switzerland. Controlling for generalised trust, we investigate how trust in institutions is affected over time by the quality of such processes and the degree of participation they offer. We find that generalised trust is highly correlated with initial levels of trust and so is process quality. Particularly the latter finding challenges the usually assumed direction of causality according to which process quality influences trust building. Additionally, we find a positive (non-significant) effect of process quality on changes in trust, while a higher degree of participation rather seems to hinder trust building. We suppose this indicates that under the conditions of limited time and resources more attention should be paid to how to improve the quality of participatory processes than putting much effort in increasing the degree of participation.

  10. Primary-care based participatory rehabilitation: users’ views of a horticultural and arts project

    PubMed Central

    Barley, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Susan; Sikorski, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Background Participation in horticulture and arts may improve wellbeing in those with mental and physical illness. Aim To conduct an in-depth exploration of the views and experience of participants of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project (Sydenham Garden). Design and setting Qualitative interview study of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project in South London. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (referred to as ‘coworkers’) of Sydenham Garden. Seven were female. Participants were aged between 38 and 91 years and had a range of severe mental and physical health problems; most had depression. The interviews were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results Data were overwhelmingly positive concerning participation. Coworkers considered participation in the project to promote wellbeing by providing purposeful and enjoyable activity and interest, improving mood and self-perceptions, and providing an escape from life’s pressures. Being outdoors was considered therapeutic. The most-valued aspect of participation was the social contact derived as a result of it. Many of the coworkers who were interviewed developed transferable skills, including nationally recognised qualifications, which they valued highly. Conclusion Delivery of horticultural therapy and participatory arts is a feasible model for improving wellbeing in patients in primary care who have serious illness. Longer-term studies are needed to address what happens to people after leaving such projects. PMID:22520790

  11. Participatory evaluation of a community-academic partnership to inform capacity-building and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M; Jackson, Nia T; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    2015-10-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN's primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships' priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships' adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners' perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability.

  12. Forming social capital--does participatory planning foster trust in institutions?

    PubMed

    Menzel, Susanne; Buchecker, Matthias; Schulz, Tobias

    2013-12-15

    Participatory planning that includes interest groups and municipal representatives has been presented as a means to deal with the increasing difficulty to reach arrangements due to progressively scarce land resources. Under dispute is whether collaborative forms of planning augment social capital or whether they might actually cause the destruction of such a valuable social commodity. In this paper we focus on trust in institution as a specific dimension of social capital because we argue that this is one of the effects the convenors of such participatory planning procedures are most interested in. We pursue a pre-post design and survey advisory group members of five on-going river-related planning processes in Switzerland. Controlling for generalised trust, we investigate how trust in institutions is affected over time by the quality of such processes and the degree of participation they offer. We find that generalised trust is highly correlated with initial levels of trust and so is process quality. Particularly the latter finding challenges the usually assumed direction of causality according to which process quality influences trust building. Additionally, we find a positive (non-significant) effect of process quality on changes in trust, while a higher degree of participation rather seems to hinder trust building. We suppose this indicates that under the conditions of limited time and resources more attention should be paid to how to improve the quality of participatory processes than putting much effort in increasing the degree of participation. PMID:24211564

  13. Community Intervention Development Using Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition needs assessment and program planning requires involvement of community members in order to yield programs that address local priorities. The Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) approach emphasizes direct, active participation of community members in assessment, plan...

  14. A Field Methodology for Participatory Self-Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uphoff, Norman

    1991-01-01

    Outlines the participatory self-evaluation methods of the People's Participation Programme of the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation. Benefits, six steps for introducing the method, and problems of language, comparability of numbers, and objectivity are described. (SK)

  15. Introduction to the Special Series on Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Sook; Meyer, Luanna; Goetz, Lori

    1998-01-01

    This introductory article discusses the benefits of participatory action research (PAR), including the empowerment of participants in research and the research process, the difficulties PAR presents, and summarizes following articles in a special series on the facets of PAR. (CR)

  16. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  17. La Investigacion Participativa en America Latina: Retablo de Papel, 10 (Participatory Research in Latin America: Series, 10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.

    The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory Research"; "The Researcher and the…

  18. Resource Centers and Carrel Design: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Ann L.

    Basic considerations in the design of carrels and resource centers are covered in learner objectives, text, practice exercises, and answer sheets in this learning module. Topics addressed include factors influencing carrel design, workspace dimensions for writing carrels and electrically wired carrels, the proper distance from the chair seat to…

  19. In pursuit of rigour and accountability in participatory design☆

    PubMed Central

    Frauenberger, Christopher; Good, Judith; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    The field of Participatory Design (PD) has greatly diversified and we see a broad spectrum of approaches and methodologies emerging. However, to foster its role in designing future interactive technologies, a discussion about accountability and rigour across this spectrum is needed. Rejecting the traditional, positivistic framework, we take inspiration from related fields such as Design Research and Action Research to develop interpretations of these concepts that are rooted in PD׳s own belief system. We argue that unlike in other fields, accountability and rigour are nuanced concepts that are delivered through debate, critique and reflection. A key prerequisite for having such debates is the availability of a language that allows designers, researchers and practitioners to construct solid arguments about the appropriateness of their stances, choices and judgements. To this end, we propose a “tool-to-think-with” that provides such a language by guiding designers, researchers and practitioners through a process of systematic reflection and critical analysis. The tool proposes four lenses to critically reflect on the nature of a PD effort: epistemology, values, stakeholders and outcomes. In a subsequent step, the coherence between the revealed features is analysed and shows whether they pull the project in the same direction or work against each other. Regardless of the flavour of PD, we argue that this coherence of features indicates the level of internal rigour of PD work and that the process of reflection and analysis provides the language to argue for it. We envision our tool to be useful at all stages of PD work: in the planning phase, as part of a reflective practice during the work, and as a means to construct knowledge and advance the field after the fact. We ground our theoretical discussions in a specific PD experience, the ECHOES project, to motivate the tool and to illustrate its workings. PMID:26109833

  20. Collaborative Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Debora

    2014-01-01

    This practitioner research study investigates the power of multimodal texts within a real-world context and argues that a participatory culture focused on literary arts offers marginalized high school students opportunities for collaborative design and authoring. Additionally, this article invites educators to rethink the at-risk label. This…

  1. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  2. Evaluation criteria for participatory research: insights from coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution. PMID:24748238

  3. Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved

  4. Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    Many scholars point out that in complex and contested decision-making and planning situations, participatory processes have clear advantages over "traditional" or non-participatory processes. Improving our understanding of which participatory process elements or combination of elements contribute to specific outcomes demands a comparative diagnosis of multiple case studies based on a systematic framework. This paper describes the theoretical foundation and application of a diagnostic framework developed for the description and comparative analysis of participatory processes. The framework for the Comparison of Participatory Processes (COPP) is composed of three dimensions: context, process, and outputs outcomes and impacts. For each dimension, a list of variables is provided, with associated selectable options. The framework also requires clarification of three monitoring and evaluation elements. The COPP framework is then applied to five participatory processes across five different contexts: three located in the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and two in eastern Africa. The goal is to test first if the framework facilitates the development of a comprehensive and clear description of participatory processes, and second, if a diagnostic step can be facilitated by applying the descriptions in a cross-comparative analysis. The paper concludes that despite a few challenges, the COPP framework is sufficiently generic to derive clear and consistent descriptions. A sample of only five case studies restricts the derivation of robust insights. Nevertheless, three testable hypothesis were derived, which would need to be tested with a much larger sample of case studies in order to substantiate the efficacy of process characteristics and attributes. Ultimately, such hypotheses and subsequent analytical efforts would contribute to the advancement of this increasingly prominent research domain.

  5. The Palouse Basin Participatory Model Pilot Project: A Participatory Approach to Bi-state Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.

  6. Strategy for the lowering and the assessment of exposure to nanoparticles at workspace - Case of study concerning the potential emission of nanoparticles of Lead in an epitaxy laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artous, Sébastien; Zimmermann, Eric; Douissard, Paul-Antoine; Locatelli, Dominique; Motellier, Sylvie; Derrough, Samir

    2015-05-01

    The implementation in many products of manufactured nanoparticles is growing fast and raises new questions. For this purpose, the CEA - NanoSafety Platform is developing various research topics for health and safety, environment and nanoparticles exposure in professional activities. The containment optimisation for the exposition lowering, then the exposure assessment to nanoparticles is a strategy for safety improvement at workplace and workspace. The lowering step consists in an optimisation of dynamic and static containment at workplace and/or workspace. Generally, the exposure risk due to the presence of nanoparticles substances does not allow modifying the parameters of containment at workplace and/or workspace. Therefore, gaseous or nanoparticulate tracers are used to evaluate performances of containment. Using a tracer allows to modify safely the parameters of the dynamic containment (ventilation, flow, speed) and to study several configurations of static containment. Moreover, a tracer allows simulating accidental or incidental situation. As a result, a safety procedure can be written more easily in order to manage this type of situation. The step of measurement and characterization of aerosols can therefore be used to assess the exposition at workplace and workspace. The case of study, aim of this paper, concerns the potential emission of Lead nanoparticles at the exhaust of a furnace in an epitaxy laboratory. The use of Helium tracer to evaluate the performance of containment is firstly studied. Secondly, the exposure assessment is characterised in accordance with the French guide “recommendations for characterizing potential emissions and exposure to aerosols released from nanomaterials in workplace operations”. Thirdly the aerosols are sampled, on several places, using collection membranes to try to detect traces of Lead in air.

  7. Experimental study on tourist satisfaction using participatory simulation in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dingding; Kanno, Taro; Furuta, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Before traveling, tourists need to ensure that they will have a well-organized trip, which mainly involves a smooth flow of visits to different tourist attractions by themselves or following a pre-designed plan made by tourism service providers. The present study examined how the sequence of visiting tourist attractions influences tourist satisfaction at the expectation and experience levels. Participatory simulation with a virtual environment platform was employed in the experiments to assess their experience. The research reveals that the contrast bias has significant influence on the assessment. PMID:25674403

  8. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.

    2011-07-15

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  9. Using community based participatory research as a method for investigating electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Almond, Helen; Cummings, Elizabeth; Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    One information source for the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record is the consumer repository. This paper reports on the use of community based participatory research, as a project method, derived from an initiative where people with complex chronic conditions and their carers attended a rural health promotion and lifestyle modification program. Through co-operative inquiry embedded in the research approach, health promotion workers and their clients were actively supported to adopt and use the PCEHR as an intervention. Simultaneously they were encouraged to reflect on its design, mechanisms for its implementation and their perceptions of its overall impact on consumer's ability to self-manage complex conditions. PMID:25676944

  10. Applying community-based participatory research methods to improve maternal and child health in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Hirani, Saima; Shehzad, Shireen; Zaidi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    To achieve health for all, the development of partnerships between community residents and researchers is essential. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) engages community members, uses local knowledge in the understanding of health problems and the design of interventions, and invests community members in the processes and products of research. CBPR pivots on an iterative process of open communication, mutual respect, and power sharing to build community capacity to sustain effective health interventions. This article describes how the tenets of CBPR were applied by a multidisciplinary, international research team of maternal-child health specialists toward better health for women and children in multilingual, multiethnic, low socioeconomic communities in Karachi, Pakistan.

  11. Determining of a robot workspace using the integration of a CAD system with a virtual control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a method for determining the workspace of an industrial robot using an approach consisting in integration a 3D model of an industrial robot with a virtual control system. The robot model with his work environment, prepared for motion simulation, was created in the “Motion Simulation” module of the Siemens PLM NX software. In the mentioned model components of the “link” type were created which map the geometrical form of particular elements of the robot and the components of “joint” type mapping way of cooperation of components of the “link” type. In the paper is proposed the solution in which the control process of a virtual robot is similar to the control process of a real robot using the manual control panel (teach pendant). For this purpose, the control application “JOINT” was created, which provides the manipulation of a virtual robot in accordance with its internal control system. The set of procedures stored in an .xlsx file is the element integrating the 3D robot model working in the CAD/CAE class system with the elaborated control application.

  12. A participatory approach to healing and transformation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morkel, Elize

    2011-12-01

    In this article I describe my personal journey from working as private practitioner to participating in the wider South African society. Post-apartheid South African society struggles with overwhelming problems related to poverty, illness, violence, sexism, and racism. Moreover, in those communities where the trauma is most severe, professional resources are scarce. I propose a participatory approach which invites therapists to respond to these socio-economic and political challenges and the problems that arise from them by thinking and acting outside the constraints of their consultation rooms and of traditional therapeutic conversations, into active participation in ways that might support healing and social transformation. I use two examples to illustrate and discuss the participatory approach with which I have engaged for over 10 years. The illustrative examples show how a participatory approach can create ripples that impact communities in healing and transformative ways.

  13. A participatory approach to healing and transformation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morkel, Elize

    2011-12-01

    In this article I describe my personal journey from working as private practitioner to participating in the wider South African society. Post-apartheid South African society struggles with overwhelming problems related to poverty, illness, violence, sexism, and racism. Moreover, in those communities where the trauma is most severe, professional resources are scarce. I propose a participatory approach which invites therapists to respond to these socio-economic and political challenges and the problems that arise from them by thinking and acting outside the constraints of their consultation rooms and of traditional therapeutic conversations, into active participation in ways that might support healing and social transformation. I use two examples to illustrate and discuss the participatory approach with which I have engaged for over 10 years. The illustrative examples show how a participatory approach can create ripples that impact communities in healing and transformative ways. PMID:22145721

  14. Salud Sí: a case study for the use of participatory evaluation in creating effective and sustainable community-based health promotion.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Piper, Rosalinda; Kunz, Susan; Navarro, Cecilia; Sander, Alicia; Gastelum, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Participatory evaluation can be an essential tool for community-based organizations in tailoring programs to the needs of the populations they serve. This article provides a case study of Salud Sí, a promotora-driven health promotion program designed to encourage physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and stress reduction among Mexican American women. Through a partnership between a community health center and an academic institution, we describe how the participatory evaluation framework is applied over a 10-year period throughout the stages of program development, implementation, and sustainability. Partners used the results to identify the essential elements of the health promotion program.

  15. Images and the Ethics of Inclusion and Exclusion: Learning through Participatory Photography in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Ian; Miles, Susie; Howes, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Participatory research methods directly engage with the topics that they set out to address. It is therefore no surprise that participatory research practice on the topic of educational inclusion and exclusion raises ethical issues for the participatory researcher that are themselves about inclusion and exclusion. This paper describes and analyses…

  16. Theory Building through Praxis Discourse: A Theory- and Practice-Informed Model of Transformative Participatory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnar, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Stakeholder participation in evaluation, where the evaluator engages stakeholders in the process, is prevalent in evaluation practice and is an important focus of evaluation research. Cousins and Whitmore proposed a bifurcation of participatory evaluation into the two streams of transformative participatory and practical participatory evaluation…

  17. Integrating Participatory Action Research and GIS Education: Negotiating Methodologies, Politics and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…

  18. Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephanie; He, Wenbo; Groat, Michael; Edwards, Benjamin; Horey, James L

    2013-01-01

    Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.

  19. Scenarios in the Afya Project as a Participatory Action Research (PAR) Tool for Studying Information Seeking and Use across the "Digital Divide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, Bharat; Bishop, Ann Peterson; Bazzell, Imani; Smith, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Explores the role of scenarios (or use-oriented design representations) in the Afya project (which aims to improve health information and services for Black women) as a participatory action research (PAR) tool for studying information seeking and use across the "digital divide." (AEF)

  20. Popular Theatre and Non-Formal Education in Botswana: A Critique of Pseudo-Participatory Popular Education. Working Paper No. 5 (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Ross; Byram, Martin

    Designed to show that highly participatory, engaging, entertaining, and locally understandable communication forms can be used not only to liberate but also to domesticate, this paper presents case studies of several nonformal education projects in Botswana that attempted to follow the approach of Paulo Freire by using popular theatre to encourage…

  1. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future.

  2. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future. PMID:26040608

  3. Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together

  4. Designing Facilities for a High-Tech Future: The OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Headquarters--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennybacker, Ed

    1987-01-01

    Discusses issues addressed by OCLC in the construction of its new headquarters. Original design criteria and a retrospective appraisal of solutions are presented in the following areas: (1) structural requirements; (2) environmental considerations; (3) utilities; (4) fire protection; (5) security; and (6) workspace design. Essential design issues…

  5. Esprit de Place: Maintaining and Designing Library Buildings To Provide Transcendent Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, Sam; Scherer, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library buildings and their role in building community. Reviews current design trends, including reading and study spaces; collaborative workspaces; technology-free zones; archives and special collections; cultural events spaces; age-specific spaces; shared spaces; natural light and landscapes; and interior design trends. (LRW)

  6. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  7. Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Cynthia G.; James, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design Community-based participatory research. Methods Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and observations were assessed using “member checking,” whereby students, teachers and community partners could agree or disagree with the researcher's interpretation. The students and teachers were further asked informally to share their own reflections and observations on this process. Results and conclusions Using youth to research other youth within a participatory research framework had many benefits for the quality of the research, the youth researchers and the community. The research was perceived by the researchers and participants to be more valid and credible. The approach was more appropriate for the students, and the youth researchers gained valuable research experience and a sense of ownership of both the research process and results. Viewing smoking through their children's eyes was seen by the community to be a powerful and effective means of creating awareness of the community environment. Limitations of the approach were residual response bias of participants, the short period of time to conduct the research and failure to fully explore student motivations to smoke or not to smoke. Ethical considerations included conducting research with minors, difficulties in obtaining written parental consent, decisions on cameras (disposable versus digital) and representation of all participants in the final research product. PMID:22584512

  8. Flexible Roles for American Indian Elders in Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M.; Kahn, Carmella; Attakai, Agnes; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I.

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research builds partnerships between communities and academic researchers to engage in research design, decision making, data collection, and dissemination of health promotion initiatives. Community-based participatory projects often have formal agreements or defined roles for community and academic partners. Our project (November 2012–November 2014) was designed to document life narratives of urban American Indian elders as a foundation for developing a resilience-based health promotion curriculum for urban American Indian adolescents aged 12 to 18. We used a flexible method for engaging community partners that honored the individual strengths of elders, encouraged them to describe how they wanted to contribute to the project, and provided multiple ways for elders to engage with university partners. We invited elders to participate in one or more of the following roles: as members of consensus panels to develop interview questions, as members of a community advisory board, or as participants in individual qualitative interviews. The flexibility of roles gave elders the opportunity to serve as advisors, co-developers, interviewees, or reviewers during 2 years of curriculum development. Engaging American Indian elders in the research process acknowledged the multiple layers of expertise they had as traditional leaders in the community while promoting trust in and ownership of the project. This flexible technique can be used by other communities that may not be comfortable with structured processes of engagement. PMID:27253635

  9. Preventing occupational exposure to pesticides: using participatory research with latino farmworkers to develop an intervention.

    PubMed

    Quandt, S A; Arcury, T A; Austin, C K; Cabrera, L F

    2001-04-01

    Pesticide exposure is an occupational health hazard for migrant farmworkers. The US-EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS) mandates training programs to prevent or reduce exposure. WPS implementation in a local context requires understanding individual, workplace, and community environmental factors that lead to exposure and influence intervention effectiveness. Participatory research within the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning framework was used to design a WPS training program for Mexican farmworkers in North Carolina cucumber and tobacco production. Research with farmworkers, farmers, health care providers, and Cooperative Extension agents identified modifiable behaviors and environmental factors, as well as structural and regulatory barriers requiring intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed through individual and group interviews, community forums, an advisory board, and a partnership between academic researchers and a community-based organization. The intervention's dominant features are (a) focus on key health behaviors, (b) relevance to local conditions, and (c) attention to issues of control in the workplace. Participatory research is effective for designing a health intervention where diverse social, cultural, political, and regulatory issues affect farmworkers' risk of exposure. PMID:16228792

  10. Object as a model of intelligent robot in the virtual workspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Banas, W.; Sekala, A.; Hryniewicz, P.

    2015-11-01

    The contemporary industry requires that every element of a production line will fit into the global schema, which is connected with the global structure of business. There is the need to find the practical and effective ways of the design and management of the production process. The term “effective” should be understood in a manner that there exists a method, which allows building a system of nodes and relations in order to describe the role of the particular machine in the production process. Among all the machines involved in the manufacturing process, industrial robots are the most complex ones. This complexity is reflected in the realization of elaborated tasks, involving handling, transporting or orienting the objects in a work space, and even performing simple machining processes, such as deburring, grinding, painting, applying adhesives and sealants etc. The robot also performs some activities connected with automatic tool changing and operating the equipment mounted on the wrist of the robot. Because of having the programmable control system, the robot also performs additional activities connected with sensors, vision systems, operating the storages of manipulated objects, tools or grippers, measuring stands, etc. For this reason the description of the robot as a part of production system should take into account the specific nature of this machine: the robot is a substitute of a worker, who performs his tasks in a particular environment. In this case, the model should be able to characterize the essence of "employment" in the sufficient way. One of the possible approaches to this problem is to treat the robot as an object, in the sense often used in computer science. This allows both: to describe certain operations performed on the object, as well as describing the operations performed by the object. This paper focuses mainly on the definition of the object as the model of the robot. This model is confronted with the other possible descriptions. The

  11. How Can Multi-Site Evaluations Be Participatory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Multi-site evaluations are becoming increasingly common in federal funding portfolios. Although much thought has been given to multi-site evaluation, there has been little emphasis on how it might interact with participatory evaluation. Therefore, this paper reviews several National Science Foundation educational, multi-site evaluations for the…

  12. Participatory Video: Toward a Method, Advocacy and Voice (MAV) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitter, Kathleen C.

    2012-01-01

    Using the new conceptual framework of participatory visual media as method, advocacy and voice (MAV), the author explores an action research study using an exemplar in which advocates from the disability community created and distributed a series of videos about love and sexuality as a critical human rights issue in the disability community. The…

  13. Rethinking Gaps: Literacies and Languages in Participatory Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocson, Korina; Rosa, Jonathan; Curwood, Jen Scott

    2015-01-01

    Growing efforts in the study of digital literacies push for continued (re)shaping of policy and pedagogical interventions. In this column, we take up concerns in participatory cultures to revisit a longstanding issue pertaining to language. Evident in the literature on digital literacies is an implicit treatment of language, particularly around…

  14. Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

  15. Participatory Action Research: An Overview--What Makes It Tick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article I outline different elements of action research in an attempt to describe and define participatory action research (PAR). There is a lot more material available to readers these days, some of which I will refer you to in this article. I see my role here is to summarise enough of this material to help support your reading of the…

  16. Resisting Participation: Critiquing Participatory Research Methodologies with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are increasingly employed in research with young people. These practices stem from a desire to reduce problematic distributions of power in research and to construct knowledge with young people rather than for them. This paper examines research conducted with a small group of young people experiencing exclusion from…

  17. Participatory Photography: Can It Help Adult Learners Develop Agency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…

  18. Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

    2012-01-01

    The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions…

  19. Participatory Action Research and Its Meanings: Vivencia, Praxis, Conscientization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the development of the "second" and arguably more well-known "genre" of participatory action research (PAR). The article argues that the origins of PAR are highly distributed and cannot really be traced back to the ideas of a single person or even a single group of researchers. Instead, the development of…

  20. Participatory Action Research with Older Adults: Key Principles in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…

  1. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  2. Teaming from Three Perspectives: Interviews with Participatory Action Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Taking part in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project was a genuine team effort for the group of people supporting Rose, a primary school student with Asperger syndrome. The following excerpts are from interviews with some of Rose's team. This is a collaborative approach to telling the story of the team's…

  3. Participatory Culture at the Echo Park Film Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Echo Park Film Center, a Los Angeles nonprofit media education organization, teaches underprivileged youth how to comprehend and make media in order to empower them to speak and be heard. Due to the organization's nonmainstream media courses and its connection to its community, the Center is able to create a participatory and socially…

  4. Free Play or Tight Spaces? Mapping Participatory Literacies in Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…

  5. Participatory Evaluation as Educational Outreach: Working in Unsettling Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of information and communication technologies in five Newfoundland coastal communities, this article deals with participatory research and outreach. Outreach in these communities, reeling from the near-collapse of the fishery and struggling to survive in a climate of neo-liberal restructuring, is considered to be a holistic…

  6. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  7. Empowering Communities in Educational Management: Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruechakul, Prayad; Erawan, Prawit; Siwarom, Manoon

    2015-01-01

    The participatory learning and action: PLA was the process used for empowering in this program. This process has four steps: 1) create awareness, 2) specify problems or needs, 3) act and 4) present and reflect or monitor. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the conditions of communities in terms of context and problems or needs in…

  8. Researching Photographic Participatory Inquiry in an E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grushka, Kathryn Meyer; Bellette, Aaron; Holbrook, Allyson

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Photographic Participatory Inquiry (PPI) in researching the teaching and learning of photography in the e-learning environment. It is an arts-informed method drawing on digital tools to capture collective information as digital artefacts, which can then be accessed and harnessed to build critical and reflective…

  9. Participatory Curriculum Development: A Case Study in Agricultural Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    1993-01-01

    A Namibian project to train agricultural extension staff considered three approaches to curriculum development: content, product, and process. Use of participatory approaches brought new dimensions to the final product, but they cannot become an alternative to working with trainees on their own agenda. (SK)

  10. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Commentary on Minkler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.

    2004-01-01

    The author comments on Meredith Minkler's article, "Ethical Challenges for the "Outside" Researcher in Community-Based Participatory Research," Health Education & Behavior 31(6):684-697, 2004 [see EJ824234]. Specifically, this commentary notes along with Minkler that, in relation to the relatively uncharted territory of Community-Based…

  11. Assessing Social Learning Outcomes through Participatory Mind Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin G.; DuBois, Bryce; Corwin, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a method for using mind mapping to assess social learning outcomes in collaborative environmental restoration and participatory natural resource management initiatives. Using mind mapping for preassessment and postassessment can reveal changes in individual and collective thinking about critical social and ecological issues.…

  12. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  13. Development of a Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Forde, Sarah; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the process of developing a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy for a Kenyan youth-based NGO. The iterative nature of the study including the process of narrowing down indicators to measure and methods to monitor/evaluate these is well documented. A discussion on the extent to which the process achieved…

  14. Participatory Action Research as a Model for Conducting Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…

  15. A Participatory Action Research Approach To Evaluating Inclusive School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.

    2001-01-01

    This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…

  16. Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

  17. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  18. Digital Game Building: Learning in a Participatory Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Background: The emergence of a participatory culture, brought about mainly by the use of Web2.0 technology, is challenging us to reconsider aspects of teaching and learning. Adapting the learning-as-digital-game-building approach, this paper explores how new educational practices can help students build skills for the 21st century. Purpose: This…

  19. Maculate Conceptions: Power, Process, and Creativity in Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Alexandra; Bell, Michael; Croll, Nora Swan; Jackson, Randall; Gratton, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Justifiably concerned about power dynamics between researchers and participants in participatory research, much of the literature proposes guidelines for including participant voices at every step of the research process. We find these guidelines insufficient for dealing with constraints set up by the social organizational structures in which…

  20. Participatory Action Research: Collective Reflections on Gender, Culture, and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Alice; Chatzopoulos, Nikolaos; Politi, Anastasia; Roz, Julieta

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is the experiences of three undergraduate students who engaged in a participatory action research (PAR) project with a group of preadolescent Latina girls attending a public school in Boston, MA, USA. The aim of the 2-year project was to explore how the girls constructed knowledge about girlhood and other gender-related…

  1. An Assessment of the Theoretical Underpinnings of Practical Participatory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the underpinnings of practical participatory evaluation (PPE). Evaluation approaches have long been criticized because their results are often not used. It is believed that PPE addresses this drawback. The article focuses on the mechanisms underlying the links between activities and consequences in PPE. A PPE theory…

  2. Participatory Reforms and Democracy: The Case of Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pini, Monica; Cigliutti, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    Uses Argentina as an example to explore issues of participatory reform and democracy, discussing the national and international background of Argentina's educational reform and describing the Argentinean educational system and sociocultural realities that create the local context of reform. Uses findings from studies of school site councils in…

  3. "Picturing" Lay Ministry: Photovoice and Participatory Group Spiritual Gifts Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefz, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The "Picturing Lay Ministry" project uses the visual methodology of photovoice as a way of generating participatory laity discernment around the topics of calling, rural ministry, and spiritual gifts. The project involves working with curriculum action research embedded within one-day ministry discernment events for laity. Measurement…

  4. Testing the Participatory Education Evaluation Concept in a National Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietilainen, Ville

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on the realisation of participatory evaluation (PE) in national educational evaluation activity. The realisation of PE is examined by adapting the Daigneault and Jacob model (2009; originally Cousins & Whitmore, 1998) to five national-level educational evaluations carried out in Finland. According to the chosen frame of…

  5. Seeking Renewal, Finding Community: Participatory Action Research in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…

  6. Examining Role Issues in Inclusive Classrooms through Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Wanda E.

    2012-01-01

    This participatory action research study engaged classroom teachers, special education teachers, teacher assistants, and a principal in examining and resolving role issues within inclusive classrooms. Analysis of data from multiple sources revealed three predominant findings: (a) when teachers were confronted with role problems, they identified an…

  7. Collaborative Language Learning in Co-Constructed Participatory Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This article expands upon themes addressed in the 2012 CALICO opening plenary that I delivered at the University of Notre Dame. This extended interpretation allows me the opportunity to further explore the nature of participatory human communication and collaboration and offer some clarification of the proposed instructional model for promoting…

  8. Participatory Culture Gets Schooled: Reflections on a Digital Literacies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, JuliAnna

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a course description of a Digital Literacies class offered to both undergraduate and graduate students at an American university. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the pedagogical bones of this course, drawing upon theories of learning in a participatory culture, including a discussion of how, and where, the course fell…

  9. Participatory ergonomics simulation of hospital work systems: The influence of simulation media on simulation outcome.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups' high fidelity of room layout and affordance of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models' high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity organization. Furthermore, the study addresses the form of the identified and evaluated conditions, being either identified challenges or tangible design criteria.

  10. Optimization of the production process using virtual model of a workspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monica, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of the production process is an element of the design cycle consisting of: problem definition, modelling, simulation, optimization and implementation. Without the use of simulation techniques, the only thing which could be achieved is larger or smaller improvement of the process, not the optimization (i.e., the best result it is possible to get for the conditions under which the process works). Optimization is generally management actions that are ultimately bring savings in time, resources, and raw materials and improve the performance of a specific process. It does not matter whether it is a service or manufacturing process. Optimizing the savings generated by improving and increasing the efficiency of the processes. Optimization consists primarily of organizational activities that require very little investment, or rely solely on the changing organization of work. Modern companies operating in a market economy shows a significant increase in interest in modern methods of production management and services. This trend is due to the high competitiveness among companies that want to achieve success are forced to continually modify the ways to manage and flexible response to changing demand. Modern methods of production management, not only imply a stable position of the company in the sector, but also influence the improvement of health and safety within the company and contribute to the implementation of more efficient rules for standardization work in the company. This is why in the paper is presented the application of such developed environment like Siemens NX to create the virtual model of a production system and to simulate as well as optimize its work. The analyzed system is the robotized workcell consisting of: machine tools, industrial robots, conveyors, auxiliary equipment and buffers. In the program could be defined the control program realizing the main task in the virtual workcell. It is possible, using this tool, to optimize both the

  11. Participating despite questions: toward a more confident participatory technology assessment : commentary on: "Questioning 'participation': a critical appraisal of its conceptualization in a Flemish participatory technology assessment".

    PubMed

    Guston, David H

    2011-12-01

    While the important challenges of public deliberations on emerging technologies are crucial to keep in mind, this paper argues that scholars and practitioners have reason to be more confident in their performance of participatory technology assessments (pTA). Drawing on evidence from the 2008 National Citizens' Technology Forum (NCTF) conducted by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society at Arizona State University, this paper describes how pTA offers a combination of intensive and extensive qualities that are unique among modes of engagement. In the NCTF, this combination led to significant learning and opinion changes, based on what can be characterized as a high-quality deliberation. The quality of the anticipatory knowledge required to address emerging technologies is always contested, but pTAs can be designed with outcomes in mind-especially when learning is understood as an outcome.

  12. Object oriented design provides flexible framework for electrophysiolgy software toolbox - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Charlotte M

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a software platform to support an expandible toolbox for electrophysiology data analysis. The current focus of the toolbox, known as NeuroMAX is spike-sorting and spike-time analysis tools. A key feature of the toolbox is the ability for a user to connect tools into a workspace toolchain in a flexible, intelligent feed-forward manner that allows a tool to use any previously computed data set as input. Tool parameters can be saved and applied to other data sets. Tools and workspaces can be accessed to process data either directly from the MATLAB command line or from the NeuroMAX GUI. This work discusses the object-oriented design of the toolbox, including the data classes, workspace classes, and tool classes created to achieve this functionality. PMID:20467111

  13. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  14. Designing Educational Software with Students through Collaborative Design Games: The We!Design&Play Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafyllakos, George; Palaigeorgiou, George; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for the development of collaborative design games that can be employed in participatory design sessions with students for the design of educational applications. The framework is inspired by idea generation theory and the design games literature, and guides the development of board games which, through the use…

  15. Applying a participatory approach to the promotion of a culture of respect during childbirth.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Sando, David; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana; McDonald, Kathleen P

    2016-01-01

    Disrespect and abuse (D&A) during facility-based childbirth is a topic of growing concern and attention globally. Several recent studies have sought to quantify the prevalence of D&A, however little evidence exists about effective interventions to mitigate disrespect and abuse, and promote respectful maternity care. In an accompanying article, we describe the process of selecting, implementing, and evaluating a package of interventions designed to prevent and reduce disrespect and abuse in a large urban hospital in Tanzania. Though that study was not powered to detect a definitive impact on reducing D&A, the results showed important changes in intermediate outcomes associated with this goal. In this commentary, we describe the factors that enabled this effect, especially the participatory approach we adopted to engage key stakeholders throughout the planning and implementation of the program. Based on our experience and findings, we conclude that a visible, sustained, and participatory intervention process; committed facility leadership; management support; and staff engagement throughout the project contributed to a marked change in the culture of the hospital to one that values and promotes respectful maternity care. For these changes to translate into dignified care during childbirth for all women in a sustainable fashion, institutional commitment to providing the necessary resources and staff will be needed. PMID:27424514

  16. A participatory modelling approach to developing a numerical sediment dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nicholas; McEwen, Lindsey; Parker, Chris; Staddon, Chad

    2016-04-01

    Fluvial geomorphology is recognised as an important consideration in policy and legislation in the management of river catchments. Despite this recognition, limited knowledge exchange occurs between scientific researchers and river management practitioners. An example of this can be found within the limited uptake of numerical models of sediment dynamics by river management practitioners in the United Kingdom. The uptake of these models amongst the applied community is important as they have the potential to articulate how, at the catchment-scale, the impacts of management strategies of land-use change affect sediment dynamics and resulting channel quality. This paper describes and evaluates a new approach which involves river management stakeholders in an iterative and reflexive participatory modelling process. The aim of this approach was to create an environment for knowledge exchange between the stakeholders and the research team in the process of co-constructing a model. This process adopted a multiple case study approach, involving four groups of river catchment stakeholders in the United Kingdom. These stakeholder groups were involved in several stages of the participatory modelling process including: requirements analysis, model design, model development, and model evaluation. Stakeholders have provided input into a number of aspects of the modelling process, such as: data requirements, user interface, modelled processes, model assumptions, model applications, and model outputs. This paper will reflect on this process, in particular: the innovative methods used, data generated, and lessons learnt.

  17. Design and Evaluation of the NFL PLAY 60 FITNESSGRAM® Partnership Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the conceptual design and evaluation strategies used in the NFL PLAY 60 FITNESSGRAM® Partnership Project, a large participatory research network focused on building effective school physical education programming. The article summarizes the unique participatory design, recruitment methods, programming strategies, and…

  18. Mapping and correction of the CMM workspace error with the use of an electronic gyroscope and neural networks--practical application.

    PubMed

    Swornowski, Pawel J

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the application of neural networks in determining and correction of the deformation of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) workspace. The information about the CMM errors is acquired using an ADXRS401 electronic gyroscope. A test device (PS-20 module) was built and integrated with a commercial measurement system based on the SP25M passive scanning probe and with a PH10M module (Renishaw). The proposed solution was tested on a Kemco 600 CMM and on a DEA Global Clima CMM. In the former case, correction of the CMM errors was performed using the source code of WinIOS software owned by The Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Cracow, Poland and in the latter on an external PC. Optimum parameters of full and simplified mapping of a given layer of the CMM workspace were determined for practical applications. The proposed method can be employed for the interim check (ISO 10360-2 procedure) or to detect local CMM deformations, occurring when the CMM works at high scanning speeds (>20 mm/s).

  19. Community-Based Participatory Evaluation: The Healthy Start Approach

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Ronald L.; McKenzie, Robetta D.; Pruitt, Vikki; Holden, Kisha B.; Aaron, Katrina; Hollimon, Chavone

    2013-01-01

    The use of community-based participatory research has gained momentum as a viable approach to academic and community engagement for research over the past 20 years. This article discusses an approach for extending the process with an emphasis on evaluation of a community partnership–driven initiative and thus advances the concept of conducting community-based participatory evaluation (CBPE) through a model used by the Healthy Start project of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., in Augusta, Georgia. Application of the CBPE approach advances the importance of bilateral engagements with consumers and academic evaluators. The CBPE model shows promise as a reliable and credible evaluation approach for community-level assessment of health promotion programs. PMID:22461687

  20. Doing participatory action research in a racist world.

    PubMed

    Varcoe, Colleen

    2006-08-01

    This exploration of the racial power dynamics in a participatory action research project with women who had experienced intimate partner violence discusses the challenges inherent in doing participatory action with antiracist intent and offers suggestions for overcoming these challenges. To engage in this type of research, explicit commitment to the goals of an antiracist intent needs to be shared as widely as possible. Fostering such shared commitment demands that the social locations of all involved be interrogated continuously. Such interrogation, however, needs to be prefaced with understanding that individuals are not representative of particular power positions or social identities or locations and with critical attention to how language and social structures shape racism and other forms of dominance. Being inclusive must be understood as complex and the influence of diverse agendas and perspectives acknowledged and taken into account. In the face of such complexity, "success" in research may need redefinition.

  1. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    PubMed

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

  2. Youth-Led Participatory Action Research: Developmental and Equity Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Youth-led participatory action research (YPAR) is an approach to scientific inquiry and social change grounded in principles of equity that engages young people in identifying problems relevant to their own lives, conducting research to understand the problems, and advocating for changes based on research evidence. This chapter provides an introduction to YPAR followed by consideration of the (a) developmental relevance of YPAR for marginalized youth, (b) implications of YPAR for developmental science research on inequities experienced by youth, and (c) potential opportunities and impact of YPAR for improving key developmental settings such as schools and youth-serving organizations. Resources for conducting YPAR projects are discussed, as well as the need for potential integration of YPAR and other participatory approaches to engaging youth and their expertise-at a significant enough scale to have a meaningful impact on policies and practices that affect youth development. PMID:26956074

  3. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    PubMed

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. PMID:25555777

  4. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  5. Predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine: back to the future

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The pioneering work of Jean Dausset on the HLA system established several principles that were later reflected in the Human Genome Project and contributed to the foundations of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine. To effectively develop systems medicine, we should take advantage of the lessons of the HLA saga, emphasizing the importance of exploring a fascinating but mysterious biology, now using systems principles, pioneering new technology developments and creating shared biological and information resources. PMID:20804580

  6. Evaluation in health: participatory methodology and involvement of municipal managers

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze scopes and limits of the use of participatory methodology of evaluation with municipal health managers and administrators. METHODS Qualitative research with health policymakers and managers of the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR – Regional Interagency Commission) of a health region of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Representatives from seven member cities participated in seven workshops facilitated by the researchers, with the aim of assessing a specific problem of the care line, which would be used as a tracer of the system integrality. The analysis of the collected empirical material was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic methodology and aimed at the evaluation of the applied participatory methodology, according to its capacity of promoting a process of assessment capable to be used as a support for municipal management. RESULTS With the participatory approach of evaluation, we were able to promote in-depth discussions with the group, especially related to the construction of integral care and to the inclusion of the user’s perspective in decision-making, linked to the search for solution to concrete problems of managers. By joint exploration, the possibility of using data from electronic information systems was opened, as well as information coming directly from the users of the services, to enhance discussions and negotiations between partners. The participants were disbelievers of the replication potential of this type of evaluation without the direct monitoring of the academy, given the difficulty of organizing the process in everyday life, already taken by emergency and political issues. CONCLUSIONS Evaluations of programs and services carried out within the Regional Interagency Commission, starting from the local interest and facilitating the involvement of its members by the use of participatory methodologies, can contribute to the construction of integral care. To the extent that the act of evaluating stay

  7. Architecture, Design, and Development of an HTML/JavaScript Web-Based Group Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Nicholas C., Jr.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.; Briggs, Robert O.; Vogel, Douglas R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the need for virtual workspaces and describes the architecture, design, and development of GroupSystems for the World Wide Web (GSWeb), an HTML/JavaScript Web-based Group Support System (GSS). GSWeb, an application interface similar to a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is currently used by teams around the world and relies on user…

  8. Lack of exposure to natural light in the workspace is associated with physiological, sleep and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Harb, Francine; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Martau, Betina

    2015-04-01

    The diurnal light cycle has a crucial influence on all life on earth. Unfortunately, modern society has modified this life-governing cycle by stressing maximum production and by giving insufficient attention to the ecological balance and homeostasis of the human metabolism. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of exposure or lack of exposure to natural light in a rest/activity rhythm on cortisol and melatonin levels, as well as on psychological variables in humans under natural conditions. This is a cross-sectional study. The subjects were allocated split into two groups according to their workspace (10 employees in the "with window" group and 10 in the "without window" group). All participants were women and wore anactigraph (Actiwatch 2, Philips Respironics), which measures activity and ambient light exposure, for seven days. Concentrations of melatonin and cortisol were measured from the saliva samples. Participants were instructed to collect saliva during the last day of use of the actigraph at 08:00 am, 4:00 pm and 10:00 pm. The subjects answered the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) to measure the presence of minor psychiatric disorders; the Montgomery-Asberg (MA) scale was used to measure depression symptoms, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI) was used to evaluate the quality of sleep. The Rayleigh analysis indicates that the two groups, "with window" an d "without window", exhibited similar activities and light acrophases. In relation to light exposure, the mesor was significantly higher (t = -2.651, p = 0.023) in t he "with window" group (191.04 ± 133.36) than in the "without window" group (73.8 ± 42.05). Additionally, the "with window" group presented the highest amplitude of light exposure (298.07 ± 222.97). Cortisol levels were significantly different between the groups at 10:00 pm (t = 3.009, p = 0.008; "without window" (4.01 ± 0.91) "with window" (3.10 ± 0.30)). In

  9. Participatory testing and reporting in an environmental-justice community of Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1) How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2) What do pilot tests reveal? 3) How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 μg/ft2), six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active participation of a few

  10. Development of a Program Logic Model and Evaluation Plan for a Participatory Ergonomics Intervention in Construction

    PubMed Central

    Jaegers, Lisa; Dale, Ann Marie; Weaver, Nancy; Buchholz, Bryan; Welch, Laura; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Background Intervention studies in participatory ergonomics (PE) are often difficult to interpret due to limited descriptions of program planning and evaluation. Methods In an ongoing PE program with floor layers, we developed a logic model to describe our program plan, and process and summative evaluations designed to describe the efficacy of the program. Results The logic model was a useful tool for describing the program elements and subsequent modifications. The process evaluation measured how well the program was delivered as intended, and revealed the need for program modifications. The summative evaluation provided early measures of the efficacy of the program as delivered. Conclusions Inadequate information on program delivery may lead to erroneous conclusions about intervention efficacy due to Type III error. A logic model guided the delivery and evaluation of our intervention and provides useful information to aid interpretation of results. PMID:24006097

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Toolkit to Assess Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha

    2012-01-01

    An earlier investigation by academic and community co-investigators led to the development of the Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Model, which defined major dimensions and key indicators of partnership readiness. As a next step in this process, we used qualitative methods, cognitive pretesting, and expert reviews to develop a working guide, or toolkit, based on the model for academic and community partners to assess and leverage their readiness for CBPR. The 75-page toolkit is designed as a qualitative assessment promoting equal voice and transparent, bi-directional discussions among all the partners. The toolkit is formatted to direct individual partner assessments, followed by team assessments, discussions, and action plans to optimize their goodness of fit, capacity, and operations to conduct CBPR. The toolkit has been piloted with two cohorts in the Medical University of South Carolina’s (MUSC) Community Engaged Scholars (CES) Program with promising results from process and outcome evaluation data. PMID:21623021

  12. Process evaluation and participatory methods in an obesity-prevention media campaign for Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Belinda M; Barroso, Cristina S; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Cantu, Ethel; Fernandez, Maria E; Gonzalez, Dora Alicia; Chavez, Marge; Freeberg, Diamantina; McAlister, Alfred

    2010-05-01

    To address obesity and related morbidities, community-based participatory research (CBPR) strategies were employed to design and evaluate a Spanish-language media campaign promoting physical activity and healthful food choices among Mexican Americans. Process evaluation including content analyses on types and focus of media messages was conducted. Focus groups assessed appeal and trustworthiness of messages. All media campaign products featured role models and experts. Campaign messages primarily (91%) appeared in TV morning show segments. Newsletters presented individual and family role model stories. A majority of newsletters (68%) were distributed through churches and "promotora" outreach efforts. CBPR lends itself to the selection and tailoring of evidence-based media campaigns. Moreover, CBPR guidance resulted in media messages that were credible and appealing to audience. Process evaluation strategies that gather information from the community provide solid evidence for how to modify the campaign to best meet audience expectations.

  13. Developing a Community-Based Participatory Research Model to Engage Transition Age Youth Using Mental Health Service in Research

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa K.; Borg, Ryan; Delman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the development and conduct of a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) project with transition age youth (TAY) mental health service users. CBPR frameworks can facilitate equitable partnerships and meaningful inclusion, but have not been fully drawn-upon in mental health research. The model included TAY as trained research associates involved in every aspect of the research process. We describe the development of the project, creation of the research team, training, the design and conduct of the study, and challenges faced. The methods developed successfully provided support for the meaningful participation of TAY in the project. PMID:25423247

  14. Feasibility of a Wiki as a Participatory Tool for Patients in Clinical Guideline Development

    PubMed Central

    den Breejen, Elvira ME; Knijnenburg, Jose M.L; Burgers, Jako S; Hermens, Rosella PMG; Kremer, Jan AM

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient participation is essential in developing high-quality guidelines but faces practical challenges. Evidence on timing, methods, evaluations, and outcomes of methodologies for patient participation in guideline development is lacking. Objective To assess the feasibility of a wiki as a participatory tool for patients in the development of a guideline on infertility determined by (1) use of the wiki (number of page views and visitors), (2) benefits of the wiki (ie, number, content, and eligibility of the recommendations to be integrated into the guideline), and (3) patients’ facilitators of and barriers to adoption, and the potential challenges to be overcome in improving this wiki. Methods To obtain initial content for the wiki, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 12) with infertile patients. Transcripts from the interviews were translated into 90 draft recommendations. These were presented on a wiki. Over 7 months, infertile patients were invited through advertisements or mailings to formulate new or modify existing recommendations. After modifying the recommendations, we asked patients to select their top 5 or top 3 recommendations for each of 5 sections on fertility care. Finally, the guideline development group assessed the eligibility of the final set of recommendations within the scope of the guideline. We used a multimethod evaluation strategy to assess the feasibility of the wiki as a participatory tool for patients in guideline development. Results The wiki attracted 298 unique visitors, yielding 289 recommendations. We assessed the 21 recommendations ranked as the top 5 or top 3 for their eligibility for being integrated into the clinical practice guideline. The evaluation identified some challenges needed to be met to improve the wiki tool, concerning its ease of use, website content and layout, and characteristics of the wiki tool. Conclusions The wiki is a promising and feasible participatory tool for patients in guideline

  15. Lessons Learned from Community-Led Recruitment of Immigrants and Refugee Participants for a Randomized, Community-Based Participatory Research Study.

    PubMed

    Hanza, Marcelo M; Goodson, Miriam; Osman, Ahmed; Porraz Capetillo, Maria D; Hared, Abdullah; Nigon, Julie A; Meiers, Sonja J; Weis, Jennifer A; Wieland, Mark L; Sia, Irene G

    2016-10-01

    Ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in clinical trials despite efforts to increase their enrollment. Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been effective for conducting research studies in minority and socially disadvantaged populations, protocols for CBPR recruitment design and implementation among immigrants and refugees have not been well described. We used a community-led and community-implemented CBPR strategy for recruiting 45 Hispanic, Somali, and Sudanese families (160 individuals) to participate in a large, randomized, community-based trial aimed at evaluating a physical activity and nutrition intervention. We achieved 97.7 % of our recruitment goal for families and 94.4 % for individuals. Use of a CBPR approach is an effective strategy for recruiting immigrant and refugee participants for clinical trials. We believe the lessons we learned during the process of participatory recruitment design and implementation will be helpful for others working with these populations. PMID:26984117

  16. Lessons Learned from Community-Led Recruitment of Immigrants and Refugee Participants for a Randomized, Community-Based Participatory Research Study.

    PubMed

    Hanza, Marcelo M; Goodson, Miriam; Osman, Ahmed; Porraz Capetillo, Maria D; Hared, Abdullah; Nigon, Julie A; Meiers, Sonja J; Weis, Jennifer A; Wieland, Mark L; Sia, Irene G

    2016-10-01

    Ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in clinical trials despite efforts to increase their enrollment. Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been effective for conducting research studies in minority and socially disadvantaged populations, protocols for CBPR recruitment design and implementation among immigrants and refugees have not been well described. We used a community-led and community-implemented CBPR strategy for recruiting 45 Hispanic, Somali, and Sudanese families (160 individuals) to participate in a large, randomized, community-based trial aimed at evaluating a physical activity and nutrition intervention. We achieved 97.7 % of our recruitment goal for families and 94.4 % for individuals. Use of a CBPR approach is an effective strategy for recruiting immigrant and refugee participants for clinical trials. We believe the lessons we learned during the process of participatory recruitment design and implementation will be helpful for others working with these populations.

  17. Participatory Workplace Wellness Programs: Reward, Penalty, and Regulatory Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Context In keeping with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Congress revised the law related to workplace wellness programs. In June 2013, the Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services passed the final regulations, updating their 2006 regulatory framework. Participatory programs that reward the completion of a health risk assessment are now the most common type of wellness program in the United States. However, legal and ethical concerns emerge when employers utilize incentives that raise questions about the voluntariness of such programs. At issue is that under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, employers cannot require health-related inquiries and exams. Methods To analyze the current interpretation of the ADA, I conducted research on both LexisNexis and federal agency websites. The resulting article evaluates the differences in the language of Congress's enabling legislation and the federal departments’ regulations and how they may conflict with the ADA. It also reviews the federal government's authority to address both the legal conflict and ethical concerns related to nonvoluntary participatory programs. Findings Employers’ practices and the federal departments’ regulations conflict with the current interpretation of the ADA by permitting employers to penalize employees who do not complete a health risk assessment. The departments’ regulations may be interpreted as conflicting with Congress's legislation, which mentions penalties only for health-contingent wellness programs. Furthermore, the regulatory protections for employees applicable to health-contingent wellness programs do not apply to participatory programs. Conclusions Either Congress or the federal agencies should address the conflict among employers’ practices, the wellness regulations, and the ADA and also consider additional protections for employees. Employers can avoid ethical and legal complications by offering voluntary programs with

  18. Design, Participation, and Social Change: What Design in Grassroots Spaces Can Teach Learning Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    While a science of design (and theory of learning) is certainly useful in design-based research, a participatory design research framework presents an opening for learning scientists to rethink design and learning as processes. Grounded in the autoethnographic investigation of a grassroots organization's design of a local campaign, the author…

  19. Participatory Governance in Secondary Schools: The Students' Viewpoint in Eastern Region of Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulwa, David M.; Kimosop, Maurice K.; Kasivu, Gedion M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the students' view on participatory school governance in secondary schools of the Eastern region, Kenya. Participatory school governance implies the involvement of stakeholders in the decision making process in schools. The objectives of the study were to identify the key decision makers in selected…

  20. Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing how students engage with music outside school music programs can help music educators and their programs evolve. This article offers a look at music teaching and learning in terms of how people are increasingly interacting with music in participatory ways that involve digital technologies and media. This participatory culture offers a…

  1. The Journey from Rhetoric to Reality: Participatory Evaluation in a Development Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Jill Anne; Cousins, J. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on participatory evaluation in the context of international development and specifically on the emerging empirical knowledge base. In a prior review and critique of research on participatory evaluation (Cousins and Chouinard 2012), we examined 121 studies, with only 21 (17%) situated in development contexts. However, the…

  2. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  3. Networked Participatory Scholarship: Emergent Techno-Cultural Pressures toward Open and Digital Scholarship in Online Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…

  4. Teaching and Learning: Highlighting the Parallels between Education and Participatory Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanden Berk, Eric J.; Cassata, Jennifer Coyne; Moye, Melinda J.; Yarbrough, Donald B.; Siddens, Stephanie K.

    As an evaluation team trained in educational psychology and committed to participatory evaluation and its evolution, the researchers have found the parallel between evaluator-stakeholder roles in the participatory evaluation process and educator-student roles in educational psychology theory to be important. One advantage then is that the theories…

  5. Paradox Lost and Paradox Regained: Comments on Chouinard's "The Case for Participatory Evaluation..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    2013-01-01

    Jill Chouinard, in her article "The Case for Participatory Evaluation in an Era of Accountability" (this issue, p. 237), may be re-iterating what has often been claimed and arguably is infused already in much of our theory and practice: the value of participatory approaches in some, perhaps many situations. She summarizes these claims eloquently…

  6. Digital Participatory Pedagogy: Digital Participation as a Method for Technology Integration in Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Lewis Ellison, Tisha; Welch, Meghan M.; Allen, Mindy; Bauer, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative participatory action research study provides two case studies to demonstrate how teachers in Grades 4 and 6 integrated digital tools into everyday, content-focused classroom instruction. The study demonstrates how teachers' technological pedagogical knowledge might combine with a participatory stance to encourage students to…

  7. Moving beyond Utilitarian Perspectives of Infant Participation in Participatory Research: Film-Mediated Research Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwick, Sheena; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Thomas, Whybrow and Scharber's four participatory perspectives, this paper describes and complicates endeavours to move beyond utilitarian perspectives of infant participation in participatory research. It proposes that film-mediated encounters between researchers and infants have the potential to be more than sites that privilege…

  8. Influences on Teachers' Use of Participatory Learning Strategies in Health Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia; Lester, Leanne; Midford, Richard; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Participatory learning strategies are integral to the effectiveness of school-based health education programmes; however, use of such methods is not the norm in teaching. The omission of participatory learning strategies is a common form of programme breakdown leading to erosion of positive learning and behavioural outcomes. Based on a…

  9. Training the Peer Facilitator: Using Participatory Theatre to Promote Engagement in Peer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Sarah Hunter

    2015-01-01

    "Training the peer facilitator: using participatory theatre to promote engagement in peer education" examines the role of participatory theatre in a peer education setting in relation to the goal of young people engaging and empowering their peers to create new knowledge together. Extending research about the use of applied theatre…

  10. Participatory Reality Constitution: A Phenomenological Study of Generative Experiences in Higher Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiter, Sean M. Avila

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological inquiry into the felt experience of participatory sense-making and collaborative presence in small groups explores where and when a common field of resonance is generated among individuals. The experience is named "participatory reality constitution" (PRC). Nine co-participants who met criteria of having experienced…

  11. Participatory Action Research and Critical Race Theory: Fueling Spaces for "Nos-Otras" to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Maria Elena

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the intersections of a justice oriented participatory action research and critical race theory, this essay explores the possibilities for research embedded in the theoretical, ethical and methodological overlaps between the two. Using the Echoes project as a case study, a participatory collective of intentionally diverse youth from New…

  12. Unraveling Ethics: Reflections from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…

  13. Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Manson, Spero M.

    2011-01-01

    Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian…

  14. Dirty Truth: Personal Narrative, Victimhood and Participatory Theatre Work with People Seeking Asylum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Alison

    2008-01-01

    An emphasis on personal narratives characterises a great deal of participatory theatre practice with refugee groups. It is important to understand how these narratives are conditioned by bureaucratic performance if practitioners are to avoid re-enactments of victimhood in participatory projects. Bureaucratic performance concerns the legal and…

  15. Research "with" Children: Three Challenges for Participatory Research in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Tim; Bitou, Angeliki

    2011-01-01

    This paper adopts a sociocultural perspective to provide a critical consideration of participatory approaches to research with young children. The particular focus is on the use of pedagogical documentation and learning stories as "participatory" tools to elicit children's perspectives for research. The paper will argue that, despite the recent…

  16. BeeSim: Leveraging Wearable Computers in Participatory Simulations with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie; Danish, Joshua; Zaitlen, Benjamin; Glosson, Diane; Jacobs, Alexander; Phelps, David

    2010-01-01

    New technologies have enabled students to become active participants in computational simulations of dynamic and complex systems (called Participatory Simulations), providing a "first-person"perspective on complex systems. However, most existing Participatory Simulations have targeted older children, teens, and adults assuming that such concepts…

  17. Redesigning Civic Education for the Digital Age: Participatory Politics and the Pursuit of Democratic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahne, Joseph; Hodgin, Erica; Eidman-Aadahl, Elyse

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution has enabled important changes in political life. Opportunities to engage in "participatory politics" have expanded significantly. Participatory politics differ from institutional politics in that they are peer-based, interactive, and not guided by deference to traditional elites and institutions. These changes…

  18. Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

  19. "Who Did What?": A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…

  20. Applications of Participatory Action Research with Students Who Have Disabilities. ERIC/OSEP Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warger, Cynthia; Burnette, Jane

    This brief paper defines participatory action research, reviews the literature on its use, and offers examples of how researchers and practitioners are applying principles of participatory action research data to select effective practices and support change and innovation in schools. Generation of data-based strategies in natural environments is…

  1. Applying the Participatory Action Research Model to the Study of Social Inclusion at Worksites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Sook; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Hoffman, Stacey; Whaley, Susan; Yount, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A study used participatory action research (PAR) to explore social inclusion/relationships at worksites of 10 students (ages 17-21). The participatory intervention process assisted teachers and job coaches in making constructive changes in transition work experience programs to provide social opportunities for students and help them become part of…

  2. Literate Bodies: Multigenerational Participatory Action Research and Embodied Methodologies as Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The recent study Polling for Justice (PFJ) used a multigenerational participatory action research approach with embodied methodologies to document youth experiences of education, criminal justice, and public health in New York City. Through an exploration of the PFJ project, this column demonstrates how participatory action research and embodied…

  3. Participatory Action Research (PAR) cum Action Research (AR) in Teacher Professional Development: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…

  4. Connection and Commitment: Exploring the Generation and Experience of Emotion in a Participatory Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Julie; Bundy, Penny; Stinson, Madonna

    2015-01-01

    Emotion is a complex and important aspect of participatory drama experience. This is because drama work of this kind provokes emotional responses to both actual and dramatic worlds. This paper identifies two key features of participatory drama that influence the generation and experience of emotion: commitment and connection. These features are…

  5. Baseline Evaluation of a Participatory Mobile Health Intervention for Dengue Prevention in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lim, Gentatsu; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Foo, Schubert

    2016-01-01

    Challenges posed by infectious disease outbreaks have led to a range of participatory mobile phone-based innovations that use the power of crowdsourcing for disease surveillance. However, the dynamics of participatory behavior by crowds in such interventions have yet to be examined. This article reports results from a baseline evaluation of one…

  6. Picture this!: using participatory photo mapping with Hispanic girls.

    PubMed

    Morales-Campos, Daisy Y; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve physical activity behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of physical activity. The purpose of this article was to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving. PMID:25423243

  7. Picture this!: using participatory photo mapping with Hispanic girls.

    PubMed

    Morales-Campos, Daisy Y; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve physical activity behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of physical activity. The purpose of this article was to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving.

  8. Empowering women: participatory approaches in women's health and development projects.

    PubMed

    Manderson, L; Mark, T

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the experience of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and community-based organizations in implementing projects aimed at improving women's health. The study included 16 projects, reflecting Australian NGO experiences in Africa, China, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and South America. They illustrate the value of participatory approaches in determining needs and priorities, and the value of the continued involvement of women in implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Approaches that succeeded in increasing women's access to and use of health services addressed gender issues, set realistic and achievable objectives, and recognized and enhanced the roles and status of women.

  9. With or without a Script? Comparing Two Styles of Participatory Video on Enhancing Local Seed Innovation System in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Ataharul Huq; Odame, Helen Hambly; Hauser, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiences in participatory video-making raise the question of how best to use this medium for enhancing local seed innovation systems. Embedded in a mini-process of participatory action research, two styles of participatory video--scripted and scriptless--were tested and assessed together with farmers and facilitators in Bogra District,…

  10. Children as Designers of Web Portals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Andrew; Beheshti, Jamshid; Nesset, Valerie; Bowler, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the process undertaken by a design team comprising both elementary school students and researchers to design a Web portal intended for use by children. The approach adopted by the team was based upon several design theories related to usability studies: contextual inquiry, participatory design, and cooperative inquiry. Presents…

  11. A participatory concept of development and communication.

    PubMed

    Aubel, J

    1992-01-01

    The predominant position concerning health communication is that it basically consists of spreading carefully designed messages to certain groups to generate individual behavior change. This information transfer involves a 1-way direction and top down strategy. Even though these approaches may change individual knowledge and attitudes, changes in behavior do not always result. Indeed cultural or economic factors often prevent individuals from changing their behavior. Another belief is that health communication strategies should motivate community members and health workers to take part in dialogue and analysis of health problems. Feedback is thus instantaneous. This convergence model incorporates both community members and health workers and encourages them to draw from their own experiences and priorities to delineate strategies at the community and institutional levels. The advantages of the convergence model include: it aims to change community norms rather than individual behavior and to develop mutually acceptable health practices, it improves skills in 2-way communication, and it uses local communicators. This last advantage results in strengthened ability of these communicators to analyze problems and to encourage others among their social networks to participate in problem solving. Thus their participation fosters sustainable changes in health strategies. Several examples of local communicators generating changes in group norms in developing countries exist. Muslim leaders in the Gambia advance child health and family planning. In India and Bangladesh, respected women inform other women about appropriate child nutrition practices. In Malawi, women's groups wrote nutrition songs and choreographed dances to accompany the songs. If people perceive that educational content relates to their personal beliefs and experience, they become motivated. Facilitated structured learning activities such as open-ended stories are the most successful. Health workers should

  12. Paniya Voices: A Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment among a marginalized South Indian tribal population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs), are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation. Methods/design We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA). We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender) using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area) in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit) to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums. Preliminary findings Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free. Conclusion The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner. PMID:20307290

  13. Gender, sexuality and the participatory dimensions of a comparative life history policy study.

    PubMed

    Macdonnell, Judith A

    2011-12-01

    Gender, sexuality and the participatory dimensions of a comparative life history policy study In this paper, I explore how a critical feminist lens was a crucial element in creating a participatory policy study which used a qualitative design and comparative life history methodology. This study focused on Canadian nurses' political practice related to advocacy for lesbian health. Findings show that the combination of the gender lens and life history approach offers potential to create knowledge in ways aligned with health-promoting and emancipatory outcomes. However, the nature of participation and interaction by researcher and participants is contexualized and contested given complex dynamics of power that shape all aspects of this doctoral study process. The critical feminist lens with its focus on reflexivity informed the content and process of knowledge production in this study and shaped key turning points: the ways in which this policy study was conceptualized, the choice of comparative life history methodology, ethical considerations, data collection and analysis and representation of findings. Life history is unlikely to be the methodology that first comes to mind when undertaking a policy study. Its historical roots are associated with biographical, oral history and narrative approaches, which typically aim to elicit understanding of lived experience. Yet, it was this very aspect, this focus on lived experience, which rendered life history methodology fitting as I contemplated how to examine the relationship between nurses and policy. I was interested in understanding nurses' political practice, how policy influenced nurses' capacity to advocate in their everyday lives, as well as nurses' impacts on policy processes and their larger social worlds. PMID:22050617

  14. Towards a global participatory platform. Democratising open data, complexity science and collective intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham Shum, S.; Aberer, K.; Schmidt, A.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.; Anderson, S.; Charalabidis, Y.; Domingue, J.; de Freitas, S.; Dunwell, I.; Edmonds, B.; Grey, F.; Haklay, M.; Jelasity, M.; Karpištšenko, A.; Kohlhammer, J.; Lewis, J.; Pitt, J.; Sumner, R.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The FuturICT project seeks to use the power of big data, analytic models grounded in complexity science, and the collective intelligence they yield for societal benefit. Accordingly, this paper argues that these new tools should not remain the preserve of restricted government, scientific or corporate élites, but be opened up for societal engagement and critique. To democratise such assets as a public good, requires a sustainable ecosystem enabling different kinds of stakeholder in society, including but not limited to, citizens and advocacy groups, school and university students, policy analysts, scientists, software developers, journalists and politicians. Our working name for envisioning a sociotechnical infrastructure capable of engaging such a wide constituency is the Global Participatory Platform (GPP). We consider what it means to develop a GPP at the different levels of data, models and deliberation, motivating a framework for different stakeholders to find their ecological niches at different levels within the system, serving the functions of (i) sensing the environment in order to pool data, (ii) mining the resulting data for patterns in order to model the past/present/future, and (iii) sharing and contesting possible interpretations of what those models might mean, and in a policy context, possible decisions. A research objective is also to apply the concepts and tools of complexity science and social science to the project's own work. We therefore conceive the global participatory platform as a resilient, epistemic ecosystem, whose design will make it capable of self-organization and adaptation to a dynamic environment, and whose structure and contributions are themselves networks of stakeholders, challenges, issues, ideas and arguments whose structure and dynamics can be modelled and analysed.

  15. [Functions of participatory ergonomics programs in reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    PubMed

    Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y

    2016-08-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers. PMID:27539352

  16. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  17. Picture This!: Using Participatory Photo Mapping with Hispanic Girls in a Community-based Participatory Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve PA behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of PA. The purpose of this article is to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping (PPM) to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving. PMID:25423243

  18. A review of community-based participatory research studies to promote physical activity among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Smith, Selina A.

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of the planning process for new research, the literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches for promoting physical activity in African American communities was systematically reviewed. Methods Studies published through October 31, 2015 that employed CBPR methods were identified using PubMed and CINAHL databases and MeSH terms and keyword searches. Results A total of 15 studies met the search criteria. One focused on CBPR and physical activity among African American school children and adolescents, 13 on adults, and one on both children and adults. Seven studies employed CBPR methods to promote physical activity in church settings. Eight of the studies had a pre-/post-test design, three had a quasi-experimental design, three had a randomized controlled design, and one was a case study. Conclusions Additional CBPR studies and faith-based interventions are needed to identify effective ways to promote physical activity in African American communities to address health disparities. Of particular interest are those that have an adequate sample size and a rigorous design, to overcome limitations of previous studies. PMID:27034993

  19. The value and limitations of Participatory Action Research methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, John; Tan, Poh-Ling; Hoverman, Suzanne; Baldwin, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThis article describes the Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology used to trial and evaluate a suite of planning tools to improve the engagement process for statutory water planning in Australia, and assesses its value and limitations in the Australian context. We argue that the strength of this method is its consistency with a social learning and adaptive management approach. We owe the success of this research approach to five key factors: a high degree of access to the project setting; clear demarcation of roles and responsibilities between researchers and participants; considerable effort spent building and maintaining informal networks and relationships; sensitivity to the relationship between 'insiders' (the participants or owners of the issue i.e. government and community) and 'outsiders' (the research project team); and continual review of project planning and willingness to adapt timeframes and processes to suit the situation. The value and challenges of Participatory Action Research are discussed with key lessons emerging for improving its practice, as well as the transferability of this knowledge to engagement practice for water planning.

  20. Facilities as teaching tools: A transformative participatory professional development experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eric A.

    Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become "sustainability natives." Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability-literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenological perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year long professional development experience - commencing with an intense, participatory two-day workshop -the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability. Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top-down and bottom-up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy-in, and excitement vis-a-vis sustainability. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K-12 sustainability coordinators ideally need administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor, or through work with student groups and projects.

  1. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  2. Dissemination and use of a participatory ergonomics guide for workplaces.

    PubMed

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; King, Trevor; Keown, Kiera; Slack, Tesha; Cole, Donald C; Irvin, Emma; Amick, Benjamin C; Bigelow, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) result in lost-time injury claims and lost productivity worldwide, placing a substantial burden on workers and workplaces. Participatory ergonomics (PE) is a popular approach to reducing MSDs; however, there are challenges to implementing PE programmes. Using evidence to overcome challenges may be helpful but the impacts of doing so are unknown. We sought to disseminate an evidence-based PE tool and to describe its use. An easy-to-use, evidence-based PE Guide was disseminated to workplace parties, who were surveyed about using the tool. The greatest barrier to using the tool was a lack of time. Reported tool use included for training purposes, sharing and integrating the tool into existing programmes. New actions related to tool use included training, defining team responsibilities and suggesting programme implementation steps. Evidence-based tools could help ergonomists overcome some challenges involved in implementing injury reduction programmes such as PE. Practitioner Summary Practitioners experience challenges implementing programmes to reduce the burden of MSDs in workplaces. Implementing participatory interventions requires multiple workplace parties to be 'on-board'. Disseminating and using evidence-based guides may help to overcome these challenges. Using evidence-based tools may help ergonomics practitioners implement PE programmes. PMID:26328617

  3. Empirical study on voting power in participatory forest planning.

    PubMed

    Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J

    2008-07-01

    Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential.

  4. Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

  5. Community Priority Index: Utility, Applicability and Validation for Priority Setting in Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A.; Wang, Wei; Turner, DeAnne; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Zoorob, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR), the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI) that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00), lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00), and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00). For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00), low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00), and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00). For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00), low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94), and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94). Conclusions This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR. Significance for public health Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been credited to be a promising approach for the reduction of health disparities and as an effective way to create sustainable community outcomes. Priority

  6. Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services.

    PubMed

    Yonas, Michael A; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

    2013-10-01

    Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and

  7. Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    Yonas, Michael A.; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and

  8. Community-based participatory research to prevent substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marianne T; Walker, Thomas; Swint, J Michael; Smith, Brenda Page; Brown, Cleon; Busen, Nancy; Edwards, Thelissa; Liehr, Patricia; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Darryal; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2004-11-01

    Adolescence is a time for exploration and risk-taking; in today's urban environment, with the twin threats of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, the stakes are particularly high. This paper describes a community-based participatory research project to design, implement, and evaluate a faith-based substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program for African-American adolescents. A coalition of university-based investigators and African-American church member stakeholders collaborated on all aspects of Project BRIDGE, the 3-year intervention to reduce substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents. Our results support the use of community-based participatory research to create desirable change in this setting. Adolescents who participated in Project BRIDGE reported significantly less marijuana and other drug use and more fear of AIDS than a comparison group. Project BRIDGE has been designated an official ministry of the church and the program has been extended to others in the larger metropolitan community. The church now has a well-trained volunteer staff University faculty developed skills in negotiating with community-based settings. The coalition remains strong with plans for continued collaborative activities.

  9. How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

  10. Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS): Subsystem design report - Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.A.

    1994-04-22

    This ICERVS Phase II Subsystem Design Report describes the detailed software design of the Phase II Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS). ICERVS is a computer-based system that provides data acquisition, data visualization, data analysis, and model synthesis to support robotic remediation of hazardous environments. Due to the risks associated with hazardous environments, remediation must be conducted remotely using robotic systems, which, in turn, must rely on 3D models of their workspace to support both task and path planning with collision avoidance. Tools such as ICERVS are vital to accomplish remediation tasks in a safe, efficient manner. The 3D models used by robotic systems are based on solid modeling methods, in which objects are represented by enclosing surfaces (polygons, quadric surfaces, patches, etc.) or collections of primitive solids (cubes, cylinders, etc.). In general, these 3D models must be created and/or verified by actual measurements made in the robotics workspace. However, measurement data is empirical in nature, with typical output being a collection of xyz triplets that represent sample points on some surface(s) in the workspace. As such, empirical data cannot be readily analyzed in terms of geometric representations used in robotic workspace models. The primary objective of ICERVS is to provide a reliable description of a workspace based on dimensional measurement data and to convert that description into 3D models that can be used by robotic systems. ICERVS will thus serve as a critical factor to allow robotic remediation tasks to be performed more effectively (faster, safer) and economically than with present systems.

  11. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.

  12. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.

  13. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed. PMID:26294097

  14. Telep@b Project: Towards a Model for eParticipation and a Case Study in Participatory Budgeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, Federica; Giuli, Dino

    eParticipation concerns the use of ICT tools for facilitating the two-way communication between governments and citizens. Designing eParticipation activities is a complex task. Challenges include the need of interdisciplinary expertise and knowledge (for example, political, sociology, usability and technology domains) and the lack of widely accepted models and standards. This paper attempts to provide a model for eParticipation, aiming at providing guidelines for the design, implementation and management of eParticipation applications. This model has been put into practice for the design of an eParticipation portal in the framework of the Telep@b project. We also report on the experimental use of the portal services in a group of Tuscany municipalities for supporting participatory budget activities and future activities in a follow-on project (PAAS_Telep@b project).

  15. Students as Designers of Semantic Web Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Fran; Jordan, Katy

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws upon the experience of an interdisciplinary research group in engaging undergraduate university students in the design and development of semantic web technologies. A flexible approach to participatory design challenged conventional distinctions between "designer" and "user" and allowed students to play a role in developing…

  16. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-08-24

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services.

  17. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911

  18. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jesús M.; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á.; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911

  19. Integrating Systems Science and Community-Based Participatory Research to Achieve Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-02-01

    Unanswered questions about racial and socioeconomic health disparities may be addressed using community-based participatory research and systems science. Community-based participatory research is an orientation to research that prioritizes developing capacity, improving trust, and translating knowledge to action. Systems science provides research methods to study dynamic and interrelated forces that shape health disparities. Community-based participatory research and systems science are complementary, but their integration requires more research. We discuss paradigmatic, socioecological, capacity-building, colearning, and translational synergies that help advance progress toward health equity.

  20. Participatory dreaming: a conceptual exploration from a unitary appreciative inquiry perspective.

    PubMed

    Repede, Elizabeth J

    2009-10-01

    Dreaming is a universal phenomenon in human experience and one that carries multiple meanings in the narrative discourse across disciplines. Dreams can be collective, communal, and emancipatory, as well as individual. While individual dreaming has been extensively studied in the literature, the participatory nature of dreaming as a unitary phenomenon is limited. The concept of participatory dreaming within a unitary appreciative framework for healing is explored from perspectives in anthropology, psychology, and nursing. A participatory model of dreaming is proposed from a synthesis of the literature for use in future research using unitary appreciative inquiry.

  1. [Participatory planning in health organizations: the case of the Bonsucesso General Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Juliano de Carvalho; Faveret, Ana Cecília; Grabois, Victor

    2006-03-01

    This article presents the experience with participatory planning in the Bonsucesso General Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2003 to 2004. The participatory and communicative characteristics and the resulting institutional format are identified for guaranteeing the implementation of collective decisions from the planning workshops. The limits of implementation in participatory planning and management proposals are argued from the perspective of change and power relations in these institutions. The results support the notion that projects involving changes in hospitals and failing to take into account the different internal rationalities and power relations end up having reduced potential for implementation.

  2. Participatory research in systems of care for children's mental health.

    PubMed

    Pullmann, Michael D

    2009-09-01

    The children's system of care initiative in the United States requires the participation of caregivers of children with emotional or behavioral problems in conducting research and evaluation. This entails a restructuring of traditional power dynamics among families served by the community mental health system and other system stakeholders, including researchers. However, evidence indicates that system of care research may not currently embrace the different types of knowledge possessed by caregivers and may be frustrated by traditional power hierarchies, resulting in research findings that are not useful for the community. In this paper I examine a framework for power and knowledge and examine how, when viewed through this framework, participatory research in the system of care initiative thus far may be less than authentic. I conclude with improvements suggested by the framework that are expected to shift power to caregivers and result in more useful, actionable research findings for the community. PMID:19533331

  3. Comprehensive Case Analysis on Participatory Approaches, from Nexus Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine

  4. Transforming a conservative clinical setting: ICU nurses' strategies to improve care for patients' relatives through a participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Zaforteza, Concha; Gastaldo, Denise; Moreno, Cristina; Bover, Andreu; Miró, Rosa; Miró, Margalida

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on change strategies generated through a dialogical-reflexive-participatory process designed to improve the care of families of critically ill patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) using a participatory action research in a tertiary hospital in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Eleven professionals (representatives) participated in 11 discussion groups and five in-depth interviews. They represented the opinions of 49 colleagues (participants). Four main change strategies were created: (i) Institutionally supported practices were confronted to make a shift from professional-centered work to a more inclusive, patient-centered approach; (ii) traditional power relations were challenged to decrease the hierarchical power differences between physicians and nurses; (iii) consensus was built about the need to move from an individual to a collective position in relation to change; and (iv) consensus was built about the need to develop a critical attitude toward the conservative nature of the unit. The strategies proposed were both transgressive and conservative; however, when compared with the initial situation, they enhanced the care offered to patients' relatives and patient safety. Transforming conservative settings requires capacity to negotiate positions and potential outcomes. However, when individual critical capacities are articulated with a new approach to micropolitics, transformative proposals can be implemented and sustained.

  5. Establishing the infrastructure to conduct comparative effectiveness research toward the elimination of disparities: a community-based participatory research framework.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Danyell S; Dapic, Virna; Sultan, Dawood H; August, Euna M; Green, B Lee; Roetzheim, Richard; Rivers, Brian

    2013-11-01

    In Tampa, Florida, researchers have partnered with community- and faith-based organizations to create the Comparative Effectiveness Research for Eliminating Disparities (CERED) infrastructure. Grounded in community-based participatory research, CERED acts on multiple levels of society to enhance informed decision making (IDM) of prostate cancer screening among Black men. CERED investigators combined both comparative effectiveness research and community-based participatory research to design a trial examining the effectiveness of community health workers and a digitally enhanced patient decision aid to support IDM in community settings as compared with "usual care" for prostate cancer screening. In addition, CERED researchers synthesized evidence through the development of systematic literature reviews analyzing the effectiveness of community health workers in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of African American adults toward cancer prevention and education. An additional systematic review analyzed chemoprevention agents for prostate cancer as an emerging technique. Both of these reviews, and the comparative effectiveness trial supporting the IDM process, add to CERED's goal of providing evidence to eliminate cancer health disparities.

  6. Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, M.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

  7. Through Their Eyes: Lessons Learned Using Participatory Methods in Health Care Quality Improvement Projects

    PubMed Central

    Balbale, Salva N.; Locatelli, Sara M.; LaVela, Sherri L.

    2016-01-01

    In this methodological article, we examine participatory methods in-depth to demonstrate how these methods can be adopted for quality improvement (QI) projects in health care. We draw on existing literature and our QI initiatives in the Department of Veterans Affairs to discuss the application of photovoice and guided tours in QI efforts. We highlight lessons learned and several benefits of using participatory methods in this area. Using participatory methods, evaluators can engage patients, providers and other stakeholders as partners to enhance care. Participant involvement helps yield actionable data that can be translated into improved care practices. Use of these methods also helps generate key insights to inform improvements that truly resonate with stakeholders. Using participatory methods is a valuable strategy to harness participant engagement and drive improvements that address individual needs. In applying these innovative methodologies, evaluators can transcend traditional approaches to uniquely support evaluations and improvements in health care. PMID:26667882

  8. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  9. Are social workers required to engage in participatory practices? An analysis of job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lia; Weiss-Gal, Idit

    2009-03-01

    The participatory approach is depicted as inherent to the social work profession in social workers' theoretical literature, codes of ethics and practical discourse. The current study examined whether, and to what degree, social workers in Israel are indeed formally required to engage in participatory practices in the job descriptions of diverse social care services. A quantitative content analysis of 78 formal social workers' job descriptions revealed this requirement to be very limited. Most participatory actions required of social workers represented low-level service-user participation, pertained only to the initial and concluding stages of intervention, and referred to professional domains in which service-user participation is already required by law. A greater emphasis on participatory practice was found in job descriptions in the health field and those relating to community social workers. Various interpretations and implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Participatory Development Principles and Practice: Reflections of a Western Development Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Noel

    1998-01-01

    Principles for participatory community development are as follows: humility and respect; power of local knowledge; democratic practice; diverse ways of knowing; sustainability; reality before theory; uncertainty; relativity of time and efficiency; holistic approach; and decisions rooted in the community. (SK)

  11. 'Now we call it research': participatory health research involving marginalized women who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Amy; Browne, Annette J; Pederson, Ann

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces. PMID:21059151

  12. 'Now we call it research': participatory health research involving marginalized women who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Amy; Browne, Annette J; Pederson, Ann

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces.

  13. Practical strategies for promoting full inclusion of individuals with disabilities in community-based participatory intervention research.

    PubMed

    Hassouneh, Dena; Alcala-Moss, Amana; McNeff, E

    2011-06-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with disability communities is directed toward facilitating full inclusion of individuals with disabilities and disability community organizations in all aspects of the research process. Within the CBPR framework, academic-disability community partners may value and wish to use experimental designs to test interventions. Being aware of and proactively addressing barriers and challenges to inclusion in the areas of human resources, training, productivity, accommodation, and inadequate funding for disability community organizations are critical for success. Some of the strategies discussed in this article for addressing these challenges include creating redundant systems, providing benefits counseling and individualized payment options for employment, designing trainings to be disability friendly, and carefully considering selection of partners in light of available community resources.

  14. Involving Older Adults in the Technology Design Process: A Case Study on Mobility and Wellbeing in the Built Environment.

    PubMed

    Swallow, David; Petrie, Helen; Power, Christopher; Lewis, Andrew; Edwards, Alistair D N

    2016-01-01

    Older adults benefit from unstructured, lifestyle-based activity that can be carried out in people's houses, neighbourhoods, and the built environment. Technological solutions may support physical activity and encourage wellbeing. To ensure such technology is suitable for, and usable by, older adults, it is crucial they are involved in all stages of design. Participatory design methodologies facilitate collaboration and engagement with potential users. We examine the suitability of participatory design for collaborating and engaging with older adults. Participatory design workshops were conducted with 33 older adults in the UK with the aim of designing mobile applications to support and promote physical activity and wellbeing in the built environment. As well as summarising the outcome of these workshops, the paper outlines several methodological issues relating to the suitability of participatory design for involving older adults in the technology design process. PMID:27534357

  15. Mapping the spatial dimensions of participatory practice: A discussion of context in evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Jill Anne; Milley, Peter

    2016-02-01

    In participatory or collaborative evaluation practice, context is considered a complex, relational and social phenomenon that frames the parameters of the inquiry process in profound ways. To help us expand upon our understanding of context, we borrow the concept of "space" from the critical geographers, as it provides a bridge between the social and geographic complexities of context, enabling us to more fully capture the social and relational dynamic that fundamentally defines participatory evaluation. Our focus is on understanding context and relationships as two interconnected, dynamic and constituent parts of evaluation practices that feature participatory spaces. We then turn to a comparative analysis of participatory practice across two published reviews of distinct sets of empirical studies as a way to extend our understanding of participatory evaluation in relation to its practical, and frequently complex, contextual expressions in the field. This comparative analysis enables us to develop a set of five dimensions (epistemic, temporal/historical, cultural, economic/organizational, political) that we believe captures the spatial and contextual characteristics and contours of participatory practice.

  16. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.

    PubMed

    LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners.

  17. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Tonia; Birrell, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers. PMID:25431874

  18. Are biophilic-designed site office buildings linked to health benefits and high performing occupants?

    PubMed

    Gray, Tonia; Birrell, Carol

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  19. Prospective of groundwater overexploitation through participatory approaches: Saiss Plain in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameur, Fatah; Lejars, Caroline; Dionnet, Mathieu; Quarouch, Hassan; Kuper, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    In the Saiss plain, groundwater overexploitation is often explained by two phenomena. The first one is a natural phenomenon (droughts), which seems therefore uncontrollable; the other one is human as groundwater is largely used by the agricultural sector. The main issue of groundwater governance is to find an acceptable balance in the use of the water resource without compromising the socio-economic development generated by this resource. Our study aims to contribute to understanding the differential contribution of different categories of groundwater users and the socio-economic and agrarian dynamics impacted by the overuse of groundwater. We adopted a participatory approach to explore with the different actors involved in the management and use of groundwater to identify the different viewpoints on the issue of overexploitation and to engage prospective and collective thinking of present situation of groundwater overexploitation. We organized multi-stakeholder workshops and designed a role-playing game to identify and qualify the existing links between the water resource, and the economic and social dynamics in order to better understand the human behavior to economic and environmental crises and the adaptive strategies of farmers confronted with an increasingly scarce groundwater resource. Our results showed considerable differences in the viewpoints of different categories of farmers regarding overexploitation. Agricultural investors who arrived over the past 5 years in the area practicing arboriculture consider themselves modern farmers using precise and water-saving irrigation technologies (drip irrigation, especially) who cannot be blamed for overexploitation of groundwater resources. Lessees practicing horticulture put considerable pressure on water resources, but were not interested in debates on overexploitation and the sustainability of groundwater resources. In fact, they did not turn up for the workshops. Finally, the local small-scale farmers who have

  20. A Participatory Model of the Paradox of Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Homa, Laura; Rose, Johnie; Hovmand, Peter S.; Cherng, Sarah T.; Riolo, Rick L.; Kraus, Alison; Biswas, Anindita; Burgess, Kelly; Aungst, Heide; Stange, Kurt C.; Brown, Kalanthe; Brooks-Terry, Margaret; Dec, Ellen; Jackson, Brigid; Gilliam, Jules; Kikano, George E.; Reichsman, Ann; Schaadt, Debbie; Hilfer, Jamie; Ticknor, Christine; Tyler, Carl V.; Van der Meulen, Anna; Ways, Heather; Weinberger, Richard F.; Williams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The paradox of primary care is the observation that primary care is associated with apparently low levels of evidence-based care for individual diseases, but systems based on primary care have healthier populations, use fewer resources, and have less health inequality. The purpose of this article is to explore, from a complex systems perspective, mechanisms that might account for the effects of primary care beyond disease-specific care. METHODS In an 8-session, participatory group model-building process, patient, caregiver, and primary care clinician community stakeholders worked with academic investigators to develop and refine an agent-based computer simulation model to test hypotheses about mechanisms by which features of primary care could affect health and health equity. RESULTS In the resulting model, patients are at risk for acute illness, acute life-changing illness, chronic illness, and mental illness. Patients have changeable health behaviors and care-seeking tendencies that relate to their living in advantaged or disadvantaged neighborhoods. There are 2 types of care available to patients: primary and specialty. Primary care in the model is less effective than specialty care in treating single diseases, but it has the ability to treat multiple diseases at once. Primary care also can provide disease prevention visits, help patients improve their health behaviors, refer to specialty care, and develop relationships with patients that cause them to lower their threshold for seeking care. In a model run with primary care features turned off, primary care patients have poorer health. In a model run with all primary care features turned on, their conjoint effect leads to better population health for patients who seek primary care, with the primary care effect being particularly pronounced for patients who are disadvantaged and patients with multiple chronic conditions. Primary care leads to more total health care visits that are due to more disease

  1. Participatory nursing research. A promising methodology in Third World countries.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, S M

    1990-06-01

    This project had some unique components which may have played a significant role in assuring its success. For several months prior to the initiation of the project, the author had worked with the local people developing a rapport and helping them assess their needs and interests. The research was then initiated at their invitation and with their enthusiastic support. There was also a well-organized, local, leadership network in place which provided stability throughout the research project. The support and personal involvement of locally acknowledged leaders assisted greatly in gaining access into the homes of the batey mothers who consented to be interviewed. These same local leaders continued to lend support to the CHWs as they implemented their findings. The validity of the findings was very possibly enhanced by the use of CHW participants from the group studied. Informants frequently are more willing to share openly with someone from a similar value system than with a foreign researcher. In addition, the fact that the researcher, CHWs, and informants were all of the same sex no doubt contributed to the success of the method. The requirements of the participatory method which were encountered in this study would need to be carefully addressed in similar research projects conducted in Third World countries. Gaining entrée into a research site, addressing language and cultural differences, identifying participant researchers who were literate, arranging transportation to isolated sites for the interview component of the process, and allowing sufficient time to be on-site personally to conduct the project were a few of the challenges encountered in this study. Researchers conducting projects of this type should also guard against raising false hopes of change among the participants. Limitations should be identified at the onset of the project and participants reminded that the success of the program should be projected realistically. In spite of the challenges

  2. Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities. PMID:22982842

  3. Assessing tribal youth physical activity and programming using a community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cynthia; Hoffman, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective American Indian youth experience a greater prevalence of obesity compared with the general U. S. population. One avenue to reverse the trend toward increasing obesity prevalence is through promoting physical activity. The goal of this project was to understand tribal youth’s current patterns of physical activity behavior and their beliefs and preferences about physical activity. Design This assessment used a community-based participatory research approach. Sample Thirty-five Native youth ages 8-18. Measurements A Community Advisory Board was created that developed an exercise survey specifically for this assessment to explore physical activity patterns, preferences, and determinants. Twenty-six youth completed the survey. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, exploring differences by age group. Nine youth participated in 2 focus groups. Qualitative data were analyzed with thematic analysis. Results Youth distinguished between sports and exercise with each possessing different determinants. Common motivators were friends, coach, school and barriers were lack of programs and school or work. None of the youth reported meeting the recommended 60 minutes of strenuous exercise daily. Conclusions This tribal academic partnership responded to a tribal concern by developing an exercise survey and conducting focus groups that addressed tribal specific questions. The results are informing program development. PMID:20433664

  4. Contextualising Learning through the Participatory Construction of an Environmental Education Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Ceja-Adame, Maria de la Paz; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2010-09-01

    Strengthening links between school and community is critical for improving people's participation in environmental issues. However, Mexican education programmes are generally unrelated to rural students' life experience and are planned without considering either teachers' or students' opinions. This article describes the participatory construction of a preparatory school environmental education (EE) programme in Ixtlan de Juarez, a Mexican indigenous community internationally recognised for sustainable forest management. The qualitative research methods used are based on the action research methodology. Results from interviews conducted with the preparatory school's headmaster, the coordinator, and nine teachers provided the needed documentation of the school site for contextualising learning activities. Feedback during focus groups with six students, three teachers, five local communal authorities, and two researchers highlighted that all participants perceived the need for creating an educational programme focused on local forest management. The contents and activities of the programme were designed by the focus group's participants. The programme has been continuously taught by teachers and forest workers since 2005 and was officially integrated with the preparatory school science curriculum in 2006. This participative educational experience has thus transformed the mandatory school curriculum in Ixtlan.

  5. Dutch Primary Schoolchildren's Perspectives of Activity-Friendly School Playgrounds: A Participatory Study.

    PubMed

    Caro, Helena Elisabeth Elsje; Altenburg, Teatske Maria; Dedding, Christine; Chinapaw, Mai Jeanette Maidy

    2016-01-01

    School playgrounds are important physical activity (PA) environments for children, yet only a small number of children reaches the target of 40% of moderate-to-vigorous PA time during recess. The aim of this study was to explore children's perspectives (i.e., child-identified determinants) of activity-friendly school playgrounds. We conducted participatory research with children as co-researchers, framed as a project to give children the opportunity to discuss their views and ideas about their school playgrounds. At three schools, six children (9-12 years old) met over five to seven group meetings. Data analysis included children's conclusions obtained during the project and the researcher's analysis of written reports of all meetings. Children indicated a strong desire for fun and active play, with physical playground characteristics and safety, rules and supervision, peer-interactions, and variation in equipment/games as important determinants. Our results indicate that improving activity-friendliness of playgrounds requires an integrated and multi-faceted approach. It also indicates that children, as primary users, are able to identify barriers for active play that are easily overlooked, unknown or differently perceived by adults. Hence, we believe that structural involvement of children in designing, developing and improving playgrounds may increase children's' active play and consequently PA levels during recess.

  6. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Background Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. PMID:25138532

  7. Community-based participatory research in complex settings: clean mind-dirty hands.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, Jihad; Nakkash, Rima; Harpham, Trudy; Qutteina, Yara

    2014-09-01

    Despite the abundance of the literature which discusses factors supporting or inhibiting effective participation of community members in community-based research, there is a paucity of publications analysing challenges to participation in complex settings. This manuscript describes an intervention built on researcher-community partnership amid complex social conditions which challenged participation of community members at different stages of the research process. The research took place in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon and 1 of 12 in Lebanon which suffer from deteriorating social, economic and physical conditions perpetuated by state-imposed restrictions. The research team developed a community coalition which was involved in all stages of planning, designing, implementation and dissemination. In all those stages the aim was to maintain rigorous research, to follow a 'clean mind' approach to research, but maintain principles of community participation which necessitate 'a dirty hand'. Despite commitment to the principles of community-based participatory research, participation of community members (including youth, parents and teachers) was affected to a great extent by the social, physical and structural conditions of the community context. Characteristics of the context where research is conducted and how it affects community members should not be overlooked since multiple factors beyond the researchers' control could interfere with the rigour of scientific research. Researchers need to develop a plan for participation with the community from the beginning with an understanding of the community forces that affect meaningful participation and address possible deterrence.

  8. Empowering Change Agents in Hierarchical Organizations: Participatory Action Research in Prisons.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Janice; Loeb, Susan J; Ladonne, Robert A; Martin, Lea M

    2016-06-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) approaches harness collaborative partnerships to stimulate change in defined communities. The purpose of this article is to illustrate key methodological strategies used in the application of PAR methods in the particularly challenging environment of a hierarchical organization. A study designed to promote sustainable, insider-generated system-level changes in the provision of end-of-life (EOL) care in the restrictive setting of six state prisons is used as an exemplar of the application of three cardinal principles of PAR. First, development of a collaborative network with active partnership between outsider academic researchers and insider co-researchers began with careful attention to understanding the culture and processes of prisons and gaining the support of organizational leadership, using qualitative data gathering and trust-building. During the implementation phase, promoting co-ownership of change in EOL care through the co-construction of knowledge and systems to enhance sustainable change required carefully-orchestrated strategies to maximize the collaborative spirit of the project. Co-researchers were empowered to examine their worlds and capture opportunities for change using new leadership skills role-modeled by the research team. Third, their local knowledge of the barriers inherent in the contextual reality of prisons was translated into achievable system change by production of a toolkit of formalized and well-rehearsed change strategies that collaborative teams were empowered to enact within their hierarchical prison environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028096

  9. Community-based participatory research in complex settings: clean mind–dirty hands

    PubMed Central

    Makhoul, Jihad; Nakkash, Rima; Harpham, Trudy; Qutteina, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of the literature which discusses factors supporting or inhibiting effective participation of community members in community-based research, there is a paucity of publications analysing challenges to participation in complex settings. This manuscript describes an intervention built on researcher–community partnership amid complex social conditions which challenged participation of community members at different stages of the research process. The research took place in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon and 1 of 12 in Lebanon which suffer from deteriorating social, economic and physical conditions perpetuated by state-imposed restrictions. The research team developed a community coalition which was involved in all stages of planning, designing, implementation and dissemination. In all those stages the aim was to maintain rigorous research, to follow a ‘clean mind’ approach to research, but maintain principles of community participation which necessitate ‘a dirty hand’. Despite commitment to the principles of community-based participatory research, participation of community members (including youth, parents and teachers) was affected to a great extent by the social, physical and structural conditions of the community context. Characteristics of the context where research is conducted and how it affects community members should not be overlooked since multiple factors beyond the researchers' control could interfere with the rigour of scientific research. Researchers need to develop a plan for participation with the community from the beginning with an understanding of the community forces that affect meaningful participation and address possible deterrence. PMID:23872385

  10. Teaching Community-Based Participatory Research Principles to Physicians Enrolled in a Health Services Research Fellowship

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Lucas, Georgina I.; Tinney, Barbara; Mangione, Carol; Schuster, Mark A.; Wells, Ken; Wong, Marlene; Schwarz, Donald; Tuton, Lucy W.; Howell, Joel D.; Heisler, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    To improve health and reduce disparities through health services research, investigators are increasingly turning to techniques that actively involve individuals and institutions who would be affected by the research. In one such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR), community members participate in every aspect of designing and implementing research with the expectation that this process will enhance the translation of research into practice in communities. Because few physician researchers have expertise in such community-based approaches to research, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation leadership expanded the mission of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program (RWJCSP), which historically focused on health services and clinical research, to include training and mentored experiences in community-based health research. The three years of experience (2005-2008) implementing the new community research curricula at the four RWJCSP sites, University of California at Los Angeles, University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and Yale University in New Haven, form the basis for this paper. The authors describe how, with common goals and objectives, each site has taken different approaches to teaching CBPR based on the unique nature of existing community and academic environments. The authors use illustrative quotes to exemplify three key challenges that training programs face when integrating community-partnered approaches into traditional research training: relationship building; balancing goals of education/scholarship/relationships/product; and sustainability. Finally, the authors offer insights and implications for those who may wish to integrate CBPR training into their research training curricula. PMID:19318782

  11. Dutch Primary Schoolchildren’s Perspectives of Activity-Friendly School Playgrounds: A Participatory Study

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Helena Elisabeth (Elsje); Altenburg, Teatske Maria; Dedding, Christine; Chinapaw, Mai Jeanette Maidy

    2016-01-01

    School playgrounds are important physical activity (PA) environments for children, yet only a small number of children reaches the target of 40% of moderate-to-vigorous PA time during recess. The aim of this study was to explore children’s perspectives (i.e., child-identified determinants) of activity-friendly school playgrounds. We conducted participatory research with children as co-researchers, framed as a project to give children the opportunity to discuss their views and ideas about their school playgrounds. At three schools, six children (9–12 years old) met over five to seven group meetings. Data analysis included children’s conclusions obtained during the project and the researcher’s analysis of written reports of all meetings. Children indicated a strong desire for fun and active play, with physical playground characteristics and safety, rules and supervision, peer-interactions, and variation in equipment/games as important determinants. Our results indicate that improving activity-friendliness of playgrounds requires an integrated and multi-faceted approach. It also indicates that children, as primary users, are able to identify barriers for active play that are easily overlooked, unknown or differently perceived by adults. Hence, we believe that structural involvement of children in designing, developing and improving playgrounds may increase children’s’ active play and consequently PA levels during recess. PMID:27231923

  12. Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) in a Remote and Isolated Community in Samar Province, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    ALMAZAN, J.U.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of death in children under five years old, most people who die from this disease actually die from severe dehydration and fluid loss. Moreover, 88% of its global diarrheal disease is attributed to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation, and hygiene. This investigation was developed to determine the effect of Participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) program in an isolated community of Mabini,Samar Province, Philippines. Longitudinal research design was used in order to determine the effect of the program one year was implemented in the community. A purposive sampling was utilized in this investigation which accounts a total of 39 households in Mabini community, Basey, Samar, without toilet facilities. The instrument used was the modified questionnaire of Philippine Red Cross in water and sanitation before and after the program was implemented. Results showed that there was improvement of knowledge on water and sanitation, handwashing practice, household waste practices drinking practices, defecation practices. Thus, program reaching the most isolated and difficult area experiencing the most detrimental effects which improve poor hygiene and sanitation, improving health, equality and social justice. PMID:26793319

  13. Assessing Spatial Data Quality of Participatory GIS Studies: a Case Study in Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musungu, K.

    2015-10-01

    Participatory GIS (PGIS) has been prescribed by scholars who sought to find a means to enable more equitable access to GIS data, diversifying the types of knowledge captured by a GIS and re-engineering GIS software. The popularity of PGIS is evident in the various studies and contexts in which it has been utilised. These include studies in risk assessment, land administration, resource management, crime mapping and urban design to mention but a few. Despite the popularity of PGIS as a body of research, little has been done in the analysis of the quality of PGIS information. The study investigated the use of data quality criteria commonly used in traditional GIS systems and shows that it is possible to apply the criteria used in traditional GIS to PGIS. It provides a starting point for PGIS studies to assess the quality of the product. Notably, this a reflective exercise on one case study, but the methodologies used in this study have been replicated in many others undertaken by Community Based Organisations as well as Non-Governmental Organisations. Therefore the findings are relevant to such projects.

  14. A community-based participatory health information needs assessment to help eliminate diabetes information disparities.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Barbara A; Neal, Diane; Magwood, Gayenell; Jenkins, Carolyn; King, Marilyn Givens; Hossler, Charles L

    2006-07-01

    This article describes the participatory research process, results, action plan, and implications of the community health information needs assessment conducted within the African American community in two South Carolina counties. The REACH 2010: Charleston and Georgetown Diabetes Coalition library program is a partnership among community organizations, public and health sciences libraries, and lay community health advisors. A planning committee studied digital divide issues related to health information, designed and implemented a survey, held focus groups, analyzed data, identified needs and assets, and formulated an action plan to increase the dissemination of diabetes information. Key survey findings show that older (older than 60) and less educated (fewer than 12 years of education) African Americans in Charleston and Georgetown counties lack skills to access Internet and library services and suffer disparities in health information. Based on assessment evidence, the community plans to increase Internet access points and provide a train-the-trainer program to teach people skills for using Internet and library resources to get high-quality information about diabetes and its complications. This process taps community resources, builds local capacities and technical skills, educates about health, and empowers participants as active partners in their own health and their community's health.

  15. Visual Voices: A Participatory Method for Engaging Adolescents in Research and Knowledge Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yonas, Michael A.; Burke, Jessica G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the expertise and perspectives of adolescents in the process of generating and translating research knowledge into practice is often missed, yet is essential for designing and implementing programs to promote adolescent health. This paper describes the use of the arts-based participatory Visual Voices method in translational research. Visual Voices involves systematic creative writing, drawing and painting activities to yield culturally relevant information which is generated by and examined with adolescents. Qualitative data products include the created art products and transcripts from group discussions of the content developed and presented. Data are analyzed and compared across traditional (e.g., transcripts) and non-traditional (e.g., drawings and paintings) media. Findings are reviewed and interpreted with participants and shared publicly to stimulate community discussions and local policy and practice changes. Visual Voices is a novel method for involving adolescents in translational research though Integrated Knowledge Transfer (IKT), a process for bringing researchers and stakeholders together from the stage of idea generation to implementing evidence-based initiatives. PMID:23399093

  16. Impact of Instructional Design on Virtual Teamwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlings, Melody

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this participatory action research study was to answer the following research question: How does online instructional design impact students' virtual teamwork performance? Through the lens of social constructivism, a qualitative, in-depth multi-case study design was utilized to conduct document analyses, observations, and…

  17. A Distributed Workspace to Enable Engineering Inter-Company Collaboration: Validation and New Lessons Learnt from SIMNET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouibah, Kamel; Rouibah, Samia

    Collaborative-complex product development is characterized by enormous quantity of engineering data, variety of complex engineering processes, process uncertainty and disturbances, much iteration due to its iterative nature and multiple levels of data maturity (Baldwin et al. 1995). Product design therefore does require changes. The ability of companies to better manage engineering processes and engineering changes can decrease cost, shorten development time, and produce higher quality products. Engineering changes refer to changes or modifications in form, representation, design, material, dimensions, functions of a product or component after an initial engineering decision has been made (Huang et a1. 1999). Past studies have reported that engineering change is a costly and time-consuming problem (Maull et al. 1992, Boznak 1993). Accordingly companies use Product Data Management (PDM) systems. A PDM is a system that supports management of both engineering data and product development process during the whole product life cycle. PDM systems have several benefits that have been well addressed in previous researches (e.g, Liu et al., 2001). As the product development was expanded in 2000 to including suppliers, partners and customers, the PDM concept was transformed to Product LifeCycle Management and Collaborative Product Definition Management (www.cimdata.com, Abramovici et al. 2002).

  18. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263

  19. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution.

  20. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.