This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…
changes and improvements. Most importantly, they provide the "mark on the wall " to set requirements for the design process and to use in trade-offs between... evaluation there will be enough information to make logical trade-offs and decisions. A functional analysis is the technique to decompose the overall...proximity of men and machines, it is necessary to evaluate the frequency of use, and the importance of each type of link. When this is true, proceed as
Fu, Jianxun; Gao, Feng
Researchers seldom study optimum design of a six-degree-of-freedom(DOF) parallel manipulator with three legs based upon the given workspace. An optimal design method of a novel three-leg six-DOF parallel manipulator(TLPM) is presented. The mechanical structure of this robot is introduced, with this structure the kinematic constrain equations is decoupled. Analytical solutions of the forward kinematics are worked out, one configuration of this robot, including position and orientation of the end-effector are graphically displayed. Then, on the basis of several extreme positions of the kinematic performances, the task workspace is given. An algorithm of optimal designing is introduced to find the smallest dimensional parameters of the proposed robot. Examples illustrate the design results, and a design stability index is introduced, which ensures that the robot remains a safe distance from the boundary of sits actual workspace. Finally, one prototype of the robot is developed based on this method. This method can easily find appropriate kinematic parameters that can size a robot having the smallest workspace enclosing a predefined task workspace. It improves the design efficiency, ensures that the robot has a small mechanical size possesses a large given workspace volume, and meets the lightweight design requirements.
Cawood, T; Saunders, E; Drennan, C; Cross, N; Nicholl, D; Kenny, A; Meates, D; Laing, R
We were tasked with creating best possible non-clinical workspace solutions for approximately 450 hospital staff across 11 departments encompassing medical, nursing, allied health, administrative and other support staff. We used a Human-Centred Design process, involving 'Hear, Create and Deliver' stages. We used observations, contextual enquiry and role-specific workshops to understand needs, key interactions and drivers of behaviour. Co-design workshops were then used to explore and prototype-test concepts for the final design. With extensive employee engagement and design process expertise, an innovative solution was created that focussed on meeting the functional workspace needs of a diverse group of staff requiring a range of different spaces, incorporating space constraints and equity. This project demonstrated the strength of engaging employees in an expert-led Human-Centred Design process. We believe this is a successful blueprint process for other institutions to embrace when facing similar workspace design challenges.
Scariot, Cristiele A; Heemann, Adriano; Padovani, Stephania
In this study, the role of collaboration in design is discussed, placing emphasis on how to include end-users in the development process. The study is based on a literature review focusing on aspects of collaboration in design, usability and human factors. Thereby, it introduces, compares and contrasts the characteristics of both collaborative and user-centered design perspectives, leading to the collaborative-participatory design approach. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and precautions of implementing collaborative and participatory models are pointed out.
Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.
Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…
In this article, the author, a doctoral candidate from the School of Information at the University of Texas-Austin, describes the experience gathered from her attempt to redesign her existing Web sites in order to supply online resources for Slavic and Byzantine studies. The use of participatory design, which involves the users in creating the…
Gennari, J. H.; Reddy, M.
For most medical informatics software products, insufficient effort is spent on the design phase of production. However, poor design often leads to systems that are either not well accepted, or far less effective than they could be. In this paper, we describe the ideas of participatory design and discuss why these ideas are especially applicable to medical informatics systems. In particular, we present a case study in the area of clinical trial protocol management. We designed and developed a tool aimed at increasing accrual to clinical trial protocols at an oncology center. However, the design evolved over time, and features of this design were only discovered through iterative development and interaction with the users within the context of the workplace. PMID:11079891
Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M
A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings.
Rodríguez, Claudia Isabel Rojas
This work describes the experience of application of a procedural initiative, which aimed to identify and address technical assistance needs progressively in therapy and rehabilitation activities. The proposal theoretical axes are the basics of participatory ergonomics and interdisciplinary work, was raised with the intention of addressing important issues for the entire design process including: perception, attention, memory and human being comfort, and the interrelationships that create objects in the context in which they are used. This project was done in collaboration with leading institutes for the rehabilitation of Colombia: Cirec and Roosevelt, through two investigative stages: a first ethnographic stage, during which were observed one hundred forty four (144) procedures of rehabilitation and therapy to build a bank of assistive technology needs, justified on the project observation variables. And a second stage of action research in which they were designed elements that facilitate the implementation of rehabilitation procedures efficiently. Currently being developed experiential situations in different hospitals to examine the reliability of the proposed solutions.
Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Veljković, Zorica A; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar Dj; Kosić Šotić, Ivana
Procedures in the development process of crane cabins are arbitrary and subjective. Since approximately 42% of incidents in the construction industry are linked to them, there is a need to collect fresh anthropometric data and provide additional recommendations for design. In this paper, dimensioning of the crane cabin interior space was carried out using a sample of 64 crane operators' anthropometric measurements, in the Republic of Serbia, by measuring workspace with 10 parameters using nine measured anthropometric data from each crane operator. This paper applies experiments run via full factorial designs using a combined traditional and Taguchi approach. The experiments indicated which design parameters are influenced by which anthropometric measurements and to what degree. The results are expected to be of use for crane cabin designers and should assist them to design a cabin that may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue for operators, thus improving safety and accident prevention.
Bazley, Conne Mara; De Jong, Annelise; Vink, Peter
A human factors specialist researched the expectations of a culturally and professionally diverse team throughout a year long participatory design process of a large processing facility. For a deeper understanding of high-level team expectations and characteristics, the specialist collected data and information through in-situ ethnography and traditional case study methods, personal interviews, and a questionnaire that included a likert scale rating for expectation levels. Results found that expectation levels rated extremely satisfied for individual team members and the overall team itself before and during the participatory process. In contrast, expectations for upper management from the team were satisfied before the participatory process, but changed to uncertain, to unsatisfied, to extremely unsatisfied during the process. Additionally, the participatory design team exhibited high-level team characteristics to include honesty, competence, commitment, communication, creativity, and clear expectations.
Czekierda, Łukasz; Malawski, Filip; Wyszkowski, Przemysław
While there are many state-of-the-art approaches to introducing telemedical services in the area of medical imaging, it is hard to point to studies which would address all relevant aspects in a complete and comprehensive manner. In this paper we describe our approach to design and implementation of a universal platform for imaging medicine which is based on our longstanding experience in this area. We claim it is holistic, because, contrary to most of the available studies it addresses all aspects related to creation and utilization of a medical teleconsultation workspace. We present an extensive analysis of requirements, including possible usage scenarios, user needs, organizational and security issues and infrastructure components. We enumerate and analyze multiple usage scenarios related to medical imaging data in treatment, research and educational applications - with typical teleconsultations treated as just one of many possible options. Certain phases common to all these scenarios have been identified, with the resulting classification distinguishing several modes of operation (local vs. remote, collaborative vs. non-interactive etc.). On this basis we propose a system architecture which addresses all of the identified requirements, applying two key concepts: Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Virtual Organizations (VO). The SOA paradigm allows us to decompose the functionality of the system into several distinct building blocks, ensuring flexibility and reliability. The VO paradigm defines the cooperation model for all participating healthcare institutions. Our approach is validated by an ICT platform called TeleDICOM II which implements the proposed architecture. All of its main elements are described in detail and cross-checked against the listed requirements. A case study presents the role and usage of the platform in a specific scenario. Finally, our platform is compared with similar systems described into-date studies and available on the market.
Zoller, Frank A; Boutellier, Roman
When managing R&D departments for increased efficiency and effectiveness the focus has often been on organizational structure. Space is, however, of outstanding importance in an environment of large task uncertainty, which is the case in pharmaceutical R&D. Based on case studies about the Novartis campus in Basel, Switzerland, we propose some design principles for laboratory and office workspace to support the strong and weak ties of scientist networks. We address the diversity of technologies and specialization, as well as the pressure on time-to-market, as major challenges in pharmaceutical R&D.
Discusses user participation and participatory design in the context of formal education for computing professionals. Topics include the current curriculum debate; mathematical- and engineering-based education; traditional system-development training; and an example of a course program that includes computers and society, and prototyping. (53…
Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne
This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements.
Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Tsinakos, Avgoustos
The participatory culture of Web 2.0 and the implicit empowerment of the learners have not been yet associated with participatory design projects that involve learners in the design and development of the new mediating tools. In this paper, we examine students' projections of Web 2.0 in higher education. Ninety seven undergraduate students participated in 20 design sessions exploiting two needs' elicitation techniques with the aim of envisioning of a course website that meets their learning particularities, that incorporates and exploits their new technological habits and which can be harmoniously situated in the daily routine of a modern, active student. 583 needs were produced and their abstract categorization is presented. Students proved that they had refined views about the elements that can render successful the next wave of e-learning applications and provided directions that can help designers and researchers in developing more informed designs. Students are the main agents of educational change and, hence, they deserve a more active and contributive role in the knowledge society.
Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán
The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system.
François, Mathilde; Osiurak, François; Fort, Alexandra; Crave, Philippe; Navarro, Jordan
Automotive human-machine interface (HMI) design is facing new challenges due to the technological advances of the last decades. The design process has to be adapted in order to address human factors and road safety challenges. It is now widely accepted that user involvement in the HMI design process is valuable. However, the current form of user involvement in industry remains at the stages of concept assessment and usability tests. Moreover, the literature in other fields (e.g. information systems) promotes a broader user involvement with participatory design (i.e. the user is fully involved in the development process). This article reviews the established benefits of participatory design and reveals perspectives for automotive HMI quality improvement in a cognitive ergonomic framework. Practitioner Summary: Automotive HMI quality determines, in part, drivers' ability to perform primary driving tasks while using in-vehicle devices. User involvement in the design process is a key point to contribute to HMI quality. This article reports the potential benefits of a broad involvement from drivers to meet automotive HMI design challenges.
Daveler, Brandon; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Candiotti, Jorge; Wang, Hongwu; Cooper, Rory A
The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot) was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW) users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD) prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31) during the participatory design study. Feedback of the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12) showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%), traction control (83%), and curb climbing (75%). The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances.
Terp, Malene; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz; Jørgensen, Rikke; Mainz, Jan; Bjørnes, Charlotte D
Smartphone technology is being increasingly viewed as key to engaging young adults with schizophrenia in their own mental health care. In an attempt to use smartphones as an engagement tool, we conducted a participatory design process, where young adults with schizophrenia (n = 4), healthcare providers (n = 7), software designers (n = 3), graphic designer (n = 1), graphic recorder (n = 1), and team leader (n = 1) co-designed a smartphone application for use in early phase schizophrenia care. This paper reports the co-design process. Based on a variety of written data-sources, the paper describes if, and how, participatory design can help construct a physical and relational environment that enables young adults with schizophrenia to become active participants in the design of a more participatory mental health practice. Guided by Etienne Wenger's construct of Community of Practice, three major categories of characteristics and construction of a physical and relational environment supporting and inspiring participation and engagement were identified: (i) a pre-narrative about a community of practice, (ii) the room for design is a community of practice and (iii) the community of practice as a practice of special qualities. It is concluded that participatory design can support and inspire participation and engagement in the development of mental health care with young adults with schizophrenia, given that the environment in which participatory design unfolds is transparent, flexible, secure and informal.
Davey, B.; Davis, H. B.
Increasingly, geographically diverse organizations, like NASA's Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach personnel (SMD EPO), are looking for ways to facilitate group interactions in meaningful ways while limiting costs. Towards this end, of particular interest, and showing great potential are communities of practice. Communities of practice represent relationships in real-time between and among people sharing a common practice. They facilitate the sharing of information, building collective knowledge, and growing of the principles of practice. In 2010-11, SMD EPO established a website to support EPO professionals, facilitate headquarters reporting, and foster a community of practice. The purpose of this evaluation is to examine the design and use of the workspace and the value created for both individual community members and SMD EPO, the sponsoring organization. The online workspace was launched in 2010-11 for the members of NASA's SMDEPO community. The online workspace was designed to help facilitate the efficient sharing of information, be a central repository for resources, help facilitate and support knowledge creation, and ultimately lead to the development of an online community of practice. This study examines the role of the online workspace component of a community in the work of a community of practice. Much has been studied revealing the importance of communities of practice to organizations, project success, and knowledge management and some of these same successes hold true for virtual communities of practice. Additionally, we look at the outcomes of housting the online community for these past years in respect to knowledge building and personal and organizational value, the affects on professional dvelopment opportunities, how community members have benefited, and how the workspace has evolved to better serve the community.
Cober, Rebecca; Tan, Esther; Slotta, Jim; So, Hyo-Jeong; Könings, Karen D.
Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what…
Foster, Nancy Fried, Ed.
This report is based on a series of presentations at the second CLIR Seminar on "Participatory Design of Academic Libraries," held at the University of Rochester's River Campus June 5-7, 2013. Participatory design is a relatively recent approach to understanding library user behavior. It is based on techniques used in anthropological and…
Patrick, M. C.; Howell, Leonard W., Jr.
COMPLEX is workspace program designed to empower APL with complexnumber capabilities. Complex-variable methods provide analytical tools invaluable for applications in mathematics, science, and engineering. COMPLEX written in APL.
Pollack, Ari H; Miller, Andrew; Mishra, Sonali R.; Pratt, Wanda
Participatory design, a method by which system users and stakeholders meaningfully contribute to the development of a new process or technology, has great potential to revolutionize healthcare technology, yet has seen limited adoption. We conducted a design session with eleven physicians working to create a novel clinical information tool utilizing participatory design methods. During the two-hour session, the physicians quickly engaged in the process and generated a large quantity of information, informing the design of a future tool. By utilizing facilitators experienced in design methodology, with detailed domain expertise, and well integrated into the healthcare organization, the participatory design session engaged a group of users who are often disenfranchised with existing processes as well as health information technology in general. We provide insight into why participatory design works with clinicians and provide guiding principles for how to implement these methods in healthcare organizations interested in advancing health information technology. PMID:28269900
Seno, Hiroto; Kawamura, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G
Recent development methods for surgical robots have an inherent problem. The user-friendliness of operating robot cannot be revealed until completion of the robot. To assist the design of a surgical robot that is user-friendly in terms of surgeon's operation, we propose a system that considers the operation manner of surgeon during the design phase of the robot. This system includes the following functionality: 1) a master manipulator that measures the operation manner of the surgeon (operator), and 2) a slave simulator in which the mechanical parameters can be configured freely. The operator can use the master manipulator to operate the slave simulator. Using this system, we investigate the necessity of considering the operator's manner when developing a surgical robot. In the experiment, we used three instruments with mechanisms that differed with respect to the length between bending joints and measured the trajectory of each instrument tip position during the surgical task. The results show that there are differences in the trajectories of each mechanism. Based on the results, changes in the mechanism of the surgical robot influenced the operator's manner. Therefore, when designing the mechanism for a surgical robot, there is a need to consider how this influences the operator's manner.
In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed.
Palaigeorgiou, G.; Triantafyllakos, G.; Tsinakos, A.
Following the increasing calls for a more skeptical analysis of web 2.0 and the empowerment of learners' voices in formulating upcoming technologies, this paper elaborates on the participatory design of a web learning environment. A total of 117 undergraduate students from two Greek Informatics Departments participated in 25 participatory design…
Waber, Ben; Magnolfi, Jennifer; Lindsay, Greg
Few companies measure whether the design of their workspaces helps or hurts performance, but they should. The authors have collected data that capture individuals' interactions, communications, and location information. They've learned that face-to-face interactions are by far the most important activity in an office; creating chance encounters between knowledge workers, both inside and outside the organization, improves performance. The Norwegian telecom company Telenor was ahead of its time in 2003, when it incorporated "hot desking" (no assigned seats) and spaces that could easily be reconfigured for different tasks and evolving teams. The CEO credits the design of the offices with helping Telenor shift from a state-run monopoly to a competitive multinational carrier with 150 million subscribers. In another example, data collected at one pharmaceuticals company showed that when a salesperson increased interactions with coworkers on other teams by 10%, his or her sales increased by 10%. To get the sales staff running into colleagues from other departments, management shifted from one coffee machine for every six employees to one for every 120 and created a new large cafeteria for everyone. Sales rose by 20%, or $200 million, afterjust one quarter, quickly justifying the capital investment in the redesign.
Chin, George, Jr.
Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.
This article invites a conversation about how critical participatory research transforms the production of knowledge, enables a complex chronicling of counter stories, and nurtures the contestation of dominant narratives with the very people who have been misrepresented as Others. Through a series of research stories fomented in prison,…
Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinwei; Guan, Kaimin; Ju, Bing-Feng
In this paper, a new piezo-actuated XY parallel compliant mechanism for large workspace nano-positioning with decoupled motions is developed by incorporating a novel Z-shaped flexure hinge (ZFH)-based mechanism into the mirror-symmetrically distributed structure. The bridge-type mechanism and two-stage leverage mechanisms serve as preliminary displacement amplifiers, while further amplification with motion transfer and decoupled output motions are achieved by means of the ZFH mechanism. Based on finite element theory, a high-precision analytical model of the XY compliant mechanism is established by considering all the connecting linkages as flexible components. Through the improved differential evolution algorithm, the optimized compliant mechanism is capable of performing millimeter-scale workspace nano-positioning with decoupled motions. In addition, the input displacement unbalance, resulting from the lateral force which has potential to damage the piezoelectric actuators, is markedly lowered to a negligible value. The performance of the fabricated compliant mechanism with optimized parameters is investigated to well agree with both the analytical model and ANSYS simulation. In addition, based on the inverse kinematics derived from the model and experimental results, different elliptical vibration trajectories are accurately acquired.
Turner, C. J.
Robotic workspace optimization is a central element of robot system design. To formulate the optimization problem, the complex relationships between design variables, tuning parameters, and performance indices need to be accurately and efficiently represented. The nature of the relationships suggests that metamodels, or models of the models, should be used to derive suitable objective functions. A comparison of two metamodeling techniques for robotic workspace optimization problems for several trial cases suggests that non-uniform rational B-spline models, derived from computer graphics and computer-aided design techniques, are as suitable as response surface models to solve planar 3R workspace optimization problems. Promising nonlinear modeling results with B-spline models suggest future work is justified and performance gains can be realized.
Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young
This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…
Burke, Catherine; Könings, Karen D.
Past practices shape and limit the design imagination of teachers, pupils, parents, governors, and others concerned with designing modern schools. Bringing histories of education to the table in the participatory design process of new school buildings and curricula is necessary. Schools having an extraordinary past have the potential to draw from…
Andersen, Tariq O; Bansler, Jørgen P; Kensing, Finn; Moll, Jonas
This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product. In particular, we draw attention to four major challenges of (a) aligning the different concerns of patients and clinicians, (b) designing according to clinical accountability, (c) ensuring commercial interest, and (d) dealing with regulatory constraints when prototyping safety critical health Information Technology. Using four illustrative cases, we discuss what these challenges entail and the implications they pose to Participatory Design. We conclude the paper by presenting lessons learned.
Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C; Svensson, B
To explore a medical hypermedia design process where requirements engineering and participatory design are used in a naturalistic setting, 5 years of participatory action research (PAR) have been performed in the development of a hypermedia system to be used in primary care practice. In PAR, the participating organizations cooperate with the researchers in deciding and later evaluating organizational actions, and the results are concluded cooperatively. A new type of system emerged from the study, in that the resulting design has its focus on the management of large volumes of hypermedia material, the traceability of authority in the documents, and teamwork support. Regarding the participatory design process, it was found to be essential to deal with social and organizational issues in the design group and its surroundings--and not to cover these over. For instance, an agreement was reached with the managers responsible for health care in the county where the design process took place, whereby the design activity was also given priority at the highest local administrative level. Since health care is a practice organization, there is a potential market for similar systems if only ways of organizing design and marketing the products of participatory design are further developed. Modified versions of structured product specification methods could be a valuable complement. The conclusion of the study is that the development and spread of hypermedia systems in health care may require considerable changes in current design routines and organizations.
Mäkelä, Tiina; Helfenstein, Sacha
The present study shows how the mixed-methods approach can be used in capturing and organising learning environment (LE) characteristics for the participatory design of psychosocial and physical LEs involving learners. Theoretical constructs were tested and further elaborated on in the analysis of two similar educational design research studies:…
Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica Stella
This paper reports on the findings of two qualitative exploratory studies that sought to investigate design features of help options in computer-based L2 listening materials. Informed by principles of participatory design, language learners, software designers, language teachers, and a computer programmer worked collaboratively in a series of…
This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…
Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty
This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…
Leykum, Luci K; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Harmon, Joel; McDaniel, Reuben R
Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process. PMID:19852784
C. L. Smith; J. K. Knudsen; D. O'Neal
The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Version 8 is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment using a personal computer running the Microsoft Windows™ operating system. SAPHIRE 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The role of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in this project is that of software developer and tester. In older versions of SAPHIRE, the model creation and analysis functions were intermingled. However, in SAPHIRE 8, the act of creating a model has been separated from the analysis of that model in order to improve the quality of both the model (e.g., by avoiding inadvertent changes) and the analysis. Consequently, in SAPHIRE 8, the analysis of models is performed by using what are called Workspaces. Currently, there are Workspaces for three types of analyses: (1) the NRC’s Accident Sequence Precursor program, where the workspace is called “Events and Condition Assessment (ECA);” (2) the NRC’s Significance Determination Process (SDP); and (3) the General Analysis (GA) workspace. Workspaces for each type are created and saved separately from the base model which keeps the original database intact. Workspaces are independent of each other and modifications or calculations made within one workspace will not affect another. In addition, each workspace has a user interface and reports tailored for their intended uses.
Shidende, Nima Herman; Igira, Faraja Teddy; Mörtberg, Christina Margaret
Ethnography, with its emphasis on understanding activities where they occur, and its use of qualitative data gathering techniques rich in description, has a long tradition in Participatory Design (PD). Yet there are limited methodological insights in its application in developing countries. This paper proposes an ethnographically informed PD approach, which can be applied when designing Primary Healthcare Information Technology (PHIT). We use findings from a larger multidisciplinary project, Health Information Systems Project (HISP) to elaborate how ethnography can be used to facilitate participation of health practitioners in developing countries settings as well as indicating the importance of ethnographic approach to participatory Health Information Technology (HIT) designers. Furthermore, the paper discusses the pros and cons of using an ethnographic approach in designing HIT.
Walker, Martha Lentz
Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…
Ahonen, Emily Q; Zanoni, Joseph; Forst, Linda; Ochsner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Ringholm, Elisa; Rodríguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Sokas, Rosemary
Spanish-speaking immigrant workers in construction are considered hard to reach and at high risk for work-related injury and fatality. This evaluation study describes the use of participatory methods and an evaluation checklist to consider a health and safety (H&S) training program for these workers. A previously developed training manual and model were disseminated to eight worker centers (WCs) through participatory research collaboration. It incorporated H&S training for workers while strengthening the role of WCs as sources for leadership development and worker empowerment. Design, delivery, reaction, application, and extension were assessed through individual interviews with participants, trained trainers, and center staff and through observation of training sessions and partner debriefs; pre- and post-training tests assessed participant learning. Results indicate moderate learning and application by participants and strong evidence for structural gains in and among WCs. We conclude that such partnerships and models are valuable tools for collaborating with hard-to-reach workers.
Mor, Yishay; Warburton, Steven; Winters, Niall
In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their…
Uses the example of award-winning Black Hawk Middle School in Minnesota to examine: (1) developing a middle school architecture; (2) benefits of the house concept; (3) the need for staff involvement in school design; (4) assembling houses into schools; (5) reduced discipline problems; (6) fostering teacher collaboration; and (7) measuring success.…
Bertelsen, Pernille; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Madsen, Jacob
This paper explores participatory design walks (PD walks) as a first step toward a participatory design of health information technology (HIT) aimed at tackling health inequality in a neighbourhood identified as a high-risk health area. Existing research shows that traditional methods for health promotion, such as campaigns and teaching, have little to no effect in high-risk health areas. Rather, initiatives must be locally anchored - integrated into the local culture, and based on social relationships and group activities. This paper explains how we conducted PD walks with residents and community workers in the neighbourhood and how this participatory approach supported a first step toward HIT design that tackles health inequality. This is important, as people in neighbourhoods with high health risks are not the target audience for the health technology innovation currently taking place despite the fact that this group suffers the most from health inequality and weigh most on the public healthcare services and costs. The study identifies social and cultural aspects that influence everyday health management and presents how a citizen-driven approach like PD walks, can contribute valuable insights for design of HIT. The paper provides concrete methodological recommendations on how to conduct PD walks that are valuable to HIT designers and developers who aim to do PD with neighbourhoods.
Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C; Hallberg, N; Eriksson, H; Lindblom, P; Hedblom, P; Svensson, B; Marmolin, H
This paper outlines a Computer-Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) system for primary care and presents from its participatory design process time consumption, costs, and experiences. The system integrates a hypermedia environment, a computerized patient record, and an electronicmessage system. It is developed to coordinate organizational learning in primary care from micro to macro levels by connecting strategic planning to monitoring of patient routines. Summing up design experiences, critical issues for making CSCW systems support cost-effectiveness of health care are discussed.
Timpka, T.; Sjöberg, C.; Hallberg, N.; Eriksson, H.; Lindblom, P.; Hedblom, P.; Svensson, B.; Marmolin, H.
This paper outlines a Computer-Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) system for primary care and presents from its participatory design process time consumption, costs, and experiences. The system integrates a hypermedia environment, a computerized patient record, and an electronicmessage system. It is developed to coordinate organizational learning in primary care from micro to macro levels by connecting strategic planning to monitoring of patient routines. Summing up design experiences, critical issues for making CSCW systems support cost-effectiveness of health care are discussed. PMID:8563401
Kim, Hyeoneui; Nakamura, Carlos
Background Inpatient discharge instructions are a mandatory requirement of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. The instructions include all the information relevant to post-discharge patient care. Prior studies show that patients often cannot fully understand or remember all the instructions. To address this issue, we have previously conducted a pilot study in which pictographs were created through a participatory design process to facilitate the comprehension and recall of discharge instructions. Objective The main objective of this study was to verify the individual effectiveness of pictographs created through a participatory design process. Methods In this study, we included 20 pictographs developed by our group and 20 pictographs developed by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as a reference baseline for pictographic recognition. To assess whether the participants could recognize the meaning of the pictographs, we designed an asymmetrical pictograph–text label-linking test. Data collection lasted for 7 days after the email invitation. A total of 44 people accessed the survey site. We excluded 7 participants who completed less than 50% of the survey. A total of 719 answers from 37 participants were analyzed. Results The analysis showed that the participants recognized the pictographs developed in-house significantly better than those included in the study as a baseline (P< .001). This trend was true regardless of the participant’s gender, age, and education level. The results also revealed that there is a large variance in the quality of the pictographs developed using the same design process—the recognition rate ranged from below 50% to above 90%. Conclusions This study confirmed that the majority of the pictographs developed in a participatory design process involving a small number of nurses and consumers were recognizable by a larger number of consumers. The variance in
Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila; Loffeld, John; Pettler,Pete; Snook, Joel
One of the key deliverables for the DOE-funded controls research at LBNL for FY04 was the development of a prototype Personal Workspace Control system. The successful development of this system is a critical milestone for the LBNL Lighting Controls Research effort because this system demonstrates how IBECS can add value to today's Task Ambient lighting systems. LBNL has argued that by providing both the occupant and the facilities manager with the ability to precisely control the operation of overhead lighting and all task lighting in a coordinated manner, that task ambient lighting can optimize energy performance and occupant comfort simultaneously [Reference Task Ambient Foundation Document]. The Personal Workspace Control system is the application of IBECS to this important lighting problem. This report discusses the development of the Personal Workspace Control to date including descriptions of the different fixture types that have been converted to IBECS operation and a detailed description of the operation of PWC Scene Controller, which provides the end user with precise control of his task ambient lighting system. The objective, from the Annual Plan, is to demonstrate improvements in efficiency, lighting quality and occupant comfort realized using Personal Workspace Controls (PWC) designed to optimize the delivery of lighting to the individual's workstation regardless of which task-ambient lighting solution is chosen. The PWC will be capable of controlling floor-mounted, desk lamps, furniture-mounted and overhead lighting fixtures from a personal computer and handheld remote. The PWC will use an environmental sensor to automatically monitor illuminance, temperature and occupancy and to appropriately modulate ambient lighting according to daylight availability and to switch off task lighting according to local occupancy. [Adding occupancy control to the system would blunt the historical criticism of occupant-controlled lighting - the tendency of the occupant
Pennington, D. D.; Gates, A. Q.
collaborative research design process and illustrate their application in designing and developing useful end-to-end data solutions for scientists. Lastly, we will outline areas of future investigation within CyberShARE that we believe have the potential for high impact.
Gao, Wei; Lu, Haoyang
Mobile phone sensing is a critical underpinning of pervasive mobile computing, and is one of the key factors for improving people's quality of life in modern society via collective utilization of the on-board sensing capabilities of people's smartphones. The increasing demands for sensing services and ambient awareness in mobile environments highlight the necessity of active participation of individual mobile users in sensing tasks. User incentives for such participation have been continuously offered from an application-centric perspective, i.e., as payments from the sensing server, to compensate users' sensing costs. These payments, however, are manipulated to maximize the benefits of the sensing server, ignoring the runtime flexibility and benefits of participating users. This paper presents a novel framework of user-centric incentive design, and develops a universal sensing platform which translates heterogenous sensing tasks to a generic sensing plan specifying the task-independent requirements of sensing performance. We use this sensing plan as input to reduce three categories of sensing costs, which together cover the possible sources hindering users' participation in sensing.
With the increasing emphasis on evaluating the effectiveness of community-based organizations' HIV prevention programs, the needs, concerns, and strategies related to having stakeholders participate in designing and conducting an outcome evaluation need to be discussed. Stakeholders' participation in outcome evaluation ensures its relevancy and fairness. Participatory outcome evaluation starts with assessing the feasibility of conducting an outcome evaluation and determining whether stakeholders have a need for an outcome evaluation. If an outcome evaluation is possible and needed, the areas in which stakeholders can make important contributions to the evaluation are negotiated with the stakeholders. The article also discusses strategies to improve stakeholders' use of the results of outcome evaluation.
Perez Toralla, M S; Falzon, P; Morais, A
The proponents of lean production have pointed to the positive effects of the work organization on employees in terms of autonomy, enhanced skills and empowerment mainly by their participation into the continuous improvement of work process. But studies that have examined this issue suggest that the increase in autonomy is not sufficient to compensate for increases work intensity. Participatory design has grown extensively in manufacturing since the 1980's under the impulsion of the Scandinavian socio-technical system approach and it's central in the model of lean production performance. Its main objectives are to improve quality, increase productivity and safety through employee's participation to the reduction of non-value added activities, such as defined by lean production. In the line of the studies on participatory design and continuous improvement the present study examines the functioning of work groups, based on the kaizen model, the aim of which was to improve the proportion of "value-added activities" and working conditions, essentially physical constraints. The main results are consistent with the literature and show that accelerated forms of re-conception activities give employees limited room for maneuver to elaborate solutions based on the analysis of the real activity. This study is part of a broader initiative that goes in the direction of continuous improvement of the design process itself so that it integrates the real constraints of work and propose changes bases on work as it actually takes place, beyond pre-established performance goals bases on the reduction of "non added value activities".
Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yang
A novel 3-PUU parallel robot was put forward, on which kinematic analysis was conducted to obtain its inverse kinematics solution, and on this basis, the limitations of the sliding pair and the Hooke joint on the workspace were analyzed. Moreover, the workspace was solved through the three dimensional limit search method, and then optimization analysis was performed on the workspace of this parallel robot, which laid the foundations for the configuration design and further analysis of the parallel mechanism, with the result indicated that this type of robot was equipped with promising application prospect. In addition that, the workspace after optimization can meet more requirements of patients. PMID:26628930
Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yang
A novel 3-PUU parallel robot was put forward, on which kinematic analysis was conducted to obtain its inverse kinematics solution, and on this basis, the limitations of the sliding pair and the Hooke joint on the workspace were analyzed. Moreover, the workspace was solved through the three dimensional limit search method, and then optimization analysis was performed on the workspace of this parallel robot, which laid the foundations for the configuration design and further analysis of the parallel mechanism, with the result indicated that this type of robot was equipped with promising application prospect. In addition that, the workspace after optimization can meet more requirements of patients.
2008-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated 'flyover' of the workspace of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's was created from images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), or the 14th Martian day after landing. The visualization uses both of the camera's 'eyes' to provide depth perception and ranging. The camera is looking north over the workspace. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents ac...
Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Miller, William C.; Mitchell, Ian M.; Woodgate, Roberta L.
Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768
Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L
Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population.
Silva e Santos, Marcello
The discipline and practice of human factors and ergonomics is quite rich in terms of the availability of analysis, development and evaluation tools and methods for its various processes. However, we lack effective instruments to either map or regulate comprehensively and effectively, cognitive and organizational related impacts, especially the environmental ones. Moreover, when ergonomic transformations through design - such as a new workstation design or even an entire new facility - is at play, ergonomics professionals tend to stay at bay, relying solely on design professionals and engineers. There is vast empirical evidence showing that participation of ergonomists as project facilitators, may contribute to an effective professional synergy amongst the various stakeholders in a multidisciplinary venue. When that happens, everyone wins - users and designers alike -because eventual conflicts, raised up in the midst of options selection, are dissipated in exchange for more convergent design alternatives. This paper presents a method for participatory design, in which users are encouraged to actively participate in the whole design process by sharing their real work activities with the design team. The negotiated results inferred from the ergonomic action and translated into a new design, are then compiled into a "Ergonomic Pattern Manual". This handbook of ergonomics-oriented design guidelines contains essential guidelines to be consulted in recurrent design project situations in which similar patterns might be used. The main drive is simple: nobody knows better than workers themselves what an adequate workplace design solution (equipment, workstation, office layout) should be.
Newig, Jens; Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Jager, Nicolas W
The importance of designing suitable participatory governance processes is generally acknowledged. However, less emphasis has been put on how decision-makers design such processes, and how they learn about doing so. While the policy learning literature has tended to focus on the substance of policy, little research is available on learning about the design of governance. Here, we explore different approaches to learning among German policymakers engaged in implementing the European Floods Directive. We draw on official planning documents and expert interviews with state-level policymakers to focus on learning about the procedural aspects of designing and conducting participatory flood risk management planning. Drawing on the policy learning and evidence-based governance literatures, we conceptualise six types of instrumental 'governance learning' according to sources of learning (endogenous and exogenous) and modes of learning (serial and parallel). We empirically apply this typology in the context of diverse participatory flood risk management planning processes currently unfolding across the German federal states. We find that during the first Floods Directive planning cycle, policymakers have tended to rely on prior experience in their own federal states with planning under the Water Framework Directive to inform the design and carrying out of participatory processes. In contrast, policymakers only sporadically look to experiences from other jurisdictions as a deliberate learning strategy. We argue that there is scope for more coordinated and systematic learning on designing effective governance, and that the latter might benefit from more openness to experimentation and learning on the part of policymakers.
Kwon, Jae-Yung; Phillips, Craig; Currie, Leanne M
Eliciting user requirements from HIV-positive gay men who smoke can be challenging. This is because of the complex relationship between social stigma and gender identities (e.g., gay, masculine, HIV+, and smoking status). Inspired to engage HIV-positive gay men in the development of a web-assisted tobacco intervention, we used personas as a main communication tool in our participatory design sessions. Personas are characters created by users that embody part of their own behaviours, thoughts, and motivations. In an apparent paradox, this article is a description of how the use of personas to ensure less realistic self-representation provided an impetus for more self-disclosure. Findings and feedbacks from this study reveal that personas are an effective design tool to engage users in sensitive topics. Implications for future work are also discussed.
Badolato, Michael Jeremy
A study of 120 students selected from the user populations of four music education computer laboratories was conducted to determine the applicability of current ergonomic and environmental design guidelines in satisfying the needs of users of educational computing workspaces. Eleven categories of workspace factors were organized into a…
Csipke, Emese; Papoulias, Constantina; Vitoratou, Silia; Williams, Paul; Rose, Diana; Wykes, Til
Abstract Background: Psychiatric ward design may make an important contribution to patient outcomes and well-being. However, research is hampered by an inability to assess its effects robustly. This paper reports on a study which deployed innovative methods to capture service user and staff perceptions of ward design. Method: User generated measures of the impact of ward design were developed and tested on four acute adult wards using participatory methodology. Additionally, inpatients took photographs to illustrate their experience of the space in two wards. Data were compared across wards. Results: Satisfactory reliability indices emerged based on both service user and staff responses. Black and minority ethnic (BME) service users and those with a psychosis spectrum diagnosis have more positive views of the ward layout and fixtures. Staff members have more positive views than service users, while priorities of staff and service users differ. Inpatient photographs prioritise hygiene, privacy and control and address symbolic aspects of the ward environment. Conclusions: Participatory and visual methodologies can provide robust tools for an evaluation of the impact of psychiatric ward design on users. PMID:26886239
Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley
Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…
Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.
Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…
Van Berkel, Derek B; Verburg, Peter H
While the merits of local participatory policy design are widely recognised, limited use is made of model-based scenario results to inform such stakeholder involvement. In this paper we present the findings of a study using an agent based model to help stakeholders consider, discuss and incorporate spatial and temporal processes in a backcasting exercise for rural development. The study is carried out in the Dutch region called the Achterhoek. Region-specific scenarios were constructed based on interviews with local experts. The scenarios are simulated in an agent based model incorporating rural residents and farmer characteristics, the environment and different policy interventions for realistic projection of landscape evolution. Results of the model simulations were presented to stakeholders representing different rural sectors at a workshop. The results indicate that illustration of the spatial configuration of landscape changes is appreciated by stakeholders. Testing stakeholders' solutions by way of model simulations revealed that the effectiveness of local interventions is strongly related to exogenous processes such as market competition and endogenous processes like local willingness to engage in multifunctional activities. The integration of multi-agent modelling and participatory backcasting is effective as it offers a possibility to initiate discussion between experts and stakeholders bringing together different expertise.
Schueller, Stephen Matthew
Background Positive psychological interventions for children have typically focused on direct adaptations of interventions developed for adults. As the community moves toward designing positive computing technologies to support child well-being, it is important to use a more participatory process that directly engages children’s voices. Objective Our objectives were, through a participatory design study, to understand children’s interpretations of positive psychology concepts, as well as their perspectives on technologies that are best suited to enhance their engagement with practice of well-being skills. Methods We addressed these questions through a content analysis of 434 design ideas, 51 sketches, and 8 prototype and videos, which emerged from a 14-session cooperative inquiry study with 12 child “happiness inventors.” The study was part of a summer learning camp held at the children’s middle school, which focused on teaching the invention process, teaching well-being skills drawn from positive psychology and related areas (gratitude, mindfulness, and problem solving), and iterating design ideas for technologies to support these skills. Results The children’s ideas and prototypes revealed specific facets of how they interpreted gratitude (as thanking, being positive, and doing good things), mindfulness (as externally representing thought and emotions, controlling those thoughts and emotions, getting through unpleasant things, and avoiding forgetting something), and problem solving (as preventing bad decisions, seeking alternative solutions, and not dwelling on unproductive thoughts). This process also revealed that children emphasized particular technologies in their solutions. While desktop or laptop solutions were notably lacking, other ideas were roughly evenly distributed between mobile apps and embodied computing technologies (toys, wearables, etc). We also report on desired functionalities and approaches to engagement in the children’s ideas
Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N
indicators. This is valuable information for scientists involved in the design of HHPM programs. Advisors in the field also can benefit from this participatory approach because it transforms monitoring tools provided by scientists into farm-specific tools.
Groussard, Pierre-Yves; Pigot, Hélène; Giroux, Sylvain
Adults with cognitive impairments lack the means to organise their daily life, plan their appointments, cope with fatigue, and manage their budget. They manifest interest in using new technologies to be part of society. Unfortunately, the applications offered on smart phones are often beyond their cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to design a mobile cognitive assistant to enhance autonomy of people living with acquired traumatic brain injury. Participatory design methodologies guided this research by involving adults with cognitive impairments (CI) and their caregivers in the early stages of the design process. The population of the study is composed of four male adults who present cognitive impairments (three with head injury and one with stroke) and three caregivers. The first phase of this research was to design the Services Assistance Mobile and Intelligent (SAMI) application based on the needs expressed by the participants. During three focus groups, needs emerged concerning planning, health monitoring and money management and led to the implementation of assistive solutions on an Android mobile phone. During the second phase, the participants evaluated the mobile assistant SAMI at home for eight weeks. The results demonstrate that the participants were able to participate actively in the conception of SAMI and to use it successfully. People with CI showed a slight improvement in their life satisfaction. Due to the small number of participants, these promising results need to be confirmed by a larger-scale study.
Biron, Caroline; Ivers, Hans; Brun, Jean-Pierre
Adapted study designs use process evaluation to incorporate a measure of intervention exposure and create an artificial control and intervention groups. Taking into account exposure levels to interventions combines process and outcome evaluation and strengthens the design of the study when exposure levels cannot be controlled. This study includes longitudinal data (two assessments) with added process measures at time 2 gathered from three complex participatory intervention projects in Canada in a hospital and a university. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the specific working mechanisms of particular interventions on stress outcomes. Results showed that higher exposure to interventions aiming to modify tasks and working conditions reduced demands and improved social support, but not job control, which in turn, reduced psychological distress. Exposure to interventions aiming to improve relationships was not related to psychosocial risks. Most studies cannot explain how interventions produce their effects on outcomes, especially when there are multiple concurrent interventions delivered in several contexts. This study advances knowledge on process evaluation by using an adapted study design to capture the active ingredients of multicomponent interventions and suggesting some mechanisms by which the interventions produce their effects on stress outcomes. It provides an illustration of how to conduct process evaluation and relate exposure levels to observed outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rothschild, Beccah; Graham, Carrie; Ivey, Susan L.; Konishi, Susana
Objectives. We used participatory design methods to develop and test guidebooks about health care choices intended for 600 000 English-, Spanish-, and Chinese-speaking seniors and people with disabilities receiving Medicaid in California. Methods. Design and testing processes were conducted with consumers and professionals; they included 24 advisory group interviews, 36 usability tests, 18 focus groups (105 participants), 51 key informant interviews, guidebook readability and suitability testing, linguistic adaptation, and iterative revisions of 4 prototypes. Results. Participatory design processes identified preferences of intended audiences for guidebook content, linguistic adaptation, and format; guidebook readability was scored at the sixth- to eighth-grade level and suitability at 95%. These findings informed the design of a separate efficacy study that showed high guidebook usage and satisfaction, and better gains in knowledge, confidence, and intended behaviors among intervention participants than among control participants. Conclusions. Participatory design can be used effectively in mass communication to inform vulnerable audiences of health care choices. The techniques described can be adapted for a broad range of health communication interventions. PMID:19833990
Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.
Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.
Kusunoki, Diana; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Zhang, Zhan; Yala, Maria
Prior CSCW research on awareness in clinical settings has mostly focused on higher-level team coordination spanning across longer-term trajectories at the department and inter-department levels. In this paper, we offer a perspective on what awareness means within the context of an ad hoc, time- and safety-critical medical setting by looking at teams treating severely ill patients with urgent needs. We report findings from four participatory design workshops conducted with emergency medicine clinicians at two regional emergency departments. Workshops were developed to elicit design ideas for information displays that support awareness in emergency medical situations. Through analysis of discussions and clinicians’ sketches of information displays, we identified five features of teamwork that can be used as a foundation for supporting awareness from the perspective of clinicians. Based on these findings, we contribute rich descriptions of four facets of awareness that teams manage during emergency medical situations: team member awareness, elapsed time awareness, teamwork-oriented and patient-driven task awareness, and overall progress awareness. We then discuss these four awareness types in relation to awareness facets found in the CSCW literature. PMID:25870498
van Ooijen, Peter M A; Koesoema, Allya P; Oudkerk, Matthijs
Over the past few years, an increase in digitalization of radiology departments can be seen, which has a large impact on the work of the radiologists. This impact is not only demonstrated by the increased use of digital images but also by changing demands on the whole reading environment. In this study, we evaluated the satisfaction of our radiologists with our digital Picture Archival and Communication System environment and their workspace. This evaluation was performed by distribution of a questionnaire consisting of a score sheet and some open questions to all radiologists and residents. Out of 25 questionnaires, 12 were adequately answered and returned. Results clearly showed that most problems were present in the area of reading room design and layout and comfort and ergonomics. Based on the results from this study, adaptations were made and the results were also used in the planning of the redesign of the entire department of radiology.
Bota, Mihail; Talpalaru, Ştefan; Hintiryan, Houri; Dong, Hong-Wei; Swanson, Larry W.
We present in this paper a novel neuroinformatic platform, the BAMS2 Workspace (http://brancusi1.usc.edu), designed for storing and processing information about gray matter region axonal connections. This de novo constructed module allows registered users to directly collate their data by using a simple and versatile visual interface. It also allows construction and analysis of sets of connections associated with gray matter region nomenclatures from any designated species. The Workspace includes a set of tools allowing the display of data in matrix and networks formats, and the uploading of processed information in visual, PDF, CSV, and Excel formats. Finally, the Workspace can be accessed anonymously by third party systems to create individualized connectivity networks. All features of the BAMS2 Workspace are described in detail, and are demonstrated with connectivity reports collated in BAMS and associated with the rat sensory-motor cortex, medial frontal cortex, and amygdalar regions. PMID:24668342
Reeder, Blaine; Hills, Rebecca A.; Turner, Anne M.; Demiris, George
Objectives The objectives of the study were to use persona-driven and scenario-based design methods to create a conceptual information system design to support public health nursing. Design and Sample We enrolled 19 participants from two local health departments to conduct an information needs assessment, create a conceptual design, and conduct a preliminary design validation. Measures Interviews and thematic analysis were used to characterize information needs and solicit design recommendations from participants. Personas were constructed from participant background information, and scenario-based design was used to create a conceptual information system design. Two focus groups were conducted as a first iteration validation of information needs, personas, and scenarios. Results Eighty-nine information needs were identified. Two personas and 89 scenarios were created. Public health nurses and nurse managers confirmed the accuracy of information needs, personas, scenarios, and the perceived usefulness of proposed features of the conceptual design. Design artifacts were modified based on focus group results. Conclusion Persona-driven design and scenario-based design are feasible methods to design for common work activities in different local health departments. Public health nurses and nurse managers should be engaged in the design of systems that support their work. PMID:24117760
Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte; Clemensen, Jane
Background For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. Objective To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. Methods The study used participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care with telemedicine support. A total of 9 parents with preterm infants assigned to a neonatal home care program and 10 parents with preterm infants admitted to a neonatal unit participated in individual interviews and focus group interviews, respectively. Results Three overall themes were identified: being a family, parent self-efficacy, and nurse-provided security. Parents expressed desire for the following: (1) a telemedicine device to serve as a “bell cord” to the neonatal unit, giving 24-hour access to nurses, (2) video-conferencing to provide security at home, (3) timely written email communication with the neonatal unit, and (4) an online knowledge base on preterm infant care, breastfeeding, and nutrition. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of neonatal home care. NH provides parents with a feeling of being a family, supports their self-efficacy, and gives them a feeling of security when combined with nursing guidance. Parents did not request hands-on support for infant care, but instead expressed a need for communication and guidance, which could be met using
University art and design programs are branching out and creating cross-disciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to…
Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Coombe, Chris M.; Gaines, Causandra; Reyes, Angela G.; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon; Strong, Larkin L.; Weir, Sheryl
The elimination of persistent health inequities requires the engagement of multiple perspectives, resources and skills. Community-based participatory research is one approach to developing action strategies that promote health equity by addressing contextual as well as individual level factors, and that can contribute to addressing more fundamental factors linked to health inequity. Yet many questions remain about how to implement participatory processes that engage local insights and expertise, are informed by the existing public health knowledge base, and build support across multiple sectors to implement solutions. We describe a CBPR approach used to conduct a community assessment and action planning process, culminating in development of a multilevel intervention to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Detroit, Michigan. We consider implications for future efforts to engage communities in developing strategies toward eliminating health inequities. PMID:21873580
Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko; Iordachita, Iulian; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare; Tokuda, Junichi
Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided prostate interventions have been introduced to enhance the cancer detection. For accurate needle positioning, in-bore operated robotic systems have been developed and optimal use of the confined in-bore space become a critical engineering challenge. Methods As preliminary evaluation of our prostate intervention robot, we conducted a workspace design analysis using a new evaluation method that we developed for in-bore operated robots for transperineal prostate interventions, and an MRI compatibility study. Results The workspace analysis resulted in the effective workspace (VW) of 0.32, which is greater than that of our early prototype despite that the current robot is approximately 50% larger than the early prototype in sectional space. The MRI compatibility study resulted in less than 15% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduction. Conclusions The new workspace evaluation method quantifies the workspace utilization of the in-bore operated robots for MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions, providing a useful tool for evaluation and new robot design. The robot creates insignificant electromagnetic noise during typical prostate imaging sequences. PMID:22492680
Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...
Vimarlund, V; Eriksson, H; Timpka, T
Within public health, there is a tradition of co-operation between researchers and communities in planning and implementation of health promotion programs. As a consequence, public-health organizations are characterized by having complex multidisciplinary structure and dynamic organizational goals. In this paper, we discuss the economic impacts from the use of Participatory Design for development of public-health information systems. Creation of systems that have both utility and usability is suggested to be highlighted as the central goal. The identified pre-requisites for a positive impact are that the new system should be of high quality, appropriate to the nature of the health promotion tasks, and to how activities are coordinated and integrated both between and within the stakeholder groups involved. We argue further that a method that minimizes the information asymmetry in the development process is necessary for avoiding market failures 1. The conclusion is that participatory design will diminish transaction costs, will help to avoid sunk costs, and will contribute to rich efficient use of human and economic resources in public-health organizations.
2008-01-01During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide. The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and
Kyza, E. A.; Georgiou, Y.
Teacher ownership is crucial for the sustainability of science education reform efforts. This paper discusses participatory design as a bottom-up approach for promoting teachers' sense of ownership of inquiry-based learning and teaching approach as put forward by the PROFILES project. According to the prevalent argument in favor of participatory…
Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan
This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…
Davies, Emma C; Chandler, Clare I R; Innocent, Simeon H S; Kalumuna, Charles; Terlouw, Dianne J; Lalloo, David G; Staedke, Sarah G; Haaland, Ane
The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality
Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Shackelford, Kim; Kelly, Michael; Martin-Galijatovic, Ramie
Expansion of the child welfare evidence base is a major challenge. The field must establish how organizational systems and practice techniques yield outcomes for children and families. Needed research must be grounded in practice and must engage practitioners and administrators via participatory evaluation. The extent to which successful practices are transferable is also challenged by the diversity of child welfare systems. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau funded Quality Improvement Centers (QICs) that were designed to promote collaborative, multisite research that would address these evaluation needs. This article, based on the findings of a regional and a national QIC, describes the challenges facing research collaboration and the strategies for achieving success.
Following a request by an employee of the Ruan Transport Corporation, Des Moines, Iowa, symtoms including watery eyes, headaches, blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, sneezing, and coughing among keypunch operators working at video display terminals were investigated. Carbon-monoxide and carbon-dioxide samples were taken. Work station design and seating were evaluated. Room lighting was measured. Short medical histories were obtained all 25 keypunch operators. Carbon monoxide was not detectable in the work area, but a carbon-dioxide concentration of 3000 parts/million was measured. Many employees were observed smoking while entering data. The illumination exceeded 600 LUX in most general work areas even though the survey day was overcast. Air temperatures of 72/sup 0/-F or higher were measured. Insufficient leg space was found under work tables. Work stations had inadequate adjustments to compensate for individual variations. The night crew had fewer symptoms than the day shift except that 90% of night workers reported headaches compared with 75 percent of day workers. The author concludes that improper lighting, work space design, and excessive cigarette smoke may be responsible for the reported symptoms. Reduction of light levels, reduction of smoking, replacement of work station furniture with adjustable models, and improved ventilation are recommended.
Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen
The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.
Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Winsall, Megan; Jones, Gabrielle M; Wyld, Kaisha; Damarell, Raechel A; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Smith, David; Collin, Philippa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan
Background Despite the potential of technology-based mental health interventions for young people, limited uptake and/or adherence is a significant challenge. It is thought that involving young people in the development and delivery of services designed for them leads to better engagement. Further research is required to understand the role of participatory approaches in design of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Objective To investigate consumer involvement processes and associated outcomes from studies using participatory methods in development of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Methods Fifteen electronic databases, using both resource-specific subject headings and text words, were searched describing 2 broad concepts-participatory research and mental health/illness. Grey literature was accessed via Google Advanced search, and relevant conference Web sites and reference lists were also searched. A first screening of titles/abstracts eliminated irrelevant citations and documents. The remaining citations were screened by a second reviewer. Full text articles were double screened. All projects employing participatory research processes in development and/or design of (ICT/digital) technology-based youth mental health and well-being interventions were included. No date restrictions were applied; English language only. Data on consumer involvement, research and design process, and outcomes were extracted via framework analysis. Results A total of 6210 studies were reviewed, 38 full articles retrieved, and 17 included in this study. It was found that consumer participation was predominantly consultative and consumerist in nature and involved design specification and intervention development, and usability/pilot testing. Sustainable participation was difficult to achieve. Projects reported clear dichotomies around designer/researcher and consumer assumptions of effective and acceptable
Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.
We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.
Wiklund Axelsson, Sarianne; Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa; Melander Wikman, Anita
Sustainable lifestyle changes due to obesity are difficult to achieve regardless methods used. We need to know more about the lived experience of obesity and older persons’ needs for support to make a sustainable change. This paper focuses on the need-finding process in designing support for a sustainable lifestyle change. Multistage focus group interviews were conducted with persons aged 61–72 living in Northern Sweden. A participatory and appreciative reflection and action (PAAR) approach was used in the group-sessions. Probes were used to increase reflections and achieve a deeper knowledge about the participants’ needs of support. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Our findings revealed that to be able to succeed with a lifestyle change a focus has to be on a converted way of thinking, managing vulnerability, and achieving an emotional balance. To achieve a sustainable lifestyle change due to obesity in the third age the focus has to be on a health identity instead of a weight identity. Personalised support with enjoyable physical activities should be designed and developed. Strategies for emotional balance based on autonomy and self-empowerment must be included. This knowledge is important when designing support for sustainable change. PMID:27999272
Wiklund Axelsson, Sarianne; Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa; Melander Wikman, Anita
Sustainable lifestyle changes due to obesity are difficult to achieve regardless methods used. We need to know more about the lived experience of obesity and older persons' needs for support to make a sustainable change. This paper focuses on the need-finding process in designing support for a sustainable lifestyle change. Multistage focus group interviews were conducted with persons aged 61-72 living in Northern Sweden. A participatory and appreciative reflection and action (PAAR) approach was used in the group-sessions. Probes were used to increase reflections and achieve a deeper knowledge about the participants' needs of support. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Our findings revealed that to be able to succeed with a lifestyle change a focus has to be on a converted way of thinking, managing vulnerability, and achieving an emotional balance. To achieve a sustainable lifestyle change due to obesity in the third age the focus has to be on a health identity instead of a weight identity. Personalised support with enjoyable physical activities should be designed and developed. Strategies for emotional balance based on autonomy and self-empowerment must be included. This knowledge is important when designing support for sustainable change.
Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A.
We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a “data profiling” tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool’s functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651
Sautier, Marion; Piquet, Mathilde; Duru, Michel; Martin-Clouaire, Roger
Research is expected to produce knowledge, methods and tools to enhance stakeholders' adaptive capacity by helping them to anticipate and cope with the effects of climate change at their own level. Farmers face substantial challenges from climate change, from changes in the average temperatures and the precipitation regime to an increased variability of weather conditions and the frequency of extreme events. Such changes can have dramatic consequences for many types of agricultural production systems such as grassland-based livestock systems for which climate change influences the seasonality and productivity of fodder production. We present a participatory design method called FARMORE (FARM-Oriented REdesign) that allows farmers to design and evaluate adaptations of livestock systems to future climatic conditions. It explicitly considers three climate features in the design and evaluation processes: climate change, climate variability and the limited predictability of weather. FARMORE consists of a sequence of three workshops for which a pre-existing game-like platform was adapted. Various year-round forage production and animal feeding requirements must be assembled by participants with a computerized support system. In workshop 1, farmers aim to produce a configuration that satisfies an average future weather scenario. They refine or revise the previous configuration by considering a sample of the between-year variability of weather in workshop 2. In workshop 3, they explicitly take the limited predictability of weather into account. We present the practical aspects of the method based on four case studies involving twelve farmers from Aveyron (France), and illustrate it through an in-depth description of one of these case studies with three dairy farmers. The case studies shows and discusses how workshop sequencing (1) supports a design process that progressively accommodates complexity of real management contexts by enlarging considerations of climate change
Fink, Glenn A.; North, Christopher L.; Endert, Alexander; Rose, Stuart J.
An environment that supports cyber analytics work should enable multiple, simultaneous investigations, information foraging, and provide a solution space for organizing data. We describe our study of cyber security professionals and visualizations in a large, high-resolution display work environment. We discuss the tasks and needs of analysts that such an environment can support and present several prototypes designed to support these needs. We conclude with a usability evaluation of the prototypes and additional lessons learned.
Getting the Most from Working with Higher Education: A Review of Methods Used within a Participatory Design Activity Involving KS3 Special School Pupils and Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Industrial Design Students
Torrens, George Edward; Newton, Helen
This paper provides education-based researchers and practitioners with the preferred research and design methods used by Higher Education Institute (HEI) students and Key Stage 3 (KS3) pupils applied within a participatory approach to a design activity. The outcomes were that both pupils and students found informal (unstructured) interview to be…
de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens
It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and
Fuller, Christina H; Patton, Allison P; Lane, Kevin; Laws, M Barton; Marden, Aaron; Carrasco, Edna; Spengler, John; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Durant, John L; Brugge, Doug
Current literature is insufficient to make causal inferences or establish dose-response relationships for traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFPs) and cardiovascular (CV) health. The Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) is a cross-sectional study of the relationship between UFP and biomarkers of CV risk. CAFEH uses a community-based participatory research framework that partners university researchers with community groups and residents. Our central hypothesis is that chronic exposure to UFP is associated with changes in biomarkers. The study enrolled more than 700 residents from three near-highway neighborhoods in the Boston metropolitan area in Massachusetts, USA. All participants completed an in-home questionnaire and a subset (440+) completed an additional supplemental questionnaire and provided biomarkers. Air pollution monitoring was conducted by a mobile laboratory equipped with fast-response instruments, at fixed sites, and inside the homes of selected study participants. We seek to develop improved estimates of UFP exposure by combining spatiotemporal models of ambient UFP with data on participant time-activity and housing characteristics. Exposure estimates will then be compared with biomarker levels to ascertain associations. This article describes our study design and methods and presents preliminary findings from east Somerville, one of the three study communities.
Patton, Allison P.; Lane, Kevin; Laws, M. Barton; Marden, Aaron; Carrasco, Edna; Spengler, John; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Durant, John L.
Current literature is insufficient to make causal inferences or establish dose-response relationships for traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFPs) and cardiovascular (CV) health. The Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) is a cross-sectional study of the relationship between UFP and biomarkers of CV risk. CAFEH uses a community-based participatory research framework that partners university researchers with community groups and residents. Our central hypothesis is that chronic exposure to UFP is associated with changes in biomarkers. The study enrolled more than 700 residents from three near-highway neighborhoods in the Boston metropolitan area in Massachusetts, USA. All participants completed an in-home questionnaire and a subset (440 +) completed an additional supplemental questionnaire and provided biomarkers. Air pollution monitoring was conducted by a mobile laboratory equipped with fast-response instruments, at fixed sites, and inside the homes of selected study participants. We seek to develop improved estimates of UFP exposure by combining spatiotemporal models of ambient UFP with data on participant time-activity and housing characteristics. Exposure estimates will then be compared with biomarker levels to ascertain associations. This article describes our study design and methods and presents preliminary findings from east Somerville, one of the three study communities. PMID:23612527
Tanaka, Yoshito; Yokomichi, Isao; Ishii, Junko; Makino, Toshiaki
In parallel mechanisms, the form and volume of workspace also change variously with the attitude of a platform. This paper presents a method to search for the workspace of parallel mechanisms with 6-DOF and 3D visualization of the workspace. Workspace is a search for the movable range of the central point of a platform when it moves with a given orientation. In order to search workspace, geometric analysis based on inverse kinematics is considered. Plots of 2D of calculations are compared with those measured by position sensors. The test results are shown to have good agreement with simulation results. The workspace variations are demonstrated in terms of 3D and 2D plots for prototype mechanisms. The workspace plots are created with OpenGL and Visual C++ by implementation of the algorithm. An application module is developed, which displays workspace of the mechanism in 3D images. The effectiveness and practicability of 3D visualization on workspace are successfully demonstrated by 6-DOF parallel mechanisms.
Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bales, Michael E; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Yoon, Sunmoo; Woollen, Janet; Bakken, Suzanne
Objective To collaborate with community members to develop tailored infographics that support comprehension of health information, engage the viewer, and may have the potential to motivate health-promoting behaviors. Methods The authors conducted participatory design sessions with community members, who were purposively sampled and grouped by preferred language (English, Spanish), age group (18–30, 31–60, >60 years), and level of health literacy (adequate, marginal, inadequate). Research staff elicited perceived meaning of each infographic, preferences between infographics, suggestions for improvement, and whether or not the infographics would motivate health-promoting behavior. Analysis and infographic refinement were iterative and concurrent with data collection. Results Successful designs were information-rich, supported comparison, provided context, and/or employed familiar color and symbolic analogies. Infographics that employed repeated icons to represent multiple instances of a more general class of things (e.g., apple icons to represent fruit servings) were interpreted in a rigidly literal fashion and thus were unsuitable for this community. Preliminary findings suggest that infographics may motivate health-promoting behaviors. Discussion Infographics should be information-rich, contextualize the information for the viewer, and yield an accurate meaning even if interpreted literally. Conclusion Carefully designed infographics can be useful tools to support comprehension and thus help patients engage with their own health data. Infographics may contribute to patients’ ability to participate in the Learning Health System through participation in the development of a robust data utility, use of clinical communication tools for health self-management, and involvement in building knowledge through patient-reported outcomes. PMID:26174865
Trimble, Jay; Wales, Roxana; Gossweiler, Rich
This chapter describes the ongoing process by which a multidisciplinary group at NASA's Ames Research Center is designing and implementing a large interactive work surface called the MERBoard Collaborative Workspace. A MERBoard system involves several distributed, large, touch-enabled, plasma display systems with custom MERBoard software. A centralized server and database back the system. We are continually tuning MERBoard to support over two hundred scientists and engineers during the surface operations of the Mars Exploration Rover Missions. These scientists and engineers come from various disciplines and are working both in small and large groups over a span of space and time. We describe the multidisciplinary, human-centered process by which this h4ERBoard system is being designed, the usage patterns and social interactions that we have observed, and issues we are currently facing.
Kim, Beaumie; Tan, Lynde; Bielaczyc, Katerine
In this special issue, the authors purport to interrogate and further their understanding of the commonly cited term, "design," specifically "learner-generated designs." This issue brings together scholars from multiple disciplines, including learning sciences, literacy studies, science education, digital media, and pedagogy,…
2008-01-01This is a terrain model of Phoenix's Robotic Arm workspace. It has been color coded by depth with a lander model for context. The model has been derived using images from the depth perception feature from Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Red indicates low-lying areas that appear to be troughs. Blue indicates higher areas that appear to be polygons. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
Guédon, A C P; Wauben, L S G L; de Korne, D F; Overvelde, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J
Information technology, such as real-time location (RTL) systems using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) may contribute to overcome patient safety issues and high costs in healthcare. The aim of this work is to study if a RFID specific Participatory Design (PD) approach supports the design and the implementation of RTL systems in the Operating Room (OR). A RFID specific PD approach was used to design and implement two RFID based modules. The Device Module monitors the safety status of OR devices and the Patient Module tracks the patients' locations during their hospital stay. The PD principles 'multidisciplinary team', 'participation users (active involvement)' and 'early adopters' were used to include users from the RFID company, the university and the hospital. The design and implementation process consisted of two 'structured cycles' ('iterations'). The effectiveness of this approach was assessed by the acceptance in terms of level of use, continuity of the project and purchase. The Device Module included eight strategic and twelve tactical actions and the Patient Module included six strategic and twelve tactical actions. Both modules are now used on a daily basis and are purchased by the hospitals for continued use. The RFID specific PD approach was effective in guiding and supporting the design and implementation process of RFID technology in the OR. The multidisciplinary teams and their active participation provided insights in the social and the organizational context of the hospitals making it possible to better fit the technology to the hospitals' (future) needs.
This paper describes an alternative approach to traditional instructional design models by suggesting that participatory communication theory (PCT) creates a process that values the learner's voice. As a student develops a critical awareness of his or her environment, participatory media becomes a catalyst for cognition. Learners use media tools…
Woolner, Pam; Hall, Elaine; Wall, Kate; Dennison, David
This article first investigates historical trends in both the practice and the understanding of consultation, considering the often contrasting perspectives of architects and designers, compared to teachers and educationalists. Differing assumptions held by these two broad groups of professionals can lead to conflicting aims and objectives for…
Friedman, Robert S.; Drakes, Jerri; Deek, Fadi P.
A collaborative software development project designed to maximize the skill sets and interests of school children and teachers, educational software technologist and researchers, and college undergraduates is presented. The work brings together elementary school children with college seniors and technology consultants to implement a…
Winters, Niall; Mor, Yishay
One of the important themes that emerged from the CAL'07 conference was the failure of technology to bring about the expected disruptive effect to learning and teaching. We identify one of the causes as an inherent weakness in prevalent development methodologies. While the problem of designing technology for learning is irreducibly…
Su, C. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Wang, T. I.
This study incorporates the 5E learning cycle strategy to design and develop Sharable Content Object Reference Model-conformant materials for elementary science education. The 5E learning cycle that supports the constructivist approach has been widely applied in science education. The strategy consists of five phases: engagement, exploration,…
Gardner, Morgan; Hammett, Roberta
Action research (AR) courses provide openings in higher education to engage students, schools and communities in democratic and socially just ways within the contexts of research, classroom learning and broader social interactions. Such opportunities are strengthened when instructors design AR courses with the goal of enabling students to…
Caldwell, Glenda Amayo; Osborne, Lindy; Mewburn, Inger; Nottingham, Anitra
In this article we offer a single case study using an action research method for gathering and analysing data offering insights valuable to both design and research supervision practice. We do not attempt to generalise from this single case, but offer it as an instance that can improve our understanding of research supervision practice. We…
Maceli, Monica Grace
Meta-design theory emphasizes that system designers can never anticipate all future uses of their system at design time, when systems are being developed. Rather, end users shape their environments in response to emerging needs at use time. Meta-design theory suggests that systems should therefore be designed to adapt to future conditions in the…
Guerra-López, Ingrid; Hicks, Karen
This article illustrates the application of the impact monitoring and evaluation process for the design and development of a performance monitoring and evaluation framework in the context of human and institutional capacity development. This participative process facilitated stakeholder ownership in several areas including the design, development, and use of a new monitoring and evaluation system, as well their targeted results and accomplishments through the use of timely performance data gathered through ongoing monitoring and evaluation. The process produced a performance indicator map, a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework, and data collection templates to promote the development, implementation, and sustainability of the monitoring and evaluation system of a farmer's trade union in an African country.
Dykes, Patricia C; Stade, Diana; Chang, Frank; Dalal, Anuj; Getty, George; Kandala, Ravali; Lee, Jaeho; Lehman, Lisa; Leone, Kathleen; Massaro, Anthony F; Milone, Marsha; McNally, Kelly; Ohashi, Kumiko; Robbins, Katherine; Bates, David W; Collins, Sarah
Patient engagement has been identified as a key strategy for improving patient outcomes. In this paper, we describe the development and pilot testing of a web-based patient centered toolkit (PCTK) prototype to improve access to health information and to engage hospitalized patients and caregivers in the plan of care. Individual and group interviews were used to identify plan of care functional and workflow requirements and user interface design enhancements. Qualitative methods within a participatory design approach supported the development of a PCTK prototype that will be implemented on intensive care and oncology units to engage patients and professional care team members developing their plan of care during an acute hospitalization.
Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Shackelford, Kim; Kelly, Michael; Martin-Galijatovic, Ramie
Expansion of the child welfare evidence base is a major challenge. The field must establish how organizational systems and practice techniques yield outcomes for children and families. Needed research must be grounded in practice and must engage practitioners and administrators via participatory evaluation. The extent to which successful practices…
Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.; Do, Jaewoo; Skutnik, Anne L.; Thompson, Duren J.; Stephens, Adam F.; Tays, Cheryl A.
This article reports on a case of participatory self-directed online learning within the context of a graduate-level instructional technology course. The course was about online learning environments and relied on both asynchronous and synchronous technologies. In this case, the instructor and students engaged in collaborative course design…
individuals; instead, a variety of different work areas are designated to allow individuals to choose where they accomplish their work-related...set number of unassigned office spaces. Members choose their seating based on availability and preferred location. Studies of change management...towards hybrid workspaces. Interviews consisted of 22 questions, with 20 of these questions being open-ended and 2 designed to capture generational
Eriksson, J; Ek, A; Johansson, G
A software prototype to support the planning process for adapting home and work environments for people with physical disabilities was designed and later evaluated. The prototype exploits low-cost three-dimensional (3-D) graphics products in the home computer market. The essential features of the prototype are: interactive rendering with optional hardware acceleration, interactive walk-throughs, direct manipulation tools for moving objects and measuring distances, and import of 3-D-objects from a library. A usability study was conducted, consisting of two test sessions (three weeks apart) and a final interview. The prototype was then tested and evaluated by representatives of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with physical disability, with no previous experience of the prototype. Emphasis in the usability study was placed on the prototype's efficiency and learnability. We found that it is possible to realise a planning tool for environmental adaptations, both regarding usability and technical efficiency. The usability evaluation confirms our findings from previous case studies, regarding the relevance and positive attitude towards this kind of planning tool. Although the prototype was found to be satisfactorily efficient for the basic tasks, the paper presents several suggestions for improvement of future prototype versions.
Seekins, Tom; White, Glen W
Researchers and disability advocates have been debating consumer involvement in disability and rehabilitation science since at least 1972. Despite the length of this debate, much confusion remains. Consumer involvement may represent a spirit of democracy or even empowerment, but as a tool of science, it is necessary to understand how to judge its application. To realize consumer involvement as a design element in science, researchers need a framework for understanding how it can contribute to the scientific process. The thesis of this article is that a primary scientific function of consumer involvement is to reduce threats to the social validity of research, the extent to which those expected to use or benefit from research products judge them as useful and actually use them. Social validity has traditionally not been treated with the same rigor as concerns for internal and external validity. This article presents a framework that describes 7 threats to social validity and explains how 15 forms of consumer involvement protect against those threats. We also suggest procedures for reporting and reviewing consumer involvement in proposals and manuscripts. This framework offers tools familiar to all scientists for identifying threats to the quality of research, and for judging the effectiveness of strategies for protecting against those threats. It may also enhance the standing of consumer involvement strategies as tools for protecting research quality by organizing them in a way that allows for systematic criticism of their effectiveness and subsequent improvement.
Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Palmeira, Antonio; Verloigne, Maïté
Background Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents active user involvement as informant (ie, users are asked for input and feedback) or codesigner (ie, users as equal partners in the design) early on and throughout the game development, may be associated with higher game effectiveness, as opposed to no user involvement or limited user involvement. Objective This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis examining the moderating role of PD in the effectiveness of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion. Methods Four databases were searched for peer-reviewed papers in English that were published or in press before October 2014, using a (group-) randomized controlled trial design. Effectiveness data were derived from another meta-analysis assessing the role of behavior change techniques and game features in serious game effectiveness. Results A total of 58 games evaluated in 61 studies were included. As previously reported, serious digital games had positive effects on healthy lifestyles and their determinants. Unexpectedly, PD (g=0.075, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.133) throughout game development was related to lower game effectiveness on behavior (Q=6.74, P<.05) than when users were only involved as testers (g=0.520, 95% CI 0.150 to 0.890, P<.01). Games developed with PD (g=0.171, 95% CI 0.061 to 0.281, P<.01) were also related to lower game effectiveness on self-efficacy (Q=7.83, P<.05) than when users were not involved in game design (g=0.384, 95% CI 0.283 to 0.485, P<.001). Some differences were noted depending on age group, publication year of the study, and on the specific role in PD (ie, informant or codesigner), and depending on the game design element. Games developed with PD were more effective in
Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan
We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them.
Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana E; Liu, Sabrina R; Adams, Jessica
High rates of exposure to violence and other adversities among Latino/a youth contribute to health disparities. The current article addresses the ways in which community-based participatory research (CBPR) and human-centered design (HCD) can help engage communities in dialogue and action. We present a project exemplifying how community forums, with researchers, practitioners, and key stakeholders, including youths and parents, integrated HCD strategies with a CBPR approach. Given the potential for power inequities among these groups, CBPR + HCD acted as a catalyst for reciprocal dialogue and generated potential opportunity areas for health promotion and change. Future directions are described.
Soong, Cissy SS; Wang, Man Ping; Mui, Moses; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia SC
Background A principal factor in maintaining positive family functioning and well-being, family communication time is decreasing in modern societies such as Hong Kong, where long working hours and indulgent use of information technology are typical. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe an innovative study protocol, “Happy Family Kitchen,” under the project, “FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society,” aimed at improving family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs) through enhancement of family communication. Methods This study employed the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, and adopted 5 principles of positive psychology and the traditional Chinese concepts of cooking and dining, as a means to connect family members to promote family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs). Results In-depth collaboration took place between an academic institution and a large nongovernmental community organization association (NGO association) with 400 social service agency members. Both groups were deeply involved in the project design, implementation, and evaluation of 23 community-based interventions. From 612 families with 1419 individuals’ findings, significant increases in mean communication time per week (from 153.44 to 170.31 minutes, P=.002) at 6 weeks after the intervention and mean communication scores (from 67.18 to 69.56 out of 100, P<.001) at 12 weeks after the intervention were shown. Significant enhancements were also found for mean happiness scores 12 weeks after the intervention (from 7.80 to 7.82 out of 10, P<.001), and mean health scores (from 7.70 to 7.73 out of 10, P<.001) and mean harmony scores (from 7.70 to 8.07 out of 10, P<.001) 6 weeks after the intervention. Conclusions This was the first CBPR study in a Hong Kong Chinese community. The results should be useful in informing collaborative intervention programs and engaging public health researchers and community social service providers, major
This discussion explores the journal's special issue from the construct of ownership and how it relates to participatory design. I examine the articles of researchers from Europe and the United States which offer data-centered perspectives and data-driven suggestions. These works suggest how to best involve different stakeholders and I examine how…
The beginning of the twenty-first century has been described as a time of development for social innovations through which people use, share, and create knowledge in ways that differ fundamentally from those of previous eras. The topical and widely accepted focus of education should be toward twenty-first-century skills. However, there is no…
van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam
Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services.
van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam
Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services. PMID:26346580
Yukich, Josh; Soonthorndhada, Amara; Giron, Maziel; Apperson, Charles S.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Morrison, Amy C.; Keating, Joseph; Wesson, Dawn M.
Background Dengue virus (and Chikungunya and Zika viruses) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes considerable human morbidity and mortality. As there is currently no vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to protect people from dengue virus infection, vector control is the only viable option for disease prevention. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the design and placement process for an attractive lethal ovitrap to reduce vector populations and to describe lessons learned in the development of the trap. Methods This study was conducted in 2010 in Iquitos, Peru and Lopburi Province, Thailand and used an iterative community-based participatory approach to adjust design specifications of the trap, based on community members’ perceptions and feedback, entomological findings in the lab, and design and research team observations. Multiple focus group discussions (FGD) were held over a 6 month period, stratified by age, sex and motherhood status, to inform the design process. Trap testing transitioned from the lab to within households. Results Through an iterative process of working with specifications from the research team, findings from the laboratory testing, and feedback from FGD, the design team narrowed trap design options from 22 to 6. Comments from the FGD centered on safety for children and pets interacting with traps, durability, maintenance issues, and aesthetics. Testing in the laboratory involved releasing groups of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti in walk-in rooms and assessing what percentage were caught in traps of different colors, with different trap cover sizes, and placed under lighter or darker locations. Two final trap models were mocked up and tested in homes for a week; one model was the top choice in both Iquitos and Lopburi. Discussion The community-based participatory process was essential for the development of novel traps that provided effective vector control, but also met the needs and concerns of community
d'Aquino, Patrick; Bah, Alassane
The participatory modelling method described here focuses on how to enable stakeholders to incorporate their own perception of environmental uncertainty and how to deal with it to design innovative environmental policies. This "self-design" approach uses role playing games and agent based modelling to let participants design their own conceptual framework, and so modelling supports, of issues. The method has a multi-scale focus I order to enable the whole multi-scale Sahelian logic to be expressed and on the other hand to encourage the players to deal with possible region-wide changes implied by their "local" policy objectives. This multi-level participatory design of land use policies has been under experimentation in Senegal since 2008 in different local and national arenas. The process has resulted in the "self-design" of a qualitative and relatively simple model of Sahelian uncertainty, which can be played like a role playing game as well a computerized model. Results are shown in perceptible autonomous organisational learning at the local level. Participants were also able to incorporate their own ideas for new rules for access to resources. They designed innovative collective rules, organised follow up and monitoring of these new land uses. Moreover, meaningful ideas for environmental policies are beginning to take shape. This work raises the epistemological question of what is meant by the term "indigenous knowledge" in environmental management, ranging from knowledge based on practical experience being included in the scholar's framing of knowledge, to a legitimate local ability to contextualize and re-arrange scientific expertise, to profoundly different worldviews which do not match ours.
Background Recent developments in Global Workspace theory suggest that human consciousness can suffer interpenetrating dysfunctions of mutual and reciprocal interaction with embedding environments which will have early onset and often insidious staged developmental progression, possibly according to a cancer model, in which a set of long-evolved control strategies progressively fails. Methods and results A rate distortion argument implies that, if an external information source carries a damaging 'message', then sufficient exposure to it, particularly during critical developmental periods, is sure to write a sufficiently accurate image of it on mind and body in a punctuated manner so as to initiate or promote similarly progressively punctuated developmental disorder, in essence either a staged failure affecting large-scale brain connectivity, which is the sine qua non of human consciousness, or else damaging the ability of embedding goal contexts to contain conscious dynamics. Conclusion The key intervention, at the population level, is clearly to limit exposure to factors triggering developmental disorders, a question of proper environmental sanitation, in a large sense, primarily a matter of social justice which has long been known to be determined almost entirely by the interactions of cultural trajectory, group power relations, and economic structure, with public policy. Intervention at the individual level appears limited to triggering or extending periods of remission, representing reestablishment of an extensive, but largely unexplored, spectrum of evolved control strategies, in contrast with the far better-understood case of cancer. PMID:16371149
Andrews, M L; Sánchez, V; Carrillo, C; Allen-Ananins, B; Cruz, Y B
We present the collaborative development of a web-based data collection and monitoring plan for thirty-two county councils within New Mexico's health council system. The monitoring plan, a key component in our multiyear participatory statewide evaluation process, was co-developed with the end users: representatives of the health councils. Guided by the Institute of Medicine's Community, Health Improvement Process framework, we first developed a logic model that delineated processes and intermediate systems-level outcomes in council development, planning, and community action. Through the online system, health councils reported data on intermediate outcomes, including policy changes and funds leveraged. The system captured data that were common across the health council system, yet was also flexible so that councils could report their unique accomplishments at the county level. A main benefit of the online system was that it provided the ability to assess intermediate, outcomes across the health council system. Developing the system was not without challenges, including creating processes to ensure participation across a large rural state; creating shared understanding of intermediate outcomes and indicators; and overcoming technological issues. Even through the challenges, however, the benefits of committing to using participatory processes far outweighed the challenges.
This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.
Liebermann, Dario G; Krasovsky, Tal; Berman, Sigal
The article characterizes hand paths and speed profiles for movements performed in a nonplanar, 2-dimensional workspace (a hemisphere of constant curvature). The authors assessed endpoint kinematics (i.e., paths and speeds) under the minimum-jerk model assumptions and calculated minimal amplitude paths (geodesics) and the corresponding speed profiles. The authors also calculated hand speeds using the 2/3 power law. They then compared modeled results with the empirical observations. In all, 10 participants moved their hands forward and backward from a common starting position toward 3 targets located within a hemispheric workspace of small or large curvature. Comparisons of modeled observed differences using 2-way RM-ANOVAs showed that movement direction had no clear influence on hand kinetics (p < .05). Workspace curvature affected the hand paths, which seldom followed geodesic lines. Constraining the paths to different curvatures did not affect the hand speed profiles. Minimum-jerk speed profiles closely matched the observations and were superior to those predicted by 2/3 power law (p < .001). The authors conclude that speed and path cannot be unambiguously linked under the minimum-jerk assumption when individuals move the hand in a nonplanar 2-dimensional workspace. In such a case, the hands do not follow geodesic paths, but they preserve the speed profile, regardless of the geometric features of the workspace.
Graham, Tanya; Rose, Diana; Murray, Joanna; Ashworth, Mark; Tylee, André
Objectives To develop user-generated quality standards for young people with mental health problems in primary care using a participatory research model. Methods 50 young people aged 16–25 from community settings and primary care participated in focus groups and interviews about their views and experiences of seeking help for mental health problems in primary care, cofacilitated by young service users and repeated to ensure respondent validation. A second group of young people also aged 16–25 who had sought help for any mental health problem from primary care or secondary care within the last 5 years were trained as focus groups cofacilitators (n=12) developed the quality standards from the qualitative data and participated in four nominal groups (n=28). Results 46 quality standards were developed and ranked by young service users. Agreement was defined as 100% of scores within a two-point region. Group consensus existed for 16 quality standards representing the following aspects of primary care: better advertising and information (three); improved competence through mental health training and skill mix within the practice (two); alternatives to medication (three); improved referral protocol (three); and specific questions and reassurances (five). Alternatives to medication and specific questions and reassurances are aspects of quality which have not been previously reported. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of using participatory research methods in order to develop user-generated quality standards. The development of patient-generated quality standards may offer a more formal method of incorporating the views of service users into quality improvement initiatives. This method can be adapted for generating quality standards applicable to other patient groups. PMID:24920648
According to the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness, consciousness results from the global broadcast of information throughout the brain. The global neuronal workspace is mainly constituted by a fronto-parietal network. The anterior insular cortex is part of this global neuronal workspace, but the function of this region has not yet been defined within the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness. In this review, I hypothesize that the anterior insular cortex implements a cross-modal priority map, the function of which is to determine priorities for the processing of information and subsequent entrance in the global neuronal workspace.
Burke, Anne; McMillan, Jane; Cummins, Lorraine; Thompson, Agnes; Forsyth, Watson; McLellan, James; Snot, Linda; Fraser, Anne; Fraser, Mary; Fulton, Charity; McGrindel, Elizabeth; Gillies, Lorraine; LeFort, Shelley; Miller, Gail; Whitehall, John; Wilson, John; Smith, Janet; Wright, David
A participatory research project was designed to teach eight British adults with learning disabilities about keeping healthy. The development of the project, the recruitment of the participants, and the involvement of the participants in the project are discussed, along with the role of researchers and support workers in participatory research.…
Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.
This report presents results from the research grant entitled Active Control of Robot Manipulators, funded by the Goddard Space Flight Center, under Grant NAG5-780, for the period July 1, 1988 to January 1, 1989. An analysis is presented of a 6 degree-of-freedom robot end-effector built to study telerobotic assembly of NASA hardware in space. Since the end-effector is required to perform high precision motion in a limited workspace, closed-kinematic mechanisms are chosen for its design. A closed-form solution is obtained for the inverse kinematic problem and an iterative procedure employing Newton-Raphson method is proposed to solve the forward kinematic problem. A study of the end-effector workspace results in a general procedure for the workspace determination based on link constraints. Computer simulation results are presented.
Stormark, Kjell Morten
Objective. To describe the design of the developmental project Healthy Future that aims to implement a new evidence-based program for the prevention of childhood obesity and collaboration and sharing of work between specialist and community health care professionals in parts of a county in western Norway. Methods. Comprehensive participatory planning and evaluation (CPPE) process as an action-oriented research approach was chosen, using mixed data sources, mixed methods, and triangulation. Discussion. A bottom-up approach might decrease the barriers when new evidence-based childhood prevention interventions are going to be implemented. It is crucial not only to build partnership and shared understanding, motivation, and vision, but also to consider the frames of the organizations, such as competencies, and time to carry out the interventions at the right level of health care service and adapt to the overweight children and their families needs. Conclusion. The developmental process of new health care programs is complex and multileveled and requires a framework to guide the process. By CPPE approach evidence-based health care practice can be delivered based on research, user knowledge, and provider knowledge in the field of childhood overweight and obesity in a certain context. PMID:23956843
Siozos, Panagiotis; Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Despotakis, Theofanis
In this paper, we identify key challenges faced by computer-based assessment (CBA) in secondary education and we put forward a framework of design considerations: design with the students and teachers, select the most appropriate media platform and plan an evolution rather than a revolution of prior practices. We present the CBA application…
Owens, Christabel; Farrand, Paul; Darvill, Ruth; Emmens, Tobit; Hewis, Elaine; Aitken, Peter
OBJECTIVE To engage a group of people with relevant lived experience in the development of a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm. BACKGROUND Contact-based interventions, such as follow-up letters, postcards and telephone calls, have shown potential to reduce repetition of self-harm in those who present at Accident and Emergency departments. Text messaging offers a low-cost alternative that has not been tested. We set out to develop a text-based intervention. The process of intervention development is rarely reported and little is known about the impact of service user involvement on intervention design. METHOD We held a series of six participatory workshops and invited service users and clinicians to help us work out how to get the right message to the right person at the right time, and to simulate and test prototypes of an intervention. RESULTS Service users rejected both the idea of a generic, 'one size fits all' approach and that of 'audience segmentation', maintaining that text messages could be safe and effective only if individualized. This led us to abandon our original thinking and develop a way of supporting individuals to author their own self-efficacy messages and store them in a personal message bank for withdrawal at times of crisis. CONCLUSIONS This paper highlights both the challenge and the impact of involving consumers at the development stage. Working with those with lived experience requires openness, flexibility and a readiness to abandon or radically revise initial plans, and may have unexpected consequences for intervention design.
Owens, Christabel; Farrand, Paul; Darvill, Ruth; Emmens, Tobit; Hewis, Elaine; Aitken, Peter
Abstract Objective To engage a group of people with relevant lived experience in the development of a text‐messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self‐harm. Background Contact‐based interventions, such as follow‐up letters, postcards and telephone calls, have shown potential to reduce repetition of self‐harm in those who present at Accident and Emergency departments. Text messaging offers a low‐cost alternative that has not been tested. We set out to develop a text‐based intervention. The process of intervention development is rarely reported and little is known about the impact of service user involvement on intervention design. Method We held a series of six participatory workshops and invited service users and clinicians to help us work out how to get the right message to the right person at the right time, and to simulate and test prototypes of an intervention. Results Service users rejected both the idea of a generic, ‘one size fits all’ approach and that of ‘audience segmentation’, maintaining that text messages could be safe and effective only if individualized. This led us to abandon our original thinking and develop a way of supporting individuals to author their own self‐efficacy messages and store them in a personal message bank for withdrawal at times of crisis. Conclusions This paper highlights both the challenge and the impact of involving consumers at the development stage. Working with those with lived experience requires openness, flexibility and a readiness to abandon or radically revise initial plans, and may have unexpected consequences for intervention design. PMID:20860777
Durand, Marie-Anne; Alam, Shama; Grande, Stuart W; Elwyn, Glyn
Objective Women of low socioeconomic status (SES) diagnosed with early stage breast cancer experience decision-making, treatment and outcome disparities. Evidence suggests that decision aids can benefit underserved patients, when tailored to their needs. Our aim was to develop and test the usability, acceptability and accessibility of a pictorial encounter decision aid targeted at women of low SES diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Design Community-based participatory research (CBPR) using think-aloud protocols (phases 1 and 2) and semistructured interviews (phase 3). Setting Underserved community settings (eg, knitting groups, bingo halls, senior centres) and breast clinics. Participants In phase 1, we recruited a convenience sample of clinicians and academics. In phase 2, we targeted women over 40 years of age, of low SES, regardless of breast cancer history, and in phase 3, women of low SES, recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Intervention The pictorial encounter decision aid was derived from an evidence-based table comparing treatment options for breast cancer (http://www.optiongrid.org). Outcome measures We assessed the usability, acceptability and accessibility of the pictorial decision aid prototypes using the think-aloud protocol and semistructured interviews. Results After initial testing of the first prototype with 18 academics and health professionals, new versions were developed and tested with 53 lay individuals in community settings. Usability was high. In response to feedback indicating that the use of cartoon characters was considered insensitive, a picture-only version was developed and tested with 23 lay people in phase 2, and 10 target users in phase 3. Conclusions and relevance Using CBPR methods and iterative user testing cycles improved usability and accessibility, and led to the development of the Picture Option Grid, entirely guided by multiple stakeholder feedback. All women of low SES recently diagnosed with early stage breast
The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…
Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala
Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.
The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity
Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor)
A robotic system includes a robotic mechanism responsive to velocity control signals, and a permissible workspace defined by a convex-polygon boundary. A host machine determines a position of a reference point on the mechanism with respect to the boundary, and includes an algorithm for enforcing the boundary by automatically shaping the velocity control signals as a function of the position, thereby providing smooth and unperturbed operation of the mechanism along the edges and corners of the boundary. The algorithm is suited for application with higher speeds and/or external forces. A host machine includes an algorithm for enforcing the boundary by shaping the velocity control signals as a function of the reference point position, and a hardware module for executing the algorithm. A method for enforcing the convex-polygon boundary is also provided that shapes a velocity control signal via a host machine as a function of the reference point position.
McDowell, Elizabeth V.
The participatory planning process model developed by Peirce Junior College is described in this paper. First, the rationale for shifting from a traditional authoritarian style of institutional leadership to a participatory style which encourages a broader concern for the institution and lessens morale problems is offered. The development of a new…
A participatory approach to adult literacy education aims at getting the learner to function at the highest level of responsibility possible regarding program activities; it demands an active approach. Characteristics of a participatory literacy program include the following: activities that emphasize what learners already know, learners…
Hentz, Gauthier; Charpentier, Isabelle; Renaud, Pierre
In the medical and surgical fields, robotics may be of great interest for safer and more accurate procedures. Space constraints for a robotic assistant are however strict. Therefore, roboticists study non-conventional mechanisms with advantageous size/workspace ratios. The determination of mechanism workspace, and primarily its boundaries, is thus of major importance. This Note builds on boundary equation definition, continuation and automatic differentiation to propose a general, accurate, fast and automated method for the determination of mechanism workspace. The method is illustrated with a planar RRR mechanism and a three-dimensional Orthoglide parallel mechanism.
Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy
Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations.
Han, Jay J.; Kurillo, Gregorij; Abresch, Richard T.; de Bie, Evan; Nicorici, Alina; Bajcsy, Ruzena
Introduction An innovative upper extremity 3D reachable workspace outcome measure acquired using Kinect sensor is applied towards Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). The validity, sensitivity, and clinical meaningfulness of the novel outcome is examined. Methods Upper extremity function assessment (Brooke scale, NeuroQOL questionnaire) and Kinect-based reachable workspace analyses were conducted in 43 individuals with dystrophinopathy (30-DMD, 13-BMD; ages 7–60) and 46 controls (ages 6–68). Results The reachable workspace measure reliably captured a wide-range of upper extremity impairments encountered in both pediatric and adult, as well as ambulatory and non-ambulatory individuals with dystrophinopathy. Reduced reachable workspaces were noted for the dystrophinopathy cohort compared to controls, and they correlated with Brooke grades. Additionally, progressive reduction in reachable workspace directly correlated with worsening ability to perform activities of daily living, as self-reported on the NeuroQOL. Discussion This study demonstrates the utility and potential of the novel sensor-acquired reachable workspace outcome measure in dystrophinopathy. PMID:25597487
Background In the educational sector job demands have intensified, while job resources remained the same. A prolonged disbalance between demands and resources contributes to lowered vitality and heightened need for recovery, eventually resulting in burnout, sickness absence and retention problems. Until now stress management interventions in education focused mostly on strengthening the individual capacity to cope with stress, instead of altering the sources of stress at work at the organizational level. These interventions have been only partly effective in influencing burnout and well-being. Therefore, the “Bottom-up Innovation” project tests a two-phased participatory, primary preventive organizational level intervention (i.e. a participatory action approach) that targets and engages all workers in the primary process of schools. It is hypothesized that participating in the project results in increased occupational self-efficacy and organizational efficacy. The central research question: is an organization focused stress management intervention based on participatory action effective in reducing the need for recovery and enhancing vitality in school employees in comparison to business as usual? Methods/Design The study is designed as a controlled trial with mixed methods and three measurement moments: baseline (quantitative measures), six months and 18 months (quantitative and qualitative measures). At first follow-up short term effects of taking part in the needs assessment (phase 1) will be determined. At second follow-up the long term effects of taking part in the needs assessment will be determined as well as the effects of implemented tailored workplace solutions (phase 2). A process evaluation based on quantitative and qualitative data will shed light on whether, how and why the intervention (does not) work(s). Discussion “Bottom-up Innovation” is a combined effort of the educational sector, intervention providers and researchers. Results will
Zhao, Ziyue; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui
The present scanning system consists of an industrial robot and a line-structured laser sensor which uses the industrial robot as a position instrument to guarantee the accuracy. However, the absolute accuracy of an industrial robot is relatively poor compared with the good repeatability in the manufacturing industry. This paper proposes a novel method using the workspace measurement and positioning system (wMPS) to remedy the lack of accuracy of the industrial robot. In order to guarantee the positioning accuracy of the system, the wMPS which is a laser-based measurement technology designed for large-volume metrology applications is brought in. Benefitting from the wMPS, this system can measure different cell-areas by the line-structured laser sensor and fuse the measurement data of different cell-areas by using the wMPS accurately. The system calibration which is the procedure to acquire and optimize the structure parameters of the scanning system is also stated in detail in this paper. In order to verify the feasibility of the system for scanning the large free-form surface, an experiment is designed to scan the internal surface of the door of a car-body in white. The final results show that the measurement data of the whole measuring areas have been jointed perfectly and there is no mismatch in the figure especially in the hole measuring areas. This experiment has verified the rationality of the system scheme, the correctness and effectiveness of the relevant methods.
Bullock, Ian M; Feix, Thomas; Dollar, Aaron M
Precision manipulation, or moving small objects in the fingertips, is important for daily tasks such as writing and key insertion, as well as medically relevant tasks such as scalpel cuts and surgical teleoperation. While fingertip force coordination has been studied in some detail, few previous works have experimentally studied the kinematics of human precision manipulation with real objects. The present work focuses on studying the effects of varying object size and the number of fingers used on the resulting manipulation workspace, or range of motions that the object can be moved through. To study object size effects, seven bar-shaped objects ranging from 20 to 80 mm length were tested; after scaling object length to the equivalent for a 17.5 cm hand, the peak volume was obtained for 48-59 mm object length range (23% above average), and the minimum volume was obtained for the smallest 17-27 mm range (72% of average). 50 mm and 80 mm circular objects were used to study the effect of using different numbers of fingers; the five-finger manipulation volume dropped to less than half the two-finger volume (p<;0.001). We anticipate these results will be useful in designing devices such as hand held tools, as well as in designing protocols for effectively testing and rehabilitating hand function. Finally, the results can provide a benchmark for the manipulation capability of prosthetic hands.
Shao, Jiejie; Chen, Wenyu; Fu, Xin
Although the parallel mechanisms have the advantages of high accuracy, velocity, stiffness, and payload capacity, the shortcomings of the space utilization and workspace limit the applications in the confined space. A novel 3 degrees of freedom spatial parallel manipulator 3-PSR-O (prismatic-spherical-revolute) is proposed, which possesses a compact architecture and extended workspace while maintaining the inherent advantages of the parallel mechanisms. The direct-inverse position, singularity and workspace are investigated. The mapping method is adopted in the position analysis, and the closed form solution is derived in the form of a six order equation. The singularity analysis of the mechanism is also carried out based on the geometrical constraints, including six singularity boundaries. A feature boundary, which is independent of the prismatic joints' stroke limit, is obtained by integrating the six singularity boundaries. According to the formation of the reachable workspace, a concept of basic workspace is also introduced and presented in the analytical way. By demarcating the basic workspace along the central height with the feature boundary, the reachable workspace can be derived and analyzed more efficiently. Finally, a comparative study on the space utilization between the 3-PSP parallel mechanism and the new mechanism is also presented. The area of feature boundary of the new mechanism is about 140% of the 3-PSP parallel mechanism, while its installation radius is only 1/2 of the 3-PSP parallel mechanism. The proposed parallel mechanism shows great space utilization, and is ideally suited for applications in confined space occasions such as immersion lithography, nano-imprint etc.
Gaventa, John; And Others
The authors present perspectives on the employment of participatory research techniques in three areas: (1) North America (Gaventa); (2) Latin America (de Souza); and (3) Southern Europe (Orefice). Discussion focuses on participatory research strategies for popular groups, purposes and considerations regarding participatory research, and the role…
Wendel, Frederick C.
In order to identify more precisely the extent to which building principals adhere to participatory managerial practices, a study was conducted to assess their attitudes toward selected policies of participatory managerial practices. (Author)
Thibeault, Matthew D.
This article explores how the participatory field can complement and enhance even successful music education programs. The participatory field, part of Thomas Turino's four-field framework, conceptualizes the musical values and practices of societies where musical participation is nearly universal. The participatory field contrasts with the…
Remis, S.J.; Stanisic, M.M. . Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Dept.)
Adding a redundant degree of freedom to the shoulder pointing system complex of an articulated arm subassembly makes it possible to achieve a maximal workspace that is free of singularities. This paper derives a functional constraint between three of the four joints of this new type of arm, achieving a singularity-free workspace encompassing the entire reachable volume between the maximal- and minimal-reach surfaces. The large volume of dexterous workspace is verified by animation of the resulting arm design. Graphical results from the animation are presented comparing the dexterous workspace of this new arm to that of the standard nonredundant articulated arm subassembly such as found in the Puma manipulator.
Fox, Janet; Cater, Melissa
This article provides a critical perspective on the increasing involvement of young people in participatory evaluation as well as identifies the factors to consider when designing a youth-led evaluation project. Through this avenue, young people will increase their participation in organizational development and community change. Youth-led…
McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.
Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…
Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux
This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…
Bocci, Melissa Cochrane
Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) requires students to use language in myriad ways as they define a problem, design and conduct an original research project, disseminate their findings, and take change-seeking actions in their community. YPAR embeds language development in community-centered and cross-disciplinary work and empowers youth…
Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.
This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…
Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)
A method of controlling a robotic manipulator of a force- or impedance-controlled robot within an unstructured workspace includes imposing a saturation limit on a static force applied by the manipulator to its surrounding environment, and may include determining a contact force between the manipulator and an object in the unstructured workspace, and executing a dynamic reflex when the contact force exceeds a threshold to thereby alleviate an inertial impulse not addressed by the saturation limited static force. The method may include calculating a required reflex torque to be imparted by a joint actuator to a robotic joint. A robotic system includes a robotic manipulator having an unstructured workspace and a controller that is electrically connected to the manipulator, and which controls the manipulator using force- or impedance-based commands. The controller, which is also disclosed herein, automatically imposes the saturation limit and may execute the dynamic reflex noted above.
Stoughton, R.S.; Salerno, R.; Canfield, S.; Reinholtz, C.
This paper presents a novel manipulator structure which combines two known parallel manipulator structures--a Stewart Platform (SP), and a double octahedral Variable Geometry Truss (VGT). The combined VGT + SP structure is redundant, using nine actuators to realize six-DOF motion. Combining the two structures allows the translational and orientational workspaces of the two individual structures to sum together to a much larger workspace than is generally achievable with parallel manipulator structures. In addition, the VGT portion of the structure allows the configuration of the Stewart Platform to be changed ``on the fly`` from one with a large workspace to one with high dexterity. A useful application of this structure is at the distal end of a truss-based manipulator, where it can serve as a dexterous wrist while preserving an internal passageway for cabling and/or conveyance systems.
During the process of research and design for OpenNRM, we imagined a place where diverse groups of people and communities could effectively and efficiently collaborate to manage large-scale environmental problems and projects. Our research revealed the need to combine a variety of software components. Users can explore and analyze a topic while simultaneously develop stories and solve problems in a way that the end result is consumable by their colleagues and the general public. To do this we brought together software modules that are typically separate: Document and Asset Management, GIS and Interactive Mapping, WIKI and Information Libraries, Data Catalogs and Services, Project Management Tools and Storytelling templates. These components, along with others are supported by extensive data catalogs (NWIS, Storet, CDEC, Cuahsi), data analysis tools and web services for a turn-key workspace that will allow you to quickly build project communities and data stories. In this presentation we will show you how our investigation into these collaborative efforts are implemented and working for some of our clients, including the State of California's Sacramento San Joaquin Bay-Delta and San Joaquin River Basin. The case study will display the use of the OpenNRM workspace for real time environmental conditions management, data visualization, project operations, environmental restoration, high frequency monitoring and data reporting. We will demonstrate how scientists and policy makers are working together to tell the story of this complicated and divisive system and how they are becoming better managers of that system. Using the genius of web services, we will show you how OpenNRM was designed to allow you to build your own community while easily sharing data stories, project data, monitoring results, document libraries, interactive maps and datasets with others. We will get into more technical detail by presenting how our data interpolation tools can show high frequency
Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi (India).
Participatory research is an approach that calls for a democratic interaction between the researcher and those among whom the research is conducted. While this approach has been implemented with both individuals and groups in a wide variety of settings such as geographic communities, workplace situations, adult learning groups, community issue…
Discusses the use of participatory video in rural underdeveloped countries and describes a video project in Costa Rica that helped farmers with agricultural management and soil erosion problems. Video production considerations are described, and the use of role playing to supplement documentation is explained. (four references) (LRW)
Harman, William T.
Describes and analyzes a participatory approach to budgetary decision-making used by an exemplary high school. In spite of the budgetary forces dividing instructional departments, support units, and administration, an equitable division of resources provided to the school was consistently achieved each year. Includes 29 references. (MLH)
Reid, Alban E.
Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…
Drill, Sabrina L.
Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…
DJALALINIA, Shirin; RAMEZANI TEHRANI, Fahimeh; MALEKAFZALI, Hossein; PEYKARI, Niloofar
Abstract Background In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators. Methods Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held. Results The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs. Conclusion The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers. PMID:26060644
Raffone, Antonino; Srinivasan, Narayanan
While enormous progress has been made to identify neural correlates of consciousness (NCC), crucial NCC aspects are still very controversial. A major hurdle is the lack of an adequate definition and characterization of different aspects of conscious experience and also its relationship to attention and metacognitive processes like monitoring. In this paper, we therefore attempt to develop a unitary theoretical framework for NCC, with an interdependent characterization of endogenous attention, access consciousness, phenomenal awareness, metacognitive consciousness, and a non-referential form of unified consciousness. We advance an adaptive workspace hypothesis about the NCC based on the global workspace model emphasizing transient resonant neurodynamics and prefrontal cortex function, as well as meditation-related characterizations of conscious experiences. In this hypothesis, transient dynamic links within an adaptive coding net in prefrontal cortex, especially in anterior prefrontal cortex, and between it and the rest of the brain, in terms of ongoing intrinsic and long-range signal exchanges, flexibly regulate the interplay between endogenous attention, access consciousness, phenomenal awareness, and metacognitive consciousness processes. Such processes are established in terms of complementary aspects of an ongoing transition between context-sensitive global workspace assemblies, modulated moment-to-moment by body and environment states. Brain regions associated to momentary interoceptive and exteroceptive self-awareness, or first-person experiential perspective as emphasized in open monitoring meditation, play an important modulatory role in adaptive workspace transitions.
Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.
The intent of this study was to investigate 93 doctoral candidates' perceptions and use of an online collaboration workspace and content management server, Microsoft Office SharePoint, for dissertation process. All candidates were enrolled in an Ed.D. programme in the United States. Descriptive statistics demonstrate that candidates frequently use…
Han, Jay J.; de Bie, Evan; Nicorici, Alina; Abresch, Richard T.; Anthonisen, Colleen; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Kurillo, Gregorij; McDonald, Craig M.
Introduction The Kinect-based reachable workspace relative surface area (RSA) is compared with the Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) assessment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods 29 individuals with DMD (ages: 7–23, Brooke: 1–5) underwent both Kinect-based reachable workspace RSA and PUL assessments. RSAs were also collected from 24 age-matched controls. Total and quadrant RSAs were compared with the PUL total, shoulder-, middle-, and distal-dimension scores. Results The total reachable workspace RSA correlated well with the total PUL score (Spearman ρ=−0.602, P<0.001), and with each of the PUL dimensional scores: shoulder (ρ=−0.624, P<0.001), middle (ρ=−0.564, P=0.001), and distal (ρ=−0.630, P<0.001). With quadrant RSA, reachability in a particular quadrant was closely associated with respective PUL dimensional-level function (lateral-upper quadrant for shoulder-, lateral-upper/lower quadrants for middle-, and lateral-lower quadrant for distal-level function). Discussion This study demonstrates concurrent validity of the reachable workspace outcome measure (RSA) with the DMD-specific upper extremity outcome measure (PUL). PMID:26342193
Panda, S.; Mishra, D.; Biswal, B. B.; Tripathy, M.
Robotic manipulators with three-revolute (3R) motions to attain desired positional configurations are very common in industrial robots. The capability of these robots depends largely on the workspace of the manipulator in addition to other parameters. In this study, an evolutionary optimization algorithm based on the foraging behaviour of the Escherichia coli bacteria present in the human intestine is utilized to optimize the workspace volume of a 3R manipulator. The new optimization method is modified from the original algorithm for faster convergence. This method is also useful for optimization problems in a highly constrained environment, such as robot workspace optimization. The new approach for workspace optimization of 3R manipulators is tested using three cases. The test results are compared with standard results available using other optimization algorithms, i.e. the differential evolution algorithm, the genetic algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The present method is found to be superior to the other methods in terms of computational efficiency.
Tungpataratanawong, Somsawas; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa; Katsura, Seiichiro
The motion control paradigm provides sufficient performance in many elementary industrial tasks. However, only stiff motion the robot cannot accommodate the interaction force under constrained motion. In such situation, the robot is required to perform interaction behavior with the environment. The conventional impedance control schemes require force-sensing devices to feedback force signals to the controllers. The force-sensing device is therefore indispensable and the performance of the system also depends on the quality of this device. This paper proposes a novel strategy for force sensor-less impedance control using disturbance observer and dynamic model of the robot to estimate the external force. In motion task, the robust D-PD (derivative-PD) control is used with feedforward inverse-dynamic torque compensation to ensure robustness and high-speed response with flexible joint model. When robot is in contact with environment, the proposed force sensor-less scheme impedance control with inner-loop D-PD control is utilized. D-PD control uses both position and speed as the references to implement the damping and stiffness characteristic of the virtual impedance model. In addition, the gravity and friction force-feedback compensation is computed by the same dynamic model, which is used in external force estimation. The flexible-joint robot model is utilized in both disturbance observer and motion control design. The workspace impedance control for robot interaction with human operator is implemented on the experimental setup three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) robot manipulator to assure the ability and performance of the proposed force sensor-less scheme for flexible-joint industrial robot.
Gray, Ross E.; Fitch, Margaret; Davis, Christine; Phillips, Catherine
Objective To review and discuss issues related to participatory research, as they apply within the arena of cancer control. Design A participatory research study with breast cancer self‐help groups is referred to for description and discussion purposes. That study employed primarily individual and group interviews to assess benefits and limitations of self‐help groups. Settings Four breast cancer self‐help groups in Ontario communities provided the core involvement in the participatory research project. Results The values and practices of mainstream academic research often conflict with those of research emphasizing participation and control of communities under study, leading to a variety of challenges for the latter approaches. Practical constraints faced by many community groups have important implications for participatory research approaches. Conclusions A balance needs to be found for participatory research within cancer control – one that ensures that the core aims of participatory research are maintained, while simultaneously acknowledging the various challenges that make a fully participatory project unrealistic. Steps can be taken to achieve a workable balance. PMID:11281935
Participatory research methods aim to break down the distinction between researchers and the researched. Infants are increasingly being seen as participants in research, but the nature of their participation is being questioned following an increased interest in participatory research with children. This article offers a perspective on…
Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi
This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…
Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Hargrove, Tasha M.
Participatory adult education programs assist individuals to substitute interdependent, mutually beneficial relationships for unrewarding, dependent relationships. Indicators of changes in dependency, however, are absent or imprecise in evaluations of participatory projects. A study explored facets of dependency by relating practitioners'…
McTaggart, Robin, Ed.
The collection of essays in this book illustrate commonalties and differences among the theories, practices, and forms of organization of participatory action research in different countries. Participatory action research expresses the recognition that all research methodologies are implicitly political in nature, and this is reflected in the…
Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.
This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…
Shipp, Stephanie; Bartolone , Lindsay; Peticolas, Laura; Woroner, Morgan; Dalton, Heather; Schwerin, Theresa; Smith, Denise
There is a growing awareness of the need for a scientifically literate public in light of challenges facing society today, and also a growing concern about the preparedness of our future workforce to meet those challenges. Federal priorities for science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education call for improvement of teacher training, increased youth and public engagement, greater involvement of underrepresented populations, and investment in undergraduate and graduate education. How can planetary scientists contribute to these priorities? How can they “make their work and findings comprehensible, appealing, and available to the public” as called for in the Planetary Decadal Survey?NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) workspace provides the SMD E/PO community of practice - scientists and educators funded to conduct SMD E/PO or those using NASA’s science discoveries in E/PO endeavors - with an online environment in which to communicate, collaborate, and coordinate activities, thus helping to increase effectiveness of E/PO efforts. The workspace offers interested scientists avenues to partner with SMD E/PO practitioners and learn about E/PO projects and impacts, as well as to advertise their own efforts to reach a broader audience. Through the workspace, scientists can become aware of opportunities for involvement and explore resources to improve professional practice, including literature reviews of best practices for program impact, mechanisms for engaging diverse audiences, and large- and small-scale program evaluation. Scientists will find “how to” manuals for getting started and increasing impact with public presentations, classroom visits, and other audiences, as well as primers with activity ideas and resources that can augment E/PO interactions with different audiences. The poster will introduce the workspace to interested scientists and highlight pathways to resources of interest that can help
Cowell, Andrew J.; May, Richard A.; Cramer, Nick O.; Matthias Rauterberg
This paper introduces the Human Information Workspace (HISpace) as a test-bed for evaluating new information exploration mechanisms. In moving from dated interaction devices and small computer monitors, we aim to utilize more natural surfaces such as tables and walls as our interaction space. In testing our theories, we have produced a number of gaming applications as test cases. Here, we report on our most popular application, Virtual Hockey.
Holkup, Patricia A.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Salois, Emily Matt; Weinert, Clarann
Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also suggest criteria that will enable evaluation of the project. PMID:15455579
Zhang, L; Gan, J Q; Wang, H
Previous studies have established the importance of the fronto-parietal brain network in the information processing of reasoning. At the level of cortical source analysis, this eletroencepalogram (EEG) study investigates the functional reorganization of the theta-band (4-8Hz) neurocognitive network of mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning. Depending on the dense increase of long-range phase synchronizations in the reasoning process, math-gifted adolescents show more significant adaptive reorganization and enhanced "workspace" configuration in the theta network as compared with average-ability control subjects. The salient areas are mainly located in the anterior cortical vertices of the fronto-parietal network. Further correlation analyses have shown that the enhanced workspace configuration with respect to the global topological metrics of the theta network in math-gifted subjects is correlated with the intensive frontal midline theta (fm theta) response that is related to strong neural effort for cognitive events. These results suggest that by investing more cognitive resources math-gifted adolescents temporally mobilize an enhanced task-related global neuronal workspace, which is manifested as a highly integrated fronto-parietal information processing network during the reasoning process.
de Bie, Evan; Oskarsson, Bjorn; Joyce, Nanette C; Nicorici, Alina; Kurillo, Gregorij; Han, Jay J
Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal changes in Microsoft Kinect measured upper extremity reachable workspace relative surface area (RSA) versus the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R), ALSFRS-R upper extremity sub-scale and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) in a cohort of patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Ten patients diagnosed with ALS (ages 52-76 years, ALSFRS-R: 8-41 at entry) were tested using single 3D depth sensor, Microsoft Kinect, to measure reachable workspace RSA across five visits spanning one year. Changes in RSA, ALSFRS-R, ALSFRS-R upper extremity sub-scale, and FVC were assessed using a linear mixed model. Results showed that upper lateral quadrant RSA declined significantly in one year by approximately 19% (p <0.01) while all other quadrants and total RSA did not change significantly in this time-period. Simultaneously, ALSFRS-R upper extremity sub-scale worsened significantly by 25% (p <0.01). In conclusion, upper extremity reachable workspace RSA as a novel ALS outcome measure is capable of objectively quantifying declines in upper extremity ability over time in patients with ALS with more granularity than other common outcome measures. RSA may serve as a clinical endpoint for the evaluation of upper extremity targeted therapeutics.
Audette, Michel A.; Kolahi, Ahmad; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gatti, Claudio; Cleary, Kevin
This paper presents on-going research that addresses uncertainty along the Z-axis in image-guided surgery, for applications to large surgical workspaces, including those found in veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine lags human medicine in using image guidance, despite MR and CT data scanning of animals. The positional uncertainty of a surgical tracking device can be modeled as an octahedron with one long axis coinciding with the depth axis of the sensor, where the short axes are determined by pixel resolution and workspace dimensions. The further a 3D point is from this device, the more elongated is this long axis, and the greater the uncertainty along Z of this point's position, in relation to its components along X and Y. Moreover, for a triangulation-based tracker, its position error degrades with the square of distance. Our approach is to use two or more Micron Trackers to communicate with each other, and combine this feature with flexible positioning. Prior knowledge of the type of surgical procedure, and if applicable, the species of animal that determines the scale of the workspace, would allow the surgeon to pre-operatively configure the trackers in the OR for optimal accuracy. Our research also leverages the open-source Image-guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK).
Ada, Alma Flor; And Others
The text of three papers are presented. The first, by Alma Ada Flor, focuses on the question "What is participatory research?" It is suggested that participatory research enriches the knowledge of participants and opens up new topics to them. The nature and theory fundmental to participatory research and the relation of participatory research to…
Pourki, Forouza; Sosa, Horacio
A new feature in the design of smart structures is the capability of the structure to respond autonomously to undesirable phenomena and environment. This capability is often synonymous to the requirement that the structure should assume a set of different geometric shapes or adapt to a set of kinematic constraints to accomplish a maneuver. Systems with these characteristics have been referred to as `shape adaptive' or `variable geometry' structures. The present paper introduces a basis for the kinematics and work space studies of statically deterministic truss structures which are shape adaptive. The difference between these structures and the traditional truss structures, which are merely built to support the weight and may be modelled by finite element methods, is the fact that these variable geometry structures allow for large (and nonlinear) deformations. On the other hand, these structures unlike structures composed of well investigated `four bar mechanisms,' are statically deterministic.
Applies Lev Vygotsky's concept of developmental learning to youth-led evaluation projects and discusses the role of participatory evaluation in supporting youth to move beyond socially determined roles to become active participants in evaluation and their own growth. (SLD)
Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge.
Communication activities in participatory development programs include (1) theater for development in Africa; (2) workshops on cultural identity and politics in Colombia; and (3) Project DELSILIFE, improving the quality of life in Manila. (SK)
Mulenga, Derek C.
Critically examines community development assumptions through historical analysis and mapping of political discourse. Using the methods of Foucault, Said, and Gramsci, demonstrates how participatory research, concerned with releasing people's knowledge through transformation, can expose and resist dominant discourses. (SK)
Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Grier, J.; Gross, N. A.; Buxner, S.; Bartolone, L.; Peticolas, L. M.; Woroner, M.; Schwerin, T. G.
The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums are here to help you get involved in E/PO! The Forums have been developing several online resources to support scientists who are - or who are interested in becoming - involved in E/PO. These include NASA Wavelength, EarthSpace, and the SMD E/PO online community workspace. NASA Wavelength is the one-stop shop of all peer-reviewed NASA education resources to find materials you - or your audiences - can use. Browse by audience (pre-K through 12, higher education, and informal education) or topic, or choose to search for something specific by keyword and audience. http://nasawavelength.org. EarthSpace, an online clearinghouse of Earth and space materials for use in the higher education classroom, is driven by a powerful search engine that allows you to browse the collection of resources by science topic, audience, type of material or key terms. All materials are peer-reviewed before posting, and because all submissions receive a digital object identifier (doi), submitted materials can be listed as publications. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace. The SMD E/PO online community workspace contains many resources for scientists. These include one-page guides on how to get involved, tips on how to make the most of your time spent on E/PO, and sample activities, as well as news on funding, policy, and what's happening in the E/PO community. The workspace also provides scientists and the public pathways to find opportunities for participation in E/PO, to learn about SMD E/PO projects and their impacts, to connect with SMD E/PO practitioners, and to explore resources to improve professional E/PO practice, including literature reviews, information about the Next Generation Science Standards, and best practices in evaluation and engaging diverse audiences. http://smdepo.org.
San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.
Purpose: The paper aims to examine the effect of implementing participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) on the levels of empowerment among the educational stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach, combining the experimental design with empirical surveys, interviews and documentary analysis,…
Harmon, Brook E.; Adams, Swann A.; Scott, Dolores; Gladman, Yvonne S.; Ezell, Bernice; Hebert, James R.
The Dash of Faith pilot used a community-based participatory research approach to design an experiential dietary intervention based in two African-American churches, one intervention and one comparison. Congregation members identified components that were incorporated into 12 weekly and 4 monthly sessions, with a goal of increasing fruit and vegetable and lowering fat intake. At two months, a marginally significant (p=0.07) increase in fruit and vegetable consumption was observed in the intervention group but was not maintained at study conclusion. We propose that these mixed findings may be attributable, in part, to bias introduced by the participatory nature of the design. PMID:23224838
Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca
The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102
Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai Muki; Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D P; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca
The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments.
Stoica, Alin; Pisla, Doina; Andras, Szilaghyi; Gherman, Bogdan; Gyurka, Bela-Zoltan; Plitea, Nicolae
In the last ten years, due to development in robotic assisted surgery, the minimally invasive surgery has greatly changed. Until now, the vast majority of robots used in surgery, have serial structures. Due to the orientation parallel module, the structure is able to reduce the pressure exerted on the entrance point in the patient's abdominal wall. The parallel robot can also handle both a laparoscope as well an active instrument for different surgical procedures. The advantage of this parallel structure is that the geometric model has been obtained through an analytical approach. The kinematic modelling of a new parallel architecture, the inverse and direct geometric model and the inverse and direct kinematic models for velocities and accelerations are being determined. The paper will demonstrate that with this parallel structure, one can obtain the necessary workspace required for a minimally invasive operation. The robot workspace was generated using the inverse geometric model. An indepth study of different types of singularity is performed, allowing the development of safe control algorithms of the experimental model. Some kinematic simulation results and the experimental model of the robot are presented in the paper.
The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice.
Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F
Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.
Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M.; Pontuschka, Nídia N.; Felipone, Sonia M. N.; dos Santos, Tereza L. F.
Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672
Buneo, Christopher A; Andersen, Richard A
Previous findings suggest the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) contributes to arm movement planning by transforming target and limb position signals into a desired reach vector. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this transformation remain unclear. In the present study we examined the responses of 109 PPC neurons as movements were planned and executed to visual targets presented over a large portion of the reaching workspace. In contrast to previous studies, movements were made without concurrent visual and somatic cues about the starting position of the hand. For comparison, a subset of neurons was also examined with concurrent visual and somatic hand position cues. We found that single cells integrated target and limb position information in a very consistent manner across the reaching workspace. Approximately two-thirds of the neurons with significantly tuned activity (42/61 and 30/46 for left and right workspaces, respectively) coded targets and initial hand positions separably, indicating no hand-centered encoding, whereas the remaining one-third coded targets and hand positions inseparably, in a manner more consistent with the influence of hand-centered coordinates. The responses of both types of neurons were largely invariant with respect to the presence or absence of visual hand position cues, suggesting their corresponding coordinate frames and gain effects were unaffected by cue integration. The results suggest that the PPC uses a consistent scheme for computing reach vectors in different parts of the workspace that is robust to changes in the availability of somatic and visual cues about hand position.
Davey, Bradford Thomas
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of an online workspace component of a community in the work of a community of practice. Much has been studied revealing the importance of communities of practice to organizations, project success, and knowledge management and some of these same successes hold true for virtual communities of…
Yin, Chengjiu; Song, Yanjie; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Hiroaki; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
This paper proposes a conceptual framework, scaffolding participatory simulation for mobile learning (SPSML), used on mobile devices for helping students learn conceptual knowledge in the classroom. As the pedagogical design, the framework adopts an experiential learning model, which consists of five sequential but cyclic steps: the initial stage,…
Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.
Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…
Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell
This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…
Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.
Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…
Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.
The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.
This article adds a voice from Amazonia to the reflective discussion on documentation projects designed within a "participatory" or "collaborative" paradigm of language research. It offers a critical assessment of one such documentation project carried out from 2007-2011 with the Kotiria and Wa'ikhana (East Tukano) language…
Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora; Avitzur, Arnon
Tzur and Simon (2004) postulated 2 stages of development in learning a mathematical concept: participatory and anticipatory. The authors discuss the affordances for research of this stage distinction related to data analysis, task design, and assessment as demonstrated in a 2-year teaching experiment.
Peters, Joe; Matarasso, Michael
A participatory curriculum development process was undertaken to design and implement a university-level, community-based environmental education training course to target behaviors and thus increase the effectiveness of conservation programs in central Vietnam. The process included (1) stakeholder analysis, (2) training needs assessment, (3)…
Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale
Purpose: This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents' competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents. Design and Methods: Seven unit-specific PAR…
Santelli, Betsy; Singer, George H. S.; DiVenere, Nancy; Ginsberg, Connie; Powers, Laurie E.
This article describes a participatory action research (PAR) project designed to evaluate Parent to Parent programs in five states. The process of developing a shared understanding of the program and of the purpose for evaluating them, along with an on-going willingness of parents and researchers to compromise, led to creative solutions to…
Baars, Bernard J; Franklin, Stan
While neural net models have been developed to a high degree of sophistication, they have some drawbacks at a more integrative, "architectural" level of analysis. We describe a "hybrid" cognitive architecture that is implementable in neuronal nets, and which has uniform brainlike features, including activation-passing and highly distributed "codelets," implementable as small-scale neural nets. Empirically, this cognitive architecture accounts qualitatively for the data described by Baars' Global Workspace Theory (GWT), and Franklin's LIDA architecture, including state-of-the-art models of conscious contents in action-planning, Baddeley-style Working Memory, and working models of episodic and semantic longterm memory. These terms are defined both conceptually and empirically for the current theoretical domain. The resulting architecture meets four desirable goals for a unified theory of cognition: practical workability, autonomous agency, a plausible role for conscious cognition, and translatability into plausible neural terms. It also generates testable predictions, both empirical and computational.
Basta, Robert A.; Mehrotra, Rajiv; Varanasi, Murali R.
Collision-free motion of two robot arms in a common workspace is investigated. A collision-free motion is obtained by detecting collisions along the preplanned trajectories using a sphere model for the wrist of each robot and then modifying the paths and/or trajectories of one or both robots to avoid the collision. Detecting and avoiding collisions are based on the premise that: preplanned trajectories of the robots follow a straight line; collisions are restricted to between the wrists of the two robots (which corresponds to the upper three links of PUMA manipulators); and collisions never occur between the beginning points or end points on the straight line paths. The collision detection algorithm is described and some approaches to collision avoidance are discussed.
Shoffner, Michael; Owen, Phillips; Mostafa, Javed; Lamm, Brent; Wang, Xiaoshu; Schmitt, Charles P.; Ahalt, Stanley C.
Clinical data has tremendous value for translational research, but only if security and privacy concerns can be addressed satisfactorily. A collaboration of clinical and informatics teams, including RENCI, NC TraCS, UNC’s School of Information and Library Science, Information Technology Service’s Research Computing and other partners at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have developed a system called the Secure Medical Research Workspace (SMRW) that enables researchers to use clinical data securely for research. SMRW significantly minimizes the risk presented when using of identified clinical data, thereby protecting patients, researchers, and institutions associated with the data. The SMRW is built on a novel combination of virtualization and data leakage protection and can be combined with other protection methodologies and scaled to production levels. PMID:23751029
Jansen-Osmann, Petra; Richter, Stefanie; Konczak, Jürgen; Kalveram, Karl-Theodor
When humans perform goal-directed arm movements under the influence of an external damping force, they learn to adapt to these external dynamics. After removal of the external force field, they reveal kinematic aftereffects that are indicative of a neural controller that still compensates the no longer existing force. Such behavior suggests that the adult human nervous system uses a neural representation of inverse arm dynamics to control upper-extremity motion. Central to the notion of an inverse dynamic model (IDM) is that learning generalizes. Consequently, aftereffects should be observable even in untrained workspace regions. Adults have shown such behavior, but the ontogenetic development of this process remains unclear. This study examines the adaptive behavior of children and investigates whether learning a force field in one hemifield of the right arm workspace has an effect on force adaptation in the other hemifield. Thirty children (aged 6-10 years) and ten adults performed 30 degrees elbow flexion movements under two conditions of external damping (negative and null). We found that learning to compensate an external damping force transferred to the opposite hemifield, which indicates that a model of the limb dynamics rather than an association of visited space and experienced force was acquired. Aftereffects were more pronounced in the younger children and readaptation to a null-force condition was prolonged. This finding is consistent with the view that IDMs in children are imprecise neural representations of the actual arm dynamics. It indicates that the acquisition of IDMs is a developmental achievement and that the human motor system is inherently flexible enough to adapt to any novel force within the limits of the organism's biomechanics.
Kaufman, Sanda; Ozawa, Connie P; Shmueli, Deborah F
Evaluating participatory decision processes serves two key purposes: validating the usefulness of specific interventions for stakeholders, interveners and funders of conflict management processes, and improving practice. However, evaluation design remains challenging, partly because when attempting to serve both purposes we may end up serving neither well. In fact, the better we respond to one, the less we may satisfy the other. Evaluations tend to focus on endogenous factors (e.g., stakeholder selection, BATNAs, mutually beneficial tradeoffs, quality of the intervention, etc.), because we believe that the success of participatory decision processes hinges on them, and they also seem to lend themselves to caeteris paribus statistical comparisons across cases. We argue that context matters too and that contextual differences among specific cases are meaningful enough to undermine conclusions derived solely from comparisons of process-endogenous factors implicitly rooted in the caeteris paribus assumption. We illustrate this argument with an environmental mediation case. We compare data collected about it through surveys geared toward comparability across cases to information elicited through in-depth interviews geared toward case specifics. The surveys, designed by the U.S. Institute of Environmental Conflict Resolution, feed a database of environmental conflicts that can help make the (statistical) case for intervention in environmental conflict management. Our interviews elicit case details - including context - that enable interveners to link context specifics and intervention actions to outcomes. We argue that neither approach can "serve both masters."
OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to estimate the total costs incurred by a comprehensive review of primary health care services in a rural region in South Africa, and to determine which of these costs were incurred because of the participatory research techniques employed by the review. DESIGN: The costing study estimated the direct and indirect costs of each component of the review in order to determine total costs. Costs that were linked to participatory research activities were aggregated separately. SETTING: The review that was costed was conducted in an area that included the former 'homeland' KaNgwane and the adjacent areas of 'white' South Africa, in part of what is now known as Mpumalanga Province. SUBJECTS: Not relevant. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct, indirect, total, research and participation costs were used as outcome measures. RESULTS: Expenditure generated by participatory research techniques was estimated to be almost 14% of the total (direct and indirect) costs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite these costs, participatory research techniques are invaluable in terms of the many benefits they have for a research project. However, because of these costs, it is important that the financing of participatory research should be carefully planned. Projects must budget for the direct costs of participatory techniques, participating organisations and individuals must be committed to bearing the indirect costs of participation, and, increasingly, funders must consider funding these indirect costs. This is important in the South African situation, where public health research relies increasingly on the participation of relevant stakeholders.
Discusses participatory action research, a methodology incorporating subjects in the research and indexing results to transformation in the lives of those involved. The approach is gaining momentum and recognition in academic circles but is often limited to specialized training centers. Two years of experience teaching this approach in social work…
The ideals that are central to action research are not often explicitly addressed in writing about action research and participation. This article argues for a more explicit dialogue about the ideals of participation and how those ideals relate to participatory practices. The lack of such a dialogue can obscure both the process of participation…
Simmons, Nicola; Barnard, Michelle; Fennema, Wendy
In the Fall 2009 term, we participated as students and instructor in a graduate education course modeled after participatory pedagogy. Siemens (2008) defines this approach as "one that does not fully define all curricular needs in advance of interacting with learners...Multiple perspectives, opinions, and active creation on the part of…
Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.
Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…
Heaton, Lorna; Millerand, Florence; Liu, Xiao; Crespel, Élodie
This article provides a case study of a participatory science project that involved collecting observations of a giant grasshopper and registering them online. Our objective is to reflect on conditions for meaningful amateur engagement on Web 2.0 science platforms. Our overall approach is qualitative and ethnographically informed and draws on…
Fletcher, Jack K.
The results of this study indicate that, for the astronomical concepts used, no significant difference in the cognitive domain will occur between the achievement of students who experience a participatory planetarium program and students who experience a traditional lecture-demonstration program. (Author/MK)
Lewis, Rolla E.; Borunda, Rose
The article is a personal and professional account by 2 counselor educators who worked together as professional school counselors in the same high school setting. Both reflect on the "storied" nature of their professional development and define participatory leadership in school counseling as emerging from engagement and participation in…
Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran
There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…
Losh, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Henry
Participatory culture has many mechanisms to support peer-to-peer learning as young people enter interest-driven and friendship-driven networks. In this article, the authors argue that school librarians can help bridge the gap between the excitement of having students experiment with new forms of social learning and new digital-media practices,…
Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…
This article adds to the research on teachers' writing pedagogy. It reviews and challenges the research literature on scaffolding as an instructional practice and presents a more inclusive framework for analysis. As student participation and voice were absent from much of the literature, a participatory scaffolding framework was developed to…
Cassara, Beverly B.
Participatory research began as a reaction to traditional social science research methodology, which tended to make persons into objects of study. It had its beginnings in Tanzania around 1970, when a group of farmers participated in research to assess and solve the problem of losses of grain harvests. The process grew out of the philosophy of…
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) brings young people together with adult researchers to identify, study, and act on relevant social problems. In this chapter, the author draws on examples from a recent YPAR project, called Tracing Transitions, whose aim was to study the impact of school closure on students. After defining YPAR in terms…
This study examined the role of an online workspace component of a community in the work of a community of practice. Much has been studied revealing the importance of communities of practice to organizations, project success, and knowledge management and some of these same successes hold true for virtual communities of practice. Study participants were 75 Education and Public Outreach community members of NASA's Science Mission Directorate Earth Forum. In this mixed methods study, online workspace metrics were used to track participation and a survey completed by 21 members was used to quantify participation. For a more detailed analysis, 15 community members (5 highly active users, 5 average users, and 5 infrequent users) selected based on survey responses, were interviewed. Finally, survey data was gathered from 7 online facilitators to understand their role in the community. Data collected from these 21 community members and 5 facilitating members suggest that highly active users (logging into the workspace daily), were more likely to have transformative experiences, co-create knowledge, feel ownership of community knowledge, have extended opportunities for community exchange, and find new forms of evaluation. Average users shared some similar characteristics with both the highly active members and infrequent users, representing a group in transition as they become more engaged and active in the online workspace. Inactive users viewed the workspace as having little value, being difficult to navigate, being mainly for gaining basic information about events and community news, and as another demand on their time. Results show the online workspace component of the Earth Science Education and Outreach Forum is playing an important and emerging role for this community by supporting knowledge building and knowledge sharing, and growing in value for those that utilizing it more frequently. The evidence suggests that with increased participation or "usage" comes
Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C
Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning.
Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M
Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st
Cahoon, Peter; Forsey, David R.; Hutchison, Susan
During the past five years a high speed ATM network has been developed at UBC that provides a campus testbed, a local testbed to the hospitals, and a National testbed between here and the BADLAB in Ottawa. This testbed has been developed to combine a commercial shared audio/video/whiteboard environment coupled with a shared interactive 3-dimensional solid model. This solid model ranges from a skull reconstructed from a CT scan with muscles and an overlying skin, to a model of the ventricle system of the human brain. Typical interactions among surgeon, radiologist and modeler consist of having image slices of the original scan shared by all and the ability to adjust the surface of the model to conform to each individuals perception of what the final object should look like. The purpose of this interaction can range from forensic reconstruction from partial remains to pre-maxillofacial surgery. A joint project with the forensic unit of the R.C.M.P. in Ottawa using the BADLAB is now in the stages of testing this methodology on a real case beginning with a CT scan of partial remains. A second study underway with the department of Maxiofacial reconstruction at Dalhousie University in Halifax Nova Scotia and concerns a subject who is about to undergo orthognathic surgery, in particular a mandibular advancement. This subject has been MRI scanned, a solid model constructed of the mandible and the virtual surgery constructed on the model. This model and the procedure have been discussed and modified by the modeler and the maxillofacial specialist using these shared workspaces. The procedure will be repeated after the actual surgery to verify the modeled procedure. The advantage of this technique is that none of the specialists need be in the same room, or city. Given the scarcity of time and specialists this methodology shows great promise. In November of this last year a shared live demonstration of this facial modeler was done between Vancouver and Dalhousie University in
Rapport, F L; Doel, M A; Jerzembek, G S
This paper presents a novel, qualitative, bio-photographic study with intertextual analysis highlighting the relationship between community pharmacy workspace and practice. Sixteen pharmacists working across pharmacy types such as independent shops, large and small pharmacy chains and multiple pharmacies such as those in supermarkets participated in data capture and feedback consultation. Findings disclosed workspaces unfit for purpose and a workforce ill at ease with their new professional identity, involving increasingly complex tasks in health provision and retail. There was conflict between delegating to others and taking personal responsibility, and there were pressures from a demanding public within the context of a target-driven, litigious society. The study highlights that innovative, mixed methods in this context reveal nuanced, rich data.
Khanlou, N; Peter, E
This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research (PAR) in relation to ethical review requirements. As a framework for conducting research and reducing health disparities, PAR is gaining increased attention in community and public health research. As a result, PAR researchers and members of Research Ethics Boards could benefit from an increased understanding of the array of ethical concerns that can arise. We discuss these concerns in light of commonly held ethical requirements for clinical research (social or scientific value, scientific validity, fair subject/participant selection, favourable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, informed consent, and respect for potential and enrolled participants) and refer to guidelines specifically developed for participatory research in health promotion. We draw from our community-based experiences in mental health promotion research with immigrant and culturally diverse youth to illustrate the ethical advantages and challenges of applying a PAR approach. We conclude with process suggestions for Research Ethics Boards.
Reflecting the current international trends toward proactive risk assessment and control at work with practical procedures, participatory action-oriented approaches are gaining importance in various sectors. The roles of these approaches in promoting the safety and health at work are discussed based on their recent experiences in preventing work-related risks and improving the quality of work life, particularly in small-scale workplaces. The emphasis placed on the primary prevention at the initiative of workers and managers is commonly notable. Participatory steps, built on local good practices, can lead to many workplace improvements when the focus is on locally feasible low-cost options in multiple aspects. The design and use of locally adjusted action toolkits play a key role in facilitating these improvements in each local situation. The effectiveness of participatory approaches relying on these toolkits is demonstrated by their spread to many sectors and by various intervention studies. In the local context, networks of trainers are essential in sustaining the improvement activities. With the adequate support of networks of trainers trained in the use of these toolkits, participatory approaches will continue to be the key factor for proactive risk management in various work settings.
McDuff, M D
Stakeholder participation has become a key factor in the success of grassroots conservation and natural resource management programs. Yet the majority of program evaluations are conducted by external consultants for the purposes of accountability, rather than program improvement. Too often, systematic evaluations of conservation programs are not conducted at all. The objective of this study was to build the capacity of a grassroots conservation organization to conduct participatory evaluation, involving project stakeholders in the design, implementation, and use of evaluation. The study applied a conceptual model for participatory evaluation to the Wildlife Clubs of Kenya (WCK), the largest grassroots conservation program for youth in Africa, involving more than one million youth since 1968. Seven trainings in participatory evaluation were conducted with WCK staff, teachers, and community members. The 120 participants, representing nine WCK regions with 800 clubs, showed a significant increase in attitudes and knowledge regarding evaluation, as reflected by mean test scores before and after training. To institutionalize evaluation at WCK, existing organizational practices were assessed and used as a foundation for developing an evaluation system. Based on club competitions, a new evaluation initiative was launched called the WCK Incentive Program. Participants in all seven workshops identified indicators and sources of evidence for this evaluation system, which now serves as a basis for rewarding outstanding performance in WCK. This study revealed the importance of incentives for evaluation, the need to build on existing structures to promote organizational learning, and the necessity for the conservation community to commit resources to capacity building in participatory evaluation.
Conrad, Megan O; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A; Schmit, Brian D
Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity.
Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Geisler, Jürgen; Bader, Thomas
System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof- interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were connected to the system.
Pomares, Jorge; Perea, Ivan; García, Gabriel J.; Jara, Carlos A.; Corrales, Juan A.; Torres, Fernando
Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:22163729
Conrad, Megan O.; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A.; Schmit, Brian D.
Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity. PMID:26633892
Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations.
Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.
Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A. J. S.
We propose that participatory GIS (PGIS) activities including participatory urban planning can be made more efficient and effective if spatial reasoning rules are integrated with PGIS tools to simplify engagement for public contributors. Spatial reasoning is used to describe relationships between spatial entities. These relationships can be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively using geometrical algorithms, ontological relations, and topological methods. Semantic web services utilize tools and methods that can facilitate spatial reasoning. GeoSPARQL, introduced by OGC, is a spatial reasoning standard used to make declarations about entities (graphical contributions) that take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple or statement. GeoSPARQL uses three basic methods to infer topological relationships between spatial entities, including: OGC's simple feature topology, RCC8, and the DE-9IM model. While these methods are comprehensive in their ability to define topological relationships between spatial entities, they are often inadequate for defining complex relationships that exist in the spatial realm. Particularly relationships between urban entities, such as those between a bus route, the collection of associated bus stops and their overall surroundings as an urban planning pattern. In this paper we investigate common qualitative spatial reasoning methods as a preliminary step to enhancing the capabilities of GeoSPARQL in an online participatory GIS framework in which reasoning is used to validate plans based on standard patterns that can be found in an efficient/effective urban environment.
Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.
The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory…
Yang, K Wayne
This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math preparation and accelerate students into higher-order math literacy. This study differs from and extends other studies that describe mathematics as a tool for social critique. It considers youth research in and through mathematics as a more ideologically open endeavor in that youth do not simply reproduce predetermined criticisms of social inequality. Thus, this project translates extensive work in critical literacy, new media literacy, and youth participatory action research to a mathematics context.
Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar
The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.
Fisher, Philip A; Ball, Thomas J
Although much social science research has been conducted within American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities, relatively little research has been conducted by or for those communities. We describe an approach that facilitates the active involvement of AIAN communities in the research process, from conceptualizing the issues to be investigated to developing a research design, and from collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data to disseminating the results. The Tribal Participatory Research (TPR) approach is consistent with recent developments in psychology that emphasize the inclusion of community members and the social construction of knowledge. We describe the foundations of the approach and present specific mechanisms that can be employed in collaborations between researchers and AIAN communities. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the use of TPR regarding project timelines and budgets, interpretation of the data, and ultimately the relationships between tribes and researchers.
Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.
The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was
The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) offers an unparalleled opportunity for improving river basin management. Active participation is essential for its delivery. "End-of-pipe" solutions will not deliver the improvements needed to achieve its ambitious goals. This research tested DesignWays, a toolkit for participatory planning, as a mechanism for maximizing the long-term social and environmental benefits of such stakeholder and community participation. It examined the emerging role of "planning for sustainability" in the context of river catchments. Sustainable management of water requires integration, and recognition of interconnections between systems at different levels of scale. This is an endeavour in which systems thinking provides useful tools. The development of DesignWays was a conscious attempt to embed 'new paradigm' living systems metaphors into a practical planning tool. This paper begins with a description of DesignWays and its development in Southern Africa. An outline of the context of the action research in North-West England is followed by a description of the stages of the process, with highlights of the outcomes. This research had two major outcomes: a contribution to theory through an in-depth exploration of the theoretical basis of participatory, ecologically informed design; and a contribution to practice through investigating DesignWays' potential to meet key challenges of the WFD. This research points to the importance of understanding participatory planning as a societal process, aiming to make the process engaging and meaningful. It has pointed to the need to see participatory planning and education for sustainability as an integrated process. It demonstrated the benefits of an iterative process in which planning at the landscape level of scale informs, and is informed by, work at the site level. It has shown that an approach consistent with a living systems paradigm can contribute to the development of more integrated
Maman, Suzanne; Lane, Tim; Ntogwisangu, Jacob; Modiba, Precious; vanRooyen, Heidi; Timbe, Andrew; Visrutaratna, Surasing; Fritz, Katherine
Participatory mapping and transect walks were used to inform the research and intervention design and to begin building community relations in preparation for Project Accept, a community-randomized trial sponsored by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). NIMH Project Accept is being conducted in five sites within four countries including Thailand, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Tanzania. Results from the mapping exercises informed decisions about the research design such as defining community boundaries, and identifying appropriate criteria for matching community pairs for the trial. The mapping also informed intervention related decisions such as where to situate the services. The participatory methods enabled each site to develop an understanding of the communities that could not have been derived from existing data or data collected through standard data collection techniques. Furthermore, the methods lay the foundation for collaborative community research partnerships. PMID:25328451
Reisman, Darcy S; Scholz, John P
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of workspace location on joint coordination in persons with post-stroke hemiparesis when trunk motion was required to complete reaches beyond the arm's functional reach length. Seven subjects with mild right hemiparesis following a stroke and seven age and gender matched control subjects participated. Joint motions and characteristics of hand and trunk movement were measured over multiple repetitions. The variance (across trials) of joint combinations was partitioned into two components at every point in the hand's trajectory using the uncontrolled manifold approach; the first component is a measure of the extent to which equivalent joint combinations are used to control a given hand path, and reflects performance flexibility. The second component of joint variance reflects the use of non-equivalent joint combinations, which lead to hand path error. Compared to the control subjects, persons with hemiparesis demonstrated a significantly greater amount of non-equivalent joint variability related to control of the hand's path and of the hand's position relative to the trunk when reaching toward the hemiparetic side (ipsilaterally), but not when reaching to the less involved side. The relative timing of the hand and trunk was also altered when reaching ipsilaterally. The current findings support the idea that the previously proposed "arm compensatory synergy" may be deficient in subjects with hemiparesis. This deficiency may be due to one or a combination of factors: changes in central commands that are thought to set the gain of the arm compensatory synergy; a limited ability to combine shoulder abduction and elbow extension that limits the expression of an appropriately set arm compensatory synergy; or a reduction of the necessary degrees-of-freedom needed to adequately compensate for poor trunk control when reaching ipsilaterally.
Ritterbusch, Amy E
This paper presents the participatory visual research design and findings from a qualitative assessment of the social impact of bazuco and inhalant/glue consumption among street youth in Bogotá, Colombia. The paper presents the visual methodologies our participatory action research (PAR) team employed in order to identify and overcome the stigmas and discrimination that street youth experience in society and within state-sponsored drug rehabilitation programmes. I call for critical reflection regarding the broad application of the terms 'participation' and 'participatory' in visual research and urge scholars and public health practitioners to consider the transformative potential of PAR for both the research and practice of global public health in general and rehabilitation programmes for street-based substance abuse in Colombia in particular. The paper concludes with recommendations as to how participatory visual methods can be used to promote social inclusion practices and to work against stigma and discrimination in health-related research and within health institutions.
Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.
Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…
Kraai, Ziki; And Others
The use of popular theatre to overcome community development problems in underdeveloped countries through adult education is introduced and its relationship to the concept of participatory research is explored. Material is arranged in four sections. The first of these presents an introduction to popular theatre and participatory research. Stemming…
Irizarry, Jason G.
This article explores youth participatory action research as a promising instructional practice with the potential to reverse the depoliticizing and "softening" of multicultural education. It demonstrates how, with its explicit commitment to action, youth participatory action research can help to improve the educational experiences and…
Much of the literature about participatory learning in schools and libraries is dominated by adult voices. What do sites of participatory learning look like from the student perspective? What does it mean to student learners to develop and apply the four practices of participation--create, circulate, collaborate, and connect? How does…
Hewitt, Lee; And Others
Compiled by a group of teachers new to the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) field, this volume contains writing samples from teachers involved in the participatory approach to ESL classroom instruction. Introductory notes by Lee Hewitt cite the participatory approach as the most compelling method for teaching ESL adult learners. The…
Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth
This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…
Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.
Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in
Akce, Abdullah; Johnson, Miles; Dantsker, Or; Bretl, Timothy
This paper presents an interface for navigating a mobile robot that moves at a fixed speed in a planar workspace, with noisy binary inputs that are obtained asynchronously at low bit-rates from a human user through an electroencephalograph (EEG). The approach is to construct an ordered symbolic language for smooth planar curves and to use these curves as desired paths for a mobile robot. The underlying problem is then to design a communication protocol by which the user can, with vanishing error probability, specify a string in this language using a sequence of inputs. Such a protocol, provided by tools from information theory, relies on a human user's ability to compare smooth curves, just like they can compare strings of text. We demonstrate our interface by performing experiments in which twenty subjects fly a simulated aircraft at a fixed speed and altitude with input only from EEG. Experimental results show that the majority of subjects are able to specify desired paths despite a wide range of errors made in decoding EEG signals.
O'Neill, Geraldine; McMahon, Sinead
Traditional student feedback mechanisms have been criticised for being teacher-centred in design and, in particular, for their absence of transparent follow-up actions. In contrast, this study describes the process and the evaluation of a participatory research and action (PRA) approach used in an undergraduate physiotherapy degree. This approach…
Felt, Laurel J.; Vartabedian, Vanessa; Literat, Ioana; Mehta, Ritesh
This paper discusses the design and implementation of a participatory culture pedagogy in the context of a pilot after-school program at LAUSD's Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools. Ethnographic fieldnotes, instructor and student reflections, photographs, video recordings, and student work illustrate the program's culture of participatory…
Can we learn socially and academically valuable concepts and skills from video games? How can we best teach the "gamer generation?" This accessible book describes how educators and curriculum designers can harness the participatory nature of digital media and play. The author presents a comprehensive model of games and learning that integrates…
Desmarais, Armand; Wiggins, E. Foster
In order to design a participatory governance structure of the Division of Continuing Education and Community Services at Bristol Community College (BCC), the authors surveyed 85 randomly selected community colleges throughout the country; 14 institutions responded. Only two institutions, both in Colorado, seemed to have exemplary shared-authority…
Sterk, B.; Christian, A. K.; Gogan, A. C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.
Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001-2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Baseline data and controls were not available. In…
Mulcahy, Helen; McCarthy, Geraldine
Public health nurses (PHNs) in Ireland are involved with all children and their families for health screening and health education. Nurse/client relationships with vulnerable families are important, yet there is evidence that they are not participatory. Participation in the context of this study implied PHN/client consensus in relation to the needs identified and provided, in conjunction with mutual satisfaction with the level of interpersonal involvement and responses. The primary purpose of this pilot study was to determine similarities in perceptions on participation between nurses and mothers of vulnerable families (n = 44 dyads). A cross-sectional quantitative design was used to investigate the needs identified and provided, as well as satisfaction with the level of involvement and response, from the perspective of both sides of the dyad. There were more similarities than differences in perception found in the dyads, indicating participatory relationships.
Gustafson, Diana L; Brunger, Fern
We consider the work of research ethics boards and funding models for research that at times are incompatible with the relationship building required for feminist participatory action research with a disability community. We explore the barriers that emerged for university- and community-based partners as they asserted individual and collective identities, and negotiated boundaries, access, and power relations in the process of designing and conducting research. This critical reflection contributes to our understanding of the structures of academic research funding, ethics approval, and how problematic conceptualizations of vulnerability embedded in the Tri-Council Policy Statement and research ethics board practices impact on relationship building and the research process. Recommendations for change will be helpful to researchers studying disability, those using participatory action research, and individuals serving on ethics review boards.
Sullivan, Marianne; Bhuyan, Rupaleem; Senturia, Kirsten; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Ciske, Sandy
Participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly recognized as a viable approach to developing relationships with communities and working closely with them to address complex public health problems. In the case of domestic violence research, where ensuring the safety of women participants who are battered is paramount, participatory approaches to research that include advocates and women who are battered in research design, implementation, analysis, and dissemination are critical to successful and mutually beneficial projects. This article presents a case study of a PAR project that conducted formative qualitative research on domestic violence in nine ethnic and sexual minority communities. The article describes the specific ways in which a PAR approach was operationalized and discusses in detail how community participation shaped various stages of the research. Furthermore, specific actions that resulted from the research project are reported.
Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira
This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain.
Debelius, Justine W; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; McDonald, Daniel; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wolfe, Elaine; Knight, Rob
The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond.
Debelius, Justine W.; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; McDonald, Daniel; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wolfe, Elaine; Knight, Rob
The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond. PMID:27047589
This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…
van Manen, S. M.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.; de Moor, M. J.
Communication is key to disaster risk management before, during and after a hazardous event occurs. In this study we used a participatory design approach to increase disaster preparedness levels around Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in collaboration with local communities. We organised five participatory workshops in communities around Turrialba volcano, 2 in February 2014 and a further 3 in May 2014. A total of 101 people attended and participants included the general public, decision makers and relevant government employees. The main finding of the workshops was that people want more information, specifically regarding 1) the activity level at the volcano and 2) how to prepare. In addition, the source of information was identified as an important factor in communication, with credibility and integrity being key. This outcome highlights a communication gap between the communities at risk and the institutions monitoring the volcano, who publish their scientific results monthly. This strong and explicitly expressed desire for more information should be acknowledged and responded to. However, this gives rise to the challenge of how to communicate: how to change the delivery and/or content of the messages already disseminated for greater effectiveness. In our experience, participatory workshops provide a successful mechanism for effective communication. However, critically evaluating the workshops reveals a number of challenges and opportunities, with the former arising from human, cultural and resource factors, specifically the need to develop people's capacity to participate, whereas the latter is predominantly represented by participant empowerment. As disasters are mostly felt at individual, household and community levels, improving communication, not at but with these stakeholders, is an important component of a comprehensive disaster resilience strategy. This work provides an initial insight into the potential value of participatory design approaches for
Poelchau, Monica; Childers, Christopher; Moore, Gary; Tsavatapalli, Vijaya; Evans, Jay; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Lin, Jun-Wei; Hackett, Kevin
The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's genome hosting needs. Any i5k member is encouraged to contact the i5k Workspace with their genome project details. Once submitted, new content will be accessible via organism pages, genome browsers and BLAST search engines, which are implemented via the open-source Tripal framework, a web interface for the underlying Chado database schema. We also implement the Web Apollo software for groups that choose to curate gene models. New content will add to the existing body of 35 arthropod species, which include species relevant for many aspects of arthropod genomic research, including agriculture, invasion biology, systematics, ecology and evolution, and developmental research.
Poelchau, Monica; Childers, Christopher; Moore, Gary; Tsavatapalli, Vijaya; Evans, Jay; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Lin, Jun-Wei; Hackett, Kevin
The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's genome hosting needs. Any i5k member is encouraged to contact the i5k Workspace with their genome project details. Once submitted, new content will be accessible via organism pages, genome browsers and BLAST search engines, which are implemented via the open-source Tripal framework, a web interface for the underlying Chado database schema. We also implement the Web Apollo software for groups that choose to curate gene models. New content will add to the existing body of 35 arthropod species, which include species relevant for many aspects of arthropod genomic research, including agriculture, invasion biology, systematics, ecology and evolution, and developmental research. PMID:25332403
Rauschmayer, Felix . E-mail: email@example.com; Risse, Nathalie . E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is now adopted as a formal procedure in various organisations. Nevertheless, the question of how to choose the most suitable SEA participatory approach for a given situation is far from being resolved. To shed light on this question, we briefly describe several participatory approaches used in environmental management and decision-making. A framework for evaluating these approaches is then adapted to SEA and used to assess the approaches selected. We conclude that participatory approaches within the SEA implementation process need to be chosen more systematically and we put forward our framework as a way of doing so.
Brütt, Anna Levke; Buschmann-Steinhage, Rolf; Kirschning, Silke; Wegscheider, Karl
Shaping one's own life and feeling equal in society is an essential aspect of participation. Based on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Social Security Code IX and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), participation is relevant for the German health system. The cross-sectional discipline of participation research investigates conditions for self-determined and equal participation in society. Research results can reinforce and promote the participation of humans with disabilities. Participation research uses established quantitative and qualitative approaches. Moreover, participatory research is a relevant approach that demands involving persons with disabilities in decisions in the research process. In the future, it will be important to concentrate findings and to connect researchers. The participation research action alliance (Aktionsbündnis Teilhabeforschung), which was established in 2015, aims to make funding accessible as well as strengthen and profile participation research.
Coughlan, E.; Suarez, P.; Mendler de Suarez, J.; Bachofen, C.
While the benefits of multi-disciplinary education have been extolled, there is more to success than producing students who are able to articulate the theorems of all pertinent disciplines. Here, we will describe case studies in which participatory scenario exercises and games can make the difference between memorizing information from an "outside" discipline, and actually internalizing the priorities and complications of the issue from an alien perspective. Case studies include teaching Red Cross community-based volunteers the Probability Distribution Function of seasonal rainfall forecasts, as well as requiring students of Columbia University's Master's Program in Climate and Society to study both natural and social aspects of climate. Games create a model system of the world, in which players assume a role and make decisions with consequences, facing complex feedback loops. Taking such roles catalyzes "AHA" moments that effectively bring home the intricacies of disciplinary paradigms outside of one's own.
Menzel, Susanne; Buchecker, Matthias; Schulz, Tobias
Participatory planning that includes interest groups and municipal representatives has been presented as a means to deal with the increasing difficulty to reach arrangements due to progressively scarce land resources. Under dispute is whether collaborative forms of planning augment social capital or whether they might actually cause the destruction of such a valuable social commodity. In this paper we focus on trust in institution as a specific dimension of social capital because we argue that this is one of the effects the convenors of such participatory planning procedures are most interested in. We pursue a pre-post design and survey advisory group members of five on-going river-related planning processes in Switzerland. Controlling for generalised trust, we investigate how trust in institutions is affected over time by the quality of such processes and the degree of participation they offer. We find that generalised trust is highly correlated with initial levels of trust and so is process quality. Particularly the latter finding challenges the usually assumed direction of causality according to which process quality influences trust building. Additionally, we find a positive (non-significant) effect of process quality on changes in trust, while a higher degree of participation rather seems to hinder trust building. We suppose this indicates that under the conditions of limited time and resources more attention should be paid to how to improve the quality of participatory processes than putting much effort in increasing the degree of participation.
Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B.; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M.; Jackson, Nia T.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D.; Gwede, Clement K.
The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN’s primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships’ priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships’ adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners’ perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability. PMID:25863014
Ramsden, Vivian R; McKay, Shari; Crowe, Jackie
Community-based participatory research approaches are designed to improve health and well-being in communities and to minimize health disparities in general. It is this partnership approach to research that equitably involves community members, organizational representatives and researchers in all aspects of the research process and in which all partners contribute expertise, decision-making and ownership. Further to this, community-based participatory research is utilized to study and address community-identified issues through a collaborative and empowering action-oriented process that builds on the strengths of the community. The results of this research endeavour highlight the need for integrating community-based participatory research, primary health care and social accountability in the pursuit of excellence. The process and the results/findings provide ways that the community are able to enhance their health and wellness, increase capacity and be empowered to direct their education, research and service activities towards addressing and meeting the health priorities of the community.
Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Dickey, Geraldine; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn
The aim of this paper is to present a participatory evaluation of an actual "smart home" project implemented in an independent retirement facility. Using the participatory evaluation process, residents guided the research team through development and implementation of the initial phase of a smart home project designed to assist residents to remain functionally independent and age in place. We recruited nine residents who provided permission to install the technology in their apartments. We conducted a total of 75 interviews and three observational sessions. Residents expressed overall positive perceptions of the sensor technologies and did not feel that these interfered with their daily activities. The process of adoption and acceptance of the sensors included three phases, familiarization, adjustment and curiosity, and full integration. Residents did not express privacy concerns. They provided detailed feedback and suggestions that were integrated into the redesign of the system. They also reported a sense of control resulting from their active involvement in the evaluation process. Observational sessions confirmed that the sensors were not noticeable and residents did not change their routines. The participatory evaluation approach not only empowers end-users but it also allows for the implementation of smart home systems that address residents' needs.
Barley, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Susan; Sikorski, Jim
Background Participation in horticulture and arts may improve wellbeing in those with mental and physical illness. Aim To conduct an in-depth exploration of the views and experience of participants of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project (Sydenham Garden). Design and setting Qualitative interview study of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project in South London. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (referred to as ‘coworkers’) of Sydenham Garden. Seven were female. Participants were aged between 38 and 91 years and had a range of severe mental and physical health problems; most had depression. The interviews were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results Data were overwhelmingly positive concerning participation. Coworkers considered participation in the project to promote wellbeing by providing purposeful and enjoyable activity and interest, improving mood and self-perceptions, and providing an escape from life’s pressures. Being outdoors was considered therapeutic. The most-valued aspect of participation was the social contact derived as a result of it. Many of the coworkers who were interviewed developed transferable skills, including nationally recognised qualifications, which they valued highly. Conclusion Delivery of horticultural therapy and participatory arts is a feasible model for improving wellbeing in patients in primary care who have serious illness. Longer-term studies are needed to address what happens to people after leaving such projects. PMID:22520790
Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M; Jackson, Nia T; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K
The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN's primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships' priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships' adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners' perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability.
Eyre, Laura; Farrelly, Michael; Marshall, Martin
Better integration of care within the health sector and between health and social care is seen in many countries as an essential way of addressing the enduring problems of dwindling resources, changing demographics and unacceptable variation in quality of care. Current research evidence about the effectiveness of integration efforts supports neither the enthusiasm of those promoting and designing integrated care programmes nor the growing efforts of practitioners attempting to integrate care on the ground. In this paper we present a methodological approach, based on the principles of participatory research, that attempts to address this challenge. Participatory approaches are characterised by a desire to use social science methods to solve practical problems and a commitment on the part of researchers to substantive and sustained collaboration with relevant stakeholders. We describe how we applied an emerging practical model of participatory research, the researcher-in-residence model, to evaluate a large-scale integrated care programme in the UK. We propose that the approach added value to the programme in a number of ways: by engaging stakeholders in using established evidence and with the benefits of rigorously evaluating their work, by providing insights for local stakeholders that they were either not familiar with or had not fully considered in relation to the development and implementation of the programme and by challenging established mindsets and norms. While there is still much to learn about the benefits and challenges of applying participatory approaches in the health sector, we demonstrate how using such approaches have the potential to help practitioners integrate care more effectively in their daily practice and help progress the academic study of integrated care.
Baars, Bernard J.; Franklin, Stan; Ramsoy, Thomas Zoega
A global workspace (GW) is a functional hub of binding and propagation in a population of loosely coupled signaling elements. In computational applications, GW architectures recruit many distributed, specialized agents to cooperate in resolving focal ambiguities. In the brain, conscious experiences may reflect a GW function. For animals, the natural world is full of unpredictable dangers and opportunities, suggesting a general adaptive pressure for brains to resolve focal ambiguities quickly and accurately. GW theory aims to understand the differences between conscious and unconscious brain events. In humans and related species the cortico-thalamic (C-T) core is believed to underlie conscious aspects of perception, thinking, learning, feelings of knowing (FOK), felt emotions, visual imagery, working memory, and executive control. Alternative theoretical perspectives are also discussed. The C-T core has many anatomical hubs, but conscious percepts are unitary and internally consistent at any given moment. Over time, conscious contents constitute a very large, open set. This suggests that a brain-based GW capacity cannot be localized in a single anatomical hub. Rather, it should be sought in a functional hub – a dynamic capacity for binding and propagation of neural signals over multiple task-related networks, a kind of neuronal cloud computing. In this view, conscious contents can arise in any region of the C-T core when multiple input streams settle on a winner-take-all equilibrium. The resulting conscious gestalt may ignite an any-to-many broadcast, lasting ∼100–200 ms, and trigger widespread adaptation in previously established networks. To account for the great range of conscious contents over time, the theory suggests an open repertoire of binding1 coalitions that can broadcast via theta/gamma or alpha/gamma phase coupling, like radio channels competing for a narrow frequency band. Conscious moments are thought to hold only 1–4 unrelated items; this
Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.
Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)
Outlines the participatory self-evaluation methods of the People's Participation Programme of the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation. Benefits, six steps for introducing the method, and problems of language, comparability of numbers, and objectivity are described. (SK)
Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John
This paper describes a structured participatory process and associated evaluation protocol developed to detect systems learning by decision makers involved in the management of natural resources. A series of facilitated participatory workshops were conducted to investigate learning when decision makers and influencers were confronted with the multiple, complex interactions arising from decisions concerned with the nexus of water, food and energy security. The participatory process and evaluation of learning were trialled in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), where integrated scientific evidence was systematically presented to challenge existing beliefs concerned with the effectiveness of proposed policy actions and development investments. Consistent with theoretical propositions, individually held values, beliefs and attitudes were deployed as the primary factors (and psychometrics) that underpin and influence environmental management decision making. Observed and statistically significant changes in the three psychometrics expressed by decision makers in response to the facilitated presentation of scientific evidence during the participatory process, provided supportive evidence of systems learning and the evaluation protocol.
Park, Hyun-Sook; Meyer, Luanna; Goetz, Lori
This introductory article discusses the benefits of participatory action research (PAR), including the empowerment of participants in research and the research process, the difficulties PAR presents, and summarizes following articles in a special series on the facets of PAR. (CR)
results in both temporary ( collaboration component) and permanent formats. Structured communication protocols supported by extensive auditing...system is fully deployed in a production environment . Detailed System Design: Collaboration Framework (CF) The Collaboration Framework (CF...Classification Codes (NEC). Establishing a collaborative workspace for each of those classification elements appears feasible since the supported
Ross, Erin; Ali, Alisha; Toner, Brenda
This study gathered data from adolescent girls in four regions (Ottawa, North Bay, Toronto, Windsor) concerning key issues in the prevention of depression in young women. Using a participatory methodology, a team of young women worked with researchers to design and conduct focus groups with 48 adolescent girls across Ontario. Major themes emerging from the focus group data fell into five categories: (a) symptoms, (b) contributing factors, (c) alleviating depression, (d) prevention, and (e) barriers to receiving help. These findings should be considered when designing programs targeting depression in young women in order to maximize the accessibility and effectiveness of such initiatives.
Frauenberger, Christopher; Good, Judith; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine; Iversen, Ole Sejer
The field of Participatory Design (PD) has greatly diversified and we see a broad spectrum of approaches and methodologies emerging. However, to foster its role in designing future interactive technologies, a discussion about accountability and rigour across this spectrum is needed. Rejecting the traditional, positivistic framework, we take inspiration from related fields such as Design Research and Action Research to develop interpretations of these concepts that are rooted in PD׳s own belief system. We argue that unlike in other fields, accountability and rigour are nuanced concepts that are delivered through debate, critique and reflection. A key prerequisite for having such debates is the availability of a language that allows designers, researchers and practitioners to construct solid arguments about the appropriateness of their stances, choices and judgements. To this end, we propose a “tool-to-think-with” that provides such a language by guiding designers, researchers and practitioners through a process of systematic reflection and critical analysis. The tool proposes four lenses to critically reflect on the nature of a PD effort: epistemology, values, stakeholders and outcomes. In a subsequent step, the coherence between the revealed features is analysed and shows whether they pull the project in the same direction or work against each other. Regardless of the flavour of PD, we argue that this coherence of features indicates the level of internal rigour of PD work and that the process of reflection and analysis provides the language to argue for it. We envision our tool to be useful at all stages of PD work: in the planning phase, as part of a reflective practice during the work, and as a means to construct knowledge and advance the field after the fact. We ground our theoretical discussions in a specific PD experience, the ECHOES project, to motivate the tool and to illustrate its workings. PMID:26109833
Participatory Classification in a System for Assessing Multimodal Transportation Patterns Kalyanaraman Shankari Mogeng Yin Randy H. Katz David E...Participatory Classification in a System for Assessing Multimodal Transportation Patterns 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...share, for use by urban planners. With this prototype, we collected 7439 labelled sections from 44 unpaid volunteers over a total period of 3 months
The WORD (Wholeness, Oneness, Righteousness, Deliverance): Design of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an evidence-based weight loss and maintenance intervention translated for a faith-based, rural, African American population using a community-based participatory approach
Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Cornell, Carol E.; Prewitt, Elaine; Bursac, Zoran; Tilford, J. Mick; Turner, Jerome; Eddings, Kenya; Love, ShaRhonda; Whittington, Emily; Harris, Kimberly
Background The positive effects of weight loss on obesity-related risk factors diminish unless weight loss is maintained. Yet little work has focused on the translation of evidence-based weight loss interventions with the aim of sustaining weight loss in underserved populations. Using a community-based participatory approach (CBPR) that engages the strong faith-based social infrastructure characteristic of rural African American communities is a promising way to sustain weight loss in African Americans, who bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic. Objectives Led by a collaborative community-academic partnership, The WORD aims to change dietary and physical activity behaviors to produce and maintain weight loss in rural, African American adults of faith. Design The WORD is a randomized controlled trial with 450 participants nested within 30 churches. All churches will receive a 16-session core weight loss intervention. Half of the churches will be randomized to receive an additional 12-session maintenance component. Methods The WORD is a cultural adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program, whereby small groups will be led by trained church members. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. A detailed cost-effectiveness and process evaluation will be included. Summary The WORD aims to sustain weight loss in rural African Americans. The utilization of a CBPR approach and the engagement of the faith-based social infrastructure of African American communities will maximize the intervention's sustainability. Unique aspects of this trial include the focus on weight loss maintenance and the use of a faith-based CBPR approach in translating evidence-based obesity interventions. PMID:25461496
This practitioner research study investigates the power of multimodal texts within a real-world context and argues that a participatory culture focused on literary arts offers marginalized high school students opportunities for collaborative design and authoring. Additionally, this article invites educators to rethink the at-risk label. This…
Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila
Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.
While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...
Treves, Adrian; Wallace, R B; White, S
Conservation of wildlife is especially challenging when the targeted species damage crops or livestock, attack humans, or take fish or game. Affected communities may retaliate and destroy wildlife or their habitats. We summarize recommendations from the literature for 13 distinct types of interventions to mitigate these human-wildlife conflicts. We classified eight types as direct (reducing the severity or frequency of encounters with wildlife) and five as indirect (raising human tolerance for encounters with wildlife) interventions. We analyzed general cause-and-effect relationships underlying human-wildlife conflicts to clarify the focal point of intervention for each type. To organize the recommendations on interventions we used three standard criteria for feasibility: cost-effective design, wildlife specificity and selectivity, and sociopolitical acceptability. The literature review and the feasibility criteria were integrated as decision support tools in three multistakeholder workshops. The workshops validated and refined our criteria and helped the participants select interventions. Our approach to planning interventions is systematic, uses standard criteria, and optimizes the participation of experts, policy makers, and affected communities. We argue that conservation action generally will be more effective if the relative merits of alternative interventions are evaluated in an explicit, systematic, and participatory manner.
Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.
Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved
Brown, Robin S
Introducing the 'participatory' paradigm associated with the work of transpersonalists Richard Tarnas and Jorge Ferrer, the author outlines an approach to Jung's archetypal thinking that might offer a more adequate basis in which to ground a non-reductive approach to practice. In order to demonstrate the relevance of this outlook at the present time, the author begins by examining recent debates concerning the nature of 'truth' in the clinical setting. Reflecting on the difficulties analysts face in attempting to maintain professional authority without falling into an implicit authoritarianism, it is argued that any approach to therapy seeking to orient itself towards 'the unconscious' must posit the challenges of pluralism as a central concern for practice. With reference to the relationship between analytical psychology and the psychoanalytic mainstream, attention is drawn to the theoretical problems raised by the relational commitment to constructivist epistemologies, and a consequent tendency towards biological reductionism. Turning to the Jungian literature, similar tensions are observed at play in the present state of analytical psychology. Drawing attention to the process-oriented qualities of Jung's work, it is suggested that the speculative nature of Jung's psychology offers a more adequate basis for contemporary practice than might be assumed.
Löfman, Päivi; Pelkonen, Marjaana; Pietilä, Anna-Maija
The purpose of this article is to describe the ethical issues arising out of participatory action research (PAR), on the basis of both an empirical study and the research literature, and to discuss how to deal with these issues. The data consist of the experiences and results of three phases of PAR relating to orthopaedic patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the analysis of 20 articles on the ethics of action research. As a result, the following ethical issues and the ways to treat them were discussed: informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, protecting an individual from harm, the role of the researcher, the location of 'power' in PAR, and the ownership of the research. The flexibility of PAR in use and its main features are also related to the decisions made and actions taken in response to ethical issues. It is particularly important in PAR to proceed according to the participants, and to involve them from the beginning of the process, in order to insure the equal balance of power between participants and researcher.
Rabkin, M T; Avakian, L
In the mid-1980s, the senior management of Boston's Beth Israel Hospital became concerned that continuous cost-cutting efforts could lower the quality of the hospital's services and the morale of its staff. This led them to investigate organizational approaches to "participatory management" to determine whether any of these might be of value to the hospital. They decided that an approach developed in the 1930s called the "Scanlon Plan" would be compatible with the workplace culture of Beth Israel, could help the hospital meet the ongoing problems of change, and could help the staff at all levels develop a sense that they owned the problems of quality, productivity, and efficiency, which would motivate them to address these problems constructively in the face of necessary budget constraints. This plan has two mechanisms to foster employees' positive participation: (1) a process to ensure that all members of the organization have the opportunity to improve productivity, primarily through an open suggestion system and a responsive committee structure, and (2) a means of providing equitable rewards for all members of the organization as productivity and quality improve. This essay describes in some detail the plan and why it was selected, explains how it was adapted, prepared for, and finally implemented in 1989, and reports its success, lessons learned, and future plans as of early 1992. The authors believe Beth Israel's experience with the Scanlon Plan is noteworthy as an example of a leading teaching hospital's taking a quality improvement program seriously and making it work.
Van Staa, AnneLoes; Jedeloo, Susan; Latour, Jos M; Trappenburg, Margo J
Abstract Background Adolescents with chronic conditions are major users of paediatric hospitals, but seldom participate in the evaluation of services or in research. Little is known about the usefulness of the participatory approach in adolescent health research. Objective To evaluate the feasibility, benefits and limitations of a participatory research (PR) project involving chronically ill adolescents as co‐researchers. Design, setting and participants Nine adolescents, aged 15–17 years, acted as co‐researchers in a hospital‐based PR project. They co‐developed an interview protocol and during a disco party held for this purpose interviewed each other and 25 fellow patients (12–19 years). They provided advice on the draft report and participated in the dissemination of the results, but were not involved in the design of the project or analysis of results. Results Involving adolescents in participatory health research was feasible and appreciated by researchers and youth alike, but had its drawbacks too. The peer‐research attracted few participants, the interviews lacked depth and did not yield substantial new insights. Maintaining a high level of participation of the chronically ill co‐researchers also proved difficult. Conclusions Adolescents with chronic conditions like to have a say in the design and evaluation of hospital services. But their participation as co‐researchers demands ample resources from all parties involved without automatically improving research quality. PR does not seem the most effective and efficient way to make services more responsive. We therefore recommend further exploration of other creative and sustainable ways for involving youth in health‐care service development and innovation. PMID:19682098
Jakariya, Md; Bhattacharya, Prosun
A Participatory Geographical Information System (PGIS) has been developed recently to design and adapt Geographic Information System (GIS) that draws on the diversity of experiences associated with "participatory development" and involves communities in the production of GIS data and spatial decision-making tools. Participatory approach in the development of GIS helps to develop local knowledge processes. This knowledge process creates a channel of coordination between local people and the experts. The paper deals with the possibility of using spatial maps in consultation with local communities to develop an effective and sustainable distribution planning to maximize as well as ensure safe water coverage for the arsenic (As) exposed population in Matlab Upazila in southeastern Bangladesh. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods along with GIS were used to obtain relevant information from the field. Participants from different focus-groups were asked to determine their "own priorities" for spatial planning of alternative As-safe drinking water options. The study reveals that about 70% of the alternative safe water options were distributed after consultation with people. These distributed options were found to be superimposed within the existing safe water buffer zones which otherwise could have been avoided and thus increased the safe water coverage if the spatial maps were also consulted before selection of final installation sites. The study based on the community perspectives on demand-based safe water options thus reveals the suitability of using PGIS techniques for rational distribution of safe water options. The process of participatory mapping within focus-groups further makes a platform to enhance information about community needs of suitable safe water options in the study area.
Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.
In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.
Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Hirani, Saima; Shehzad, Shireen; Zaidi, Anita
To achieve health for all, the development of partnerships between community residents and researchers is essential. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) engages community members, uses local knowledge in the understanding of health problems and the design of interventions, and invests community members in the processes and products of research. CBPR pivots on an iterative process of open communication, mutual respect, and power sharing to build community capacity to sustain effective health interventions. This article describes how the tenets of CBPR were applied by a multidisciplinary, international research team of maternal-child health specialists toward better health for women and children in multilingual, multiethnic, low socioeconomic communities in Karachi, Pakistan.
Kwiatkowski, Roy E.
The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.
Nobrega, Suzanne; Kernan, Laura; Plaku-Alakbarova, Bora; Robertson, Michelle; Warren, Nicholas; Henning, Robert
Growing interest in Total Worker Health(®) (TWH) programs to advance worker safety, health and well-being motivated development of a toolkit to guide their implementation. Iterative design of a program toolkit occurred in which participatory ergonomics (PE) served as the primary basis to plan integrated TWH interventions in four diverse organizations. The toolkit provided start-up guides for committee formation and training, and a structured PE process for generating integrated TWH interventions. Process data from program facilitators and participants throughout program implementation were used for iterative toolkit design. Program success depended on organizational commitment to regular design team meetings with a trained facilitator, the availability of subject matter experts on ergonomics and health to support the design process, and retraining whenever committee turnover occurred. A two committee structure (employee Design Team, management Steering Committee) provided advantages over a single, multilevel committee structure, and enhanced the planning, communication, and teamwork skills of participants.
Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole
Participatory simulation (PS) is a method to involve workers in simulating and designing their own future work system. Existing PS studies have focused on analysing the outcome, and minimal attention has been devoted to the process of creating this outcome. In order to study this process, we suggest applying a knowledge creation perspective. The aim of this study was to develop a framework describing the process of how ergonomics knowledge is created in PS. Video recordings from three projects applying PS of hospital work systems constituted the foundation of process mining analysis. The analysis resulted in a framework revealing the sources of ergonomics knowledge creation as sequential relationships between the activities of simulation participants sharing work experiences; experimenting with scenarios; and reflecting on ergonomics consequences. We argue that this framework reveals the hidden steps of PS that are essential when planning and facilitating PS that aims at designing work systems. Practitioner Summary: When facilitating participatory simulation (PS) in work system design, achieving an understanding of the PS process is essential. By applying a knowledge creation perspective and process mining, we investigated the knowledge-creating activities constituting the PS process. The analysis resulted in a framework of the knowledge-creating process in PS.
Bohr, Paula C
Health and safety literature stresses the value of programs aimed at preventing musculoskeletal injuries. The concepts of empowerment learning are often recommended as guidelines for worker education yet these approaches are largely untested. The present study compares the traditional approach involving lecture and discussion with a participatory method. A sample of 102 participants employed at a centralized reservation facility was used. Participants were randomly assigned to either the traditional education group or the participatory education group. Data collection utilized surveys completed by study participants and observational checklists completed by a trained observer. Data were collected prior to intervention and at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Results of data analysis provide no evidence that participatory methods are more effective than traditional methods in encouraging workers to position their work equipment correctly or to maintain good working postures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries.
Harnar, Michael A.
Stakeholder participation in evaluation, where the evaluator engages stakeholders in the process, is prevalent in evaluation practice and is an important focus of evaluation research. Cousins and Whitmore proposed a bifurcation of participatory evaluation into the two streams of transformative participatory and practical participatory evaluation…
This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…
Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.
Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…
Forrest, Stephanie; He, Wenbo; Groat, Michael; Edwards, Benjamin; Horey, James L
Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.
Artous, Sébastien; Zimmermann, Eric; Douissard, Paul-Antoine; Locatelli, Dominique; Motellier, Sylvie; Derrough, Samir
The implementation in many products of manufactured nanoparticles is growing fast and raises new questions. For this purpose, the CEA - NanoSafety Platform is developing various research topics for health and safety, environment and nanoparticles exposure in professional activities. The containment optimisation for the exposition lowering, then the exposure assessment to nanoparticles is a strategy for safety improvement at workplace and workspace. The lowering step consists in an optimisation of dynamic and static containment at workplace and/or workspace. Generally, the exposure risk due to the presence of nanoparticles substances does not allow modifying the parameters of containment at workplace and/or workspace. Therefore, gaseous or nanoparticulate tracers are used to evaluate performances of containment. Using a tracer allows to modify safely the parameters of the dynamic containment (ventilation, flow, speed) and to study several configurations of static containment. Moreover, a tracer allows simulating accidental or incidental situation. As a result, a safety procedure can be written more easily in order to manage this type of situation. The step of measurement and characterization of aerosols can therefore be used to assess the exposition at workplace and workspace. The case of study, aim of this paper, concerns the potential emission of Lead nanoparticles at the exhaust of a furnace in an epitaxy laboratory. The use of Helium tracer to evaluate the performance of containment is firstly studied. Secondly, the exposure assessment is characterised in accordance with the French guide “recommendations for characterizing potential emissions and exposure to aerosols released from nanomaterials in workplace operations”. Thirdly the aerosols are sampled, on several places, using collection membranes to try to detect traces of Lead in air.
Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.
In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together
Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L
We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future.
Deco, Gustavo; Van Hartevelt, Tim J; Fernandes, Henrique M; Stevner, Angus; Kringelbach, Morten L
In order to promote survival through flexible cognition and goal-directed behaviour, the brain has to optimize segregation and integration of information into coherent, distributed dynamical states. Certain organizational features of the brain have been proposed to be essential to facilitate cognitive flexibility, especially hub regions in the so-called rich club which show dense interconnectivity. These structural hubs have been suggested to be vital for integration and segregation of information. Yet, this has not been evaluated in terms of resulting functional temporal dynamics. A complementary measure covering the temporal aspects of functional connectivity could thus bring new insights into a more complete picture of the integrative nature of brain networks. Here, we use causal whole-brain computational modelling to determine the functional dynamical significance of the rich club and compare this to a new measure of the most functionally relevant brain regions for binding information over time ("dynamical workspace of binding nodes"). We found that removal of the iteratively generated workspace of binding nodes impacts significantly more on measures of integration and encoding of information capability than the removal of the rich club regions. While the rich club procedure produced almost half of the binding nodes, the remaining nodes have low degree yet still play a significant role in the workspace essential for binding information over time and as such goes beyond a description of the structural backbone.
Döll, Petra; Romero-Lankao, Patricia
The Earth's future depends on how we manage the manifold risks of climate change (CC). It is state-of-the-art to assume that risk reduction requires participatory management involving a broad range of stakeholders and scientists. However, there is still little knowledge about the optimal design of participatory climate change risk management processes (PRMPs), in particular with respect to considering the multitude of substantial uncertainties that are relevant for PRMPs. To support the many local to regional PRMPs that are necessary for a successful global-scale reduction of CC risks, we present a roadmap for designing such transdisciplinary knowledge integration processes. The roadmap suggests ways in which uncertainties can be comprehensively addressed within a PRMP. We discuss the concept of CC risks and their management and propose an uncertainty framework that distinguishes epistemic, ontological, and linguistic uncertainty as well as ambiguity. Uncertainties relevant for CC risk management are identified. Communicative and modeling methods that support social learning as well as the development of risk management strategies are proposed for each of six phases of a PRMP. Finally, we recommend how to evaluate PRMPs as such evaluations and their publication are paramount for achieving a reduction of CC risks.
Díaz, Cristina; Torres, Yisel; Cruz, Ana Margarita de la; Alvarez, Angel M; Piquero, María Eugenia; Valero, Aida; Fuentes, Omar
Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.
Roby-Brami, Agnès; Robertson, Johanna V G; Roren, Alexandra; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine
This study explored the coordination between the components of the shoulder girdle (clavicle, scapula and humerus), and how they contribute to hand movement in the peri-personal space. Shoulder girdle motion was recorded in 10 healthy subjects during pointing movements to 9 targets in the peri-personal space, using electromagnetic sensors fixed to the trunk, scapula and upper arm. Most of the 9 degrees of freedom (DoF) of the shoulder girdle were finely scaled to target position. Principle component analysis revealed that the 6 DoF of scapula-thoracic motion were coordinated in three elementary patterns (protraction, shrug and lateral rotation). The ratio of gleno-humeral to scapulo-thoracic global motion was close to 2:1. A direct kinematic procedure showed that if no scapular motion occurred, the workspace would be reduced by 15.8 cm laterally, 13.7 cm vertically and 4.8 cm anteriorly. Scapulo-thoracic motion should be taken into account when investigating the physiology of upper-limb movements.
Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.
The paper presents a method for determining the workspace of an industrial robot using an approach consisting in integration a 3D model of an industrial robot with a virtual control system. The robot model with his work environment, prepared for motion simulation, was created in the “Motion Simulation” module of the Siemens PLM NX software. In the mentioned model components of the “link” type were created which map the geometrical form of particular elements of the robot and the components of “joint” type mapping way of cooperation of components of the “link” type. In the paper is proposed the solution in which the control process of a virtual robot is similar to the control process of a real robot using the manual control panel (teach pendant). For this purpose, the control application “JOINT” was created, which provides the manipulation of a virtual robot in accordance with its internal control system. The set of procedures stored in an .xlsx file is the element integrating the 3D robot model working in the CAD/CAE class system with the elaborated control application.
Harris, Carol E.
In the context of information and communication technologies in five Newfoundland coastal communities, this article deals with participatory research and outreach. Outreach in these communities, reeling from the near-collapse of the fishery and struggling to survive in a climate of neo-liberal restructuring, is considered to be a holistic…
de Reuck, John; Joseph, Richard
Discusses universal service policy in telecommunications in Australia in an historical context. Maintains that given the dynamic growth in information technologies, universal service should be reconceptualized within a knowledge-based discourse critically linked to considerations for deepening participatory democracy and that funding should be…
Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Forde, Sarah; Theobald, Sally
This paper describes the process of developing a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy for a Kenyan youth-based NGO. The iterative nature of the study including the process of narrowing down indicators to measure and methods to monitor/evaluate these is well documented. A discussion on the extent to which the process achieved…
Trefz, Steven G.
The "Picturing Lay Ministry" project uses the visual methodology of photovoice as a way of generating participatory laity discernment around the topics of calling, rural ministry, and spiritual gifts. The project involves working with curriculum action research embedded within one-day ministry discernment events for laity. Measurement…
Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…
Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas
Multi-site evaluations are becoming increasingly common in federal funding portfolios. Although much thought has been given to multi-site evaluation, there has been little emphasis on how it might interact with participatory evaluation. Therefore, this paper reviews several National Science Foundation educational, multi-site evaluations for the…
Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca
The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…
Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry
Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…
Dickson, Geraldine; Green, Kathryn L.
Twelve older Aboriginal women in a Canadian city were trained to be co-researchers as part of a participatory health assessment and health promotion project involving 40 such women. Lessons were learned about project ownership, Native perceptions of research, use of traditions, participants' capacity to engage in research and analysis, conflict…
This article expands upon themes addressed in the 2012 CALICO opening plenary that I delivered at the University of Notre Dame. This extended interpretation allows me the opportunity to further explore the nature of participatory human communication and collaboration and offer some clarification of the proposed instructional model for promoting…
Duke, Adrienne M.; Sollie, Donna L.; Silva, Kelcie
We conducted a youth participatory evaluation of a bullying prevention curriculum before the curriculum was implemented in communities. We partnered with youths from a young women leaders' program to reduce the number of lessons in an existing curriculum and determine which activities were likely to have the greatest impact. To evaluate the…
Ashton, Carolyn; Arnold, Mary E.; Wells, Elissa E.
4-H has long emphasized the importance of civic engagement and community service for positive youth development. One pathway to this ideal is youth action research and evaluation. This article demonstrates how participatory youth research and evaluation can lead to the successful implementation of community action projects. It describes the…
Disterheft, Antje; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M.; Filho, Walter Leal; Caeiro, Sandra
Purpose: This paper aims to connect participatory sustainability implementation with sustainability assessment, exploring learning theories, the principles of Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD) and respective indicators applied in the university context. Even though participation is partly considered in existing assessment…
This paper is a course description of a Digital Literacies class offered to both undergraduate and graduate students at an American university. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the pedagogical bones of this course, drawing upon theories of learning in a participatory culture, including a discussion of how, and where, the course fell…
Lyon, Alexandra; Bell, Michael; Croll, Nora Swan; Jackson, Randall; Gratton, Claudio
Justifiably concerned about power dynamics between researchers and participants in participatory research, much of the literature proposes guidelines for including participant voices at every step of the research process. We find these guidelines insufficient for dealing with constraints set up by the social organizational structures in which…
In this article I outline different elements of action research in an attempt to describe and define participatory action research (PAR). There is a lot more material available to readers these days, some of which I will refer you to in this article. I see my role here is to summarise enough of this material to help support your reading of the…
Smith, Justin G.; DuBois, Bryce; Corwin, Jason
This article presents a method for using mind mapping to assess social learning outcomes in collaborative environmental restoration and participatory natural resource management initiatives. Using mind mapping for preassessment and postassessment can reveal changes in individual and collective thinking about critical social and ecological issues.…
Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith
Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…
Jordan, Steven; Stocek, Christine; Mark, Rodney; Matches, Stacy
The paper will present findings from a Social Science and Humanities Research (SSHRC) funded participatory evaluation conducted over the past four years in the Cree nation of Wemindji in Quebec, Canada. COOL (Challenging Our Own Limits) or "Nigawchiisuun" in Cree, was launched in 2003 as part of a broader program of governance…
This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…
Grushka, Kathryn Meyer; Bellette, Aaron; Holbrook, Allyson
This article focuses on the use of Photographic Participatory Inquiry (PPI) in researching the teaching and learning of photography in the e-learning environment. It is an arts-informed method drawing on digital tools to capture collective information as digital artefacts, which can then be accessed and harnessed to build critical and reflective…
Background: The emergence of a participatory culture, brought about mainly by the use of Web2.0 technology, is challenging us to reconsider aspects of teaching and learning. Adapting the learning-as-digital-game-building approach, this paper explores how new educational practices can help students build skills for the 21st century. Purpose: This…
Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy
This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…
Green, Lawrence W.
The author comments on Meredith Minkler's article, "Ethical Challenges for the "Outside" Researcher in Community-Based Participatory Research," Health Education & Behavior 31(6):684-697, 2004 [see EJ824234]. Specifically, this commentary notes along with Minkler that, in relation to the relatively uncharted territory of Community-Based…
Kelley, Deirdre M.
Examines conditions that foster and hinder participatory research using examples from a student research project aimed at drop-out reduction undertaken with students in a "last chance" high school. Concludes that students need to be taken seriously as researchers and potential agents of change. (ACM)
Arvind, Gaysu R.
This article considers the indigenization of democracy in India by conceptualizing participatory deliberative decision-making practice as a tool to strengthen the functioning of local schools and to enhance democratic responsiveness within communities. Drawing on case-studies of bottom-up approaches to school governance, this study examines an…
Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem
This article traces the development of the "second" and arguably more well-known "genre" of participatory action research (PAR). The article argues that the origins of PAR are highly distributed and cannot really be traced back to the ideas of a single person or even a single group of researchers. Instead, the development of…
Dold, Claudia J.; Chapman, Richard A.
Interest in participatory action research (PAR) is rising among academics, researchers, families, and youth themselves who are involved in the system of care. PAR combines systematic research and professional guidance with the development of a practical intervention tailored to the user population in collaboration with the user population. We…
The article focuses on the realisation of participatory evaluation (PE) in national educational evaluation activity. The realisation of PE is examined by adapting the Daigneault and Jacob model (2009; originally Cousins & Whitmore, 1998) to five national-level educational evaluations carried out in Finland. According to the chosen frame of…
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
Rosales, Jennifer Ann
The Echo Park Film Center, a Los Angeles nonprofit media education organization, teaches underprivileged youth how to comprehend and make media in order to empower them to speak and be heard. Due to the organization's nonmainstream media courses and its connection to its community, the Center is able to create a participatory and socially…
Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen
Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…
Jocson, Korina; Rosa, Jonathan; Curwood, Jen Scott
Growing efforts in the study of digital literacies push for continued (re)shaping of policy and pedagogical interventions. In this column, we take up concerns in participatory cultures to revisit a longstanding issue pertaining to language. Evident in the literature on digital literacies is an implicit treatment of language, particularly around…
Northway, Ruth; Hurley, Karen; O'Connor, Chris; Thomas, Helen; Howarth, Joyce; Langley, Emma; Bale, Sue
While recent years have seen an increase in the number of participatory and inclusive research studies being undertaken where people with learning disabilities are active members of the research team, little has been published about how teams decide what to research. This paper aims to fill this gap by discussing how in one area of Wales a…
A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…
Dymond, Stacy K.
This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…
Sitter, Kathleen C.
Using the new conceptual framework of participatory visual media as method, advocacy and voice (MAV), the author explores an action research study using an exemplar in which advocates from the disability community created and distributed a series of videos about love and sexuality as a critical human rights issue in the disability community. The…
Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen
This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…
Taking part in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project was a genuine team effort for the group of people supporting Rose, a primary school student with Asperger syndrome. The following excerpts are from interviews with some of Rose's team. This is a collaborative approach to telling the story of the team's…
Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey
This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…
Lyons, Wanda E.
This participatory action research study engaged classroom teachers, special education teachers, teacher assistants, and a principal in examining and resolving role issues within inclusive classrooms. Analysis of data from multiple sources revealed three predominant findings: (a) when teachers were confronted with role problems, they identified an…
Ruechakul, Prayad; Erawan, Prawit; Siwarom, Manoon
The participatory learning and action: PLA was the process used for empowering in this program. This process has four steps: 1) create awareness, 2) specify problems or needs, 3) act and 4) present and reflect or monitor. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the conditions of communities in terms of context and problems or needs in…
Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole
Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups' high fidelity of room layout and affordance of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models' high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity organization. Furthermore, the study addresses the form of the identified and evaluated conditions, being either identified challenges or tangible design criteria.
Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M
Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives
Demas, Sam; Scherer, Jeffrey A.
Discusses library buildings and their role in building community. Reviews current design trends, including reading and study spaces; collaborative workspaces; technology-free zones; archives and special collections; cultural events spaces; age-specific spaces; shared spaces; natural light and landscapes; and interior design trends. (LRW)
Bibliography  J. Carlson, R. Murphy, and A. Nelson. How UGVs physically fail in the field. IEEE Transactions on Robotics , 21(3):423 – 437, June 2005...Design, 110(1):35–41, 1988.  C. Gosselin and J. Angeles. Singularity analysis of closed-loop kinematic chains. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...locked joint failures. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 13(4):622–629, August 1997.  Jean-Pierre Merlet. Parallel Robots. Kluwer
Triantafyllakos, George; Palaigeorgiou, George; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.
In this paper, we present a framework for the development of collaborative design games that can be employed in participatory design sessions with students for the design of educational applications. The framework is inspired by idea generation theory and the design games literature, and guides the development of board games which, through the use…
Ramsden, Vivian; Martin, Ruth; McMillan, Jennifer; Granger-Brown, Alison; Tole, Brenda
The purpose of this research was to engage, empower and enhance the health and well-being of incarcerated women. The integration of primary health care, community-based participatory research, a settings approach to health promotion, and transformative action research guided the design of this study. A partnership between incarcerated women who became peer-researchers, correctional staff, and academic researchers facilitated the equitable contribution of expertise and decision-making by all partners. The study was conducted in a short sentence (two years or less), minimum/medium security Canadian women's correctional centre. Of the approximately 200 women that joined the research team, 115 participated in writing a 'paragraph of passion' while incarcerated between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Participatory, inductive qualitative, narrative and content analysis were used to illuminate four themes: expertise, transformation, building self-esteem, as well as access and support. The women organized monthly health forums in the prison to share their new knowledge and life experience with other incarcerated women, correctional staff, academics, and community members, and in doing so have built bridges and relationships, some of which have lasted to the present day.
Lykes, M Brinton
This article reports on a small set of community-based participatory projects designed collaboratively by and for survivors directly affected by armed conflict in Guatemala and some of their family members in the North (i.e., in New Orleans, Louisiana, and New England). Local protagonists deeply scarred by war and gross violations of human rights drew on indigenous beliefs and practices, creativity, visual performance arts, and participatory and action research strategies to develop and perform collaborative community-based actions. These initiatives constitute a people's psychosocial praxis. Through their individual and collective narratives and actions, Mayan and African American women and Latinas perform a psychology from the "two-thirds world," one that draws on postcolonial theory and methodology to retheorize trauma and resilience. These voices, creative representations, and actions of women from the Global South transform earlier, partial efforts to decenter EuroAmerican epistemologies underlying dominant models of trauma that reduce complex collective phenomena to individual pathology, refer to continuous trauma as past, are ahistorical, and universalize culturally particular realities.
Jones, Nicholas; McEwen, Lindsey; Parker, Chris; Staddon, Chad
Fluvial geomorphology is recognised as an important consideration in policy and legislation in the management of river catchments. Despite this recognition, limited knowledge exchange occurs between scientific researchers and river management practitioners. An example of this can be found within the limited uptake of numerical models of sediment dynamics by river management practitioners in the United Kingdom. The uptake of these models amongst the applied community is important as they have the potential to articulate how, at the catchment-scale, the impacts of management strategies of land-use change affect sediment dynamics and resulting channel quality. This paper describes and evaluates a new approach which involves river management stakeholders in an iterative and reflexive participatory modelling process. The aim of this approach was to create an environment for knowledge exchange between the stakeholders and the research team in the process of co-constructing a model. This process adopted a multiple case study approach, involving four groups of river catchment stakeholders in the United Kingdom. These stakeholder groups were involved in several stages of the participatory modelling process including: requirements analysis, model design, model development, and model evaluation. Stakeholders have provided input into a number of aspects of the modelling process, such as: data requirements, user interface, modelled processes, model assumptions, model applications, and model outputs. This paper will reflect on this process, in particular: the innovative methods used, data generated, and lessons learnt.
Welk, Gregory J.; Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma
This article describes the conceptual design and evaluation strategies used in the NFL PLAY 60 FITNESSGRAM® Partnership Project, a large participatory research network focused on building effective school physical education programming. The article summarizes the unique participatory design, recruitment methods, programming strategies, and…
Linzalone, Nunzia; Coi, Alessio; Lauriola, Paolo; Luise, Daniela; Pedone, Alessandra; Romizi, Roberto; Sallese, Domenico; Bianchi, Fabrizio
The lack of participatory tools in Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to support decision-makers is a critical factor that negatively affects the impacts of waste policies. This study describes the participatory HIA used in deciding on the possible doubling of the municipal solid waste incinerating plant located near the city of Arezzo, Italy. Within the framework of the new waste management plan, a methodology for the democratic participation of stakeholders was designed adopting the Local Agenda 21 methodology. Communication and participation events with the stakeholders were set up from the plan's development to its implementation. Eleven different categories of stakeholders including individual citizens were involved in 21 local events, reaching over 500 participants in three years. Actions were performed to build the commitment and ownership of the local administrators. Then, together with the environment and health agencies and a representative from the local committees, the local administrators collaborated with scientists and technicians in the knowledge-building and scoping stages. Focus groups of voluntary citizens worked together with the researchers to provide qualitative and quantitative evidence in the assessment stage. Periodic public forums were held to discuss processes, methods and findings. The local government authority considered the HIA results in the final decision and a new waste strategy was adopted both in the short term (increased curbside collection, waste sustainability program) and in the long term (limited repowering of the incinerator, new targets for separate collection). In conclusion, an effective participatory HIA was carried out at the municipal level to support decision makers in the waste management plan. The HIA21 study contributed to evidence-based decisions and to make a broadly participatory experience. The authors are confident that these achievements may improve the governance of the waste cycle and the trust in the public
Gallivan, Jason P; McLean, Adam; Culham, Jody C
In recent years, there has been growing excitement within cognitive neuroscience about the concept of embodiment: How do the capabilities and limitations of our physical bodies affect neural representations in the brain? Neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies show clear evidence that short-term visuomotor experience can influence the encoding of the space around the body in parietal cortex. For example, tool-use may expand the neural representation of peripersonal space. But how is this initial spatial representation influenced by a lifetime of object-related interactions? To examine this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural effects of an individual's hand preferences for acting within peripersonal space. Left- and right-handed participants viewed real-world objects at different locations accessible by either the left hand, right hand, or neither hand. The superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC), an area most often implicated in reaching actions, showed enhanced visual responses for objects located within the range of space in which each group typically acts. Specifically, in right-handers, who strongly prefer grasping with the right hand, SPOC showed strongest activation for objects located within the range of space for the right hand only. In contrast, in left-handers, who use their two hands comparably often in visuomotor tasks, SPOC showed strongest activation for objects located within the range of space of either hand. These findings show that, even in the absence of overt responses, real 3D objects located in the individual's typical workspace for hand actions automatically invoke enhanced responses in associated visuomotor areas of the brain.
Gruner, Charlotte M
This work describes a software platform to support an expandible toolbox for electrophysiology data analysis. The current focus of the toolbox, known as NeuroMAX is spike-sorting and spike-time analysis tools. A key feature of the toolbox is the ability for a user to connect tools into a workspace toolchain in a flexible, intelligent feed-forward manner that allows a tool to use any previously computed data set as input. Tool parameters can be saved and applied to other data sets. Tools and workspaces can be accessed to process data either directly from the MATLAB command line or from the NeuroMAX GUI. This work discusses the object-oriented design of the toolbox, including the data classes, workspace classes, and tool classes created to achieve this functionality.
Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Banas, W.; Sekala, A.; Hryniewicz, P.
The contemporary industry requires that every element of a production line will fit into the global schema, which is connected with the global structure of business. There is the need to find the practical and effective ways of the design and management of the production process. The term “effective” should be understood in a manner that there exists a method, which allows building a system of nodes and relations in order to describe the role of the particular machine in the production process. Among all the machines involved in the manufacturing process, industrial robots are the most complex ones. This complexity is reflected in the realization of elaborated tasks, involving handling, transporting or orienting the objects in a work space, and even performing simple machining processes, such as deburring, grinding, painting, applying adhesives and sealants etc. The robot also performs some activities connected with automatic tool changing and operating the equipment mounted on the wrist of the robot. Because of having the programmable control system, the robot also performs additional activities connected with sensors, vision systems, operating the storages of manipulated objects, tools or grippers, measuring stands, etc. For this reason the description of the robot as a part of production system should take into account the specific nature of this machine: the robot is a substitute of a worker, who performs his tasks in a particular environment. In this case, the model should be able to characterize the essence of "employment" in the sufficient way. One of the possible approaches to this problem is to treat the robot as an object, in the sense often used in computer science. This allows both: to describe certain operations performed on the object, as well as describing the operations performed by the object. This paper focuses mainly on the definition of the object as the model of the robot. This model is confronted with the other possible descriptions. The
Luff, Paul; Kuzuoka, Hideaki; Heath, Christian; Yamazaki, Keiichi; Yamashita, Jun
In this chapter, we discuss a programme of social and technical research that we have undertaken over the last few years concerned with the design, assessment and development of systems to support real-time, distributed work; work that relies upon a participants' ability to access a range of tangible and digital resources. The programme of work has been informed by findings from a range of studies of work and collaboration in environments that include architectural practices, control centres, surgeries, hospitals, news rooms, and the like. These studies have a framework of considerations, criteria, and insights into the organization of everyday work and interaction that have enabled us to identify some of the limitations of con¬ventional media spaces, including systems which we have helped develop, and to pose a set of requirements and challenges, which we believe are fundamental to the creation of a media space that could support the flexible and contingent demands of seemingly simple forms of collaborative work. These studies, coupled with the development and assessment of a series of experimental systems, have enabled us to identify three key issues that we believe have to be addressed and resolved (in one way or another) if media space research is going to achieve its early potential.
Optimization of the production process is an element of the design cycle consisting of: problem definition, modelling, simulation, optimization and implementation. Without the use of simulation techniques, the only thing which could be achieved is larger or smaller improvement of the process, not the optimization (i.e., the best result it is possible to get for the conditions under which the process works). Optimization is generally management actions that are ultimately bring savings in time, resources, and raw materials and improve the performance of a specific process. It does not matter whether it is a service or manufacturing process. Optimizing the savings generated by improving and increasing the efficiency of the processes. Optimization consists primarily of organizational activities that require very little investment, or rely solely on the changing organization of work. Modern companies operating in a market economy shows a significant increase in interest in modern methods of production management and services. This trend is due to the high competitiveness among companies that want to achieve success are forced to continually modify the ways to manage and flexible response to changing demand. Modern methods of production management, not only imply a stable position of the company in the sector, but also influence the improvement of health and safety within the company and contribute to the implementation of more efficient rules for standardization work in the company. This is why in the paper is presented the application of such developed environment like Siemens NX to create the virtual model of a production system and to simulate as well as optimize its work. The analyzed system is the robotized workcell consisting of: machine tools, industrial robots, conveyors, auxiliary equipment and buffers. In the program could be defined the control program realizing the main task in the virtual workcell. It is possible, using this tool, to optimize both the
Pehkonen, Irmeli; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Ketola, Ritva; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Hopsu, Leila; Virtanen, Tuija; Haukka, Eija; Holtari-Leino, Merja; Nykyri, Elina; Riihimäki, Hilkka
We evaluated a participatory ergonomic intervention process applied in 59 municipal kitchens. In groups of three to five kitchens, the workers participated in eight workshops, and generated and evaluated solutions to optimize musculoskeletal load in their work. An ergonomist initiated and supported the process. By the end, 402 changes were implemented. Evaluative data were collected using research diaries, questionnaires, and focus group interviews. The intervention model proved feasible and the participatory approach was mostly experienced as motivating. The workers' knowledge and awareness of ergonomics increased, which improved their ability to tackle ergonomic problems by themselves. The changes in ergonomics were perceived to decrease physical load and improve musculoskeletal health. As hindering factors for implementation, lack of time and motivation, and insufficient financial resources were mentioned. In addition, the workers expressed a wish for more support from the management, technical staff, and ergonomists.
This exploration of the racial power dynamics in a participatory action research project with women who had experienced intimate partner violence discusses the challenges inherent in doing participatory action with antiracist intent and offers suggestions for overcoming these challenges. To engage in this type of research, explicit commitment to the goals of an antiracist intent needs to be shared as widely as possible. Fostering such shared commitment demands that the social locations of all involved be interrogated continuously. Such interrogation, however, needs to be prefaced with understanding that individuals are not representative of particular power positions or social identities or locations and with critical attention to how language and social structures shape racism and other forms of dominance. Being inclusive must be understood as complex and the influence of diverse agendas and perspectives acknowledged and taken into account. In the face of such complexity, "success" in research may need redefinition.
Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.
Ozer, Emily J
Youth-led participatory action research (YPAR) is an approach to scientific inquiry and social change grounded in principles of equity that engages young people in identifying problems relevant to their own lives, conducting research to understand the problems, and advocating for changes based on research evidence. This chapter provides an introduction to YPAR followed by consideration of the (a) developmental relevance of YPAR for marginalized youth, (b) implications of YPAR for developmental science research on inequities experienced by youth, and (c) potential opportunities and impact of YPAR for improving key developmental settings such as schools and youth-serving organizations. Resources for conducting YPAR projects are discussed, as well as the need for potential integration of YPAR and other participatory approaches to engaging youth and their expertise-at a significant enough scale to have a meaningful impact on policies and practices that affect youth development.
The pioneering work of Jean Dausset on the HLA system established several principles that were later reflected in the Human Genome Project and contributed to the foundations of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine. To effectively develop systems medicine, we should take advantage of the lessons of the HLA saga, emphasizing the importance of exploring a fascinating but mysterious biology, now using systems principles, pioneering new technology developments and creating shared biological and information resources. PMID:20804580
de Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze scopes and limits of the use of participatory methodology of evaluation with municipal health managers and administrators. METHODS Qualitative research with health policymakers and managers of the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR – Regional Interagency Commission) of a health region of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Representatives from seven member cities participated in seven workshops facilitated by the researchers, with the aim of assessing a specific problem of the care line, which would be used as a tracer of the system integrality. The analysis of the collected empirical material was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic methodology and aimed at the evaluation of the applied participatory methodology, according to its capacity of promoting a process of assessment capable to be used as a support for municipal management. RESULTS With the participatory approach of evaluation, we were able to promote in-depth discussions with the group, especially related to the construction of integral care and to the inclusion of the user’s perspective in decision-making, linked to the search for solution to concrete problems of managers. By joint exploration, the possibility of using data from electronic information systems was opened, as well as information coming directly from the users of the services, to enhance discussions and negotiations between partners. The participants were disbelievers of the replication potential of this type of evaluation without the direct monitoring of the academy, given the difficulty of organizing the process in everyday life, already taken by emergency and political issues. CONCLUSIONS Evaluations of programs and services carried out within the Regional Interagency Commission, starting from the local interest and facilitating the involvement of its members by the use of participatory methodologies, can contribute to the construction of integral care. To the extent that the act of evaluating stay
This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.
Allen, Barbara L; Cohen, Alison K; Ferrier, Yolaine; Lees, Johanna; Richards, Travis
The Marseille, France, metropolitan area is home to a heavily concentrated industrial region directly adjacent to residential communities. These towns have been subjected to a wide variety of social science and public health studies, but residents continue to have many questions about health concerns for which they currently have primarily anecdotal evidence. Reflecting on our in-progress research in two of these towns, we argue that community-based participatory research that draws from both social science and public health science can be successfully adapted to the French political and cultural context and is key for developing environmental health research that is relevant for community residents and local leaders. Understanding and working within the customs of the local values and practices culture is critical for community-based participatory research regardless of location but is particularly paramount when working in non-United States contexts, since local values and practices will shape the particular techniques used within the community-based participatory research framework.
Groat, Michael; Forrest, Stephanie; Horey, James L; Edwards, Benjamin; He, Wenbo
Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share local and personal data with others to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy is an important consideration, and lack of privacy could discourage widespread adoption of many exciting applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme for multidimensional data which uses negative surveys. Multidimensional data, such as vectors of attributes that include location and environment fields, pose a particular challenge for privacy protection and are common in participatory sensing applications. When reporting data in a negative survey, an individual participant randomly selects a value from the set complement of the sensed data value, once for each dimension, and returns the negative values to a central collection server. Using algorithms described in this paper, the server can reconstruct the probability density functions of the original distributions of sensed values, without knowing the participants actual data. As a consequence, complicated encryption and key management schemes are avoided, conserving energy. We study trade-offs between accuracy and privacy, and their relationships to the number of dimensions, categories, and participants. We introduce dimensional adjustment, a method that reduces the magnification of error associated with earlier work. Two simulation scenarios illustrate how the approach can protect the privacy of a participant's multidimensional data while allowing useful population information to be aggregated.
Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1) How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2) What do pilot tests reveal? 3) How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 μg/ft2), six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active participation of a few
Andrews, Jeannette O; Cox, Melissa J; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha
An earlier investigation by academic and community co-investigators led to the development of the Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Model, which defined major dimensions and key indicators of partnership readiness. As a next step in this process, we used qualitative methods, cognitive pretesting, and expert reviews to develop a working guide, or toolkit, based on the model for academic and community partners to assess and leverage their readiness for CBPR. The 75-page toolkit is designed as a qualitative assessment promoting equal voice and transparent, bi-directional discussions among all the partners. The toolkit is formatted to direct individual partner assessments, followed by team assessments, discussions, and action plans to optimize their goodness of fit, capacity, and operations to conduct CBPR. The toolkit has been piloted with two cohorts in the Medical University of South Carolina's (MUSC) Community Engaged Scholars (CES) Program with promising results from process and outcome evaluation data.
Oden, Kristin; Hernandez, Brigida; Hidalgo, Marco A
The disability community has experienced a long history of segregation and exclusion. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, discriminatory attitudes and behaviors would no longer be tolerated under law. In recent decades, disability researchers have also experienced a shift in how research projects are designed and conducted, with participatory action research (PAR) playing a prominent role. This paper provides an overview of these shifts and presents a qualitative study that explored the extent to which racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities were empowered by a PAR project that aimed to increase the physical accessibility of their communities. Content analysis of individual interviews revealed the following main themes: (1) increased knowledge of disability rights; (2) increased sense of independence; and (3) increased desire to advocate. Implications of this study include the important role that PAR may play in empowering racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities.
Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; Kotejoshyer, Rajashree; Fleishman, Jane; Henning, Robert; Punnett, Laura
Nursing home employees experience high physical and psychosocial workloads, resulting in poor health outcomes. An occupational health/health promotion program, designed to facilitate employee participation, was initiated in three nursing homes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate facilitators and barriers of the program after 3-year implementation. Focus groups with employees and in-depth interviews with top and middle managers were conducted. The Social Ecological Model was used to organize the evaluation. Facilitators and barriers were reported from both managers' and employees' perspectives, and were categorized as intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and corporate level. Management support, financial resources, and release time for participation were identified as the three most important factors. Supports from multiple levels including both human and environment, and managers and employees, are important for a successful participatory occupational health/health promotion program. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 34-42.].
Romano, Nicholas C., Jr.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.; Briggs, Robert O.; Vogel, Douglas R.
Swornowski, Pawel J
The article presents the application of neural networks in determining and correction of the deformation of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) workspace. The information about the CMM errors is acquired using an ADXRS401 electronic gyroscope. A test device (PS-20 module) was built and integrated with a commercial measurement system based on the SP25M passive scanning probe and with a PH10M module (Renishaw). The proposed solution was tested on a Kemco 600 CMM and on a DEA Global Clima CMM. In the former case, correction of the CMM errors was performed using the source code of WinIOS software owned by The Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Cracow, Poland and in the latter on an external PC. Optimum parameters of full and simplified mapping of a given layer of the CMM workspace were determined for practical applications. The proposed method can be employed for the interim check (ISO 10360-2 procedure) or to detect local CMM deformations, occurring when the CMM works at high scanning speeds (>20 mm/s).
Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet; Liu, Qiang; Ju, Bing-Feng; Zhou, Xiaoqin
This paper presents a novel redundantly piezo-actuated three-degree-of-freedom XYθ z compliant mechanism for nano-positioning, driven by four mirror-symmetrically configured piezoelectric actuators (PEAs). By means of differential motion principle, linearized kinematics and physically bi-directional motions in all the three directions are achieved. Meanwhile, the decoupled delivering of three-directional independent motions at the output end is accessible, and the essential parallel and mirror symmetric configuration guarantees large output stiffness, high natural frequencies, high accuracy as well as high structural compactness of the mechanism. Accurate kinematics analysis with consideration of input coupling indicates that the proposed redundantly actuated compliant mechanism can generate three-dimensional (3D) symmetric polyhedral workspace envelope with enlarged reachable workspace, as compared with the most common parallel XYθ z mechanism driven by three PEAs. Keeping a high consistence with both analytical and numerical models, the experimental results show the working ranges of ±6.21 μm and ±12.41 μm in X- and Y-directions, and that of ±873.2 μrad in θ z-direction with nano-positioning capability can be realized. The superior performances and easily achievable structure well facilitate practical applications of the proposed XYθ z compliant mechanism in nano-positioning systems.
Bowen, Simon; Sustar, Helena; Wolstenholme, Daniel; Dearden, Andy
Engaging young people in participatory design can be challenging, particularly in health-related projects. In a study co-designing diabetes support and information services with teenagers, we found framing activities using popular culture was a useful strategy. Various cultural references helped us stage activities that were productive for the design process, and were engaging for our young participants (e.g. exploring practical implications through discussions in a 'Dragons' Den'). Some activities were more effective than others and the idea of language-games, which has been widely explored in participatory design, explains why our strategy was successful when there was a clear 'family resemblance' between the popular cultural references and certain essential stages of designing. However, attention is required in selecting appropriate cultural references if this strategy is adopted elsewhere, and design facilitators should focus first on devising accessible language-games, rather than expecting popular cultural references to provide complete solutions to the challenge of staging participatory design.
den Breejen, Elvira ME; Knijnenburg, Jose M.L; Burgers, Jako S; Hermens, Rosella PMG; Kremer, Jan AM
Background Patient participation is essential in developing high-quality guidelines but faces practical challenges. Evidence on timing, methods, evaluations, and outcomes of methodologies for patient participation in guideline development is lacking. Objective To assess the feasibility of a wiki as a participatory tool for patients in the development of a guideline on infertility determined by (1) use of the wiki (number of page views and visitors), (2) benefits of the wiki (ie, number, content, and eligibility of the recommendations to be integrated into the guideline), and (3) patients’ facilitators of and barriers to adoption, and the potential challenges to be overcome in improving this wiki. Methods To obtain initial content for the wiki, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 12) with infertile patients. Transcripts from the interviews were translated into 90 draft recommendations. These were presented on a wiki. Over 7 months, infertile patients were invited through advertisements or mailings to formulate new or modify existing recommendations. After modifying the recommendations, we asked patients to select their top 5 or top 3 recommendations for each of 5 sections on fertility care. Finally, the guideline development group assessed the eligibility of the final set of recommendations within the scope of the guideline. We used a multimethod evaluation strategy to assess the feasibility of the wiki as a participatory tool for patients in guideline development. Results The wiki attracted 298 unique visitors, yielding 289 recommendations. We assessed the 21 recommendations ranked as the top 5 or top 3 for their eligibility for being integrated into the clinical practice guideline. The evaluation identified some challenges needed to be met to improve the wiki tool, concerning its ease of use, website content and layout, and characteristics of the wiki tool. Conclusions The wiki is a promising and feasible participatory tool for patients in guideline
Parry, Sharon; Straker, Leon; Gilson, Nicholas D.; Smith, Anne J.
Background Occupational sedentary behaviour is an important contributor to overall sedentary risk. There is limited evidence for effective workplace interventions to reduce occupational sedentary time and increase light activity during work hours. The purpose of the study was to determine if participatory workplace interventions could reduce total sedentary time, sustained sedentary time (bouts >30 minutes), increase the frequency of breaks in sedentary time and promote light intensity activity and moderate/vigorous activity (MVPA) during work hours. Methods A randomised controlled trial (ANZCTR number: ACTN12612000743864) was conducted using clerical, call centre and data processing workers (n = 62, aged 25–59 years) in 3 large government organisations in Perth, Australia. Three groups developed interventions with a participatory approach: ‘Active office’ (n = 19), ‘Active Workstation’ and promotion of incidental office activity; ‘Traditional physical activity’ (n = 14), pedometer challenge to increase activity between productive work time and ‘Office ergonomics’ (n = 29), computer workstation design and breaking up computer tasks. Accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X, 7 days) determined sedentary time, sustained sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, light intensity activity and MVPA on work days and during work hours were measured before and following a 12 week intervention period. Results For all participants there was a significant reduction in sedentary time on work days (−1.6%, p = 0.006) and during work hours (−1.7%, p = 0.014) and a significant increase in number of breaks/sedentary hour on work days (0.64, p = 0.005) and during work hours (0.72, p = 0.015); there was a concurrent significant increase in light activity during work hours (1.5%, p = 0.012) and MVPA on work days (0.6%, p = 0.012). Conclusions This study explored novel ways to modify work practices to reduce occupational sedentary
While a science of design (and theory of learning) is certainly useful in design-based research, a participatory design research framework presents an opening for learning scientists to rethink design and learning as processes. Grounded in the autoethnographic investigation of a grassroots organization's design of a local campaign, the author…
An emphasis on personal narratives characterises a great deal of participatory theatre practice with refugee groups. It is important to understand how these narratives are conditioned by bureaucratic performance if practitioners are to avoid re-enactments of victimhood in participatory projects. Bureaucratic performance concerns the legal and…
Saiter, Sean M. Avila
This phenomenological inquiry into the felt experience of participatory sense-making and collaborative presence in small groups explores where and when a common field of resonance is generated among individuals. The experience is named "participatory reality constitution" (PRC). Nine co-participants who met criteria of having experienced…
Mulwa, David M.; Kimosop, Maurice K.; Kasivu, Gedion M.
The purpose of the study was to determine the students' view on participatory school governance in secondary schools of the Eastern region, Kenya. Participatory school governance implies the involvement of stakeholders in the decision making process in schools. The objectives of the study were to identify the key decision makers in selected…
Torre, Maria Elena
Drawing on the intersections of a justice oriented participatory action research and critical race theory, this essay explores the possibilities for research embedded in the theoretical, ethical and methodological overlaps between the two. Using the Echoes project as a case study, a participatory collective of intentionally diverse youth from New…
Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari
This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…
Morales, Marie Paz E.
This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…
Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lim, Gentatsu; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Foo, Schubert
Challenges posed by infectious disease outbreaks have led to a range of participatory mobile phone-based innovations that use the power of crowdsourcing for disease surveillance. However, the dynamics of participatory behavior by crowds in such interventions have yet to be examined. This article reports results from a baseline evaluation of one…
Kahne, Joseph; Hodgin, Erica; Eidman-Aadahl, Elyse
The digital revolution has enabled important changes in political life. Opportunities to engage in "participatory politics" have expanded significantly. Participatory politics differ from institutional politics in that they are peer-based, interactive, and not guided by deference to traditional elites and institutions. These changes…
Chesnay, Catherine T.
An emerging literature has been building bridges between poststructuralism and participatory action research, highlighting the latter's potential for transformative action. Using examples from participative action research projects with incarcerated or previously incarcerated women, this article discusses how participatory action research is a…
Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.
How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…
Orr, Sarah Hunter
"Training the peer facilitator: using participatory theatre to promote engagement in peer education" examines the role of participatory theatre in a peer education setting in relation to the goal of young people engaging and empowering their peers to create new knowledge together. Extending research about the use of applied theatre…
Jill Chouinard, in her article "The Case for Participatory Evaluation in an Era of Accountability" (this issue, p. 237), may be re-iterating what has often been claimed and arguably is infused already in much of our theory and practice: the value of participatory approaches in some, perhaps many situations. She summarizes these claims eloquently…
Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce
We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…
Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia; Lester, Leanne; Midford, Richard; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne
Objective: Participatory learning strategies are integral to the effectiveness of school-based health education programmes; however, use of such methods is not the norm in teaching. The omission of participatory learning strategies is a common form of programme breakdown leading to erosion of positive learning and behavioural outcomes. Based on a…
Imanuel-Noy, Dalia; Wagner, Tili
The research presents a Residency Math teacher education program that has been developed in Israel in search of transforming initial teacher preparation on the Clinical-Participatory continuum. It is a "multi-phase" mixed-method research aiming to present the clinical and participatory dimensions of the TMR: the way in which they are…
Tobias, Evan S.
Knowing how students engage with music outside school music programs can help music educators and their programs evolve. This article offers a look at music teaching and learning in terms of how people are increasingly interacting with music in participatory ways that involve digital technologies and media. This participatory culture offers a…
Vanden Berk, Eric J.; Cassata, Jennifer Coyne; Moye, Melinda J.; Yarbrough, Donald B.; Siddens, Stephanie K.
As an evaluation team trained in educational psychology and committed to participatory evaluation and its evolution, the researchers have found the parallel between evaluator-stakeholder roles in the participatory evaluation process and educator-student roles in educational psychology theory to be important. One advantage then is that the theories…
The recent study Polling for Justice (PFJ) used a multigenerational participatory action research approach with embodied methodologies to document youth experiences of education, criminal justice, and public health in New York City. Through an exploration of the PFJ project, this column demonstrates how participatory action research and embodied…
Tsurkan, Marina V.; Sotskova, Svetlana I.; Aksinina, Olga S.; Lyubarskaya, Maria A.; Tkacheva, Oksana N.
The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need for the advancing of participatory budgeting practice in the Russian Federation. Due to insufficient development of theoretical, scientific, and methodological aspects of the participatory budgeting, very few territories in the Russian Federation use this tool effectively. The most…
Hatley, Richard V.
Discusses the viability of participatory democracy and representative democracy for educational decision-making and argues that pure representative democracy would be preferable to the combination of participatory and representative democracy that now predominates. (Available from the Kansas Association of School Boards, 825 Western, Topeka, KS…
Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin
There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…
Schensul, Jean J.; Berg, Marlene
This article describes a model of participatory action research and service-learning conducted with urban, high school African American, West Indian/Caribbean, and Puerto Rican/Latino youth and adult facilitators, in a nonclassroom setting, in a mid-sized northeastern city. Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) integrates critical theory,…
Peppler, Kylie; Danish, Joshua; Zaitlen, Benjamin; Glosson, Diane; Jacobs, Alexander; Phelps, David
New technologies have enabled students to become active participants in computational simulations of dynamic and complex systems (called Participatory Simulations), providing a "first-person"perspective on complex systems. However, most existing Participatory Simulations have targeted older children, teens, and adults assuming that such concepts…
Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Lewis Ellison, Tisha; Welch, Meghan M.; Allen, Mindy; Bauer, Dennis
This qualitative participatory action research study provides two case studies to demonstrate how teachers in Grades 4 and 6 integrated digital tools into everyday, content-focused classroom instruction. The study demonstrates how teachers' technological pedagogical knowledge might combine with a participatory stance to encourage students to…
In this paper, I respond to the call to articulate experiences of the messy realities of participatory research. I reflect on my engagement and struggle with the realities and ethics of a piece of case study research, which set out with a participatory approach. The project involved a group of young people from an isolated rural community who…
In "Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture" Henry Jenkins defines participatory culture as having "relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement, strong support for creating and sharing with others, and informal mentorship whereby experienced participants pass along knowledge to novices. Members believe their…
Park, Hyun-Sook; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Hoffman, Stacey; Whaley, Susan; Yount, Michael
A study used participatory action research (PAR) to explore social inclusion/relationships at worksites of 10 students (ages 17-21). The participatory intervention process assisted teachers and job coaches in making constructive changes in transition work experience programs to provide social opportunities for students and help them become part of…
Warger, Cynthia; Burnette, Jane
This brief paper defines participatory action research, reviews the literature on its use, and offers examples of how researchers and practitioners are applying principles of participatory action research data to select effective practices and support change and innovation in schools. Generation of data-based strategies in natural environments is…
Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.
Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…
Chouinard, Jill Anne; Cousins, J. Bradley
In this paper, we focus on participatory evaluation in the context of international development and specifically on the emerging empirical knowledge base. In a prior review and critique of research on participatory evaluation (Cousins and Chouinard 2012), we examined 121 studies, with only 21 (17%) situated in development contexts. However, the…
Elwick, Sheena; Sumsion, Jennifer
Drawing on Thomas, Whybrow and Scharber's four participatory perspectives, this paper describes and complicates endeavours to move beyond utilitarian perspectives of infant participation in participatory research. It proposes that film-mediated encounters between researchers and infants have the potential to be more than sites that privilege…
Bhandari, K. P.
Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.
De Stefano, Lucia; Hernández-Mora, Nuria; Iglesias, Ana; Sánchez, Berta
The uncertainty associated with the definition of strategies for climate change adaptation poses a challenge that cannot be faced by science alone. We present a participatory experience where, instead of having science defining solutions and eliciting stakeholders' feedback, local actors actually drove the process. While principles and methods of the approach are easily adaptable to different local contexts, this paper shows the contribution of participatory dynamics to the design of adaptation measures in the biodiversity-rich socio-ecological region surrounding the Doñana wetlands (Southern Spain). During the process, stakeholders and scientists collaboratively designed a common scenario for the future in which to define and assess a portfolio of potential adaptation measures, and found a safe, informal space for open dialogue and information exchange. Through this dialogue, points of connection among local actors emerged around the need for more integrated, transparent design of adaptation measures; for strengthening local capacity; and for strategies to diversify economic activities in order to increase the resilience of the region.
Robertson, Michelle M; Amick, Benjamin C; Hupert, Nathaniel; Pellerin-Dionne, Mary; Cha, Eugene; Katz, Jeffrey N
A participatory approach was used to create a computer ergonomics workshop for college students, incorporating an instructional systems design process and adult learning inquiry perspectives. The primary objective of this participatory ergonomic pilot intervention was to involve students throughout the training design process in solving computer workstation ergonomic problems and adopting healthy computing behaviors. Students' level of participation included becoming part of the training design team, a co-facilitator, or a student trainee. A second objective was to examine the translation of an industrial office ergonomics training program into a college computer ergonomics training program. The long term goal was to reduce upper extremity symptoms and disability. The program was piloted at one private university. The three student trainees significantly increased their knowledge of computer ergonomics from 69% of test items answered correctly pre-training to 82% post-training. Trainees were also successful in conducting computer ergonomic evaluations of students' computing work areas. They achieved 100% accuracy in identifying ergonomic problems and proposing solutions in five ergonomic workstation assessments in the field. This approach was successful in creating a sense of ownership among the student developers and facilitators as reflected in their self-reports during a post-intervention debriefing. The results of this pilot study justify formal controlled trials of this intervention in university students, who will become tomorrow's workers.
Chowdhury, Ataharul Huq; Odame, Helen Hambly; Hauser, Michael
Recent experiences in participatory video-making raise the question of how best to use this medium for enhancing local seed innovation systems. Embedded in a mini-process of participatory action research, two styles of participatory video--scripted and scriptless--were tested and assessed together with farmers and facilitators in Bogra District,…
Moreno-John, Gina; Fleming, Candace; Ford, Marvella E; Lichtenberg, Peter; Mangione, Carole M; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Tilley, Barbara; Washington, Olivia G M; Carrasquillo, Olveen
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been identified as a useful strategy to overcome disparities in minority elders. However, little consensus exists with respect to appropriate CBPR training and mentoring mechanisms. In this paper, we summarize the mentoring activities in each of the six currently funded Resource Centers on Minority Aging Research (RCMAR). In addition to mentoring trainees and/or junior faculty, we also explore the bi-directional mentoring that occurs when faculty at academic health centers develop partnerships with members of their target communities.
Kelly, Patricia J
Advanced practice nurses and nurse researchers with experience in clinical settings may encounter challenges in the initial development and implementation of community-based projects. Participatory action research methodology, a user-friendly framework for community-based research activities, provides a way for researchers and community members to work together to define a problem, take action, and evaluate their work. This article attempts to bridge the theory-implementation gap by describing background steps that researchers can use when conceptualizing and initiating a research project with community partners. Suggestions for initial steps and the planning and review cycles are presented, along with examples from the literature.
Davis, Sally M; Reid, Raymond
The purpose of this article is to explore the historical issues that affect research in American Indian communities and examine the implications of these issues as they relate to culturally sensitive, respectful, and appropriate research with this population. Methods include review and analysis of the literature and examination of our collective experience and that of our colleagues. Recommendations are given for conducting culturally sensitive, participatory research. We conclude that research efforts must build on the establishment of partnerships between investigators and American Indian communities to ensure accurate findings and analyses and to implement culturally relevant benefits. PMID:10195598
Morales-Campos, Daisy Y; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A
Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve physical activity behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of physical activity. The purpose of this article was to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving.
Manderson, L; Mark, T
The authors describe the experience of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and community-based organizations in implementing projects aimed at improving women's health. The study included 16 projects, reflecting Australian NGO experiences in Africa, China, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and South America. They illustrate the value of participatory approaches in determining needs and priorities, and the value of the continued involvement of women in implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Approaches that succeeded in increasing women's access to and use of health services addressed gender issues, set realistic and achievable objectives, and recognized and enhanced the roles and status of women.
Harb, Francine; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Martau, Betina
The diurnal light cycle has a crucial influence on all life on earth. Unfortunately, modern society has modified this life-governing cycle by stressing maximum production and by giving insufficient attention to the ecological balance and homeostasis of the human metabolism. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of exposure or lack of exposure to natural light in a rest/activity rhythm on cortisol and melatonin levels, as well as on psychological variables in humans under natural conditions. This is a cross-sectional study. The subjects were allocated split into two groups according to their workspace (10 employees in the "with window" group and 10 in the "without window" group). All participants were women and wore anactigraph (Actiwatch 2, Philips Respironics), which measures activity and ambient light exposure, for seven days. Concentrations of melatonin and cortisol were measured from the saliva samples. Participants were instructed to collect saliva during the last day of use of the actigraph at 08:00 am, 4:00 pm and 10:00 pm. The subjects answered the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) to measure the presence of minor psychiatric disorders; the Montgomery-Asberg (MA) scale was used to measure depression symptoms, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI) was used to evaluate the quality of sleep. The Rayleigh analysis indicates that the two groups, "with window" an d "without window", exhibited similar activities and light acrophases. In relation to light exposure, the mesor was significantly higher (t = -2.651, p = 0.023) in t he "with window" group (191.04 ± 133.36) than in the "without window" group (73.8 ± 42.05). Additionally, the "with window" group presented the highest amplitude of light exposure (298.07 ± 222.97). Cortisol levels were significantly different between the groups at 10:00 pm (t = 3.009, p = 0.008; "without window" (4.01 ± 0.91) "with window" (3.10 ± 0.30)). In
Background In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs), are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation. Methods/design We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA). We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender) using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area) in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit) to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums. Preliminary findings Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free. Conclusion The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner. PMID:20307290
Buckingham Shum, S.; Aberer, K.; Schmidt, A.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.; Anderson, S.; Charalabidis, Y.; Domingue, J.; de Freitas, S.; Dunwell, I.; Edmonds, B.; Grey, F.; Haklay, M.; Jelasity, M.; Karpištšenko, A.; Kohlhammer, J.; Lewis, J.; Pitt, J.; Sumner, R.; Helbing, D.
The FuturICT project seeks to use the power of big data, analytic models grounded in complexity science, and the collective intelligence they yield for societal benefit. Accordingly, this paper argues that these new tools should not remain the preserve of restricted government, scientific or corporate élites, but be opened up for societal engagement and critique. To democratise such assets as a public good, requires a sustainable ecosystem enabling different kinds of stakeholder in society, including but not limited to, citizens and advocacy groups, school and university students, policy analysts, scientists, software developers, journalists and politicians. Our working name for envisioning a sociotechnical infrastructure capable of engaging such a wide constituency is the Global Participatory Platform (GPP). We consider what it means to develop a GPP at the different levels of data, models and deliberation, motivating a framework for different stakeholders to find their ecological niches at different levels within the system, serving the functions of (i) sensing the environment in order to pool data, (ii) mining the resulting data for patterns in order to model the past/present/future, and (iii) sharing and contesting possible interpretations of what those models might mean, and in a policy context, possible decisions. A research objective is also to apply the concepts and tools of complexity science and social science to the project's own work. We therefore conceive the global participatory platform as a resilient, epistemic ecosystem, whose design will make it capable of self-organization and adaptation to a dynamic environment, and whose structure and contributions are themselves networks of stakeholders, challenges, issues, ideas and arguments whose structure and dynamics can be modelled and analysed.
Kuziemsky, Craig; Astaraky, Davood; Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Andreev, Pavel
Participatory medicine refers to the equal participation of patients and interdisciplinary healthcare team (IHT) members as part of care delivery. Facilitating workflow execution is a significant challenge for participatory medicine because of the need to integrate IHT members into a common workflow. A further challenge is that patient preferences should be considered when executing a workflow. To date there is limited research on supporting patient workflow as part of participatory medicine practices. To address that shortcoming we used a two-phase approach to develop a framework for participatory medicine that integrates different IHT members and workflows including the incorporation of patient preferences about care delivery options. Our framework uses a domain ontology to define the patient, IHT concepts and relations, as well as a workflow for operationalizing participatory medicine via an IHT. Proof of concept of the proposed framework is illustrated with a palliative care pain management case study. PMID:25954390
Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers.
Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer
Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other
Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A.
Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve PA behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of PA. The purpose of this article is to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping (PPM) to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving. PMID:25423243
Salihu, Hamisu M.; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A.; Wang, Wei; Turner, DeAnne; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Zoorob, Roger
Background Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR), the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI) that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00), lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00), and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00). For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00), low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00), and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00). For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00), low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94), and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94). Conclusions This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR. Significance for public health Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been credited to be a promising approach for the reduction of health disparities and as an effective way to create sustainable community outcomes. Priority
Background Since its initiation in 2005, the Harvard Personal Genome Project has enrolled thousands of volunteers interested in publicly sharing their genome, health and trait data. Because these data are highly identifiable, we use an ‘open consent’ framework that purposefully excludes promises about privacy and requires participants to demonstrate comprehension prior to enrollment. Discussion Our model of non-anonymous, public genomes has led us to a highly participatory model of researcher-participant communication and interaction. The participants, who are highly committed volunteers, self-pursue and donate research-relevant datasets, and are actively engaged in conversations with both our staff and other Personal Genome Project participants. We have quantitatively assessed these communications and donations, and report our experiences with returning research-grade whole genome data to participants. We also observe some of the community growth and discussion that has occurred related to our project. Summary We find that public non-anonymous data is valuable and leads to a participatory research model, which we encourage others to consider. The implementation of this model is greatly facilitated by web-based tools and methods and participant education. Project results are long-term proactive participant involvement and the growth of a community that benefits both researchers and participants. PMID:24713084
Wilson, Eric A.
Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become "sustainability natives." Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability-literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenological perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year long professional development experience - commencing with an intense, participatory two-day workshop -the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability. Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top-down and bottom-up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy-in, and excitement vis-a-vis sustainability. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K-12 sustainability coordinators ideally need administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor, or through work with student groups and projects.
Cristancho, María Yanire León
The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems.
Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K
Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.
Yonas, Michael A.; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora
Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and
Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.
Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.
Ekowati, Dian; Hofstee, Carola; Praputra, Andhika Vega; Sheil, Douglas
Participatory Measurement, Reporting and Verification (PMRV), in the context of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with its co-benefits (REDD+) requires sustained monitoring and reporting by community members. This requirement appears challenging and has yet to be achieved. Other successful, long established, community self-monitoring and reporting systems may provide valuable lessons. The Indonesian integrated village healthcare program (Posyandu) was initiated in the 1980s and still provides effective and successful participatory measurement and reporting of child health status across the diverse, and often remote, communities of Indonesia. Posyandu activities focus on the growth and development of children under the age of five by recording their height and weight and reporting these monthly to the Ministry of Health. Here we focus on the local Posyandu personnel (kaders) and their motivations and incentives for contributing. While Posyandu and REDD+ measurement and reporting activities differ, there are sufficient commonalities to draw useful lessons. We find that the Posyandu kaders are motivated by their interests in health care, by their belief that it benefits the community, and by encouragement by local leaders. Recognition from the community, status within the system, training opportunities, competition among communities, and small payments provide incentives to sustain participation. We examine these lessons in the context of REDD+.
Chang, Charlotte; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pam Tau; Liu, Shaw San; Tom, Alex T; Morales, Alvaro; Baker, Robin; Minkler, Meredith
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly being used to better understand and improve the health of diverse communities. A key strength of this research orientation is its adaptability to community contexts and characteristics. To date, however, few studies explicitly discuss adaptations made to CBPR principles and processes in response to community context and partners' needs. Using data from our CBPR study, the San Francisco Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Project, and drawing from literature on immigrant political incorporation, we examine the links between the contexts of the Chinese immigrant worker community, adaptations made by our collaborative, and study outcomes. In particular, we explore the concepts of contexts of reception and participatory starting points, which may be especially relevant for partnerships with immigrant communities whose members have historically had lower rates of civic and political participation in the US. We discuss contextual findings such as worker partner accounts of language barriers, economic and social marginalization, and civic skills and participation, as well as subsequent adaptations made by the partnership. We also describe the relative effectiveness of these adaptations in yielding equitable participation and building partners' capacity. We conclude by sharing lessons learned and their implications for CBPR and partnerships with immigrant communities more broadly.
Ekowati, Dian; Hofstee, Carola; Praputra, Andhika Vega; Sheil, Douglas
Participatory Measurement, Reporting and Verification (PMRV), in the context of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with its co-benefits (REDD+) requires sustained monitoring and reporting by community members. This requirement appears challenging and has yet to be achieved. Other successful, long established, community self-monitoring and reporting systems may provide valuable lessons. The Indonesian integrated village healthcare program (Posyandu) was initiated in the 1980s and still provides effective and successful participatory measurement and reporting of child health status across the diverse, and often remote, communities of Indonesia. Posyandu activities focus on the growth and development of children under the age of five by recording their height and weight and reporting these monthly to the Ministry of Health. Here we focus on the local Posyandu personnel (kaders) and their motivations and incentives for contributing. While Posyandu and REDD+ measurement and reporting activities differ, there are sufficient commonalities to draw useful lessons. We find that the Posyandu kaders are motivated by their interests in health care, by their belief that it benefits the community, and by encouragement by local leaders. Recognition from the community, status within the system, training opportunities, competition among communities, and small payments provide incentives to sustain participation. We examine these lessons in the context of REDD+. PMID:27806053
Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne
Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation.
Coughlin, Steven S
The recent literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to preventing HIV infection in diverse communities was systematically reviewed as part of the planning process for a new study. Published HIV prevention studies that employed CBPR methods were identified for the period January 1, 2005 to April 30, 2014 using PubMed databases and MeSH term and keyword searches. A total of 44 studies on CBPR and HIV or AIDS prevention were identified, of which 3 focused on adolescents, 33 on adults, and 8 on both adolescents and adults. A variety of at-risk populations were the focus of the studies including men who have sex with men, African American or Hispanic men, and African American or Hispanic women. Few studies focused on Asian/Pacific Islander or American Indian populations in the U.S. Six studies employed CBPR methods to address HIV prevention in church settings. Many of the studies were limited to formative research (ethnographic research, in-depth interviews of key informants, or focus groups). Other studies had a pre-/post-test design, quasi-experimental, or randomized design. Additional CBPR studies and faith-based interventions are needed with adequate sample sizes and rigorous study designs to address lack of knowledge of HIV and inadequate screening in diverse communities to address health disparities. PMID:28066841
Calheiros, Maria Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João
The use of participatory approaches in designing services is still relatively uncommon. In this study, we helped design a service to support the transition of youth from residential care to independent living by exploring the perspectives of staff and of youth regarding: (a) the concept and development of autonomy; and (b) key factors in developing this type of service. We gathered the data through 10 interviews with staff (n=10) and 4 focus groups with youth (n=21), and subjected the data to a thematic content analysis. Staff defined autonomy as self-regulation and self-care, and identified three paths to foster autonomy--a sense of normality, meaningful relationships, and planning for emancipation. The staff and youth identified the following important aspects in designing the service: achieving normality (e.g. limited number of residents), promoting youth capacity (e.g. skill-building activities), providing social support (e.g. trust and respect between residents), and assuring guidance and boundaries (e.g. supervision of youth).
Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils
Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.
Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils
Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.
Tracy, Fran; Jordan, Katy
This paper draws upon the experience of an interdisciplinary research group in engaging undergraduate university students in the design and development of semantic web technologies. A flexible approach to participatory design challenged conventional distinctions between "designer" and "user" and allowed students to play a role…
Freire's theory of social change informs analysis of youth-focused participatory research, with researchers describing links between participation and young people's critical thinking. There is less analysis of how youth move from the safe social space of a participatory research project to take health-promoting action in difficult real-world contexts. This article analyses a project conducted with Papua New Guinean youth, disrupting assumptions that critical thinking inevitably leads to critical action on health. Findings suggest the need to shift the focus of participatory research from supporting 'safe social spaces' to supporting 'transformative action in context' to concretely contribute to improving youth health.
Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Unanswered questions about racial and socioeconomic health disparities may be addressed using community-based participatory research and systems science. Community-based participatory research is an orientation to research that prioritizes developing capacity, improving trust, and translating knowledge to action. Systems science provides research methods to study dynamic and interrelated forces that shape health disparities. Community-based participatory research and systems science are complementary, but their integration requires more research. We discuss paradigmatic, socioecological, capacity-building, colearning, and translational synergies that help advance progress toward health equity.
Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Unanswered questions about racial and socioeconomic health disparities may be addressed using community-based participatory research and systems science. Community-based participatory research is an orientation to research that prioritizes developing capacity, improving trust, and translating knowledge to action. Systems science provides research methods to study dynamic and interrelated forces that shape health disparities. Community-based participatory research and systems science are complementary, but their integration requires more research. We discuss paradigmatic, socioecological, capacity-building, colearning, and translational synergies that help advance progress toward health equity. PMID:26691110
Sánchez, Jesús M.; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á.; Serrano, Emilio
Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911
Repede, Elizabeth J
Dreaming is a universal phenomenon in human experience and one that carries multiple meanings in the narrative discourse across disciplines. Dreams can be collective, communal, and emancipatory, as well as individual. While individual dreaming has been extensively studied in the literature, the participatory nature of dreaming as a unitary phenomenon is limited. The concept of participatory dreaming within a unitary appreciative framework for healing is explored from perspectives in anthropology, psychology, and nursing. A participatory model of dreaming is proposed from a synthesis of the literature for use in future research using unitary appreciative inquiry.
Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio
Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services.
Wallerstein, Nina B; Duran, Bonnie
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the past decades as an alternative research paradigm, which integrates education and social action to improve health and reduce health disparities. More than a set of research methods, CBPR is an orientation to research that focuses on relationships between academic and community partners, with principles of colearning, mutual benefit, and long-term commitment and incorporates community theories, participation, and practices into the research efforts. As CBPR matures, tensions have become recognized that challenge the mutuality of the research relationship, including issues of power, privilege, participation, community consent, racial and/or ethnic discrimination, and the role of research in social change. This article focuses on these challenges as a dynamic and ever-changing context of the researcher-community relationship, provides examples of these paradoxes from work in tribal communities, discusses the evidence that CBPR reduces disparities, and recommends transforming the culture of academia to strengthen collaborative research relationships.
Fowler, Cathrine; Wu, Cynthia; Lam, Winsome
Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity.
Igras, Susan; Diakité, Mariam; Lundgren, Rebecka
In West Africa, social factors influence whether couples with unmet need for family planning act on birth-spacing desires. Tékponon Jikuagou is testing a social network-based intervention to reduce social barriers by diffusing new ideas. Individuals and groups judged socially influential by their communities provide entrée to networks. A participatory social network mapping methodology was designed to identify these diffusion actors. Analysis of monitoring data, in-depth interviews, and evaluation reports assessed the methodology's acceptability to communities and staff and whether it produced valid, reliable data to identify influential individuals and groups who diffuse new ideas through their networks. Results indicated the methodology's acceptability. Communities were actively and equitably engaged. Staff appreciated its ability to yield timely, actionable information. The mapping methodology also provided valid and reliable information by enabling communities to identify highly connected and influential network actors. Consistent with social network theory, this methodology resulted in the selection of informal groups and individuals in both informal and formal positions. In-depth interview data suggest these actors were diffusing new ideas, further confirming their influence/connectivity. The participatory methodology generated insider knowledge of who has social influence, challenging commonly held assumptions. Collecting and displaying information fostered staff and community learning, laying groundwork for social change.
Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.
According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine
Mishra, Shiraz I.; Luce, Pat H.; Baquet, Claudia R.
Background We tested the effectiveness of a theory-guided, culturally tailored cervical cancer education program designed to increase Pap smear use among Samoan women residing in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa. Methods We used a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The sample comprised 398 Samoan women age 20 and older who we recruited from Samoan churches. Women in the intervention group received a culturally tailored cervical cancer education program in three weekly sessions. The primary outcome was self-reported receipt of a Pap smear. Results Overall, there was a significant intervention effect, with intervention compared with control group women twice (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–3.2, p<.01) as likely to self-report Pap smear use at the posttest. Conclusions The findings support the efficacy of the multifaceted, theory-guided, culturally tailored community-based participatory cervical cancer education program for Samoan women in effecting positive changes in Pap smear use and cervical cancer related knowledge and attitudes. PMID:19711495
Boynton, Teresa; Darragh, Amy Rowntree
The following case study describes an ergonomics intervention program, designed and implemented by an occupational therapist (OT), which included principles of participatory ergonomics, had full support of management and administration, and addressed the work, worker, and environment. The ergonomics program took place in the Sterile Processing Center (SPC) of a 398 bed, mid-western hospital. The SPC was responsible for the collection, sterilization, and reassembling of hospital surgical equipment. The 30 employees of the SPC were vulnerable to injury, having experienced 19 in only two years (of the 19 injuries, 9 were WMSD or ergonomics-related injuries). Over a two and a half year period, the OT and SPC manager conducted ergonomic evaluations, implemented employee training, designed a new SPC department, and modified work processes and equipment. In the year following the training and changes, the SPC staff experienced no injuries. Because of it's success, the program is continuing on a quarterly basis to ensure new problems are addressed quickly, new processes or equipment are evaluated, and new staff are properly trained.
Gosin, M N; Dustman, P A; Drapeau, A E; Harthun, M L
Existing research confirms a need to seek strategies that combine the strengths of researchers and community to create effective prevention curricula for youth. This article describes how components of Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology were used to create the keepin' it REAL Drug Resistance Strategies (DRS) curriculum designed for a diverse Southwestern US youth population. School community participants were involved in multiple stages of creation and implementation. The research team developed a systematic process for creating lessons built upon strong theoretical foundations, while teachers and students contributed lesson modifications and evaluations, suggestions for supplemental activities, and the actual production of instructional videos. While the experimental design and some methodological constraints served to limit school community involvement in some phases of the DRS project, this article describes how PAR methodology ensured that researchers collaborated with school community members to create this promising drug prevention curriculum. Results of the REAL experiment, discussion of the use of this methodology, implications and recommendations for future research also are included.
Hassouneh, Dena; Alcala-Moss, Amana; McNeff, E
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with disability communities is directed toward facilitating full inclusion of individuals with disabilities and disability community organizations in all aspects of the research process. Within the CBPR framework, academic-disability community partners may value and wish to use experimental designs to test interventions. Being aware of and proactively addressing barriers and challenges to inclusion in the areas of human resources, training, productivity, accommodation, and inadequate funding for disability community organizations are critical for success. Some of the strategies discussed in this article for addressing these challenges include creating redundant systems, providing benefits counseling and individualized payment options for employment, designing trainings to be disability friendly, and carefully considering selection of partners in light of available community resources.
Principles for participatory community development are as follows: humility and respect; power of local knowledge; democratic practice; diverse ways of knowing; sustainability; reality before theory; uncertainty; relativity of time and efficiency; holistic approach; and decisions rooted in the community. (SK)
Fox, Madeline; Fine, Michelle
The authors trace the connections between multigenerational participatory action research and relational approaches to shared leadership, illustrating how the collective production of knowledge through research builds youth leadership capacity.
Graham, Reginald A.; And Others
Describes procedures for participatory examinations, a method for achieving student collaboration in marketing education. Suggests that the method teaches students group process, persuasion, teamwork, and other skills needed in the contemporary workplace. (SK)
Balbale, Salva N.; Locatelli, Sara M.; LaVela, Sherri L.
In this methodological article, we examine participatory methods in-depth to demonstrate how these methods can be adopted for quality improvement (QI) projects in health care. We draw on existing literature and our QI initiatives in the Department of Veterans Affairs to discuss the application of photovoice and guided tours in QI efforts. We highlight lessons learned and several benefits of using participatory methods in this area. Using participatory methods, evaluators can engage patients, providers and other stakeholders as partners to enhance care. Participant involvement helps yield actionable data that can be translated into improved care practices. Use of these methods also helps generate key insights to inform improvements that truly resonate with stakeholders. Using participatory methods is a valuable strategy to harness participant engagement and drive improvements that address individual needs. In applying these innovative methodologies, evaluators can transcend traditional approaches to uniquely support evaluations and improvements in health care. PMID:26667882
Salmon, Amy; Browne, Annette J; Pederson, Ann
In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces.
The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...
Birdsey, Tom; McKinney, James; Stouffer, Joan
Explores ways to identify and meet the housing goals of college campuses. Stresses the participatory approach through open communication between stakeholders in order to resolve design issues before construction funds are spent. Provides an example of Lafayette College's (Pennsylvania) experience with this approach. (GR)