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Sample records for particle beam intensity

  1. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  2. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  3. Anisotropy-driven collective instability in intense charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong

    2005-12-01

    The classical electrostatic Harris instability is generalized to the case of a one-component intense charged particle beam with anisotropic temperature including the important effects of finite transverse geometry and beam space charge. For a long, coasting beam, the eigenmode code bEASt have been used to determine detailed 3D stability properties over a wide range of temperature anisotropy and beam intensity. A simple theoretical model is developed which describes the essential features of the linear stage of the instability. Both the simulations and the analytical theory clearly show that moderately intense beams are linearly unstable to short-wavelength perturbations provided the ratio of the longitudinal temperature to the transverse temperature is smaller than some threshold value. The delta-f particle-in-cell code BEST has been used to study the detailed nonlinear evolution and saturation of the instability.

  4. Static analysis of possible emittance growth of intense charged particle beams with thermal equilibrium distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2009-05-15

    Possible emittance growths of intense, nonuniform beams during a transport in a focusing channel are derived as a function of nonlinear field energy and space charge tune depression factors. The nonlinear field energy of the beam with thermal equilibrium distribution is estimated by considering the particle distribution across the cross section of the beam. The results show that the possible emittance growth can be suppressed by keeping the beam particle in thermal equilibrium distribution during the beam transport.

  5. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-03-03

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  6. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  7. Analytical Solutions for the Nonlinear Longitudinal Drift Compression (Expansion) of Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2004-04-09

    To achieve high focal spot intensities in heavy ion fusion, the ion beam must be compressed longitudinally by factors of ten to one hundred before it is focused onto the target. The longitudinal compression is achieved by imposing an initial velocity profile tilt on the drifting beam. In this paper, the problem of longitudinal drift compression of intense charged particle beams is solved analytically for the two important cases corresponding to a cold beam, and a pressure-dominated beam, using a one-dimensional warm-fluid model describing the longitudinal beam dynamics.

  8. New and improved apparatus and method for monitoring the intensities of charged-particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Varma, M.N.; Baum, J.W.

    1981-01-16

    Charged particle beam monitoring means are disposed in the path of a charged particle beam in an experimental device. The monitoring means comprise a beam monitoring component which is operable to prevent passage of a portion of beam, while concomitantly permitting passage of another portion thereof for incidence in an experimental chamber, and providing a signal (I/sub m/) indicative of the intensity of the beam portion which is not passed. Caibration means are disposed in the experimental chamber in the path of the said another beam portion and are operable to provide a signal (I/sub f/) indicative of the intensity thereof. Means are provided to determine the ratio (R) between said signals whereby, after suitable calibration, the calibration means may be removed from the experimental chamber and the intensity of the said another beam portion determined by monitoring of the monitoring means signal, per se.

  9. Apparatus and method for monitoring the intensities of charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Matesh N.; Baum, John W.

    1982-11-02

    Charged particle beam monitoring means (40) are disposed in the path of a charged particle beam (44) in an experimental device (10). The monitoring means comprise a beam monitoring component (42) which is operable to prevent passage of a portion of beam (44), while concomitantly permitting passage of another portion thereof (46) for incidence in an experimental chamber (18), and providing a signal (I.sub.m) indicative of the intensity of the beam portion which is not passed. Calibration means (36) are disposed in the experimental chamber in the path of the said another beam portion and are operable to provide a signal (I.sub.f) indicative of the intensity thereof. Means (41 and 43) are provided to determine the ratio (R) between said signals whereby, after suitable calibration, the calibration means may be removed from the experimental chamber and the intensity of the said another beam portion determined by monitoring of the monitoring means signal, per se.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Gammel, George M.; Kugel, Henry W.

    1992-10-06

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  11. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Kerstin M; Schell, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Laser-accelerated particles are a promising option for radiation therapy of cancer by potentially combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages of charged particle beams. To design such a treatment unit we consider different dose delivery schemes and analyze the necessary devices in the required particle beam line for each case. Furthermore, we point out that laser-driven treatment units may be ideal tools for motion adaptation during radiotherapy. Reasons for this are the potential of a flexible gantry and the time structure of the beam with high particle numbers in ultrashort bunches. One challenge that needs to be addressed is the secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements. (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) PMID:22930653

  12. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Kerstin M; Schell, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J

    2012-11-01

    Laser-accelerated particles are a promising option for radiation therapy of cancer by potentially combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages of charged particle beams. To design such a treatment unit we consider different dose delivery schemes and analyze the necessary devices in the required particle beam line for each case. Furthermore, we point out that laser-driven treatment units may be ideal tools for motion adaptation during radiotherapy. Reasons for this are the potential of a flexible gantry and the time structure of the beam with high particle numbers in ultrashort bunches. One challenge that needs to be addressed is the secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements.

  13. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, K. M.; Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    Laser-accelerated particles can provide a promising opportunity for radiation therapy of cancer. Potential advantages arise from combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages in dose delivery of charged particle beams. We consider different dose delivery schemes and the required devices to design a possible treatment unit. The secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements remains a challenge to be addressed.

  14. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, K. M.; Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J.

    2013-07-26

    Laser-accelerated particles can provide a promising opportunity for radiation therapy of cancer. Potential advantages arise from combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages in dose delivery of charged particle beams. We consider different dose delivery schemes and the required devices to design a possible treatment unit. The secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements remains a challenge to be addressed.

  15. Theoretical and Computational Investigation of Periodically Focused Intense Charged-Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiping

    2013-06-26

    The purpose of this report is to summarize results of theoretical and computational investigations of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams in parameter regimes relevant to the development of advanced high-brightness, high-power accelerators for high-energy physics research. The breakthroughs and highlights in our research in the period from April 1, 2010 to March 30, 2013 were: a) Theory and simulation of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow; b) Particle-in-cell simulations of adiabatic thermal beams in periodic solenoidal focusing field; c)Dynamics of charged particles in an adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium in a periodic solenoidal focusing field; d) Training of undergraduate researchers and graduate student in accelerator and beam physics. A brief introduction and summary is presented. Detailed descriptions of research results are provided in an appendix of publications at the end of the report.

  16. Macroscopic Description of Pressure-anisotropy-driven Collective Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Strasburg; Ronald C. Davidson

    2000-05-30

    The macroscopic warm-fluid model developed by Lund and Davidson [Phys.Plasmas 5, 3028 (1998)] is used in the smooth-focusing approximation to investigate detailed stability properties of an intense charged particle beam with pressure anisotropy, assuming small-amplitude electrostatic pertubations about a waterbag equilibrium.

  17. Non-perturbative measurement of low-intensity charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, M.; Geithner, R.; Golm, J.; Neubert, R.; Schwickert, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Tan, J.; Welsch, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Non-perturbative measurements of low-intensity charged particle beams are particularly challenging to beam diagnostics due to the low amplitude of the induced electromagnetic fields. In the low-energy antiproton decelerator (AD) and the future extra low energy antiproton rings at CERN, an absolute measurement of the beam intensity is essential to monitor the operation efficiency. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based cryogenic current comparators (CCC) have been used for measuring slow charged beams in the nA range, showing a very good current resolution. But these were unable to measure fast bunched beams, due to the slew-rate limitation of SQUID devices and presented a strong susceptibility to external perturbations. Here, we present a CCC system developed for the AD machine, which was optimised in terms of its current resolution, system stability, ability to cope with short bunched beams, and immunity to mechanical vibrations. This paper presents the monitor design and the first results from measurements with a low energy antiproton beam obtained in the AD in 2015. These are the first CCC beam current measurements ever performed in a synchrotron machine with both coasting and short bunched beams. It is shown that the system is able to stably measure the AD beam throughout the entire cycle, with a current resolution of 30 {nA}.

  18. Nonlinear d--ta-f Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson; Hong Qin

    2002-05-07

    In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b} >> T{sub {parallel}b}). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigen frequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with {partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}{theta} = 0.

  19. A particle swarm optimization algorithm for beam angle selection in intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongjie; Yao, Dezhong; Yao, Jonathan; Chen, Wufan

    2005-08-07

    Automatic beam angle selection is an important but challenging problem for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. Though many efforts have been made, it is still not very satisfactory in clinical IMRT practice because of overextensive computation of the inverse problem. In this paper, a new technique named BASPSO (Beam Angle Selection with a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm) is presented to improve the efficiency of the beam angle optimization problem. Originally developed as a tool for simulating social behaviour, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is a relatively new population-based evolutionary optimization technique first introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995. In the proposed BASPSO, the beam angles are optimized using PSO by treating each beam configuration as a particle (individual), and the beam intensity maps for each beam configuration are optimized using the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. These two optimization processes are implemented iteratively. The performance of each individual is evaluated by a fitness value calculated with a physical objective function. A population of these individuals is evolved by cooperation and competition among the individuals themselves through generations. The optimization results of a simulated case with known optimal beam angles and two clinical cases (a prostate case and a head-and-neck case) show that PSO is valid and efficient and can speed up the beam angle optimization process. Furthermore, the performance comparisons based on the preliminary results indicate that, as a whole, the PSO-based algorithm seems to outperform, or at least compete with, the GA-based algorithm in computation time and robustness. In conclusion, the reported work suggested that the introduced PSO algorithm could act as a new promising solution to the beam angle optimization problem and potentially other optimization problems in IMRT, though further studies need to be investigated.

  20. Analysis of the dynamic behavior of an intense charged particle beam using the semigroup approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, M. A.

    1985-05-01

    Dynamic models of a charged particle beam subject to external electromagnetic fields are cast into the abstract Cauchy problem form. Various applications of intense charged particle beams, i.e., beams whose self electromagnetic fields are significant, might require, or be enhanced by, the use of dynamic control constructed from suitably processed measurements of the state of the beam. This research provides a mathematical foundation for future engineering development of estimation and control designs for such beams. Beginning with the Vlasov equation, successively simpler models of intense beams are presented, along with their corresponding assumptions. Expression of a model in abstract Cauchy problem form is useful in determining whether the model is well posed. Solutions of well-posed problems can be expressed in terms of a one-parameter semigroup of linear operators. (The state transition matrix for a system of linear, ordinary, first-order, constant coefficient differential equations is a special case of such a semigroup.) The semigroup point of view allows the application of the rapidly maturing modern control theory of infinite-dimensional systems. An appropriate underlying Banach space is identified for a simple, but non-trivial, single degree of freedom model (the electrostatic approximation model), and the associated one-parameter semigroup of linear operators is characterized.

  1. Numerical studies of the Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wei-Li; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2004-11-01

    In intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy free energy is available to drive a transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability. The finite transverse geometry of the confined beam makes a detailed theoretical investigation difficult. In this paper the newly developed bEASt (beam eigenmode and spectra) code which solves the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations is used to investigate the detailed properties of the Weibel instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r_w. The stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.

  2. Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B; Friedman, A.F.; Lee, E.P.

    2009-09-03

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by a background plasma forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating

  3. Three-dimensional numerical studies of the temperature anisotropy instability in intense charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong

    2005-05-01

    In neutral plasmas with a uniform magnetic field and strongly anisotropic distribution function (T∥/T⊥≪1) an electrostatic Harris-type collective instability may develop if the plasma is sufficiently dense. Such anisotropies develop naturally in accelerators, and a similar instability may lead to a deterioration of the beam quality in a one-component nonneutral charged particle beam. The instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the temperature anisotropy instability using the newly developed Beam Eigenmodes And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression (ν/ν0≪1). Such high-intensity beams are relevant to next-step experiments such as the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), which would serve as proof-of-principal experiment for heavy-ion fusion.

  4. Thermodynamic Bounds on Nonlinear Electrostatic Perturbations in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolas C. Logan and Ronald C. Davidson

    2012-07-18

    This paper places a lowest upper bound on the field energy in electrostatic perturbations in single-species charged particle beams with initial temperature anisotropy (TllT⊥ < 1). The result applies to all electrostatic perturbations driven by the natural anisotropies that develop in accelerated particle beams, including Harris-type electrostatic instabilities, known to limit the luminosity and minimum spot size attainable in experiments. The thermodynamic bound on the field perturbation energy of the instabilities is obtained from the nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equations for an arbitrary initial distribution function, including the effects of intense self-fields, finite geometry and nonlinear processes. This paper also includes analytical estimates of the nonlinear bounds for space-charge-dominated and emittance-dominated anisotropic bi-Maxwellian distributions.

  5. Electromagnetic Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-10-20

    In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b} >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r{sub w}. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Weibel} >> (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Harris}) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

  6. Focusing Intense Charged Particle Beams with Achromatic Effects for Heavy Ion Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrani, James; Kaganovich, Igor

    2012-10-01

    Final focusing systems designed to minimize the effects of chromatic aberrations in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) are described. NDCX-II is a linear induction accelerator, designed to accelerate short bunches at high current. Previous experiments showed that neutralized drift compression significantly compresses the beam longitudinally (˜60x) in the z-direction, resulting in a narrow distribution in z-space, but a wide distribution in pz-space. Using simple lenses (e.g., solenoids, quadrupoles) to focus beam bunches with wide distributions in pz-space results in chromatic aberrations, leading to lower beam intensities (J/cm^2). Therefore, the final focusing system must be designed to compensate for chromatic aberrations. The paraxial ray equations and beam envelope equations are numerically solved for parameters appropriate to NDCX-II. Based on these results, conceptual designs for final focusing systems using a combination of solenoids and/or quadrupoles are optimized to compensate for chromatic aberrations. Lens aberrations and emittance growth will be investigated, and analytical results will be compared with results from numerical particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation codes.

  7. Centroid and Envelope Dynamics of High-intensity Charged Particle Beams in an External Focusing Lattice and Oscillating Wobbler

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Logan, B. Grant

    2010-04-28

    The centroid and envelope dynamics of a high-intensity charged particle beam are investigated as a beam smoothing technique to achieve uniform illumination over a suitably chosen region of the target for applications to ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion. The motion of the beam centroid projected onto the target follows a smooth pattern to achieve the desired illumination, for improved stability properties during the beam-target interaction. The centroid dynamics is controlled by an oscillating "wobbler", a set of electrically-biased plates driven by RF voltage. __________________________________________________

  8. New Spectral Method for Halo Particle Definition in Intense Mis-matched Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2011-04-27

    An advanced spectral analysis of a mis-matched charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing transport lattice is utilized in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. It is found that the betatron frequency distribution function of a mismatched space-charge-dominated beam has a bump-on-tail structure attributed to the beam halo particles. Based on this observation, a new spectral method for halo particle definition is proposed that provides the opportunity to carry out a quantitative analysis of halo particle production by a beam mismatch. In addition, it is shown that the spectral analysis of the mismatch relaxation process provides important insights into the emittance growth attributed to the halo formation and the core relaxation processes. Finally, the spectral method is applied to the problem of space-charge transport limits.

  9. A spectral method for halo particle definition in intense mismatched beams

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2011-04-15

    An advanced spectral analysis of a mismatched charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing transport lattice is utilized in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. It is found that the betatron frequency distribution function of a mismatched space-charge-dominated beam has a bump-on-tail structure attributed to the beam halo particles. Based on this observation, a new spectral method for halo particle definition is proposed that provides the opportunity to carry out a quantitative analysis of halo particle production by a beam mismatch. In addition, it is shown that the spectral analysis of the mismatch relaxation process provides important insights into the emittance growth attributed to the halo formation and the core relaxation processes. Finally, the spectral method is applied to the problem of space-charge transport limits.

  10. A Core-Particle Model for Periodically Focused Ion Beams with Intense Space-Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S M; Barnard, J J; Bukh, B; Chawla, S R; Chilton, S H

    2006-08-02

    A core-particle model is derived to analyze transverse orbits of test particles evolving in the presence of a core ion beam described by the KV distribution. The core beam has uniform density within an elliptical cross-section and can be applied to model both quadrupole and solenoidal focused beams in periodic or aperiodic lattices. Efficient analytical descriptions of electrostatic space-charge fields external to the beam core are derived to simplify model equations. Image charge effects are analyzed for an elliptical beam centered in a round, conducting pipe to estimate model corrections resulting from image charge nonlinearities. Transformations are employed to remove coherent utter motion associated with oscillations of the ion beam core due to rapidly varying, linear applied focusing forces. Diagnostics for particle trajectories, Poincare phase-space projections, and single-particle emittances based on these transformations better illustrate the effects of nonlinear forces acting on particles evolving outside the core. A numerical code has been written based on this model. Example applications illustrate model characteristics. The core-particle model described has recently been applied to identify physical processes leading to space-charge transport limits for an rms matched beam in a periodic quadrupole focusing channel [Lund and Chawla, Nuc. Instr. and Meth. A 561, 203 (2006)]. Further characteristics of these processes are presented here.

  11. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

    1983-09-26

    Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

  12. Novel Hamiltonian method for collective dynamics analysis of an intense charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing quadrupole lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-05-15

    Identifying regimes for quiescent propagation of intense beams over long distances has been a major challenge in accelerator research. In particular, the development of systematic theoretical approaches that are able to treat self-consistently the applied oscillating force and the nonlinear self-field force of the beam particles simultaneously has been a major challenge of modern beam physics. In this paper, the recently developed Hamiltonian averaging technique [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson, and M. Dorf, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 064402 (2010)] which incorporates both the applied periodic focusing force and the self-field force of the beam particles, is generalized to the case of time-dependent beam distributions. The new formulation allows not only a determination of quasi-equilibrium solutions of the non-linear Vlasov-Poison system of equations but also a detailed study of their stability properties. The corrections to the well-known ''smooth-focusing'' approximation are derived, and the results are applied to a matched beam with thermal equilibrium distribution function. It is shown that the corrections remain small even for moderate values of the vacuum phase advance {sigma}{sub {upsilon}}. Nonetheless, because the corrections to the average self-field potential are non-axisymmetric, the stability properties of the different beam quasi-equilibria can change significantly.

  13. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  14. Generation of Initial Kinetic Distributions for Simulation of Long-Pulse Charged Particle Beams with High Space-Charge intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Steven M.; Kikuchi, Takashi; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2007-04-03

    Self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson simulations of beams with high space-charge intensity often require specification of initial phase-space distributions that reflect properties of a beam that is well adapted to the transport channel--both in terms of low-order rms (envelope) properties as well as the higher-order phase-space structure. Here, we first review broad classes of kinetic distributions commonly in use as initial Vlasov distributions in simulations of unbunched or weakly bunched beams with intense space-charge fields including: the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) equilibrium, continuous-focusing equilibria with specific detailed examples, and various non-equilibrium distributions, such as the semi-Gaussian distribution and distributions formed from specified functions of linear-field Courant-Snyder invariants. Important practical details necessary to specify these distributions in terms of usual accelerator inputs are presented in a unified format. Building on this presentation, a new class of approximate initial kinetic distributions are constructed using transformations that preserve linear-focusing single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants to map initial continuous-focusing equilibrium distributions to a form more appropriate for non-continuous focusing channels. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are employed to show that the approximate initial distributions generated in this manner are better adapted to the focusing channels for beams with high space-charge intensity. This improved capability enables simulation applications that more precisely probe intrinsic stability properties and machine performance.

  15. Generation of initial Vlasov distributions for simulation of charged particle beams with high space-charge intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S M; Kikuchi, T; Davidson, R C

    2007-04-12

    Self-consistent Vlasov simulations of beams with high space-charge intensity often require specification of initial phase-space distributions that reflect properties of a beam that is well adapted to the transport channel, both in terms of low-order rms (envelope) properties as well as the higher-order phase-space structure. Here, we first review broad classes of distributions commonly in use as initial Vlasov distributions in simulations of beams with intense space-charge fields including: the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) equilibrium, continuous-focusing equilibria with specific detailed examples, and various non-equilibrium distributions, such as the semi-Gaussian distribution and distributions formed from specified functions of linear-field Courant-Snyder invariants. Important practical details necessary to specify these distributions in terms of usual accelerator inputs are presented in a unified format. Building on this presentation, a new class of approximate initial distributions are constructed using transformations that preserve linear-focusing single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants to map initial continuous-focusing equilibrium distributions to a form more appropriate for non-continuous focusing channels. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are employed to show that the approximate initial distributions generated in this manner are better adapted to the focusing channels for beams with high space-charge intensity. This improved capability enables simulation applications that more precisely probe intrinsic stability properties and machine performance.

  16. Intense low energy positron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e{sup +} beams exist producing of the order of 10{sup 8} {minus} 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams with intensities greater than 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec and current densities of the order of 10{sup 13} {minus} 10{sup 14} e{sup +} sec{sup {minus}} {sup 1}cm{sup {minus}2}. Intense e{sup +} beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B{sup +} moderators or by increasing the available activity of B{sup +} particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e{sup +} collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e{sup +} microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e{sup +} diffraction and other fields. Intense e{sup +} beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies.

  17. Mitigating chromatic effects for the transverse focusing of intense charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrani, James; Kaganovich, Igor; Davidson, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    A final focusing scheme designed to minimize chromatic effects is discussed. Solenoids are often used for transverse focusing in accelerator systems that require a charged particle beam with a small focal spot and/or large energy density A sufficiently large spread in axial momentum will reduce the effectiveness of transverse focusing, and result in chromatic effects on the final focal spot. Placing a weaker solenoid upstream of a stronger final focusing solenoid (FFS) mitigates chromatic effects on transverse beam focusing. J.M. Mitrani et al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. A (2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2013.05.09 This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. Intense microwave and particle beams; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 16-19, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on intense microwave and particle beams are presented. Individual topics addressed include: influence of beam loading on the operation of the relativistic klystron amplifier, gain and efficiency studies of a high-power traveling-wave-tube amplifier, relativistic O-type oscillator-amplifier systems, stability of mutually coupled oscillators, effects of a dense background plasma on the dispersion of backward wave oscillators, scalarized photon analysis of spontaneous emission in the uniform magnetic field FEL, tunable 200-GHz electron cyclotron maser, plasma-filled dielectric Cerenkov maser, MIT 35-GHz cyclotron autoresonance maser amplifier, array feed/reflector antenna design for intense microwave beams, propagation of an intense microwave beam from a phased array. Also discussed are: electromagnetic missile from a nonuniform aperture field, backscattering of electromagnetic missiles, plasma waveguide, electromagnetic missiles from currents on fractal sets, effects of high-power RF fields in the atmosphere and the ionosphere, pulsed sources and currents for acoustic and electromagnetic bullets, digital transmitter array for producing enhanced ionization.

  19. Investigation of the effects of intense pulsed particle beams on the durability of metal-to-plastic interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Renk, Timothy J.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Petersen, Donald W.; Petersen, Thomas D.; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; McNulty, Donald E.; Engelko, Vladimir

    2005-02-01

    We have investigated the potential for intense particle beam surface modification to improve the mechanical properties of materials commonly used in the human body for contact surfaces in, for example, hip and knee implants. The materials studied include Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE), Ti-6Al-4Al (titanium alloy), and Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Samples in flat form were exposed to both ion and electron beams (UHMWPE), and to ion beam treatment (metals). Post-analysis indicated a degradation in bulk properties of the UHMWPE, except in the case of the lightest ion fluence tested. A surface-alloyed Hf/Ti layer on the Ti-6Al-4V is found to improve surface wear durability, and have favorable biocompatibility. A promising nanolaminate ceramic coating is applied to the Co-Cr-Mo to improve surface hardness.

  20. Comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with intensity modulated particle therapy (IMPT) using fixed beams or an ion gantry for the treatment of patients with skull base meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine the potential improvement in treatment planning for patients with skull base meningioma using IMRT compared to carbon ion or proton beams with and without a gantry. Methods Five patients originally treated with photon IMRT were selected for the study. Ion beams were chosen using a horizontal beam or an ion gantry. Intensity controlled raster scanning and the intensity modulated particle therapy mode were used for plan optimization. The evaluation included analysis of dose-volume histograms of the target volumes and organs at risk. Results In comparison with carbon and proton beams only with horizontal beams, carbon ion treatment plans could spare the OARs more and concentrated on the target volumes more than proton and photon IMRT treatment plans. Using only a horizontal fixed beam, satisfactory plans could be achieved for skull base tumors. Conclusion The results of the case studies showed that using IMPT has the potential to overcome the lack of a gantry for skull base tumors. Carbon ion plans offered slightly better dose distributions than proton plans, but the differences were not clinically significant with established dose prescription concepts. PMID:22439607

  1. High intensity neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, A. K.

    2015-07-15

    High-intensity proton accelerator complex enabled long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with a precisely controlled neutrino beam. The beam power so far achieved is a few hundred kW with enourmorous efforts of accelerator physicists and engineers. However, to fully understand the lepton mixing structure, MW-class accelerators are desired. We describe the current intensity-frontier high-energy proton accelerators, their plans to go beyond and technical challenges in the neutrino beamline facilities.

  2. Intense ion beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, Jr., Stanley; Sudan, Ravindra N.

    1977-08-30

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation.

  3. Analysis of measurement deviations for the patient-specific quality assurance using intensity-modulated spot-scanning particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqiang; Hsi, Wen C.

    2017-04-01

    To analyze measurement deviations of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) using intensity-modulated spot-scanning particle beams, a commercial radiation dosimeter using 24 pinpoint ionization chambers was utilized. Before the clinical trial, validations of the radiation dosimeter and treatment planning system were conducted. During the clinical trial 165 measurements were performed on 36 enrolled patients. Two or three fields of particle beam were used for each patient. Measurements were typically performed with the dosimeter placed at special regions of dose distribution along depth and lateral profiles. In order to investigate the dosimeter accuracy, repeated measurements with uniform dose irradiations were also carried out. A two-step approach was proposed to analyze 24 sampling points over a 3D treatment volume. The mean value and the standard deviation of each measurement did not exceed 5% for all measurements performed on patients with various diseases. According to the defined intervention thresholds of mean deviation and the distance-to-agreement concept with a Gamma index analysis using criteria of 3.0% and 2 mm, a decision could be made regarding whether the dose distribution was acceptable for the patient. Based measurement results, deviation analysis was carried out. In this study, the dosimeter was used for dose verification and provided a safety guard to assure precise dose delivery of highly modulated particle therapy. Patient-specific QA will be investigated in future clinical operations.

  4. Numerical investigations of mismatch induced halos in intense charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, C.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; O'Shea, P. G.

    2009-01-22

    In this paper, we discuss the parametric resonance model of halo creation, and compare it with self consistent simulation results. In particular, we employ two different initial distribution functions, and we find agreement with the particle-core model, within the limitations of the latter. Furthermore, using a simple particle tracking algorithm, we are able to follow the trajectories of the halo particles, noting that a large number of them go through the core and re-emerge later.

  5. Relation between field energy and RMS emittance in intense particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Crandall, K.R.; Mills, R.S.; Reiser, M.

    1985-01-01

    An equation is presented for continuous beams with azimuthal symmetry and continuous linear focusing, which expresses a relationship between the rate of change for squared rms emittance and the rate of change for a quantity we call the nonlinear field energy. The nonlinear field energy depends on the shape of the charge distribution and corresponds to the residual field energy possessed by beams with nonuniform charge distributions. The equation can be integrated for the case of an rms matched beam to yield a formula for space-charge-induced emittance growth that we have tested numerically for a variety of initial distributions. The results provide a framework for discussing the scaling of rms emittance growth and an explanation for the well-established lower limit on output emittance. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  6. A Class Of Generalized Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij Solutions And Associated Envelope Equations For High-intensity Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin and Ronald C. Davidson

    2012-04-25

    A class of generalized Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij solutions of the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations and the associated envelope equations for high-intensity beams in a periodic lattice is derived. It includes the classical Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij solution as a special case. For a given lattice, the distribution functions and the envelope equations are specified by eight free parameters. The class of solutions derived captures a wider range of dynamical envelope behavior for high-intensity beams, and thus provides a new theoretical tool to investigate the dynamics of high-intensity beams.

  7. Traverse Focusing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic Effects for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    James M. Mitrani, Igor D. Kaganovich, Ronald C. Davidson

    2013-01-28

    A fi nal focusing scheme designed to minimize chromatic effects is discussed. The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) will apply a velocity tilt for longitudinal bunch compression, and a fi nal focusing solenoid (FFS) for transverse bunch compression. In the beam frame, neutralized drift compression causes a suffi ciently large spread in axial momentum, pz , resulting in chromatic effects to the fi nal focal spot during transverse bunch compression. Placing a weaker solenoid upstream of a stronger fi nal focusing solenoid (FFS) mitigates chromatic effects and improves transverse focusing by a factor of approximately 2-4 for appropriate NDCX-II parameters.

  8. Particle Beam Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Ken; Ekdahl, Carl

    2014-02-01

    Particle beam radiography, which uses a variety of particle probes (neutrons, protons, electrons, gammas and potentially other particles) to study the structure of materials and objects noninvasively, is reviewed, largely from an accelerator perspective, although the use of cosmic rays (mainly muons but potentially also high-energy neutrinos) is briefly reviewed. Tomography is a form of radiography which uses multiple views to reconstruct a three-dimensional density map of an object. There is a very wide range of applications of radiography and tomography, from medicine to engineering and security, and advances in instrumentation, specifically the development of electronic detectors, allow rapid analysis of the resultant radiographs. Flash radiography is a diagnostic technique for large high-explosive-driven hydrodynamic experiments that is used at many laboratories. The bremsstrahlung radiation pulse from an intense relativistic electron beam incident onto a high-Z target is the source of these radiographs. The challenge is to provide radiation sources intense enough to penetrate hundreds of g/cm2 of material, in pulses short enough to stop the motion of high-speed hydrodynamic shocks, and with source spots small enough to resolve fine details. The challenge has been met with a wide variety of accelerator technologies, including pulsed-power-driven diodes, air-core pulsed betatrons and high-current linear induction accelerators. Accelerator technology has also evolved to accommodate the experimenters' continuing quest for multiple images in time and space. Linear induction accelerators have had a major role in these advances, especially in providing multiple-time radiographs of the largest hydrodynamic experiments.

  9. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  10. Electron Cooling of Intense Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, J.; Kamerdjiev, V.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stein, J.; Stockhorst, H.; Korotaev, Yu.; Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2006-03-20

    Results of experimental studies of the electron cooling of a proton beam at COSY (Juelich, Germany) are presented. Intensity of the proton beam is limited by two general effects: particle loss directly after the injection and development of instability in a deep cooled ion beam. Results of the instability investigations performed at COSY during last years are presented in this report in comparison with previous results from HIMAC (Chiba, Japan) CELSIUS (Uppsala, Sweden) and LEAR (CERN). Methods of the instability suppression, which allow increasing the cooled beam intensity, are described. This work is supported by RFBR grant no. 05-02-16320 and INTAS grant no. 03-54-5584.

  11. CLASHING BEAM PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Burleigh, R.J.

    1961-04-11

    A charged-particle accelerator of the proton synchrotron class having means for simultaneously accelerating two separate contra-rotating particle beams within a single annular magnet structure is reported. The magnet provides two concentric circular field regions of opposite magnetic polarity with one field region being of slightly less diameter than the other. The accelerator includes a deflector means straddling the two particle orbits and acting to collide the two particle beams after each has been accelerated to a desired energy. The deflector has the further property of returning particles which do not undergo collision to the regular orbits whereby the particles recirculate with the possibility of colliding upon subsequent passages through the deflector.

  12. Laser steering of particle beams: Refraction and reflection ofparticle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, Eric; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W.B.; Dodd, E.; Lee, S.; Hemker, R.; Clayton, C.; Joshi, C.

    1999-11-01

    The co-propagation of an intense particle beam with an ionizing laser beam in a working gas/plasma is considered. When the axes of the laser and particle beam are not aligned, then asymmetric plasma lensing results in a net dipole field acting on the particle beam. The particle beam can be steered or bent (as well as focused) by steering the laser. An analogy is made between the bending of the particle beam by collective effects at a plasma boundary and the refraction or reflection of light at an interface. This mechanism of particle steering may be of interest in applications for which permanent magnets are inconvenient of a fast turn on is required. 3-D particle-in-cell simulations and relevance to a recent experiment are discussed.

  13. Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Warren, B.

    2012-12-01

    We present results from the grant entitled, Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions. The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.

  14. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Jason, Andrew J.; Blind, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  15. Longitudinal Density Modulation and Energy Conversion in Intense Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J; Neumann, J; Tian, K; O'Shea, P

    2006-02-17

    Density modulation of charged particle beams may occur as a consequence of deliberate action, or may occur inadvertently because of imperfections in the particle source or acceleration method. In the case of intense beams, where space charge and external focusing govern the beam dynamics, density modulation may under some circumstances be converted to velocity modulation, with a corresponding conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. Whether this will occur depends on the properties of the beam and the initial modulation. This paper describes the evolution of discrete and continuous density modulations on intense beams, and discusses three recent experiments related to the dynamics of density-modulated electron beams.

  16. Transverse Beam Shape Measurements of Intense Proton Beams Using Optical Transition Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpine, Victor E.

    A number of particle physics experiments are being proposed as part of the Department of Energy HEP Intensity Frontier. Many of these experiments will utilize megawatt level proton beams onto targets to form secondary beams of muons, kaons and neutrinos. These experiments require transverse size measurements of the incident proton beam onto target for each beam spill. Because of the high power levels, most beam intercepting profiling techniques will not work at full beam intensity. The possibility of utilizing optical transition radiation (OTR) for high intensity proton beam profiling is discussed. In addition, previous measurements of OTR beam profiles from the NuMI beamline are presented.

  17. Transverse beam shape measurements of intense proton beams using optical transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpine, Victor E.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    A number of particle physics experiments are being proposed as part of the Department of Energy HEP Intensity Frontier. Many of these experiments will utilize megawatt level proton beams onto targets to form secondary beams of muons, kaons and neutrinos. These experiments require transverse size measurements of the incident proton beam onto target for each beam spill. Because of the high power levels, most beam intercepting profiling techniques will not work at full beam intensity. The possibility of utilizing optical transition radiation (OTR) for high intensity proton beam profiling is discussed. In addition, previous measurements of OTR beam profiles from the NuMI beamline are presented.

  18. Delivering the world's most intense muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; D'Arcy, R.; Edmonds, A.; Fukuda, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Lancaster, M.; Mori, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Tran, N. H.; Truong, N. M.; Wing, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2017-03-01

    A new muon beam line, the muon science innovative channel, was set up at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, in Osaka, Japan, using the 392 MeV proton beam impinging on a target. The production of an intense muon beam relies on the efficient capture of pions, which subsequently decay to muons, using a novel superconducting solenoid magnet system. After the pion-capture solenoid, the first 36° of the curved muon transport line was commissioned and the muon flux was measured. In order to detect muons, a target of either copper or magnesium was placed to stop muons at the end of the muon beam line. Two stations of plastic scintillators located upstream and downstream from the muon target were used to reconstruct the decay spectrum of muons. In a complementary method to detect negatively charged muons, the x-ray spectrum yielded by muonic atoms in the target was measured in a germanium detector. Measurements, at a proton beam current of 6 pA, yielded (10.4 ±2.7 )×1 05 muons per watt of proton beam power (μ+ and μ-), far in excess of other facilities. At full beam power (400 W), this implies a rate of muons of (4.2 ±1.1 )×1 08 muons s-1 , among the highest in the world. The number of μ- measured was about a factor of 10 lower, again by far the most efficient muon beam produced. The setup is a prototype for future experiments requiring a high-intensity muon beam, such as a muon collider or neutrino factory, or the search for rare muon decays which would be a signature for phenomena beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Such a muon beam can also be used in other branches of physics, nuclear and condensed matter, as well as other areas of scientific research.

  19. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  20. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques.Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets.Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  1. Pulsed laser beam intensity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, C.M.; Jones, R.W.

    1982-07-13

    A pulsed laser beam intensity monitor measures the peak power within a selectable cross section of a test laser beam and measures integrated energy of the beam during the pulse period of a test laser. A continuous wave laser and a pulsed ruby laser are coaxially arranged for simultaneously transmitting optical output energy through a crystal flat during the time a test laser pulse is transmitted through the flat. Due to stress birefringence in the crystal, the ruby laser pulse transmitted through the flat is recorded and analyzed to provide peak power information about the test laser output pulse, and the continuous wave laser output reflected from the crystal flat provides a measurement of energy during the test laser pulse.

  2. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1992-05-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  3. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I. ); Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

    1992-01-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  4. Adaptive Vlasov Simulations of Intense Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnendruecker, Eric; Gutnic, Michael; Haefele, Matthieu; Lemaire, Jean-Louis

    2005-06-08

    Most simulations of intense particle beams are performed nowadays using Particle In Cell (PIC) techniques. Direct grid based Vlasov methods have also been used but mostly for 1D simulations as they become very costly in higher dimensions when using uniform phase space grids. We have recently introduced adaptive mesh refinement techniques that allow us to automatically concentrate the grid points at places where the distribution function is varying most. In this paper we shall introduce this technique and show how it can be used to improve the efficiency of grid based Vlasov solvers.

  5. The cooling of particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling.

  6. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  7. Particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    Today, in keeping with Sandia Laboratories` designation by the Department of Energy as the lead laboratory for the pulsed power approach to fusion, its efforts include major research activities and the construction of new facilities at its Albuquerque site. Additionally, in its capacity as lead laboratory, Sandia coordinates DOE-supported pulsed power fusion work at other government operated laboratories, with industrial contractors, and universities. The beginning of Sandia`s involvement in developing fusion power was an outgrowth of its contributions to the nation`s nuclear weapon program. The Laboratories` work in the early 1960`s emphasized the use of pulsed radiation environments to test the resistance of US nuclear weapons to enemy nuclear bursts. A careful study of options for fusion power indicated that Sandia`s expertise in the pulsed power field could provide a powerful match to ignite fusion fuel. Although creating test environments is an achieved goal of Sandia`s overall program, this work and other military tasks protected by appropriate security regulations will continue, making full use of the same pulsed power technology and accelerators as the fusion-for-energy program. Major goals of Sandia`s fusion program including the following: (1) complete a particle accelerator to deliver sufficient beam energy for igniting fusion targets; (2) obtain net energy gain, this goal would provide fusion energy output in excess of energy stored in the accelerator; (3) develop a technology base for the repetitive ignition of pellets in a power reactor. After accomplishing these goals, the technology will be introduced to the nation`s commercial sector.

  8. Beam experiments towards high-intensity beams in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag C.; Ahrens, L.; Brennan, J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Mernick, K.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Smith, K.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2012-05-20

    Proton bunch intensities in RHIC are planned to be increased from 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch to increase the luminosity, together with head-on beam-beam compensation using electron lenses. To study the feasibility of the intensity increase, beam experiments are being performed. Recent experimental results are presented.

  9. Dynamics of Charged Particles in an Adiabatic Thermal Beam Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chiping; Wei, Haofei

    2010-11-01

    Charged-particle motion is studied in the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of a well-matched, intense charged-particle beam and an applied periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field. The beam is assumed to be in a state of adiabatic thermal equilibrium. The phase space is analyzed and compared with that of the well-known Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV)-type beam equilibrium. It is found that the widths of nonlinear resonances in the adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium are narrower than those in the KV-type beam equilibrium. Numerical evidence is presented, indicating almost complete elimination of chaotic particle motion in the adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium.

  10. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Garnett, Robert W.; Dobelbower, M. Christian

    1995-01-01

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  11. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  12. Particle-beam fusion research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    Sandia research in inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) is based on pulse-power capabilities that grew out of earlier developments of intense relativistic electron-beam (e-beam) radiation sources for weapon effects studies. ICF involves irradiating a deuterium-tritium pellet with either laser light or particle beams until the center of the pellet is compressed and heated to the point of nuclear fusion. This publication focuses on the use of particle beams to achieve fusion, and on the various facilities that are used in support of the particle-beam fusion (PBF) program.

  13. Beam Splitter Intensities Are Preselected

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W.; Owen, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    New beam splitter is a block of optically clear material with two parallel polish faces. Some of area of one surface is coated with totally reflecting layer, which may be metal or dielectric. On opposite surface, a metal coating of stepped thickness offers a different reflectivity at each step. Width and spacing of reflecting zones are chosen to accommodate angle of spacing of incidence of input beam and desired spacing of ouput beams.

  14. Intense electron beam propagation across a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Striffler, C.D.; Yao, R.L.; Destler, W.W.; Reiser, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we consider the propagation of an intense electron-ion beam across an applied magnetic field. In the absence of the applied field, the beam system is in a Bennett equilibrium state that involves electrons with both large axial and thermal velocities and a cold stationary space-charge neutralizing ion species. Typical parameters under consideration are V{sub o} {approximately} 1 MV, I {approximately} 5 kA, T{sub e} {approximately} 100 keV, and beam radii {approximately} 1 cm. We find that in the intense beam regime, the propagation is limited due to space-charge depression caused by the deflection of the electron beam by the transverse field. This critical field is of the order of the peak self-magnetic field of the electron beam which is substantially higher than the single particle cut-off field. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Intense Relativistic Electron Beam Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    flashover and other undetermined physical processes which create a plasma at the liner surface . The ions are drawn toward the Uiner axis by the...dielectric wall and causing surface flashover and the liberation of ions. These ions provide sufficient charge neutralization for the beam to propagate a...beam-induced surface flashover process which produces the ions to be accelerated. Alternative methods are proposed in Section III for next year’s

  16. Applications with Intense OTR Images II: Microbunched Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Dejus, R. J.; Rule, D. W.

    2004-12-01

    In this second application for intense images we take advantage of the coherent enhancement of optical transition radiation (OTR) due to self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL)-induced microbunching of the beam. A much smaller number of total particles is involved, but the microbunched fraction (NB) gives a NB2 enhancement. We report measurements on the z-dependent growth of the coherent OTR (COTR) and the effects of beam size and electron beam/photon beam coalignment in the COTR interferograms.

  17. Diagnostic Tools For Low Intensity Ion Micro-Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Finocchiaro, P.; Cosentino, L.; Pappalardo, A.; Vervaeke, M.; Volckaerts, B.; Vynck, P.; Hermanne, A.; Thienpont, H.

    2003-08-26

    We have developed two techniques for microscopic ion beam imaging and profiling, both based on scintillators, particularly suitable for applications in Deep Lithography with Protons (DLP) or with heavier ions. The first one employs a scintillating fiberoptic plate and a CCD camera with suitable lenses, the second makes use of a small scintillator optically coupled to a compact photomultiplier. We have proved the possibility of spanning from single beam particles counting up to several nA currents. Both devices are successfully being exploited for on-line control of low and very low intensity proton beams, down to a beam size of less than 50{mu}m.

  18. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  19. Intense ion beam neutralization using underdense background plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berdanier, William; Roy, Prabir K.; Kaganovich, Igor

    2015-01-15

    Producing an overdense background plasma for neutralization purposes with a density that is high compared to the beam density is not always experimentally possible. We show that even an underdense background plasma with a small relative density can achieve high neutralization of intense ion beam pulses. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we show that if the total plasma electron charge is not sufficient to neutralize the beam charge, electron emitters are necessary for effective neutralization but are not needed if the plasma volume is so large that the total available charge in the electrons exceeds that of the ion beam. Several regimes of possible underdense/tenuous neutralization plasma densities are investigated with and without electron emitters or dense plasma at periphery regions, including the case of electron emitters without plasma, which does not effectively neutralize the beam. Over 95% neutralization is achieved for even very underdense background plasma with plasma density 1/15th the beam density. We compare results of particle-in-cell simulations with an analytic model of neutralization and find close agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations. Further, we show experimental data from the National Drift Compression experiment-II group that verifies the result that underdense plasma can neutralize intense heavy ion beams effectively.

  20. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  1. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  2. Beam particle tracking for MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanage, Anusha; MUSE Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The proton radius puzzle is the 7 σ disagreement between the proton radius extracted from the measured muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and the proton radius extracted from the regular hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic ep scattering form factor data. So far there is no generally accepted resolution to the puzzle. The explanations for the discrepancy include new degrees of freedom beyond the Standard Model. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) will simultaneously measure ep and μp scattering at the Paul Scherrer Institute, using the πM1 beam line at 100-250 MeV/c to cover a four-momentum transfer range of Q2=0.002-0.07 (GeV/c)2. Due to the large divergence of the secondary muon beam, beam particle trajectories are needed for every event. They are measured by a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) tracking telescope consisting of three 10x10 cm2 triple-GEM chambers. Fast segmented scintillator paddles provide precise timing information. The GEM detectors, their performance in test beam times, and plans and milestones will be discussed. This work has been supported by DOE DE-SC0012589 and NSF HRD-1649909. DOE DE-SC0012589 and NSF HRD-1649909.

  3. Statistical phenomena in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1984-09-01

    Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability.

  4. High-power radio frequency pulse generation and extration based on wakefield excited by an intense charged particle beam in dielectric-loaded waveguides.

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; High Energy Physics; Illinois Inst. of Tech

    2009-07-24

    Power extraction using a dielectric-loaded (DL) waveguide is a way to generate high-power radio frequency (RF) waves for future particle accelerators, especially for two-beam-acceleration. In a two-beam-acceleration scheme, a low-energy, high-current particle beam is passed through a deceleration section of waveguide (decelerator), where the power from the beam is partially transferred to trailing electromagnetic waves (wakefields); then with a properly designed RF output coupler, the power generated in the decelerator is extracted to an output waveguide, where finally the power can be transmitted and used to accelerate another usually high-energy low-current beam. The decelerator, together with the RF output coupler, is called a power extractor. At Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA), we designed a 7.8GHz power extractor with a circular DL waveguide and tested it with single electron bunches and bunch trains. The output RF frequency (7.8GHz) is the sixth harmonic of the operational frequency (1.3GHz) of the electron gun and the linac at AWA. In single bunch excitation, a 1.7ns RF pulse with 30MW of power was generated by a single 66nC electron bunch passing through the decelerator. In subsequent experiments, by employing different splitting-recombining optics for the photoinjector laser, electron bunch trains were generated and thus longer RF pulses could be successfully generated and extracted. In 16-bunch experiments, 10ns and 22ns RF pulses have been generated and extracted; and in 4-bunch experiments, the maximum power generated was 44MW with 40MW extracted. A 26GHz DL power extractor has also been designed to test this technique in the millimeter-wave range. A power level of 148MW is expected to be generated by a bunch train with a bunch spacing of 769ps and bunch charges of 20nC each. The arrangement for the experiment is illustrated in a diagram. Higher-order-mode (HOM) power extraction has also been explored in a dual-frequency design. By using a bunch

  5. Gas Filled RF Resonator Hadron Beam Monitor for Intense Neutrino Beam Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, Katsuya; Abrams, Robert; Dinkel, Holly; Freemire, Ben; Johnson, Rolland; Kazakevich, Grigory; Tollestrup, Alvin; Zwaska, Robert

    2016-06-01

    MW-class beam facilities are being considered all over the world to produce an intense neutrino beam for fundamental particle physics experiments. A radiation-robust beam monitor system is required to diagnose the primary and secondary beam qualities in high-radiation environments. We have proposed a novel gas-filled RF-resonator hadron beam monitor in which charged particles passing through the resonator produce ionized plasma that changes the permittivity of the gas. The sensitivity of the monitor has been evaluated in numerical simulation. A signal manipulation algorithm has been designed. A prototype system will be constructed and tested by using a proton beam at the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab.

  6. Space-Charge Waves and Instabilities in Intense Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. G.

    1997-11-01

    Advancced accelerator applications, such as drivers for heavy ion inertial fusion, high-intensity synchrotrons for spallation neutron sources, high energy boosters, free electron lasers, high-power microwave generators, etc., require ever-increasing beam intensity. An important beam dynamics issue in such beams is the collective behavior of charged particles due to their space charge effects. This includes the phenomena of space-charge waves and instabilities excited on beams by external perturbations. It is very crucial to fully understand these phenomena in order to develop advanced accelerators for various applications. At the University of Maryland we have been conducting experimental programs to study space-charge waves and longitudinal instabilities by employing low-energy, high-current, space-charge dominated electron beams. Localized perturbations on the beams are generated from a gridded electron gun. In a conducting transport channel focused by short solenoids, these perturbations evolve into space-charge waves propagating on the beams. The wave speed is measured and many beam parameters are determined with this technique. The reflection of space-charge waves at the shoulder of an initially rectangular beam bunch is also observed. In a resistive-wall channel focused by a uniform long solenoid, the space-charge waves suffer longitudinal instability. The properties of the instabilities are studied in detail in the long wavelength range. In this talk we review our experimental results on the waves and instabilities and compare with theory.

  7. BEAM LOSS MECHANISMS IN HIGH INTENSITY LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    In the present operation of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, 60-Hz, 825-us H beam pulses are accelerated to 910 MeV, and then compressed to less than a microsecond in the storage ring, to deliver 1 MW of beam power to the spallation target. The beam loss in the superconducting portion of the linac is higher than expected, and it has shown a surprising counter-intuitive correlation with quadrupole magnetic fields, with a loss minimum occurring when the quadrupoles are set to approximately half their design values. This behavior can now be explained by a recent set of experiments that show the beam loss is primarily due to intra-beam stripping. Beam halo is another important beam loss contributor, and collimation in the 2.5 MeV Medium Energy Beam Transport has proven to be an effective mitigation strategy. In this presentation, we will summarize these and other beam loss mechanisms that are important for high intensity linacs.

  8. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Kovarik, Vincent J.; Prelec, Krsto

    1990-01-01

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source.

  9. Varying stopping and self-focusing of intense proton beams as they heat solid density matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Wei, M. S.; Grabowski, P. E.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-04-01

    Transport of intense proton beams in solid-density matter is numerically investigated using an implicit hybrid particle-in-cell code. Both collective effects and stopping for individual beam particles are included through the electromagnetic fields solver and stopping power calculations utilizing the varying local target conditions, allowing self-consistent transport studies. Two target heating mechanisms, the beam energy deposition and Ohmic heating driven by the return current, are compared. The dependences of proton beam transport in solid targets on the beam parameters are systematically analyzed, i.e., simulations with various beam intensities, pulse durations, kinetic energies, and energy distributions are compared. The proton beam deposition profile and ultimate target temperature show strong dependence on intensity and pulse duration. A strong magnetic field is generated from a proton beam with high density and tight beam radius, resulting in focusing of the beam and localized heating of the target up to hundreds of eV.

  10. Simulating Intense Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    2001-02-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense ion beams that will drive HIF targets are rzonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. Ion beams have a ''long memory,'' and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.

  11. Simulating Intense Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2001-02-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense ion beams that will drive HIF targets are nonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. Ion beams have a ''long memory'', and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.

  12. Particle beam injector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Guethlein, Gary

    2013-06-18

    Methods and devices enable coupling of a charged particle beam to a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. Coupling of the charged particle beam is accomplished, at least in-part, by relying on of sensitivity of the input phase space acceptance of the radio frequency quadrupole to the angle of the input charged particle beam. A first electric field across a beam deflector deflects the particle beam at an angle that is beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. By momentarily reversing or reducing the established electric field, a narrow portion of the charged particle beam is deflected at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. In another configuration, beam is directed at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole by the first electric field and is deflected beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole due to the second electric field.

  13. Stability of Single Particle Motion with Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Luo,Y.; Fischer, W.; Abreu, N.

    2008-05-01

    To compensate the large tune shift and tune spread generated by the head-on beam-beam interactions in the polarized proton run in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we proposed a low energy electron beam with a Gaussian transverse profiles to collide head-on with the proton beam. In this article, with a weak-strong beam-beam interaction model, we investigate the stability of single particle motion in the presence of head-on beam-beam compensation. Tune footprints, tune diffusion, Lyapunov exponents, and 10{sup 6} turn dynamic apertures are calculated and compared between the cases without and with beam-beam compensation. A tune scan is performed and the possibility of increasing the bunch intensity is studied. The cause of tune footprint foldings is discussed, and the tune diffusion and Lyapunov exponent analysis are compared.

  14. PLASMA WAKE EXCITATION BY LASERS OR PARTICLE BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Leemans, Wim

    2011-04-01

    Plasma accelerators may be driven by the ponderomotive force of an intense laser or the space-charge force of a charged particle beam. Plasma wake excitation driven by lasers or particle beams is examined, and the implications of the different physical excitation mechanisms for accelerator design are discussed. Plasma-based accelerators have attracted considerable attention owing to the ultrahigh field gradients sustainable in a plasma wave, enabling compact accelerators. These relativistic plasma waves are excited by displacing electrons in a neutral plasma. Two basic mechanisms for excitation of plasma waves are actively being researched: (i) excitation by the nonlinear ponderomotive force (radiation pressure) of an intense laser or (ii) excitation by the space-charge force of a dense charged particle beam. There has been significant recent experimental success using lasers and particle beam drivers for plasma acceleration. In particular, for laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs), the demonstration at LBNL in 2006 of high-quality, 1 GeV electron beams produced in approximately 3 cm plasma using a 40 TW laser. In 2007, for beam-driven plasma accelerators, or plasma-wakefield accelerators (PWFAs), the energy doubling over a meter to 42 GeV of a fraction of beam electrons on the tail of an electron beam by the plasma wave excited by the head was demonstrated at SLAC. These experimental successes have resulted in further interest in the development of plasma-based acceleration as a basis for a linear collider, and preliminary collider designs using laser drivers and beam drivers are being developed. The different physical mechanisms of plasma wave excitation, as well as the typical characteristics of the drivers, have implications for accelerator design. In the following, we identify the similarities and differences between wave excitation by lasers and particle beams. The field structure of the plasma wave driven by lasers or particle beams is discussed, as well as the

  15. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE PAGES

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; ...

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  16. Deflection of a Reflected Intense Vortex Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Huang, Shan; Shi, Yin; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Pei, Zhikun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-09-01

    An interesting deflection effect deviating the optical reflection law is revealed in the relativistic regime of intense vortex laser plasma interaction. When an intense vortex laser obliquely impinges onto an overdense plasma target, the reflected beam deflects out of the plane of incidence with an experimentally observable deflection angle. The mechanism is demonstrated by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation as well as analytical modeling using the Maxwell stress tensor. The deflection results from the rotational symmetry breaking of the foil driven by the unsymmetrical shear stress of the vortex beam. The l -dependent shear stress, where l is the topological charge, as an intrinsic characteristic to the vortex beam, plays an important role as the ponderomotive force in relativistic vortex laser matter interaction.

  17. Performance of Advanced Light Source particle beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, is complete. The particle beam diagnostics have been installed and tested. The beam injection systems have been running for two years. We have performance data on beam position monitors, beam intensity monitors, scintillators, beam collimators, a 50 {Omega} Faraday cup, and broad-band striplines and kickers used in the linac, transport lines, and the booster synchrotron. The single-turn monitoring capability of the booster beam position monitoring system has been particularly useful for studying beam dynamics. Beam diagnostics for the storage ring are being commissioned. In this paper we describe each instrument, show its performance, and outline how the instruments are controlled and their output data displayed.

  18. Helical tractor beam: analytical solution of Rayleigh particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Garcia, Celia; Blaya, Salvador

    2015-08-10

    We analyze particle dynamics in an optical force field generated by helical tractor beams obtained by the interference of a cylindrical beam with a topological charge and a co-propagating temporally de-phased plane wave. We show that, for standard experimental conditions, it is possible to obtain analytical solutions for the trajectories of particles in such force field by using of some approximations. These solutions show that, in contrast to other tractor beams described before, the intensity becomes a key parameter for the control of particle trajectories. Therefore, by tuning the intensity value the particle can describe helical trajectories upstream and downstream, a circular trajectory in a fixed plane, or a linear displacement in the propagation direction. The approximated analytical solutions show good agreement to the corresponding numerical solutions of the exact dynamical differential equations.

  19. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy with High Energy Photon and Hadron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelfke, U.

    2004-07-01

    This short contribution will briefly describe the basic concepts of intensity modulated radiation therapy with high energy photons (IMRT) and charged particle beams (IMPT). Dose delivery and optimization strategies like the `Inverse Planning' approach will be explained for both radiation modalities and their potential advantages are demonstrated for characteristic clinical examples. Finally, future development like image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and adaptive radiation therapy, based on functional imaging methods, will be introduced.

  20. Plating Processes Utilizing High Intensity Acoustic Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor); Denofrio, Charles (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and a method for selective plating processes are disclosed which use directed beams of high intensity acoustic waves to create non-linear effects that alter and improve the plating process. The directed beams are focused on the surface of an object, which in one embodiment is immersed in a plating solution, and in another embodiment is suspended above a plating solution. The plating processes provide precise control of the thickness of the layers of the plating, while at the same time, in at least some incidents, eliminates the need for masking.

  1. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variale, V.

    2001-08-01

    A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571-1582 (1999) and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999), p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  2. Aerodynamic beam generator for large particles

    DOEpatents

    Brockmann, John E.; Torczynski, John R.; Dykhuizen, Ronald C.; Neiser, Richard A.; Smith, Mark F.

    2002-01-01

    A new type of aerodynamic particle beam generator is disclosed. This generator produces a tightly focused beam of large material particles at velocities ranging from a few feet per second to supersonic speeds, depending on the exact configuration and operating conditions. Such generators are of particular interest for use in additive fabrication techniques.

  3. Apparatus for measuring charged particle beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, D. A.; Stocks, C. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus to measure the incident charged particle beam flux while effectively eliminating losses to reflection and/or secondary emission of the charged particle beam being measured is described. It comprises a sense cup through which the charged particle beam enters. A sense cone forms the rear wall of the interior chamber with the cone apex adjacent the entry opening. An outer case surrounds the sense cup and is electrically insulated therefrom. Charged particles entering the interior chamber are trapped and are absorbed by the sense cup and cone and travel through a current measuring device to ground.

  4. Coherent light in intense spatiospectral twin beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Intense spatio-spectral twin beams generated in the regime with pump depletion are analyzed applying a suggested quantum model that treats the signal, idler, and pump fields in the same way. The model assumes the signal and idler fields in the form of the generalized superposition of signal and noise and reveals nonzero signal coherent components in both fields, contrary to the models developed earlier. The influence of coherent components on the properties of intense twin beams is elucidated. The interference pattern formed in the process of sum-frequency generation and that of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer are shown to be able to experimentally confirm the presence of coherent components.

  5. Hollow structure formation of intense ion beams with sharp edge in background plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhang-Hu; Wang, You-Nian

    2016-02-15

    The transport of intense ion beams with sharp radial beam edge in plasmas has been studied with two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations. The initial solid beam evolves into a hollow beam due to the nonlinear sharp transverse force peak in the regions of beam edge. The magnitude and nonlinearity of this peak are enhanced as the ion beam travels further into the plasma, due to the self-consistent interactions between the beam ions and the plasma electrons. This structure formation is shown to be independent on the beam radius.

  6. Special session on environment and energy, and repeated emphasis from early-`80s onwards, hybrid-drive targets for penetrating beams, that encompasses ultra high intensity lasers and/or particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W. ||

    1994-10-05

    In this special session, we discuss {bold global} {bold climate} {bold change} concerns, as well as {bold cleanup} {bold of} {bold wastes} {bold and}/{bold or} {bold toxic} {bold materials}, their relations to energy and other technologies. We especially bring together scientists to discuss available and/or developable technologies of amelioration or cleanup, for consideration of unusual uses of {bold Lasers}, {bold Particle} {bold Beams} {bold and} {bold other} {bold plasma} Phenomena. {copyright}{ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics} 1994

  7. Positron microanalysis with high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Donohue, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more common applications for a high intensity slow positron facility will be microanalysis of solid materials. In the first section of this paper some examples are given of procedures that can be developed. Since most of the attendees of this workshop are experts in positron spectroscopy, comprehensive descriptions will be omitted. With the exception of positron emission microscopy, most of the procedures will be based on those already in common use with broad beams. The utility of the methods have all been demonstrated, but material scientists use very few of them because positron microbeams are not generally available. A high intensity positron facility will make microbeams easier to obtain and partially alleviate this situation. All microanalysis techniques listed below will have a common requirement, which is the ability to locate the microscopic detail or area of interest and to focus the positron beam exclusively on it. The last section of this paper is a suggestion of how a high intensity positron facility might be designed so as to have this capability built in. The method will involve locating the specimen by scanning it with the microbeam of positrons and inducing a secondary electron image that will immediately reveal whether or not the positron beam is striking the proper portion of the specimen. This scanning positron microscope' will be a somewhat prosaic analog of the conventional SEM. It will, however, be an indispensable utility that will enhance the practicality of positron microanalysis techniques. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Electrostatic wire for stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Prono, Daniel S.; Caporaso, George J.; Briggs, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  9. Time Resolved Imaging of Longitudinal Modulations in Intense Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Kai

    2007-11-01

    The longitudinal evolution of high intensity beams is not well understood despite its importance to the success of such applications as free electron lasers and light sources, heavy ion inertial fusion, and high energy colliders. For example any amplification of current modulations in an FEL photoinjector can lead to unwanted coherent synchrotron radiation further downstream in compression chicanes or bends. A significant factor usually neglected is the coupling to the transverse dynamics which can strongly affect the longitudinal evolution. Previous experiments at the University of Maryland have revealed much about the longitudinal physics of space-charge dominated beams by monitoring the evolution of longitudinal perturbations. For the first time, experimental results are presented here which reveal the effect of longitudinal perturbations on the transverse beam distribution, with the aid of several new diagnostics that capture detailed time-resolved density images. A longitudinal modulation of the particle density is deliberately generated at the source, and its evolution is tracked downstream using a number of diagnostics such as current monitors, high-resolution energy analyzers, as well as the transverse imaging devices. The latter consist of a high-resolution 16-bit gated camera coupled with very fast emitters such as prompt optical transition radiation (OTR) from an alumina screen, or fast Phosphor screens with 3-ns time resolution. Simulations using the particle-in-cell code WARP are applied to cross-check the experimental results. These experiments and especially the comparisons to simulation represent significant progress towards understanding the longitudinal physics of intense beams.

  10. Facility for intense diagnostic neutral beam (IDNB) development

    SciTech Connect

    Kasik, R.J.; Hinckley, W.B.; Bartsch, R.R.; Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Greenly, J.B.

    1993-08-01

    An intense, pulsed neutral beam source is under development for use as a probe beam on hot, burning plasmas such as in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) which is presently in the planning stage. A pulsed, neutral hydrogen beam of 10s of kilo amperes of current can have an alpha particle, charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy (alpha-CHERS) signal-to-noise ratio of {approximately} 10. This beam would allow the measurement, on a single pulse of a few hundred nanoseconds duration, of the local alpha particle distribution function as well as other features of the tokamak plasma such as current density profile, impurity density, and microturbulence spectrum. The cross-sections for the CHERS diagnostic dictate operation with proton energies greater than {approximately}50keV. A pulsed neutral hydrogen source of this voltage and intensity can be achieved by neutralizing the ion flux from a magnetized ion-diode. The cross-sections for attachment and stripping, when coupled with scaling from Child-Langmiur, space-charge-limited, ion-current flow imply operation below - 100keV for maximum neutral fluence. The development of a flashover-anode, ion source for forthcoming evaluation of a neutralizing section is described below. This source operates in the accelerator voltage range 70 to 100keV. Eventually, the flashover-anode, magnetized ion-diode will be replaced with a plasma-anode, magnetized ion-diode.

  11. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  12. Plasma diagnostic techniques using particle beam probes

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, W C

    1980-07-01

    A brief overview is given of particle beam probing. The fundamental concepts common to all techniques are discussed as well as the design considerations for choosing a particular diagnostic technique. The capabilities of existing and proposed techniques, and the present status of the techniques in major magnetic confinement geometries is also presented. Techniques which involve the injection of a beam of neutral particles into the plasma are then considered. The techniques of beam attenuation, beam scattering, and active charge exchange using a beam of light particles such as hydrogen or helium are first presented. Optical measurements of the Zeeman splitting of the radiation from a neutral lithium beam is then discussed, including a new proposal for significantly improving this technique through the addition of a dye laser. Two techniques involving the injection of heavy neutral particles are then presented, and the section concludes with two proposed techniques for measuring the properties of the alpha particles produced from actual fusion reactions. The diagnostic techniques which are based upon the injection of a beam of charged particles into the plasma are next described. The advantages and limitations of these techniques in comparison with the neutral techniques are discussed, followed by a description of specific techniques.

  13. Simulations of the effects of mobile ions on the relativistic beam-plasma instability for intense beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Lemons, D.S.; Lee, H.

    1983-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations of the beam-plasma instability for intense relativistic electron beams in dense plasmas show rapid heating of the electrons to multi-kilovolt temperatures. The resulting hydrodynamic motion of the plasma results in density gradients that degrade the interaction. Heat flow out of the plasma is found in some instances to limit the gradient formation process.

  14. Neutral particle beam sensing and steering

    DOEpatents

    Maier, II, William B.; Cobb, Donald D.; Robiscoe, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    The direction of a neutral particle beam (NPB) is determined by detecting Ly.alpha. radiation emitted during motional quenching of excited H(2S) atoms in the beam during movement of the atoms through a magnetic field. At least one detector is placed adjacent the beam exit to define an optical axis that intercepts the beam at a viewing angle to include a volume generating a selected number of photons for detection. The detection system includes a lens having an area that is small relative to the NPB area and a pixel array located in the focal plane of the lens. The lens viewing angle and area pixel array are selected to optimize the beam tilt sensitivity. In one embodiment, two detectors are placed coplanar with the beam axis to generate a difference signal that is insensitive to beam variations other than beam tilt.

  15. Autogenerator of beams of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Richard J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Miller, Robert B.; Shope, Steven L.; Smith, David L.

    1986-01-01

    An autogenerating apparatus provides secondary intense relativistic current beam pulses in response to an injected beam pulse. One or more electromagnetic energy storage devices are provided in conjunction with gaps along a beam propagation path for the injected beam pulse. For injected beam pulses which are no longer than double the transit time of electromagnetic waves within the storage devices (which may be resonant cavities), distinct secondary beam pulses are generated by each of the energy storage devices. The beam propagation path, together with the one or more gaps provided therein, operates as a pulse forming transmission line cavity, in which the separate cavities associated with the gaps provide delays for electromagnetic waves generated at the gaps. After doubly traversing the cavity, the electromagnetic waves cause the gap to generate the secondary beam pulses, which are thus delayed by a time interval equal to the double transit time for the induced wave within the cavity.

  16. Autogenerator of beams of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Adler, R.J.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Miller, R.M.; Shope, S.L.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-10-31

    An autogenerating apparatus provides secondary intense relativistic current beam pulses in response to an injected beam pulse. One or more electromagnetic energy storage devices are provided in conjunction with gaps along a beam propagation path for the injected beam pulse. For injected beam pulses which are no longer than double the transit time of electromagnetic waves within the storage devices (which may be resonant cavities), distinct secondary beam pulses are generated by each of the energy storage devices. The beam propagation path, together with the one or more gaps provided therein, operates as a pulse forming transmission line cavity, in which the separate cavities associated with the gaps provide delays for electromagnetic waves generated at the gaps. After doubly traversing the cavity, the electromagnetic waves cause the gap to generate the secondary beam pulses, which are thus delayed by a time interval equal to the double transit time for the induced wave within the cavity.

  17. Method of enhancing cyclotron beam intensity

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, Ed D.; Mallory, Merrit L.

    1977-01-01

    When an easily ionized support gas such as xenon is added to the cold cathode in sources of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, large beam enhancements are produced. For example, .sup.20 Ne.sup.7+ is increased from 0.05 enA to 27 enA, and .sup.16 O.sup.5+ intensities in excess of 35 e.mu.A have been extracted for periods up to 30 minutes. Approximately 0.15 cc/min of the easily ionized support gas is supplied to the ion source through a separate gas feed line and the primary gas flow is reduced by about 30%.

  18. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.; VanDevender, J. Pace

    1999-01-01

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications.

  19. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-05-04

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

  20. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W.; Brown, N.A.; Babcock, R.C.; Martono, H.; Carey, D.C. |

    1997-02-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.; Brown, Nathan A.; Babcock, R. Chris; Martono, Hendy; Carey, David C.

    1997-02-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab.

  2. Intense Microsecond Electron Beam Interactions with Low-Pressure Gases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-28

    Gilgenbach, J. E. Tucker, and C. L. Enloe, Laser and Particle Beams, 6 687 (1988). 4) "Undulation of a Magnetized Electron Beam by a Periodic Ion...Excitation by Relativistic Electrons: I. Collisions Cross Sections and Deposition Efficiencies", Laser and Particle Beams 8 493 (1990) 11) D.B...McGarrah and M.L. Brake, Argon Ion Excitation by Relativistic Electrons: II. Chemical Kinetics", Laser and Particle Beams 8 507 (1990) 9 T-PS/18/3//35709

  3. Shaped beam scattering by an anisotropic particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huayong; Huang, Zhixiang; Wu, Xianliang

    2017-03-01

    An exact semi-analytical solution to the electromagnetic scattering from an optically anisotropic particle illuminated by an arbitrarily shaped beam is proposed. The scattered fields and fields within the anisotropic particle are expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions. The unknown expansion coefficients are determined by using the boundary conditions and the method of moments scheme. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are given to a uniaxial, gyrotropic anisotropic spheroid and circular cylinder of finite length. The scattering properties are analyzed concisely.

  4. Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense- ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.; Reass, W.A.; Coates, D.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Schleinitz, H.M.; Lovberg, R.H.; Greenly, J.B.

    1996-07-01

    A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. We are developing a 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 {mu}s duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator to address these applications.

  5. Beam dynamics and stability analysis of an intense beam in a continuously twisted quadrupole focusing channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of a space-charge-dominated beam through a continuously twisted quadrupole magnet using ten independent first-order differential equations of the beam matrix elements under the assumption of linear space-charge force. Various beam optical properties of the magnet and the evolution of the emittance that results from the coupling between the two transverse planes are studied. The perturbed equations of motion around the matched beam envelopes have been derived and utilized to analyze the stability properties of the intense beam transport by calculating the eigenvalues of the transfer map over one lattice period. Detailed analysis shows the presence of instability due to parametric resonances in a twisted quadrupole channel which generally does not appear in the FODO quadrupole channel. A 2D particle-in-cell simulation code has been developed and utilized to verify the analytical results and to examine the behavior of the intense beam with Gaussian (GA) distribution in the twisted quadrupole channel.

  6. Use of particle beams for lunar prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toepfer, A. J.; Eppler, D.; Friedlander, A.; Weitz, R.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in choosing the appropriate site for a manned lunar base is the availability of resources, particularly oxygen and hydrogen for the production of water, and ores for the production of fuels and building materials. NASA has proposed two Lunar Scout missions that would orbit the Moon and use, among other instruments, a hard X-ray spectrometer, a neutron spectrometer, and a Ge gamma ray spectrometer to map the lunar surface. This passive instrumentation will have low resolution (tens of kilometers) due to the low signal levels produced by natural radioactivity and the interaction of cosmic rays and the solar wind with the lunar surface. This paper presents the results of a concept definition effort for a neutral particle beam lunar mapper probe. The idea of using particle beam probes to survey asteroids was first proposed by Sagdeev et al., and an ion beam device was fielded on the 1988 Soviet probe to the Mars moon Phobos. During the past five years, significant advances in the technology of neutral particle beams (NPB) have led to a suborbital flight of a neutral hydrogen beam device in the SDIO-sponsored BEAR experiment. An orbital experiment, the Neutral Particle Beam Far Field Optics Experiment (NPB-FOX) is presently in the preliminary design phase. The development of NPB accelerators that are space-operable leads one to consider the utility of these devices for probing the surface of the Moon using gamma ray, X-ray, and optical/UV spectroscopy to locate various elements and compounds. We consider the utility of the NPB-FOX satellite containing a 5-MeV particle beam accelerator as a probe in lunar orbit. Irradiation of the lunar surface by the particle beam will induce secondary and back scattered radiation from the lunar surface to be detected by a sensor that may be co-orbital with or on the particle beam satellite platform, or may be in a separate orbit. The secondary radiation is characteristic of the make-up of the lunar surface. The size of the

  7. Microsecond pulse width, intense, light-ion beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rej, D. J.; Bartsch, R. R.; Davis, H. A.; Faehl, R. J.; Greenly, J. B.; Waganaar, W. J.

    1993-10-01

    A relatively long-pulse width (0.1-1 μs) intense ion beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied Br, magnetically insulated extraction ion diode with dielectric flashover ion source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. The diode is designed with the aid of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse shaping. The effect of a plasma opening switch on diode behavior is considered.

  8. Axion-like-particle search with high-intensity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döbrich, Babette; Gies, Holger

    2010-10-01

    We study ALP -photon-conversion within strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields as provided by contemporary high-intensity laser systems. We observe that probe photons traversing the focal spot of a superposition of Gaussian beams of a single high-intensity laser at fundamental and frequency-doubled mode can experience a frequency shift due to their intermittent propagation as axion-like-particles. This process is strongly peaked for resonant masses on the order of the involved laser frequencies. Purely laser-based experiments in optical setups are sensitive to ALPs in the eV mass range and can thus complement ALP searches at dipole magnets.

  9. Intense ion beam optimization and characterization with thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; Bartsch, R.R.; Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have developed thermal imaging of beam targets to optimize and characterize intense ion beams. The technique, which measures the beam energy-density distribution on each machine firing, has been used to rapidly develop and characterize two very different beams--a 400 kV beam used to study materials processing, and an 80 kV beam use for magnetic fusion diagnostics.

  10. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-10-05

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings ({mu}SR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included.

  11. Materials processing with intense pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    We review research investigating the application of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIBs) for the surface treatment and coating of materials. The short range (0.1-10 {mu}m) and high-energy density (1-50 J/cm{sup 2}) of these short-pulsed ({le} 1 {mu}s) beams (with ion currents I = 5 - 50 kA, and energies E = 100 - 1000 keV) make them ideal to flash-heat a target surface, similar to the more familiar pulsed laser processes. IPIB surface treatment induces rapid melt and solidification at up to 10{sup 10} K/s to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures. At higher energy density the target surface is vaporized, and the ablated vapor is condensed as coatings onto adjacent substrates or as nanophase powders. Progress towards the development of robust, high-repetition rate IPIB accelerators is presented along with economic estimates for the cost of ownership of this technology.

  12. Funnel cone for focusing intense ion beams on a target

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.

    2009-10-05

    We describe a funnel cone for concentrating an ion beam on a target. The cone utilizes the reflection characteristic of ion beams on solid walls to focus the incident beam andincrease beam intensity on target. The cone has been modeled with the TRIM code. A prototype has been tested and installed for use in the 350-keV K+ NDCX target chamber.

  13. Characterization of Bacteria by Particle Beam Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.; Platz, Robert M.; Friedlander, Sheldon K.; Vilker, Vincent L.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is described for detecting and characterizing bacteria on a single-particle basis by mass spectrometry. The method involves generation of a particle beam of single whole cells which are rapidly volatilized and ionized in vacuum in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The particle beam can be generated, with minimal sample handling, from a naturally occurring aerosol or from a solution of bacteria that can be dispersed as an aerosol. The mass spectrum is generated by successively measuring the average intensities of different mass peaks. The average intensity is obtained by measuring the ion intensity distribution at the particular mass (m/e) for ion pulses from more than 1,000 bacteria particles. Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas putida samples were analyzed to test the capability of the instrument for differentiating among species of bacteria. Significant ion-intensity information was produced over the m/e range of 50 to 300, an improvement over previous pyrolysis-mass spectrometry results. The complex mass spectra contained a few unique peaks which could be used for the differentiation of the bacteria. A statistical analysis of the variations in peak intensities among the three bacteria provided a quantitative measure of the reproducibility of the instrument and its ability to differentiate among bacteria. The technique could lead to a new rapid method for the analysis of microorganisms and could be used for the detection of airborne pathogens on a continuous, real-time basis. Images PMID:16346802

  14. Beam Phase Space of an Intense Ion Beam in a Neutralizing Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Bazouin, Guillaume; Beneytout, Alice; Lidia, Steven M.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Grote, David P.

    2011-10-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-I) generates high intensity ion beams to explore warm dense matter physics. Transverse final focusing is accomplished with an 8-Tesla, 10-cm long pulsed solenoid magnet combined with a background neutralizing plasma to effectively cancel the space charge field of the ion beam. We report on phase space measurements of the beam before the neutralization channel and of the focused ion beam at the target plane. These are compared to WARP particle-in-cell simulations of the ion beam propagation through the focusing system and neutralizing plasma. Due to the orientation of the plasma sources with respect to the focusing magnet, the plasma distribution within the final focusing lens is strongly affected by the magnetic field, an effect which can influence the peak intensity at the target and which is included in the model of the experiment. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL, LBNL under Contracts DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC02-05CH1123.

  15. Higher order mode beams mitigate halos in high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Krishnagopal, Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    High intensity proton linacs (HIPLs) for applications such as Accelerator Driven Reactor Systems (ADRS) have serious beam dynamics issues related to beam halo formation. This can lead to particle loss and radioactivation of the surroundings which consequently limit the beam current. Beam halos are largely driven by the nonlinear space-charge force of the beam, which depends strongly on the beam distribution and also on the initial beam mismatch. We propose here the use of a higher order mode beam (HOMB), that has a weaker nonlinear force, to mitigate beam halos. We first show how the nonlinear space-charge force can itself be exploited in the presence of nonlinear solenoid fields, to produce a HOMB in the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. We then study the transport of such a beam through a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and show that the HOMB has a significant advantage in terms of emittance blow-up, halo formation and beam loss, over a Gaussian beam, even with a finite initial mismatch. For example, for the transport of a 30 mA beam through the RFQ, with an initial beam mismatch of 45%, the Gaussian beam sees an emittance blow-up of 125%, while the HOMB sees a blow-up of only 35% (relative to the initial emittance of 0.2 π mm -mrad ). Similarly, the beam halo parameter and beam loss are 0.95 and 25% respectively for a Gaussian beam, but only 0.35 and 15% for a HOMB. The beam dynamics of the HOMB agrees quite well with the particle-core model, because of the more linear space-charge force, while for the Gaussian beam there are additional particle loss mechanisms arising from nonlinear resonances. Therefore, the HOMB suppresses emittance blow-up and halo formation, and can make high current ADRS systems more viable.

  16. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  17. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  18. Far-field intensity of Lorentz related beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xi; Chen, Chidao; Chen, Bo; Peng, Yulian; Zhou, Meiling; Zhang, Liping; Li, Dongdong; Deng, Dongmei

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a sufficient condition under which the Lorentz beam convolution with other beams constitutes valid cross-spectral densities. Two examples are given to show how the Lorentz related beam can be used for generation of a far field being a modulated version of another one. The far-field intensity patterns in the Cartesian symmetries by the convolution operation of the Lorentz beams with multi-sinc beams, and the convolution operation of the Lorentz beams with multi-sinc Gaussian beams, are shown respectively. We find that different beam order can result distinct far field changes.

  19. Irradiation of Materials using Short, Intense Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter; Ji, Q.; Persaud, A.; Feinberg, E.; Silverman, M.; Sulyman, A.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Stepanov, A.; Zimmer, M.

    2016-10-01

    We present experiments studying material properties created with nanosecond and millimeter-scale ion beam pulses on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Berkeley Lab. The explored scientific topics include the dynamics of ion induced damage in materials, materials synthesis far from equilibrium, warm dense matter and intense beam-plasma physics. We describe the improved accelerator performance, diagnostics and results of beam-induced irradiation of thin samples of, e.g., tin and silicon. Bunches with >3x1010 ions/pulse with 1-mm radius and 2-30 ns FWHM duration and have been created. To achieve the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV He+ ion beam is neutralized in a drift compression section which removes the space charge defocusing effect during the final compression and focusing. Quantitative comparison of detailed particle-in-cell simulations with the experiment play an important role in optimizing the accelerator performance and keep pace with the accelerator repetition rate of <1/minute. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contracts DE-AC0205CH11231 (LBNL), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC02-09CH11466 (PPPL).

  20. Intense beams: The past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Yonas, G.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1998-06-01

    Nobody could have predicted the circuitous course of the last 30 years of progress in intense beams and pulsed power. There were many discoveries and twists and turns along the way, but the steady flow of understanding and technological advances has sustained the field. Pulsed power research began in the early 1960s with the development of the technology to test the reliability of nuclear weapons in a pulsed radiation environment. Because of the effort in the 1970s on an electron beam approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Kurchatov Institute, simulation codes, diagnostics, and innovative pulsed power techniques such as self-magnetic insulation were developed. The electron approach ended in 1979, and the more promising ion approach continued. At the same time, z pinches, used since the early 1970s to evaluate the response of materials to keV X rays, were considered as an alternative to drive ICF capsules. The use of z pinches for ICF was discontinued in 1984 because of budget cuts and the belief that ions offered a route to the standoff requirement for energy applications. Now, in 1998, because of budget limitations and the 1995 discovery that the soft x-ray power achievable in a z-pinch implosion can be greatly enhanced, the ion approach has been suspended, and a new facility, X-1, proposed to achieve high yield in the laboratory with z pinches. In this paper the authors review the research paths that led to these changes, describe the present status of z pinches, and predict what the future holds. Although nobody can predict the future, the past 30 years have taught us some lessons that can be applied to the next 30 years. The paper concludes with some of these lessons learned.

  1. Polarization of fast particle beams by collisional pumping

    DOEpatents

    Stearns, J. Warren; Kaplan, Selig N.; Pyle, Robert V.; Anderson, L. Wilmer; Ruby, Lawrence; Schlachter, Alfred S.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for highly polarizing a fast beam of particles by collisional pumping, including generating a fast beam of particles, and also generating a thick electron-spin-polarized medium positioned as a target for the beam. The target is made sufficiently thick to allow the beam to interact with the medium to produce collisional pumping whereby the beam becomes highly polarized.

  2. Doubling Beam Intensity Unlocks Rare Opportunities for Discovery at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, Jennifer A.

    2014-05-01

    Particle accelerators such as the Booster synchrotron at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produce high-intensity proton beams for particle physics experiments that can ultimately reveal the secrets of the universe. High-intensity proton beams are required by experiments at the “intensity frontier” of particle physics research, where the availability of more particles improves the chances of observing extremely rare physical processes. In addition to their central role in particle physics experiments, particle accelerators have found widespread use in industrial, nuclear, environmental, and medical applications. RF cavities are essential components of particle accelerators that, depending on the design, can perform multiple functions, including bunching, focusing, decelerating, and accelerating a beam of charged particles. Engineers are working to model the RF cavities required for upgrading the 40-year old Booster synchrotron. It is a rather complicated process to refurbish, test, and qualify the upgraded RF cavities to sustain an increased repetition rate of the RF field required to produce proton beams at double the current intensity. Both multiphysics simulation and physical measurements are used to evaluate the RF, thermal, and mechanical properties of the Booster RF cavities.

  3. Propagation instabilities of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams.

    PubMed

    Tatarakis, M; Beg, F N; Clark, E L; Dangor, A E; Edwards, R D; Evans, R G; Goldsack, T J; Ledingham, K W D; Norreys, P A; Sinclair, M A; Wei, M-S; Zepf, M; Krushelnick, K

    2003-05-02

    Measurements of energetic electron beams generated from ultrahigh intensity laser interactions (I>10(19) W/cm(2)) with dense plasmas are discussed. These interactions have been shown to produce very directional beams, although with a broad energy spectrum. In the regime where the beam density approaches the density of the background plasma, we show that these beams are unstable to filamentation and "hosing" instabilities. Particle-in-cell simulations also indicate the development of such instabilities. This is a regime of particular interest for inertial confinement fusion applications of these beams (i.e., "fast ignition").

  4. Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bruce C.; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K.; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-07-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  5. Particle beam dynamics simulations using the POOMA framework

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, W.; Ryne, R.; Cleland, T.; Cummings, J.; Habib, S.; Mark, G.; Ji Qiang

    1998-12-31

    A program for simulation of the dynamics of high intensity charged particle beams in linear particle accelerators has been developed in C++ using the POOMA Framework, for use on serial and parallel architectures. The code models the trajectories of charged particles through a sequence of different accelerator beamline elements such as drift chambers, quadrupole magnets, or RF cavities. An FFT-based particle-in-cell algorithm is used to solve the Poisson equation that models the Coulomb interactions of the particles. The code employs an object-oriented design with software abstractions for the particle beam, accelerator beamline, and beamline elements, using C++ templates to efficiently support both 2D and 3D capabilities in the same code base. The POOMA Framework, which encapsulates much of the effort required for parallel execution, provides particle and field classes, particle-field interaction capabilities, and parallel FFT algorithms. The performance of this application running serially and in parallel is compared to an existing HPF implementation, with the POOMA version seen to run four times faster than the HPF code.

  6. Beam diagnostics at high-intensity storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M. )

    1994-10-10

    Beam diagnostics at high-intensity facilities feature their own special set of problems and characteristics, issues peculiar to high-intensity storage rings include beam loss, beam halos, extraction efficiency, beam in the gap, clearing electrodes, and beam-profile measurement. The Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) is a nice example of a high-intensity storage ring. I will discuss in some detail three diagnostic systems currently in use at the PSR: the beam-loss-monitor system, the electron-clearing system, and the beam-in-the-gap monitor. Much of our discussion is inspired by the problems we have encountered and the useful things we have learned while commissioning and developing the PSR. Another inspiration is our work on the next-generation neutron-spallation source, also known as the National Center for Neutron Research (NCNR).

  7. Beam diagnostics at high-intensity storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.

    1993-11-01

    Beam diagnostics at high-intensity facilities feature their own special set of problems and characteristics. Issues peculiar to high-intensity storage rings include beam loss, beam halos, extraction efficiency, beam in the gap, clearing electrodes, and beam-profile measurement. The Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) is a nice example of a high-intensity storage ring. The author discusses in some detail three diagnostic systems currently in use at the PSR: the beam-loss-monitor system, the electron-clearing system, and the beam-in-the-gap monitor. Much of the discussion is inspired by the problems that were encountered and the useful things learned while commissioning and developing the PSR. Another inspiration is the work on the next-generation neutron-spallation source, also known as the National Center for Neutron Research (NCNR).

  8. Intensity Variation of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by corona) mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the intensity of solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported in Gopalswamy et al. (2004, JGR 109, Al2105) is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of corona) holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

  9. Particle beam fusion progress report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the progress on the pulsed power approach to inertial confinement fusion. In 1989, the authors achieved a proton focal intensity of 5 TW/cm{sup 2} on PBFA-II in a 15-cm-radius applied magnetic-field (applied-B) ion diode. This is an improvement by a factor of 4 compared to previous PBFA-II experiments. They completed development of the three-dimensional (3-D), electromagnetic, particle-in-cell code QUICKSILVER and obtained the first 3-D simulations of an applied-B ion diode. The simulations, together with analytic theory, suggest that control of electromagnetic instabilities could reduce ion divergence. In experiments using a lithium fluoride source, they delivered 26 kJ of lithium energy to the diode axis. Rutherford-scattered ion diagnostics have been developed and tested using a conical foil located inside the diode. They can now obtain energy density profiles by using range filters and recording ion images on nuclear track recording film. Timing uncertainties in power flow experiments on PBFA-II have been reduced by a factor of 5. They are investigating three plasma opening switches that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. These new switches provide better power flow than the standard plasma erosion switch. Advanced pulsed-power fusion drivers will require extraction-geometry applied-B ion diodes. During this reporting period, progress was made in evaluating the generation, transport, and focus of multiple ion beams in an extraction geometry and in assessing the probable damage to a target chamber first wall.

  10. Longitudinal Control of Intense Charged Particle Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    materials hysteresis curve , the saturation point ( S B ), where the magnetic flux density does not change anymore with a change in magnetic field...18 2.2.2 One-Dimensional Analytical Calculation and Simulation of End-Erosion22 2.3 Transverse Correlation of Bunch Elongation...53 3.3 Ferrite Considerations and Limitations............................................................. 54 3.3.1 Volt-Second Product

  11. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T.; Agladze, N. I.; Bazarov, I. V.; Bartnik, A.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Full, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Savino, J.; Smolenski, K.

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20 m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell's high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring properties of particle beams using thermo-resistive material properties

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Dotson, Danny Wayne

    2007-10-09

    A beam position detector for measuring the properties of a charged particle beam, including the beam's position, size, shape, and intensity. One or more absorbers are constructed of thermo-resistive material and positioned to intercept and absorb a portion of the incoming beam power, thereby causing local heating of each absorber. The local temperature increase distribution across the absorber, or the distribution between different absorbers, will depend on the intensity, size, and position of the beam. The absorbers are constructed of a material having a strong dependence of electrical resistivity on temperature. The beam position detector has no moving parts in the vicinity of the beam and is especially suited to beam areas having high ionizing radiation dose rates or poor beam quality, including beams dispersed in the transverse direction and in their time radio frequency structure.

  13. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm.

  14. Polarization of fast particle beams by collisional pumping

    DOEpatents

    Stearns, J.W.; Kaplan, S.N.; Pyle, R.V.; Anderson, L.W.; Schlachter, A.S.; Ruby, L.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates to method and apparatus for polarizing a fast beam of particles by collisional pumping, including generating a fast beam of particles, and generating a thick electron-spin-polarized medium positioned as a target for said beam, said medium being sufficiently thick to allow said beam to interact with said medium to produce collisional pumping whereby said particle beam becomes highly polarized.

  15. Pulsed power accelerators for particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.H.; Barr, G.W.; VanDevender, J.P.; White, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing the construction phase of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I (PBFA-I). Testing of the 36 module, 30 TW, 1 MJ output accelerator is in the initial stages. The 4 MJ, PBFA Marx generator has provided 3.6 MA into water-copper sulfate load resistors with a spread from first to last Marx firing between 15 to 25 ns and an output power of 5.7 TW. This accelerator is a modular, lower voltage, pulsed power device that is capable of scaling to power levels exceeding 100 TW. The elements of the PBFA technology and their integration into an accelerator system for particle beam fusion will be discussed.

  16. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  17. Behaviour of advanced materials impacted by high energy particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Cerutti, F.; Dallocchio, A.; Garlasché, M.; Guinchard, M.; Mariani, N.; Marques dos Santos, S. D.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Boccone, V.

    2013-07-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices (BID) are designed to operate in a harsh radioactive environment and are highly loaded from a thermo-structural point of view. Moreover, modern particle accelerators, storing unprecedented energy, may be exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct beam impacts. In this context, impulse has been given to the development of novel materials for advanced thermal management with high thermal shock resistance like metal-diamond and metal-graphite composites on top of refractory metals such as molybdenum, tungsten and copper alloys. This paper presents the results of a first-of-its-kind experiment which exploited 440 GeV proton beams at different intensities to impact samples of the aforementioned materials. Effects of thermally induced shockwaves were acquired via high speed acquisition system including strain gauges, laser Doppler vibrometer and high speed camera. Preliminary information of beam induced damages on materials were also collected. State-of-the-art hydrodynamic codes (like Autodyn®), relying on complex material models including equation of state (EOS), strength and failure models, have been used for the simulation of the experiment. Preliminary results confirm the effectiveness and reliability of these numerical methods when material constitutive models are completely available (W and Cu alloys). For novel composite materials a reverse engineering approach will be used to build appropriate constitutive models, thus allowing a realistic representation of these complex phenomena. These results are of paramount importance for understanding and predicting the response of novel advanced composites to beam impacts in modern particle accelerators.

  18. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, J H; Molvik, A W; Turner, W C

    1982-07-07

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane.

  19. Beam loss studies in high-intensity heavy-ion linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Aseev, V. N.; Mustapha, B.

    2004-09-01

    The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Facility, an innovative exotic-beam facility for the production of high-quality beams of short-lived isotopes, consists of a fully superconducting 1.4GV driver linac and a 140MV postaccelerator. To produce sufficient intensities of secondary beams the driver linac will provide 400kW primary beams of any ion from hydrogen to uranium. Because of the high intensity of the primary beams the beam losses must be minimized to avoid radioactivation of the accelerator equipment. To keep the power deposited by the particles lost on the accelerator structures below 1 W/m, the relative beam losses per unit length should be less than 10-5, especially along the high-energy section of the linac. A new beam dynamics simulation code TRACK has been developed and used for beam loss studies in the RIA driver linac. In the TRACK code, ions are tracked through the three-dimensional electromagnetic fields of every element of the linac starting from the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to the production target. The simulation starts with a multicomponent dc ion beam extracted from the ECR. The space charge forces are included in the simulations. They are especially important in the front end of the driver linac. Beam losses are studied by tracking a large number of particles (up to 106) through the whole linac considering all sources of error such us element misalignments, rf field errors, and stripper thickness fluctuations. For each configuration of the linac, multiple sets of error values have been randomly generated and used in the calculations. The results are then combined to calculate important beam parameters, estimate beam losses, and characterize the corresponding linac configuration. To track a large number of particles for a comprehensive number of error sets (up to 500), the code TRACK was parallelized and run on the Jazz computer cluster at ANL.

  20. An intense polarized beam by a laser ionization injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Chihiro; Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Nakamura, Takeshi

    1990-12-01

    Accumulation of protons and polarized protons by photo-ionization injection are described. This method consists of: (1) producing the neutral hydrogen beam by Lorentz stripping; (2) excitation of the neutral hydrogen beam with a laser; and (3) ionization of the hydrogen beam in the 2P excited state with another laser. When the laser for the excitation is circularly polarized, we can get a polarized proton beam. An ionization efficiency of 98 percent and a polarization of 80 percent can be expected by an intense laser beam from a free electron laser (FEL).

  1. Gridded Electron Guns and Modulation of Intense Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; O'Shea, P G

    2006-05-02

    Gridded guns are useful for producing modulated electron beams. This modulation is generally limited to simple gating of the beam, but may be used to apply structure to the beam pulse shape. In intense beams, this structure spawns space charge waves whose dynamics depend in part on the relative strengths of the velocity and density variations which comprise the initial current modulation. In this paper, we calculate the strengths of beam current and velocity modulation produced in a gridded electron gun, and show that under normal conditions the initial modulation is dominated by density variation rather than velocity variation.

  2. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  3. A non-invasive beam profile monitor for charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tzoganis, Vasilis; Welsch, Carsten P.

    2014-05-19

    Non-interceptive beam profile monitors are highly desirable in almost all particle accelerators. Such techniques are especially valuable in applications where real time monitoring of the beam properties is required while beam preservation and minimal influence on the vacuum are of the greatest importance. This applies to many kinds of accelerators such as high energy machines where the normal diagnostics cannot withstand the beam's power, medical machines where treatment time is valuable and cannot be allocated to diagnostics and also low energy, low intensity accelerators where the beam's properties are difficult to measure. This paper presents the design of a gas-jet based beam profile monitor which was developed and commissioned at the Cockcroft Institute and can operate in a very large background pressure range from 10{sup −7} down to below 10{sup −11} millibars. The functioning principle of the monitor is described and the first experimental results obtained using a 5 keV electron beam are discussed.

  4. Intense e-beam interaction with matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, R.H.; Crawford, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    This document describes work done in this period on certain nonlinear processes of potential importance at high energy densities in condensed matter, and on the theory of the electron slowing-down-cascade spectrum engendered in solids by e-beams.

  5. Drift compression of an intense neutralized ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Henestroza, E.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.; Eylon, S.; Greenway, W.G.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.; Thoma, C.; Sefkow, A.B.; Gilson, E.P.; Efthimion, P.C.; Davidson, R.C.

    2004-10-25

    Longitudinal compression of a tailored-velocity, intense neutralized ion beam has been demonstrated. The compression takes place in a 1-2 m drift section filled with plasma to provide space-charge neutralization. An induction cell produces a head-to-tail velocity ramp that longitudinally compresses the neutralized beam, enhancing the beam peak current by a factor of 50 and producing a pulse duration of about 3 ns. this measurement has been confirmed independently with two different diagnostic systems.

  6. Improving Plating by Use of Intense Acoustic Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Denofrio, Charles

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of selective plating of metals and possibly other materials involves the use of directed high-intensity acoustic beams. The beams, typically in the ultrasonic frequency range, can be generated by fixed-focus transducers (see figure) or by phased arrays of transducers excited, variously, by continuous waves, tone bursts, or single pulses. The nonlinear effects produced by these beams are used to alter plating processes in ways that are advantageous.

  7. Low Intensity Beam Imaging - Position Sensitive Avalanche Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Mas, J.; Shapira, D; T.A. Lewis

    1998-11-04

    Monitors of this type are mostly intended for the lowest intensity beams at the HRIBF at ORNL. They are used to aid the accelerator operator in focusing and steering the beam and by the experimenters at the focal plane of the spectrometers.

  8. Particle production of a graphite target system for the intensity frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X.; Kirk, H.; McDonald, K. T.

    2015-05-03

    A solid graphite target system is considered for an intense muon and/or neutrino source in support of physics at the intensity frontier. We previously optimized the geometric parameters of the beam and target to maximize particle production at low energies by incoming protons with kinetic energy of 6.75 GeV and an rms geometric emittance of 5 mm-mrad using the MARS15(2014) code. In this study, we ran MARS15 with ROOT-based geometry and also considered a mercury-jet target as an upgrade option. The optimization was extended to focused proton beams with transverse emittances from 5 to 50 mm-mrad, showing that the particle production decreases slowly with increasing emittance. We also studied beam-dump configurations to suppress the rate of undesirable high-energy secondary particles in the beam.

  9. Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.; Kubono, S.

    2008-05-01

    A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N2 finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N2 tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm2 at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a 7Be beam of 2×108 particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

  10. Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.

    2008-05-21

    A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N{sub 2} finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N{sub 2} tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm{sup 2} at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a {sup 7}Be beam of 2x10{sup 8} particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

  11. The ADRIA project for high intensity radioactive beams production

    SciTech Connect

    Bisoffi, G.; Cavenago, M.; Dainelli, A.; Facco, A.; Fortuna, G.; Lombardi, A.; Moisio, M.F.; Pisent, A.; Spolaore, P.; Tiveron, B. ); Ruggiero, A.G. ); Tecchio, L. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin )

    1992-01-01

    A proposal of an accelerator complex (ADRIA) for the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) is described in this report. The main components of the complex are a Heavy Ion Injection system and two rings, a Booster and a Decelerator, both with a maximum rigidity of 22.25 Tm, connected by a Transfer Line where exotic proposal has two main goals consisting in the isotopes are produced and selected. The proposal has two main goals consisting in the acceleration of stable ion species up to kinetic energies of the order of few GeV/u, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with intensities of about 10[sup 12] ions per second, for fixed target experiments in nuclear physics and for the production of fully stripped radioactive beams, using particle fragmentation method for nuclear spectroscopy experiments. Fragments are accumulated in the Decelerator, with intensities 10[sup 8] [divided by] 10[sup 9] ions/s, cooled and delivered at the production energies or decelerated down to energies of few MeV/u, in proximity of the Coulomb barrier.

  12. The ADRIA project for high intensity radioactive beams production

    SciTech Connect

    Bisoffi, G.; Cavenago, M.; Dainelli, A.; Facco, A.; Fortuna, G.; Lombardi, A.; Moisio, M.F.; Pisent, A.; Spolaore, P.; Tiveron, B.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Tecchio, L. |

    1992-12-31

    A proposal of an accelerator complex (ADRIA) for the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) is described in this report. The main components of the complex are a Heavy Ion Injection system and two rings, a Booster and a Decelerator, both with a maximum rigidity of 22.25 Tm, connected by a Transfer Line where exotic proposal has two main goals consisting in the isotopes are produced and selected. The proposal has two main goals consisting in the acceleration of stable ion species up to kinetic energies of the order of few GeV/u, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with intensities of about 10{sup 12} ions per second, for fixed target experiments in nuclear physics and for the production of fully stripped radioactive beams, using particle fragmentation method for nuclear spectroscopy experiments. Fragments are accumulated in the Decelerator, with intensities 10{sup 8} {divided_by} 10{sup 9} ions/s, cooled and delivered at the production energies or decelerated down to energies of few MeV/u, in proximity of the Coulomb barrier.

  13. Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed.

  14. Vacuum chamber for containing particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Harvey, A.

    1985-11-26

    A vacuum chamber for containing a charged particle beam in a rapidly changing magnetic environment comprises a ceramic pipe with conducting strips oriented along the longitudinal axis of the pipe and with circumferential conducting bands oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis but joined with a single longitudinal electrical connection. When both strips and bands are on the outside of the ceramic pipe, insulated from each other, a high-resistance conductive layer such as nickel can be coated on the inside of the pipe.

  15. Vacuum chamber for containing particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Harvey, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A vacuum chamber for containing a charged particle beam in a rapidly changing magnetic environment comprises a ceramic pipe with conducting strips oriented along the longitudinal axis of the pipe and with circumferential conducting bands oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis but joined with a single longitudinal electrical connection. When both strips and bands are on the outside of the ceramic pipe, insulated from each other, a high-resistance conductive layer, such as nickel can be coated on the inside of the pipe.

  16. Raman conversion in intense femtosecond Bessel beams in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheller, Maik; Chen, Xi; Ariunbold, Gombojav O.; Born, Norman; Moloney, Jerome; Kolesik, Miroslav; Polynkin, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that bright and nearly collimated radiation can be efficiently generated in air pumped by an intense femtosecond Bessel beam. We show that this nonlinear conversion process is driven by the rotational Raman response of air molecules. Under optimum conditions, the conversion efficiency from the Bessel pump into the on-axis propagating beam exceeds 15% and is limited by the onset of intensity clamping and plasma refraction on the beam axis. Our experimental findings are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on the standard model for the ultrafast nonlinear response of air.

  17. Stopping intense beams of internally cold molecules via centrifugal forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing; Gantner, Thomas; Zeppenfeld, Martin; Chervenkov, Sotir; Rempe, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenic buffer-gas cooling produces intense beams of internally cold molecules. It offers a versatile source for studying collision dynamics and reaction pathways in the cold regime, and could open new avenues for controlled chemistry, precision spectroscopy, and exploration of fundamental physics. However, an efficient deceleration of these beams still presents a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that intense and continuous beams of electrically guided molecules produced by a cryogenic buffer-gas cell can be brought to a halt by the centrifugal force in a rotating frame. Various molecules (e.g. CH3F and CF3CCH) are decelerated to below 20m /s at a corresponding output intensity of ~ 6 ×109mm-2 .s-1 . In addition, our RF-resonant depletion detection shows that up to 90 % rotational-state purity can be achieved in the so-produced slow molecular beams.

  18. Limiting current of intense electron beams in a decelerating gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Thompson, C.; Karakkad, J. A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    For numerous applications, it is desirable to develop electron beam driven efficient sources of electromagnetic radiation that are capable of producing the required power at beam voltages as low as possible. This trend is limited by space charge effects that cause the reduction of electron kinetic energy and can lead to electron reflection. So far, this effect was analyzed for intense beams propagating in uniform metallic pipes. In the present study, the limiting currents of intense electron beams are analyzed for the case of beam propagation in the tubes with gaps. A general treatment is illustrated by an example evaluating the limiting current in a high-power, tunable 1-10 MHz inductive output tube (IOT), which is currently under development for ionospheric modification. Results of the analytical theory are compared to results of numerical simulations. The results obtained allow one to estimate the interaction efficiency of IOTs.

  19. New techniques in hadrontherapy: intensity modulated proton beams.

    PubMed

    Cella, L; Lomax, A; Miralbell, R

    2001-01-01

    Inverse planning and intensity modulated (IM) X-ray beam treatment techniques can achieve significant improvements in dose distributions comparable to those obtained with forward planned proton beams. However, intensity modulation can also be applied to proton beams and further optimization in dose distribution can reasonably be expected. A comparative planning exercise between IM X-rays and IM proton beams was carried out on two different tumor cases: a pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma and a prostate cancer. Both IM X-rays and IM protons achieved equally homogenous coverage of the target volume in the two tumor sites. Predicted NTCPs were equally low for both treatment techniques. Nevertheless, a reduced low-to-medium dose to the organs at risk and a lesser integral non-target mean dose for IM protons in the two cases favored the use of IM proton beams.

  20. Electrostatic Confinement of Charged Particle Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Jose; Weathers, Duncan; Ordonez, Carlos

    2009-04-01

    Many experiments rely on the confinement of charged particles. Examples of these experiments range from fusion studies to antiproton-positron studies for antihydrogen production. Researchers have already developed a variety of techniques for controlling and trapping charged particles. Examples of systems devised for such purposes include electrostatic traps in the form of a cavity [1],[2] or in the form of a storage ring like ELISA [3]. For this project, we are pursuing a different approach [4], which relies on a purely electrostatic environment for ion confinement. This system consists of a periodic electrode configuration of cylindrical symmetry that acts to confine an ion beam in the radial direction. In this manner, it is expected that long particle lifetimes inside the trap will be achieved, and that the system will have an inherent scalability to different ion energy. Results obtained from simulation of the proposed system will be presented and discussed along with a brief overview of the steps taken to develop a laboratory prototype. [1] M. Dahan et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 69 (1998) 76. [2] H. F. Krause et al., American Institute of Physics. CAARI 16^th Int'l Conf. (2001). [3] S.P. Moller et al., Proc. of the 1997 Particle Accelerator Conference. vol 1. pp 1027-1029. Vancouver, Canada. May 1997. [4] J.R. Correa et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. In Phys. Res. B 241 (2005) 909-912.

  1. Measurement of the intensity of the beam in the abort gap at the Tevatron utilizing synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Lorman, E.; Meyer, T.; Pordes, S.; De Santis, S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-05-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of abort gap beam intensity monitoring at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. There are two somewhat independent monitors which measure the intensity of the synchrotron light emitted by particles in the abort gaps. One system uses a gated Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) to measure the light intensity, and the other system uses a single lens telescope, gated image intensifier, and Charge Injection Device (CID) camera to image the beam.

  2. Generalized Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij Distribution and Beam Matrix for Phase-Space Manipulations of High-Intensity Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Groening, Lars; Xiao, Chen

    2016-11-01

    In an uncoupled linear lattice system, the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) distribution formulated on the basis of the single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants has served as a fundamental theoretical basis for the analyses of the equilibrium, stability, and transport properties of high-intensity beams for the past several decades. Recent applications of high-intensity beams, however, require beam phase-space manipulations by intentionally introducing strong coupling. In this Letter, we report the full generalization of the KV model by including all of the linear (both external and space-charge) coupling forces, beam energy variations, and arbitrary emittance partition, which all form essential elements for phase-space manipulations. The new generalized KV model yields spatially uniform density profiles and corresponding linear self-field forces as desired. The corresponding matrix envelope equations and beam matrix for the generalized KV model provide important new theoretical tools for the detailed design and analysis of high-intensity beam manipulations, for which previous theoretical models are not easily applicable.

  3. Emittance Growth in Intense Non-Circular Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O. A.

    1997-05-01

    The electrostatic energy of intense beams in linear uniform focusing channels is minimized when the initial beam configuration is both uniform and round.(In the case of quadrupole focusing, this means round on the average.) Deviations from either uniformity or roundness produce free energy and emittance growth. Over the past 25 years, the consequences of beam nonuniformity have been thoroughly investigated for the case of round beams. Recently, there has been interest in more complex beam configurations such as those that occur in Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) combiners or splitters. We discuss free energy and emittance growth for a variety of cases: (a) square beams, (b) hexagonal beams, (c) beams bounded by a quadrant or sextant of a circle, (d) rectangular beams, (e) elliptical beams, (f) pairs of beamlets, and (g) arrays of many beamlets. Cases (a) and (b) are approximations for large arrays of beamlets as proposed for HIF combiners or for negative-ion sources. Beam splitting, suggested for a particular HIF final focus scheme, leads to (c). The large emittance growth in cases (d)-(f), calculated by a new method,(O.A. Anderson, Proceedings of EPAC 96 conference.) illustrates the importance of maintaining symmetry. Practical examples are given for several cases.

  4. High-energy-density electron beam generation in ultra intense laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianxun; Ma, Yanyun; Yang, Xiaohu; Zhao, Jun; Yu, Tongpu; Shao, Fuqiu; Zhuo, Hongbin; Gan, Longfei; Zhang, Guobo; Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Jingkang

    2017-01-01

    By using a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, we demonstrate a scheme for high-energy-density electron beam generation by irradiating an ultra intense laser pulse onto an aluminum (Al) target. With the laser having a peak intensity of 4 × 1023 W cm‑2, a high quality electron beam with a maximum density of 117nc and a kinetic energy density up to 8.79 × 1018 J m‑3 is generated. The temperature of the electron beam can be 416 MeV, and the beam divergence is only 7.25°. As the laser peak intensity increases (e.g., 1024 W cm‑2), both the beam energy density (3.56 × 1019 J m‑3) and the temperature (545 MeV) are increased, and the beam collimation is well controlled. The maximum density of the electron beam can even reach 180nc. Such beams should have potential applications in the areas of antiparticle generation, laboratory astrophysics, etc. This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11475260, 11305264, 11622547, 91230205, and 11474360), the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CBA01504), and the Research Project of NUDT (No. JC14-02-02).

  5. Proton Beam Intensity Upgrades for the Neutrino Program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.

    2016-12-15

    Fermilab is committed to upgrading its accelerator complex towards the intensity frontier to pursue HEP research in the neutrino sector and beyond. The upgrade has two steps: 1) the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP), which is underway, has its primary goal to start providing 700 kW beam power on NOvA target by the end of 2017 and 2) the foreseen PIP–II will replace the existing LINAC, a 400 MeV injector to the Booster, by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC by the middle of next decade, with output beam intensity from the Booster increased significantly and the beam power on the NOvA target increased to <1.2 MW. In any case, the Fermilab Booster is going to play a very significant role for the next two decades. In this context, we have recently developed and commissioned an innovative beam injection scheme for the Booster called "early injection scheme". This scheme is already in operation and has a potential to increase the Booster beam intensity from the PIP design goal by a considerable amount with a reduced beam emittance and beam loss. In this paper, we will present results from our experience from the new scheme in operation, current status and future plans.

  6. Shaped beam scattering by an aggregate of particles using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briard, Paul; Wang, Jia jie; Han, Yi Ping

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the light scattering by an aggregate of particles illuminated by an arbitrary shaped beam is analyzed within the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). The theoretical derivations of aggregated particles illuminated by an arbitrary shaped beam are revisited, with special attention paid to the computation of beam shape coefficients of a shaped beam for aggregated particles. The theoretical treatments as well as a home-made code are then verified by making comparisons between our numerical results and those calculated using a public available T-Matrix code MSTM. Good agreements are achieved which partially indicate the correctness of both codes. Additionally, more numerical results are presented to study the scattered fields of aggregated particles illuminated by a focused Gaussian beam. Several large enhancements in the scattered intensity distributions are found which are believed to be due to the Bragg's scattering by a linear chain of spheres.

  7. Development of a relativistic Particle In Cell code PARTDYN for linear accelerator beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadte, D.; Patidar, C. B.; Pal, M. K.

    2017-04-01

    A relativistic Particle In Cell (PIC) code PARTDYN is developed for the beam dynamics simulation of z-continuous and bunched beams. The code is implemented in MATLAB using its MEX functionality which allows both ease of development as well higher performance similar to a compiled language like C. The beam dynamics calculations carried out by the code are compared with analytical results and with other well developed codes like PARMELA and BEAMPATH. The effect of finite number of simulation particles on the emittance growth of intense beams has been studied. Corrections to the RF cavity field expressions were incorporated in the code so that the fields could be calculated correctly. The deviations of the beam dynamics results between PARTDYN and BEAMPATH for a cavity driven in zero-mode have been discussed. The beam dynamics studies of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) using PARTDYN have been presented.

  8. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaupa, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2016-11-01

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  9. Fundamentals of particle beam dynamics and phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.; Mane, S.R.

    1991-09-04

    This report discusses the following topics on synchrotron accelerators: Transverse motion---betatron oscillations; machine lattice; representation of a particle beam; and longitudinal motion---synchrotron oscillations.

  10. High power target approaches for intense radioactive ion beam facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W.L. ||; Hodges, T.A.; Hsu, H.; Fikani, M.M.

    1997-02-01

    Development of conceptual approaches for targets to produce intense radioactive ion beams is needed in anticipation of activity for a next-generation, intense ISOL-type radioactive beams facility, strongly recommended in the NSAC 1995 Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science. The production of isotopes in vapor form for subsequent mass separation and acceleration will depend on the ability to control target temperature profiles within the target resulting from interactions of the intense production beams with the target material. A number of earlier studies have identified promising approaches which need, however, to be carefully analyzed for specific target systems. A survey will be made of these earlier concepts employing various cooling techniques, including imposition of thermal barriers between the target materials and cooling systems. Some results of preliminary analyses are summarized. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Population Inversions in Ablation Plasmas Generated by Intense Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    light weight design, and moderate cost. The Soviets have investigated intense proton beam pumped plasma lasers , however, the University of Michigan...interpretations have been verified by moving the position of the probe laser beam away from the surface of the anode (from 0.1 cm to 0.4 cm) and noting the changes...Properties Effects on Ultraviolet Laser induced Flashover of Angled Plastic insulators in Vacuum", C.L. Ensloe and R. M. Gilgenbach, IEEE 3 Trans. on

  12. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-12-09

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{_}summary.html.

  13. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-03-15

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse 'slice' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{sub s}ummary.html.

  14. Energy Loss of High Intensity Focused Proton Beams Penetrating Metal Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Evans, M.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Stephens, R. B.; Chen, S. N.; Fuchs, J.; Nilson, P. M.; Canning, D.; Mastrosimone, D.; Foord, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    Shortpulse-laser-driven intense ion beams are appealing for applications in probing and creating high energy density plasmas. Such a beam isochorically heats and rapidly ionizes any target it enters into warm dense matter with uncertain transport and stopping properties. Here we present experimental measurements taken with the 1.25 kJ, 10 ps OMEGA EP BL shortpulse laser of the proton and carbon spectra after passing through metal foils. The laser irradiated spherically curved C targets with intensity 4×1018 W/cm2, producing proton beams with 3 MeV slope temperature and a sharp low energy cutoff at 5 MeV which has not been observed on lower energy, shorter pulse intense lasers. The beam either diverged freely or was focused to estimated 1016 p +/cm2 ps by a surrounding structure before entering the metal foils (Al or Ag and a Cu tracer layer). The proton and ion spectra were altered by the foil depending on material and whether or not the beam was focused. Transverse proton radiography probed the target with ps temporal and 10 micron spatial resolution, indicating an electrostatic field on the foil may also have affected the beam. We present complementary particle-in-cell simulations of the beam generation and transport to the foils. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA National Laser User Facility program, Contract DE-SC0001265.

  15. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Roger, T.; Babo, M.; Caamaño, M.; Farget, F.; Grinyer, G. F.; Jacquot, B.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Ramos, D.; Suzuki, D.

    2014-12-01

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a 136Xe beam are presented.

  16. On a theory of two-beam mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in electrodynamic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrovsky, A.O.

    1993-09-01

    This work is devoted to the theoretical studies of two-beam mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in electronic structures. The first section continues the outline of results of theoretical studies commenced in the intermediate report and considers the two-beam scheme of acceleration in the plasma waveguide. According to this scheme the strong current relativistic electron beam (REB) excites the intensive plasma waves accelerating the electrons of the second beam. The driving beam is assumed to be density-modulated. The preliminary modulation of the driving REB is shown to enhance substantially the acceleration efficiency of relativistic electrons of the driven beam. The second section deals with the two-beam acceleration in the vacuum corrugated waveguide. According to this scheme the excitation of electromagnetic waves and acceleration of driven beam electrons by them is accomplished under different Cherenkov resonances between the particles of beams and the corrugated waveguide field. The electromagnetic field in the periodic structure is known to be the superposition of spatial harmonics. With the small depth of the periodic nonuniformity the amplitudes of these harmonics decrease fast with their number increasing. Therefore, if the driving beam is in the Cherenkov resonance with the first spatial harmonic and the driven beam is in resonance with the zero space harmonic then the force accelerating the driven beam would be considerably bigger than the force decelerating the driving beam electrons.

  17. Improving the intensity of a focused laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Sofiane; Fromager, Michael; Louhibi, Djelloul; Hasnaoui, Abdelkrim; Harfouche, Ali; Cagniot, Emmanuel; ńit-Ameur, Kamel

    2015-03-01

    Let us consider the family of symmetrical Laguerre-Gaus modes of zero azimuthal order which will be denoted as LGp0 . The latter is made up of central lobe surrounded by p concentric rings of light. The fundamental mode LG00 is a Gaussian beam of width W. The focusing of a LGp0 beam of power P by a converging lens of focal length f produces a focal spot keeping the LGp0 -shape and having a central intensity I0= 2PW2/(λf)2 whatever the value of the radial order p. Many applications of lasers (laser marking, laser ablation, …) seek nowadays for a focal laser spot with the highest as possible intensity. For a given power P, increasing intensity I0 can be achieved by increasing W and reducing the focal length f. However, this way of doing is in fact limited because the ratio W/f cannot increase indefinitely at the risk of introducing a huge truncation upon the edge of the lens. In fact, it is possible to produce a single-lobed focal spot with a central intensity of about p times the intensity I0. This result has been obtained by reshaping (rectification) a LGp0 beam thanks to a proper Binary Diffractive Optical Element (BDOE). In addition, forcing a laser cavity to oscillate upon a LGp0 can improve the power extract due to a mode volume increasing with the mode order p. This could allow envisaging an economy of scale in term of laser pumping power for producing a given intensity I0. In addition, we have demonstrated that a rectified LGp0 beam better stand the lens spherical aberration than the usual Gaussian beam.

  18. Improved dispensing targets for ion beam particle generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    Beam impinges on palladium-silver tube, which is target, and heats impinged surface causing local hot spot. Contained gas diffuses through hot spot to meet incoming beam and produce desired particles. When beam is turned off, target spot cools and stops dispensing contained gas.

  19. A probe for real-time images of particle beams and their analyses in a merged-beams apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forand, J. L.; Wahlin, E.; Depaola, B. D.; Dunn, G. H.; Timmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    A real-time charged particle beam probe was developed, which can be used both as a beam diagnostic (beam tuning) and to quantitatively determine the three-dimensional density distribution of a beam. The probe consists of a microchannel plate, an aluminized phosphor screen deposited on a fiber-optic faceplate, a flexible fiber-optic bundle, and a charge injection device (CID) in tandem. Digital or analog video output of the CID is fed into a computer or oscilloscope, respectively, for analysis or observation. The probe can be moved continuously along the beams' paths to obtain 'pictures' of the beam at any desired interval, thus giving three-dimensional form factors. The beams, singly or simultaneously, may be observed on the monitor facilitating the task of beam adjustment for optimum overlap. The digital output is used for quantitative computation of the beam overlaps. The device is linear with beam intensity, but the performance degrades with time due to beam damage of the microchannel plate.

  20. Streak Camera 101: Visualizing Charged-Particle Beam Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bingxin

    2006-11-01

    Radiation generated by high-energy particle beams such as optical transition radiation (OTR) and optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) is widely used to characterize the beam properties. It has enabled dual-sweep streak cameras to visualize charged-particle beam dynamics. In this introductory paper, we will discuss properties of dual-sweep streak cameras and basic optics systems for imaging charged-particle bunches at different projection angles to produce top view, side view, and front view. Examples will be used to illustrate the beam dynamics that streak images reveal. We will also discuss practical considerations of optical transport line design to preserve spatial and temporal resolution of the camera system.

  1. High power targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W. L.; Drake, D. M.; Wilson, M. T.; Walker, J. J.; Lenz, J. W.

    1999-04-26

    Issues are discussed in producing intense Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) approach, based on the use of thick targets employed at existing facilities. Some new physics studies may possibly be addressed by improving the performance of these existing targets through improvements in release and effusion properties to optimize the RIB yields. It is, however, acknowledged that many desired physics objectives using RIB can be met only by employing production beams of energetic light ions or protons with currents up to 100 {mu}A. Development of targets that use such intense production beams needs to address the requirement to control operational temperatures derived from internal production beam interactions with the target materials. In addition, issues arise for target materials in terms of their thermal characteristics, such as thermal conductivity and thermo-mechanical properties. A target concept is described for an in-beam test of a prototype target for actual thermal behavior under RIB production conditions. For such a test, a high-power test facility is needed; fortunately, the prototypical production beam currents required exist at the TRIUMF accelerator facility. An experimental proposal has been approved for such a test.

  2. Internal dynamics of intense twin beams and their coherence

    PubMed Central

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of intense twin beams in pump-depleted parametric down-conversion is studied. A generalized parametric approximation is suggested to solve the quantum model. Its comparison with a semiclassical model valid for larger twin-beam intensities confirms its applicability. The experimentally observed maxima in the spectral and spatial intensity auto- and cross- correlation functions depending on pump power are explained in terms of different speeds of the (back-) flow of energy between the individual down-converted modes and the corresponding pump modes. This effect is also responsible for the gradual replacement of the initial exponential growth of the down-converted fields by the linear one. Furthermore, it forms a minimum in the curve giving the effective number of twin-beam modes. These effects manifest a tight relation between the twin-beam coherence and its internal structure, as clearly visible in the model. Multiple maxima in the intensity correlation functions originating in the oscillations of energy flow between the pump and down-converted modes are theoretically predicted. PMID:26924749

  3. Experimental and numerical study of high intensity argon cluster beams

    SciTech Connect

    Korobeishchikov, N. G.; Kalyada, V. V.; Shmakov, A. A.; Zarvin, A. E.; Skovorodko, P. A.

    2014-12-09

    Experimental and numerical investigations of expansion of argon with homogeneous condensation in supersonic conical nozzle and in free jet behind it were carried out. Optimal parameters (stagnation pressure, nozzle-skimmer distance) for the formation of cluster beam with maximum intensity were determined. Two available models for nonequilibrium nucleation were tested. The numerical results are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data.

  4. Heuristic optimization of the scanning path of particle therapy beams.

    PubMed

    Pardo, J; Donetti, M; Bourhaleb, F; Ansarinejad, A; Attili, A; Cirio, R; Garella, M A; Giordanengo, S; Givehchi, N; La Rosa, A; Marchetto, F; Monaco, V; Pecka, A; Peroni, C; Russo, G; Sacchi, R

    2009-06-01

    Quasidiscrete scanning is a delivery strategy for proton and ion beam therapy in which the beam is turned off when a slice is finished and a new energy must be set but not during the scanning between consecutive spots. Different scanning paths lead to different dose distributions due to the contribution of the unintended transit dose between spots. In this work an algorithm to optimize the scanning path for quasidiscrete scanned beams is presented. The classical simulated annealing algorithm is used. It is a heuristic algorithm frequently used in combinatorial optimization problems, which allows us to obtain nearly optimal solutions in acceptable running times. A study focused on the best choice of operational parameters on which the algorithm performance depends is presented. The convergence properties of the algorithm have been further improved by using the next-neighbor algorithm to generate the starting paths. Scanning paths for two clinical treatments have been optimized. The optimized paths are found to be shorter than the back-and-forth, top-to-bottom (zigzag) paths generally provided by the treatment planning systems. The gamma method has been applied to quantify the improvement achieved on the dose distribution. Results show a reduction of the transit dose when the optimized paths are used. The benefit is clear especially when the fluence per spot is low, as in the case of repainting. The minimization of the transit dose can potentially allow the use of higher beam intensities, thus decreasing the treatment time. The algorithm implemented for this work can optimize efficiently the scanning path of quasidiscrete scanned particle beams. Optimized scanning paths decrease the transit dose and lead to better dose distributions.

  5. Deposition and surface treatment with intense pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J.; Stinnett, R.W.; McIntyre, D.C.

    1995-02-08

    Intense pulsed ion beams (500 keV, 30 kA, 0.5 {mu}s) are being investigated for materials processing. Demonstrated and potential applications include film deposition, glazing and joining, alloying and mixing, cleaning and polishing, corrosion improvement, polymer surface treatments, and nanophase powder synthesis. Initial experiments at Los Alamos have emphasized thin-film formation by depositing beam ablated target material on substrates. We have deposited films with complex stoichiometry such as YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, and formed diamond-like-carbon films. Instantaneous deposition rates of 1 mm/sec have been achieved because of the short ion range (typically 1{mu}m), excellent target coupling, and the inherently high energy of these beams. Currently the beams are produced in single shot uncomplicated diodes with good electrical efficiency. High-voltage modulator technology and diodes capable of repetitive firing, needed for commercial application, are being developed.

  6. Low-emittance monoenergetic electron and ion beams from ultra-intense laser-solid interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, T E; Roth, M; Allen, M M; Johnson, J; Hatchett, S P; Le Sage, G P; Wilks, S C

    2000-03-03

    Recent experiments at the LLNL Petawatt Laser have demonstrated the generation of intense, high energy beams of electrons and ions from the interaction of ultra-intense laser light with solid targets. Focused laser intensities as high as 6 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} are achieved, at which point the quiver energies of the target electrons extend to {approx}10 MeV. In this new, fully relativistic regime of laser-plasma interactions, nuclear processes become important and nuclear techniques are required to diagnose the high-energy particle production. In recent experiments we have observed electrons accelerated to 100 MeV, up to 60 MeV brehmsstrahlung generation, photo-nuclear fission and positron-electron pair creation. We also have observed monoenergetic jets of electrons having sufficiently small emittance to be interesting as a laser-accelerated beam, if the production mechanism could be understood and controlled. The huge flux of multi-MeV ponderomotively accelerated electrons produced in the laser-solid interaction is also observed to accelerate contaminant ions from the rear surface of the solid target up to 50 MeV. We describe spectroscopic measurements which reveal intense monoenergetic beam features in the proton energy spectrum. The total spectrum contains >10{sup 13} protons, while the monoenergetic beam pulses contain {approx}1 nC of protons, and exhibits a longitudinal and transverse emittance smaller than conventional RF proton accelerator beams.

  7. Probability density function of the intensity of a laser beam propagating in the maritime environment.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Olga; Avramov-Zamurovic, Svetlana; Malek-Madani, Reza; Nelson, Charles

    2011-10-10

    A number of field experiments measuring the fluctuating intensity of a laser beam propagating along horizontal paths in the maritime environment is performed over sub-kilometer distances at the United States Naval Academy. Both above the ground and over the water links are explored. Two different detection schemes, one photographing the beam on a white board, and the other capturing the beam directly using a ccd sensor, gave consistent results. The probability density function (pdf) of the fluctuating intensity is reconstructed with the help of two theoretical models: the Gamma-Gamma and the Gamma-Laguerre, and compared with the intensity's histograms. It is found that the on-ground experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The results obtained above the water paths lead to appreciable discrepancies, especially in the case of the Gamma-Gamma model. These discrepancies are attributed to the presence of the various scatterers along the path of the beam, such as water droplets, aerosols and other airborne particles. Our paper's main contribution is providing a methodology for computing the pdf function of the laser beam intensity in the maritime environment using field measurements.

  8. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K+ ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally

  9. The use of radiochromic films to measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators.

    PubMed

    Avila-Rodriguez, M A; Wilson, J S; McQuarrie, S A

    2009-11-01

    The use of radiochromic films as a simple and inexpensive tool to accurately measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators is described. In this study, metallic foils of different materials and thicknesses were irradiated with 17.8MeV protons and autoradiographic images of the beam strike were acquired by exposing pieces of RCF in direct contact with the irradiated foils. The films were digitalized using a conventional scanner and images were analyzed using DoseLab. Beam intensity distributions, isodose curves and linear beam profiles of the digitalized images were acquired.

  10. New Capabilities for Modeling Intense Beams in Heavy Ion Fusion Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Bieniosek, F M; Celata, C M; Cohen, R H; Davidson, R C; Grote, D P; Haber, I; Henestroza, E; Lee, E P; Lund, S M; Qin, H; Sharp, W M; Startsev, E; Vay, J L

    2003-09-09

    Significant advances have been made in modeling the intense beams of heavy-ion beam-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (Heavy Ion Fusion). In this paper, a roadmap for a validated, predictive driver simulation capability, building on improved codes and experimental diagnostics, is presented, as are examples of progress. The Mesh Refinement and Particle-in-Cell methods were integrated in the WARP code; this capability supported an injector experiment that determined the achievable current rise time, in good agreement with calculations. In a complementary effort, a new injector approach based on the merging of {approx}100 small beamlets was simulated, its basic feasibility established, and an experimental test designed. Time-dependent 3D simulations of the High Current Experiment (HCX) were performed, yielding voltage waveforms for an upcoming study of bunch-end control. Studies of collective beam modes which must be taken into account in driver designs were carried out. The value of using experimental data to tomographically ''synthesize'' a 4D beam particle distribution and so initialize a simulation was established; this work motivated further development of new diagnostics which yield 3D projections of the beam phase space. Other developments, including improved modeling of ion beam focusing and transport through the fusion chamber environment and onto the target, and of stray electrons and their effects on ion beams, are briefly noted.

  11. The University of Maryland Electron Ring: A Model Recirculator for Intense Beam Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, S.; Li, H.; Cui, Y.; Feldman, D.; Godlove, T.; Haber, I.; Huo, Y.; Harris, J.; Kishek, R. A.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; Walter, M.; Wilson, M.; Zou, Y.; O'Shea, P. G.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), designed for transport studies of space-charge dominated beams in a strong focusing lattice, is nearing completion. Low energy, high intensity electron beams provide an excellent model system for experimental studies with relevance to all areas that require high quality, intense charged-particle beams. In addition, UMER constitutes an important tool for benchmarking of computer codes. When completed, the UMER lattice will consist of 36 alternating-focusing (FODO) periods over an 11.5-m circumference. Current studies in UMER over about 2/3 of the ring include beam-envelope matching, halo formation, asymmetrical focusing, and longitudinal dynamics (beam bunch erosion and wave propagation.) Near future, multi-turn operation of the ring will allow us to address important additional issues such as resonance-traversal, energy spread and others. The main diagnostics are phosphor screens and capacitive beam position monitors placed at the center of each 200 bending section. In addition, pepper-pot and slit-wire emittance meters are in operation. The range of beam currents used corresponds to space charge tune depressions from 0.2 to 0.8, which is unprecedented for a circular machine.

  12. Ion source studies for particle beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bieg, K.W.; Burns, E.J.T.; Olsen, J.N.; Dorrell, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    High power particle beam accelerators are being developed for use in inertial confinement fusion applications. These pulsed power accelerators require sources of low atomic number ions (e.g., protons, deuterons, carbon, or lithium). The sources must be of high purity for efficient accelerator operation and proper target coupling, must have a rapid ''turn-on,'' and must be compatible with ion diode configurations under development. A particular type of source presently being investigated is the flashover ion source which generates ions by means of the vacuum flashover of an insulating anode material when the high voltage pulse arrives at the diode. We have developed an applied-magnetic-field, extraction ion diode for the 0.03 TW Nereus accelerator specifically to investigate these sources. Extracted ion species are measured by means of a Thomson-parabola ion analyzer, dB/dt current monitors, and Faraday cups. Experiments have been performed to investigate the surface flashover mechanism and the effects of various dielectric source materials, anode preparation methods (including rf glow discharge cleaning), and vacuum conditions on ion species and diode operation.

  13. Damage evaluation in metal structures subjected to high energy deposition due to particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, Martina; Peroni, Lorenzo; Dallocchio, Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    The unprecedented energy intensities of modern hadron accelerators yield special problems with the materials that are placed close to or into the high intensity beams. The energy stored in a single beam of LHC particle accelerator is equivalent to about 80 kg of TNT explosive, stored in a transverse beam area with a typical value of 0.2 mm×0.2 mm. The materials placed close to the beam are used at, or even beyond, their damage limits. However, it is very difficult to predict structural efficiency and robustness accurately: beam-induced damage for high energy and high intensity occurs in a regime where practical experience does not exist. The interaction between high energy particle beams and metals induces a sudden non uniform temperature increase. This provokes a dynamic response of the structure entailing thermal stress waves and thermally induced vibrations or even the failure of the component. This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on a copper component due to the impact with a 7 TeV proton beam generated by LHC. The case study represents an accidental case consequent to an abnormal release of the beam: the energy delivered on the component is calculated using the FLUKA code and then used as input in the numerical simulations, that are carried out via the FEM code LS-DYNA.

  14. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  15. Transport of intense beams of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, M.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Spadtke, P.; Tinschert, K.

    2005-10-01

    The new generation of ion sources delivers beams with intensities of several mA. This requires a careful design of the analysing system and the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) from the source to the subsequent systems. At INFN-LNS, high intensity proton sources (TRIPS [L. Celona, G. Ciavola, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1423 (2004)], PM-TRIPS [G. Ciavola, L. Celona, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1453 (2004)]) as well as ECR ion sources for the production of highly charged high-intensity heavy ion beams are developed (SERSE [S. Gammino, G. Ciavola, L. Celona et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(11) 4090 (2001), and references therein], GyroSERSE [S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1637 (2004)], MS-ECRIS [G. Ciavola et al ., (2005), 11th Int. Conf. on Ion Sources, Caen, (in press)]). In this paper, we present ion-optical design studies of various LEBT systems for ion-sources devoted to the production of intense beams. Calculations were performed using the computer codes GIOS [H. Wollnik, J. Brezina and M. Berz, NIM A 258 (1987)], GICO [M. Berz, H.C. Hoffmann, and H. Wollnik, NIM A 258 (1987)], and TRANSPORT [K.L. Brown, F. Rothacker and D.C. Carey, SLAC-R-95-462, Fermilab-Pub-95/069, UC-414 (1995)]. Simulations take into account the expected phase space growth of the beam emittance due to space-charge effects and image aberrations introduced by the magnetic elements.

  16. Survey of Collective Instabilities and Beam-Plasma Interactions in Intense Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Qin, Hong; Startsev, Edward A.; Rose, David V.; Lund, Steven M.; Welch, Dale R.; Sefkow, Adam

    2008-06-19

    This paper presents a survey of the present theoretical understanding based on advanced analytical and numerical studies of collective processes and beam-plasma interactions in intense heavy ion beams for applications to ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion. The topics include: discussion of the conditions for quiescent beam propagation over long distances; and the electrostatic Harris instability and the transverse electromagnetic Weibel instability in highly anisotropic, intense one-component ion beams. In the longitudinal drift compression and transverse compression regions, collective processes associated with the interaction of the intense ion beam with a charge-neutralizing background plasma are described, including the electrostatic electron-ion two-stream instability, the multispecies electromagnetic Weibel instability, and collective excitations in the presence of a solenoidal magnetic field. The effects of a velocity tilt on reducing two-stream instability growth rates are also discussed. Operating regimes are identified where the possible deleterious effects of collective processes on beam quality are minimized.

  17. Parasitic slow extraction of extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ye; Tang, Jingyu; Yang, Zheng; Jing, Hantao

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to extract extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the parasitic mode, while maintaining the normal fast extraction. The usual slow extraction method from a synchrotron by employing third-order resonance cannot be applied in a high-intensity RCS due to a very short flat-top at the extraction energy and the strict control on beam loss. The proposed parasitic slow extraction method moves the beam to scrape a scattering foil prior to the fast beam extraction by employing either a local orbit bump or momentum deviation or their combination, so that the halo part of the beam will be scattered. A part of the scattered particles will be extracted from the RCS and guided to the experimental area. The slow extraction process can last about a few milliseconds before the beam is extracted by the fast extraction system. The method has been applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source. With 1.6 GeV in the extraction energy, 62.5 μA in the average current and 25 Hz in the repetition rate for the RCS, the proton intensity by the slow extraction method can be up to 2×104 protons per cycle or 5×105 protons per second. The extracted beam has also a good time structure of approximately uniform in a spill which is required for many applications such as detector tests. Detailed studies including the scattering effect in the foil, the local orbit bump by the bump magnets and dispersive orbit bump by modifying the RF pattern, the multi-particle simulations by ORBIT and TURTLE codes, and some technical features for the extraction magnets are presented.

  18. High intensity positron beam and angular correlation experiments at Livermore

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.; Fluss, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    A positron beam apparatus that produces a variable energy positron beam with sufficient intensity to perform new positron experiments in an ultrahigh vacuum environment has been installed at the Lawrence Livermore 100 MeV electron linac. We have installed two large area position sensitive gamma-ray detectors to measure angular correlations in two dimensions and a separate highly collimated detector to measure positronium energy distributions by time-of-flight velocity determination. Data from measurements on single crystals of Cu will be described.

  19. Intense ion-beam dynamics in the NICA collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, O. S.; Meshkov, I. N.; Sidorin, A. O.; Trubnikov, G. V.

    2016-12-01

    The problems of intense ion-beam dynamics in the developed and optimized optical structure of the NICA collider are considered. Conditions for beam collisions and obtaining the required parameters of luminosity in the operation energy range are discussed. The restriction on collider luminosity is related to effects of the domination of the space charge and intrabeam scattering. Applying methods of cooling, electron and stochastic ones, will permit one to suppress these effects and reach design luminosity. The work also deals with systems of magnetic field correction and problems of calculating the dynamic aperture of the collider.

  20. Nonlinear stability in the transport of intense bunched beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa da Silva, Thales M.; Rizzato, Felipe B.; Pakter, Renato; Levin, Yan

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the nonlinear coupling of envelope modes of oscillation for intense bunched beams. Initially, the analysis concentrates on the case of spherically symmetric beams for which longitudinal and transverse focusing forces are assumed to be the same. It is investigated how externally induced spherically symmetric breathing oscillations may nonlinearly drive the growth of ellipsoidal modes which can break the spherical beam symmetry. Next, a more general case in which the focusing forces are not symmetric such that the matched beam already presents an ellipsoidal shape is studied. It is found that depending on the parameters of the system, even a very small mismatch amplitude can drive an instability, which leads to an effective coupling of longitudinal and transversal envelope oscillations by means of the space-charge forces. Use is made of Poincaré plots and the stability index of periodic orbits to perform a detailed analysis of the location of the instability in the parameter space and how it affects the beam transport. Self-consistent numerical simulations are performed in order to verify the onset of the nonlinear instability and its effect on the evolution of the RMS size and emittance of the beam.

  1. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-04-28

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  2. Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-05-15

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100 G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  3. Design Considerations for Plasma Accelerators Driven by Lasers or Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-06-01

    Plasma accelerators may be driven by the ponderomotive force of an intense laser or the space-charge force of a charged particle beam. The implications for accelerator design and the different physical mechanisms of laser-driven and beam-driven plasma acceleration are discussed. Driver propagation is examined, as well as the effects of the excited plasma wave phase velocity. The driver coupling to subsequent plasma accelerator stages for high-energy physics applications is addressed.

  4. Method of measuring a profile of the density of charged particles in a particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, L.G.; Jankowski, D.J.

    1975-10-01

    A profile of the relative density of charged particles in a beam is obtained by disposing a number of rods parallel to each other in a plane perpendicular to the beam and shadowing the beam. A second number of rods is disposed perpendicular to the first rods in a plane perpendicular to the beam and also shadowing the beam. Irradiation of the rods by the beam of charged particles creates radioactive isotopes in a quantity proportional to the number of charged particles incident upon the rods. Measurement of the radioactivity of each of the rods provides a measure of the quantity of radioactive material generated thereby and, together with the location of the rods, provides information sufficient to identify a profile of the density of charged particles in the beam.

  5. A microsecond-pulsewidth, intense, light-ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Greenly, J.B.; Waganaar, W.J.

    1993-07-01

    A relatively long-pulsewidth (0.1-1 {mu}s) intense ion beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied-B{sub r}, magnetically-insulated extraction ion diode with dielectric flashover ion source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2-MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse-shaping.

  6. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  7. Large acceptance magnetic focussing horns for production of a high intensity narrow band neutrino beam at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.; Chimienti, L.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Sims, W.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.; Thorwarth, H.

    1985-01-01

    A set of two large acceptance (20 to 140 mrad) horns have been designed and built to form a parallel beam of 3 GeV/c pions and kaons for the production of an intense, dichromatic neutrino beam. A set of beam plugs and collimators determined the momentum of the particles which pass through the horns. The cooling and maintenance of the horns and target was a particular concern since they were operated with an incident intensity of over 10/sup 13/ proton/sec. These systems were designed for simplicity, reliability, and easy replacement.

  8. Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu -Jiuan

    2015-10-06

    Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.

  9. Interactive design environment transportation channel of relativistic charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchuk, I. O.; Averyanov, G. P.; Budkin, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Considered a modern implementation of a computer environment for the design of channels of transportation of high-energy charged particle beams. The environment includes a software package for the simulation of the dynamics of charged particles in the channel, operating means for changing parameters of the channel, the elements channel optimization and processing of the output characteristics of the beam with the graphical output the main output parameters.

  10. Intense alpha-particle emitting crystallites in uranium mill wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Stieff, L.R.; Germani, M.S.; Tanner, A.B.; Evans, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion microscopy has demonstrated the presence of small, intense ??-particle emitting crystallites in laboratory-produced tailings derived from the sulfuric acid milling of uranium ores. The ??-particle activity is associated with the isotope pair 210Pb 210Po, and the host mineral appears to be PbSO4 occurring as inclusions in gypsum laths. These particles represent potential inhalation hazards at uranium mill tailings disposal areas. ?? 1994.

  11. Nonlinear Plasma Waves Excitation by Intense Ion Beams in Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2004-04-15

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration {tau}{sub b} is much longer than the electron plasma period 2{pi}/{omega}{sub p}, where {omega}{sub p} = (4{pi}e{sup 2}n{sub p}/m){sup 1/2} is the electron plasma frequency and n{sub p} is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. If the beam density is larger than the background plasma density, the plasma waves break. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The reduced fluid description derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes and yield scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters. The visualization of numerical simulation data shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry and exit from the plasma.

  12. Characterisation of electron beams from laser-driven particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, E.; Manahan, G. G.; Shanks, R. P.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Anania, M. P.; Cipiccia, S.; Issac, R. C.; Vieux, G.; Welsh, G. H.; Wiggins, S. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2012-12-21

    The development, understanding and application of laser-driven particle accelerators require accurate measurements of the beam properties, in particular emittance, energy spread and bunch length. Here we report measurements and simulations showing that laser wakefield accelerators can produce beams of quality comparable to conventional linear accelerators.

  13. Particle radiotherapy with carbon ion beams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy offers superior dose conformity in the treatment of deep-seated malignant tumours compared with conventional X-ray therapy. In addition, carbon ion beams have a higher relative biological effectiveness compared with protons or X-ray beams. The algorithm of treatment planning and beam delivery system is tailored to the individual parameters of the patient. The present article reviews the available literatures for various disease sites including the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer as well as physical and biological properties. PMID:23497542

  14. Beaming of Particles and Synchrotron Radiation in Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Daniel; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-08-01

    Relativistic reconnection has been invoked as a mechanism for particle acceleration in numerous astrophysical systems. According to idealized analytical models, reconnection produces a bulk relativistic outflow emerging from the reconnection sites (X-points). The resulting radiation is therefore highly beamed. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate particle and radiation beaming, finding a very different picture. Instead of having a relativistic average bulk motion with an isotropic electron velocity distribution in its rest frame, we find that the bulk motion of the particles in X-points is similar to their Lorentz factor γ, and the particles are beamed within ˜ 5/γ . On the way from the X-point to the magnetic islands, particles turn in the magnetic field, forming a fan confined to the current sheet. Once they reach the islands they isotropize after completing a full Larmor gyration and their radiation is no longer strongly beamed. The radiation pattern at a given frequency depends on where the corresponding emitting electrons radiate their energy. Lower-energy particles that cool slowly spend most of their time in the islands and their radiation is not highly beamed. Only particles that quickly cool at the edge of the X-points generate a highly beamed fan-like radiation pattern. The radiation emerging from these fast cooling particles is above the burn-off limit (˜100 MeV in the overall rest frame of the reconnecting plasma). This has significant implications for models of gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei that invoke beaming in that frame at much lower energies.

  15. Single-particle beam dynamics in Boomerang

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Alan; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    2003-05-02

    We describe simulations of the beam dynamics in the storage ring (Boomerang), a 3-GeV third-generation light source being designed for the Australian Synchrotron Project[1]. The simulations were performed with the code Goemon[2]. They form the basis for design specifications for storage ring components (apertures, alignment tolerances, magnet quality, etc.), and for determining performance characteristics such as coupling and beam lifetime.

  16. Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-09-02

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

  17. Proton beam shaped by "particle lens" formed by laser-driven hot electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, S. H.; Shen, B. F.; Wang, W. P.; Zhang, H.; He, S. K.; Lu, F.; Zhang, F. Q.; Deng, Z. G.; Dong, K. G.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhou, K. N.; Xie, N.; Wang, X. D.; Zhang, L. G.; Huang, S.; Liu, H. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2016-05-01

    Two-dimensional tailoring of a proton beam is realized by a "particle lens" in our experiment. A large quantity of electrons, generated by an intense femtosecond laser irradiating a polymer target, produces an electric field strong enough to change the trajectory and distribution of energetic protons flying through the electron area. The experiment shows that a strip pattern of the proton beam appears when hot electrons initially converge inside the plastic plate. Then the shape of the proton beam changes to a "fountain-like" pattern when these hot electrons diffuse after propagating a distance.

  18. Modeling nitrogen plasmas produced by intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, J. R.; Mosher, D.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Ottinger, P. F.; Schumer, J. W.; Hinshelwood, D. D.

    2016-05-01

    A new gas-chemistry model is presented to treat the breakdown of a nitrogen gas with pressures on the order of 1 Torr from intense electron beams with current densities on the order of 10 kA/cm2 and pulse durations on the order of 100 ns. For these parameter regimes, the gas transitions from a weakly ionized molecular state to a strongly ionized atomic state on the time scale of the beam pulse. The model is coupled to a 0D-circuit model using the rigid-beam approximation that can be driven by specifying the time and spatial profiles of the beam pulse. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the line-integrated electron density from experiments done using the Gamble II generator at the Naval Research Laboratory. It is found that the species are mostly in the ground and metastable states during the atomic phase, but that ionization proceeds predominantly through thermal ionization of optically allowed states with excitation energies close to the ionization limit.

  19. Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Mangles, S P D; Murphy, C D; Najmudin, Z; Thomas, A G R; Collier, J L; Dangor, A E; Divall, E J; Foster, P S; Gallacher, J G; Hooker, C J; Jaroszynski, D A; Langley, A J; Mori, W B; Norreys, P A; Tsung, F S; Viskup, R; Walton, B R; Krushelnick, K

    2004-09-30

    High-power lasers that fit into a university-scale laboratory can now reach focused intensities of more than 10(19) W cm(-2) at high repetition rates. Such lasers are capable of producing beams of energetic electrons, protons and gamma-rays. Relativistic electrons are generated through the breaking of large-amplitude relativistic plasma waves created in the wake of the laser pulse as it propagates through a plasma, or through a direct interaction between the laser field and the electrons in the plasma. However, the electron beams produced from previous laser-plasma experiments have a large energy spread, limiting their use for potential applications. Here we report high-resolution energy measurements of the electron beams produced from intense laser-plasma interactions, showing that--under particular plasma conditions--it is possible to generate beams of relativistic electrons with low divergence and a small energy spread (less than three per cent). The monoenergetic features were observed in the electron energy spectrum for plasma densities just above a threshold required for breaking of the plasma wave. These features were observed consistently in the electron spectrum, although the energy of the beam was observed to vary from shot to shot. If the issue of energy reproducibility can be addressed, it should be possible to generate ultrashort monoenergetic electron bunches of tunable energy, holding great promise for the future development of 'table-top' particle accelerators.

  20. Anisotropic filamentation instability of intense laser beams in plasmas near the critical density.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Z M; Nishihara, K; Honda, T; Sentoku, Y; Mima, K; Bulanov, S V

    2001-12-01

    The relativistic filamentation instability (RFI) of linearly polarized intense laser beams in plasmas near the critical density is investigated. It is found that the RFI is anisotropic to transverse perturbations in this case; a homogeneous laser beam evolves to a stratified structure parallel to the laser polarization direction, as demonstrated recently with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations by Nishihara et al. [Proc. SPIE 3886, 90 (2000)]. A weakly relativistic theory is developed for plasmas near the critical density. It shows that the anisotropy of the RFI results from a suppression of the instability in the laser polarization direction due to the electrostatic response. The anisotropic RFI is also analyzed based on an envelope equation for the laser beam. Finally, the envelope equation is solved numerically, and anisotropic filamentation and self-focusing are illustrated.

  1. Collimated multi-MeV ion beams from high-intensity laser interactions with underdense plasma.

    PubMed

    Willingale, L; Mangles, S P D; Nilson, P M; Clarke, R J; Dangor, A E; Kaluza, M C; Karsch, S; Lancaster, K L; Mori, W B; Najmudin, Z; Schreiber, J; Thomas, A G R; Wei, M S; Krushelnick, K

    2006-06-23

    A beam of multi-MeV helium ions has been observed from the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser pulse with underdense helium plasma. The ion beam was found to have a maximum energy for He2+ of (40(+3)(-8)) MeV and was directional along the laser propagation path, with the highest energy ions being collimated to a cone of less than 10 degrees. 2D particle-in-cell simulations show that the ions are accelerated by a sheath electric field that is produced at the back of the gas target. This electric field is generated by transfer of laser energy to a hot electron beam, which exits the target generating large space-charge fields normal to its boundary.

  2. Free charged particle behavior in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradkin, D. M.

    1984-03-01

    Theoretical studies were performed examining the effect of intense laser fields, together with auxiliary electromagnetic field configuration, on the behavior of otherwise free charged particles. The Lorentz-Dirac classical equation was employed to determine the effect of radiation reaction on the transfer of asymptotic energy momentum to a particle by a single intense plane wave pulse. The added effect due to a uniform magnetic field along the pulse propagation direction was determined. Single particle Dirac theory was employed to analyze particle polarization direction changes in a quantum-mechanical model. The general nature of the Lorentz transformation as a active transformation connecting initial and final states was determined, in which a single state characterization parameter was left unspecified. Analytic and computer studies were made of the effect of two simultaneous laser pulses, propagating in opposite directions on particle dynamics.

  3. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  4. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1985-01-01

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly.

  5. Early experiments in charged particle beams from the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. J.; Banks, P. M.; Williamson, P. R.; Baker, K. D.; Obayashi, T.; Burch, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of studies on board the Shuttle involving the interaction of particle beams with the atmosphere and the ionosphere, and the effects of the beams on the electrical potential of the platform, are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle allows greater weight and power demands by scientific payloads than previous satellite launches, the OSS-1 Vehicle Charging and Potential experiment and the Spacelab 1 Particle Accelerator and Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams are described. Instrumentation details are provided, including charge and current probes, the Spherical Retarding Potential Analyzer, the Fast Pulse Electron Generator, and digital control and interface units. The SEPAC equipment, which comprises an electron beam accelerator, and MPD plasma jet, and diagnostic units are detailed, and operating procedures and experiment objectives are outlined.

  6. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    DOEpatents

    Delayen, Jean [Yorktown, VA

    2011-02-08

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  7. Clinical evidence of particle beam therapy (proton).

    PubMed

    Ogino, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Proton beam therapy (PBT) makes it possible to deliver a high concentration of radiation to a tumor using its Bragg peak, and it is simple to utilize as its radiobiological characteristics are identical to those of photon beams. PBT has now been used for half a century, and more than 60,000 patients worldwide are reported to have been treated with proton beams. The most significant change to PBT occurred in the 1990s, when the Loma Linda University Medical Center became the first hospital in the world to operate a medically dedicated proton therapy facility. Following its success, similar medically dedicated facilities have been constructed. Internationally, results have demonstrated the therapeutic superiority of PBT over alternative treatment options for several disease sites. Further advances in PBT are expected from both clinical and technological perspectives.

  8. Applications of the Monte Carlo Code Geant to Particle Beam Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, H.; Fuchs, T.; Nill, S.; Wilkens, J. J.; Pflugfelder, D.; Oelfke, U.; Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Malka, V.

    2006-04-01

    We report on the use of the Monte Carlo simulation code GEANT for two different applications in the field of particle beam therapy. The first application relates to the planning of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatments. An important issue is thereby the accurate prediction of the dose while irradiating complex inhomogeneous patient geometries. We developed an improved method to account for tissue inhomogeneities in pencil beam algorithms. We show that GEANT3 can be successfully used to validate the new model before its integration in our treatment planning system. Another project concerns the investigation of the potential of high-energy particles produced by laser-plasma interactions for radiotherapy. GEANT4 simulations of the dosimetric properties of an experimental laser-accelerated electron beam were performed. They show that this technique may be very attractive for the development of new therapy beam modalities such as very-high energy (170 MeV) electrons.

  9. Design Aspects of Focal Beams From High-Intensity Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Douglas N.; Kruse, Dustin E.; Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2011-01-01

    As the applications of ultrasonic thermal therapies expand, the design of the high-intensity array must address both the energy delivery of the main beam and the character and relevance of off-target beam energy. We simulate the acoustic field performance of a selected set of circular arrays organized by array format, including flat versus curved arrays, periodic versus random arrays, and center void diameter variations. Performance metrics are based on the −3-dB focal main lobe (FML) positioning range, axial grating lobe (AGL) temperatures, and side lobe levels. Using finite-element analysis, we evaluate the relative heating of the FML and the AGLs. All arrays have a maximum diameter of 100λ, with element count ranging from 64 to 1024 and continuous wave frequency of 1.5 MHz. First, we show that a 50% spherical annulus produces focus beam side lobes which decay as a function of lateral distance at nearly 87% of the exponential rate of a full aperture. Second, for the arrays studied, the efficiency of power delivery over the −3-dB focus positioning range for spherical arrays is at least 2-fold greater than for flat arrays; the 256-element case shows a 5-fold advantage for the spherical array. Third, AGL heating can be significant as the focal target is moved to its distal half-intensity depth from the natural focus. Increasing the element count of a randomized array to 256 elements decreases the AGL-to-FML heating ratio to 0.12 at the distal half-intensity depth. Further increases in element count yield modest improvements. A 49% improvement in the AGL-to-peak heating ratio is predicted by using the Sumanaweera spiral element pattern with randomization. PMID:21859578

  10. Contribution of High-Order Rainbows to the Scattering of a Gaussian Laser Beam by a Spherical Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.

    1993-01-01

    I review the theory of the scattering of a Gaussian laser beam by a dielectric spherical particle and give the details for constructing a computer program to implement the theory. Computational results indicate that if the width of the laser beam is much less than the diameter of the particle and if the axis of the beam is incident near the edge of the particle, the fifth-, sixth-, and ninth-order rainbows should be evident in the far-field scattered intensity. I performed an experiment that yielded tentative evidence for the presence of the sixth- order rainbow.

  11. The interaction of solid particles with laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misconi, Nebil Y.; Rusk, Edwin T.; Oliver, John P.

    1989-04-01

    Light scattering curves of intensity vs. scattering angle were made of layers of transparent silica particles, single silica particles isolated by optical levitation; using an Argon ion laser light source and a goniometer mounted silicon photodiode detector. Scattering measurements of spherical particles demonstrated an excellent agreement with Mie theory. Spheroids and irregular particles were also measured. Dynamics of particles in a space environment were studied both theoretically, and experimentally inside a 10 to the -7th power Torr vacuum chamber. Research in this area will be continued to determine the effective moment arm of optically induced particle rotation.

  12. Dispensing targets for ion beam particle generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A target for dispensing high energy protons or neutrons or ionized atoms or ionized molecules is provided which comprises a container for the target gas, which is at atmospheric or higher pressure. The container material can release the target gas in the spot where the container is heated above a predetermined temperature by the impact of an ion beam where protons or neutrons are desired, or by electrons where ionized atoms or molecules are desired. On the outside of the container, except for the region where the beam is to impact, there is deposited a layer of a metal which is imperious to gaseous diffusion. A further protective coating of a material is placed over the layer of metal, except at the region of the ion impact area in order to adsorb any unreacted gas in the vacuum in which the target is placed, to thereby prevent reduction of the high vacuum, as well as contamination of the interior of the vacuum chamber.

  13. Effects of Particle Beams on Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    azide) and secondary (HMX, RDX, TATB, HNS , NTO and TNT) explosives as well as the oxidizer ammonium perchlorate. During each experiment the explosive...out with HMX, RDX, TNT, TATB, HNS and NTO. During this study, the rate of energy deposition was approximately 1-1.5 cal/gm-s, yielding a temperature...RECRYSTALLIZED HMX PRIMARY EXPLOSIVE - PROTON BEAMS When experiments on primary explosives such as lead azide, lead styphnate, PETN and ammonium perchlorate were

  14. Loss-proof self-accelerating beams and their use in non-paraxial manipulation of particles' trajectories.

    PubMed

    Schley, Ran; Kaminer, Ido; Greenfield, Elad; Bekenstein, Rivka; Lumer, Yaakov; Segev, Mordechai

    2014-10-30

    Self-accelerating beams--shape-preserving bending beams--are attracting great interest, offering applications in many areas such as particle micromanipulation, microscopy, induction of plasma channels, surface plasmons, laser machining, nonlinear frequency conversion and electron beams. Most of these applications involve light-matter interactions, hence their propagation range is limited by absorption. We propose loss-proof accelerating beams that overcome linear and nonlinear losses. These beams, as analytic solutions of Maxwell's equations with losses, propagate in absorbing media while maintaining their peak intensity. While the power such beams carry decays during propagation, the peak intensity and the structure of their main lobe region are maintained over large distances. We use these beams for manipulation of particles in fluids, steering the particles to steeper angles than ever demonstrated. Such beams offer many additional applications, such as loss-proof self-bending plasmons. In transparent media these beams show exponential intensity growth, which facilitates other novel applications in micromanipulation and ignition of nonlinear processes.

  15. Effect of image charge on the off-axis transport of intense beams in a small aperture quadrupole lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2013-10-15

    This paper investigates the first order image charge effects of circular conducting pipe on an intense off-axis continuous charged particle beam propagating through an alternating-gradient focusing channel. The equations of motion for the centroid and envelopes of slightly off-axis beam are derived and used to determine the equilibrium and stability conditions for the beam transport. The envelope oscillation frequencies of the mismatched beam are obtained by the smooth approximation method and by numerical evaluation of the linearly perturbed envelope equations. Depending on the beam intensity and focusing parameters, it is found that the frequency of the out-of-phase mode of envelope oscillation is reduced due to the presence of the conducting wall. Detailed numerical results for off-axis beam transport in a quadrupole lattice are presented and the stable regimes in the parameter space are determined numerically. It is observed that the unstable region for the envelope evolution with image charge effects depends on beam intensity and external focusing strength and increases with the off centering of the beam.

  16. On the Possibility of Using Nonlinear Elements for Landau Damping in High-Intensity Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Lebedev, V.; Valishev, A.

    2016-09-30

    Direct space-charge force shifts incoherent tunes downwards from the coherent ones breaking the Landau mechanism of coherent oscillations damping at high beam intensity. To restore it nonlinear elements can be employed which move back tunes of large amplitude particles. In the present report we consider the possibility of creating a “nonlinear integrable optics” insertion in the Fermilab Recycler to host either octupoles or hollow electron lens for this purpose. For comparison we also consider the classic scheme with distributed octupole families. It is shown that for the Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP II) parameters the required nonlinear tune shift can be created without destroying the dynamic aperture.

  17. Broadband source localization using horizontal-beam acoustic intensity striations.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Altan; Orr, Marshall; Rouseff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Waveguide invariant theory is applied to horizontal line array (HLA) beamformer output to localize moving broadband noise sources from measured acoustic intensity striation patterns. Acoustic signals emitted by ships of opportunity (merchant ships) were simultaneously recorded on a HLA and three hydrophones separated by 10 km during the RAGS03 (relationship between array gain and shelf-break fluid processes) experiment. Hough transforms are used to estimate both the waveguide invariant parameter "beta" and the ratio of source range at the closest point of approach to source speed from the observed striation patterns. Broadband (50-150-Hz) acoustic data-sets are used to demonstrate source localization capability as well as inversion capability of waveguide invariant parameter beta. Special attention is paid to bathymetric variability since the acoustic intensity striation patterns seem to be influenced by range-dependent bathymetry of the experimental area. The Hough transform method is also applied to the HLA beam-time record data and to the acoustic intensity data from three distant receivers to validate the estimation results from HLA beamformer output. Good agreement of the results from all three approaches suggests the feasibility of locating broadband noise sources and estimating waveguide invariant parameter beta in shallow waters.

  18. Energetic charged particle beams for disablement of mines

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.

    1995-03-27

    LLNL has an ongoing program of weapons disablement using energetic charged particle beams; this program combines theoretical and experimental expertise in accelerators, high-energy and nuclear physics, plasma physics and hydrodynamics to simulate/measure effects of electron and proton beams on weapons. This paper reviews work by LLNL, LANL and NSWC on detonating sensitive and insensitive high explosives and land mines using high-current electron beams. Computer simulations are given. 20--160 MeV electron beams incident on wet/dry soils are being studied, along with electron beam propagation in air. Compact high current, high energy accelerators are being developed for mine clearing. Countermine missions of interest are discussed. 25 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Current neutralization and focusing of intense ion beams with a plasma-filled solenoidal lens. I

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.V.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-12-01

    The response of the magnetized plasma in an axisymmetric, plasma-filled, solenoidal magnetic lens, to intense light ion beam injection is studied. The lens plasma fill is modeled as an inertialess, resistive, electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) fluid since characteristic beam times {tau} satisfy 2{pi}/{omega}{sub {ital pe}},2{pi}/{Omega}{sub {ital e}}{lt}{tau}{le}2{pi}/{Omega}{sub {ital i}} ({omega}{sub {ital pe}} is the electron plasma frequency and {Omega}{sub {ital e},{ital i}} are the electron, ion gyrofrequencies). When the electron collisionality satisfies {nu}{sub {ital e}}{lt}{Omega}{sub {ital e}}, the linear plasma response is determined by whistler wave dynamics. In this case, current neutralization of the beam is reduced on the time scale for whistler wave transit across the beam. The transit time is inversely proportional to the electron density and proportional to the angle of incidence of the beam with respect to the applied solenoidal field. In the collisional regime ({nu}{sub {ital e}}{gt}{Omega}{sub {ital e}}) the plasma return currents decay on the normal diffusive time scale determined by the conductivity. The analysis is supported by two-and-one-half dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Collective Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses for High-energy Density Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-04-27

    The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982) is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I) , and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations. 2011 American Institute of Physics

  1. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Fritsche, Craig T.; Krogh, Michael L.

    1996-05-21

    A diagnostic detector head harp (23) used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires (21), typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit (25) formed on a ceramic substrate (26). A method to fabricate harps (23) to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit (25) disposed on the ceramic substrate (26) connects electrically between the detector wires (21) and diagnostic equipment (37) which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires (21) by the high energy particle beams.

  2. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1996-05-21

    Disclosed is a diagnostic detector head harp used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires, typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit formed on a ceramic substrate. A method to fabricate harps to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit disposed on the ceramic substrate connects electrically between the detector wires and diagnostic equipment which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires by the high energy particle beams. 6 figs.

  3. Generation of high-quality mega-electron volt proton beams with intense-laser-driven nanotube accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, M.; Tanaka, M.

    2013-04-22

    An ion acceleration scheme using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is proposed, in which embedded fragments of low-Z materials are irradiated by an ultrashort intense laser to eject substantial numbers of electrons. Due to the resultant characteristic electrostatic field, the nanotube and embedded materials play the roles of the barrel and bullets of a gun, respectively, to produce highly collimated and quasimonoenergetic ion beams. Three-dimensional particle simulations, that take all the two-body Coulomb interactions into account, demonstrate generation of quasimonoenergetic MeV-order proton beams using nanometer-size CNT under a super-intense electrostatic field {approx}10{sup 14} V m{sup -1}.

  4. Can Coulomb repulsion for charged particle beams be overcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    Mutual repulsion of discrete charged particles or Coulomb repulsion is widely considered to be an ultimate hard limit in charged particle optics. It prevents the ability to finely focus high current beams into a small spots at large distances from the defining apertures. A classic example is the 1970s era "Star Wars" study of an electron beam directed energy weapon as an orbiting antiballistic missile device. After much analysis, it was considered physically impossible to focus a 1000-amp 1-GeV beam into a 1-cm diameter spot 1000-km from the beam generator. The main reason was that a 1-cm diameter beam would spread to 5-m diameter at 1000-km due to Coulomb repulsion. Since this could not be overcome, the idea was abandoned. But is this true? What if the rays were reversed? That is, start with a 5-m beam converging slightly with the same nonuniform angular and energy distribution as the electrons from the original problem were spreading at 1000-km distance. Could Coulomb repulsion be overcome? Looking at the terms in computational studies, some are reversible while others are not. Since the nonreversible terms should be small, it might be possible to construct an electron beam directed energy weapon.

  5. Accessing defect dynamics using intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Guo, H.; Hosemann, P.; Lidia, S.; Minor, A. M.; Seidl, P. A.; Schenkel, T.

    2015-06-18

    Gaining in-situ access to relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects will lead to a better understanding of materials and is important for the verification of theoretical models and simulations. We show preliminary results from experiments at the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that will enable in-situ access to defect dynamics through pump-probe experiments. Here, the unique capabilities of the NDCX-II accelerator to generate intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams are utilized. Preliminary data of channeling experiments using lithium and potassium ions and silicon membranes are shown. We compare these data to simulation results using Crystal Trim. Furthermore, we discuss the improvements to the accelerator to higher performance levels and the new diagnostics tools that are being incorporated.

  6. Accessing defect dynamics using intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams

    DOE PAGES

    Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Guo, H.; ...

    2015-06-18

    Gaining in-situ access to relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects will lead to a better understanding of materials and is important for the verification of theoretical models and simulations. We show preliminary results from experiments at the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that will enable in-situ access to defect dynamics through pump-probe experiments. Here, the unique capabilities of the NDCX-II accelerator to generate intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams are utilized. Preliminary data of channeling experiments using lithium and potassium ions and silicon membranes are shown. We compare these data to simulation results using Crystalmore » Trim. Furthermore, we discuss the improvements to the accelerator to higher performance levels and the new diagnostics tools that are being incorporated.« less

  7. Spinning and orbiting motion of particles in vortex beams with circular or radial polarizations.

    PubMed

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-09-05

    Focusing fields of optical vortex (OV) beams with circular or radial polarizations carry both spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM), and can realize non-axial spinning and orbiting motion of absorptive particles. Using the T-matrix method, we evaluate the optical forces and torques exerted on micro-sized particles induced by the OV beams. Numerical results demonstrate that the particle is trapped on the circle of intensity maxima, and experiences a transverse spin torque along azimuthal direction, a longitudinal spin torque, and an orbital torque, respectively. The direction of spinning motion is not only related to the sign of topological charge of the OV beam, but also to the polarization state. However, the topological charge controls the direction of orbiting motion individually. Optically induced rotations of particles with varying sizes and absorptivity are investigated in OV beams with different topological charges and polarization states. These results may be exploited in practical optical manipulation, especially for optically induced rotations of micro-particles.

  8. The stress intensity factor for the double cantilever beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Fourier transforms and the Wiener-Hopf technique are used in conjunction with plane elastostatics to examine the singular crack tip stress field in the double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen. In place of the Dirac delta function, a family of functions which duplicates the important features of the concentrated forces without introducing unmanageable mathematical complexities is used as a loading function. With terms of order h-squared/a-squared retained in the series expansion, the dimensionless stress intensity factor is found to be K (h to the 1/2)/P = 12 to the 1/2 (a/h + 0.6728 + 0.0377 h-squared/a-squared), in which P is the magnitude of the concentrated forces per unit thickness, a is the distance from the crack tip to the points of load application, and h is the height of each cantilever beam. The result is similar to that obtained by Gross and Srawley by fitting a line to discrete results from their boundary collocation analysis.

  9. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha

    2015-08-15

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm{sup 2} and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work.

  10. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Qu, Miao; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun

    2015-08-01

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm(2) and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work.

  11. Beam characterization of FLASH from beam profile measurement by intensity transport equation and reconstruction of the Wigner distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Bernd; Mey, Tobias; Mann, Klaus; Keitel, Barbara; Kreis, Svea; Kuhlmann, Marion; Plönjes, Elke; Tiedtke, Kai

    2013-05-01

    Beam parameters of the free-electron laser FLASH @13.5 nm in two different operation modes were determined from beam profile measurements and subsequent reconstruction of the Wigner distribution function behind the ellipsoidal focusing mirror at beamline BL2. 40 two-dimensional single pulse intensity distributions were recorded at each of 65 axial positions around the waist of the FEL beam with a magnifying EUV sensitized CCD camera. From these beam profile data the Wigner distribution function based on different levels of averaging could be reconstructed by an inverse Radon transform. For separable beams this yields the complete Wigner distribution, and for beams with zero twist the information is still sufficient for wavefront determination and beam propagation through stigmatic systems. The obtained results are compared to wavefront reconstructions based on the transport of intensity equation. A future setup for Wigner distribution measurements of general beams is discussed.

  12. Particle in cell simulation of laser-accelerated proton beams for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Fourkal, E; Shahine, B; Ding, M; Li, J S; Tajima, T; Ma, C M

    2002-12-01

    In this article we present the results of particle in cell (PIC) simulations of laser plasma interaction for proton acceleration for radiation therapy treatments. We show that under optimal interaction conditions protons can be accelerated up to relativistic energies of 300 MeV by a petawatt laser field. The proton acceleration is due to the dragging Coulomb force arising from charge separation induced by the ponderomotive pressure (light pressure) of high-intensity laser. The proton energy and phase space distribution functions obtained from the PIC simulations are used in the calculations of dose distributions using the GEANT Monte Carlo simulation code. Because of the broad energy and angular spectra of the protons, a compact particle selection and beam collimation system will be needed to generate small beams of polyenergetic protons for intensity modulated proton therapy.

  13. Generation of heavy ion beams using high-intensity short pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, George; McGuffey, Chris; Thomas, Alec; Krushelnick, Karl; Beg, Farhat

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical study of ion acceleration from high-Z material irradiated by intense sub-picosecond lasers is presented. The underlying physics of beam formation and acceleration is similar for light and heavy ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the heavy ions more challenging. At least four technical hurdles have been identified: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration and poor energy coupling due to high reflectivity of the plasma. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we observed transitions from Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) to the Breakout Afterburner regime (BoA) and to Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) akin to light ions. The numerical simulations predict gold ions beams with high directionality (<10 degrees half-angle), high fluxes (>1011 ions/sr) and energy (>10 MeV/nucleon) from laser systems delivering >20 J of energy on target.

  14. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following equal or exceed the applicable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following equal or exceed the applicable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following equal or exceed the applicable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following equal or exceed the applicable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following equal or exceed the applicable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams...

  9. Mode particle resonances during near-tangential neutral beam injection in large tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; White, R.B.; Morris, A.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Coherent magnetohydrodynamic modes have been observed during neutral beam injection in TFTR and JET. Periodic bursts of oscillations were detected with several plasma diagnostics, and Fokker-Planck calculations show that the populations of trapped particles in both tokamaks are sufficient to account for fishbone destabilization. Estimates of mode parameters are in reasonable agreement with the experiments, and they indicate that the fishbone mode may continue to affect the performance of intensely heated tokamaks. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Optimizing Stellarators for Energetic Particle Confinement using BEAMS3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgert, Peter; Drevlak, Michael; Lazerson, Sam; Gates, David; White, Roscoe

    2015-11-01

    Energetic particle (EP) loss has been called the ``Achilles heel of stellarators,'' (Helander, Rep. Prog. Phys. 77 087001 (2014)) and there is a great need for magnetic configurations with improved EP confinement. In this study we utilize a newly developed capability of the stellarator optimization code STELLOPT: the ability to optimize EP confinement via an interface with guiding center code BEAMS3D (McMillan et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56, 095019 (2014)). Using this new tool, optimizations of the W7-X experiment and ARIES-CS reactor are performed where the EP loss fraction is one of many target functions to be minimized. In W7-X, we simulate the experimental NBI system using realistic beam geometry and beam deposition physics. The goal is to find configurations with improved neutral beam deposition and energetic particle confinement. These calculations are compared to previous studies of W7-X NBI deposition. In ARIES-CS, we launch 3.5 MeV alpha particles from a near-axis flux surface using a uniform grid in toroidal and poloidal angle. As these particles are born from D-T reactions, we consider an isotropic distribution in velocity space. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Production of medical Sc radioisotopes with an alpha particle beam.

    PubMed

    Szkliniarz, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Mateusz; Walczak, Rafał; Jastrzębski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Choiński, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Majkowska, Agnieszka; Stolarz, Anna; Trzcińska, Agnieszka; Zipper, Wiktor

    2016-12-01

    The internal α-particle beam of the Warsaw Heavy Ion Cyclotron was used to produce research quantities of the medically interesting Sc radioisotopes from natural Ca and K and isotopically enriched (42)Ca targets. The targets were made of metallic calcium, calcium carbonate and potassium chloride. New data on the production yields and impurities generated during the target irradiations are presented for the positron emitters (43)Sc, (44g)Sc and (44m)Sc. The different paths for the production of the long lived (44m)Sc/(44g)Sc in vivo generator, proposed by the ARRONAX team, using proton and deuteron beams as well as alpha-particle beams are discussed. Due to the larger angular momentum transfer in the formation of the compound nucleus in the case of the alpha particle induced reactions, the isomeric ratio of (44m)Sc/(44g)Sc at a bombarding energy of 29MeV is five times larger than previously determined for a deuteron beam and twenty times larger than for proton induced reactions on enriched CaCO3 targets. Therefore, formation of this generator via the alpha-particle route seems a very attractive way to form these isotopes. The experimental data presented here are compared with theoretical predictions made using the EMPIRE evaporation code. Reasonable agreement is generally observed.

  12. Measurement of secondary particle production induced by particle therapy ion beams impinging on a PMMA target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppi, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bellini, F.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Durante, M.; Faccini, R.; Frallicciardi, P. M.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Muraro, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Piersanti, L.; Rucinski, A.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Traini, G.; Voena, C.

    2016-05-01

    Particle therapy is a technique that uses accelerated charged ions for cancer treatment and combines a high irradiation precision with a high biological effectiveness in killing tumor cells [1]. Informations about the secondary particles emitted in the interaction of an ion beam with the patient during a treatment can be of great interest in order to monitor the dose deposition. For this purpose an experiment at the HIT (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center) beam facility has been performed in order to measure fluxes and emission profiles of secondary particles produced in the interaction of therapeutic beams with a PMMA target. In this contribution some preliminary results about the emission profiles and the energy spectra of the detected secondaries will be presented.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of intensity profiles for energetic particle propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautz, R. C.; Bolte, J.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: Numerical test-particle simulations are a reliable and frequently used tool for testing analytical transport theories and predicting mean-free paths. The comparison between solutions of the diffusion equation and the particle flux is used to critically judge the applicability of diffusion to the stochastic transport of energetic particles in magnetized turbulence. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation code is extended to allow for the generation of intensity profiles and anisotropy-time profiles. Because of the relatively low number density of computational particles, a kernel function has to be used to describe the spatial extent of each particle. Results: The obtained intensity profiles are interpreted as solutions of the diffusion equation by inserting the diffusion coefficients that have been directly determined from the mean-square displacements. The comparison shows that the time dependence of the diffusion coefficients needs to be considered, in particular the initial ballistic phase and the often subdiffusive perpendicular coefficient. Conclusions: It is argued that the perpendicular component of the distribution function is essential if agreement between the diffusion solution and the simulated flux is to be obtained. In addition, time-dependent diffusion can provide a better description than the classic diffusion equation only after the initial ballistic phase.

  14. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.

    2015-11-18

    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam’s return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)] A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1) while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2) with the injected beam current given by Ib=I1+I2. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total force on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I2-I1) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to Ib. For a fixed central post, the beam trajectory is controlled by varying the outer conductor radius which changes the inductance in the return-current path. The simulations show that the beam emittance is approximately constant as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. As a result, independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate return-current geometry.

  15. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider

    DOE PAGES

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; ...

    2015-11-18

    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam’s return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)] A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1) while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2) with the injected beam current given by Ib=I1+I2. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total forcemore » on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I2-I1) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to Ib. For a fixed central post, the beam trajectory is controlled by varying the outer conductor radius which changes the inductance in the return-current path. The simulations show that the beam emittance is approximately constant as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. As a result, independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate return-current geometry.« less

  16. Experimental Studying of Dust Particles Charging by Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrikov, A. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Petrov, O. F.; Vorona, N. A.; Vasiliev, M. N.

    2008-09-07

    The studying of the dusty plasma properties under electron beam action are of great interest because it gives the unique opportunities for experimental investigation of strongly coupled systems as well as for developing the new dusty plasma technologies of creating the new composite materials. Highly charged dust particle generates electrostatic field that can accelerate positive ions to high power. It gives the unique possibilities of using these macroparticles (for deeply ions implantation, as catalysts for increasing rate of reactions with the high energy barrier, in the new ionic engines etc.). Presented work deals with the experimental investigation of dust particles charging under direct influence of electron beam. On the basis of experimental data the average velocities of dust particles were obtained and the charge of macroparticle was estimated.

  17. Intense laser-driven proton beam energy deposition in compressed and uncompressed Cu foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuffey, Christopher; Krauland, C. M.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Habara, H.; Noma, S.; Ohtsuki, T.; Tsujii, A.; Yahata, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Uematsu, Y.; Nakaguchi, S.; Morace, A.; Yogo, A.; Nagatomo, H.; Tanaka, K.; Arikawa, Y.; Fujioka, S.; Shiraga, H.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated transport of intense proton beams from a petawatt laser in uncompressed or compressed Cu foam. The LFEX laser (1 kJ on target, 1.5 ps, 1053 nm, I >2×1019 W/cm2) irradiated a curved C foil to generate the protons. The foil was in an open cone 500 μm from the tip where the focused proton beam source was delivered to either of two Cu foam sample types: an uncompressed cylinder (1 mm L, 250 µm ϕ) , and a plastic-coated sphere (250 µm ϕ) that was first driven by GXII (9 beams, 330 J/beam, 1.3 ns, 527 nm) to achieve similar ρϕ to the cylinder sample's ρL as predicted by 2D radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Using magnetic spectrometers and a Thomson parabola, the proton spectra were measured with and without the Cu samples. When included, they were observed using Cu K-shell x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. This paper will present comparison of the experimentally measured Cu emission shape and proton spectrum changes due to deposition in the Cu with particle-in-cell simulations incorporating new stopping models. This work was made possible by laser time Awarded by the Japanese NIFS collaboration NIFS16KUGK107 and performed under the auspices of the US AFOSR YIP Award FA9550-14-1-0346.

  18. Long-path-length experimental studies of longitudinal phenomena in intense beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Intense charged particle beams are nonneutral plasmas and they can support a host of plasma waves and instabilities. For a long beam bunch, the longitudinal physics can often be reasonably described by a 1-D cold-fluid model, with a geometry factor to account for the transverse effects. The plasma physics of such beams has been extensively studied theoretically and computationally for decades, but until recently, the only experimental measurements were carried out on relatively short linacs. This work reviews experimental studies over the past 5 years on the U. Maryland Electron Ring, investigating longitudinal phenomena, for the first time, over time scales of hundreds and thousands of plasma periods. These results are in good agreement with theory and simulation. Topics that will be discussed are: Longitudinal confinement of a long bunch using barrier fields. The generation of space charge waves from barrier field mismatches, their propagation along the bunch and reflection at the beam ends, as well as their long-term dissipation. The characterization of solitary waves from density/velocity perturbations in the center of the bunch. Compression of solitary wave trains with velocity ``tilts'' (head-to-tail gradient). Observation of a multi-stream instability driven by the longitudinal merging of bunches and the characterization of the onset of the instability with a PIC code. The shock-wave compression of a bunch using rapidly-moving barrier fields.

  19. Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Burkhart, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particulate matter generated in ion beam sputter deposition. The apparatus involves an electrostatic particle trap which generates electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate on which target material is being deposited. The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each maintained at an electrostatic potential, and with their surfaces parallel or perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The method involves interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particles achieved by generating electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate, and configuring the fields to force the charged particulate material away from the substrate. The electrostatic charged particle trap enables prevention of charged particles from being deposited on the substrate thereby enabling the deposition of extremely low defect density films, such as required for reflective masks of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system.

  20. Average intensity and spreading of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan; Chu, Xiuxiang

    2010-01-18

    The propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and the Hermite-Gaussian expansion of a Lorentz function, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a Lorentz-Gauss beam are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere are numerically demonstrated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere are also discussed in detail.

  1. Laser particle sorter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.

    1987-11-30

    Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.

  2. Laser particle sorter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, John C.; Buican, Tudor N.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser defines an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam interrogates the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam intersects the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis.

  3. Theory of using magnetic deflections to combine charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Steckbeck, Mackenzie K.; Doyle, Barney Lee

    2014-09-01

    Several radiation effects projects in the Ion Beam Lab (IBL) have recently required two disparate charged particle beams to simultaneously strike a single sample through a single port of the target chamber. Because these beams have vastly different mass–energy products (MEP), the low-MEP beam requires a large angle of deflection toward the sample by a bending electromagnet. A second electromagnet located further upstream provides a means to compensate for the small angle deflection experienced by the high-MEP beam during its path through the bending magnet. This paper derives the equations used to select the magnetic fields required by these two magnets to achieve uniting both beams at the target sample. A simple result was obtained when the separation of the two magnets was equivalent to the distance from the bending magnet to the sample, and the equation is given by: Bs= 1/2(rc/rs) Bc, where Bs and Bc are the magnetic fields in the steering and bending magnet and rc/rs is the ratio of the radii of the bending magnet to that of the steering magnet. This result is not dependent upon the parameters of the high MEP beam, i.e. energy, mass, charge state. Therefore, once the field of the bending magnet is set for the low-MEP beam, and the field in the steering magnet is set as indicted in the equation, the trajectory path of any high-MEP beam will be directed into the sample.

  4. Fast excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by energetic particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jintao; Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-12-15

    A new mechanism for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excitation by a not fully slowed down energetic particle (EP) beam is analyzed to explain experimental observations in Large Helical Device. It is shown that the positive velocity space gradient near the lower-energy end of the EP distribution function can strongly drive the GAM unstable. The new features of this EP-induced GAM (EGAM) are: (1) no instability threshold in the pitch angle; (2) the EGAM frequency can be higher than the local GAM frequency; and (3) the instability growth rate is much larger than that driven by a fully slowed down EP beam.

  5. Phase Rotation of Muon Beams for Producing Intense Low-Energy Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Bao, Y.; Hansen, G.

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy muon beams are useful for rare decay searches, which provide access to new physics that cannot be addressed at high-energy colliders. However, muons are produced within a broad energy spread unmatched to the low-energy required. In this paper we outline a phase rotation method to significantly increase the intensity of low-energy muons. The muons are produced from a short pulsed proton driver, and develop a time-momentum correlation in a drift space following production. A series of rf cavities is used to bunch the muons and phase-energy rotate the bunches to a momentum of around 100 MeV/c. Then another group of rf cavities is used to decelerate the muon bunches to low-energy. This obtains ~0.1 muon per 8 GeV proton, which is significantly higher than currently planned Mu2e experiments, and would enable a next generation of rare decay searches, and other intense muon beam applications.

  6. Fiber-optic holography employing multiple beam fringe stabilization and object/reference beam intensity variability.

    PubMed

    Muhs, J D; Leilabady, P A; Corke, M

    1988-09-01

    The use of fiber optics in the field of optical holography is discussed with emphasis on the design of systems used to overcome several inherent shortcomings associated with fiber-optic holographic systems. Specifically, random environmentally induced optical phase changes within the fiber are minimized by employing a Michelson interferometer in conjunction with a closed loop feedback system. Furthermore, by using several passive single-mode couplers, complete object illumination via several illumination fibers is observed. Finally, by implementing a Mach-Zehnder interferometric technique, control of the object and reference beam intensity ratios in a fiber-optic holographic system can be accomplished. The resulting schemes are very stable and highly versatile systems suitable for remote holographic interferometric sensing and other applications where conventional holography techniques are impractical. Experimental results on fringe visibility, fringe stability, and the stabilization of object/reference beam intensity ratios are also given along with a composite summary of the overall system constraints associated with fiber-optic holographic systems.

  7. Studies of charged particle beam dynamics on the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment pure ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Moses

    Based on the compelling physics analogy between intense beam propagating through a periodic focusing quadrupole magnetic field and nonneutral pure ion plasma confined in a linear Paul trap configuration, experimental studies of intense beam propagation under the influence of self-field effects have been performed using the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) device. A new charge collector diagnostic has been implemented, which permits detailed measurement of the radial ion density profile that can be compared with theoretical predictions. To further investigate the trapped plasma properties, a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic system with accompanying barium ion source has also been developed and tested. To achieve a well-characterized initial beam state for subsequent beam physics experiments, ion injection into the trap has been carefully optimized by characterizing various beam dynamics issues that may invalidate the physics analogy between intense coasting beam and trapped pure ion plasma in the quadrupole focusing fields. An optimized plasma is held in the quasi-equilibrium state for more than 50 ms, which is equivalent to more than 3000 full alternating-gradient (AG) focusing periods, and has a defocusing space-charge force that is about 10% of the applied transverse focusing force. The PTSX device is used to investigate basic physics of transverse beam compression. From a comparison of the analytical estimates based on a Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) beam model, experimental results on changes in both the lattice amplitude and frequency, and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, it is found that a key physics issue in transverse beam compression is how to suppress the excitation of mismatch oscillations, which is often accompanied by emittance growth and halo formation. When the phase advance is low enough, adiabatic changes in the smooth-focusing frequency turn out to provide an effective control of transverse beam compression. Machine

  8. Effects on axial momentum spread on the electron-ion two-stream instability in high-intensity ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    R. Davidso; H. Qin

    2000-06-15

    Use is made of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations to describe the electron-ion two-stream instability driven by the directed axial motion of a high-intensity ion beam propagating through a stationary population of (unwanted) background electrons. The ion beam is treated as continuous in the z-direction, and the electrons are electrostatically confined in the transverse direction by the space-charge potential produced by the excession charge. The analysis is carried out for arbitrary beam intensity, consistent with transverse confinement of the beam particles, and arbitrary fractional charge neutralization by the background electrons. For the case of overlapping step-function ion and electron density profiles, corresponding to monoenergetic electrons and ions in the transverse direction, detailed stability properties are calculated, including the important effects of an axial momentum spread, over a wide range of system parameters for dipole perturbations with azimuthal mode number l=1. The two-stream instability growth rate is found to increase with increasing beam intensity, increasing fractional charge neutralization, and decreasing proximity of the conducting wall. It is shown that Landau damping associated with a modest axial momentum spread of the beam ions and background electrons has a strong stabilizing influence on the instability.

  9. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PULSING A CHARGED PARTICLE BEAM

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, K.; Kuenning, R.W.; Harmon, R.K.

    1961-05-01

    A system is offered for pulsing a continuous beam of charged particles to form beam pulses that are consistently rectangular and of precise time durations which may be varied over an extremely wide range at a widely variable range of repetition rates. The system generally comprises spaced deflection plates on opposite sides of a beam axis in between which a unidirectional bias field is established to deflect the beam for impingement on an off-axis collector. The bias field is periodically neutralized by the application of fast rise time substantially rectangular pulses to one of the deflection plates in opposition to the bias field and then after a time delay to the other deflection plate in aiding relation to the bias field and during the flat crest portion of the bias opposing pulses. The voltage distribution of the resulting deflection field then includes neutral or zero portions which are of symmetrical substantially rectangular configuration relative to time and during which the beam axially passes the collector in the form of a substantially rectangular beam pulse.

  10. Generation of Energetic Particles in Intense Laser Matter Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Bhuvanesh; Muhammad, Tayyab; Bagchi, Suman; Mandal, Tirtha; Chakera, Juzer; Naik, Prasad; Gupta, Parshotam Dass; Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, India. Collaboration; Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna CentreAdvanced Technology, Indore, India. Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The acceleration of high energy ion beams up to several tens of MeV per nucleon following the interaction of an ultra-short (t <50 fs), intense (Iλ2 >1018 W.cm-2. μm-2) laser pulse with solid targets, is one of the burgeoning fields of research in the last few years. Mechanisms leading to forward-accelerated, high quality ion beams, operating at currently accessible laser intensities (up to 1021 W/cm2) in laser-matter interactions, are mainly associated with large electric fields set up at the target rear interface by the laser-accelerated electrons leaving the target. In this paper, we present our recent experimental results on MeV ion generation by mildly relativistic (1019 W / cm - 2) short-pulse (45 fs) laser interaction with foil targets of varying thicknesses, structured / uniform targets (e.g. nano structures on thin metallic foils, sandwich targets). Spectral modification / bunching, and divergence from structured targets will be discussed. DST Ramanujan Fellowship (SR/S2/RJN-25/2012).

  11. Beam angle selection incorporation of anatomical heterogeneities for pencil beam scanning charged-particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toramatsu, Chie; Inaniwa, Taku

    2016-12-01

    In charged particle therapy with pencil beam scanning (PBS), localization of the dose in the Bragg peak makes dose distributions sensitive to lateral tissue heterogeneities. The sensitivity of a PBS plan to lateral tissue heterogeneities can be reduced by selecting appropriate beam angles. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast and accurate method of beam angle selection for PBS. The lateral tissue heterogeneity surrounding the path of the pencil beams at a given angle was quantified with the heterogeneity number representing the variation of the Bragg peak depth across the cross section of the beams using the stopping power ratio of body tissues with respect to water. To shorten the computation time, one-dimensional dose optimization was conducted along the central axis of the pencil beams as they were directed by the scanning magnets. The heterogeneity numbers were derived for all possible beam angles for treatment. The angles leading to the minimum mean heterogeneity number were selected as the optimal beam angle. Three clinical cases of head and neck cancer were used to evaluate the developed method. Dose distributions and their robustness to setup and range errors were evaluated for all tested angles, and their relation to the heterogeneity numbers was investigated. The mean heterogeneity number varied from 1.2 mm-10.6 mm in the evaluated cases. By selecting a field with a low mean heterogeneity number, target dose coverage and robustness against setup and range errors were improved. The developed method is simple, fast, accurate and applicable for beam angle selection in charged particle therapy with PBS.

  12. Pulsed particle beam vacuum-to-air interface

    DOEpatents

    Cruz, G.E.; Edwards, W.F.

    1987-06-18

    A vacuum-to-air interface is provided for a high-powered, pulsed particle beam accelerator. The interface comprises a pneumatic high speed gate valve, from which extends a vacuum-tight duct, that terminates in an aperture. Means are provided for periodically advancing a foil strip across the aperture at the repetition rate of the particle pulses. A pneumatically operated hollow sealing band urges foil strip, when stationary, against and into the aperture. Gas pressure means periodically lift off and separate foil strip from aperture, so that it may be readily advanced. 5 figs.

  13. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility.

  14. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOEpatents

    Moran, M.J.

    1998-10-13

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

  15. A scaled experiment to study energy dissipation process during longitudinal compression of charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Y.; Nakajima, M.; Hasegawa, J.; Kikuchi, T.; Horioka, K.

    2016-03-01

    Beam behavior during longitudinal bunch compression of charged particles was investigated using a compact simulator device based on electron beams. Beam current waveforms and bunch compression ratios were measured as a function of the initial beam current. We found that the current waveform became blunt and the compression ratio degraded at higher beam currents. These results indicate that space-charge fields dissipate the kinetic energy of beam particles.

  16. Method and system for treating an interior surface of a workpiece using a charged particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, David Richard

    2007-05-23

    A method and system of treating an interior surface on an internal cavity of a workpiece using a charged particle beam. A beam deflector surface of a beam deflector is placed within the internal cavity of the workpiece and is used to redirect the charged particle beam toward the interior surface to treat the interior surface.

  17. Comparison of laser and neutral particle beam discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavan, Gregory H.

    1989-09-01

    The relative ability of lasers and neutral particle beams (NPBs) to discriminate reentry vehicle (RV) and anti-satellite (ASAT) decoys is pivotal in assessing their relative worth as strategic defenses. Their ability is evaluated and their relative contributions are assessed. It is concluded that NPBs can typically discriminate about 100 times as many objects as can lasers, and do so with significantly greater certainty.

  18. Comparison of laser and neutral particle beam discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1989-09-01

    The relative ability of lasers and neutral particle beams (NPBs) to discriminate reentry vehicle (RV) and anti-satellite (ASAT) decoys is pivotal in assessing their relative worth as strategic defenses. This report evaluates their ability and assesses their relative contributions, concluding that NPBs can typically discriminate about 100 times as many objects as can lasers, and do so with significantly greater certainty. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Restrike Particle Beam Experiments on a Dense Plasma Focus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-30

    soft Xray spectrometer should enable the formation of a fairly complete picture of the plasma phenomena as well as that of the beams for input into the...SSNTD are insensitive to light, electrons or Xrays 2) Record is virtually permanent 3) Direct measurement of fast particles is possible and (detection...detectors. The bands are delimited by Ross balanced filtering technique. This technique uses the fact that the stopping power for xrays has 3narp edges at

  20. High intensity conditioning to improve flotation of gold fine particles

    SciTech Connect

    Valderrama, L.; Perez, C.; Rubio, J.

    1995-12-31

    This work describes the effect of the degree of energy transferred to the pulp, during the conditioning stage, on gold flotation fines recovery, grade and kinetics, with three types of frother (Dowfroth 250, pine oil and MIBC) and amyl xanthate as collector. Best results show an increase in 24% recovery and 50% in concentrate grade, depending on the intensity of conditioning and type of frother (better with Dowfroth 250). For low or intermediate energies (0.5--1.5 kWh/m3 pulp), the fine particles adhere to larger ones, increasing the recovery due to a mixture of carrier (pyrite, in this case) and autogeneous carrier flotation and at higher shear (2--3 kWh/m3 pulp), gold fine particles aggregate themselves. These phenomena are demonstrated by measurements of flotation rate, true flotation (flotation by actual particle-bubble adhesion), and by the amount of entrained particles. Alternatives for this type of pulp conditioning and mechanisms involved are discussed.

  1. Beaming of intense AKR seen from the Interball-2 spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, R.; Panchenko, M.; Hanasz, J.; Mutel, R.; Christopher, I.

    2017-01-01

    We present results of intense auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) sources direction finding based on single-spacecraft k→ vector source location performed in the frame of Interball-2 mission (POLRAD experiment on board Auroral Probe). With our swept frequency analyzer we are not able to work with single AKR bursts generated in small, elementary sources, but we improve our signal-to-noise (s/n) ratio and determine direction to the AKR source region averaging data over 10 consecutive 4 kHz frequency steps. Measurements of directions to the AKR sources confirm recent Mutel et al. () findings based on Cluster Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data - AKR rays are mostly confined to the direction tangent to the auroral oval as measured in Mutel's tangent plane (TP) coordinates. In this paper we use additional coordinate system rotated with respect to TP coordinates in order to determine azimuths of AKR rays with respect to the auroral oval. We see cases of AKR propagation significantly deflected from the tangent plane. Additional information concerning geometry of auroral arc at the AKR source can help to distinguish between propagation along and propagation across the auroral cavity. Examples of instantaneous AKR visibility maps defined in this paper for both coordinate systems are shown and discussed. Using such map (valid for our spacecraft for relatively short observational periods of the order of 10 min), it is possible for known positions of the AKR sources in invariant latitude-magnetic local time coordinates to visualize direction angles of AKR beams reaching the observer.

  2. Determination of beam intensity in a single step for IMRT inverse planning.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chen, Tzong-Jer; Kuo, Shan-Chi; Jan, Meei-Ling; Hwang, Ing-Ming; Chen, Sharon; Lin, Ying-Chuan; Wu, Jay

    2003-02-07

    In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), targets are treated by multiple beams at different orientations each with spatially-modulated beam intensities. This approach spreads the normal tissue dose to a greater volume and produces a higher dose conformation to the target. In general, inverse planning is used for IMRT treatment planning. The inverse planning requires iterative calculation of dose distribution in order to optimize the intensity profile for each beam and is very computation intensive. In this paper, we propose a single-step method utilizing a figure of merit (FoM) to estimate the beam intensities for IMRT treatment planning. The FoM of a ray is defined as the ratio between the delivered tumour dose and normal tissue dose and is a good index for the dose efficacy of the ray. To maximize the beam utility, it is natural to irradiate the tumour with intensity of each ray proportional to the value of the FoM. The nonuniform beam intensity profiles are then fixed and the weights of the beam are determined iteratively in order to yield a uniform tumour dose. In this study, beams are employed at equispaced angles around the patient. Each beam with its field size that just covers the tumour is divided into a fixed number of beamlets. The FoM is calculated for each beamlet and this value is assigned to be the beam intensity. Various weighting factors are incorporated in the FoM computation to accommodate different clinical considerations. Two clinical datasets are used to test the feasibility of the algorithm. The resultant dose-volume histograms of this method are presented and compared to that of conformal therapy. Preliminary results indicate that this method reduces the critical organ doses at a small expense of uniformity in tumour dose distribution. This method estimates the beam intensity in one single step and the computation time is extremely fast and can be finished in less than one minute using a regular PC.

  3. Factors Affecting the Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

  4. High Energy Density Physics Research Using Intense Ion Beams: the HEDgeHOB Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Piriz, A. R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Deutsch, C.

    2008-11-01

    Intense particle beams provide a novel tool to generate large samples of HED matter with uniform physical conditions [1]. Theoretical studies have shown that an ion beam can be employed using different experimental schemes to study HED states in matter. These include HIHEX [2,3] and LAPLAS [4,5]. The former involves isochoric and uniform heating of matter by an ion beam that is followed by isentropic expansion of the heated material. This allows one to access the entire phase diagram including those regions which can not be accessed by traditional methods of shock waves. The latter considers a multiple shock reflection technique that leads to a low-entropy compression of a test material like H or water which generates physical conditions that are expected to exist in the interior of giant planets. Interesting problems like Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities have also been investigated in detail.This work has provided the necessary basis for the HEDgeHOB proposal for future experiments at the FAIR facility at Darmstadt. [1] N.A. Tahir et al., PRE 60 (1999) 4715. [2] D.H.H. Hoffmann et al., PoP 9 (2002) 3652. [3] N.A. Tahir et al., PRL 95 (2005) 035001. [4] N.A. Tahir et al., PRE 62 (2001) 016402. [5] N.A. Tahir et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 577 (2007) 238.

  5. Self-Consistent Simulation of Transport and Energy Deposition of Intense Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams in Solid-Density Matter.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Qiao, B; McGuffey, C; Wei, M S; Grabowski, P E; Beg, F N

    2015-07-31

    The first self-consistent hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of intense proton beam transport and energy deposition in solid-density matter is presented. Both the individual proton slowing-down and the collective beam-plasma interaction effects are taken into account with a new dynamic proton stopping power module that has been added to a hybrid PIC code. In this module, the target local stopping power can be updated at each time step based on its thermodynamic state. For intense proton beams, the reduction of target stopping power from the cold condition due to continuous proton heating eventually leads to broadening of the particle range and energy deposition far beyond the Bragg peak. For tightly focused beams, large magnetic field growth in collective interactions results in self-focusing of the beam and much stronger localized heating of the target.

  6. Average intensity and directionality of partially coherent model beams propagating in turbulent ocean.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqian; Zhang, Yixin; Zhu, Yun

    2016-08-01

    We studied Gaussian beams with three different partially coherent models, including the Gaussian-Schell model (GSM), Laguerre-Gaussian Schell model (LGSM), and Bessel-Gaussian Schell model (BGSM), propagating through oceanic turbulence. The expressions of average intensity, beam spreading, and beam wander for GSM, LGSM, and BGSM beams in the paraxial channel are derived. We make a contrast for the three models in numerical simulations and find that the GSM beam has smaller spreading than the others, and the LGSM beam needs longer propagation distance to transform into a well-like profile of average intensity than the BGSM beam in the same conditions. The salinity fluctuation has a greater contribution to the wander of LGSM and BGSM beams than that of the temperature fluctuation. Our results can be helpful in the design of an optical wireless communication link operating in oceanic environment.

  7. Spatial correlation properties and the spectral intensity distributions of focused Gaussian Schell-model array beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiaoling; Pu, Zhengcai; Jia, Xinhong

    2009-07-01

    The spatial correlation properties and the spectral intensity distributions of focused Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) array beams are studied in detail. The closed-form expressions for the spectral degree of coherence and the spectral intensity of focused GSM array beams are derived. It is shown that the spectral degree of coherence of focused GSM array beams is the same as that of focused GSM beams in the focal plane. On the other hand, it is found that, in the focal plane the spectral intensity distribution of focused GSM array beams is the fringe pattern when the value of the coherence length is small. However, it becomes one peak located at the center as the value of the coherence length is large enough. In the focal plane, the spectral intensity maximum increases and the width of the normalized spectral intensity distribution decreases as the beam number increases. In general, for GSM array beams, the width of the modulus of the spectral degree of coherence in the focal plane always exceeds that of the normalized spectral intensity distribution, which is different from the behavior of focused GSM beams. In addition, the power in the bucket (PIB) and the beam propagation factor ( M2 factor) are also discussed. The main results are explained physically.

  8. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  9. Merging for Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic Modeling of the Multiple Plasma Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a merging procedure for the Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic (PMCPK) method in case of inter-penetrating flow (multiple plasma beams). We examine the standard particle-in-cell (PIC) and the PMCPK methods in the case of particle acceleration by shock surfing for a wide range of the control numerical parameters. The plasma dynamics is described by a hybrid (particle-ion-fluid-electron) model. Note that one may need a mesh if modeling with the computation of an electromagnetic field. Our calculations use specified, time-independent electromagnetic fields for the shock, rather than self-consistently generated fields. While a particle-mesh method is a well-verified approach, the CPK method seems to be a good approach for multiscale modeling that includes multiple regions with various particle/fluid plasma behavior. However, the CPK method is still in need of a verification for studying the basic plasma phenomena: particle heating and acceleration by collisionless shocks, magnetic field reconnection, beam dynamics, etc.

  10. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    DOE PAGES

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-20

    Manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, makes it possible to arrange a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy (“heavy-ion fusion”). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly “wobbling” each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this ismore » sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. We also found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.« less

  11. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-15

    By manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, it is possible to arrange for a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy ('heavy-ion fusion'). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly 'wobbling' each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. It is found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  12. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-20

    Manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, makes it possible to arrange a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy (“heavy-ion fusion”). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly “wobbling” each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. We also found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  13. Effect of turbulent atmosphere on the on-axis average intensity of Pearcey-Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F, Boufalah; L, Dalil-Essakali; H, Nebdi; A, Belafhal

    2016-06-01

    The propagation characteristics of the Pearcey-Gaussian (PG) beam in turbulent atmosphere are investigated in this paper. The Pearcey beam is a new kind of paraxial beam, based on the Pearcey function of catastrophe theory, which describes diffraction about a cusp caustic. By using the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral formula in the paraxial approximation and the Rytov theory, an analytical expression of axial intensity for the considered beam family is derived. Some numerical results for PG beam propagating in atmospheric turbulence are given by studying the influences of some factors, including incident beam parameters and turbulence strengths.

  14. Ultra-precise particle velocities in pulsed supersonic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Wolfgang

    2013-07-14

    We describe an improved experimental method for the generation of cold, directed particle bunches, and the highly accurate determination of their velocities in a pulsed supersonic beam, allowing for high-resolution experiments of atoms, molecules, and clusters. It is characterized by a pulsed high pressure jet source with high brilliance and optimum repeatability, a flight distance of few metres that can be varied with a tolerance of setting of 50 {mu}m, and a precision in the mean flight time of particles of better than 10{sup -4}. The technique achieves unmatched accuracies in particle velocities and kinetic energies and also permits the reliable determination of enthalpy changes with very high precision.

  15. Particle selection and beam collimation system for laser-accelerated proton beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Fourkal, Eugene; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, Chang-Ming

    2005-03-01

    In a laser-accelerated proton therapy system, the initial protons have broad energy and angular distributions, which are not suitable for direct therapeutic applications. A compact particle selection and collimation device is needed to deliver small pencil beams of protons with desired energy spectra. In this work, we characterize a superconducting magnet system that produces a desired magnetic field configuration to spread the protons with different energies and emitting angles for particle selection. Four magnets are set side by side along the beam axis; each is made of NbTi wires which carry a current density of approximately 10(5) A/cm2 at 4.2 K, and produces a magnetic field of approximately 4.4 T in the corresponding region. Collimation is applied to both the entrance and the exit of the particle selection system to generate a desired proton pencil beam. In the middle of the magnet system, where the magnetic field is close to zero, a particle selection collimator allows only the protons with desired energies to pass through for therapy. Simulations of proton transport in the presence of the magnetic field show that the selected protons have successfully refocused on the beam axis after passing through the magnetic field with the optimal magnet system. The energy spread for any given characteristic proton energy has been obtained. It is shown that the energy spread is a function of the magnetic field strength and collimator size and reaches the full width at half maximum of 25 MeV for 230 MeV protons. Dose distributions have also been calculated with the GEANT3 Monte Carlo code to study the dosimetric properties of the laser-accelerated proton beams for radiation therapy applications.

  16. Using an intense laser beam in interaction with muon/electron beam to probe the noncommutative QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizchang, S.; Batebi, S.; Haghighat, M.; Mohammadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    It is known that the linearly polarized photons can partly transform to circularly polarized ones via forward Compton scattering in a background such as the external magnetic field or noncommutative space time. Based on this fact we explore the effects of the NC-background on the scattering of a linearly polarized laser beam from an intense beam of charged leptons. We show that for a muon/electron beam flux {overline{ɛ}}_{μ, e}˜ 1{0}^{12}/{10}^{10} TeV cm-2 sec-1 and a linearly polarized laser beam with energy k 0 ˜1 eV and average power {overline{P}}_{laser}˜eq 1{0}^3 KW, the generation rate of circularly polarized photons is about R V ˜ 104 /sec for noncommutative energy scale ΛNC ˜ 10 TeV. This is fairly large and can grow for more intense beams in near future.

  17. Optical transition radiation used in the diagnostic of low energy and low current electron beams in particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. F.; Bonini, A. L.; Lima, R. R.; Maidana, N. L.; Malafronte, A. A.; Pascholati, P. R.; Vanin, V. R.; Martins, M. N.

    2012-09-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) plays an important role in beam diagnostics for high energy particle accelerators. Its linear intensity with beam current is a great advantage as compared to fluorescent screens, which are subject to saturation. Moreover, the measurement of the angular distribution of the emitted radiation enables the determination of many beam parameters in a single observation point. However, few works deals with the application of OTR to monitor low energy beams. In this work we describe the design of an OTR based beam monitor used to measure the transverse beam charge distribution of the 1.9-MeV electron beam of the linac injector of the IFUSP microtron using a standard vision machine camera. The average beam current in pulsed operation mode is of the order of tens of nano-Amps. Low energy and low beam current make OTR observation difficult. To improve sensitivity, the beam incidence angle on the target was chosen to maximize the photon flux in the camera field-of-view. Measurements that assess OTR observation (linearity with beam current, polarization, and spectrum shape) are presented, as well as a typical 1.9-MeV electron beam charge distribution obtained from OTR. Some aspects of emittance measurement using this device are also discussed.

  18. Optical transition radiation used in the diagnostic of low energy and low current electron beams in particle accelerators.

    PubMed

    Silva, T F; Bonini, A L; Lima, R R; Maidana, N L; Malafronte, A A; Pascholati, P R; Vanin, V R; Martins, M N

    2012-09-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) plays an important role in beam diagnostics for high energy particle accelerators. Its linear intensity with beam current is a great advantage as compared to fluorescent screens, which are subject to saturation. Moreover, the measurement of the angular distribution of the emitted radiation enables the determination of many beam parameters in a single observation point. However, few works deals with the application of OTR to monitor low energy beams. In this work we describe the design of an OTR based beam monitor used to measure the transverse beam charge distribution of the 1.9-MeV electron beam of the linac injector of the IFUSP microtron using a standard vision machine camera. The average beam current in pulsed operation mode is of the order of tens of nano-Amps. Low energy and low beam current make OTR observation difficult. To improve sensitivity, the beam incidence angle on the target was chosen to maximize the photon flux in the camera field-of-view. Measurements that assess OTR observation (linearity with beam current, polarization, and spectrum shape) are presented, as well as a typical 1.9-MeV electron beam charge distribution obtained from OTR. Some aspects of emittance measurement using this device are also discussed.

  19. Beam Dynamics Studies and the Design, Fabrication and Testing of Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity for High Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Arun

    2012-03-01

    The application horizon of particle accelerators has been widening significantly in recent decades. Where large accelerators have traditionally been the tools of the trade for high-energy nuclear and particle physics, applications in the last decade have grown to include large-scale accelerators like synchrotron light sources and spallation neutron sources. Applications like generation of rare isotopes, transmutation of nuclear reactor waste, sub-critical nuclear power, generation of neutrino beams etc. are next area of investigation for accelerator scientific community all over the world. Such applications require high beam power in the range of few mega-watts (MW). One such high intensity proton beam facility is proposed at Fermilab, Batavia, US, named as Project-X. Project-X facility is based on H- linear accelerator (linac), which will operate in continuous wave (CW) mode and accelerate H- ion beam with average current of 1 mA from kinetic energy of 2.5 MeV to 3 GeV to deliver 3MW beam power. One of the most challenging tasks of the Project-X facility is to have a robust design of the CW linac which can provide high quality beam to several experiments simultaneously. Hence a careful design of linac is important to achieve this objective.

  20. Laser-driven deflection arrangements and methods involving charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Plettner, Tomas; Byer, Robert L.

    2011-08-09

    Systems, methods, devices and apparatus are implemented for producing controllable charged particle beams. In one implementation, an apparatus provides a deflection force to a charged particle beam. A source produces an electromagnetic wave. A structure, that is substantially transparent to the electromagnetic wave, includes a physical structure having a repeating pattern with a period L and a tilted angle .alpha., relative to a direction of travel of the charged particle beam, the pattern affects the force of the electromagnetic wave upon the charged particle beam. A direction device introduces the electromagnetic wave to the structure to provide a phase-synchronous deflection force to the charged particle beam.

  1. Optically induced rotation of Rayleigh particles by vortex beams with different states of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Lei, Ming; Yang, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    Optical vortex beams carry optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) and can induce an orbital motion of trapped particles in optical trapping. We show that the state of polarization (SOP) of vortex beams will affect the details of this optically induced orbital motion to some extent. Numerical results demonstrate that focusing the vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations can induce a uniform orbital motion on a trapped Rayleigh particle, while in the focal field of the vortex beam with linear polarization the particle experiences a non-uniform orbital motion. Among the formers, the vortex beam with circular polarization induces a maximum optical torque on the particle. Furthermore, by varying the topological charge of the vortex beams, the vortex beam with circular polarization gives rise to an optimum torque superior to those given by the other three vortex beams. These facts suggest that the circularly polarized vortex beam is more suitable for rotating particles.

  2. Systems for controlling the intensity variations in a laser beam and for frequency conversion thereof

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, Stanley; Craxton, R. Stephen; Soures, John

    1990-01-01

    In order to control the intensity of a laser beam so that its intensity varies uniformly and provides uniform illumination of a target, such as a laser fusion target, a broad bandwidth laser pulse is spectrally dispersed spatially so that the frequency components thereof are spread apart. A disperser (grating) provides an output beam which varies spatially in wavelength in at least one direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the beam. Temporal spread (time delay) across the beam is corrected by using a phase delay device (a time delay compensation echelon). The dispersed beam may be amplified with laser amplifiers and frequency converted (doubled, tripled or quadrupled in frequency) with nonlinear optical elements (birefringent crystals). The spectral variation across the beam is compensated by varying the angle of incidence on one of the crystals with respect to the crystal optical axis utilizing a lens which diverges the beam. Another lens after the frequency converter may be used to recollimate the beam. The frequency converted beam is recombined so that portions of different frequency interfere and, unlike interference between waves of the same wavelength, there results an intensity pattern with rapid temoral oscillations which average out rapidly in time thereby producing uniform illumination on target. A distributed phase plate (also known as a random phase mask), through which the spectrally dispersed beam is passed and then focused on a target, is used to provide the interference pattern which becomes nearly modulation free and uniform in intensity in the direction of the spectral variation.

  3. Systems for controlling the intensity variations in a laser beam and for frequency conversion thereof

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, S.; Craxton, R.S.; Soures, J.

    1990-10-02

    In order to control the intensity of a laser beam so that its intensity varies uniformly and provides uniform illumination of a target, such as a laser fusion target, a broad bandwidth laser pulse is spectrally dispersed spatially so that the frequency components thereof are spread apart. A disperser (grating) provides an output beam which varies spatially in wavelength in at least one direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the beam. Temporal spread (time delay) across the beam is corrected by using a phase delay device (a time delay compensation echelon). The dispersed beam may be amplified with laser amplifiers and frequency converted (doubled, tripled or quadrupled in frequency) with nonlinear optical elements (birefringent crystals). The spectral variation across the beam is compensated by varying the angle of incidence on one of the crystals with respect to the crystal optical axis utilizing a lens which diverges the beam. Another lens after the frequency converter may be used to recollimate the beam. The frequency converted beam is recombined so that portions of different frequency interfere and, unlike interference between waves of the same wavelength, there results an intensity pattern with rapid temporal oscillations which average out rapidly in time thereby producing uniform illumination on target. A distributed phase plate (also known as a random phase mask), through which the spectrally dispersed beam is passed and then focused on a target, is used to provide the interference pattern which becomes nearly modulation free and uniform in intensity in the direction of the spectral variation. 16 figs.

  4. Emission of an intense electron beam from a ceramic honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, M.; Myers, M.; Hegeler, F.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Sethian, J. D.; Ludeking, L.

    2003-01-01

    Inserting a slab of honeycomb ceramic in front of the emitting surface of a large-area cathode improves the electron beam emission uniformity, decreases the beam current rise and fall times, and maintains a more constant diode impedance. Moreover, changing the cathode material from velvet to carbon fiber achieved a more robust cathode that starts to emit at a higher electric field without a degradation in beam uniformity. In addition, an 80% reduction in the postshot diode pressure was also observed when gamma alumina was deposited on the ceramic. A possible explanation is that reabsorption and recycling of adsorbed gases takes place.

  5. Acceleration of plasma electrons by intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the effects of the two-stream instability on the propagation of intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams in background plasma. Development of the two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons leads to beam breakup, a slowing down of the beam particles, acceleration of the plasma particles, and transfer of the beam energy to the plasma particles and wave excitations. Making use of the particle-in-cell codes EDIPIC and LSP, and analytic theory we have simulated the effects of the two-stream instability on beam propagation over a wide range of beam and plasma parameters. Because of the two-stream instability the plasma electrons can be accelerated to velocities as high as twice the beam velocity. The resulting return current of the accelerated electrons may completely change the structure of the beam self - magnetic field, thereby changing its effect on the beam from focusing to defocusing. Therefore, previous theories of beam self-electromagnetic fields that did not take into account the effects of the two-stream instability must be significantly modified. This effect can be observed on the National Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma. Particle-in-cell, fluid simulations, and analytical theory also reveal the rich complexity of beam- plasma interaction phenomena: intermittency and multiple regimes of the two-stream instability in dc discharges; band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma and repeated acceleration of electrons in a finite system. In collaboration with E. Tokluoglu, D. Sydorenko, E. A. Startsev, J. Carlsson, and R. C. Davidson. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Photonic crystal devices formed by a charged-particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Koops, Hans W. P.

    2000-01-01

    A photonic crystal device and method. The photonic crystal device comprises a substrate with at least one photonic crystal formed thereon by a charged-particle beam deposition method. Each photonic crystal comprises a plurality of spaced elements having a composition different from the substrate, and may further include one or more impurity elements substituted for spaced elements. Embodiments of the present invention may be provided as electromagnetic wave filters, polarizers, resonators, sources, mirrors, beam directors and antennas for use at wavelengths in the range from about 0.2 to 200 microns or longer. Additionally, photonic crystal devices may be provided with one or more electromagnetic waveguides adjacent to a photonic crystal for forming integrated electromagnetic circuits for use at optical, infrared, or millimeter-wave frequencies.

  7. Particle confinement by a radially polarized laser Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laredo, Gilad; Kimura, Wayne D.; Schächter, Levi

    2017-03-01

    The stable trajectory of a charged particle in an external guiding field is an essential condition for its acceleration or for forcing it to generate radiation. Examples of possible guiding devices include a solenoidal magnetic field or permanent periodic magnet in klystrons, a wiggler in free-electron lasers, the lattice of any accelerator, and finally the crystal lattice for the case of channeling radiation. We demonstrate that the trajectory of a point-charge in a radially polarized laser Bessel beam may be stable similarly to the case of a positron that bounces back and forth in the potential well generated by two adjacent atomic planes. While in the case of channeling radiation, the transverse motion is controlled by a harmonic oscillator equation, for a Bessel beam the transverse motion is controlled by the Mathieu equation. Some characteristics of the motion are presented.

  8. G4beamline Particle Tracking in Matter Dominated Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Roberts, K.B. Beard, S. Ahmed, D. Huang, D.M. Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    The G4beamline program is a useful and steadily improving tool to quickly and easily model beam lines and experimental equipment without user programming. It has both graphical and command-line user interfaces. Unlike most accelerator physics codes, it easily handles a wide range of materials and fields, being particularly well suited for the study of muon and neutrino facilities. As it is based on the Geant4 toolkit, G4beamline includes most of what is known about the interactions of particles with matter. We are continuing the development of G4beamline to facilitate its use by a larger set of beam line and accelerator developers. A major new feature is the calculation of space-charge effects. G4beamline is open source and freely available at http://g4beamline.muonsinc.com

  9. Population Inversions in Ablation Plasmas Generated by Intense Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-30

    beam driven carbon anode plasmas. Diode closure results ..,.in three phases of beam-plasma evolution which are summarized below: Stage I: Deposited...enough for anode plasma forma- tion before the diode shorts. Spectroscopic data for noncrowbarred shots (dose 1 500-800 J/g) indicate the presence of CII...inconsistent with previously proposed kinetic mechanisms for the N2 laser pumped by helium. With a simple- model of the chemical kinetics, we have shown

  10. STREAMING-LIMITED INTENSITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES ON THE INTENSITY PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K. E-mail: cng2@gmu.ed

    2010-11-10

    We examine the energy spectra of H, He, O, and Fe ions on the temporal intensity plateau region in large solar energetic-particle (SEP) events, where intensities may be ''streaming limited.'' Upstream of shock waves near the Sun, equilibrium may occur when outwardly streaming protons amplify resonant Alfven waves that then scatter subsequent protons sufficiently to reduce the streaming. In the largest SEP events, the so-called ground-level events (GLEs), we find proton energy spectra that are peaked near {approx}10 MeV with the energy of similar peaks decreasing for heavier ions and for smaller events. These spectra contrast sharply with spectra near the time of shock passage which rise monotonically above the plateau spectra with decreasing energy. We suggest that strong suppression of upstream ion intensities near {approx}1 MeV amu{sup -1} on the plateau occurs when those ions resonate with waves amplified earlier by streaming protons of {approx}10 MeV and above. GLEs with much lower intensities of 10-100 MeV protons on the plateau show spectra of ions that rise monotonically toward low energies with no peaking and no suppression of low-energy ions. Wave amplification by streaming protons and the pitch-angle dependence of the resonance condition are essential factors in our understanding of the limiting behavior.

  11. Statistically-Averaged Rate Equations Obtained in Kinetic Description of Intense Nonneutral Beam Propagation Through a Periodic Solenoidal Focusing Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. Wei-Li; Davidson, Ronald C.; Stoltz, Peter

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents a detailed formulation and analysis of the rate equations for statistically-averaged quantities for an intense nonneutral beam propagating through a periodic solenoidal focusing field. B^sol(x) = B_z(z)hatez - (1/2)B'_z(z)(xhatex + yhate_y), where B_z(z+S) = B_z(z), and S = const. is the axial periodicity length. The anaysis assumes a thin beam with characteristic beam radius rb << S, and is based on the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations. Particularly important in experimental applications and in numerical simulations schemes, such as the nonlinear δ f- scheme,(Q. Qian, W. Lee, and R. Davidson, Phys. Plasmas 4), 1915 (1997). is an understanding of the self-consistent nonlinear evolution of various quantities averaged over the distribution of beam particles f_b(x,p,t). Self-consistent rate equations are derived for the nonlinear evolution of the mean-square beam radius , mean kinetic energy (1/2), field energy ɛ_F(z), unnormalized beam emittance ɛ(z), center of mass motion, etc., and the nonlinear beam dynamics is analysed over a wide range of system parameters.

  12. BOA, Beam Optics Analyzer A Particle-In-Cell Code

    SciTech Connect

    Thuc Bui

    2007-12-06

    The program was tasked with implementing time dependent analysis of charges particles into an existing finite element code with adaptive meshing, called Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA). BOA was initially funded by a DOE Phase II program to use the finite element method with adaptive meshing to track particles in unstructured meshes. It uses modern programming techniques, state-of-the-art data structures, so that new methods, features and capabilities are easily added and maintained. This Phase II program was funded to implement plasma simulations in BOA and extend its capabilities to model thermal electrons, secondary emissions, self magnetic field and implement a more comprehensive post-processing and feature-rich GUI. The program was successful in implementing thermal electrons, secondary emissions, and self magnetic field calculations. The BOA GUI was also upgraded significantly, and CCR is receiving interest from the microwave tube and semiconductor equipment industry for the code. Implementation of PIC analysis was partially successful. Computational resource requirements for modeling more than 2000 particles begin to exceed the capability of most readily available computers. Modern plasma analysis typically requires modeling of approximately 2 million particles or more. The problem is that tracking many particles in an unstructured mesh that is adapting becomes inefficient. In particular memory requirements become excessive. This probably makes particle tracking in unstructured meshes currently unfeasible with commonly available computer resources. Consequently, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. is exploring hybrid codes where the electromagnetic fields are solved on the unstructured, adaptive mesh while particles are tracked on a fixed mesh. Efficient interpolation routines should be able to transfer information between nodes of the two meshes. If successfully developed, this could provide high accuracy and reasonable computational efficiency.

  13. Pulsed particle beam vacuum-to-air interface

    DOEpatents

    Cruz, Gilbert E.; Edwards, William F.

    1988-01-01

    A vacuum-to-air interface (10) is provided for a high-powered, pulsed particle beam accelerator. The interface comprises a pneumatic high speed gate valve (18), from which extends a vacuum-tight duct (26), that termintes in an aperture (28). Means (32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48) are provided for periodically advancing a foil strip (30) across the aperture (28) at the repetition rate of the particle pulses. A pneumatically operated hollow sealing band (62) urges foil strip (30), when stationary, against and into the aperture (28). Gas pressure means (68, 70) periodically lift off and separate foil strip (30) from aperture (28), so that it may be readily advanced.

  14. Means and method for the focusing and acceleration of parallel beams of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1983-07-05

    A novel apparatus and method for focussing beams of charged particles comprising planar arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles. The quadrupole arrays may comprise electrodes which are shared by two or more quadrupoles. Such quadrupole arrays are particularly adapted to providing strong focussing forces for high current, high brightness, beams of charged particles, said beams further comprising a plurality of parallel beams, or beamlets, each such beamlet being focussed by one quadrupole of the array. Such arrays may be incorporated in various devices wherein beams of charged particles are accelerated or transported, such as linear accelerators, klystron tubes, beam transport lines, etc.

  15. Dosimetric consequences of pencil beam width variations in scanned beam particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanrion, M. A.; Ammazzalorso, F.; Wittig, A.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Jelen, U.

    2013-06-01

    Scanned ion beam delivery enables the highest degree of target dose conformation attainable in external beam radiotherapy. Nominal pencil beam widths (spot sizes) are recorded during treatment planning system commissioning. Due to changes in the beam-line optics, the actual spot sizes may differ from these commissioning values, leading to differences between planned and delivered dose. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dosimetric consequences of spot size variations in particle therapy treatment plans. For 12 patients with skull base tumours and 12 patients with prostate carcinoma, scanned-beam carbon ion and proton treatment plans were prepared and recomputed simulating spot size changes of (1) ±10% to simulate the typical magnitude of fluctuations, (2) ±25% representing the worst-case scenario and (3) ±50% as a part of a risk analysis in case of fault conditions. The primary effect of the spot size variation was a dose deterioration affecting the target edge: loss of target coverage and broadening of the lateral penumbra (increased spot size) or overdosage and contraction of the lateral penumbra (reduced spot size). For changes ⩽25%, the resulting planning target volume mean 95%-isodose line coverage (CI-95%) deterioration was ranging from negligible to moderate. In some cases changes in the dose to adjoining critical structures were observed.

  16. Key elements of space charge compensation on a low energy high intensity beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Shixiang; Lu Pengnan; Ren Haitao; Zhao Jie; Chen Jia; Xu Yuan; Guo Zhiyu; Chen Jia'er; Zhao Hongwei; Sun Liangting

    2013-03-15

    Space charge effect (SCE) along the beam line will decrease beam quality. Space charge compensation (SCC) with extra gas injection is a high-efficiency method to reduce SCE. In this paper, we will report the experimental results on the beam profile, potential distribution, beam emittance, and beam transmission efficiency of a 35 keV/90 mA H{sup +} beam and a 40 keV/10 mA He{sup +} beam compensated by Ar/Kr. The influence of gas type, gas flow, and injection location will be discussed. Emphasis is laid on the consideration of SCC when designing and commissioning a high intensity ion beam injector. Based on measured data, a new definition of space charge compensation degree is proposed.

  17. Modeling nitrogen plasmas produced by intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Justin; Swanekamp, Steve; Richardson, Andrew; Schumer, Joseph; Mosher, David; Ottinger, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The Gamble II generator at the Naval Research Laboratory produces 100ns pulse duration, relativistic-electron beams with peak energies on the order of 1MV and peak currents of about 800kA with annular beam areas between 40-80cm2. This gives peak current densities 10 kA/cm2. For many different applications, a nitrogen gas in the 1Torr range is used as a charge- and current-neutralizing background to achieve beam transport. For these parameter regimes, the gas transitions from a weakly-ionized molecular state to a strongly-ionized atomic state on the time scale of the beam pulse. A detailed gas-chemistry model is presented for a dynamical description of the nitrogen plasmas produced in such experiments. The model is coupled to a 0D circuit model representative of annular beams, and results for 1Torr nitrogen are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the line-integrated electron density and the net current. It is found that the species are mostly in the ground and metastable states during the atomic phase, but that ionization proceeds predominantly through thermal ionization of the higher-lying optically-allowed states with excitation energies close to the ionization limit. Work is supported by AWE through NNSA.

  18. Longitudinal confinement and matching of an intense electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Bernal, S.; Koeth, T.; Sutter, D.; O'Shea, P. G.; Reiser, M.

    2011-01-01

    An induction cell has successfully been demonstrated to longitudinally confine a space-charge dominated bunch for over a thousand turns (>11.52 km) in the University of Maryland Electron Ring [Haber et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 606, 64 (2009) and R. A. Kishek et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 22, 3838 (2007)]. With the use of synchronized periodic focusing fields, the beam is confined for multiple turns overcoming the longitudinal space-charge forces. Experimental results show that an optimum longitudinal match is obtained when the focusing frequency for containment of the 0.52 mA beam is applied at every fifth turn. Containment of the beam bunch is achievable at lower focusing frequencies, at the cost of a reduction in the transported charge from the lack of sufficient focusing. Containment is also obtainable, if the confinement fields overfocus the bunch, exciting multiple waves at the bunch ends, which propagate into the central region of the beam, distorting the overall constant current beam shape.

  19. Particle-beam-fusion progress report, July 1979 through December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The following chapters are included in this semi-annual progress report: (1) fusion target studies, (2) target experiments, (3) particle-beam source developments, (4) particle beam experiments, (5) pulsed power, (6) pulsed power applications, and (7) electron beam fusion accelerator project. (MOW)

  20. Array feed/reflector antenna design for intense microwave beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Stephen J.

    1990-04-01

    It is shown that a planar-array feed has excellent potential as a solution to paraboloidal reflector distortion problems and beam-steering requirements. Numerical results from an algorithmic procedure are presented which show that, for a range of distortion models, appreciable on-axis gain restoration can be achieved with as few as seven elements. For beam-steering to + or - 1 MW, 19 elements are required. For arrays with either seven or 19 elements, high effective aperture elements give higher system gain than elements having lower effective apertures. With 37 elements, excellent gain and beam-steering performance to + or - 1.5 BW is obtained independently of assumed effective aperture of the array element. A few simple rules of thumb are presented for the design of the planar-array feed configuration.

  1. Influence of Conducting Plate Boundary Conditions on the Transverse Envelope Equations Describing Intense Ion Beam Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S M; Bukh, B

    2003-07-23

    In typical diagnostic applications, intense ion beams are intercepted by a conducting plate associated with devices used to measure beam phase-space projections. This results in the transverse space-charge field near the plate being shorted out, rendering simple envelope models with constant space-charge strength inaccurate. Here we develop corrected envelope models based on analytical calculations to account for this effect on the space-charge term of the envelope equations, thereby removing a systematic source of error in the equations and enabling more accurate comparisons with experiment. For common intense beam parameters, we find that the correction occurs primarily in the envelope angles and that the effect can be large enough to degrade precision beam matching. Results are verified with 3D self-consistent PIC simulations based on intense beam experiments associated with driver developments for Heavy-Ion Fusion.

  2. Automatic Beam Path Analysis of Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    SciTech Connect

    Rubel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,; Weber, Gunther H.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2009-10-19

    Numerical simulations of laser wakefield particle accelerators play a key role in the understanding of the complex acceleration process and in the design of expensive experimental facilities. As the size and complexity of simulation output grows, an increasingly acute challenge is the practical need for computational techniques that aid in scientific knowledge discovery. To that end, we present a set of data-understanding algorithms that work in concert in a pipeline fashion to automatically locate and analyze high energy particle bunches undergoing acceleration in very large simulation datasets. These techniques work cooperatively by first identifying features of interest in individual timesteps, then integrating features across timesteps, and based on the information derived perform analysis of temporally dynamic features. This combination of techniques supports accurate detection of particle beams enabling a deeper level of scientific understanding of physical phenomena than hasbeen possible before. By combining efficient data analysis algorithms and state-of-the-art data management we enable high-performance analysis of extremely large particle datasets in 3D. We demonstrate the usefulness of our methods for a variety of 2D and 3D datasets and discuss the performance of our analysis pipeline.

  3. Intense high-quality medical proton beams via laser fields.

    PubMed

    Galow, Benjamin J; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H

    2010-12-06

    Simulations based on the coupled relativistic equations of motion show that protons stemming from laser-plasma processes can be efficiently post-accelerated employing single and crossed pulsed laser beams focused to spot radii on the order of the laser wavelength. We demonstrate that the crossed beams produce quasi-monoenergetic accelerated protons with kinetic energies exceeding 200 MeV, small energy spreads of about 1% and high densities as required for hadron cancer therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first scheme allowing for this important application based on an all-optical set-up.

  4. Measuring the Fusion Cross-Section of Light Nuclei with Low-Intensity Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, Tracy; Brown, Kyle; Hudan, Sylvie; Desouza, Romualdo

    2014-03-01

    Reactions between neutron-rich light nuclei have been proposed as a heat source in the crust of an accreting neutron star that triggers an X-ray superburst. To explore the probability of such fusion events as well as better understand the fusion dynamics between neutron-rich nuclei, an experimental program to measure the dependence of the fusion cross-section on neutron number has been initiated. Key to these measurements is developing an approach to measure the total fusion cross-section for beams of low-intensity light nuclei (<105 ions/s) on light targets. Fusion residues resulting from the fusion of oxygen nuclei with 12C at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier are directly measured and distinguished from unreacted beam particles on the basis of their energy and time-of-flight (TOF). The TOF is measured between a microchannel plate (MCP) detector and a segmented Si detector. Two initial problems were charge trapping in the Si detector and slit scattering in the MCP detector. These problems have both been minimized by implementing a gridless MCP detector and a new Si design making the measurement feasible. Supported by the US DOE under Grant No. DEFG02-88ER-40404

  5. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  6. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, S.D.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1987-07-14

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile. 11 figs.

  7. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Stephen D.; Cerqua, Kathleen A.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile.

  8. Control of the intensity fluctuations of random electromagnetic beams on propagation in weak atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkova, O.

    2006-02-01

    The intensity fluctuations of random electromagnetic beams propagating in the atmosphere are studied. For such beams it is shown that when the atmospheric fluctuations are weak then the scintillation index (the normalized variance of intensity fluctuations) of the beam at any distance from the source depends not only on the state of coherence but also on the degree of polarization of the beam in the source plane. In particular, we found that for initially unpolarized beams the scintillation index generally takes on smaller values than that for completely polarized beams. The presented analysis might be useful in the applications (e.g. communications, laser radars) where atmospheric effects can be mitigated by adjusting the coherence properties and the polarization properties of the source.

  9. Increase of the beam intensity for BNCT by changing the core configuration at THOR.

    PubMed

    Liu, H M; Peir, J J; Liu, Y H; Tsai, P E; Jiang, S H

    2009-07-01

    In this article, we will consider several core configurations and run the core calculation with MCNP to obtain the neutrons distribution at THOR. The thermal neutron flux inside the vertical tubes (VT-B-VT-E) and the fast neutron flux in the first row facing to the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility (I3-I5) were tallied for indication. Based on these simulation results, the fuel elements were rearranged during the annual repair period in 2007. The epithermal neutron flux at the center of BNCT beam exit in air was measured again, and the results showed that the beam intensity increased by 50%. Comparing the neutron intensities both in reactor core and at the BNCT beam exit for several core configurations, the results show that the BNCT beam intensity can be increased without decreasing the neutron intensity in core.

  10. Apparatus and process for active pulse intensity control of laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1992-01-01

    An optically controlled laser pulse energy control apparatus and process is disclosed wherein variations in the energy of a portion of the laser beam are used to vary the resistance of a photodetector such as a photoresistor through which a control voltage is fed to a light intensity controlling device through which a second portion of the laser beam passes. Light attenuation means are provided to vary the intensity of the laser light used to control the resistance of the photodetector. An optical delay path is provided through which the second portion of the beam travels before reaching the light intensity controlling device. The control voltage is supplied by a variable power supply. The apparatus may be tuned to properly attenuate the laser beam passing through the intensity controlling device by adjusting the power supply, the optical delay path, or the light attenuating means.

  11. Numerical Approach of Interactions of Proton Beams and Dense Plasmas with Quantum-Hydrodynamic/Particle-in-Cell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya; Li, Lian; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin

    2016-07-01

    A one dimensional quantum-hydrodynamic/particle-in-cell (QHD/PIC) model is used to study the interaction process of an intense proton beam (injection density of 1017 cm-3) with a dense plasma (initial density of ~ 1021 cm-3), with the PIC method for simulating the beam particle dynamics and the QHD model for considering the quantum effects including the quantum statistical and quantum diffraction effects. By means of the QHD theory, the wake electron density and wakefields are calculated, while the proton beam density is calculated by the PIC method and compared to hydrodynamic results to justify that the PIC method is a more suitable way to simulate the beam particle dynamics. The calculation results show that the incident continuous proton beam when propagating in the plasma generates electron perturbations as well as wakefields oscillations with negative valleys and positive peaks where the proton beams are repelled by the positive wakefields and accelerated by the negative wakefields. Moreover, the quantum correction obviously hinders the electron perturbations as well as the wakefields. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the quantum effects in the interaction of a proton beam with cold dense plasmas, such as in the metal films. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405067, 11105057, 11275007)

  12. Particle beam therapy (hadrontherapy): basis for interest and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Orecchia, R; Zurlo, A; Loasses, A; Krengli, M; Tosi, G; Zurrida, S; Zucali, P; Veronesi, U

    1998-03-01

    The particle or hadron beams deployed in radiotherapy (protons, neutrons and helium, carbon, oxygen and neon ions) have physical and radiobiological characteristics which differ from those of conventional radiotherapy beams (photons) and which offer a number of theoretical advantages over conventional radiotherapy. After briefly describing the properties of hadron beams in comparison to photons, this review discusses the indications for hadrontherapy and analyses accumulated experience on the use of this modality to treat mainly neoplastic lesions, as published by the relatively few hadrontherapy centres operating around the world. The analysis indicates that for selected patients and tumours (particularly uveal melanomas and base of skull/spinal chordomas and chondrosarcomas), hadrontherapy produces greater disease-free survival. The advantages of hadrontherapy are most promisingly realised when used in conjunction with modern patient positioning, radiation delivery and focusing techniques (e.g. on-line imaging, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy) developed to improve the efficacy of photon therapy. Although the construction and running costs of hadrontherapy units are considerably greater than those of conventional facilities, a comprehensive analysis that considers all the costs, particularly those resulting from the failure of less effective conventional radiotherapy, might indicate that hadrontherapy could be cost effective. In conclusion, the growing interest in this form of treatment seems to be fully justified by the results obtained to date, although more efficacy and dosing studies are required.

  13. Experimental study of magnetically confined hollow electron beams in the Tevatron as collimators for intense high-energy hadron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable losses. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and tested at Fermilab for this purpose. It was installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses in the summer of 2010. We present the results of the first experimental tests of the hollow-beam collimation concept on 980-GeV antiproton bunches in the Tevatron.

  14. Dynamics of the off axis intense beam propagation in a spiral inflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of space charge dominated beam in a spiral inflector is discussed by developing equations of motion for centroid and beam envelope for the off axis beam propagation. Evolution of the beam centroid and beam envelope is studied as a function of the beam current for various input beam parameters. The transmission of beam through the inflector is also estimated as a function of the beam current for an on axis and off axis beam by tracking a large number of particles. Simulation studies show that shift of the centroid from the axis at the inflector entrance affects the centroid location at the exit of the inflector and causes reduction in the beam transmission. The centroid shift at the entrance in the horizontal plane (h plane) is more critical as it affects the centroid shift in the vertical plane (u plane) by a large amount near the inflector exit where the available aperture is small. The beam transmission is found to reduce with increase in the centroid shift as well as with the beam current.

  15. Device to color modulate a stationary light beam gives high intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantz, W. A.

    1966-01-01

    Signal controlled system color modulates a beam of light while also providing high intensity and a stationary beam, either collimated or focused. The color modulation acquired by the presented system can be compatible with any color film by employing color filters formed to provide a color wedge having a color distribution compatible with the films color sensitivity.

  16. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  17. Selected List of Low Energy Beam Transport Facilities for Light-Ion, High-Intensity Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L. R.

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents a list of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) facilities for light-ion, high-intensity accelerators. It was put together to facilitate comparisons with the PXIE LEBT design choices. A short discussion regarding the importance of the beam perveance in the choice of the transport scheme follows.

  18. High-flux low-divergence positron beam generation from ultra-intense laser irradiated a tapered hollow target

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian-Xun; Ma, Yan-Yun; Zhao, Jun; Yu, Tong-Pu Yang, Xiao-Hu; Gan, Long-Fei; Zhang, Guo-Bo; Yan, Jian-Feng; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Liu, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Yuan; Kawata, Shigeo

    2015-10-15

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we demonstrate high-flux dense positrons generation by irradiating an ultra-intense laser pulse onto a tapered hollow target. By using a laser with an intensity of 4 × 10{sup 23 }W/cm{sup 2}, it is shown that the Breit-Wheeler process dominates the positron production during the laser-target interaction and a positron beam with a total number >10{sup 15} is obtained, which is increased by five orders of magnitude than in the previous work at the same laser intensity. Due to the focusing effect of the transverse electric fields formed in the hollow cone wall, the divergence angle of the positron beam effectively decreases to ∼15° with an effective temperature of ∼674 MeV. When the laser intensity is doubled, both the positron flux (>10{sup 16}) and temperature (963 MeV) increase, while the divergence angle gets smaller (∼13°). The obtained high-flux low-divergence positron beam may have diverse applications in science, medicine, and engineering.

  19. A 3 Ghz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, R.; Braun, H.; Dehler, M.

    1995-12-31

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF) for new accelerator structures of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is to be equipped with a new RF gun containing a laser driven photocathode. The new 3 GHz gun with photocathode shall produce a bunch train of 48 electron bunches of 25 nC charge each with a bunch length of 8 - 15 ps fwhm. The new RF gun consists of 2{1/2} cells and accelerates the beam to an energy of 7 MeV with a peak field gradient Ez = 100 MV/m. The strong space charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches must be contained by radial and longitudinal RF focusing in the RF gun. Radial RF focusing is applied by a conical backplane around the photocathode in the first cell where the electrons have a low energy. Longitudinal RF focusing is obtained by varying the length of each of the three cells of the gun. The total electric charge of the bunch train exceeds 1{mu}C and causes strong beam loading to the RF structures so that the stored energy is reduced to half of the unloaded RF energy. The RF gun under construction is being optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating RF structure of 4 cells and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 2{1/2} cell gun. The scheme with two accelerating RF sections will provide a linear energy increase along the bunch suitable for further compression of the bunch length in a magnetic chicane.

  20. Spatial mapping of the biologic effectiveness of scanned particle beams: towards biologically optimized particle therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Fada; Bronk, Lawrence; Titt, Uwe; Lin, Steven H.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Kerr, Matthew D.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Dinh, Jeffrey; Sobieski, Mary; Stephan, Clifford; Peeler, Christopher R.; Taleei, Reza; Mohan, Radhe; Grosshans, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of particles used in radiation therapy, such as protons, have been well characterized, and their dose distributions are superior to photon-based treatments. However, proton therapy may also have inherent biologic advantages that have not been capitalized on. Unlike photon beams, the linear energy transfer (LET) and hence biologic effectiveness of particle beams varies along the beam path. Selective placement of areas of high effectiveness could enhance tumor cell kill and simultaneously spare normal tissues. However, previous methods for mapping spatial variations in biologic effectiveness are time-consuming and often yield inconsistent results with large uncertainties. Thus the data needed to accurately model relative biological effectiveness to guide novel treatment planning approaches are limited. We used Monte Carlo modeling and high-content automated clonogenic survival assays to spatially map the biologic effectiveness of scanned proton beams with high accuracy and throughput while minimizing biological uncertainties. We found that the relationship between cell kill, dose, and LET, is complex and non-unique. Measured biologic effects were substantially greater than in most previous reports, and non-linear surviving fraction response was observed even for the highest LET values. Extension of this approach could generate data needed to optimize proton therapy plans incorporating variable RBE. PMID:25984967

  1. The upgraded rf system for the AGS and high intensity proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.

    1995-05-01

    The AGS has been upgraded over the past three years to produce a record beam intensity of 6 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per pulse for the fixed-target physics program. The major elements of the upgrade are: the new 1.5 GeV Booster synchrotron, the main magnet power supply, a high frequency longitudinal dilution cavity, a feedback damper for transverse instabilities, a fast gamma transition jump system, and a new high-power rf system. The new rf system and its role in achieving the high intensity goal are the subjects of this report. The rf system is heavily beam loaded, with 7 Amps of rf current in the beam and a peak power of 0.75 MW delivered to the beam by ten cavities. As an example of the scale of beam loading, at one point in the acceleration cycle the cavities are operated at 1.5 kV/gap; whereas, were it not for the new power amplifiers, the beam-induced voltage on the cavities would be over 25 kV/gap. The upgraded rf system, comprising: new power amplifiers, wide band rf feedback, improved cavities, and new low-level beam control electronics, is described. Results of measurements with beam, which characterize the system`s performance, are presented. A typical high intensity acceleration cycle is described with emphasis on the key challenges of beam loading.

  2. Three-dimensional particle trajectories and waste beam losses in injection dump beam line of SNS accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The SNS ring injection dump beam line has been suffering high beam losses since its commissioning. In order to understand the mechanisms of the beam losses, we have performed 3D simulation studies of the beam line. The 3D models consist of three injection chicane dipoles and one injection dump septum magnet. 3D particle trajectories in the models are computed. We then extend particle optics calculations to the injection dump. Our studies have clearly shown some design and operation problems, that cause beam losses in the injection dump beam line. These include incorrect chicane dipole settings, incorrect position of a chicane dipole, too small aperture of injection dump septum, and inadequate focusing downstream. This paper reports our findings and the remedies to the injection beam loss problems.

  3. Particle-in-cell simulations of discharges with intense electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydorenko, Dmytro

    2013-09-01

    In many plasma devices, the plasma is bounded by walls which emit electrons due to secondary electron emission or thermionic emission. At low pressures, the electron mean free path exceeds the plasma dimensions, and the emitted electrons accelerated by the intense electric field of the near-wall sheath propagate through the plasma as an electron beam. The beam dynamics in a finite length system is different from theoretical predictions for infinite or periodic plasmas. This presentation gives a summary of numerical studies of beam-plasma interaction in Hall thrusters and dc discharges carried out with a particle-in-cell code. The code resolves one spatial coordinate and three velocity components, it is based on the direct implicit algorithm, the electron-to-ion mass ratio is realistic, numerous collisions between electrons and neutrals and the Coulomb collisions are included, code performance is enhanced with the help of MPI parallelization. The following effects are discussed: vanishing of the two-stream instability due to modification of the bulk electron velocity distribution, sheath instability in Hall thrusters, intermittency and multiple regimes of the two-stream instability in dc discharges. In collaboration with I. D. Kaganovich, Y. Raitses, A. V. Khrabrov (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ), P. L. G. Ventzek, L. Chen (Tokyo Electron America, Austin, TX), A. Smolyakov (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada).

  4. Emittance growth of an nonequilibrium intense electron beam in a transport channel with discrete focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    The author analyzes the emittance growth mechanisms for a continuous, intense electron beam in a focusing transport channel, over distances short enough that the beam does not reach equilibrium. The emittance grows from the effect of nonlinear forces arising from (1) current density nonuniformities, (2) energy variations leading to nonlinearities in the space-charge force even if the current density is uniform, (3) axial variations in the radial vector potential, (4) an axial velocity shear along the beam, and (5) an energy redistribution of the beam as the beam compresses or expands. The emittance growth is studied analytically and numerically for the cases of balanced flow, tight focusing, and slight beam scalloping, and is additionally studied numerically for an existing 6-MeV induction linear accelerator. Rules for minimizing the emittance along a beamline are established. Some emittance growth will always occur, both from current density nonuniformities that arise along the transport and from beam radius changes along the transport.

  5. Quantification of beam complexity in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plans

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Weiliang Cho, Sang Hyun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Excessive complexity in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans increases the dose uncertainty, prolongs the treatment time, and increases the susceptibility to changes in patient or target geometry. To date, the tools for quantitative assessment of IMRT beam complexity are still lacking. In this study, The authors have sought to develop metrics to characterize different aspects of beam complexity and investigate the beam complexity for IMRT plans of different disease sites. Methods: The authors evaluated the beam complexity scores for 65 step-and-shoot IMRT plans from three sites (prostate, head and neck, and spine) and 26 volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for the prostate. On the basis of the beam apertures and monitor unit weights of all segments, the authors calculated the mean aperture area, extent of aperture shape irregularity, and degree of beam modulation for each beam. Then the beam complexity values were averaged to obtain the complexity metrics of the IMRT plans. The authors studied the correlation between the beam complexity metrics and the quality assurance (QA) results. Finally, the effects of treatment planning parameters on beam complexity were studied. Results: The beam complexity scores were not uniform among the prostate IMRT beams from different gantry angles. The lateral beams had larger monitor units and smaller shape irregularity, while the anterior-posterior beams had larger modulation values. On average, the prostate IMRT plans had the smallest aperture irregularity, beam modulation, and normalized monitor units; the head and neck IMRT plans had large beam irregularity and beam modulation; and the spine stereotactic radiation therapy plans often had small beam apertures, which may have been associated with the relatively large discrepancies between planned and QA measured doses. There were weak correlations between the beam complexity scores and the measured dose errors. The prostate VMAT beams showed

  6. The lensing effect of trapped particles in a dual-beam optical trap.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Steffen; Fritsch, Anatol W; Kiessling, Tobias R; Stange, Roland; Käs, Josef A

    2015-02-23

    In dual-beam optical traps, two counterpropagating, divergent laser beams emitted from opposing laser fibers trap and manipulate dielectric particles. We investigate the lensing effect that trapped particles have on the beams. Our approach makes use of the intrinsic coupling of a beam to the opposing fiber after having passed the trapped particle. We present measurements of this coupling signal for PDMS particles, as well as a model for its dependence on size and refractive index of the trapped particle. As a more complex sample, the coupling of inhomogeneous biological cells is measured and discussed. We show that the lensing effect is well captured by the simple ray optics approximation. The measurements reveal intricate details, such as the thermal lens effect of the beam propagation in a dual-beam trap. For a particle of known size, the model further allows to infer its refractive index simply from the coupling signal.

  7. Intense electron-beam excitation of organic dye vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Marowsky, G.; Tittel, F.K.; Wilson, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies of electron-beam excitation of organic dye vapors of p-phenylene-bis-(5-phenyl-2-oxazole) POPOP and p-quaterphenyl have demonstrated short-duration high-gain and super-radiant laser behavior accompanied by severe fluorescence quenching due to dye fragmentation. This has been analyzed quantitatively by evaluation of the nitrogen fluorescence, originating from the complete breakdown of the POPOP structure.

  8. Average intensity and spreading of partially coherent model beams propagating in a turbulent biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuqian; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Qiu; Hu, Zhengda

    2016-11-01

    For Gaussian beams with three different partially coherent models, including Gaussian-Schell model (GSM), Laguerre-Gaussian Schell-model (LGSM) and Bessel-Gaussian Schell-model (BGSM) beams propagating through a biological turbulent tissue, the expression of the spatial coherence radius of a spherical wave propagating in a turbulent biological tissue, and the average intensity and beam spreading for GSM, LGSM and BGSM beams are derived based on the fractal model of power spectrum of refractive-index variations in biological tissue. Effects of partially coherent model and parameters of biological turbulence on such beams are studied in numerical simulations. Our results reveal that the spreading of GSM beams is smaller than LGSM and BGSM beams on the same conditions, and the beam with larger source coherence width has smaller beam spreading than that with smaller coherence width. The results are useful for any applications involved light beam propagation through tissues, especially the cases where the average intensity and spreading properties of the light should be taken into account to evaluate the system performance and investigations in the structures of biological tissue.

  9. Intensity Effects of the FACET Beam in the SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.-J.; Lipkowitz, N.; Sheppard, J.; White, G.R.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2012-07-03

    The beam for FACET (Facility for Advanced aCcelerator Experimental Tests) at SLAC requires an energy-time correlation ('chirp') along the linac, so it can be compressed in two chicanes, one at the midpoint in sector 10 and one W-shaped chicane just before the FACET experimental area. The induced correlation has the opposite sign to the typical used for BNS damping, and therefore any orbit variations away from the center kick the tail of the beam more than the head, causing a shear in the beam and emittance growth. Any dispersion created along the linac has similar effects due to the high (>1.2% rms) energy spread necessary for compression. The initial huge emittances could be reduced by a factor of 10, but were still bigger than expected by a factor of 2-3. Normalized emittance of 3 {micro}m-rad in Sector 2 blew up to 150 {micro}m-rad in Sector 11 but could be reduced to about 6-12 {micro}m-rad, for the vertical plane although the results were not very stable. Investigating possible root causes for this, we found locations where up to 10 mm dispersion was created along the linac, which were finally verified with strong steering and up to 7 mm settling of the linac accelerator at these locations.

  10. Intelligence-guided beam angle optimization in treatment planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2016-10-01

    An intelligence guided approach based on fuzzy inference system (FIS) was proposed to automate beam angle optimization in treatment planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The model of FIS is built on inference rules in describing the relationship between dose quality of IMRT plan and irradiated region of anatomical structure. Dose quality of IMRT plan is quantified by the difference between calculated and constraint doses of the anatomical structures in an IMRT plan. Irradiated region of anatomical structure is characterized by the metric, covered region of interest, which is the region of an anatomical structure under radiation field while beam's eye-view is conform to target volume. Initially, an IMRT plan is created with a single beam. The dose difference is calculated for the input of FIS and the output of FIS is obtained with processing of fuzzy inference. Later, a set of candidate beams is generated for replacing the current beam. This process continues until no candidate beams is found. Then the next beam is added to the IMRT plan and optimized in the same way as the previous beam. The new beam keeps adding to the IMRT plan until the allowed beam number is reached. Two spinal cases were investigated in this study. The preliminary results show that dose quality of IMRT plans achieved by this approach is better than those achieved by the default approach with equally spaced beam setting. It is effective to find the optimal beam combination of IMRT plan with the intelligence-guided approach.

  11. Scintillating screens sensitivity and resolution studies for low energy, low intensity beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Harasimowicz, Janusz; Welsch, Carsten P.; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Pappalardo, Alfio

    2010-10-15

    In order to investigate the limits of scintillating screens for beam profile monitoring in the ultra-low energy, ultra-low intensity regime, CsI:Tl, YAG:Ce, and a Tb glass-based scintillating fiber optic plate (SFOP) were tested. The screens response to 200 and 50 keV proton beams with intensities ranging from a few picoampere down to the subfemtoampere region was examined. In the following paper, the sensitivity and resolution studies are presented in detail for CsI:Tl and the SFOP, the two most sensitive screens. In addition, a possible use of scintillators for ultra-low energy antiproton beam monitoring is discussed.

  12. Chaotic dynamics in charged-particle beams: Possible analogs of galactic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Courtlandt L.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    During the last couple of years of his life, Henry Kandrup became intensely interested in using charged-particle beams as a tool for exploring the dynamics of evolving galaxies. He and I recognized that both galaxies and charged-particle beams can exhibit collisionless relaxation on surprisingly short time scales, and that this circumstance can be attributed to phase mixing of chaotic orbits. The chaos is often triggered by resonances caused by time dependence in the bulk potential, which acts almost identically for attractive gravitational forces as for repulsive electrostatic forces superposed on external focusing forces. Together we published several papers concerning evolving beams and galaxies, papers that relate to diverse topics such as the physics of chaotic mixing, the applicability of the Vlasov-Poisson formalism, and the production of diffuse halos. We also teamed with people from the University of Maryland to begin designing controlled experiments to be done at the University of Maryland Electron Ring. This paper highlights our collaborative findings as well as plans for future investigations that the findings have motivated.

  13. Charged Particle Therapy with Mini-Segmented Beams

    PubMed Central

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Eley, John G.; Rusek, Adam; Krishnan, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental attributes of proton therapy and carbon ion therapy is the ability of these charged particles to spare tissue distal to the targeted tumor. This significantly reduces normal tissue toxicity and has the potential to translate to a wider therapeutic index. Although, in general, particle therapy also reduces dose to the proximal tissues, particularly in the vicinity of the target, dose to the skin and to other very superficial tissues tends to be higher than that of megavoltage x-rays. The methods presented here, namely, “interleaved carbon minibeams” and “radiosurgery with arrays of proton and light ion minibeams,” both utilize beams segmented into arrays of parallel “minibeams” of about 0.3 mm incident-beam size. These minibeam arrays spare tissues, as demonstrated by synchrotron x-ray experiments. An additional feature of particle minibeams is their gradual broadening due to multiple Coulomb scattering as they penetrate tissues. In the case of interleaved carbon minibeams, which do not broaden much, two arrays of planar carbon minibeams that remain parallel at target depth, are aimed at the target from 90° angles and made to “interleave” at the target to produce a solid radiation field within the target. As a result, the surrounding tissues are exposed only to individual carbon minibeam arrays and are therefore spared. The method was used in four-directional geometry at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to ablate a 6.5-mm target in a rabbit brain at a single exposure with 40 Gy physical absorbed dose. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and histology 6-month later showed very focal target necrosis with nearly no damage to the surrounding brain. As for minibeams of protons and light ions, for which the minibeam broadening is substantial, measurements at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX, USA; and Monte Carlo simulations showed that the broadening minibeams will merge with their neighbors at a certain

  14. Electron Cloud Effects in Intense, Ion Beam Linacs Theory and Experimental Planning for HIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molvik, A. W.; Cohen, R. H.; Lund, S. M.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Lee, E. P.

    2002-05-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators for HIF will operate at high aperture-fill factors with high beam current and long pulses. This will lead to beam ions impacting walls: liberating gas molecules and secondary electrons. Theory and particle-in-cell simulations suggest that electrons, from ionization of residual and desorbed gas and secondary electrons from vacuum walls, will be radially trapped in the approximately 4 kV ion beam potential. Diagnostics are being developed tto measure the energy and flux of electrons and gas evolved from walls, and the net charge and gas density within magnetic quadrupoles, as well as their effect on the ion beam.

  15. Correction of linear-array lidar intensity data using an optimal beam shaping approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing; Yang, Xingyu; Zhang, Bingqing; Li, Fenfang

    2016-08-01

    The linear-array lidar has been recently developed and applied for its superiority of vertically non-scanning, large field of view, high sensitivity and high precision. The beam shaper is the key component for the linear-array detection. However, the traditional beam shaping approaches can hardly satisfy our requirement for obtaining unbiased and complete backscattered intensity data. The required beam distribution should roughly be oblate U-shaped rather than Gaussian or uniform. Thus, an optimal beam shaping approach is proposed in this paper. By employing a pair of conical lenses and a cylindrical lens behind the beam expander, the expanded Gaussian laser was shaped to a line-shaped beam whose intensity distribution is more consistent with the required distribution. To provide a better fit to the requirement, off-axis method is adopted. The design of the optimal beam shaping module is mathematically explained and the experimental verification of the module performance is also presented in this paper. The experimental results indicate that the optimal beam shaping approach can effectively correct the intensity image and provide ~30% gain of detection area over traditional approach, thus improving the imaging quality of linear-array lidar.

  16. Formation of hot image in an intense laser beam through a saturable nonlinear medium slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youwen; Ling, Xiaohui; Dai, Zhiping; Chen, Liezun; Lu, Shizhuan; You, Kaiming

    2016-11-01

    In high-power laser system such as Petawatt lasers, the laser beam can be intense enough to result in saturation of nonlinear refraction index of medium. We present an analytical and simulative investigation of hot image formation in an intense laser beam through a saturable nonlinear medium slab based on Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral and the standard split-step Fourier method. The analytical results are found in agreement with the simulative ones. It is shown that, hot images can still form in an intense laser beam through a saturable nonlinear medium slab, additionally, the saturable nonlinearity does not change the location of hot images, while may decrease the intensity of hot images, i.e., the intensity of hot images decreases with the saturation light intensity lowering, and can stop to increase with the intensity of the incident laser beam heightening due to saturation of nonlinearity. Moreover, variations of intensity of hot images with the obscuration type and the slab thickness are discussed.

  17. Core-halo limit and internal dynamics of high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, P. A. P.; Valette, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pichoff, N.; Uriot, D.

    2015-08-15

    The dynamics of high-intensity beams largely depends on their internal space charge forces. These forces are responsible of non-linear coupling, emittance growth, and halo generation. They contribute to shape the beam density profile. As a consequence, an analysis of this profile can be a precious indicator capable of revealing the internal dynamics of the beam. This paper recalls the precise core-halo limit determination proposed earlier, then studies its behavior through a wide range of beam profiles, and finally shows its relevance as an indicator of the limit separating the two space charge field regimes of the core and the halo.

  18. Density and potential measurements in an intense ion-beam-generated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, N.E.

    1982-05-01

    Neutral beams are created by intense large area ion beams which are neutralized in a gas cell. The interaction of the beam with the gas cell creates a plasma. Such a plasma is studied here. The basic plasma parameters, electron temperature, density, and plasma potential, are measured as a function of beam current and neutral gas pressure. These measurements are compared to a model based on the solution of Poisson's equation. Because of the cylindrical geometry the equation cannot be solved analytically. Details of the numerical method are presented.

  19. Second-order intensity-moment characteristics for broadband partially coherent flat-topped beams in atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haidan; Zhao, Daomu

    2010-01-18

    Based on the intensity moments and Wigner distribution function, the second-order moments for broadband partially coherent flat-topped (BPCFT) beams in atmospheric turbulence are studied. The beam width of BPCFT beams in atmospheric turbulence is larger than that in free space. The beam width of BPCFT beams in atmospheric turbulence is larger than that of broadband fully coherent flat-topped (BFCFT) beams in atmospheric turbulence. The broader the bandwidth is, the larger the beam width of BPCFT beams becomes. Similar conclusion can be obtained by analyzing the divergence angle and beam propagation factor of BPCFT beams. The beam width of BPCFT beams in atmospheric turbulence is less affected by the broad spectral bandwidth than that in free space. The beam width of BFCFT beams in atmospheric turbulence is less affected by the broad spectral bandwidth than that of BPCFT beams in atmospheric turbulence.

  20. Intense ion beam applications to magnetic confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sudan, R N

    1980-08-18

    The ion ring project objective is to trap a ring of high energy, axis-encircling ions in a magnetic mirror. The number of ring ions should be such as to produce deltaB/B on the ring axis of order 10%. The second experiment, LONGSHOT, is directed to producing a long pulse ion beam source so that the total number of protons required for an ion ring can be provided a lower diode power and, hence, at much less cost than that of 100 nsec pulsed power generators like the NRL GAMBLE II. A detailed report of the progress on IREX and LONGSHOT is given. (MOW)

  1. Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boseman, Adam J.

    This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.

  2. Iron free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S.M.; Halbach, K.

    1995-09-03

    The strength and astounding simplicity of certain permanent magnet materials allow a wide variety of simple, compact configurations of high field strength and quality multipole magnets. Here we analyze the important class of iron-free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics. The theory of conventional segmented multipole magnets formed from uniformly magnetized block magnets placed in regular arrays about a circular magnet aperture is reviewed. Practical multipole configurations resulting are presented that are capable of high and intermediate aperture field strengths. A new class of elliptical aperture magnets is presented within a model with continuously varying magnetization angle. Segmented versions of these magnets promise practical high field dipole and quadrupole magnets with an increased range of applicability.

  3. Status and plans for recoil separators for experiments with intense stable beams from ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seweryniak, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Argonne fragment mass analyzer (FMA) has been a very important component of the experimental program at the ATLAS facility for many years and is expected to be a viable instrument for experiments with more intense beams which will become available when the ATLAS intensity upgrade is completed. Several upgrades of FMA itself and of the FMA detector suite in preparation for high-intensity beams will be presented. To accommodate experiments with extremely low cross sections, such as studies of super-heavy nuclei, construction of the Argonne gas-filled analyzer (AGFA), which will be complementary to FMA, was proposed. The design considerations for AGFA will be discussed.

  4. Optimizing the emission, propagation, and focusing of an intense electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Pepitone, K. Gardelle, J. Modin, P.

    2015-05-14

    Intense electron beams can be used to study the dynamical response of materials under shocks in order to adjust the models developed for hydrodynamics simulations. We present in this paper a characterization of beams produced in a field emission diode coupled to the generator RKA at CEA/CESTA. Cherenkov emission, produced by the beam interacting in a fused silica disk, was observed by fast optical cameras to estimate beam homogeneity. GEANT4 simulations were performed to estimate the transfer function of the silica target and to optimize the anode foil. First, we chose the best cathode material available among the most common materials used in field emission systems. In addition, we found that by optimization of the anode thickness, we could improve the spatial homogeneity of the beam which is of prime importance for computing the interaction of the beam with materials. Next, we changed the beam fluence by increasing the beam current and by reducing the beam radius. Finally, we studied the propagation and focusing of the electron beam in low pressure gases and observed that we could use self-magnetic field focusing in order to increase beam fluence at the target location. The experimental results are in good agreement with PIC simulations.

  5. Electron beam ion sources for use in second generation synchrotrons for medical particle therapy.

    PubMed

    Zschornack, G; Ritter, E; Schmidt, M; Schwan, A

    2014-02-01

    Cyclotrons and first generation synchrotrons are the commonly applied accelerators in medical particle therapy nowadays. Next generation accelerators such as Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotrons (RCMS), direct drive accelerators, or dielectric wall accelerators have the potential to improve the existing accelerator techniques in this field. Innovative accelerator concepts for medical particle therapy can benefit from ion sources which meet their special requirements. In the present paper we report on measurements with a superconducting Electron Beam Ion Source, the Dresden EBIS-SC, under the aspect of application in combination with RCMS as a well proven technology. The measurements indicate that this ion source can offer significant advantages for medical particle therapy. We show that a superconducting EBIS can deliver ion pulses of medically relevant ions such as protons, C(4 +) and C(6 +) ions with intensities and frequencies required for RCMS [S. Peggs and T. Satogata, "A survey of Hadron therapy accelerator technology," in Proceedings of PAC07, BNL-79826- 2008-CP, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 2007; A. Garonna, U. Amaldi et al., "Cyclinac medical accelerators using pulsed C(6 +)/H2(+) ion sources," in Proceedings of EBIST 2010, Stockholm, Sweden, July 2010]. Ion extraction spectra as well as individual ion pulses have been measured. For example, we report on the generation of proton pulses with up to 3 × 10(9) protons per pulse and with frequencies of up to 1000 Hz at electron beam currents of 600 mA.

  6. Secondary particle tracks generated by ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    The Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) procedure is a powerful complementary tool to include the effect of low energy electrons and positrons in medical applications of radiation. In particular, for ion-beam cancer treatments provides a detailed description of the role of the secondary electrons abundantly generated around the Bragg peak as well as the possibility of using transmuted positron emitters (C11, O15) as a complement for ion-beam dosimetry. In this study we present interaction probability data derived from IAM-SCAR corrective factors for liquid environments. Using these data, single electron and positron tracks in liquid water and pyrimidine have been simulated providing information about energy deposition as well as the number and type of interactions taking place in any selected ``nanovolume'' of the irradiated area. In collaboration with Francisco Blanco, Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Antonio Mu noz, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas and Diogo Almeida, Filipe Ferreira da Silva, Paulo Lim ao-Vieira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Supported by the Spanish and Portuguese governments.

  7. Hyperenergetic manned aerospacecraft propelled by intense pulsed microwave power beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this research was to exploit wireless power transmission (microwave/millimeter)--to lower manned space transportation costs by two or three orders of magnitude. Concepts have been developed for lightweight, mass-producible, beam-propelled aerospacecraft called Lightcraft. The vehicles are designed for a 'mass-poor, energy-rich' (i.e. hyper-energentic flight infrastructure which utilizes remote microwave power stations to build an energy-beam highway to space. Although growth in laser power levels has lagged behind expectations, microwave and millimeter-wave source technology now exists for rapid scaling to the megawatt and gigawatt time-average power levels. The design exercise focused on the engine, structure, and receptive optics requirements for a 15 meter diameter, 5 person Earth- to-moon aerospacecraft. Key elements in the airbreathing accelerator propulsion system are: a) a 'flight-weight' 35GHz rectenna electric powerplant, b) microwave-induced 'Air Spike' and perimeter air-plasma generators, and c) MagnetoHydroDynamic-Fanjet engine with its superconducting magnets and external electrodes.

  8. Cathode Plasma Formation in High Intensity Electron Beam Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark; Kiefer, Mark; Oliver, Bryan; Bennett, Nichelle; Droemer, Darryl; Bernshtam, V.; Doron, R.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2013-10-01

    This talk will detail the experimental results and conclusions obtained for cathode plasma formation on the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (4-7.5 MeV) at Sandia National Laboratories. The SMP diode utilizes a hollowed metal cathode to produce high power (TW), focused electron beams (<3 mm diameter) which are used for flash x-ray radiography applications. Optical diagnostics include high speed (<10 ns) framing cameras, optical streak cameras, and spectroscopy. The cathode plasma in this high electric (MV/cm) and magnetic (>10 Tesla) field environment forms well-defined striations. These striations have been examined for a number of different cathode sizes, vacuum gap spacings, and diode voltages. Optical streak images have been taken to determine the time evolution of the plasma, and optical spectroscopy has been employed to determine its constituents as well as their densities and temperatures inferred from detailed time-dependent, collisional-radiative (CR) and radiation transport modelings. Comments will be made as to the overall effect of the cathode plasma in regards to the diode impedance and electron beam focusing. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Characterization of intense ion beam energy density and beam induced pressure on the target with acoustic diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, Yu. I.; Khailov, I. P.; Yu, Xiao

    2013-08-15

    We have developed the acoustic diagnostics based on a piezoelectric transducer for characterization of high-intensity pulsed ion beams. The diagnostics was tested using the TEMP-4M accelerator (150 ns, 250–300 kV). The beam is composed of C{sup +} ions (85%) and protons, the beam energy density is 0.5–5 J/cm{sup 2} (depending on diode geometry). A calibration dependence of the signal from a piezoelectric transducer on the ion beam energy density is obtained using thermal imaging diagnostics. It is shown that the acoustic diagnostics allows for measurement of the beam energy density in the range of 0.1–2 J/cm{sup 2}. The dependence of the beam generated pressure on the input energy density is also determined and compared with the data from literature. The developed acoustic diagnostics do not require sophisticated equipment and can be used for operational control of pulsed ion beam parameters with a repetition rate of 10{sup 3} pulses/s.

  10. Method and split cavity oscillator/modulator to generate pulsed particle beams and electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Clark, M.C.; Coleman, P.D.; Marder, B.M.

    1993-08-10

    A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.

  11. Method and split cavity oscillator/modulator to generate pulsed particle beams and electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Clark, M. Collins; Coleman, P. Dale; Marder, Barry M.

    1993-01-01

    A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.

  12. Mixing intensity modulated electron and photon beams: combining a steep dose fall-off at depth with sharp and depth-independent penumbras and flat beam profiles.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, E W; Heijmen, B J; Woudstra, E; Huizenga, H; Brahme, A

    1999-09-01

    For application in radiotherapy, intensity modulated high-energy electron and photon beams were mixed to create dose distributions that feature: (a) a steep dose fall-off at larger depths, similar to pure electron beams, (b) flat beam profiles and sharp and depth-independent beam penumbras, as in photon beams, and (c) a selectable skin dose that is lower than for pure electron beams. To determine the required electron and photon beam fluence profiles, an inverse treatment planning algorithm was used. Mixed beams were realized at a MM50 racetrack microtron (Scanditronix Medical AB, Sweden), and evaluated by the dose distributions measured in a water phantom. The multileaf collimator of the MM50 was used in a static mode to shape overlapping electron beam segments, and the dynamic multileaf collimation mode was used to realize the intensity modulated photon beam profiles. Examples of mixed beams were generated at electron energies of up to 40 MeV. The intensity modulated electron beam component consists of two overlapping concentric fields with optimized field sizes, yielding broad, fairly depth-independent overall beam penumbras. The matched intensity modulated photon beam component has high fluence peaks at the field edges to sharpen this penumbra. The combination of the electron and the photon beams yields dose distributions with the characteristics (a)-(c) mentioned above.

  13. Formation of High Charge State Heavy Ion Beams with intense Space Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.

    2011-03-01

    High charge-state heavy-ion beams are of interest and used for a number of accelerator applications. Some accelerators produce the beams downstream of the ion source by stripping bound electrons from the ions as they pass through a foil or gas. Heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF) would benefit from low-emittance, high current ion beams with charge state >1. For these accelerators, the desired dimensionless perveance upon extraction from the emitter is {approx}10{sup -3}, and the electrical current of the beam pulse is {approx}1 A. For accelerator applications where high charge state and very high current are desired, space charge effects present unique challenges. For example, in a stripper, the separation of charge states creates significant nonlinear space-charge forces that impact the beam brightness. We will report on the particle-in-cell simulation of the formation of such beams for HIF, using a thin stripper at low energy.

  14. Approaches to develop targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W. L.; Drake, D. M.; Wilson, M. T.; Walker, J. J.; Lenz, J. W.

    1999-06-10

    Approaches to develop targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been evaluated over the past five years. It is acknowledged that many desired physics objectives using RIBs can be met only by using production beams of energetic protons with currents up to 100 {mu}A. Such beams can be made available at future spallation neutron facilities. The production targets will require active cooling to control operational temperatures due to internal heating caused by the production beam. A target concept has been selected, and calculational analyses of the target concept have been performed to guide the design of a prototype target for an in-beam test of the actual thermal behavior. For this test, a high-power test facility is needed; fortunately, the beam currents required exist at the TRIUMF accelerator facility. An experimental proposal has been approved for such a test.

  15. Optical binding of particle pairs in retro-reflected beam geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damková, Jana; Chvátal, Lukáš; Brzobohatý, Oto; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Optical binding of polystyrene microparticle pairs in retro-reflected wide Gaussian beam, called "tractor beam", is studied experimentally and the results are compared with the numerical calculations based on the multiple-particle Mie scattering theory. To investigate the dynamics of optically bound particle pairs in three dimensions we employ holographic video microscopy technique. We show that the particle pair motion is strongly dependent on the relative distances of the particles and the switching between applying pushing and pulling force on particle pairs can be achieved only by changing their configuration even though the "tractor-beam" parameters remain unchanged.

  16. Phase-contrast tomography with low-intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.; Zawisky, M.; Dubus, F.; Bonse, U.

    2005-02-01

    In newly developed neutron phase tomography, wave properties of neutrons are exploited for the nondestructive testing of the internal structure of matter. We show how limitations due to small available intensities of present neutron sources can be overcome by using an advanced maximum-likelihood reconstruction algorithm. Unlike the standard filtered back-projection, the developed procedure gives reasonable results also when used on very noisy data or data consisting of only a few measured projections. This is demonstrated by means of simulations and also experimentally. The proposed method leads to considerably shorter measuring times and/or increased precision.

  17. Automated detection and analysis of particle beams in laser-plasma accelerator simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Geddes, C.G.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Bethel, E. Wes; Jacobsen, J.; Prabhat, ,; R.ubel, O.; Weber, G,; Hamann, B.

    2010-05-21

    Numerical simulations of laser-plasma wakefield (particle) accelerators model the acceleration of electrons trapped in plasma oscillations (wakes) left behind when an intense laser pulse propagates through the plasma. The goal of these simulations is to better understand the process involved in plasma wake generation and how electrons are trapped and accelerated by the wake. Understanding of such accelerators, and their development, offer high accelerating gradients, potentially reducing size and cost of new accelerators. One operating regime of interest is where a trapped subset of electrons loads the wake and forms an isolated group of accelerated particles with low spread in momentum and position, desirable characteristics for many applications. The electrons trapped in the wake may be accelerated to high energies, the plasma gradient in the wake reaching up to a gigaelectronvolt per centimeter. High-energy electron accelerators power intense X-ray radiation to terahertz sources, and are used in many applications including medical radiotherapy and imaging. To extract information from the simulation about the quality of the beam, a typical approach is to examine plots of the entire dataset, visually determining the adequate parameters necessary to select a subset of particles, which is then further analyzed. This procedure requires laborious examination of massive data sets over many time steps using several plots, a routine that is unfeasible for large data collections. Demand for automated analysis is growing along with the volume and size of simulations. Current 2D LWFA simulation datasets are typically between 1GB and 100GB in size, but simulations in 3D are of the order of TBs. The increase in the number of datasets and dataset sizes leads to a need for automatic routines to recognize particle patterns as particle bunches (beam of electrons) for subsequent analysis. Because of the growth in dataset size, the application of machine learning techniques for

  18. Mode--particle resonances during near-tangential neutral beam injection in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; White, R.B.; Morris, A.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Murphy, T.J.; Scott, S.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Coherent magnetohydrodynamic modes have been observed previously during neutral beam injection in the PDX tokamak (Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 50}, 891 (1983)) and they have now been seen in the TFTR tokamak (Phys. Fluids {bold 26}, 2958 (1983)). Periodic bursts of oscillations were detected with several plasma diagnostics, and Fokker--Planck calculations show that the populations of trapped particles in both tokamaks are sufficient to account for fishbone destabilization if a resonant interaction, between the mode and the beam ions, is assumed. Estimates of mode parameters are in reasonable agreement with the experiments, and they indicate that the fishbone mode may continue to affect the performance of intensely heated tokamaks.

  19. Modulation of spectral intensity, polarization and coherence of a stochastic electromagnetic beam.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaofeng; Cai, Yangjian

    2011-04-25

    Analytical formula for the cross-spectral density matrix of a stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam truncated by a circular phase aperture propagating in free space is derived with the help of a tensor method, which provides a reliable and fast way for studying the propagation and transformation of a truncated EGSM beam. Statistics properties, such as the spectral intensity, the degree of coherence, the degree of polarization and the polarization ellipse of a truncated EGSM beam in free space are studied numerically. The propagation factor of a truncated EGSM beam is also analyzed. Our numerical results show that we can modulate the spectral intensity, the polarization, the coherence and the propagation factor of an EGSM beam by a circular phase aperture. It is found that the phase aperture can be used to shape the beam profile of an EGSM beam and generate electromagnetic partially coherent dark hollow or flat-topped beam, which is useful in some applications, such as optical trapping, material processing, free-space optical communications.

  20. INJECTION ACCELERATION AND EXTRACTION OF HIGH INTENSITY PROTON BEAM FOR THE NEUTRINO FACILITY PROJECT AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N; Barton, D; Ganetis, G; Jain, A; Lee, Y; Marneris, I; Meng, W; Raparia, D; Roser, T; Ruggiero, A; Tuozzolo, J; Wanderer, P; Weng, W

    2003-05-12

    The proposed ''neutrino-production'' project [1.2] to be built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) requires that the neutrino-production target be bombarded by a high intensity proton beam-pulse of {approx} 90 x 10{sup 12} protons of 28 GeV in energy and at a rate of 2.5 Hz, resulting in a 1 MW power of proton beam deposited on the target for the production of the neutrinos. In this paper we investigate the possibility of producing this high intensity proton beam, using as the main accelerator the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The following aspects of the project are reported in this paper: (a) The beam injection into the AGS synchrotron of 1.2 GeV H{sup -} beam produced by a super-conducting LINAC[3]; (b) The effect of the eddy currents induced on the vacuum chamber of the circulating beam during the ''ramping'' of the main magnets of the AGS; (c) The method of the beam extraction from the AGS and the optics of the 28 GeV beam extracted from the AGS.

  1. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell performance degradation at different synchrotron beam intensities.

    PubMed

    Eller, Jens; Büchi, Felix N

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of cell performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under monochromatic X-ray irradiation at 13.5 keV was studied in galvanostatic and potentiostatic operation modes in a through-plane imaging direction over a range of two orders of magnitude beam intensity at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The performance degradation was found to be a function of X-ray dose and independent of beam intensity, whereas the degradation rate correlates with beam intensity. The cell performance was more sensitive to X-ray irradiation at higher temperature and gas feed humidity. High-frequency resistance measurements and the analysis of product water allow conclusions to be drawn on the dominating degradation processes, namely change of hydrophobicity of the electrode and sulfate contamination of the electrocatalyst.

  2. Use of incomplete energy recovery for the energy compression of large energy spread charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Benson, Stephen V.

    2007-01-23

    A method of energy recovery for RF-base linear charged particle accelerators that allows energy recovery without large relative momentum spread of the particle beam involving first accelerating a waveform particle beam having a crest and a centroid with an injection energy E.sub.o with the centroid of the particle beam at a phase offset f.sub.o from the crest of the accelerating waveform to an energy E.sub.full and then recovering the beam energy centroid a phase f.sub.o+Df relative to the crest of the waveform particle beam such that (E.sub.full-E.sub.o)(1+cos(f.sub.o+Df))>dE/2 wherein dE=the full energy spread, dE/2=the full energy half spread and Df=the wave form phase distance.

  3. The SPIRAL2 Project and experiments with high-intensity rare isotope beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewitowicz, Marek

    2011-09-01

    The SPIRAL2 facility at GANIL, which entered recently in the construction phase consists of a new superconducting linear accelerator delivering high intensity, up to 40 MeV, light (proton, deuteron, 3-4He) beams as well as a large variety of 14.5 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion beams and the associated Rare Isotope Beam facility. Using a dedicated converter and the 5 mA deuteron beam, a neutron-induced fission rate is expected to approach 1014 fissions/s for high-density UCx target. The energies of accelerated RIBs will reach 5-10 MeV/nucleon for fission fragments and 20 MeV/nucleon for neutron-deficient nuclei. The physics case of SPIRAL2 is based on the use of high intensity RIBs & stable-ion beams and on possibilities to perform several experiments simultaneously. A use of these beams at a new low-energy ISOL facility (DESIR) and their acceleration to several MeV/nucleon will open new possibilities in nuclear structure physics, nuclear astrophysics and reaction dynamics studies. The high intensities (up to 1011pps) and a high cost of RIBs impose a use of the most efficient and innovative detection systems like ACTAR, FAZIA, GASPARD, HELIOS, NEDA, PARIS and a new separator/spectrometer S3.

  4. Intial characterization fo a commerical electron gun for profiling high intensity proton beams in Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thangaraj, J.C.T.; Zhang, D.; Blokland, W.; /Oak Ridge

    2011-03-01

    Measuring the profile of a high-intensity proton beam is problematic in that traditional invasive techniques such as flying wires don't survive the encounter with the beam. One alternative is the use of an electron beam as a probe of the charge distribution in the proton beam as was done at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL. Here we present an initial characterization of the beam from a commercial electron gun from Kimball Physics, intended for use in the Fermilab Main Injector for Project X. Despite the fact that the horizontal spot size is abnormally large in the high current measurement, the spot size at the downstream cross X2 is reasonable in the context of measuring the deflection. A thin foil OTR would help with the beam heating and should be tried. The next phase of this experiment is to simulate the proton beam with a pair of current carrying wires and to design and construct a fast deflector. Some of the remaining issues to be considered include determining the minimum beam current needed to observe the deflected beam for a given sweep time and the impact of longitudinal variations in the charge density of the bunch.

  5. Energy exchange between a laser beam and charged particles using inverse transition radiation and method for its use

    DOEpatents

    Kimura, Wayne D.; Romea, Richard D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for exchanging energy between relativistic charged particles and laser radiation using inverse diffraction radiation or inverse transition radiation. The beam of laser light is directed onto a particle beam by means of two optical elements which have apertures or foils through which the particle beam passes. The two apertures or foils are spaced by a predetermined distance of separation and the angle of interaction between the laser beam and the particle beam is set at a specific angle. The separation and angle are a function of the wavelength of the laser light and the relativistic energy of the particle beam. In a diffraction embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the diffraction effect due to the apertures in the optical elements. In a transition embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the transition effect due to pieces of foil placed in the particle beam path.

  6. Optimized treatment planning using intensity and energy modulated proton and very-high energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeboah, Collins

    2002-09-01

    Intensity and energy modulated radiotherapy dose planning with protons and very-high energy (50--250 MeV) electron beams has been investigated. A general-purpose inverse treatment planning (ITP) system that can be applied to any combination of proton, electron and photon radiation modalities in therapy has been developed. The new ITP program uses a very fast proton dose calculation engine and employs one of the most efficient optimization algorithms currently available. First, the ITP program was employed to investigate intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) dose optimization for prostate cancer. The second application was to evaluate the potential of intensity-modulated very-high energy electron therapy (VHEET) for dose conformation. For an active proton beam delivery system the required energy resolution to reasonably implement energy modulation was found to be a function of the incident beams' energy spread and became coarser with increasing energy spread. For passive proton beam delivery systems the selection of the required depth resolution for inverse planning may not be critical as long as the depth resolution chosen is at least equal to FWHM/2 of the primary beam Bragg peak. In the study of the number of beam ports selected for IMPT treatment of the prostate, it was found that a maximum of three to four beams is required. Using proton beams for inverse planning of the prostate instead of photon beams gave the same or better target coverage while reducing the sensitive structure dose and normal tissue integral dose by up to 30% and 28% of the prescribed target dose, respectively. In evaluating the potential of VHEET beams for dose conformation, it was found that electron energies greater than 100 MeV are preferable for VHEET treatment of the prostate and that implementation of energy modulation in addition to intensity modulation has only a modest effect on the final dose distribution. VHEET treatment employing approximately nine beams was sufficient to

  7. ARTICLES: Propagation of an intensity-modulated laser beam through a pulsed CO2 amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, S. V.; Yur'ev, M. S.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study was made (by a self-consistent solution of the equations of vibrational kinetics, hydrodynamics, and quasioptics) of the influence of self-interaction of laser radiation on the transmission of a beam through a CO2 amplifier. It was found that for times exceeding the time for collisional decay of the upper active level the radiation wavefront becomes unstable in the presence of small-scale perturbations of the transverse structure of the beam. It was shown that the harmful influence of the self-interaction on the divergence can be weakened by raising the intensity of the incident beam and the gain of the amplifier.

  8. Polarization and intensity correlations in stochastic electromagnetic beams upon interaction with devices of polarization optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacks, H. C.; Korotkova, O.

    2011-05-01

    Based on the recently formulated unified theory of coherence and polarization of light, we explore the behavior of the intensity-intensity correlations and the auxiliary quantity called the degree of cross-polarization in stochastic electromagnetic beams upon their passage through the devices of polarization optics. In particular, the effects of deterministic devices (such as polarizers, absorbers, compensators, and rotators) as well as of random devices (such as spatial light modulators) on passing beams are investigated. Our results may find applications in polarimetric communications, imaging and sensing.

  9. System for obtaining smooth laser beams where intensity variations are reduced by spectral dispersion of the laser light (SSD)

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, Stanley; Kessler, Terrance J.; Short, Robert W.; Craxton, Stephen; Letzring, Samuel A.; Soures, John

    1991-01-01

    In an SSD (smoothing by spectral dispersion) system which reduces the time-averaged spatial variations in intensity of the laser light to provide uniform illumination of a laser fusion target, an electro-optic phase modulator through which a laser beam passes produces a broadband output beam by imposing a frequency modulated bandwidth on the laser beam. A grating provides spatial and angular spectral dispersion of the beam. Due to the phase modulation, the frequencies ("colors") cycle across the beam. The dispersed beam may be amplified and frequency converted (e.g., tripled) in a plurality of beam lines. A distributed phase plate (DPP) in each line is irradiated by the spectrally dispersed beam and the beam is focused on the target where a smooth (uniform intensity) pattern is produced. The color cycling enhances smoothing and the use of a frequency modulated laser pulse prevents the formation of high intensity spikes which could damage the laser medium in the power amplifiers.

  10. Computer-assisted selection of coplanar beam orientations in intensity-modulated radiation therapy*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugachev, A.; Xing, L.

    2001-09-01

    In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the incident beam orientations are often determined by a trial and error search. The conventional beam's-eye view (BEV) tool becomes less helpful in IMRT because it is frequently required that beams go through organs at risk (OARs) in order to achieve a compromise between the dosimetric objectives of the planning target volume (PTV) and the OARs. In this paper, we report a beam's-eye view dosimetrics (BEVD) technique to assist in the selection of beam orientations in IMRT. In our method, each beam portal is divided into a grid of beamlets. A score function is introduced to measure the `goodness' of each beamlet at a given gantry angle. The score is determined by the maximum PTV dose deliverable by the beamlet without exceeding the tolerance doses of the OARs and normal tissue located in the path of the beamlet. The overall score of the gantry angle is given by a sum of the scores of all beamlets. For a given patient, the score function is evaluated for each possible beam orientation. The directions with the highest scores are then selected as the candidates for beam placement. This procedure is similar to the BEV approach used in conventional radiation therapy, except that the evaluation by a human is replaced by a score function to take into account the intensity modulation. This technique allows one to select beam orientations without the excessive computing overhead of computer optimization of beam orientation. It also provides useful insight into the problem of selection of beam orientation and is especially valuable for complicated cases where the PTV is surrounded by several sensitive structures and where it is difficult to select a set of `good' beam orientations. Several two-dimensional (2D) model cases were used to test the proposed technique. The plans obtained using the BEVD-selected beam orientations were compared with the plans obtained using equiangular spaced beams. For all the model cases investigated

  11. Lagrangian Formulation of Relativistic Particle Average Motion in a Laser Field of Arbitrary Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch; G.M. Fraiman

    2003-02-06

    The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.

  12. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  13. Toward higher order particle simulation of space-charge-dominated beams

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A., LLNL

    1998-01-12

    The intense particle beams to be used as drivers for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion exhibit dynamics which are dominated by space-charge (abbreviated s-c) forces, rather than by thermal pressure (as in most traditional accelerator applications). Such beams are non-neutral plasmas, and the particle-in-cell technique (with the addition of detailed models for the externally applied fields and the domain geometry) has proven effective in their study. Typically, the applied focusing, bending, and accelerating fields vary rapidly with axial position, while the s-c fields (which are comparable in strength to the applied fields) vary smoothly; it is desirable to avoid using many steps to resolve the applied field variations while still computing accurate orbits. We are exploring high-order particle advance methods and other techniques to enhance the efficiency of these simulations. The earlier stages of this work included initial studies of: sub-cycling of the particle advance relative to the field solution; higher-order time-advance algorithms; force-averaging by integration along approximate orbits; and orbit- averaging. In this paper we describe further progress: (1) development of prescriptions for ``smooth`` cutoffs of tabulated fringe-field data so as to preserve the convergence of a high-order advance, studied using the realistic-profile model problem described in (2) for a high order advance and the model problem, comparison of both ``true`` and ``approximate`` (old-data, non-symplectic) every-substep s-c force application to periodic (``operator-split``) s-c force application; and (3) 2-d PIC (WARPxy code) convergence studies of the Candy-Rozmus (C-R) explicit fourth-order symplectic integrator using both ``true`` (every-substep) s-c and operator-split s-c, and of the leapfrog mover, modeling a transport line with sharp-edged fields.

  14. Ion beam surface treatment: A new technique for thermally modifying surfaces using intense, pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, R.W.; Buchheit, R.G.; Neau, E.L.

    1995-08-01

    The emerging capability to produce high average power (10--300 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2{minus}2 MeV energies is enabling us to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed ({le}500 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 1--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy in a thin surface layer allows melft of the layer with relatively small energies (1--10J/cm2) and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal conduction into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (109 K/sec) are sufficient to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nanocrystalline and metastable phases). Results from initial experiments confirm surface hardening, amorphous layer and nanocrystalline grain size formation, corrosion resistance in stainless steel and aluminum, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning and oxide layer removal as well as surface ablation and redeposition. These results follow other encouraging results obtained previously in Russia using single pulse ion beam systems. Potential commercialization of this surface treatment capability is made possible by the combination of two new technologies, a new repetitive high energy pulsed power capability (0.2{minus}2MV, 25--50 kA, 60 ns, 120 Hz) developed at SNL, and a new repetitive ion beam system developed at Cornell University.

  15. Scattering of a Tightly Focused Beam by an Optically Trapped Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    Near-forward scattering of an optically trapped 5 m radius polystyrene latex sphere by the trapping beam was examined both theoretically and experimentally. Since the trapping beam is tightly focused, the beam fields superpose and interfere with the scattered fields in the forward hemisphere. The observed light intensity consists of a series of concentric bright and dark fringes centered about the forward scattering direction. Both the number of fringes and their contrast depend on the position of the trapping beam focal waist with respect to the sphere. The fringes are caused by diffraction due to the truncation of the tail of the trapping beam as the beam is transmitted through the sphere.

  16. Evaluation of intensity based beam-shaping method with Rib-phantom HIFU sonications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillander, Matti; Köhler, Max; Koskela, Julius; Ylihautala, Mika

    2012-11-01

    The relation between rib bone heating during HIFU therapy and incident intensity on the bone surface was examined using an experimental setup and simulations with ray-tracer. The relation was found to be linear yet the data had large variance. The result was successfully applied to an intensity-based beam-shaping algorithm, which was fast enough for online therapy planning, and used to protect the ribs from overheating during intercostal sonications to a HIFU phantom containing two porcine rib bones.

  17. Guiding and focusing of fast electron beams produced by ultra-intense laser pulse using a double cone funnel target

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wen-shuai; Cai, Hong-bo; Zhu, Shao-ping

    2015-10-15

    A novel double cone funnel target design aiming at efficiently guiding and focusing fast electron beams produced in high intensity (>10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions is investigated via two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The forward-going fast electron beams are shown to be directed and focused to a smaller size in comparison with the incident laser spot size. This plasma funnel attached on the cone target guides and focuses electrons in a manner akin to the control of liquid by a plastic funnel. Such device has the potential to add substantial design flexibility and prevent inefficiencies for important applications such as fast ignition. Two reasons account for the collimation of fast electron beams. First, the sheath electric fields and quasistatic magnetic fields inside the vacuum gap of the double cone provide confinement of the fast electrons in the laser-plasma interaction region. Second, the interface magnetic fields inside the beam collimator further guide and focus the fast electrons during the transport. The application of this technique to cone-guided fast ignition is considered, and it is shown that it can enhance the laser energy deposition in the compressed fuel plasma by a factor of 2 in comparison with the single cone target case.

  18. Ion Beam Collimation For Improved Resolution In Associated Particle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sy, Amy; Ji, Qing

    2011-06-01

    Beam spot size on target for a Penning ion source has been measured under different source operating pressures as a function of the extraction channel length and beam energy. A beam halo/core structure was observed for ion extraction at low extraction voltages, and was greatly reduced at higher beam energy. Collimation through use of longer extraction channels results in reduced ion current on target; the resultant reduction in neutron yield for an API system driven by such an ion source can be compensated for by use of even higher beam energies.

  19. Intense beams from gases generated by a permanent magnet ECR ion source at PKUa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H. T.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Yan, S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, Z. X.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2012-02-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is designed for the production of high-current ion beams of various gaseous elements. At the Peking University (PKU), the primary study is focused on developing suitable permanent magnet ECR ion sources (PMECRs) for separated function radio frequency quadrupole (SFRFQ) accelerator and for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility. Recently, other kinds of high-intensity ion beams are required for new acceleration structure demonstration, simulation of fusion reactor material irradiation, aviation bearing modification, and other applications. So we expanded the ion beam category from O+, H+, and D+ to N+, Ar+, and He+. Up to now, about 120 mA of H+, 83 mA of D+, 50 mA of O+, 63 mA of N+, 70 mA of Ar+, and 65 mA of He+ extracted at 50 kV through a ϕ 6 mm aperture were produced by the PMECRs at PKU. Their rms emittances are less than 0.2 π mm mrad. Tungsten samples were irradiated by H+ or He+ beam extracted from this ion source and H/He holes and bubbles have been observed on the samples. A method to produce a high intensity H/He mixed beam to study synergistic effect is developed for nuclear material irradiation. To design a He+ beam injector for coupled radio frequency quadruple and SFRFQ cavity, He+ beam transmission experiments were carried out on PKU low energy beam transport test bench and the transmission was less than 50%. It indicated that some electrode modifications must be done to decrease the divergence of He+ beam.

  20. Intense beams from gases generated by a permanent magnet ECR ion source at PKU

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Yan, S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, Z. X.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2012-02-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is designed for the production of high-current ion beams of various gaseous elements. At the Peking University (PKU), the primary study is focused on developing suitable permanent magnet ECR ion sources (PMECRs) for separated function radio frequency quadrupole (SFRFQ) accelerator and for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility. Recently, other kinds of high-intensity ion beams are required for new acceleration structure demonstration, simulation of fusion reactor material irradiation, aviation bearing modification, and other applications. So we expanded the ion beam category from O{sup +}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +} to N{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and He{sup +}. Up to now, about 120 mA of H{sup +}, 83 mA of D{sup +}, 50 mA of O{sup +}, 63 mA of N{sup +}, 70 mA of Ar{sup +}, and 65 mA of He{sup +} extracted at 50 kV through a {phi} 6 mm aperture were produced by the PMECRs at PKU. Their rms emittances are less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. Tungsten samples were irradiated by H{sup +} or He{sup +} beam extracted from this ion source and H/He holes and bubbles have been observed on the samples. A method to produce a high intensity H/He mixed beam to study synergistic effect is developed for nuclear material irradiation. To design a He{sup +} beam injector for coupled radio frequency quadruple and SFRFQ cavity, He{sup +} beam transmission experiments were carried out on PKU low energy beam transport test bench and the transmission was less than 50%. It indicated that some electrode modifications must be done to decrease the divergence of He{sup +} beam.

  1. Cerenkov counter design for a high energy, high intensity secondary beam

    SciTech Connect

    Borcherding, F.O.

    1986-04-01

    A cerenkov counter design is given for operation in a 500 GeV/c secondary beam with 10/sup 9/ to 10/sup 11/ particles per 1 millisecond spill. The design allows the fractions of pions, kaons and protons to be determined. In particular the fraction of kaons should be measured with a relative accuracy of a few percent.

  2. Beam Dynamics in an Electron Lens with the Warp Particle-in-cell Code

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, Giulio; Moens, Vince; Redaelli, Stefano

    2014-07-01

    Electron lenses are a mature technique for beam manipulation in colliders and storage rings. In an electron lens, a pulsed, magnetically confined electron beam with a given current-density profile interacts with the circulating beam to obtain the desired effect. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for beam-beam compensation, for abort-gap clearing, and for halo scraping. They will be used in RHIC at BNL for head-on beam-beam compensation, and their application to the Large Hadron Collider for halo control is under development. At Fermilab, electron lenses will be implemented as lattice elements for nonlinear integrable optics. The design of electron lenses requires tools to calculate the kicks and wakefields experienced by the circulating beam. We use the Warp particle-in-cell code to study generation, transport, and evolution of the electron beam. For the first time, a fully 3-dimensional code is used for this purpose.

  3. Kinetic description of intense nonneutral beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing field based on the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Chen, C.

    1997-08-01

    A kinetic description of intense nonneutral beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing field B{sup sol}({rvec x}) is developed. The analysis is carried out for a thin beam with characteristic beam radius r{sub b} {much_lt} S, and directed axial momentum {gamma}{sub b}m{beta}{sub b}c (in the z-direction) large compared with the transverse momentum and axial momentum spread of the beam particles. Making use of the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations for general distribution function f{sub b}({rvec x},{rvec p},t) and self-consistent electrostatic field consistent with the thin-beam approximation, the kinetic model is used to investigate detailed beam equilibrium properties for a variety of distribution functions. Examples are presented both for the case of a uniform solenoidal focusing field B{sub z}(z) = B{sub 0} = const. and for the case of a periodic solenoidal focusing field B{sub z}(z + S) = B{sub z}(z). The nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations are simplified in the thin-beam approximation, and an alternative Hamiltonian formulation is developed that is particularly well-suited to intense beam propagation in periodic focusing systems. Based on the present analysis, the Vlasov-Maxwell description of intense nonneutral beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing field {rvec B}{sup sol}({rvec x}) is found to be remarkably tractable and rich in physics content. The Vlasov-Maxwell formalism developed here can be extended in a straightforward manner to investigate detailed stability behavior for perturbations about specific choices of beam equilibria.

  4. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  5. Michigan state upgrade to produce intense radioactive ion beams by fragmentation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lubkin, G.B.

    1997-05-01

    This article describes the planned upgrading of accelerator facilities to produce intense radioactive ion beams, by a fragmentation technique, for experimental simulation of nucleosynthesis in novas and supernovas. (AIP) {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.} {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital American Institute of Physics}

  6. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY...

  11. Commissioning the new high power rf system for the AGS with high intensity beam

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Deng, D.P; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Otis, A.; Sanders, R.T.; Zaltsman, A.

    1994-08-01

    A new high power rf system has been installed in the AGS in order to raise the beam loading limit to beyond 6 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per pulse. The old system was limited to 2.2 {times} 10{sup l3} ppp by: available real power, multi-loop instability, and transient beam loading during batch filling from the Booster. The key components of the new system are: new power amplifiers in the tunnel using the Thomson-CSF TH573 300kW tetrode, rf feedback around the power stage, and reduction of the 10 cavities` R/Q by 1.8 by additional gap capacitors. Commissioning of the new rf system with high intensity beam is described. The intensity goal for the 1994 running period is 4 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp. To date, 3.7 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp has been achieved.

  12. Thermomagnetic recording and magneto-optic playback system having constant intensity laser beam control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Guisinger, J. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is developed for maintaining the intensity of a laser beam at a constant level in a thermomagnetic recording and magneto-optic playback system in which an isotropic film is heated along a continuous path by the laser beam for recording. As each successive area of the path is heated locally to the vicinity of its Curie point in the presence of a controlled magnetic field, a magneto-optic density is produced proportional to the amplitude of the controlled magnetic field. To play back the recorded signal, the intensity of the laser beam is reduced and a Faraday or Kerr effect analyzer is used, with a photodetector, as a transducer for producing an output signal.

  13. Calculation of synchrotron radiation from high intensity electron beam at eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Y.; Chubar, O.; Litvinenko, V.

    2012-05-20

    The Electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (eRHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab is an upgrade project for the existing RHIC. A 30 GeV energy recovery linac (ERL) will provide a high charge and high quality electron beam to collide with proton and ion beams. This will improve the luminosity by at least 2 orders of magnitude. The synchrotron radiation (SR) from the bending magnets and strong quadrupoles for such an intense beam could be penetrating the vacuum chamber and producing hazards to electronic devices and undesired background for detectors. In this paper, we calculate the SR spectral intensity, power density distributions and heat load on the chamber wall. We suggest the wall thickness required to stop the SR and estimate spectral characteristics of the residual and scattered background radiation outside the chamber.

  14. Particle swarm optimizer for weighting factor selection in intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Liyuan; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Baosheng; Gui, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    In inverse treatment planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the objective function is typically the sum of the weighted sub-scores, where the weights indicate the importance of the sub-scores. To obtain a high-quality treatment plan, the planner manually adjusts the objective weights using a trial-and-error procedure until an acceptable plan is reached. In this work, a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) method which can adjust the weighting factors automatically was investigated to overcome the requirement of manual adjustment, thereby reducing the workload of the human planner and contributing to the development of a fully automated planning process. The proposed optimization method consists of three steps. (i) First, a swarm of weighting factors (i.e., particles) is initialized randomly in the search space, where each particle corresponds to a global objective function. (ii) Then, a plan optimization solver is employed to obtain the optimal solution for each particle, and the values of the evaluation functions used to determine the particle's location and the population global location for the PSO are calculated based on these results. (iii) Next, the weighting factors are updated based on the particle's location and the population global location. Step (ii) is performed alternately with step (iii) until the termination condition is reached. In this method, the evaluation function is a combination of several key points on the dose volume histograms. Furthermore, a perturbation strategy - the crossover and mutation operator hybrid approach - is employed to enhance the population diversity, and two arguments are applied to the evaluation function to improve the flexibility of the algorithm. In this study, the proposed method was used to develop IMRT treatment plans involving five unequally spaced 6MV photon beams for 10 prostate cancer cases. The proposed optimization algorithm yielded high-quality plans for all of the cases, without human

  15. High intensity single bunch operation with heavy periodic transient beam loading in wide band rf cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Hotchi, Hideaki; Schnase, Alexander; Yoshii, Masahito; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ohmori, Chihiro; Nomura, Masahiro; Toda, Makoto; Shimada, Taihei; Hasegawa, Katsushi; Hara, Keigo

    2015-09-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) was originally designed to accelerate two high intensity bunches, while some of neutron experiments in the materials and life science experimental facility and a muon experiment using main ring beams require a single bunch operation mode, in which one of the two rf buckets is filled and the other is empty. The beam intensity in the single bunch operation has been limited by longitudinal beam losses due to the rf bucket distortions by the wake voltage of the odd harmonics (h =1 ,3 ,5 ) in the wide band magnetic alloy cavities. We installed an additional rf feedforward system to compensate the wake voltages of the odd harmonics (h =1 ,3 ,5 ). The additional system has a similar structure as the existing feedforward system for the even harmonics (h =2 ,4 ,6 ). We describe the function of the feedforward system for the odd harmonics, the commissioning methodology, and the commissioning results. The longitudinal beam losses during the single bunch acceleration disappeared with feedforward for the odd harmonics. We also confirmed that the beam quality in the single bunch acceleration are similar to that of the normal operation with two bunches. Thus, high intensity single bunch acceleration at the intensity of 2.3 ×1013 protons per bunch has been achieved in the J-PARC RCS. This article is a follow-up of our previous article, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14, 051004 (2011). The feedforward system extension for single bunch operation was successful.

  16. Modulation of lens cell adhesion molecules by particle beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, M. P.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; Chou, W.; Lockett, S. J.; Blakely, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins which anchor cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but whose functions also include signal transduction, differentiation, and apoptosis. We are testing a hypothesis that particle radiations modulate CAM expression and this contributes to radiation-induced lens opacification. We observed dose-dependent changes in the expression of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 in exponentially-growing and confluent cells of a differentiating human lens epithelial cell model after exposure to particle beams. Human lens epithelial (HLE) cells, less than 10 passages after their initial culture from fetal tissue, were grown on bovine corneal endothelial cell-derived ECM in medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum and supplemented with 5 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). Multiple cell populations at three different stages of differentiation were prepared for experiment: cells in exponential growth, and cells at 5 and 10 days post-confluence. The differentiation status of cells was characterized morphologically by digital image analysis, and biochemically by Western blotting using lens epithelial and fiber cell-specific markers. Cultures were irradiated with single doses (4, 8 or 12 Gy) of 55 MeV protons and, along with unirradiated control samples, were fixed using -20 degrees C methanol at 6 hours after exposure. Replicate experiments and similar experiments with helium ions are in progress. The intracellular localization of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 was detected by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies specific for each CAM. Cells known to express each CAM were also processed as positive controls. Both exponentially-growing and confluent, differentiating cells demonstrated a dramatic proton-dose-dependent modulation (upregulation for exponential cells, downregulation for confluent cells) and a change in the intracellular distribution of the beta 1-integrin, compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast

  17. Enhanced proton beam collimation in the ultra-intense short pulse regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. S.; Dover, N. P.; Borghesi, M.; Brenner, C. M.; Cameron, F. H.; Carroll, D. C.; Foster, P. S.; Gallegos, P.; Gregori, G.; McKenna, P.; Murphy, C. D.; Najmudin, Z.; Palmer, C. A. J.; Prasad, R.; Romagnani, L.; Quinn, K. E.; Schreiber, J.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Tresca, O.; Zepf, M.; Neely, D.

    2014-08-01

    The collimation of proton beams accelerated during ultra-intense laser irradiation of thin aluminum foils was measured experimentally whilst varying laser contrast. Increasing the laser contrast using a double plasma mirror system resulted in a marked decrease in proton beam divergence (20° to <10°), and the enhanced collimation persisted over a wide range of target thicknesses (50 nm-6 µm), with an increased flux towards thinner targets. Supported by numerical simulation, the larger beam divergence at low contrast is attributed to the presence of a significant plasma scale length on the target front surface. This alters the fast electron generation and injection into the target, affecting the resultant sheath distribution and dynamics at the rear target surface. This result demonstrates that careful control of the laser contrast will be important for future laser-driven ion applications in which control of beam divergence is crucial.

  18. High Intensity Beam and X-Ray Converter Target Interactions and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; McCarrick, James F.; Guethlein, Gary; Caporaso, George J.; Chambers, Frank; Falabella, Steven; Lauer, Eugene; Richardson, Roger; Sampayan, Steve; Weir, John

    2002-12-01

    Ions extracted from a solid surface or plasma by impact of an high intensity and high current electron beam can partially neutralize the beam space charge and change the focusing system. We have investigated ion emission computationally and experimentally. By matching PIC simulation results with available experimental data, our finding suggests that if a mix of ion species is available at the emitting surface, protons dominate the backstreaming ion effects, and that, unless there is surface flashover, ion emission is source limited. We have also investigated mitigation, such as e-beam cleaning, laser cleaning and ion trapping with a foil barrier. The temporal behavior of beam spot size with a foil barrier and a focusing scheme to improve foil barrier performance are discussed.

  19. High Intensity Beam and X-Ray Converter Target Interactions and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Chem, Y-J; McCarrick, J F; Guethlein, G; Chambers, F; Falabella, S; Lauer, E; Richardson, R; Weir, J

    2002-07-31

    Ions extracted from a solid surface or plasma by impact of an high intensity and high current electron beam can partially neutralize the beam space charge and change the focusing system. We have investigated ion emission computationally and experimentally. By matching PIC simulation results with available experimental data, our finding suggests that if a mix of ion species is available at the emitting surface, protons dominate the backstreaming ion effects, and that, unless there is surface flashover, ion emission is source limited. We have also investigated mitigation, such as e-beam cleaning, laser cleaning and ion trapping with a foil barrier. The temporal behavior of beam spot size with a foil barrier and a focusing scheme to improve foil barrier performance are discussed.

  20. Modeling and experimental study of a honeycomb beam filled with damping particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nazeer; Ranganath, R.; Ghosal, Ashitava

    2017-03-01

    Honeycomb sandwich laminates which are the basic structural element of spacecraft have inherently low damping. In this paper, we propose to improve the damping characteristics of such structures by adding damping particles in the cells of the honeycomb. This paper presents modeling of a cantilever beam constructed with honeycomb structure with the hexagonal honeycomb cells, filled with particles. The beam is subjected to external dynamic loads and the interactions of damping particles with the walls of the cells and its overall effect on the frequency response function (FRF) and the damping of the beam are obtained. The discrete-element-method (DEM) is used to model the dynamics of the particles in conjunction with the governing equations of motion of the beam and the cell-walls. The particle-particle and particle-wall impact is modeled using Hertz's non-linear dissipative contact model for normal component and Coulomb's laws of friction for tangential component. Contiguous block of cells near the tip of the cantilever beam were filled with the damping particles and the beam was excited with a random signal near the fixed end. The damping and transfer functions obtained experimentally are compared to those obtained from the mathematical model and they are found to match very well. Further the model was used to study the effect of fill fraction, mass ratio, and the level of excitation signal on transfer function. Depending on the mass ratio and fill fraction, significant reductions in vibration levels are observed.

  1. Application of the focused ion beam technique in aerosol science: detailed investigation of selected, airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Kaegi, R; Gasser, Ph

    2006-11-01

    The focused ion beam technique was used to fabricate transmission electron microscope lamellas of selected, micrometre-sized airborne particles. Particles were sampled from ambient air on Nuclepore polycarbonate filters and analysed with an environmental scanning electron microscope. A large number of particles between 0.6 and 10 microm in diameter (projected optical equivalent diameter) were detected and analysed using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy. From the resulting dataset, where the chemistry, morphology and position of each individual particle are stored, two particles were selected for a more detailed investigation. For that purpose, the particle-loaded filter was transferred from the environmental scanning electron microscope to the focused ion beam, where lamellas of the selected particles were fabricated. The definition of a custom coordinate system enabled the relocation of the particles after the transfer. The lamellas were finally analysed with an analytical transmission electron microscope. Internal structure and elemental distribution maps of the interior of the particles provided additional information about the particles, which helped to assign the particles to their sources. The combination of computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy offers new possibilities for characterizing airborne particles in great detail, eventually enabling a detailed source apportionment of specific particles. The particle of interest can be selected from a large dataset (e.g. based on chemistry and/or morphology) and then investigated in more detail in the transmission electron microscope.

  2. Curved singular beams for three-dimensional particle manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Juanying; Chremmos, Ioannis D.; Song, Daohong; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    For decades, singular beams carrying angular momentum have been a topic of considerable interest. Their intriguing applications are ubiquitous in a variety of fields, ranging from optical manipulation to photon entanglement, and from microscopy and coronagraphy to free-space communications, detection of rotating black holes, and even relativistic electrons and strong-field physics. In most applications, however, singular beams travel naturally along a straight line, expanding during linear propagation or breaking up in nonlinear media. Here, we design and demonstrate diffraction-resisting singular beams that travel along arbitrary trajectories in space. These curved beams not only maintain an invariant dark “hole” in the center but also preserve their angular momentum, exhibiting combined features of optical vortex, Bessel, and Airy beams. Furthermore, we observe three-dimensional spiraling of microparticles driven by such fine-shaped dynamical beams. Our findings may open up new avenues for shaped light in various applications. PMID:26166011

  3. Curved singular beams for three-dimensional particle manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juanying; Chremmos, Ioannis D; Song, Daohong; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Efremidis, Nikolaos K; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-07-13

    For decades, singular beams carrying angular momentum have been a topic of considerable interest. Their intriguing applications are ubiquitous in a variety of fields, ranging from optical manipulation to photon entanglement, and from microscopy and coronagraphy to free-space communications, detection of rotating black holes, and even relativistic electrons and strong-field physics. In most applications, however, singular beams travel naturally along a straight line, expanding during linear propagation or breaking up in nonlinear media. Here, we design and demonstrate diffraction-resisting singular beams that travel along arbitrary trajectories in space. These curved beams not only maintain an invariant dark "hole" in the center but also preserve their angular momentum, exhibiting combined features of optical vortex, Bessel, and Airy beams. Furthermore, we observe three-dimensional spiraling of microparticles driven by such fine-shaped dynamical beams. Our findings may open up new avenues for shaped light in various applications.

  4. Method of active charge and current neutralization of intense ion beams for ICF

    SciTech Connect

    Guiragossian, Z.G.T.; Orthel, J.L.; Lemons, D.S.; Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of generating the beam neutralization electrons with required properties are given in the context of a Light Ion Fusion Experiment (LIFE) designed accelerator. Recently derived envelope equations for neutralized and ballistically focused intense ion beams are applied to the LIFE geometry in which 10 MeV He/sup +/ multiple beamlets coalesce and undergo 45:1 radial compression while beam pulses experience a 20:1 axial compression in the propagation range of 10 m. Both active and auto-neutralization methods are examined and found to produce initial electron temperatures consistent with the requirement of the envelope equation for both radial and axial adiabatic beam pulse compressions. The stability of neutralized beam propagation is also examined concerning the Pierce type electrostatic instability and for the case of LIFE beams it is found to have insignificant effect. A scaled experimental setup is presented which can serve to perform near term tests on the ballistically focused propagation of neutralized light ion beams.

  5. Influence of beam incidence angle on dry laser cleaning of surface particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecke, G.; Röhr, E.; Heyns, M. M.

    2000-03-01

    Dry laser cleaning is envisaged by semiconductor companies to replace wet-cleans. The influence of beam incidence angle was studied in the case of the removal of weakly absorbing particles on absorbing Si wafers by 248 nm DUV light pulses. By decreasing the beam incidence angle from 80° to 10°, the removal efficiency of 0.15-0.30 μm Si 3N 4 particles was increased by 30-45%, while no improvement was observed with 0.3 μm SiO 2 particles. Based on theoretical calculations, it is proposed that the enhanced removal of particles at grazing incidence is caused by the horizontal component of the beam radiation pressure. The difference between Si 3N 4 and SiO 2 particles is attributed to the influence of particle shape on van der Waals adhesion forces.

  6. Formation of silver nanoparticles inside a soda-lime glass matrix in the presence of a high intensity Ar{sup +} laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Niry, M. D.; Khalesifard, H. R.; Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Ahangary, A.; Azizian-Kalandaragh, Y.

    2012-02-01

    Formation and motion of the silver nanoparticles inside an ion-exchanged soda-lime glass in the presence of a focused high intensity continuous wave Ar{sup +} laser beam (intensity: 9.2 x 10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2}) have been studied in here. One-dimensional diffusion equation has been used to model the diffusion of the silver ions into the glass matrix, and a two-dimensional reverse diffusion model has been introduced to explain the motion of the silver clusters and their migration toward the glass surface in the presence of the laser beam. The results of the mentioned models were in agreement with our measurements on thickness of the ion-exchange layer by means of optical microscopy and recorded morphology of the glass surface around the laser beam axis by using a Mirau interferometer. SEM micrographs were used to extract the size distribution of the migrated silver particles over the glass surface.

  7. The thermal-wave model: A Schroedinger-like equation for charged particle beam dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedele, Renato; Miele, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review some results on longitudinal beam dynamics obtained in the framework of the Thermal Wave Model (TWM). In this model, which has recently shown the capability to describe both longitudinal and transverse dynamics of charged particle beams, the beam dynamics is ruled by Schroedinger-like equations for the beam wave functions, whose squared modulus is proportional to the beam density profile. Remarkably, the role of the Planck constant is played by a diffractive constant epsilon, the emittance, which has a thermal nature.

  8. A new method of rapid power measurement for MW-scale high-current particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yongjian; Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Yahong; Liu, Sheng; Liang, Lizheng; Jiang, Caichao; Sheng, Peng; Yu, Ling

    2015-09-01

    MW-scale high current particle beams are widely applied for plasma heating in the magnetic confinement fusion devices, in which beam power is an important indicator for efficient heating. Generally, power measurement of MW-scale high current particle beam adopts water flow calorimetry (WFC). Limited by the principles of WFC, the beam power given by WFC is an averaged value. In this article a new method of beam power for MW-scale high-current particle beams is introduced: (1) the temperature data of thermocouples embedded in the beam stopping elements were obtained using high data acquire system, (2) the surface heat flux of the beam stopping elements are calculated using heat transfer, (3) the relationships between positions and heat flux were acquired using numerical simulation, (4) the real-time power deposited on the beam stopping elements can be calculated using surface integral. The principle of measurement was described in detail and applied to the EAST neutral beam injector for demonstration. The result is compared with that measured by WFC. Comparison of the results shows good accuracy and applicability of this measuring method.

  9. Benchmark of numerical tools simulating beam propagation and secondary particles in ITER NBI

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, E. Veltri, P.; Serianni, G.; Dlougach, E.; Hemsworth, R.; Singh, M.

    2015-04-08

    Injection of high energy beams of neutral particles is a method for plasma heating in fusion devices. The ITER injector, and its prototype MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement), are large extrapolations from existing devices: therefore numerical modeling is needed to set thermo-mechanical requirements for all beam-facing components. As the power and charge deposition originates from several sources (primary beam, co-accelerated electrons, and secondary production by beam-gas, beam-surface, and electron-surface interaction), the beam propagation along the beam line is simulated by comprehensive 3D models. This paper presents a comparative study between two codes: BTR has been used for several years in the design of the ITER HNB/DNB components; SAMANTHA code was independently developed and includes additional phenomena, such as secondary particles generated by collision of beam particles with the background gas. The code comparison is valuable in the perspective of the upcoming experimental operations, in order to prepare a reliable numerical support to the interpretation of experimental measurements in the beam test facilities. The power density map calculated on the Electrostatic Residual Ion Dump (ERID) is the chosen benchmark, as it depends on the electric and magnetic fields as well as on the evolution of the beam species via interaction with the gas. Finally the paper shows additional results provided by SAMANTHA, like the secondary electrons produced by volume processes accelerated by the ERID fringe-field towards the Cryopumps.

  10. Early Beam Injection Scheme for the Fermilab Booster: A Path for Intensity Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.

    2015-10-28

    Over the past decade, Fermilab has focused efforts on the intensity frontier physics and is committed to increase the average beam power delivered to the neutrino and muon programs substantially. Many upgrades to the existing injector accelerators, namely, the current 400 MeV LINAC and the Booster, are in progress under the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) proposes to replace the existing 400 MeV LINAC by a new 800 MeV LINAC, as an injector to the Booster which will increase Booster output power by nearly a factor of two from the PIP design value by the end of its completion. In any case, the Fermilab Booster is going to play a very significant role for nearly next two decades. In this context, I have developed and investigated a new beam injection scheme called "early injection scheme" (EIS) for the Booster with the goal to significantly increase the beam intensity output from the Booster thereby increasing the beam power to the HEP experiments even before PIP-II era. The scheme, if implemented, will also help improve the slip-stacking efficiency in the MI/RR. Here I present results from recent simulations, beam studies, current status and future plans for the new scheme.

  11. Intense laser-driven ion beams in the relativistic-transparency regime: acceleration, control and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Juan C.

    2016-10-01

    Laser-plasma interactions in the novel regime of relativistically-induced transparency have been harnessed to generate efficiently intense ion beams with average energies exceeding 10 MeV/nucleon (>100 MeV for protons) at ``table-top'' scales. We have discovered and utilized a self-organizing scheme that exploits persisting self-generated plasma electric ( 0.1 TV/m) and magnetic ( 104 Tesla) fields to reduce the ion-energy (Ei) spread after the laser exits the plasma, thus separating acceleration from spread reduction. In this way we routinely generate aluminum and carbon beams with narrow spectral peaks at Ei up to 310 MeV and 220 MeV, respectively, with high efficiency ( 5%). The experimental demonstration has been done at the LANL Trident laser with 0.12 PW, high-contrast, 0.65 ps Gaussian laser pulses irradiating planar foils up to 250 nm thick. In this regime, Ei scales empirically with laser intensity (I) as I 1 / 2. Our progress is enabled by high-fidelity, massive computer simulations of the experiments. This work advances next-generation compact accelerators suitable for new applications. E . g ., a carbon beam with Ei 400 MeV and 10% energy spread is suitable for fast ignition (FI) of compressed DT. The observed scaling suggests that is feasible with existing target fabrication and PW-laser technologies, using a sub-ps laser pulse with I 2.5 ×1021 W/cm2. These beams have been used on Trident to generate warm-dense matter at solid-densities, enabling us to investigate its equation of state and mixing of heterogeneous interfaces purely by plasma effects distinct from hydrodynamics. They also drive an intense neutron-beam source with great promise for important applications such as active interrogation of shielded nuclear materials. Considerations on controlling ion-beam divergence for their increased utility are discussed. Funded by the LANL LDRD program.

  12. Electromagnetic scattering of an aggregate of particles illuminated by an arbitrary shaped beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briard, Paul; Wang, Jiajie; Han, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an analysis of scattering properties of aggregated particles illuminated by an arbitrary shaped beam is implemented using GLMT. A theoretical treatment for an aggregate of particles illuminated by an arbitrarily incident beam is briefly presented, with special attention paid to the calculation of beam shape coefficients of a shaped beam. The theoretical treatment and the home-made codes are verified by making a comparison between our numerical results and those obtained using a public available T-Matrix code MSTM. Good agreements are achieved which partially indicate the correctness of both codes. Furthermore, some new numerical results concerning the scattered fields of aggregated particles illuminated by a focused Gaussian beam are presented.

  13. Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions.

    PubMed

    Cho, B I; Osterholz, J; Bernstein, A C; Dyer, G M; Karmakar, A; Pukhov, A; Ditmire, T

    2009-11-01

    The transport of energetic electron beams generated from aluminum foils irradiated by ultraintense laser pulses has been studied by imaging coherent transition radiation from the rear side of the target. Two distinct beams of MeV electrons are emitted from the target rear side at the same time. This measurement indicates that two different mechanisms, namely resonance absorption and jxB heating, accelerate the electrons at the targets front side and drive them to different directions, with different temperatures. This interpretation is consistent with 3D-particle-in-cell simulations.

  14. Quantum electrodynamics analysis of optical binding in counterpropagating beams and effect of particle size.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Justo

    2008-10-01

    A general expression for optical binding energy between particles of any size, in counterpropagating beams with and without interference, is derived using quantum electrodynamics. The effect of particle size on the optically induced interparticle energy surface, which has been the subject of recent research, is explored. Significant changes in this surface when particle size approaches the wavelength of the optical field are revealed. Finally, optically induced particle arrays that may be fabricated with these potentials are briefly discussed.

  15. Remarks on the differential algebraic approach to particle beam optics by M. Berz

    SciTech Connect

    Garczynski, V.

    1992-12-31

    The underlying mathematical structure of the differential algebraic approach of M. Berz to particle beam optics is isomorphic to the familiar truncated polynomial algebra. Concrete examples of derivations in this algebra, consistent with the truncation operation, are given.

  16. Particle Rate and Host Accelerator Beam Loss on the MICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, Adam James

    2011-10-01

    A study is presented of particle rates in the MICE Muon Beamline and their relationship to beam loss produced in ISIS. A brief overview of neutrino physics is presented, together with a discussion on the Neutrino Factory as a motivation for MICE. An overview of MICE itself is then presented, highlighting the need for a systematic understanding of the relationship between the MICE target parameters, ISIS beam loss, and MICE particle rate. The variation of beam loss with target depth is examined and observed to be non-linear. The variation of beam loss with respect to the target dip time in the ISIS cycle is examined and observed to be approximately linear for dip times between 11.1 ms and 12.6 ms after ISIS injection, before tailing at earlier dip times. The variation of beam loss with particle rate is also observed to follow an approximately linear relationship from 0.05 V.ms to 4.7 V.ms beam loss, with a further strong indication that this continues up to 7.1 V.ms. Particle identification using time-of-flight data is used to give an insight into the relative abundances of each particle species present in the MICE beam. Estimates of muon rate are then produced as a function of beam loss. At a level of 2 V.ms beam loss ~10.9 muons per spill for a 3.2 ms spill with negative π → μ optics, and ~31.1 muons per 1 ms spill with positive π → μ optics are observed. Simulations using the ORBIT particle tracking code of the beam loss distributions around the ISIS ring, caused by the MICE target, are also presented and the implications for MICE running discussed.

  17. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Ryne, R.D.

    2005-03-15

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV.For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  18. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    2005-03-01

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV. For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  19. Low energy beam transport for facility for rare isotope beams driver linear particle accelerator.

    PubMed

    Sun, L T; Leitner, D; Machicoane, G; Pozdeyev, E; Smirnov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Winklehner, D; Zhao, Q

    2012-02-01

    The driver linac for the facility for rare isotope beams (FRIB) will provide a wide range of primary ion beams for nuclear physics research. The linac will be capable of accelerating a uranium beam to an energy of up to 200 Mev∕u and delivering it to a fragmentation target with a maximum power of 400 kW. Stable ion beams will be produced by a high performance electron cyclotron resonance ion source operating at 28 GHz. The ion source will be located on a high voltage platform to reach an initial beam energy of 12 keV∕u. After extraction, the ion beam will be transported vertically down to the linac tunnel in a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system and injected into a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) operating at a frequency of 80.5 MHz. To meet the beam power requirements, simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states will be used for heavier ions (≥Xe). This paper presents the layout of the FRIB LEBT and the beam dynamics in the LEBT. In particular, simulation and design of the beam line section before charge state selection will be detailed. The need to use an achromatic design for the charge state selection system and the advantage of an ion beam collimation system to limit the emittance of the beam injected into the RFQ will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Novel neutralized-beam intense neutron source for fusion technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Osher, J.E.; Perkins, L.J.

    1983-07-08

    We describe a neutralized-beam intense neutron source (NBINS) as a relevant application of fusion technology for the type of high-current ion sources and neutral beamlines now being developed for heating and fueling of magnetic-fusion-energy confinement systems. This near-term application would support parallel development of highly reliable steady-state higher-voltage neutral D/sup 0/ and T/sup 0/ beams and provide a relatively inexpensive source of fusion neutrons for materials testing at up to reactor-like wall conditions. Beam-target examples described incude a 50-A mixed D-T total (ions plus neutrals) space-charge-neutralized beam at 120 keV incident on a liquid Li drive-in target, or a 50-A T/sup 0/ + T/sup +/ space-charge-neutralized beam incident on either a LiD or gas D/sub 2/ target with calculated 14-MeV neutron yields of 2 x 10/sup 15//s, 7 x 10/sup 15//s, or 1.6 x 10/sup 16//s, respectively. The severe local heat loading on the target surface is expected to limit the allowed beam focus and minimum target size to greater than or equal to 25 cm/sup 2/.

  1. Means for the focusing and acceleration of parallel beams of charged particles. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, A.W.

    1980-09-23

    Apparatus for focusing beams of charged particles comprising planar arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles. The array may be assembled from a single component which comprises a support plate containing uniform rows of poles. Each pole is separated by a hole through the plate designed to pass a beam. Two such plates may be positioned with their poles intermeshed to form a plurality of quadrupoles.

  2. Means for the focusing and acceleration of parallel beams of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1982-09-21

    Apparatus for focusing beams of charged particles comprising planar arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles. The array may be assembled from a single component which comprises a support plate containing uniform rows of poles. Each pole is separated by a hole through the plate designed to pass a beam. Two such plates may be positioned with their poles intermeshed to form a plurality of quadrupoles.

  3. Optimization of accelerated charged particle beam for ADS energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Paraipan, M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis and optimization of energy efficiency for proton and ion beams in ADS systems is performed via simulation using a GEANT4 code with account for energy consumption for different accelerator types. It is demonstrated that for light nuclei, beginning from 7Li, with energies above 1 GeV/nucleon, ion beams are considerably (several times) more efficient than the 1-3 GeV proton beam. The possibility of achieving energy deposition equivalent to 1 GeV protons in a quasi-infinite uranium target with higher efficiency (and twice as small accelerator size) in the case of acceleration of light ions is substantiated.

  4. Current models of the intensely ionizing particle environment in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Effects on MicroElectronics (CREME) model that is currently in use to estimate single event effect rates in spacecraft is described. The CREME model provides a description of the radiation environment in interplanetary space near the orbit of the earth that contains no major deficiencies. The accuracy of the galactic cosmic ray model is limited by the uncertainties in solar modulation. The model for solar energetic particles could be improved by making use of all the data that has been collected on solar energetic particle events. There remain major uncertainties about the environment within the earth's magnetosphere, because of the uncertainties over the charge states of the heavy ions in the anomalous component and solar flares, and because of trapped heavy ions. The present CREME model is valid only at 1 AU, but it could be extended to other parts of the heliosphere. There is considerable data on the radiation environment from 0.2 to 35 AU in the ecliptic plane. This data could be used to extend the CREME model.

  5. Characterisation of gunshot residue particles using self-consistent ion beam analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, M. J.; Jeynes, C.

    2009-06-01

    Individual particles of gunshot residue were studied with particle-induced X-ray emission and backscattering spectrometry using a 2.5 MeV H + beam focussed to ˜4 μm and self-consistent fitting of the data. The geometry of these spherical particles was considered in order to accurately fit the corresponding particle spectrum and therefore to quantify the trace element composition of these particles. The demonstrable self-consistency of this method allows the compositions of most residue particles to be determined unambiguously and with a higher sensitivity to trace elements than conventional methods.

  6. Wave-Particle Interactions on Relativistic Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-20

    beam. Moreover, as we shall discuss presently, the axial magnetic field can introduce a number of physical features not present when this field is absent...Collective Free Electron Laser in Uniform Magnetic Field," A. Fruchtman and L. Friedland, IEEE J. Quantum Elec- tronics QE- 19 , 327 (1983). Most of the...transition, as predicted in paper #2. Since • the work reported in paper #3, the Hebrew University group has continued its work on beam diagnostics for

  7. Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Brodowski, John

    1982-11-23

    An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators.

  8. High intensity polarized atomic beam source for polarized internal storage ring targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemenz, P.

    1989-05-01

    In collaboration with the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) für Kernphysik in Heidelberg and the University of Marburg we presently design and construct a high intensity polarized atomic beam source. It is intended to deliver 1*1017 atoms/sec in one hyperfine state into a storage cell for FILTEX. FILTEX is an abbreviation for FILTer EXperiment aiming to polarize storage ring beams. The structure and the vacuum chambers of this source are completed and installed at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring (TSR). Vacuum pumps, gauges etc. are mounted and partly connected to a logical operation system. When atomic beam nozzle and skimmer geometries and distances as well as the nozzle temperature are optimized, the final geometrical arrangement or our new hybrid sixpole magnets will be decided and the whole source should be completed by the end of 1989.

  9. Rapid Melt and Resolidification of Surface Layers Using Intense, Pulsed Ion Beams Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Timothy J. Turman, Bob Senft, Donna Sorensen, Neil R. Stinnett, Regan Greenly, John B. Thompson, Michael O. Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    1998-10-02

    The emerging technology of pulsed intense ion beams has been shown to lead to improvements in surface characteristics such as hardness and wear resistance, as well as mechanical smoothing. We report hereon the use of this technology to systematically study improvements to three types of metal alloys - aluminum, iron, and titanium. Ion beam tieatment produces a rapid melt and resolidification (RMR) of the surface layer. In the case of a predeposited thin-fihn layer, the beam mixes this layer into the substrate, Ieading to improvements that can exceed those produced by treatment of the alloy alone, In either case, RMR results in both crystal refinement and metastable state formation in the treated surface layer not accessible by conventional alloy production. Although more characterization is needed, we have begun the process of relating these microstructural changes to the surface improvements we discuss in this report.

  10. High intensity multi beam design of SANS instrument for Dhruva reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Sohrab; Désert, S.; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    A new and versatile design of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) instrument based on utilization of multi-beam is presented. The multi-pinholes and multi-slits as SANS collimator for medium flux Dhruva rearctor have been proposed and their designs have been validated using McStas simulations. Various instrument configurations to achieve different minimum wave vector transfers in scattering experiments are envisioned. These options enable smooth access to minimum wave vector transfers as low as ~ 6×10-4 Å-1 with a significant improvement in neutron intensity, allowing faster measurements. Such angularly well defined and intense neutron beam will allow faster SANS studies of agglomerates larger than few tens of nm.

  11. Analytic integration of a common set of microwave beam intensity functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Seth D.

    When designing a wireless power transmission system, a virtually limitless number of aperture illumination functions are available. However, a commonly-used set of beam tapers results in received intensities that involve Bessel functions. This family of intensities is convenient to study and compare systematically. A cosntraint on the calculation of reception efficiency is the need to write numerical routines to integrate such functions. It is shown that these functions can be integrated analytically, resulting in a concise formula for reception efficiency as a function of rectifying antenna (rectenna) diameter.

  12. The antiproton cell experiment—do antiprotons offer advantages over other particle beam modalities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellner, Stefan; Boll, Rebecca; Caccia, Massimo; Negrini, Loretta; Straße, Tina; Tegami, Sara; Holzscheiter, Michael H.

    2012-12-01

    The use of heavy charged particles for cancer therapy has the potential for a significant improvement of the therapeutic window compared to standard X-ray treatments. This is due to the improved energy deposition profile, exhibiting a well-defined peak at a depth in target controllable by the initial energy of the beam. Particles heavier than protons in addition show an increase in biological effectiveness. Compared to protons or heavy ions, antiprotons deposit additional annihilation energy, mostly by low energy recoils, resulting in an increase of dose and also adding a component with high biological effectiveness in the target region. The relative magnitude of the physical energy deposition of antiprotons compared to protons was measured at Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) by A. Sullivan, but no study of the biological effect had been conducted prior to the Antiproton Cell Experiment (AD-4/ACE) experiment at CERN. The special conditions found at CERN present significant challenges, but also offer unique opportunities. 500 ns pulses of antiprotons are extracted from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at 500 MeV/c momentum. Biological cell samples are irradiated and clonogenic survival fractions are measured for various doses. To extract biological efficiency, the physical dose deposition is obtained by Monte-Carlo calculations in conjunction with shot-by-shot monitoring of the incoming beam intensity and profile using a silicon pixel detector. Also imaging of the pions resulting from antiproton annihilations in the target using silicon pixel detector technology to determine the actual range in more complex targets with strong variations in material densities was carried out. The feasibility of this technique using a novel arrangement of the detector was demonstrated. This paper describes the ACE experiment and focuses on the different detector activities within the AD-4/ACE collaboration, explaining the experimental set-up, physical and biological methods used

  13. The antiproton cell experiment—do antiprotons offer advantages over other particle beam modalities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellner, Stefan; Boll, Rebecca; Caccia, Massimo; Negrini, Loretta; Straße, Tina; Tegami, Sara; Holzscheiter, Michael H.

    The use of heavy charged particles for cancer therapy has the potential for a significant improvement of the therapeutic window compared to standard X-ray treatments. This is due to the improved energy deposition profile, exhibiting a well-defined peak at a depth in target controllable by the initial energy of the beam. Particles heavier than protons in addition show an increase in biological effectiveness. Compared to protons or heavy ions, antiprotons deposit additional annihilation energy, mostly by low energy recoils, resulting in an increase of dose and also adding a component with high biological effectiveness in the target region. The relative magnitude of the physical energy deposition of antiprotons compared to protons was measured at Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) by A. Sullivan, but no study of the biological effect had been conducted prior to the Antiproton Cell Experiment (AD-4/ACE) experiment at CERN. The special conditions found at CERN present significant challenges, but also offer unique opportunities. 500 ns pulses of antiprotons are extracted from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at 500 MeV/c momentum. Biological cell samples are irradiated and clonogenic survival fractions are measured for various doses. To extract biological efficiency, the physical dose deposition is obtained by Monte-Carlo calculations in conjunction with shot-by-shot monitoring of the incoming beam intensity and profile using a silicon pixel detector. Also imaging of the pions resulting from antiproton annihilations in the target using silicon pixel detector technology to determine the actual range in more complex targets with strong variations in material densities was carried out. The feasibility of this technique using a novel arrangement of the detector was demonstrated. This paper describes the ACE experiment and focuses on the different detector activities within the AD-4/ACE collaboration, explaining the experimental set-up, physical and biological methods used

  14. Toward steering a jet of particles into an x-ray beam with optically induced forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerskorn, Niko; Bowman, Richard; Kirian, Richard A.; Awel, Salah; Wiedorn, Max; Küpper, Jochen; Padgett, Miles J.; Chapman, Henry N.; Rode, Andrei V.

    2015-08-01

    Optical trapping of light-absorbing particles in a gaseous environment is governed by a laser-induced photophoretic force, which can be orders of magnitude stronger than the force of radiation pressure induced by the same light intensity. In spite of many experimental studies, the exact theoretical background underlying the photophoretic force and the prediction of its influence on the particle motion is still in its infancy. Here, we report the results of a quantitative analysis of the photophoretic force and the stiffness of trapping achieved by levitating graphite and carbon-coated glass shells of calibrated sizes in an upright diverging hollow-core vortex beam, which we refer to as an `optical funnel'. The measurements of forces were conducted in air at various gas pressures in the range from 5 mbar to 2 bar. The results of these measurements lay the foundation for developing a touch-free optical system for precisely positioning sub-micrometer bioparticles at the focal spot of an x-ray free electron laser, which would significantly enhance the efficiency of studying nanoscale morphology of proteins and biomolecules in femtosecond coherent diffractive imaging experiments.

  15. [Particle load in intensive therapy. Possible solutions using a multi-lumen catheter and Intrapur filter].

    PubMed

    Schröder, F

    1990-06-01

    Patients at intensive care units need very many drugs applicated via a central venous katheter. Particles caused by incompatibility reactions or coming from disposible materials possibly can provoke severe complications such as embolism, anaphylactoid reactions or ARDS. The combined use of multilumen katheters and Intrapur filters brings a significant reduction of these particles, as shown by an infusion regime.

  16. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, Daniel J.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Grasser, Thomas W.; Brockmann, John E.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle's size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle's velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered.

  17. The characteristics of an intense laser beam propagating in a corrugated plasma channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jian-Min; Tang, Rong-An; Hong, Xue-Ren; Yang, Yang; Wang, Li; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2016-12-01

    The propagation of an intense laser beam in a corrugated plasma channel is investigated. By using the source-dependent expansion technique, an evolution equation of the laser spot size is derived. The behaviors including aperiodic oscillation, resonance, beat-like wave, and periodic oscillation with multipeak are found and analyzed. The formula for the instantaneous wave numbers of these oscillations is obtained. These theoretical findings are confirmed by the final numerical simulation.

  18. Method for measuring the intensity profile of a CT fan-beam filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea

    2014-03-01

    Research on CT systems often requires knowledge of intensity as a function of angle in the fan-beam, due to the presence of bowtie filters, for studies such as dose reduction simulation, Monte Carlo dose calculations, or statistical reconstruction algorithms. Since manufacturers consider the x-ray bowtie filter design to be proprietary information, several methods have been proposed to measure the beam intensity profile independently: 1) calculate statistical properties of noise in acquired sinograms (requires access to raw data files, which is also vendor proprietary); 2) measure the waveform of a dosimeter located away from the isocenter (requires dosimeter equipment costing > 10K). We present a novel method that is inexpensive (parts costing 100 from any hardware store, using Gafchromic film at $3 per measurement), requires no proprietary information, and can be performed in a few minutes. A fixture is built from perforated steel tubing, which forms an aperture that selectively samples the intensity at a particular fan-beam angle in a rotating gantry. Two exposures (1× and 2×) are made and self-developing radiochromic film (Gafchromic XR- Ashland Inc.) is then scanned on an inexpensive PC document scanner. An analysis method is described that linearizes the measurements for relative exposure. The resultant profile is corrected for geometric effects (1/LΛ2 fall-off, gantry dwell time) and background exposure, providing a noninvasive estimate of the CT fan-beam intensity present in an operational CT system. This method will allow researchers to conveniently measure parameters required for modeling the effects of bowtie filters in clinical scanners.

  19. Aluminum surface layer strengthening using intense pulsed beam radiation of substrate film system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopotov, A. A.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Vlasov, V. A.; Kondratyuk, A. A.; Teresov, A. D.; Shugurov, V. V.; Petrikova, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents formation of the substrate film system (Zr-Ti-Cu/Al) by electric arc spraying of cathode having the appropriate composition. It is shown that the intense beam radiation of the substrate film system is accompanied by formation of the multi-phase state, the microhardness of which exceeds the one of pure A7 aluminum by ≈4.5 times.

  20. Design of a Paraxial Inverse Compton Scattering Diagnostic for an Intense Relativistic Electron Beam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    DESIGN OF A PARAXIAL INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING DIAGNOSTIC FOR AN INTENSE RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAM ∗ J.E. Colemanξ, J.A. Oertel, C.A. Ekdahl...supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under ξ email: jecoleman@lanl.gov Abstract An inverse Compton ...ray range by the relativistic electrons. The diverging, scattered photons are diffracted onto an X-ray framing camera by an X-ray crystal