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Sample records for particle monitor reactions

  1. Crosschecking of alpha particle monitor reactions up to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Szűcs, Z.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.; Saito, M.

    2017-04-01

    Selected reactions with well-defined excitation functions can be used to monitor the parameters of charged particle beams. The frequently used reactions for monitoring alpha particle beams are the 27Al(α,x)22,24Na, natTi(α,x)51Cr, natCu(α,x)66,67Ga and natCu(α,x)65Zn reactions. The excitation functions for these reactions were studied using the activation method and stacked target irradiation technique to crosscheck and to compare the above six reactions. Thin metallic foils with natural isotopic composition and well defined thickness were stacked together in sandwich targets and were irradiated at the AVF cyclotron of RIKEN with an alpha particle beam of 51.2 MeV. The activity of the target foils were assessed by using high-resolution gamma spectrometers of high purity Ge detectors. The data sets of the six processes were crosschecked with each other to provide consistent, cross-linked numerical cross section data.

  2. Geoscientific Applications of Particle Detection and Imaging Techniques withSpecial Focus on the Monitoring Clay Mineral Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warr, Laurence N.; Grathoff, Georg H.

    The combined use of focused X-ray, electron, and ion beams offers a diverse range of analytical capabilities for characterizing nanoscale mineral reactions that occur in hydrous environments. Improved image and microanalytical techniques (e.g., electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), in combination with controlled sample environments, are currently leading to new advances in the understanding of fluid-mineral reactions in the Earth Sciences. One group of minerals playing a key role in the containment of radioactive waste and the underground storage of CO2 is the clay minerals: these small, expandable, and highly adsorbent hydrous phyllosilicates form important low-permeable geological barriers by which waste can be safely deposited. In this article we summarize some of the state-of-the-art particle and imaging techniques employed to predict the behavior of both engineered and natural clay mineral seals in proposed storage sites. Particular attention is given to two types of low-permeability geomaterials: engineered bentonite backfill and natural shale in the subsurface. These materials have contrasting swelling properties and degrees of chemical stability that require detailed analytical study for developing suitable disposal or storage solutions.

  3. Dynamic transformation of small Ni particles during methanation of CO2 under fluctuating reaction conditions monitored by operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutz, B.; Carvalho, H. W. P.; Kleist, W.; Grunwaldt, J.-D.

    2016-05-01

    A 10 wt.-% Ni/Al2O3 catalyst with Ni particles of about 4 nm was prepared and applied in the methanation of CO2 under dynamic reaction conditions. Fast phase transformations between metallic Ni, NiO and NiCO3 were observed under changing reaction atmospheres using operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Removing H2 from the feed gas and, thus, simulating a H2 dropout during the methanation reaction led to oxidation of the active sites. The initial reduced state of the Ni particles could not be recovered under methanation atmosphere (H2/CO2 = 4); this was only possible with an effective reactivation step applying H2 at increased temperatures. Furthermore, the cycling of the gas atmospheres resulted in a steady deactivation of the catalyst. Operando XAS is a powerful tool to monitor these changes and the behavior of the catalyst under working conditions to improve the understanding of the catalytic processes and deactivation phenomena.

  4. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2003-07-01

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  5. Reactions and mass spectra of complex particles using Aerosol CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, John D.; Smith, Geoffrey D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is used both on- and off-line for the analysis of complex laboratory-generated and ambient particles. One of the primary advantages of Aerosol CIMS is the low degree of ion fragmentation, making this technique well suited for investigating the reactivity of complex particles. To demonstrate the usefulness of this "soft" ionization, particles generated from meat cooking were reacted with ozone and the composition was monitored as a function of reaction time. Two distinct kinetic regimes were observed with most of the oleic acid in these particles reacting quickly but with 30% appearing to be trapped in the complex mixture. Additionally, detection limits are measured to be sufficiently low (100-200 ng/m3) to detect some of the more abundant constituents in ambient particles, including sulfate, which is measured in real-time at 1.2 [mu]g/m3. To better characterize complex aerosols from a variety of sources, a novel off-line collection method was also developed in which non-volatile and semi-volatile organics are desorbed from particles and concentrated in a cold U-tube. Desorption from the U-tube followed by analysis with Aerosol CIMS revealed significant amounts of nicotine in cigarette smoke and levoglucosan in oak and pine smoke, suggesting that this may be a useful technique for monitoring particle tracer species. Additionally, secondary organic aerosol formed from the reaction of ozone with R-limonene and volatile organics from orange peel were analyzed off-line showing large molecular weight products (m/z > 300 amu) that may indicate the formation of oligomers. Finally, mass spectra of ambient aerosol collected offline reveal a complex mixture of what appears to be highly processed organics, some of which may contain nitrogen.

  6. Integrated particle detection chip for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ho; Park, Dongho; Hwang, Jungho; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports an integrated particle detection chip for low-cost and point-of-interest environmental monitoring; it consists of a micro virtual impactor and a micro corona discharger. With this system, airborne particles are introduced into the micro virtual impactor of the chip where they are classified according to their aerodynamic diameters. The particles are then charged and their number-concentration is detected in the micro corona discharger from the electrical current carried by the charged particles. The characteristics of each component were first analyzed, and the components were then integrated into a single chip. The micro virtual impactor was designed to have a cut-off diameter of 600 nm or 1.0 microm. Its classification characteristics were examined by classifying polydisperse particles-dioctyl sebacate particles ranging in diameter from 100 to 600 nm and carbon particles ranging in diameter from 0.6 to 10 microm. From the classification results, the cut-off diameter of the micro virtual impactor was measured to be either 550 nm or 1.1 microm. The micro corona discharger was fabricated based on a sharp silicon tip and a planar electrode and charged particles at 1.3 kV. Using the integrated particle detection chip comprising the micro virtual impactor and the micro corona discharger, the sensitivity for monodisperse particles-500 nm dioctyl sebacate in diameter-was measured to be 8 x 10(-7) pA/(particle cm(-3)).

  7. Experience of monitoring beaches for radioactive particles.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mike; McCulloch, George; Adsley, Ian

    2007-09-01

    This paper discusses some of the theoretical and practical problems that are encountered in monitoring beaches for hot particles. The experience is from operating a near-continuous monitoring program, for a period of eight years, on beaches near the Dounreay site. The reliability and failure mechanisms of the monitoring systems used will be discussed, together with remedial actions employed. The viability and performance of several types and configurations of radiation detectors will be described, along with methods by which particles might be detected, given their response to buried particles. When large areas are being monitored at high spatial resolution, which is required for efficient particle detection, the volume of data recorded for audit purposes can be very large. The use and abuse of Geographical Information Systems for this work is described. Other practical aspects of performing surveys are also discussed, including understanding health-and-safety requirements; constraints imposed by weather, tides and tidal speed; the logistics of making vehicles available to perform the work; and how a particle should be recovered once detected.

  8. NMR reaction monitoring in flow synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, M Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the use of flow chemistry with in-line and on-line analysis by NMR are presented. The use of macro- and microreactors, coupled with standard and custom made NMR probes involving microcoils, incorporated into high resolution and benchtop NMR instruments is reviewed. Some recent selected applications have been collected, including synthetic applications, the determination of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and reaction optimization, even in single experiments and on the μL scale. Finally, software that allows automatic reaction monitoring and optimization is discussed. PMID:28326137

  9. Monitoring particle growth in deposition plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlebrowski, T.; Bahre, H.; Böke, M.; Winter, J.

    2013-12-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods are frequently used to deposit barrier layers, e.g. on polymers for food packaging. These plasmas may suffer from particle (dust) formation. We report on a flexible monitoring system for dust. It is based on scanning a 3D plasma volume for particles by laser light scattering. The lower size limit of particles detected in the presented system is 20 nm. We report on existence diagrams for obtaining dust free or dust loaded capacitively or inductively coupled rf-plasmas in C2H2 depending on pressure, flow and rf-power. We further present growth rates for dust in these plasmas and show that monodisperse particles are only obtained during the first growth cycle.

  10. Selected reaction monitoring applied to quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kiyonami, Reiko; Domon, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics is gradually shifting from pure qualitative studies (protein identification) to large-scale quantitative experiments, prompted by the growing need to analyze consistently and precisely a large set of proteins in biological samples. The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) technique is increasingly applied to quantitative proteomics because of its selectivity (two levels of mass selection), its sensitivity (non-scanning mode), and its wide dynamic range. This account describes the different steps in the design and the experimental setup of SRM experiments.

  11. Selected reaction monitoring applied to proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gallien, Sebastien; Duriez, Elodie; Domon, Bruno

    2011-03-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) performed on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers has been the reference quantitative technique to analyze small molecules for several decades. It is now emerging in proteomics as the ideal tool to complement shotgun qualitative studies; targeted SRM quantitative analysis offers high selectivity, sensitivity and a wide dynamic range. However, SRM applied to proteomics presents singularities that distinguish it from small molecules analysis. This review is an overview of SRM technology and describes the specificities and the technical aspects of proteomics experiments. Ongoing developments aiming at increasing multiplexing capabilities of SRM are discussed; they dramatically improve its throughput and extend its field of application to directed or supervised discovery experiments.

  12. Novel tubing microreactor for monitoring chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Charles A; Chrisman, Ray W; LaPointe, Robert E; Miller, Theodore E

    2002-07-01

    There is an expanding interest in small-scale methods to evaluate catalysts and chemical reactions at a variety of conditions, ranging up to 6.9 MPa (1000 psig) and 300 degrees C. Multiwell parallel batch techniques are most commonly applied in high-throughput screening systems. In contrast, we describe here a rapid, serial, highly controllable method based on LC-type steel tubing rated for high pressures. The tube, containing a variety of flowing ingredients, such as carrier solvents, catalyst formulations, and reactants, is self-heated ohmically using electrical current from a power supply monitored and regulated with a precision of 0.01%. An array of voltage taps arranged along its length serves to sense the real-time temperature profile of the tube. Reactions are seen as temperature pulses progressing through the reactor, in zones of 200 microL each, and tracked with a temperature precision of 0.1 degrees C. A unique pressure controller was devised to maintain constant reactor pressures despite effluent viscosity fluctuations due to polymerization. Several chemical reaction systems have been characterized to date, including decomposition reactions of di-tert-butyl peroxide, polymerizations of styrene, formation of polyethylene from ethylene, and copolymerization of ethylene with 1-octene. For ethylene polymerization, the amount of mass of polymer formed is proportional to the responses observed.

  13. Monitoring enzymatic reactions with in situ sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Ian T.; Iordanov, V.; Kroon, Arthur; Dietrich, Heidi R. C.; Moerman, R.; van den Doel, L. R.; van Dedem, G. W. K.; Bossche, Andre; Gray, Bonnie L.; Sarro, Lina; Verbeek, Piet W.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2003-07-01

    In previous publications and presentations we have described our construction of a laboratory-on-a-chip based on nanoliter capacity wells etched in silicon. We have described methods for dispensing reagents as well as samples, for preventing evaporation, for embedding electronics in each well to measure fluid volume per well in real-time, and for monitoring the production or consumption of NADH in enzyme-catalyzed reactions such as those found in the glycolytic pathway of yeast. In this paper we describe the use of light sensors (photodiodes) in each well to measure both fluorescence (such as that evidenced in NADH) as well as bioluminescence (such as evidenced in ATP assays). We show that our detection limit for NADH fluorescence in 100 μM and for ATP/luciferase bioluminescence is 2.4 μM.

  14. Radiation reaction in a system of relativistic gravitating particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtsov, D. V.

    A Lorentz-covariant approach is developed to the description of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in general relativity. A model of a relativistic system of gravitating point particles is constructed in which energy losses can be interpreted in terms of radiation-reaction forces. These forces are applied not only to the point particles but also to fields generated by these particles in the near zone. It is concluded that radiation friction in a system of relativistic gravitating particles is collective in character.

  15. Influence of neighboring reactive particles on diffusion-limited reactions

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Changsun; Kekenes-Huskey, Peter M.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Competition between reactive species is commonplace in typical chemical reactions. Specifically the primary reaction between a substrate and its target enzyme may be altered when interactions with secondary species in the system are substantial. We explore this competition phenomenon for diffusion-limited reactions in the presence of neighboring particles through numerical solution of the diffusion equation. As a general model for globular proteins and small molecules, we consider spherical representations of the reactants and neighboring particles; these neighbors vary in local density, size, distribution, and relative distance from the primary target reaction, as well as their surface reactivity. Modulations of these model variables permit inquiry into the influence of excluded volume and competition on the primary reaction due to the presence of neighboring particles. We find that the surface reactivity effect is long-ranged and a strong determinant of reaction kinetics, whereas the excluded volume effect is relatively short-ranged and less influential in comparison. As a consequence, the effect of the excluded volume is only modestly dependent on the neighbor distribution and is approximately additive; this additivity permits a linear approximation to the many-body effect on the reaction kinetics. In contrast, the surface reactivity effect is non-additive, and thus it may require higher-order approximations to describe the reaction kinetics. Our model study has broad implications in the general understanding of competition and local crowding on diffusion-limited chemical reactions. PMID:23901970

  16. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Watanabe, Takehito; Chadwick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Multifunctional inverse opal particles for drug delivery and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Huan; Ye, Baofen; Shang, Luoran; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-06-01

    Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials.Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02324f

  18. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  19. Formation of Secondary Particulate Matter by Reactions of Gas Phase Hexanal with Sulfate Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2003-12-01

    The formation of secondary particulate matter from the atmospheric oxidation of organic compounds can significantly contribute to the particulate burden, but the formation of organic secondary particulate matter is poorly understood. One way of producing organic secondary particulate matter is the oxidation of hydrocarbons with seven or more carbon atoms to get products with low vapor pressure. However, several recent reports suggest that relatively low molecular weight carbonyls can enter the particle phase by undergoing heterogeneous reactions. This may be a very important mechanism for the formation of organic secondary particulate matter. Atmospheric aldehydes are important carbonyls in the gas phase, which form via the oxidation of hydrocarbons emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In this poster, we report the results on particle growth by the heterogeneous reactions of hexanal. A 5 L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is set up to conduct the reactions in the presence of seed aerosol particles of deliquesced ammonia bisulfate. Hexanal is added into CSTR by syringe pump, meanwhile the concentrations of hexanal are monitored with High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC 1050). A differential Mobility Analyzer (TSI 3071) set to an appropriate voltage is employed to obtain monodisperse aerosols, and another DMA associated with a Condensation Nuclear Counter (TSI 7610) is used to measure the secondary particle size distribution by the reaction in CSTR. This permits the sensitive determination of particle growth due to the heterogeneous reaction, very little growth occurs when hexanal added alone. Results for the simultaneous addition of hexanal and alcohols will also be presented.

  20. Path Sampling Methods for Enzymatic Quantum Particle Transfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Dzierlenga, M W; Varga, M J; Schwartz, S D

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of enzymatic reactions are studied via a host of computational techniques. While previous methods have been used successfully, many fail to incorporate the full dynamical properties of enzymatic systems. This can lead to misleading results in cases where enzyme motion plays a significant role in the reaction coordinate, which is especially relevant in particle transfer reactions where nuclear tunneling may occur. In this chapter, we outline previous methods, as well as discuss newly developed dynamical methods to interrogate mechanisms of enzymatic particle transfer reactions. These new methods allow for the calculation of free energy barriers and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) with the incorporation of quantum effects through centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and the full complement of enzyme dynamics through transition path sampling (TPS). Recent work, summarized in this chapter, applied the method for calculation of free energy barriers to reaction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). We found that tunneling plays an insignificant role in YADH but plays a more significant role in LDH, though not dominant over classical transfer. Additionally, we summarize the application of a TPS algorithm for the calculation of reaction rates in tandem with CMD to calculate the primary H/D KIE of YADH from first principles. We found that the computationally obtained KIE is within the margin of error of experimentally determined KIEs and corresponds to the KIE of particle transfer in the enzyme. These methods provide new ways to investigate enzyme mechanism with the inclusion of protein and quantum dynamics.

  1. Dispersion Polymerization of Polystyrene Particles Using Alcohol as Reaction Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Shin, Cheol Hwan; Han, Sujin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization using alcohol as reaction medium to prepare colloidal clusters of the latex beads. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTC) were used as dispersion stabilizer and comonomer, respectively. The particle size could be controlled by adjusting the reactant compositions such as the amount of stabilizer, comonomer, and water in the reactant mixture. The size and monodispersity of the polymeric particles could be also controlled by changing the reaction medium with different alcohols other than ethanol or adjusting the polymerization temperature. The synthesized particles could be self-organized inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets by evaporation-driven self-assembly to produce colloidal clusters of the polymeric nanospheres.

  2. Reaction synthesis of Ni-Al based particle composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    SUSAN,DONALD F.; MISIOLEK,WOICECK Z.; MARDER,ARNOLD R.

    2000-02-11

    Electrodeposited metal matrix/metal particle composite (EMMC) coatings were produced with a nickel matrix and aluminum particles. By optimizing the process parameters, coatings were deposited with 20 volume percent aluminum particles. Coating morphology and composition were characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was employed to study reactive phase formation. The effect of heat treatment on coating phase formation was studied in the temperature range 415 to 1,000 C. Long-time exposure at low temperature results in the formation of several intermetallic phases at the Ni matrix/Al particle interfaces and concentrically around the original Al particles. Upon heating to the 500--600 C range, the aluminum particles react with the nickel matrix to form NiAl islands within the Ni matrix. When exposed to higher temperatures (600--1,000 C), diffusional reaction between NiAl and nickel produces ({gamma})Ni{sub 3}Al. The final equilibrium microstructure consists of blocks of ({gamma}{prime})Ni{sub 3}Al in a {gamma}(Ni) solid solution matrix, with small pores also present. Pore formation is explained based on local density changes during intermetallic phase formation and microstructural development is discussed with reference to reaction synthesis of bulk nickel aluminides.

  3. Miniaturized ultrafine particle sizer and monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Da-Ren (Inventor); Qi, Chaolong (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring particle size distribution includes a charging device and a precipitator. The charging device includes a corona that generates charged ions in response to a first applied voltage, and a charger body that generates a low energy electrical field in response to a second applied voltage in order to channel the charged ions out of the charging device. The corona tip and the charger body are arranged relative to each other to direct a flow of particles through the low energy electrical field in a direction parallel to a direction in which the charged ions are channeled out of the charging device. The precipitator receives the plurality of particles from the charging device, and includes a disk having a top surface and an opposite bottom surface, wherein a predetermined voltage is applied to the top surface and the bottom surface to precipitate the plurality of particles.

  4. Formaldehyde Reactions with Amines and Ammonia: Particle Formation and Product Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, M. M.; Millage, K. D.; Rodriguez, A.; Sedehi, N.; Powelson, M. H.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    Aqueous phase reactions between carbonyls and amines or ammonium salts have recently been implicated in secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon formation processes. Formaldehyde is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and is present in both the gas and aqueous phases. However, the reactions of formaldehyde in the aqueous phase have not been completely characterized. This study aims to determine the interactions between formaldehyde and amines or ammonium salts present in atmospheric droplets. Bulk phase reactions of formaldehyde with these reactive nitrogen-containing compounds were monitored with ESI-MS and NMR to determine reaction kinetics and for product characterization, while UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in light absorption over time. Hexamethylenetetramine was found to be a major product of the formaldehyde/ammonium sulfate reaction, appearing within minutes of mixing. No products were formed that absorbed light beyond 225 nm. Mono-disperse particles containing mixtures of formaldehyde and ammonium sulfate or an amine were dried and analyzed via SMPS to determine the non-volatile fraction of the reaction products. Similarly, aqueous droplets were dried in a humid atmosphere to determine residual aerosol sizes over time as a function of formaldehyde concentration. This work indicates that formaldehyde plays a key role in aqueous-phase organic processing, as it has been observed to contribute to both an increase and reduction in the diameter and volume of residual aerosol particles.

  5. An inexpensive dual-chamber particle monitor: laboratory characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rufus Edwards; Kirk R. Smith; Brent Kirby; Tracy Allen; Charles D. Litton; Susanne Hering

    2006-06-15

    In developing countries, high levels of particle pollution from the use of coal and biomass fuels for household cooking and heating are a major cause of ill health and premature mortality. Existing monitoring equipment makes routine quantification of household particle pollution levels difficult. Recent advances have enabled the development of a small, portable, data-logging particle monitor modified from commercial smoke alarm technology that can meet the needs of surveys in the developing world at reasonable cost. Laboratory comparisons of a prototype particle monitor developed at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) with gravimetric filters, a tapered element oscillating microbalance, and a TSI DustTrak to quantify the UCB particle monitor response as a function of both concentration and particle size and to examine sensor response in relation to changes in temperature, relative humidity, and elevation are presented. UCB particle monitors showed good linearity in response to different concentrations of laboratory-generated oleic acid aerosols with a coarse and fine size distributions. The photoelectric and ionization chamber showed a wide range of responses based on particle size and, thus, require calibration with the aerosol of interest. The ionization chamber was five times more sensitive to fine rather than coarse particles, whereas the photoelectric chamber was five times more sensitive to coarse than fine. The ratio of the response between the two sensors has the potential for mass calibration of individual data points based on estimated parameters of the size distribution. The results demonstrate the significant potential of this monitor, which will facilitate the evaluation of interventions (improved fuels, stoves, and ventilation) on indoor air pollution levels and research on the impacts of indoor particle levels on health in developing countries. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Reactions between methanethiol and biologically produced sulfur particles.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, R C; van den Bosch, P L F; Lens, P N L; Janssen, A J H

    2011-02-15

    Recently, new biotechnological processes have been developed to enable the sustainable removal of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon streams. In comparison to existing technologies (e.g., caustic scrubbing or iron based redox technologies) far less chemicals are consumed, while reusable elemental sulfur is formed as the main end-product. This research shows that in these processes a number of consecutive reactions occur between methanethiol (MT) from the hydrocarbon stream and the formed biosulfur particles, leading to the formation of (dimethyl) polysulfides. This is an important feature of this family of new bioprocesses as it improves the MT removal efficiency. The reaction kinetics depend on the MT and biosulfur concentration, temperature, and the nature of the biosulfur particles. The first reaction step involves a S8 ring-opening by nucleophilic attack of MT molecules to form CH3S9(-). This work shows that CH3S9(-) reacts to polysulfides (S3(2-), S4(2-), S5(2-)), dimethyl polysulfides [(CH3)2S2, (CH3)2S3], and dissociated H2S, while also some longer-chain dimethyl polysulfides [(CH3)2S4-7] are formed at μM levels. Control experiments using orthorhombic sulfur flower (S8) did not reveal these reactions.

  7. Hybrid charged-particle guide for studying (n, charged particle) reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; White, R.M.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1982-08-25

    Charged-particle transport systems consisting of magnetic quadrupole lenses have been employed in recent years in the study of (n, charged particle) reactions. We have completed a new transport system that is based both on magnetic lenses as well as electrostatic fields. The magnetic focusing of this charged-particle guide is provided by six magnetic quadrupole lenses arranged in a CDCCDC sequence (in the vertical plane). The electrostatic field is produced by a wire at high voltage which stretches the length of the guide and is physically at the center of the magnetic axis. The magnetic lenses are used for charged particles above 5 MeV; the electrostatic guide is used for lower energies. This hybrid system possesses the excellent focusing and background rejection properties of other magnetic systems. For low energy charged-particles, the electrostatic transport avoids the narrow band-passes in charged-particle energy which are a problem with purely magnetic transport systems. This system is installed at the LLNL Cyclograaff facility for the study of (n, charged particle) reactions at neutron energies up to 35 MeV.

  8. Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed.

  9. Monitoring the particle size in CFB using fuzzy neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.; Chen, H.; Tian, Z.; He, W.

    1999-07-01

    The particle size and particle size distributions (PSDs) affect the performance of a circulating fluidized (CFB) boiler. For improving the efficiency of analysis of particle size to monitor the particle size and particle size distribution, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is presented. Because the pressure fluctuant frequency and particle size have some non-linear relationship, the FNN models the relationship between the pressure fluctuant frequencies along CFB boiler height and particle size sampled from CFB boiler by neural network training. A hybrid fuzzy neural network parameter training method is presented to identify the model parameters, which combine the gradient back propagation (BP) algorithm and least square estimation (LSE) algorithm to estimate unknown non-linear parameter and linear parameter respectively. When the FNN training procedure converges, the parameters, which reflect the non-linear relationship between frequency and particle, are determined for a given operational condition of CFB boiler. In operating CFB boilers, the coal particle size at high temperature changes with combustion and its values are unknown, however, pressure fluctuation frequency can be obtained easily. In this case, FNN can predict the particle size and PSDs along the CFB boiler height according to the pressure fluctuation frequency. To validate the FNN model effect of analyzing the particle size, data from experiment are used with fluidized gas velocity equal to 41.82 cm/s. The predictive error of FNN model is 3.839%. It is proved that the model not only identifies the non-linear relationship between particle size and pressure fluctuation frequency with high precision but also can adaptively learn the data information without expert knowledge by adjusting its own parameters. It operates quickly and can satisfy the real-time request of monitoring the particle size and its distribution in CFB boilers.

  10. Extension of a Kinetic-Theory Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates to Reactions with Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Lewis, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently introduced molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties (i.e., no macroscopic reaction rate information) are extended to include reactions involving charged particles and electronic energy levels. The proposed extensions include ionization reactions, exothermic associative ionization reactions, endothermic and exothermic charge exchange reactions, and other exchange reactions involving ionized species. The extensions are shown to agree favorably with the measured Arrhenius rates for near-equilibrium conditions.

  11. Evaluation of charged-particle reactions for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Resler, D.A.; Warshaw, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    New evaluations of the total reaction cross sections for {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He, {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, {sup 3}H(t,2n){sup 4}He,{sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He, and {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He have been completed. These evaluations are based on all known published data from 1946 to 1990 and include over 1150 measured data points from 67 references. The purpose of this work is to provide a consistent and well-documented set of cross sections for use in calculations relating to fusion energy research. A new thermonuclear data file, TDF, and a library of FORTRAN subprograms to read the file have been developed. Calculated from the new evaluations, the TDF file contains information on the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates as a function of reaction and plasma temperature and the Maxwellian-averaged average energy of the interacting particles and reaction products. Routines are included that provide thermally-broadened spectral information for the secondary reaction products. 67 refs., 18 figs.

  12. Report of the Workshop on Light Particle-Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The study meeting on light particle (mass number = 3 - 11) induced reaction was held for three days from 5-7 Dec. 1991 at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. This book records the reports based on the lectures presented at the meeting. In the new facility of the RCNP, the experiment on the nuclear reaction using 400 MeV polarized protons and 200 MeV polarized deuterons is about to begin. When the acceleration of polarized He-3 beam which is being developed becomes feasible, by combining it with the high resolution spectrometer GRAND RAIDEN, it is expected that the unique, high accuracy research using the polarized He-3 having intermediate energy (540 MeV) becomes possible. At this time, by focusing attention to what new physics is developed by the nuclear reaction induced by the composite particles having the intermediate energy of mass number 3 - 11, this study meeting was planned and held. As the result, 29 lectures collected were to cover wide fields, and active discussion was carried out.

  13. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Peters, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary, central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual’s exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-hour monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  14. A dual-wavelength single particle aerosol fluorescence monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Paul H.; Stanley, Warren R.; Foot, Virginia; Baxter, Karen; Barrington, Stephen J.

    2005-10-01

    Laser diodes and light-emitting diodes capable of continuous sub-300 nm radiation emission will ultimately represent optimal excitation sources for compact and fieldable bio-aerosol monitors. However, until such devices are routinely available and whilst solid-state UV lasers remain relatively expensive, other low-cost sources of UV can offer advantages. This paper describes one such prototype that employs compact xenon discharge UV sources to excite intrinsic fluorescence from individual particles within an ambient aerosol sample. The prototype monitor samples ambient air via a laminar sheathed-flow arrangement such that particles within the sample flow column are rendered in single file as they intersect the beam from a continuous-wave 660nm diode laser. Each individual particle produces a scattered light signal from which an estimate of particle size (down to ~1 um) may be derived. This same signal also initiates the sequential firing (~10 us apart) of two xenon sources which irradiate the particle with UV pulses centred upon ~280 nm and ~370 nm wavelength, optimal for excitation of bio-fluorophores tryptophan and NADH respectively. For each excitation wavelength, fluorescence is detected across two bands embracing the peak emissions of the same bio-fluorophores. Thus, for each particle, a 2-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix is recorded together with an estimate of particle size. Current measurement rates are up to ~125 particles/s (limited by the xenon recharge time), corresponding to all particles for concentrations up to ~2 x 104 particles/l. Developments to increase this to ~500 particles/s are in hand. Analysis of results from aerosols of E.coli, BG spores, and a variety of non-biological materials are given.

  15. A non-optical real-time particle fallout monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuan, Raymond L.; Bowers, William D.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes a size-selective fallout monitor that can be employed to assess the degradation of sensitive optical surfaces as well as facilitate the analysis of particle types. The device combines a vertical elutriator and a quartz crystal microbalance, and only particles greater than a specific size can pass through an upward laminar flow generated in the device. The larger particles cause a frequency shift in the crystal oscillator, thereby permitting the measurement of the fallout associated with the contamination of optical instruments.

  16. Psychological Reactions Associated With Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Susana R.; Clements, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Glucose monitoring is prerequisite to all other diabetes self-care behaviors and helps patients to reduce their risk for diabetes-related complications due to elevated glycemia. Because of the amount of information available and the ability to deliver glucose results in real-time, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has the ability to improve on self-monitoring blood glucose. However, epidemiologic data demonstrate slow uptake of CGM by patients, especially among youth. Several new diabetes therapies rely on CGM for feedback on patients’ glucose levels to optimize treatment (eg, the low-glucose suspend insulin pump) and there are new technologies currently in development that will also need this information to work (eg, the artificial pancreas). To help patients to realize the potential benefits of these new treatments, it is essential to explore patients’ psychological and behavioral reactions to CGM and then target device enhancements and/or the development of behavioral therapies to minimize negative reactions and to improve patients’ CGM adoption rates. Limited research is available examining the psychological and behavioral reactions of CGM use in youth exclusively, but there are more studies examining these reactions in mixed samples of youth, parents, and adults. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available literature examining psychological and behavioral reactions to CGM use in young people with diabetes and to highlight how the results of past and future studies can inform device updates and/or behavioral intervention development to minimize barriers. PMID:26969141

  17. Dynamic Monitoring of Cleanroom Fallout Using an Air Particle Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford

    2011-01-01

    The particle fallout limitations and periodic allocations for the James Webb Space Telescope are very stringent. Standard prediction methods are complicated by non-linearity and monitoring methods that are insufficiently responsive. A method for dynamically predicting the particle fallout in a cleanroom using air particle counter data was determined by numerical correlation. This method provides a simple linear correlation to both time and air quality, which can be monitored in real time. The summation of effects provides the program better understanding of the cleanliness and assists in the planning of future activities. Definition of fallout rates within a cleanroom during assembly and integration of contamination-sensitive hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, is essential for budgeting purposes. Balancing the activity levels for assembly and test with the particle accumulation rate is paramount. The current approach to predicting particle fallout in a cleanroom assumes a constant air quality based on the rated class of a cleanroom, with adjustments for projected work or exposure times. Actual cleanroom class can also depend on the number of personnel present and the type of activities. A linear correlation of air quality and normalized particle fallout was determined numerically. An air particle counter (standard cleanroom equipment) can be used to monitor the air quality on a real-time basis and determine the "class" of the cleanroom (per FED-STD-209 or ISO-14644). The correlation function provides an area coverage coefficient per class-hour of exposure. The prediction of particle accumulations provides scheduling inputs for activity levels and cleanroom class requirements.

  18. Particle sedimentation monitoring in high-concentration slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Yoshihiro; Kato, Zenji; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentation states of particles in high-concentration slurries were elucidated by monitoring their internal states. We prepared transparent high-concentration silica slurries by adjusting the refractive index of the aqueous glycerol liquid in which the particles were dispersed to match that of the silica particles. In addition, a fluorescent dye was dissolved in the liquid. Then, we directly observed the individual and flocculated particles in the slurries during sedimentation by confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The particles were found to sediment very slowly while exhibiting fluctuating motion. The particle sedimentation rate in the high-concentration slurry with the aqueous glycerol solution (η =0.068 Pa. s ) and a particle volume fraction on the order of 0.3 was determined to be 1.58 ± 0.66 μ m. min-1 on the basis of the obtained image sequences for 24.9 h. In-situ observation provides a large amount of information about the sedimentation behavior of particles in condensed matter.

  19. Quencher-free multiplexed monitoring of DNA reaction circuits.

    PubMed

    Padirac, Adrien; Fujii, Teruo; Rondelez, Yannick

    2012-08-01

    We present a simple yet efficient technique to monitor the dynamics of DNA-based reaction circuits. This technique relies on the labeling of DNA oligonucleotides with a single fluorescent modification. In this quencher-free setup, the signal is modulated by the interaction of the 3'-terminus fluorophore with the nucleobases themselves. Depending on the nature of the fluorophore's nearest base pair, fluorescence intensity is decreased or increased upon hybridization. By tuning the 3'-terminal nucleotides, it is possible to obtain opposite changes in fluorescence intensity for oligonucleotides whose hybridization site is shifted by a single base. Quenching by nucleobases provides a highly sequence-specific monitoring technique, which presents a high sensitivity even for small oligonucleotides. Compared with other sequence-specific detection methods, it is relatively non-invasive and compatible with the complex dynamics of DNA reaction circuits. As an application, we show the implementation of nucleobase quenching to monitor a DNA-based chemical oscillator, allowing us to follow in real time and quantitatively the dephased oscillations of the components of the network. This cost-effective monitoring technique should be widely implementable to other DNA-based reaction systems.

  20. Synthesis of nanosized silicon particles by a rapid metathesis reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Won, C.W.; Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, H.I.; Lee, H.H.

    2009-11-15

    A solid-state rapid metathesis reaction was performed in a bed of sodium silicofluoride (Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}) and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) powders diluted with sodium fluoride (NaF), to produce silicon nanoparticles. After a local ignition of Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}+4NaN{sub 3}+kNaF mixture (here k is mole number of NaF), the reaction proceeded in a self-sustaining combustion mode developing high temperatures (950-1000 deg. C) on very short time scales (a few seconds). Silicon nanoparticles prepared by the combustion process was easily separated from the salt byproducts by simple washing with distilled water. The structural and morphological studies on the nanoparticles were carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The mean size of silicon particles calculated from the FESEM image was about 37.75 nm. FESEM analysis also shows that the final purified product contains a noticeable amount of silicon fibers, dendrites and blocks, along with nanoparticles. The mechanism of Si nanostructures formation is discussed and a simple model for interpretation of experimental results is proposed. - Graphical abstract: Silicon nanoparticles 37.75 nm in mean diameter was obtained by rapid metathesis reaction performed in Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}+4NaN{sub 3} powder bed diluted with NaF.

  1. Heterogeneous Reaction of HO2 Radical with Dicarboxylic Acid Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, F.; Kanaya, Y.

    2010-12-01

    HOx(OH+ HO2) radical plays a central role in the tropospheric chemistry. Recently, the heterogeneous loss of HO2 by aerosol particles is a potentially important HOx sink in the troposphere suggested from observation study. However, there have been few studies for loss of HO2 by aerosols. In this study, we measured the HO2 uptake coefficients for four dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and pimelic acid) aerosol particles under ambient conditions (760Torr and 296K) using an aerosol flow tube(AFT) coupled with a chemical conversion /laser-induced fluorescence(CC/LIF) technique. The CC/LIF technique enabled experiments to be performed at almost the same HO2 radical concentration as that in the atmosphere(-10^8 molecules/cm^3). In this system, the effect of the self-reaction of HO2 in the gas phase can be neglected. HO2 radicals were injected into the AFT through a vertically movable Pyrex tube. Injector position dependent profiles of LIF intensity were measured as a function of aerosol concentration at 30% and 70% of relative humilities (RH). Determined HO2 uptake coefficients by succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and pimelic acid aerosol particles at 30% RH were 0.05 +/- 0.02, 0.07 +/- 0.03, 0.02 +/- 0.01, and 0.06 +/- 0.03, respectively, while the uptake coefficients by those particles at 70% RH were 0.13 +/- 0.05, 0.13 +/- 0.03, 0.06 +/- 0.01, and 0.11 +/- 0.03, respectively. These results suggest that compositions and relative humidity are significant to the HO2 uptake. We will discuss the potential HO2 loss processes.

  2. Web-Enabled Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineberger, Lewis P.

    2008-01-01

    A Web-enabled optoelectronic particle- fallout monitor has been developed as a prototype of future such instruments that (l) would be installed in multiple locations for which assurance of cleanliness is required and (2) could be interrogated and controlled in nearly real time by multiple remote users. Like prior particle-fallout monitors, this instrument provides a measure of particles that accumulate on a surface as an indication of the quantity of airborne particulate contaminants. The design of this instrument reflects requirements to: Reduce the cost and complexity of its optoelectronic sensory subsystem relative to those of prior optoelectronic particle fallout monitors while maintaining or improving capabilities; Use existing network and office computers for distributed display and control; Derive electric power for the instrument from a computer network, a wall outlet, or a battery; Provide for Web-based retrieval and analysis of measurement data and of a file containing such ancillary data as a log of command attempts at remote units; and Use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for maximum performance and minimal network overhead.

  3. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages.

  4. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555

  5. Mass-spectrometric monitoring of the stress reaction during anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarov, A. Yu.; Levshankov, A. I.; Faizov, I. I.; Shchegolev, A. V.

    2013-10-01

    Clinical testing data for a mass-spectrometric method of estimating the patient's stress reaction to an injury done during anesthesia are presented. The essence of the method is monitoring the respiratory coefficient, which is defined as ratio N of the expiratory mass concentration of CO2 to the inspiratory mass concentration of O2 at each breathing cycle. For on-line monitoring of N, an electron ionization mass spectrometer connected to the breathing circuit of an inhalational anesthesia machine is used. Estimates of the anesthesia adequacy obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the method that analyzes induced acoustic encephalographic potentials. It is shown that the method suggested is more sensitive to the level of the patient's stress reaction during anesthesia than the induced potential method.

  6. System and process for pulsed multiple reaction monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E

    2013-05-17

    A new pulsed multiple reaction monitoring process and system are disclosed that uses a pulsed ion injection mode for use in conjunction with triple-quadrupole instruments. The pulsed injection mode approach reduces background ion noise at the detector, increases amplitude of the ion signal, and includes a unity duty cycle that provides a significant sensitivity increase for reliable quantitation of proteins/peptides present at attomole levels in highly complex biological mixtures.

  7. Spatially resolved chemical reaction monitoring using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Feindel, Kirk W

    2016-06-01

    Over the previous three decades, the use of MRI for studying dynamic physical and chemical processes of materials systems has grown significantly. This mini-review provides a brief introduction to relevant principles of MRI, including methods of spatial localization, factors contributing to image contrast, and chemical shift imaging. A few historical examples of (1) H MRI for reaction monitoring will be presented, followed by a review of recent research including (1) H MRI studies of gelation and biofilms, (1) H, (7) Li, and (11) B MRI studies of electrochemical systems, in vivo glucose metabolism monitored with (19) F MRI, and in situ temperature monitoring with (27) Al MRI. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Monitoring solid phase synthesis reactions with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

    PubMed

    Hutton, Roger S; Adams, Joseph P; Trivedi, Harish S

    2003-01-01

    This work describes the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a means to monitor solid phase synthesis on resin beads. EIS was used to track changes during the swelling of beads in various solvents, during three typical reactions and throughout cleavage of the final product from the bead. The impedance response was investigated in a chemical reactor and was found to be faintly sensitive to the resin swelling and solvent flow. The position of the electrode within the reactor was found to be critical as polystyrene based beads float or sink dependent upon the solvent used. However, by choosing electrode position it was possible to monitor reaction progress on beads or within the bulk reactant/product mixture. Of the three typical chemical reactions studied impedance spectroscopy successfully followed two. Fitting of the impedance data to an equivalent electrical circuit provided an estimate as to the relative contribution of capacitive and resistive components to the overall response. Kinetic data from two reactions were also modelled, in both cases complex kinetics was observed, in close agreement with other studies.

  9. Synthesis of nanosized silicon particles by a rapid metathesis reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, C. W.; Nersisyan, H. H.; Won, H. I.; Lee, H. H.

    2009-11-01

    A solid-state rapid metathesis reaction was performed in a bed of sodium silicofluoride (Na 2SiF 6) and sodium azide (NaN 3) powders diluted with sodium fluoride (NaF), to produce silicon nanoparticles. After a local ignition of Na 2SiF 6+4NaN 3+ kNaF mixture (here k is mole number of NaF), the reaction proceeded in a self-sustaining combustion mode developing high temperatures (950-1000 °C) on very short time scales (a few seconds). Silicon nanoparticles prepared by the combustion process was easily separated from the salt byproducts by simple washing with distilled water. The structural and morphological studies on the nanoparticles were carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The mean size of silicon particles calculated from the FESEM image was about 37.75 nm. FESEM analysis also shows that the final purified product contains a noticeable amount of silicon fibers, dendrites and blocks, along with nanoparticles. The mechanism of Si nanostructures formation is discussed and a simple model for interpretation of experimental results is proposed.

  10. Generation of sub-micron particles and secondary pollutants from building materials by ozone reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Taisuke; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

    This study reports results from two different experiments examining reactions between ozone and common building materials that can lead to the formation of secondary products and particulate-phase materials. Monitored species include sub-micron particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the first set of experiments, various building materials were placed in a 20 L stainless-steel chamber and exposed to ozone. The materials included expanded polystyrene, a natural rubber adhesive, cedar board, Japanese Cyprus board and silver fir board, as well as d-limonene, which is a known constituent of certain woods and cleaning products. The combination of ozone and either d-limonene, cedar board or cypress board produced sub-micron particles, with most of the increase occurring in the size range of 0.01- 0.5μm diameter. This was not observed for the other materials. In the case of cedar board, the consequence of ozone exposure over an extended time interval was monitored. As the exposure time elapsed, the concentration of sub-micron particles moderately decreased. In the second set of experiments, unwaxed or waxed plastic tiles were placed in the 20 L chamber and exposed to ozone. Sub-micron particles and organic compounds were measured during the course of the experiments. In the case of the waxed tile, the number of 0.01- 1.0μm size particles grew about 50×108particlesm-3; particle growth was significantly less for the un-waxed tile. For both the waxed and un-waxed tiles, the emission rates of heptane, nonane, nonanal, and decanal increased after ozone was added to the supply air. (However, it is not clear if some or all of this production was due to ozone reacting with the sorbent used for sampling or with compounds captured by the sorbent.) This study provides further evidence that ozone-initiated reactions with building materials can be a significant source of both sub-micron particles and secondary organic compounds in indoor environments.

  11. Investigation of the α-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    Cross-sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 93mTc, 93gTc(m+), 94mTc, 94gTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, 96gTc(m+), 99mTc, 93mMo, 99Mo(cum), 90Nb(m+), 94Ru, 95Ru,97Ru, 103Ru and 88Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha energy by using a stacked foil technique and activation method. The main goals of this work were to get experimental data for accelerator technology, for monitoring of alpha beam, for thin layer activation technique and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The experimental data were compared with critically analyzed published data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011).

  12. Experimental investigations of mechanical and reaction responses for drop-weight impacted energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Yan-Qing; Wang, Ming-Yang; Huang, Feng-Lei

    2017-02-01

    Low-velocity drop-weight impact experiments on individual and multiple Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) energetic particles were performed using a modified drop-weight machine equipped with high-speed photography components. Multiple particles experienced more severe burning reactions than an individual particle. Comparisons between impacted salt and HMX particle show that jetting in HMX is mainly due to the motion of fragmented particles driven by gaseous reaction products. Velocity of jetting, flame propagation, and area expansion were measured via image processing, making it possible to quantify the chemical reaction or mechanical deformation violence at different stages.

  13. Experimental investigations of mechanical and reaction responses for drop-weight impacted energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Yan-Qing; Wang, Ming-Yang; Huang, Feng-Lei

    2016-10-01

    Low-velocity drop-weight impact experiments on individual and multiple Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) energetic particles were performed using a modified drop-weight machine equipped with high-speed photography components. Multiple particles experienced more severe burning reactions than an individual particle. Comparisons between impacted salt and HMX particle show that jetting in HMX is mainly due to the motion of fragmented particles driven by gaseous reaction products. Velocity of jetting, flame propagation, and area expansion were measured via image processing, making it possible to quantify the chemical reaction or mechanical deformation violence at different stages.

  14. Size effect on solid solid reaction growth between Cu film and Se particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaito, Chihiro; Nonaka, Akira; Kimura, Seiji; Suzuki, Nobuhiko; Saito, Yoshio

    1998-03-01

    A recently developed experimental method of producing a compound by making use of the reaction between thin film and ultrafine particles has been used for copper selenide crystal formation to elucidate the particle size effect on the reaction process. In the case of reaction between Cu film Se particles with size of μm order, CuSe crystals were grown on Se particles by the diffusion of predominantly Cu atoms. In the case of Se particles of the order of 100 nm, amorphous Se particles changed into copper selenide particles by the mutual diffusion of Cu and Se atoms. If the size of Se particles was less than 20 nm, a part of the Cu film changed to copper selenide crystal due to the diffusion of Se atoms to the Cu film. Morphological differences have also been shown and discussed to be the result of the particle size effect.

  15. Water-based condensation particle counters for environmental monitoring of ultrafine particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Kaufman, Stanley L; Osmondson, Brian L; Sem, Gilmore J; Quant, Frederick R; Oberreit, Derek R

    2006-04-01

    TSI Inc. (Shoreview, MN) has introduced three new water-based condensation particle counters (WCPCS) that were designed to detect airborne particles larger than 2.5 nm (model 3786), 5 nm (model 3785), and either 10 or 20 nm (model 3782). These WCPCs are well suited for real-time, environmental monitoring of number concentration of airborne ultrafine particles. Their unique design incorporates the use of water as the working fluid instead of alcohol. Water is odor free, readily available, and eliminates the problem of water condensation and absorption into alcohol working fluids during operation in humid environments. In this study, the performance of three TSI WCPCs was characterized for several aerosol compositions, including sucrose, salt (NaCl), dioctyl sebacate (DOS), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), emery oil (poly-alpha-olefin), silver, impurity residue particles, and ambient aerosol particles. All particles were size selected using a nano differential mobility analyzer (nano-DMA; model 3085, TSI Inc.) to create monodisperse challenge aerosols. The challenge aerosol was mixed uniformly with clean makeup flow and split into a WCPC and a reference instrument to determine the counting efficiency of the WCPC. For the model 3785 WCPC, the D50 (i.e., the particle diameter with 50% counting efficiency) was determined to be 3.1 nm for salt particles, 4.7 nm for sucrose and ambient particles, 5.6 nm for silver particles, and >50 nm for ultrapure oil particles. The sensitivity to oil droplets increased dramatically (D50 < 10 nm) when the oil was slightly contaminated. The D50 of model 3786 ultrafine water-based CPC (UWCPC) was 2.4 nm for impurity residue particles. The D50 of the model 3782 WCPC was 10.8 (with a nominal setting of 10 nm) or 19.8 nm (with a nominal setting of 20 nm) for sucrose particles. All three WCPCs have response times of less than 2 or 3 sec and are therefore able to detect fast-changing events.

  16. Automated workflow for large-scale selected reaction monitoring experiments.

    PubMed

    Malmström, Lars; Malmström, Johan; Selevsek, Nathalie; Rosenberger, George; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-03-02

    Targeted proteomics allows researchers to study proteins of interest without being drowned in data from other, less interesting proteins or from redundant or uninformative peptides. While the technique is mostly used for smaller, focused studies, there are several reasons to conduct larger targeted experiments. Automated, highly robust software becomes more important in such experiments. In addition, larger experiments are carried out over longer periods of time, requiring strategies to handle the sometimes large shift in retention time often observed. We present a complete proof-of-principle software stack that automates most aspects of selected reaction monitoring workflows, a targeted proteomics technology. The software allows experiments to be easily designed and carried out. The steps automated are the generation of assays, generation of mass spectrometry driver files and methods files, and the import and analysis of the data. All data are normalized to a common retention time scale, the data are then scored using a novel score model, and the error is subsequently estimated. We also show that selected reaction monitoring can be used for label-free quantification. All data generated are stored in a relational database, and the growing resource further facilitates the design of new experiments. We apply the technology to a large-scale experiment studying how Streptococcus pyogenes remodels its proteome under stimulation of human plasma.

  17. A Compact Water-Based Particle Condensation Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hering, S. V.

    2006-12-01

    A water-based, condensation particle counter (ME-WCPC, TSI-3781) has been developed to provide monitoring of particle number concentrations in ambient air and in occupied spaces. This instrument weighs 2.3 kg and has a lower size detection limit near 7 nm. Its internal data logging can date-stamp and store up to two weeks of one-minute data. Reported here is the evaluation of this instrument under field conditions. Comparison is made to three types of butanol-based counters (TSI Models 3010, 3022, 3025) and to bench- scale water based counters (TSI Models 3785 and 3786). Ambient sampling was done in the summer and winter in Riverside, California, and in the winter in Berkeley, California. Residential measurements were made at two homes, including one kitchen. Direct assessment of automotive emissions was made through measurements from the air duct of the Caldecott Freeway Tunnel. At all locations the collocated ME-WCPCs agreed with each other, with the square of the correlation coefficient above 0.97 and slopes near 1. For particle number concentrations below 200,000 cm-3, measurements from the ME-WCPC are within a 10 percent, on average, of those from the butaonol-based TSI-3022, and higher than those from the dilution- corrected TSI-3010, consistent with the differences in the lower particle size limits cutpoints of the instruments (7 nm for the TSI-3022, 10 nm for the TSI-3010). The two ultrafine condensation particle counters, the water- based TSI-3786, and the butanol based TSI-3025, both have lower detection limits of 2.5 nm. These instruments were tightly correlated, with R2 greater than 0.99 with 2% to 9% higher concentrations reported on average from the water-based ultrafine instrument. The one-minute data show consistent diurnal variations, with maxima occurring during the morning, evening hours, and often again near midnight.

  18. Analysis of Reaction Products and Conversion Time in the Pyrolisis of Cellulose and Wood Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed mathematical model is presented for the temporal and spatial accurate modeling of solid-fluid reactions in porous particles for which volumetric reaction rate data is known a priori and both the porosity and the permeability of the particle are large enough to allow for continuous gas flow.

  19. Comparison of targeted peptide quantification assays for reductive dehalogenases by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and precursor reaction monitoring (PRM).

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Christian; Hansen, Rasmus; Baumann, Sven; Kublik, Anja; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Adrian, Lorenz; von Bergen, Martin; Jehmlich, Nico; Seifert, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Targeted absolute protein quantification yields valuable information about physiological adaptation of organisms and is thereby of high interest. Especially for this purpose, two proteomic mass spectrometry-based techniques namely selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and precursor reaction monitoring (PRM) are commonly applied. The objective of this study was to establish an optimal quantification assay for proteins with the focus on those involved in housekeeping functions and putative reductive dehalogenase proteins from the strictly anaerobic bacterium Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1. This microbe is small and slow-growing; hence, it provides little biomass for comprehensive proteomic analysis. We therefore compared SRM and PRM techniques. Eleven peptides were successfully quantified by both methods. In addition, six peptides were solely quantified by SRM and four by PRM, respectively. Peptides were spiked into a background of Escherichia coli lysate and the majority of peptides were quantifiable down to 500 amol absolute on column by both methods. Peptide quantification in CBDB1 lysate resulted in the detection of 15 peptides using SRM and 14 peptides with the PRM assay. Resulting quantification of five dehalogenases revealed copy numbers of <10 to 115 protein molecules per cell indicating clear differences in abundance of RdhA proteins during growth on hexachlorobenzene. Our results indicated that both methods show comparable sensitivity and that the combination of the mass spectrometry assays resulted in higher peptide coverage and thus more reliable protein quantification.

  20. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  1. Mathematical model of reaction rate oscillations on a chain of nm-sized catalyst particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskov, N. V.; Slinko, M. M.; Jaeger, N. I.

    2003-05-01

    The model of reaction rate oscillations over the surface of nanoparticles embedded into zeolite matrix is numerically investigated. The reaction rate oscillations on each particle are described by a lumped model. The reactions on separate particles interact via the gas diffusion through the pores, which is modeled in the frame of the Maxwell-Stefan approach. The reaction reveals a complex dynamical behavior if a nonhomogeneous distribution of reagent concentrations exists along the chain of particles with a sufficiently large gradient near the ends of the chain.

  2. Single-particle detection of products from atomic and molecular reactions in a cryogenic ion storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, C.; Novotný, O.; Becker, A.; George, S.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, R. von; Meyer, C.; Schippers, S.; Spruck, K.; Vogel, S.; Wolf, A.

    2017-04-01

    We have used a single-particle detector system, based on secondary electron emission, for counting low-energetic (∼keV/u) massive products originating from atomic and molecular ion reactions in the electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR). The detector is movable within the cryogenic vacuum chamber of CSR, and was used to measure production rates of a variety of charged and neutral daughter particles. In operation at a temperature of ∼ 6 K , the detector is characterised by a high dynamic range, combining a low dark event rate with good high-rate particle counting capability. On-line measurement of the pulse height distributions proved to be an important monitor of the detector response at low temperature. Statistical pulse-height analysis allows to infer the particle detection efficiency of the detector, which has been found to be close to unity also in cryogenic operation at 6 K.

  3. Ozone reaction with clothing and its initiated particle generation in an environmental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Aakash C.; Guo, Bing; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Zhang, Jianshun; Pei, Jingjing; Chen, Qingyan

    2013-10-01

    Ozone-initiated chemistry in indoor air can produce sub-micron particles, which are potentially harmful for human health. Occupants in indoor spaces constitute potential sites for particle generation through ozone reactions with human skin and clothing. This investigation conducted chamber experiments to examine particle generation from ozone reactions with clothing (a T-shirt) under different indoor conditions. We studied the effect of various factors such as ozone concentration, relative humidity, soiling levels of T-shirt with human skin oils, and air change rate on particle generation. The results showed that ozone reactions with the T-shirt generated sub-micron particles, which were enhanced by the soiling of the T-shirt with human skin oils. In these reactions, a burst of ultrafine particles was observed about one hour after ozone injection, and then the particles grew to larger sizes. The particle generation from the ozone reactions with the soiled T-shirt was significantly affected by the different factors studied and these reactions were identified as another potential source for indoor ultrafine particles.

  4. Reaction monitoring using online vs tube NMR spectroscopy: seriously different results.

    PubMed

    Foley, David A; Dunn, Anna L; Zell, Mark T

    2016-06-01

    We report findings from the qualitative evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) reaction monitoring techniques of how each relates to the kinetic profile of a reaction process. The study highlights key reaction rate differences observed between the various NMR reaction monitoring methods investigated: online NMR, static NMR tubes, and periodic inversion of NMR tubes. The analysis of three reaction processes reveals that rates derived from NMR analysis are highly dependent on monitoring method. These findings indicate that users must be aware of the effect of their monitoring method upon the kinetic rate data derived from NMR analysis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Simulation of chemical reaction via particle tracking: Diffusion-limited versus thermodynamic rate-limited regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, David A.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2008-12-01

    Chemical reactions may be simulated without regard to local concentrations by applying simple probabilistic rules of particle interaction and combination. The forward reaction A + B→ C is coded by calculating the probability that any A and B particles will occupy the same volume over some time interval. This becomes a convolution of the location densities of the two particles. The backward reaction is a simple exponential decay of C particles into A and B particles. When the mixing of reactants is not a limiting process, the classical thermodynamic reaction rates are reproduced. When low mixing (as by diffusion) limits the reaction probabilities, the reaction rates drop significantly, including the rate of approach to global equilibrium. At long enough times, the law of mass action is reproduced exactly in the mean, with some irreducible deviation in the local equilibrium saturations (the equilibrium constant divided by the mass action expression) away from unity. The saturation variability is not sensitive to numerical parameters but depends strongly on how far from equilibrium the system is initiated. This is simply due to a relative paucity of particles of some species as the reaction moves far to one side or the other.

  6. Characterization of scintillator crystals for usage as prompt gamma monitors in particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, K.; Pausch, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Golnik, C.; Hueso-González, F.; Kormoll, T.; Petzoldt, J.; Rohling, H.; Thirolf, P.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Weinberger, D.; Fiedler, F.

    2015-10-01

    Particle therapy in oncology is advantageous compared to classical radiotherapy due to its well-defined penetration depth. In the so-called Bragg peak, the highest dose is deposited; the tissue behind the cancerous area is not exposed. Different factors influence the range of the particle and thus the target area, e.g. organ motion, mispositioning of the patient or anatomical changes. In order to avoid over-exposure of healthy tissue and under-dosage of cancerous regions, the penetration depth of the particle has to be monitored, preferably already during the ongoing therapy session. The verification of the ion range can be performed using prompt gamma emissions, which are produced by interactions between projectile and tissue, and originate from the same location and time of the nuclear reaction. The prompt gamma emission profile and the clinically relevant penetration depth are correlated. Various imaging concepts based on the detection of prompt gamma rays are currently discussed: collimated systems with counting detectors, Compton cameras with (at least) two detector planes, or the prompt gamma timing method, utilizing the particle time-of-flight within the body. For each concept, the detection system must meet special requirements regarding energy, time, and spatial resolution. Nonetheless, the prerequisites remain the same: the gamma energy region (2 to 10 MeV), high counting rates and the stability in strong background radiation fields. The aim of this work is the comparison of different scintillation crystals regarding energy and time resolution for optimized prompt gamma detection.

  7. Free computational resources for designing selected reaction monitoring transitions.

    PubMed

    Cham Mead, Jennifer A; Bianco, Luca; Bessant, Conrad

    2010-03-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a technique for quantifying specific proteins using triple quadrupole MS. Proteins are digested into peptides and fed into MS following HPLC separation. The stream of ionized peptides is filtered by m/z ratio so only specific peptide targets enter the collision cell, where they are fragmented into product ions. A specific product ion is then filtered from the cell and its intensity measured. By spiking an isotopically labeled version of each target peptide into a sample, both native and surrogate peptides enter MS, pass the filters and transition into product ions in tandem; thus the quantity of the native peptide may be calculated by examining the relative intensities of the native and surrogate signals. The choice of precursor-to-product ion transitions is critical for SRM, but predicting the best candidates is challenging and time-consuming. To alleviate this problem, software tools for designing and optimizing transitions have recently emerged, predominantly driven by data from public proteomics repositories, such as the Global Proteome Machine and PeptideAtlas. In this review, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in automated SRM transition design tools in the public domain, explaining how the systems work and how to use them.

  8. Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Protein Quantification.

    PubMed

    Manes, Nathan P; Mann, Jessica M; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2015-08-17

    Absolute quantification of target proteins within complex biological samples is critical to a wide range of research and clinical applications. This protocol provides step-by-step instructions for the development and application of quantitative assays using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry (MS). First, likely quantotypic target peptides are identified based on numerous criteria. This includes identifying proteotypic peptides, avoiding sites of posttranslational modification, and analyzing the uniqueness of the target peptide to the target protein. Next, crude external peptide standards are synthesized and used to develop SRM assays, and the resulting assays are used to perform qualitative analyses of the biological samples. Finally, purified, quantified, heavy isotope labeled internal peptide standards are prepared and used to perform isotope dilution series SRM assays. Analysis of all of the resulting MS data is presented. This protocol was used to accurately assay the absolute abundance of proteins of the chemotaxis signaling pathway within RAW 264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line). The quantification of Gi2 (a heterotrimeric G-protein α-subunit) is described in detail.

  9. COPD Exacerbation Biomarkers Validated Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Janice M.; Chen, Virginia; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Dai, Darlene; Tebbutt, Scott J.; Aaron, Shawn D.; Vandemheen, Kathy L.; Rennard, Stephen I.; FitzGerald, J. Mark; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Lazarus, Stephen C.; Connett, John E.; Coxson, Harvey O.; Miller, Bruce; Borchers, Christoph; McManus, Bruce M.; Ng, Raymond T.; Sin, Don D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) result in considerable morbidity and mortality. However, there are no objective biomarkers to diagnose AECOPD. Methods We used multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to quantify 129 distinct proteins in plasma samples from patients with COPD. This analytical approach was first performed in a biomarker cohort of patients hospitalized with AECOPD (Cohort A, n = 72). Proteins differentially expressed between AECOPD and convalescent states were chosen using a false discovery rate <0.01 and fold change >1.2. Protein selection and classifier building were performed using an elastic net logistic regression model. The performance of the biomarker panel was then tested in two independent AECOPD cohorts (Cohort B, n = 37, and Cohort C, n = 109) using leave-pair-out cross-validation methods. Results Five proteins were identified distinguishing AECOPD and convalescent states in Cohort A. Biomarker scores derived from this model were significantly higher during AECOPD than in the convalescent state in the discovery cohort (p<0.001). The receiver operating characteristic cross-validation area under the curve (CV-AUC) statistic was 0.73 in Cohort A, while in the replication cohorts the CV-AUC was 0.77 for Cohort B and 0.79 for Cohort C. Conclusions A panel of five biomarkers shows promise in distinguishing AECOPD from convalescence and may provide the basis for a clinical blood test to diagnose AECOPD. Further validation in larger cohorts is necessary for future clinical translation. PMID:27525416

  10. Modeling Bimolecular Reactions and Transport in Porous Media Via Particle Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ding; David Benson; Amir Paster; Diogo Bolster

    2012-01-01

    We use a particle-tracking method to simulate several one-dimensional bimolecular reactive transport experiments. In this numerical method, the reactants are represented by particles: advection and dispersion dominate the flow, and molecular diffusion dictates, in large part, the reactions. The particle/particle reactions are determined by a combination of two probabilities dictated by the physics of transport and energetics of reaction. The first is that reactant particles occupy the same volume over a short time interval. The second is the conditional probability that two collocated particles favorably transform into a reaction. The first probability is a direct physical representation of the degree of mixing in an advancing displacement front, and as such lacks empirical parameters except for the user-defined number of particles. This number can be determined analytically from concentration autocovariance, if this type of data is available. The simulations compare favorably to two physical experiments. In one, the concentration of product, 1,2-naphthoquinoe-4-aminobenzene (NQAB) from reaction between 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid (NQS) and aniline (AN), was measured at the outflow of a column filled with glass beads at different times. In the other, the concentration distribution of reactants (CuSO_4 and EDTA^{4-}) and products (CuEDTA^{4-}) were quantified by snapshots of transmitted light through a column packed with cryloite sand. The thermodynamic rate coefficient in the latter experiment was 10^7 times greater than the former experiment, making it essentially instantaneous. When compared to the solution of the advection-dispersion-reaction equation (ADRE) with the well-mixed reaction coefficient, the experiments and the particle-tracking simulations showed on the order of 20% to 40% less overall product, which is attributed to poor mixing. The poor mixing also leads to higher product concentrations on the edges of the mixing zones, which the particle

  11. The motion of charged particles in strong plane waves including radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinemann, R.; Herold, H.; Ruder, H.; Kegel, W. H.

    The Lorentz-Dirac equation in the Landau approximation is used to study the motion of charged particles in strong plane vacuum waves. It is shown that integration for circularly polarized waves can be used to determine analytically the curves of the particle trajectories. The solution is used to investigate the particle trajectories and energy evolution for various strong waves. The initial conditions for the motion are chosen so that the particles start from a radiation-free path and the growing effect of the radiation reaction on the particle trajectory is highlighted.

  12. Numerical modeling of particle generation from ozone reactions with human-worn clothing in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Aakash C.; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Chen, Qingyan

    2015-02-01

    Ozone-terpene reactions are important sources of indoor ultrafine particles (UFPs), a potential health hazard for human beings. Humans themselves act as possible sites for ozone-initiated particle generation through reactions with squalene (a terpene) that is present in their skin, hair, and clothing. This investigation developed a numerical model to probe particle generation from ozone reactions with clothing worn by humans. The model was based on particle generation measured in an environmental chamber as well as physical formulations of particle nucleation, condensational growth, and deposition. In five out of the six test cases, the model was able to predict particle size distributions reasonably well. The failure in the remaining case demonstrated the fundamental limitations of nucleation models. The model that was developed was used to predict particle generation under various building and airliner cabin conditions. These predictions indicate that ozone reactions with human-worn clothing could be an important source of UFPs in densely occupied classrooms and airliner cabins. Those reactions could account for about 40% of the total UFPs measured on a Boeing 737-700 flight. The model predictions at this stage are indicative and should be improved further.

  13. Monitoring dry deposition of gases and particles over a forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennen, M. G.; van Putten, E. M.; Uiterwijk, J. W.; Hogenkamp, J. E. M.; Wiese, C. J.; Draaijers, G.; Erisman, J. W.; Otjes, R. P.; Wyers, G. P.

    1996-12-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of acidifying and eutrophying compounds are continuously determined at Speulder forest, a Douglas fir site in the centre of the Netherlands. The monitoring equipment, installed on a 36-m high tower, consists of a sonic anemometer, a cup anemometer, a wind vane, a Bowen ratio system, three temperature/r.h. sensors, and gas analyzers to measure gradients of SO 2, NO x and NH 3 and concentrations of HCl, HNO 2 and HNO 3. Particles are sampled in two size ranges (<2.5 mm and 2.5-10 mm) on filters, which are analysed for acidifying components and basic cations. Fluxes of SO 2, NO x and NH 3 are determined with the gradient method, while fluxes of the other components are estimated with the inferential method. Parameterizations of the surface resistance ( Rc) for gases are derived from measurements obtained during periods that meet criteria with respect to homogeneous fetch, stationary flow, etc. Parameterized Rc values are used to estimate fluxes during periods that don't fulfil these demands. In this way, yearly average fluxes can be determined. In 1995, the total deposition fluxes of SO x(=SO 2+SO 42-), NO y(=NO x+NO 3-+HNO 2+HNO 3) and NH x, (=NH 3+NH 4+) were 450, 630 and 1620 eq. ha -1 a -1, respectively.

  14. Contractile reactions of guinea pig airway smooth muscles in the presence of stannum oxide nanosized particles.

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, L V; Zaytseva, T N; Nosarev, A V; Agev, B G; Dyakova, E Yu; Ogorodova, L M; Magaeva, A A; Terecova, O G; Itin, V I

    2012-05-01

    Contractile reactions of the guinea pig airway smooth muscles in the presence of stannum dioxide nanosized particles were studied. Contractile reactions to cholinergic and histaminergic stimulation were potentiated by inhalations of nanoparticle aerosol and by exposure of isolated smooth muscle segments to nanoparticle suspension.

  15. A study on the grafting reaction of isocyanates with hydroxyapatite particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A

    1998-06-05

    The surface grafting reactions of a series of isocyanates with hydroxyapatite particles at different temperatures were studied by Infrared spectrophotometry (IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The study results show that both hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) and isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (ICEM) react readily with HA while ethyl isocyanate acetate (EIA) and butyl isocyanate (BIC) have lower reactivity towards HA particles. It also has been found that the reaction of ICEM with HA follows a second-order reaction mechanism, despite the heterogeneous nature of the reaction, while the reaction of HMDI with HA does not due to the complexity of the reaction. Based on this study, it is concluded that ICEM and HMDI are suitable agents for the coupling of polymers due to their reactivity towards HA.

  16. In Situ FTIR Spectroscopic Monitoring of Electrochemically Controlled Organic Reactions in a Recycle Reactor

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Alexander. G.; Luca, Oana. R.; Baran, Phil. S.

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical cell coupled with a recycle loop through a transmission FTIR cell is employed in studies of two free radical organic reactions, the oxidation of allylic alcohols and the trifluoromethylation of heteroarenes. Rapid mixing through the recycle loop allows continuous monitoring of reaction progress. Electrochemical generation of free radicals allows their controlled mediation into the reaction mixture for more efficient reaction. Kinetic profiles provide mechanistic insight into reactions under electrochemical control. PMID:27069673

  17. In Situ FTIR Spectroscopic Monitoring of Electrochemically Controlled Organic Reactions in a Recycle Reactor.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Alexander G; Luca, Oana R; Baran, Phil S; Blackmond, Donna G

    2016-02-01

    An electrochemical cell coupled with a recycle loop through a transmission FTIR cell is employed in studies of two free radical organic reactions, the oxidation of allylic alcohols and the trifluoromethylation of heteroarenes. Rapid mixing through the recycle loop allows continuous monitoring of reaction progress. Electrochemical generation of free radicals allows their controlled mediation into the reaction mixture for more efficient reaction. Kinetic profiles provide mechanistic insight into reactions under electrochemical control.

  18. Influence of Particle Size on Reaction Selectivity in Cyclohexene Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation over Silica-Supported Monodisperse Pt Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Rioux, R. M.; Hsu, B. B.; Grass, M. E.; Song, H.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-07-11

    The role of particle size during the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of cyclohexene (10 Torr C{sub 6}H{sub 10}, 200-600 Torr H{sub 2}, and 273-650 K) was studied over a series of monodisperse Pt/SBA-15 catalysts. The conversion of cyclohexene in the presence of excess H{sub 2} (H{sub 2}:C{sub 6}H{sub 10} ratio = 20-60) is characterized by three regimes: hydrogenation of cyclohexene to cyclohexane at low temperature (< 423 K), an intermediate temperature range in which both hydrogenation and dehydrogenation occur; and a high temperature regime in which the dehydrogenation of cyclohexene dominates (> 573 K). The rate of both reactions demonstrated maxima with temperature, regardless of Pt particle size. For the hydrogenation of cyclohexene, a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (apparent negative activation energy) was observed. Hydrogenation is structure insensitive at low temperatures, and apparently structure sensitive in the non-Arrhenius regime; the origin of the particle-size dependent reactivity with temperature is attributed to a change in the coverage of reactive hydrogen. Small particles were more active for dehydrogenation and had lower apparent activation energies than large particles. The selectivity can be controlled by changing the particle size, which is attributed to the structure sensitivity of both reactions in the temperature regime where hydrogenation and dehydrogenation are catalyzed simultaneously.

  19. Nonthermal nuclear reactions induced by fast α particles in the solar core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronchev, Victor T.

    2015-02-01

    Nonthermal nuclear effects triggered in the solar carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle by fast α particles—products of the p p chain reactions—are examined. The main attention is paid to 8.674-MeV α particles generated in the 7Li(p ,α ) α reaction. Nonthermal characteristics of these α particles and their influence on some nuclear processes are determined. It is found that the α -particle effective temperature is at a level of 1.1 MeV and exceeds the solar core temperature by 3 orders of magnitude. These fast particles are able to significantly enhance some endoergic (α ,p ) reactions neglected in standard solar model calculations. In particular, they can substantially affect the balance of the p +17O⇄α +14N reactions due to an appreciable increase of the reverse reaction rate. It is shown that in the region R =0.08 -0.25 R⊙ the reverse α +14N reaction can block the forward p +17O reaction, thus preventing closing of the CNO-II cycle, and increase the 17O abundance by a factor of 2-155 depending on R . This indicates that the fast α particles produced in the p p cycle can distort running of the CNO cycle, making it essentially different in the inner and outer core regions.

  20. A Dynamic Approach to Monitoring Particle Fallout in a Cleanroom Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford L., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses a mathematical model to monitor particle fallout in a cleanroom. "Cleanliness levels" do not lead to increases with regards to cleanroom type or time because the levels are not linear. Activity level, impacts the cleanroom class. The numerical method presented leads to a simple Class-hour formulation, that allows for dynamic monitoring of the particle using a standard air particle counter.

  1. Effect of particle size in a limestone-hydrochloric acid reaction system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhou, Qulan; Chen, Xi; Xu, Tongmo; Hui, Shien

    2010-07-15

    Experimental characterization of the wet flue gas desulfurization process is carried out using a model limestone-hydrochloric acid reaction system, with in-situ measurement of the dissolution rate and particle size distribution. The limestone source, initial particle size distribution, working temperature and pH value are varied in large ranges. The dissolution rate is found to be higher when the average particle size is smaller, the temperature is higher, or the pH is lower. An empirical equation is established to correlate the dissolution rate with the particle size and working conditions, which agrees well with measurements. The results may be useful for providing insights to improve the efficiency of the wet flue gas desulfurization process, as well as other solid particle-liquid solution reactions.

  2. Real time monitoring of accelerated chemical reactions by ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Hsuan; Lo, Ta-Ju; Kuo, Fang-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been used to accelerate chemical reactions. It would be ideal if ultrasonication-assisted chemical reactions could be monitored by suitable detection tools such as mass spectrometry in real time. It would be helpful to clarify reaction intermediates/products and to have a better understanding of reaction mechanism. In this work, we developed a system for ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (UASI-MS) with an ~1.7 MHz ultrasonic transducer to monitor chemical reactions in real time. We demonstrated that simply depositing a sample solution on the MHz-based ultrasonic transducer, which was placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, the analyte signals can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Singly and multiply charged ions from small and large molecules, respectively, can be observed in the UASI mass spectra. Furthermore, the ultrasonic transducer used in the UASI setup accelerates the chemical reactions while being monitored via UASI-MS. The feasibility of using this approach for real-time acceleration/monitoring of chemical reactions was demonstrated. The reactions of Girard T reagent and hydroxylamine with steroids were used as the model reactions. Upon the deposition of reactant solutions on the ultrasonic transducer, the intermediate/product ions are readily generated and instantaneously monitored using MS within 1 s. Additionally, we also showed the possibility of using this reactive UASI-MS approach to assist the confirmation of trace steroids from complex urine samples by monitoring the generation of the product ions.

  3. Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics with reaction ensemble Monte Carlo. II. Supramolecular diblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lísal, Martin; Brennan, John K.; Smith, William R.

    2009-03-01

    We present an alternative formulation of the reaction ensemble dissipative particle dynamics (RxDPD) method [M. Lísal, J. K. Brennan, and W. R. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 16490 (2006)], a mesoscale simulation technique for studying polymer systems in reaction equilibrium. The RxDPD method combines elements of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and reaction ensemble Monte Carlo (RxMC), and is primarily targeted for the prediction of the system composition, thermodynamic properties, and phase behavior of reaction equilibrium polymer systems. The alternative formulation of the RxDPD method is demonstrated by considering a supramolecular diblock copolymer (SDC) melt in which two homopolymers, An and Bm, can reversibly bond at terminal binding sites to form a diblock copolymer, AnBm. We consider the effect of the terminal binding sites and the chemical incompatibility between A- and B-segments on the phase behavior. Both effects are found to strongly influence the resulting phase behavior. Due to the reversible nature of the binding, the SDC melt can be treated as the reaction equilibrium system An+Bm⇌AnBm. To simulate the An+Bm⇌AnBm melt, the system contains, in addition to full An, Bm, and AnBm polymers, two fractional polymers: one fractional polymer either fAn or fBm, and one fractional polymer fAnBm, which have fractional particles at the ends of the polymer chains. These fractional particles are coupled to the system via a coupling parameter. The time evolution of the system is governed by the DPD equations of motion, accompanied by random changes in the coupling parameter. Random changes in the coupling parameter mimic forward and reverse reaction steps as in the RxMC approach, and they are accepted with a probability derived from the expanded ensemble grand canonical partition function. Unlike the original RxDPD method that considers coupling of entire fractional polymers to the system, the expanded ensemble framework allows a stepwise coupling, thus

  4. Radiation reaction effect on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, P. K.

    2015-12-15

    The effects of radiation reaction force on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration scheme are studied using Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion. These studies are carried out for both linear and circularly polarized laser fields in the presence of static axial magnetic field. From the parametric study, a radiation reaction dominated region has been identified in which the particle dynamics is greatly effected by this force. In the radiation reaction dominated region, the two significant effects on particle dynamics are seen, viz., (1) saturation in energy gain by the initially resonant particle and (2) net energy gain by an initially non-resonant particle which is caused due to resonance broadening. It has been further shown that with the relaxation of resonance condition and with optimum choice of parameters, this scheme may become competitive with the other present-day laser driven particle acceleration schemes. The quantum corrections to the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion have also been taken into account. The difference in the energy gain estimates of the particle by the quantum corrected and classical Landau-Lifshitz equation is found to be insignificant for the present day as well as upcoming laser facilities.

  5. Radiation reaction effect on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of radiation reaction force on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration scheme are studied using Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion. These studies are carried out for both linear and circularly polarized laser fields in the presence of static axial magnetic field. From the parametric study, a radiation reaction dominated region has been identified in which the particle dynamics is greatly effected by this force. In the radiation reaction dominated region, the two significant effects on particle dynamics are seen, viz., (1) saturation in energy gain by the initially resonant particle and (2) net energy gain by an initially non-resonant particle which is caused due to resonance broadening. It has been further shown that with the relaxation of resonance condition and with optimum choice of parameters, this scheme may become competitive with the other present-day laser driven particle acceleration schemes. The quantum corrections to the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion have also been taken into account. The difference in the energy gain estimates of the particle by the quantum corrected and classical Landau-Lifshitz equation is found to be insignificant for the present day as well as upcoming laser facilities.

  6. Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-06-25

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  7. Absolute monitoring of DD and DT neutron fluences using the associated-particle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, N. E.; Wehring, B. W.

    1980-06-01

    An associated-particle system was constructed for use with a Texas Nuclear neutron generator. Associated-particle and neutron energy spectra were measured simultaneously using this system and an NE-213 proton recoil spectrometer, respectively. The associated-particle system proved to be not only an accurate monitor of DT neutron fluence, but also an accurate monitor of DD contamination in the DT spectrum. The DD and DT neutron fluences calculated from the measured associated-particle counting rates showed the best agreement with the measured neutron fluences when the laboratory distributions were assumed to be isotropic.

  8. Application of a Particle Method to the Advection-Diffusion-Reaction Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paster, A.; Bolster, D.; Benson, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    A reaction between two chemical species can only happen if molecules collide and react. Thus, the mixing of a system can become a limiting factor in the onset of reaction. Solving for reaction rate in a well-mixed system is typically a straightforward task. However, when incomplete mixing kicks in, obtaining a solution becomes more challenging. Since reaction can only happen in regions where both reactants co-exist, the incomplete mixing may slow down the reaction rate, when compared to a well-mixed system. The effect of incomplete mixing upon reaction is a highly important aspect of various processes in natural and engineered systems, ranging from mineral precipitation in geological formations to groundwater remediation in aquifers. We study a relatively simple system with a bi-molecular irreversible kinetic reaction A+B → Ø where the underlying transport of reactants is governed by an advection-diffusion equation, and the initial concentrations are given in terms of an average and a perturbation. Such a system does not have an analytical solution to date, even for the zero advection case. We model the system by a Monte Carlo particle tracking method, where particles represent some reactant mass. In this method, diffusion is modeled by a random walk of the particles, and reaction is modeled by annihilation of particles. The probability of the annihilation is proportional to the reaction rate constant and the probability density associated with particle co-location. We study the numerical method in depth, characterizing typical numerical errors and time step restrictions. In particular, we show that the numerical method converges to the advection-diffusion-reaction equation at the limit Δt →0. We also rigorously derive the relationship between the initial number of particles in the system and the initial concentrations perturbations represented by that number. We then use the particle simulations of zero-advection system to demonstrate the well

  9. Preparation of Metalloporphyrin-Bound Superparamagnetic Silica Particles via "Click" Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Javoris V; Bhupathiraju, N V S Dinesh K; Sun, Jirun; Lochner, Eric; Vicente, M Graça H; Russo, Paul S

    2016-01-13

    A facile approach using click chemistry is demonstrated for immobilization of metalloporphyrins onto the surface of silica-coated iron oxide particles. Oleic-acid stabilized iron oxide nanocrystals were prepared by thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate. Their crystallinity, morphology, and superparamagnetism were determined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. Monodisperse core-shell particles were produced in the silica-coating of iron oxide via microemulsion synthesis. Surface modification of these particles was performed in two steps, which included the reaction of silica-coated iron oxide particles with 3-bromopropyltrichlorosilane, followed by azido-functionalization with sodium azide. Monoalkylated porphyrins were prepared using the Williamson ether synthesis of commercially available tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin with propargyl bromide in the presence of a base. (1)H NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization confirmed the identity of the compounds. The prepared monoalkyne porphyrins were zinc-metalated prior to their introduction to azide-functionalized, silica-coated iron oxide particles in the click reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface chemistry after each step in the reaction. In addition, particle size was determined using dynamic light scattering and microscopy. The presented methodology is versatile and can be extended to other photoreactive systems, such as phthalocyanines and boron-dipyrromethane, which may lead to new materials for optical, photonic, and biological applications.

  10. Reaction cross sections of intermediate energy {alpha} particles within a relativistic optical model

    SciTech Connect

    Ait-Tahar, S.; Nedjadi, Y.

    1995-07-01

    The suggestion made recently by H. Abele {ital et} {ital al}. that relativistic effects in the interaction of alpha particles with various nuclei at intermediate energies may remove the existing discrepancy between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the reaction cross section is investigated. We use a relativistic model based on the Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau equation and find that relativistic effects do not lead to a reduction in the reaction cross section within the present approach. Alternative explanations are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of the Malvern optical particle monitor. [Volumetric size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R. J.; Johnson, E.

    1983-07-01

    The Malvern 2200/3300 Particle Sizer is a laser-based optical particle sizing device which utilizes the principle of Fraunhofer Diffraction as the means of particle size measurement. The instrument is designed to analyze particle sizes in the range of 1 to 1800 microns diameter through a selection of lenses for the receiving optics. It is not a single-particle counter but rather an ensemble averager over the distribution of particles present in the measuring volume. Through appropriate measurement techniques, the instrument can measure the volumetric size distribution of: solids in gas or liquid suspension; liquid droplets in gas or other immiscible liquids; and, gas bubbles in liquid. (Malvern Handbook, Version 1.5). This report details a limited laboratory evaluation of the Malvern system to determine its operational characteristics, limitations, and accuracy. This investigation focused on relatively small particles in the range of 5 to 150 microns. Primarily, well characterized particles of coal in a coal and water mixture were utilized, but a selection of naturally occurring, industrially generated, and standard samples (i.e., glass beads) wer also tested. The characteristic size parameter from the Malvern system for each of these samples was compared with the results of a Coulter particle counter (Model TA II) analysis to determine the size measurement accuracy. Most of the particulate samples were suspended in a liquid media (water or isoton, plus a dispersant) for the size characterization. Specifically, the investigations contained in this report fall into four categories: (a) Sample-to-lense distance and sample concentration studies, (b) studies testing the applicability to aerosols, (c) tests of the manufacturer supplied software, and (d) size measurement comparisons with the results of Coulter analysis. 5 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  12. From Cells to Virus Particles: Quantitative Methods to Monitor RNA Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Mireia; Henriet, Simon; Chamontin, Célia; Lainé, Sébastien; Mougel, Marylène

    2016-01-01

    In cells, positive strand RNA viruses, such as Retroviridae, must selectively recognize their full-length RNA genome among abundant cellular RNAs to assemble and release particles. How viruses coordinate the intracellular trafficking of both RNA and protein components to the assembly sites of infectious particles at the cell surface remains a long-standing question. The mechanisms ensuring packaging of genomic RNA are essential for viral infectivity. Since RNA packaging impacts on several essential functions of retroviral replication such as RNA dimerization, translation and recombination events, there are many studies that require the determination of RNA packaging efficiency and/or RNA packaging ability. Studies of RNA encapsidation rely upon techniques for the identification and quantification of RNA species packaged by the virus. This review focuses on the different approaches available to monitor RNA packaging: Northern blot analysis, ribonuclease protection assay and quantitative reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction as well as the most recent RNA imaging and sequencing technologies. Advantages, disadvantages and limitations of these approaches will be discussed in order to help the investigator to choose the most appropriate technique. Although the review was written with the prototypic simple murine leukemia virus (MLV) and complex human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in mind, the techniques were described in order to benefit to a larger community. PMID:27556480

  13. Applicability of fiber-optic-based Raman probes for on-line reaction monitoring of high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Hamminga, Gerben M; Mul, Guido; Moulijn, Jacob A

    2007-05-01

    This study evaluates the applicability of fiber-optic-based Raman probes for on-line reaction monitoring of high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation reactions in batch autoclaves. First, based on trends in the strong intensity of the 945 cm(-1) C-O-C vibration of 1,3-dioxolane, the effect of various experimental parameters on sensitivity was evaluated and can be summarized as follows: (1) above 500 rpm a linear increase in stirring speed induces a linear decrease in Raman intensity; (2) a linear increase in hydrogen pressure also leads to a linear decrease of the Raman signal; (3) linear temperature elevation exponentially decreases the Raman intensity; and (4) increasing the catalyst particle concentration results in a steep nonlinear decrease of the Raman signal. Light scattering by gas bubbles, or combined scattering and absorption by (black) catalyst particles, reducing the amount of light collected by the optical fiber probe, explain the observed experimental trends. Second, the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy was directly compared with attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy in the analysis of three different hydrogenation reactions over a Cu-ZnO catalyst. From the applied target molecules, diethyl maleate hydrogenation could be very well analyzed by Raman spectroscopy due to the high Raman scattering efficiency of the C=C bond, while for analysis of the hydrogenation of gamma-butyrolactone or 1-butanal, ATR-FT-IR is the technique of choice.

  14. Preparation for Spherical particles of Praseodymium doped Perovskite Red Phosphor by Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, T.; Matsuda, A.; Mizunuma, M.; Tanaka, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Spherical particles of 0.5mol%Pr3+-doped CaTiO3 were prepared by hydrothermal reaction on dissolved CaCl2, Pr(NO3)3, and ammonium citratoperoxotitanate (IV) complex precursor solution with molar ratio of Ti/CA=1:2 and calcination in ambient atmosphere. The obtained particle exhibited red photoluminescence at 610nm. It is found that several particles have hollow structure. It is required that further investigation is needed to clarify the formation mechanism of these spherical hollow paricles.

  15. Effect of reactivity loss on apparent reaction order of burning char particles

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jeffrey J.; Shaddix, Christopher R.

    2010-03-15

    Considerable debate still exists in the char combustion community over the expected and observed reaction orders of carbon reacting with oxygen. In particular, very low values of the reaction order (approaching zero) are commonly observed in char combustion experiments. These observations appear to conflict with porous catalyst theory as first expressed by Thiele, which suggests that the apparent reaction order must be greater than 0.5. In this work, we propose that this conflict may be resolved by considering the decrease in char reactivity with burnout due to ash effects, thermal annealing, or other phenomena. Specifically, the influence of ash dilution of the available surface area on the apparent reaction order is explored. Equations describing the ash dilution effect are combined with a model for particle burnout based on single-film nth-order Arrhenius char combustion and yield an analytical expression for the effective reaction order. When this expression is applied for experimental conditions reflecting combustion of individual pulverized coal particles in an entrained flow reactor, the apparent reaction order is shown to be lower than the inherent char matrix reaction order, even for negligible extents of char conversion. As char conversion proceeds and approaches completion, the apparent reaction order drops precipitously past zero to negative values. Conversely, the inclusion of the ash dilution model has little effect on the char conversion profile or char particle temperature until significant burnout has occurred. Taken together, these results suggest that the common experimental observation of low apparent reaction orders during char combustion is a consequence of the lack of explicit modeling of the decrease in char reactivity with burnout. (author)

  16. Timescale for hygroscopic conversion of calcite mineral particles through heterogeneous reaction with nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ryan C; Moore, Meagan J K; Petters, Markus D; Kreidenweis, Sonia M; Roberts, Greg C; Prather, Kimberly A

    2009-09-28

    Atmospheric heterogeneous reactions can potentially change the hygroscopicity of atmospheric aerosols as they undergo chemical aging processes in the atmosphere. A particle's hygroscopicity influences its cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties with potential impacts on cloud formation and climate. In this study, size-selected calcite mineral particles were reacted with controlled amounts of nitric acid vapour over a wide range of relative humidities in an aerosol flow tube to study the conversion of insoluble and thus apparently non-hygroscopic calcium carbonate into soluble and hygroscopic calcium nitrate. The rate of hygroscopic change particles undergo during a heterogeneous reaction is derived from experimental measurements for the first time. The chemistry of the reacted particles was determined using an ultrafine aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UF-ATOFMS) while the particles' hygroscopicity was determined through measuring CCN activation curves fit to a single parameter of hygroscopicity, kappa. The reaction is rapid, corresponding to atmospheric timescales of hours. At low to moderate HNO3 exposures, the increase in the hygroscopicity of the particles is a linear function of the HNO3(g) exposure. The experimentally observed conversion rate was used to constrain a simple but accurate kinetic model. This model predicts that calcite particles will be rapidly converted into hygroscopic particles (kappa>0.1) within 4 h for low HNO3 mixing ratios (10 pptv) and in less than 3 min for 1000 pptv HNO3. This suggests that the hygroscopic conversion of the calcite component of atmospheric mineral dust aerosol will be controlled by the availability of nitric acid and similar reactants, and not by the atmospheric residence time.

  17. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  18. Collision limited reaction rates for arbitrarily shaped particles across the entire diffusive Knudsen number range.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Ranganathan; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Hogan, Christopher J

    2011-08-07

    Aerosol particle reactions with vapor molecules and molecular clusters are often collision rate limited, hence determination of particle-vapor molecule and particle-molecular cluster collision rates are of fundamental importance. These collisions typically occur in the mass transfer transition regime, wherein the collision kernel (collision rate coefficient) is dependent upon the diffusive Knudsen number, Kn(D). While this alone prohibits analytical determination of the collision kernel, aerosol particle- vapor molecule collisions are further complicated when particles are non-spherical, as is often the case for particles formed in high temperature processes (combustion). Recently, through a combination of mean first passage time simulations and dimensional analysis, it was shown that the collision kernel for spherical particles and vapor molecules could be expressed as a dimensionless number, H, which is solely a function of Kn(D). In this work, it is shown through similar mean first passage times and redefinitions of H and Kn(D) that the H(Kn(D)) relationship found for spherical particles applies for particles of arbitrary shape, including commonly encountered agglomerate particles. Specifically, it is shown that to appropriately define H and Kn(D), two geometric descriptors for a particle are necessary: its Smoluchowski radius, which defines the collision kernel in the continuum regime (Kn(D)→0) and its orientationally averaged projected area, which defines the collision kernel in the free molecular regime (Kn(D)→∞). With these two parameters, as well as the properties of the colliding vapor molecule (mass and diffusion coefficient), the particle-vapor molecule collision kernel in the continuum, transition, and free molecular regimes can be simply calculated using the H(Kn(D)) relationship.

  19. Esterification Reaction Utilizing Sense of Smell and Eyesight for Conversion and Catalyst Recovery Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssens, Nikki; Wee, Lik H.; Martens, Johan A.

    2014-01-01

    The esterification reaction of salicylic acid with ethanol is performed in presence of dissolved 12-tungstophosphoric Brønsted-Lowry acid catalyst, a Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM). The monitoring of the reaction with smell and the recovery of the catalyst with sight is presented. Formation of the sweet-scented ester is apparent from the smell.…

  20. Small tritium filling and monitoring apparatus for particle beam inertial confinement fusion targets.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Leeper, R J; Martinez, C; McMurtry, W M

    1980-03-01

    A small gas filling apparatus has been developed to fill a particle beam ICF target with D-T gas mixture seconds before the target is irradiated. Included in the filling apparatus is a novel miniature pressure monitor which determines quantitatively the fill pressure by counting the rate of Beta particles emitted by the decaying tritium atoms.

  1. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, William L.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    1998-07-07

    The instant invention discloses method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, and sampling probes, in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream.

  2. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.

    1998-07-07

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, sampling probes, and in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream. 6 figs.

  3. Adverse Drug Reactions and quality deviations monitored by spontaneous reports

    PubMed Central

    Visacri, Marília Berlofa; de Souza, Cinthia Madeira; Sato, Catarina Miyako Shibata; Granja, Silvia; de Marialva, Mécia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Moriel, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases. PMID:25972731

  4. Particle size effect of redox reactions for Co species supported on silica

    SciTech Connect

    Chotiwan, Siwaruk; Tomiga, Hiroki; Katagiri, Masaki; Yamamoto, Yusaku; Yamashita, Shohei; Katayama, Misaki; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-15

    Conversions of chemical states during redox reactions of two silica-supported Co catalysts, which were prepared by the impregnation method, were evaluated by using an in situ XAFS technique. The addition of citric acid into the precursor solution led to the formation on silica of more homogeneous and smaller Co particles, with an average diameter of 4 nm. The supported Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} species were reduced to metallic Co via the divalent CoO species during a temperature-programmed reduction process. The reduced Co species were quantitatively oxidized with a temperature-programmed oxidation process. The higher observed reduction temperature of the smaller CoO particles and the lower observed oxidation temperature of the smaller metallic Co particles were induced by the higher dispersion of the Co oxide species, which apparently led to a stronger interaction with supporting silica. The redox temperature between CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was found to be independent of the particle size. - Graphical abstract: Chemical state conversions of SiO{sub 2}-supported Co species and the particle size effect have been analyzed by means of in situ XAFS technique. The small CoO particles have endurance against the reduction and exist in a wide temperature range. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The conversions of the chemical state of supported Co species during redox reaction are evaluated. • In operando XAFS technique were applied to measure redox properties of small Co particles. • A small particle size affects to the redox temperatures of cobalt catalysts.

  5. Lost alpha-particle diagnostics from a D-T plasma by using nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, Mamiko; Wada, Motoi; Isobe, Mitsutaka

    2014-08-21

    Among various methods proposed for alpha-particles loss measurement, we studied on those by measuring gamma rays of three cases, from (1) nuclear reactions induced by alpha particles, (2) those from short-life-time activities and (3) those from long-life-time activities induced by alpha particles. The time evolution of local alpha flux may possibly be measured by using the {sup 9}Be (a, n) {sup 12}C reaction (1). Using the same system, but with a target set up close to the first wall, activation measurement on site right after turning-off the discharge is possible (2). Nuclear reaction, {sup 25}Mg (a, p) {sup 28}Al, that produce radioisotopes of short lifetime of 2.2 minutes in one of the best candidates. As to the activation to a long lifetime (3), it is predicted that the gamma ray yield from {sup 19}F (a, n) {sup 22}Na reaction is enough for the measurement at the reactor site.

  6. A particle-mesh algorithm for advection-reaction-diffusion equations with applications to plankton modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparella, F.; Oliveri, F.

    2009-04-01

    The interplay of advection, reaction and diffusion terms in ADR equations is a rather difficult one to be modeled numerically. The kind of spurious oscillations that is usually harmless for non-reacting scalars is often amplified without bounds by reaction terms. Furthermore, in most biogeochimical applications, such as mesoscale or global-scale plankton modeling, the diffusive fluxes may be smaller than the numerical ones. Inspired by the particle-mesh methods used by cosmologists, we propose to discretize on a grid only the diffusive term of the equation, and solve the advection-reaction terms as ordinary differential equations along the characteristic lines. Diffusion happens by letting the concentration field carried by each particle to relax towards the diffusive field known on the grid, without redistributing the particles. This method, in the limit of vanishing diffusivity and for a fixed mesh size, recovers the advection-reaction solution with no numerical diffusion. We show some example numerical solutions of the ADR equations stemming from a simple predator-prey model.

  7. Spectrally matched upconverting luminescent nanoparticles for monitoring enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Stefan; del Barrio, Melisa; Heiland, Josef; Himmelstoß, Sandy F; Galbán, Javier; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Hirsch, Thomas

    2014-09-10

    We report on upconverting luminescent nanoparticles (UCLNPs) that are spectrally tuned such that their emission matches the absorption bands of the two most important species associated with enzymatic redox reactions. The core-shell UCLNPs consist of a β-NaYF4 core doped with Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) ions and a shell of pure β-NaYF4. Upon 980 nm excitation, they display emission bands peaking at 360 and 475 nm, which is a perfect match to the absorption bands of the enzyme cosubstrate NADH and the coenzyme FAD, respectively. By exploiting these spectral overlaps, we have designed fluorescent detection schemes for NADH and FAD that are based on the modulation of the emission intensities of UCLNPs by FAD and NADH via an inner filter effect.

  8. A Lagrangian particle method for reaction-diffusion systems on deforming surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bergdorf, Michael; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    Reaction-diffusion processes on complex deforming surfaces are fundamental to a number of biological processes ranging from embryonic development to cancer tumor growth and angiogenesis. The simulation of these processes using continuum reaction-diffusion models requires computational methods capable of accurately tracking the geometric deformations and discretizing on them the governing equations. We employ a Lagrangian level-set formulation to capture the deformation of the geometry and use an embedding formulation and an adaptive particle method to discretize both the level-set equations and the corresponding reaction-diffusion. We validate the proposed method and discuss its advantages and drawbacks through simulations of reaction-diffusion equations on complex and deforming geometries.

  9. Role of radiation reaction forces in the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dalakishvili, G. T.; Rogava, A. D.; Berezhiani, V. I.

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we study the influence of radiation reaction (RR) forces on the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles. It is assumed that the particles move along magnetic field lines anchored in the rotating central object. The common 'bead-on-the-wire' approximation is used. The solutions are found and analyzed for cases when the form of the prescribed trajectory (rigidly rotating field line) is approximated by: (a) straight line, and (b) Archimedes spiral. Dynamics of neutral and charged particles are compared with the emphasis on the role of RR forces in the latter case. It is shown that for charged particles there exist locations of stable equilibrium. It is demonstrated that for particular initial conditions RR forces cause centripetal motion of the particles: their 'falling' on the central rotating object. It is found that in the case of Archimedes spiral both neutral and charged particles can reach infinity where their motion has asymptotically force-free character. The possible importance of these processes for the acceleration of relativistic, charged particles by rotating magnetospheres in the context of the generation of nonthermal, high-energy emission of AGN and pulsars is discussed.

  10. ReaDDyMM: Fast Interacting Particle Reaction-Diffusion Simulations Using Graphical Processing Units

    PubMed Central

    Biedermann, Johann; Ullrich, Alexander; Schöneberg, Johannes; Noé, Frank

    2015-01-01

    ReaDDy is a modular particle simulation package combining off-lattice reaction kinetics with arbitrary particle interaction forces. Here we present a graphical processing unit implementation of ReaDDy that employs the fast multiplatform molecular dynamics package OpenMM. A speedup of up to two orders of magnitude is demonstrated, giving us access to timescales of multiple seconds on single graphical processing units. This opens up the possibility of simulating cellular signal transduction events while resolving all protein copies. PMID:25650912

  11. Radiation reaction and renormalization in classical electrodynamics of a point particle in any dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.; Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2002-07-01

    The effective equations of motion for a point charged particle taking into account the radiation reaction are considered in various space-time dimensions. The divergences stemming from the pointness of the particle are studied and an effective renormalization procedure is proposed encompassing uniformly the cases of all even dimensions. It is shown that in any dimension the classical electrodynamics is a renormalizable theory if not multiplicatively beyond d=4. For the cases of three and six dimensions the covariant analogues of the Lorentz-Dirac equation are explicitly derived.

  12. New and improved apparatus and method for monitoring the intensities of charged-particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Varma, M.N.; Baum, J.W.

    1981-01-16

    Charged particle beam monitoring means are disposed in the path of a charged particle beam in an experimental device. The monitoring means comprise a beam monitoring component which is operable to prevent passage of a portion of beam, while concomitantly permitting passage of another portion thereof for incidence in an experimental chamber, and providing a signal (I/sub m/) indicative of the intensity of the beam portion which is not passed. Caibration means are disposed in the experimental chamber in the path of the said another beam portion and are operable to provide a signal (I/sub f/) indicative of the intensity thereof. Means are provided to determine the ratio (R) between said signals whereby, after suitable calibration, the calibration means may be removed from the experimental chamber and the intensity of the said another beam portion determined by monitoring of the monitoring means signal, per se.

  13. Apparatus and method for monitoring the intensities of charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Matesh N.; Baum, John W.

    1982-11-02

    Charged particle beam monitoring means (40) are disposed in the path of a charged particle beam (44) in an experimental device (10). The monitoring means comprise a beam monitoring component (42) which is operable to prevent passage of a portion of beam (44), while concomitantly permitting passage of another portion thereof (46) for incidence in an experimental chamber (18), and providing a signal (I.sub.m) indicative of the intensity of the beam portion which is not passed. Calibration means (36) are disposed in the experimental chamber in the path of the said another beam portion and are operable to provide a signal (I.sub.f) indicative of the intensity thereof. Means (41 and 43) are provided to determine the ratio (R) between said signals whereby, after suitable calibration, the calibration means may be removed from the experimental chamber and the intensity of the said another beam portion determined by monitoring of the monitoring means signal, per se.

  14. Monitorizing nitinol alloy surface reactions for biofouling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, C. Z.; Dinca, V. C.; Soare, S.; Moldovan, A.; Smarandache, D.; Scarisoareanu, N.; Barbalat, A.; Birjega, R.; Dinescu, M.; DiStefano, V. Ferrari

    2007-07-01

    Growth and deposition of unwanted bacteria on implant metal alloys affect their use as biomedical samples. Monitoring any bacterial biofilm accumulation will provide early countermeasures. For a reliable antifouling strategy we prepared nitinol (NiTi) thin films on Ti-derived substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. As the microstructure of Ti-alloy is dictated by the tensile strength, fatigue and the fracture toughness we tested the use of hydrogen as an alloying element. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigated the crystalline structure, chemical composition and respectively the surface morphology of the nitinol hydrogen and hydrogen-free samples. Moreover, the alloys were integrated and tested using a cellular metric and their responses were systematic evaluated and quantified. Our attractive approach is meant to select the suitable components for an effective and trustworthy anti-fouling strategy. A greater understanding of such processes should lead to novel and effective control methods that would improve in the future implant stability and capabilities.

  15. Experimental Study of the Cross Sections of α-Particle Induced Reactions on 209Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Szúcs, Z.

    2005-05-01

    Alpha particle induced reactions for generation of 211At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to Eα=39 MeV. Excitation functions for the reactions 209Bi(α,2n)211At, 209Bi(α,3n)210At, 209Bi(α,x) 210Po obtained from direct alpha emission measurements and gamma spectra from decay products are compared with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross sections.

  16. Experimental Study of the Cross Sections of {alpha}-Particle Induced Reactions on 209Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanne, A.; Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Szucs, Z.

    2005-05-24

    Alpha particle induced reactions for generation of 211At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to E{alpha}=39 MeV. Excitation functions for the reactions 209Bi({alpha},2n)211At, 209Bi({alpha},3n)210At, 209Bi({alpha},x) 210Po obtained from direct alpha emission measurements and gamma spectra from decay products are compared with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross sections.

  17. Monitoring infection: from blood culture to polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Book, Malte; Lehmann, Lutz Eric; Zhang, XiangHong; Stüber, Frank

    2013-06-01

    In patients with sepsis, diagnosis of blood stream infection (BSI) is a key concern to the therapist. Direct verification of pathogens in the blood stream executed by blood cultures (BC) still is regarded as the gold standard up to date. The quickest possible initiation of an appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a cornerstone of an effective therapy. Moreover, in this view BC can also serve to identify antimicrobial agents to target the pathogen. However, when employing BC the time needed until microbiological results are available ranges from 24 up to 72 h. Moreover, infections caused by multiple pathogens often remain undetected and concurrent antibiotic therapy may lower the overall sensitivity. Alternative pathogen characterization can be performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based amplification methods. Results using PCR can be obtained within 6-8 h. Therefore, the time delay until an appropriate therapy can be reduced enormously. Moreover, these methods have the potential to enhance the sensitivity in the diagnosis of blood stream infections. Therefore, PCR based methods might be a valuable adjunct to present procedures of diagnosing bacteraemia.

  18. The Effect of Particle Size on Hydrolysis Reaction Rates and Rheological Properties in Cellulosic Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasari, Rajesh K.; Berson, R. Eric

    The effect of varying initial particle sizes on enzymatic hydrolysis rates and rheological properties of sawdust slurries is investigated. Slurries with four particle size ranges (33 μm < x ≤ 75 μm, 150 μm < x ≤ 180 μm 295 μm < x ≤ 425 μm, and 590 μm < x ≤ 850 μm) were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using an enzyme dosage of filter paper units per gram of cellulose at 50°C and 250 rpm in shaker flasks. At lower initial particle sizes, higher enzymatic reaction rates and conversions of cellulose to glucose were observed. After 72 h 50 and 55% more glucose was produced from the smallest size particles than the largest size ones, for initial solids concentration of 10 and 13% (w/w), respectively. The effect of initial particle size on viscosity over a range of shear was also investigated. For equivalent initial solids concentration, smaller particle sizes result in lower viscosities such that at a concentration of 10% (w/w), the viscosity decreased from 3000 cP for 150 μm < x ≤ 180 μm particle size slurries to 61.4 cP for 33 μm < x ≤ 75 μm particle size slurries. Results indicate particle size reduction may provide a means for reducing the long residence time required for the enzymatic hydrolysis step in the conversion of biomass to ethanol. Furthermore, the corresponding reduction in viscosity may allow for higher solids loading and reduced reactor sizes during large-scale processing.

  19. Direct-Reaction Studies by Particle-Gamma Coincidence Spectroscopy Using HPGe-CsI and HPGe-Si Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Allmond, James M

    2013-01-01

    Particle- and particle- - coincidence spectroscopy has several advantages in the study of direct reactions(particularly in inverse kinematics) since it can generally allow determination of: decay paths; high-precision level energies; multipolarities of transitions; and cross sections. Techniques for studying direct reactions by particle- coincidence spectroscopy are presented for two cases: (1) heavy-ion reactions with HPGe-CsI, and (2) light-ion reactions with HPGe-Si. Future direct-reaction studies with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) will mostly involve low beam intensities and inverse kinematics (i.e., Abeam>Atarget), which eliminates the traditional use of magnetic spectrometers. Particle- coincidence spectroscopy currently provides the most viable method to study direct reactions with nuclei of any level density. In the present study, the capabilities and limitations of the technique are explored.

  20. Direct-reaction studies by particle-{gamma} coincidence spectroscopy using Csi-Hpge and Si-Hpge arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Allmond, J. M.

    2013-04-19

    Particle-{gamma} and particle-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidence spectroscopy has several advantages in the study of direct reactions (particularly in inverse kinematics) since it can generally allow determination of: decay paths; high-precision level energies; multipolarities of transitions; and cross sections. Techniques for studying direct reactions by particle-{gamma} coincidence spectroscopy are presented for two cases: (1) heavy-ion reactions with CsI-HPGe, and (2) light-ion reactions with Si-HPGe. Future direct-reaction studies with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) will mostly involve low beam intensities and inverse kinematics (i.e., A{sub beam}>A{sub target}), which eliminates the traditional use of magnetic spectrometers. Particle-{gamma} coincidence spectroscopy currently provides the most viable method to study direct reactions with nuclei of any level density. In the present study, the capabilities and limitations of the technique are explored.

  1. Heterogeneous kinetics, products, and mechanisms of ferulic acid particles in the reaction with NO3 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhang, Peng; Wen, Xiaoying; Wu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Methoxyphenols, as an important component of wood burning, are produced by lignin pyrolysis and considered to be the potential tracers for wood smoke emissions. In this work, the heterogeneous reaction between ferulic acid particles and NO3 radicals was investigated. Six products including oxalic acid, 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, 5-nitrovanillin, 5-nitroferulic acid, and caffeic acid were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the reaction mechanisms were proposed and the main pathways were NO3 electrophilic addition to olefin and the meta-position to the hydroxyl group. The uptake coefficient of NO3 radicals on ferulic acid particles was 0.17 ± 0.02 and the effective rate constant under experimental conditions was (1.71 ± 0.08) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The results indicate that ferulic acid degradation by NO3 can be an important sink at night.

  2. A laboratory study of the heterogeneous reaction of nitric acid on calcium carbonate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A. L.; Underwood, G. M.; Grassian, V. H.

    2000-12-01

    It has been postulated that the reaction of nitric acid with calcium carbonate, namely, CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(g) → Ca(NO3)2(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g), plays an important role in the atmosphere. In this study, transmission FTIR spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer have been used to investigate the heterogeneous reactivity of HNO3 on CaCO3 at 295 K as a function of relative humidity. Transmission FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe both gas-phase and adsorbed products and showed that the reaction of HNO3 and CaCO3 is limited to the surface of the CaCO3 particle in the absence of adsorbed water. However, in the presence of water vapor, the reaction is greatly enhanced and is not limited to the surface of the particle producing both solid calcium nitrate and gaseous carbon dioxide. The enhanced reactivity of the particles is attributed to the presence of a layer of adsorbed water on the particle surface. The amount of adsorbed water on the particle surface is strongly dependent on the extent of the reaction. This can be understood in terms of the increased hydrophilicity of calcium nitrate as compared to calcium carbonate. Data from experiments using a mass-calibrated Knudsen cell reactor showed the stoichiometry for the reaction determined from gas-phase species deviated from that expected from the balanced equation. Water adsorption on the particle surface and gases dissolved into the water layer appear to be the cause of this discrepancy. The measured uptake coefficient accounting for the BET area of the sample is determined to be 2.5±0.1×10-4 for HNO3 on CaCO3 under dry conditions and is found to increase in the presence of water vapor. Atmospheric implications of the results presented here are discussed.

  3. Heterogeneous reactions of ozone with pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-nitropyrene adsorbed on particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miet, K.; Le Menach, K.; Flaud, P. M.; Budzinski, H.; Villenave, E.

    This work deals with the kinetic study of the reactions of ozone with pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-nitropyrene, adsorbed on model particles. Experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, using a quasi-static flow reactor in the absence of light. Compounds were extracted from particles using pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and concentration measurements were performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The pseudo-first order rate constants were obtained from the fit of the experimental decay of particulate polycyclic compound concentrations versus reaction time. Experiments were performed at three different O 3 concentrations from which second order rate constants were calculated. The following rate constant values were obtained at 293 K: k(O 3 + Pyrene) = (3.2 ± 0.7) × 10 -16 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1; k(O 3 + 1OHP) = (7.7 ± 1.4) ×10 -16 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1; and k(O 3 + 1NP) = (2.2 ± 0.5) × 10 -17 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, for pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-nitropyrene adsorbed on silica particles. The variation in the rate constants demonstrates the strong influence of the substituent (OH or NO 2) on the heterogeneous reactivity of pyrene. The pyrene particulate concentration was also varied in order to check how this parameter may influence the experiments. Finally, oxidation products were investigated for all reactions and some were detected and identified for the first time for ozone heterogeneous reaction with pyrene adsorbed on particles.

  4. Luminescence monitoring of particle delivery into rat skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, E. K.; Yanina, I. Y.; Genina, E. A.; Dolotov, L. E.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Genin, V. D.; Konyukhova, J. G.; Popov, A. P.; Kozintseva, M. D.; Speranskaya, E.; Lomova, M.; Terentyuk, G. S.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Navolokin, N. A.; Goryacheva, I. Y.; Kochubey, V. I.; Gorin, D. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Sukhorukov, G. B.

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of upconversion microparticles [Y2O3:Yb, Er] and quantum dots (CuInS2/ZnS coated with PEG-based amphiphilic polymer) into rat skin using the fractional laser microablation has been studied in vivo. Luminescence spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal microscopy, and histochemical analysis were used for visualization of nanoparticles in microchannels. Results have shown that the upconversion microparticles are detected more efficiently in comparison with the quantum dots. The fluorescence intensity of the inserted upconversion microparticles is higher, when the Omnipaque™ was applied as a skin optical clearing agent. The fluorescent images of upconversion nanoparticle distribution indicate the advantage of particle delivery into skin by ultrasound.

  5. Reaction invariance and stability in catalyst particles for production of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Asbjornsen, O.A.; Hillestad, M.

    1997-04-01

    Industrial practice requires immediate and adequate responses to simple questions asked. For example, does a catalyst particle show any tendency to thermal oscillations in the form of a limit cycle? The root to such cycles is found in the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix to the reaction rate vector, applying the concept of reaction invariance, a direct consequence of Avogadro`s stoichiometric principle for homogeneous stirred tank reactors. However, this concept does not generally apply to heterogeneous reactor dynamics, because it is found in the heterogeneous transports of heat, reactants and products. The transport is an irreversible phenomenon that usually contributes to shifting the eigenvalues to the left and hence increases the stability. Still, effects of transport mechanisms, both internally and externally, on the catalyst particle are important to assess in such industrial analyses. A practical industrial reactor for methanol production was the subject for stability studies, which concluded that thermal oscillations are not likely to occur. During this study, a number of interesting details were examined such as rank deficiency of the reaction matrix and root loci for the temperature dependence of the Jacobian matrix eigenvalues. A practical consequence of eventual thermal cycling of the catalyst particles is a long-term degradation of the catalyst efficiency, as seen in the ammonia synthesis.

  6. Particle-scale CO2 adsorption kinetics modeling considering three reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Dong-Myung; Sun, Xin

    2013-09-01

    In the presence of water (H2O), dry and wet adsorptions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and physical adsorption of H2O happen concurrently in a sorbent particle. The three reactions depend on each other and have a complicated, but important, effect on CO2 capturing via a solid sorbent. In this study, transport phenomena in the sorbent were modeled, including the tree reactions, and a numerical solving procedure for the model also was explained. The reaction variable distribution in the sorbent and their average values were calculated, and simulation results were compared with experimental data to validate the proposed model. Some differences, caused by thermodynamic parameters, were observed between them. However, the developed model reasonably simulated the adsorption behaviors of a sorbent. The weight gained by each adsorbed species, CO2 and H2O, is difficult to determine experimentally. It is known that more CO2 can be captured in the presence of water. Still, it is not yet known quantitatively how much more CO2 the sorbent can capture, nor is it known how much dry and wet adsorptions separately account for CO2 capture. This study addresses those questions by modeling CO2 adsorption in a particle and simulating the adsorption process using the model. As adsorption temperature changed into several values, the adsorbed amount of each species was calculated. The captured CO2 in the sorbent particle was compared quantitatively between dry and wet conditions. As the adsorption temperature decreased, wet adsorption increased. However, dry adsorption was reduced.

  7. High-spatial-resolution mapping of catalytic reactions on single particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chung-Yeh; Wolf, William J.; Levartovsky, Yehonatan; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Toste, F. Dean; Gross, Elad

    2017-01-01

    The critical role in surface reactions and heterogeneous catalysis of metal atoms with low coordination numbers, such as found at atomic steps and surface defects, is firmly established. But despite the growing availability of tools that enable detailed in situ characterization, so far it has not been possible to document this role directly. Surface properties can be mapped with high spatial resolution, and catalytic conversion can be tracked with a clear chemical signature; however, the combination of the two, which would enable high-spatial-resolution detection of reactions on catalytic surfaces, has rarely been achieved. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to image and characterize single turnover sites at catalytic surfaces, but is restricted to reactions that generate highly fluorescing product molecules. Herein the chemical conversion of N-heterocyclic carbene molecules attached to catalytic particles is mapped using synchrotron-radiation-based infrared nanospectroscopy with a spatial resolution of 25 nanometres, which enabled particle regions that differ in reactivity to be distinguished. These observations demonstrate that, compared to the flat regions on top of the particles, the peripheries of the particles—which contain metal atoms with low coordination numbers—are more active in catalysing oxidation and reduction of chemically active groups in surface-anchored N-heterocyclic carbene molecules.

  8. Oxygen reduction reaction over silver particles with various morphologies and surface chemical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Junya; Okata, Yui; Watabe, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Makoto; Nakamura, Ayaka; Arikawa, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Ken-ichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Ueda, Wataru; Satsuma, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline solution was carried out using Ag powders having various particle morphologies and surface chemical states (Size: ca. 40-110 nm in crystalline size. Shape: spherical, worm like, and angular. Surface: smooth with easily reduced AgOx, defective with AgOx, and Ag2CO3 surface layer). The various Ag powders were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and stripping voltammetry of underpotential-deposited lead. Defective and oxidized surfaces enhanced the Ag active surface area during the ORR. The ORR activity was affected by the morphology and surface chemical state: Ag particles with defective and angular surfaces showed smaller electron exchange number between three and four but showed higher specific activity compared to Ag particles with smooth surfaces.

  9. Light charged particles emitted in fission reactions induced by protons on 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Paradela, C.; Ayyad, Y.; Casarejos, E.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-09-01

    Light charged particles emitted in proton-induced fission reactions on 208Pb have been measured at different kinetic energies: 370 A ,500 A , and 650 A MeV. The experiment was performed by the SOFIA Collaboration at the GSI facilities in Darmstadt (Germany). The inverse kinematics technique was combined with a setup especially designed to measure light charged particles in coincidence with fission fragments. This measurement allowed us, for the first time, to obtain correlations between the light charged particles emitted during the fission process and the charge distributions of the fission fragments. These correlations were compared with different model calculations to assess the ground-to-saddle dynamics. The results confirm that transient and dissipative effects are required for an accurate description of the fission observables.

  10. Mechanochemical mechanism for reaction of aluminium nano- and micrometre-scale particles.

    PubMed

    Levitas, Valery I

    2013-11-28

    A recently suggested melt-dispersion mechanism (MDM) for fast reaction of aluminium (Al) nano- and a few micrometre-scale particles during fast heating is reviewed. Volume expansion of 6% during Al melting produces pressure of several GPa in a core and tensile hoop stresses of 10 GPa in an oxide shell. Such stresses cause dynamic fracture and spallation of the shell. After spallation, an unloading wave propagates to the centre of the particle and creates a tensile pressure of 3-8 GPa. Such a tensile pressure exceeds the cavitation strength of liquid Al and disperses the melt into small, bare clusters (fragments) that fly at a high velocity. Reaction of the clusters is not limited by diffusion through a pre-existing oxide shell. Some theoretical and experimental results related to the MDM are presented. Various theoretical predictions based on the MDM are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments, which resolves some basic puzzles in combustion of Al particles. Methods to control and improve reactivity of Al particles are formulated, which are exactly opposite to the current trends based on diffusion mechanism. Some of these suggestions have experimental confirmation.

  11. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N-N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/-) or percentage of RR 50+/- that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58-30.8 mg/m3 during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m3). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO2 particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  12. Monitoring biodiesel reactions of soybean oil and sunflower oil using ultrasonic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. K. K.; Silva, C. E. R.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an innovation that attempts to substitute diesel oil with biomass. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a real-time method to monitor transesterification reactions by using low-power ultrasound and pulse/echo techniques. The results showed that it is possible to identify different events during the transesterification process by using the proposed parameters, showing that the proposed method is a feasible way to monitor the reactions of biodiesel during its fabrication, in real time, and with relatively low- cost equipment.

  13. Particle Generation by Pulsed Excimer Laser Ablation in Liquid: Hollow Structures and Laser-Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zijie

    2011-12-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of solid targets in liquid media is a powerful method to fabricate micro-/nanoparticles, which has attracted much interest in the past decade. It represents a combinatorial library of constituents and interactions, and one can explore disparate regions of parameter space with outcomes that are impossible to envision a priori. In this work, a pulsed excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm, pulse width 30 ns) has been used to ablate targets in liquid media with varying laser fluences, frequencies, ablation times and surfactants. It is observed that hollow particles could be fabricated by excimer laser ablation of Al, Pt, Zn, Mg, Ag, Si, TiO2, and Nb2O5 in water or aqueous solutions. The hollow particles, with sizes from tens of nanometers to micrometers, may have smooth and continuous shells or have morphologies demonstrating that they were assembled from nanoparticles. A new mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of these novel particle geometries. They were formed on laser-produced bubbles through bubble interface pinning by laser-produced solid species. Considering the bubble dynamics, thermodynamic and kinetic requirements have been discussed in the mechanism that can explain some phenomena associated with the formation of hollow particles, especially (1) larger particles are more likely to be hollow particles; (2) Mg and Al targets have stronger tendency to generate hollow particles; and (3) the 248 nm excimer laser is more beneficial to fabricate hollow particles in water than other lasers with longer wavelengths. The work has also demonstrated the possiblities to fabricate novel nanostructures through laser-induced reactions. Zn(OH)2/dodecyl sulfate flower-like nanostructures, AgCl cubes, and Ag2O cubes, pyramids, triangular plates, pentagonal rods and bars have been obtained via reactions between laser-produced species with water, electrolyes, or surfactant molecules. The underlying mechanisms of forming these structures have been

  14. Online monitoring of chemical reactions by polarization-induced electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2016-09-21

    Polarization-induced electrospray ionization (PI-ESI) is a simple technique for instant generation of gas-phase ions directly from a microliter-sized droplet for mass spectrometric analysis. A sample droplet was placed over a dielectric substrate and in proximity (2-3 mm) to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. Owing to the polarization effect induced by the high electric field provided by the mass spectrometer, the droplet was polarized and the electrospray was generated from the apex of the droplet. The polarization-induced electrospray could last for tens of seconds, which was sufficiently long to monitor fast reactions occurring within few seconds. Thus, we demonstrated the feasibility of using the droplet-based PI-ESI MS for the online monitoring of fast reactions by simply mixing two droplets (5-10 μL) containing reactants on a dielectric substrate placed in front of a mass spectrometer applied with a high voltage (-4500 V). Schiff base reactions and oxidation reactions that can generate intermediates/products within a few seconds were selected as the model reactions. The ionic reaction species generated from intermediates and products can be simultaneously monitored by PI-ESI MS in real time. We also used this approach to selectively detect acetone from a urine sample, in which acetone was derivatized in situ. In addition, the possibility of using this approach for quantitative analysis of acetone from urine samples was examined.

  15. A fluorescence spectroscopy assay for real-time monitoring of enzyme immobilization into mesoporous silica particles.

    PubMed

    Nabavi Zadeh, Pegah S; Mallak, Kassam Abdel; Carlsson, Nils; Åkerman, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Mesoporous silica particles are used as support material for immobilization of enzymes. Here we investigated a fluorescence-based assay for real-time monitoring of the immobilization of lipase, bovine serum albumin, and glucose oxidase into micrometer-sized mesoporous silica particles. The proteins are labeled with the dye epicocconone, and the interaction with the particles is observed as an increase in emission intensity of the protein-dye conjugates that can be quantified if correcting for a comparatively slow photobleaching. The immobilization occurs in tens of minutes to hours depending on particle concentration and type of protein. In the limit of excess particles over proteins, the formation of the particle-protein complexes can be described by a single exponential growth for all three investigated proteins, and the fitted pseudo-first-order rate constant increases linearly with particle concentration for each protein type. The derived second-order rate constant k varies with the protein hydrodynamic radius according to k∼RH(-4.70±0.01), indicating that the rate-limiting step at high particle concentrations is not the diffusional encounter between proteins and particles but rather the entry into the pores, consistent with the hydrodynamic radii of the three proteins being smaller but comparable to the pore radius of the particles.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide maintains the heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide on mineral dust proxy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liubin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Huan; Chen, Zhongming

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on α-Al2O3 particles was investigated using a flow reactor coupled with a transmission-Fourier transform infrared (T-FTIR) spectrometer at different relative humidities (RH) in the absence or presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), with an emphasis on the saturation coverage of SO2 and the timescale on which the reaction reaches saturation. It is found that the saturation coverage of SO2 in the absence of H2O2 increases with rising RH due to the hydrolysis of SO2 by surface adsorbed water. However, the reaction ultimately reaches saturation since the produced sulfite/bisulfite cannot be further converted to sulfate/bisulfate in the absence of oxidants. In addition, the presence of H2O2 can significantly increase the saturation coverage of SO2 by efficiently oxidizing sulfite/bisulfite to sulfate/bisulfate. Under humid conditions, adsorbed water facilitates the hydrolysis of SO2 and mitigates the increase of surface acidity, which can inhibit the hydrolysis of SO2. Hence, in the presence of H2O2, the saturation coverage of SO2 as well as the time of reaction reaching saturation increases with rising RH and the surface is not saturated on the timescale of the experiments (40 h) at 60% RH. Furthermore, the increase of saturation coverage of SO2 in the presence of H2O2 was observed on chemically inactive SiO2 particles, indicating that the hydrolysis of SO2 and subsequent oxidation by H2O2 likely occurs on other types of particles. Our findings are of importance for understanding the role of water vapor and trace gases (e.g., H2O2) in the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 in the atmosphere.

  17. Kinetics and mechanisms of heterogeneous reaction of gaseous hydrogen peroxide on mineral oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Chen, Zhongming; Shen, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xuan

    2011-04-15

    Recent studies have shown that heterogeneous reactions of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on aerosol surfaces may play an important role in tropospheric chemistry. The data concerning the kinetics and mechanisms of these reactions, however, are quite scarce so far. Here, we investigated, for the first time, the heterogeneous reactions of gaseous H(2)O(2) on SiO(2) and α-Al(2)O(3) particles, two major components of mineral dust aerosol, using transmission-Fourier Transform Infrared (T-FTIR) spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It is found that H(2)O(2) molecularly adsorbs on SiO(2), and a small amount of molecularly adsorbed H(2)O(2) decomposes due to its thermal instability. For α-Al(2)O(3), catalytic decomposition of H(2)O(2) evidently occurs, but there is also a small amount of H(2)O(2) molecularly adsorbed on the particle surface. The BET uptake coefficients of H(2)O(2) on both particles appear to be independent of gaseous H(2)O(2) concentration (1.27-13.8 ppmv) and particle sample mass (2.8-6.5 mg for SiO(2) and 8.6-18.9 mg for α-Al(2)O(3)), but are strongly dependent on relative humidity with the values ranging from (1.55 ± 0.14) × 10(-8) and (1.21 ± 0.04) × 10(-7) at 2% RH to (0.61 ± 0.06) × 10(-8) and (0.76 ± 0.09) × 10(-7) at 76% RH for SiO(2) and α-Al(2)O(3), respectively. On the basis of the experimental results and literature data, the potential mechanisms for heterogeneous decomposition of H(2)O(2) were proposed, and the atmospheric implications of these reactions were discussed. It is found that heterogeneous reaction of H(2)O(2) on both mineral oxides plays a significant role in processing mineral aerosols, although its role as a sink for ambient H(2)O(2) is probably limited.

  18. RAPID MONITORING BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR PATHOGENIC ASPERGILLUS DURING CARPET REMOVAL FROM A HOSPITAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring for pathogenic Aspergillus species using a rapid, highly sensitive, quantitative polumerase chain reaction technique during carpet removal in a burn unit provided data which allowed the patients to be safely returned to the re-floored area sooner than if only conventio...

  19. Employing Magnetic Levitation to Monitor Reaction Kinetics and Measure Activation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Lauren; Cesafsky, Karen E.; Le, Tran; Park, Aileen; Malicky, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive undergraduate-level kinetics experiment that uses magnetic levitation to monitor the progress and determine the activation energy of a condensation reaction on a polymeric solid support. The method employs a cuvette filled with a paramagnetic solution positioned between two strong magnets. The…

  20. Comparing in situ particle monitoring to microscopic counts of plankton in a drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Scheifhacken, Nicole; Horn, Heidi; Paul, Lothar

    2010-06-01

    In a one-year study, the multispecies assemblages of phytoplankton (picoplankton to microplankton) within a drinking water reservoir were counted, determined and evaluated in their size fractions using microscope enumeration (MC). The manual counts were compared with the size evaluation obtained by a light obscuring particle counter (PC) in order to evaluate its use for the monitoring practice of a drinking water reservoir. With this multispecies comparison we present a novel approach for the evaluation of automated counting systems. The picoplankton clearly remained uncounted by the PC even though its lower size limits imply an adequate match. The highest and most consistent count numbers of plankton (nano- and microplankton) and particles were obtained during the spring mass development. However, from the middle of the year onwards, the measured particle concentration surpassed the counted plankton abundances by two- to threefold indicating the rise of seston within the water column. This fraction would be missed if counted solely by MC. Further, the PC consistently undersized the biological counts, but not the minerogenic fraction represented by the manganese oxidising bacteria. Consequently, the rise and decline of Metallogenium bacteria was reliably monitored with the PC. The PC provides additional size information compared to other bulk optical sensors (turbidity, chlorophyll-a). The correlation of particles with probe measurement always exceeded the plankton coefficient, but all combinations of plankton, particle and probe measurement revealed significant linear regressions. However, the redundancy of the chlorophyll-a probes was also shown in order to explain plankton abundances. Our results indicate that background knowledge of the monitored system and cautious interpretation of data is required to allocate and understand automated particle counts. Therefore, only in combination with MC, the PC enables phytoplankton or minerogenic particle counts under

  1. Preparation of fine silicon particles from amorphous silicon monoxide by the disproportionation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamiya, Mikito; Takei, Humihiko; Kikuchi, Masae; Uyeda, Chiaki

    2001-07-01

    Fine Si particles have been prepared by the disproportionation reaction of silicon monoxide (SiO), that is: 2SiO→Si+SiO 2. Amorphous powders of SiO are heated between 900°C and 1400°C in a flow of Ar and the obtained specimens are analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The treatments between 1000°C and 1300°C for more than 0.5 h result in origination of Si particles dispersed in amorphous oxide media. The particle size varies from 1-3 to 20-40 nm, depending on the heating temperature. Kinetic analyses of the reaction reveal that the activation energy is 1.1 eV (82.1 kJ mol -1). The specimens annealed above 1350°C changes into a mixture of Si and cristobalite, suggesting a solid state transformation in the surrounding oxides from the amorphous to crystalline states.

  2. Radiation reaction on charged particles in three-dimensional motion in classical and quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Martin, Giles D. R.

    2006-01-01

    We extend our previous work [A. Higuchi and G. D. R. Martin, Found. Phys. 35, 1149 (2005)FNDPA40015-901810.1007/s10701-005-6405-0], which compared the predictions of quantum electrodynamics concerning radiation reaction with those of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac theory for a charged particle in linear motion. Specifically, we calculate the predictions for the change in position of a charged-scalar particle, moving in three-dimensional space, due to the effect of radiation reaction in the one-photon-emission process in quantum electrodynamics. The scalar particle is assumed to be accelerated for a finite period of time by a three-dimensional electromagnetic potential dependent only on one of the spacetime coordinates. We perform this calculation in the ℏ→0 limit and show that the change in position agrees with that obtained in classical electrodynamics with the Lorentz-Dirac force treated as a perturbation. We also show for a time-dependent but space-independent electromagnetic potential that the forward-scattering amplitude at order e2 does not contribute to the position change in the ℏ→0 limit after the mass renormalization is taken into account.

  3. Effect of temperature gradient on zinc oxide nano particles synthesized at low reaction temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutu, Vaibhav; Shastri, Lokesh; Malik, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    Zinc oxide samples were synthesized at different reaction temperatures (70 °C–110 °C) by surfactant-free co-precipitation method using temperature gradient. Formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO samples is confirmed from x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. This study further suggests reduction in crystallite size from 33 nm to 24 nm with increase in reaction temperature which is reconfirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Optical spectroscopy studies of these samples show significant peak shift towards higher energy with maximum photoluminescence (PL) emissions between 390 nm to 575 nm region of the visible spectrum. This evident inverse relationship between optical properties of ZnO nano particles and reaction temperature may be attributed to the temperature gradient causing rapid nucleation during the synthesis process. With these notable properties this study suggests that, ZnO nano particles may be useful for making Nano electronic devices, Sensors, Nano medicines, GATE Dielectrics, Photovoltaic devices etc.

  4. Monitoring Acidophilic Microbes with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Frank F. Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Many techniques that are used to characterize and monitor microbial populations associated with sulfide mineral bioleaching require the cultivation of the organisms on solid or liquid media. Chemolithotrophic species, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, or thermophilic chemolithotrophs, such as Acidianus brierleyi and Sulfolobus solfataricus can grow quite slowly, requiring weeks to complete efforts to identify and quantify these microbes associated with bioleach samples. Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays in which DNA targets are amplified in the presence of fluorescent oligonucleotide primers, allowing the monitoring and quantification of the amplification reactions as they progress, provide a means of rapidly detecting the presence of microbial species of interest, and their relative abundance in a sample. This presentation will describe the design and use of such assays to monitor acidophilic microbes in the environment and in bioleaching operations. These assays provide results within 2-3 hours, and can detect less than 100 individual microbial cells.

  5. Using Cytochome c to Monitor Electron Transport and Inhibition in Beef Heart Submitochondrial Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Amanda D.; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a two-part undergraduate laboratory exercise. In the first part, electron transport in bovine heart submitochondrial particles causing reduction of cytochrome c is monitored at 550 nm. Redox-active dyes have historically been used in most previous undergraduate laboratory exercises of this sort but do not demonstrate respiratory…

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

  7. EPA Awards Louisiana over $628,500 to Monitor Particle Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 9, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently awarded $628,523 to the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) to monitor fine particulate matter, or PM 2.5. These are particles found in smoke and haze that me

  8. Kinetics of heterogeneous reaction of CaCO3 particles with gaseous HNO3 over a wide range of humidity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Gibson, E R; Cain, J P; Wang, H; Grassian, V H; Laskin, A

    2008-02-21

    Heterogeneous reaction kinetics of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles was investigated using a particle-on-substrate stagnation flow reactor (PS-SFR). This technique utilizes the exposure of substrate deposited, isolated, and narrowly dispersed particles to a gas mixture of HNO3/H2O/N2, followed by microanalysis of individual reacted particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (CCSEM/EDX). The first series of experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure, room temperature and constant relative humidity (40%) with a median dry particle diameter of Dp = 0.85 mum, particle loading densities 2 x 104 reaction was determined from oxygen enrichment in individual particles as a function of particle loading. Quantitative treatment of the data using a diffusion-kinetic model yields a lower limit to the net reaction probability gammanet >/= 0.06 (x3//2). In a second series of experiments, HNO3 uptake on CaCO3 particles of the same size was examined over a wide range of relative humidity, from 10 to 80%. The net reaction probability was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, from gammanet >/= 0.003 at RH = 10% to 0.21 at 80%.

  9. A deterministic particle method for one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascagni, Michael

    1995-01-01

    We derive a deterministic particle method for the solution of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations in one spatial dimension. This deterministic method is an analog of a Monte Carlo method for the solution of these problems that has been previously investigated by the author. The deterministic method leads to the consideration of a system of ordinary differential equations for the positions of suitably defined particles. We then consider the time explicit and implicit methods for this system of ordinary differential equations and we study a Picard and Newton iteration for the solution of the implicit system. Next we solve numerically this system and study the discretization error both analytically and numerically. Numerical computation shows that this deterministic method is automatically adaptive to large gradients in the solution.

  10. Interplay between single-particle and collective excitations in argon isotopes populated by transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Szilner, S.; Jelavic-Malenica, D.; Soic, N.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Sahin, E.; Silvestri, R.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Bouhelal, M.; Caurier, E.; Courtin, S.; Goasduff, A.; Nowacki, F.; Ur, C. A.; Beghini, S.; Farnea, E.

    2011-07-15

    New {gamma} transitions have been identified in argon isotopes in {sup 40}Ar + {sup 208}Pb multiple transfer reactions by exploiting, in a fragment-{gamma} measurement, the new generation of magnetic spectrometers based on trajectory reconstruction coupled to large {gamma} arrays. The coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to nuclear vibration quanta was discussed. The interpretation of the newly observed states within a particle-phonon coupling picture was used to consistently follow, via their excitation energies, the evolution of collectivity in odd Ar isotopes. The proposed level schemes are supported by the results of sd-pf shell-model calculations, which have been also employed to evaluate the strength functions of the populated states.

  11. Particle size effect of redox reactions for Co species supported on silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotiwan, Siwaruk; Tomiga, Hiroki; Katagiri, Masaki; Yamamoto, Yusaku; Yamashita, Shohei; Katayama, Misaki; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Conversions of chemical states during redox reactions of two silica-supported Co catalysts, which were prepared by the impregnation method, were evaluated by using an in situ XAFS technique. The addition of citric acid into the precursor solution led to the formation on silica of more homogeneous and smaller Co particles, with an average diameter of 4 nm. The supported Co3O4 species were reduced to metallic Co via the divalent CoO species during a temperature-programmed reduction process. The reduced Co species were quantitatively oxidized with a temperature-programmed oxidation process. The higher observed reduction temperature of the smaller CoO particles and the lower observed oxidation temperature of the smaller metallic Co particles were induced by the higher dispersion of the Co oxide species, which apparently led to a stronger interaction with supporting silica. The redox temperature between CoO and Co3O4 was found to be independent of the particle size.

  12. Thermostatted micro-reactor NMR probe head for monitoring fast reactions.

    PubMed

    Brächer, A; Hoch, S; Albert, K; Kost, H J; Werner, B; von Harbou, E; Hasse, H

    2014-05-01

    A novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe head for monitoring fast chemical reactions is described. It combines micro-reaction technology with capillary flow NMR spectroscopy. Two reactants are fed separately into the probe head where they are effectively mixed in a micro-mixer. The mixed reactants then pass through a capillary NMR flow cell that is equipped with a solenoidal radiofrequency coil where the NMR signal is acquired. The whole flow path of the reactants is thermostatted using the liquid FC-43 (perfluorotributylamine) so that exothermic and endothermic reactions can be studied under almost isothermal conditions. The set-up enables kinetic investigation of reactions with time constants of only a few seconds. Non-reactive mixing experiments carried out with the new probe head demonstrate that it facilitates the acquisition of constant highly resolved NMR signals suitable for quantification of different species in technical mixtures. Reaction kinetic measurements on a test system are presented that prove the applicability of the novel NMR probe head for monitoring fast reactions.

  13. Testing and assessment of a large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Graaf, E. R.; Rigollet, C.; Maleka, P. P.; Jones, D. G.

    2007-06-01

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/NGD), and other companies, to test their most sensitive system. This paper presents the results of trials in a specially created test facility at UKAEA Harwell with a large BGO detector. The detector's size and weight mean that it would be suitable for vehicle deployment but would be too large and heavy to carry in areas that could not be accessed by a vehicle. However, it would be possible to use the same methodology that is described here with a smaller detector capable of being carried in a backpack, albeit with reduced sensitivity for particle detection. The approach that we present is also applicable, with modifications, to the detection of offshore particles using a towed seabed detector.

  14. Shear-induced reaction-limited aggregation kinetics of brownian particles at arbitrary concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Alessio; Gentili, Daniele; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-04-07

    The aggregation of interacting brownian particles in sheared concentrated suspensions is an important issue in colloid and soft matter science per se. Also, it serves as a model to understand biochemical reactions occurring in vivo where both crowding and shear play an important role. We present an effective medium approach within the Smoluchowski equation with shear which allows one to calculate the encounter kinetics through a potential barrier under shear at arbitrary colloid concentrations. Experiments on a model colloidal system in simple shear flow support the validity of the model in the concentration range considered. By generalizing Kramers' rate theory to the presence of shear and collective hydrodynamics, our model explains the significant increase in the shear-induced reaction-limited aggregation kinetics upon increasing the colloid concentration.

  15. Multiscale simulations of anisotropic particles combining molecular dynamics and Green's function reaction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaykumar, Adithya; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2017-03-01

    The modeling of complex reaction-diffusion processes in, for instance, cellular biochemical networks or self-assembling soft matter can be tremendously sped up by employing a multiscale algorithm which combines the mesoscopic Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD) method with explicit stochastic Brownian, Langevin, or deterministic molecular dynamics to treat reactants at the microscopic scale [A. Vijaykumar, P. G. Bolhuis, and P. R. ten Wolde, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 214102 (2015)]. Here we extend this multiscale MD-GFRD approach to include the orientational dynamics that is crucial to describe the anisotropic interactions often prevalent in biomolecular systems. We present the novel algorithm focusing on Brownian dynamics only, although the methodology is generic. We illustrate the novel algorithm using a simple patchy particle model. After validation of the algorithm, we discuss its performance. The rotational Brownian dynamics MD-GFRD multiscale method will open up the possibility for large scale simulations of protein signalling networks.

  16. Continuous Near-Road Monitoring of Ultrafine Particles from 2010-2015 in Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Sofowote, U.; Debosz, J.; Munoz, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have an aerodynamic diameter less than 100 nanometre (nm). Their large surface areas per unit mass favor absorption of toxic chemicals in air. UFPs could penetrate deep into the respiratory or cardiovascular systems and pose adverse health effects. Recent studies showed the association between children exposure to UFPs and their systolic blood pressure. In urban environments, primary sources of UFPs are from road traffic emissions and account for most of the total particle numbers. Controls on UPFs rely on better understanding of their emission sources and environmental behaviour. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change have monitored UFPs since 2010 at two near-road stations in Toronto by using TSI 3031 UFP monitors. One station is located in mixed residential and industrial area and 16 meters from a major road with over 20,000 vehicles per day. The other station is surrounded by mixed residential and commercial buildings and 20 meters from a major road with over 20,000 vehicles per day. UFPs concentrations were monitored using six size channels: 20-30nm, 30-50nm, 50-70nm, 70-100nm, 100-200nm, and 200-450nm. The TSI 3031 monitors generally performed well for long-term UFP monitoring. Multi-year measurements of UFPs at the two stations show no apparent inter-annual variation or seasonality. Smaller particles (i.e., 20-50 nm) were found to be composed of over 50% of the measured particles. The observations are generally consistent with the theoretical understanding of particle nuclei mode and accumulation mode. When air mass originated from road traffic, UFPs were elevated in morning traffic hours and to a less extent in the late afternoon. The elevated UFPs number concentrations coincided with other traffic-related air pollutants like nitrogen oxides and black carbon. Moreover, higher number concentrations were found on weekdays than weekends. The observations suggest that UFPs are mostly from vehicle emissions.

  17. Motion-Blurred Particle Image Restoration for On-Line Wear Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yeping; Wu, Tonghai; Wang, Shuo; Kwok, Ngaiming; Peng, Zhongxiao

    2015-01-01

    On-line images of wear debris contain important information for real-time condition monitoring, and a dynamic imaging technique can eliminate particle overlaps commonly found in static images, for instance, acquired using ferrography. However, dynamic wear debris images captured in a running machine are unavoidably blurred because the particles in lubricant are in motion. Hence, it is difficult to acquire reliable images of wear debris with an adequate resolution for particle feature extraction. In order to obtain sharp wear particle images, an image processing approach is proposed. Blurred particles were firstly separated from the static background by utilizing a background subtraction method. Second, the point spread function was estimated using power cepstrum to determine the blur direction and length. Then, the Wiener filter algorithm was adopted to perform image restoration to improve the image quality. Finally, experiments were conducted with a large number of dynamic particle images to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the performance of the approach was also evaluated. This study provides a new practical approach to acquire clear images for on-line wear monitoring. PMID:25856328

  18. The TDF System for Thermonuclear Plasma Reaction Rates, Mean Energies and Two-Body Final State Particle Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Warshaw, S I

    2001-07-11

    The rate of thermonuclear reactions in hot plasmas as a function of local plasma temperature determines the way in which thermonuclear ignition and burning proceeds in the plasma. The conventional model approach to calculating these rates is to assume that the reacting nuclei in the plasma are in Maxwellian equilibrium at some well-defined plasma temperature, over which the statistical average of the reaction rate quantity {sigma}v is calculated, where {sigma} is the cross-section for the reaction to proceed at the relative velocity v between the reacting particles. This approach is well-understood and is the basis for much nuclear fusion and astrophysical nuclear reaction rate data. The Thermonuclear Data File (TDF) system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Warshaw 1991), which is the topic of this report, contains data on the Maxwellian-averaged thermonuclear reaction rates for various light nuclear reactions and the correspondingly Maxwellian-averaged energy spectra of the particles in the final state of those reactions as well. This spectral information closely models the output particle and energy distributions in a burning plasma, and therefore leads to more accurate computational treatments of thermonuclear burn, output particle energy deposition and diagnostics, in various contexts. In this report we review and derive the theoretical basis for calculating Maxwellian-averaged thermonuclear reaction rates, mean particle energies, and output particle spectral energy distributions for these reactions in the TDF system. The treatment of the kinematics is non-relativistic. The current version of the TDF system provides exit particle energy spectrum distributions for two-body final state reactions only. In a future report we will discuss and describe how output particle energy spectra for three- and four-body final states can be developed for the TDF system. We also include in this report a description of the algorithmic implementation of the

  19. Investigation of the reaction mechanism for the four-particle photodisintegration of a carbon nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'ev, S. N.; Gorbenko, E. S.; Khodyachikh, A. F.

    2007-05-01

    The four-particle photodisintegration of a carbon nucleus in the reactions 12C(γ, p)3H2α and 12C(γ, n)3H2α is investigated by a method that employs a diffusion chamber in a magnetic field. It is shown that these reactions proceed according a sequential-type scheme: excited states of 11B and 11C nuclei decay to weakly excited states of 8Be, 7Li, and 7Be nuclei. It is concluded that nucleons are knocked out from the s shell. In the excitation curve for the 2α system in the reaction 12C(γ, p)3H2α, a resonance is found between the maxima corresponding to the ground and the first excited state of the 8Be nucleus, and this resonance is identified as a ghost anomaly. The branching fractions of the decay modes are determined. The angular distributions of nucleons in the reaction c.m. frame are measured. The energy dependence of the asymmetry coefficient for the angular distributions is obtained. A fast increase in this coefficient is observed in the energy range 38 40 MeV. It is concluded that the asymmetry coefficient depends on the excitation energy of the final nucleus in the region of intermediate photon energies.

  20. A particle temperature sensor for monitoring and control of the thermal spray process

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Haggard, D.C.

    1995-12-01

    The temperature and velocity of thermally sprayed particles prior to their impact on the substrate are two of the predominant determinants of coating quality and characteristics. This paper describes an instrument developed for real time monitoring of in-flight particle temperature in an industrial environment. The instrument is designed to operate as a stand alone device for verifying that a desired particle temperature is attained or for developing process settings to yield a particular temperature. The device is also suitable for incorporation into a closed loop process controller. Data showing the relationship between torch parameters and average particle temperature are presented. There is good agreement between previous measurements using laboratory instrumentation and the simpler, industrially hardened technique described here. The assumption of gray body behavior is evaluated and for known emissivities corrections are developed.

  1. A CAM (continuous air monitor) sampler for collecting and assessing alpha-emitting aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, A.R.; Bethel, E.L.; Ortiz, C.A.; Stanke, J.G. )

    1991-07-01

    A new continuous air monitor (CAM) sampler for assessing alpha-emitting transuranic aerosol particles has been developed. The system has been designed to permit collection of particles that can potentially penetrate into the thoracic region of the human respiratory system. Wind tunnel testing of the sampler has been used to characterize the penetration of aerosol to the collection filter. Results show that greater than or equal to 50% of 10-micrograms aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) particles are collected by the filter at wind speeds of 0.3 to 2 m s-1 and at sampling flow rates of 28 to 113 L min-1 (1 to 4 cfm). The deposition of 10-microns AED particles takes place primarily in the center of the filter, where the counting efficiency of the detector is highest.

  2. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Ferrite Nanoparticles: Effect of Reaction Temperature on Particle Size and Magnetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, S; Sangeetha, J; Philip, John

    2015-08-01

    The preparation of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles of different particle sizes by controlling the reaction temperature using microwave assisted synthesis is reported. The iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized at two different temperatures viz., 45 and 85 °C were characterized using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The average size of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized at 45 and 85 °C is found to be 10 and 13.8 nm, respectively, and the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagantic behavior at room temperature. The saturation magnetization values of nanoparticles synthesized at 45 and 85 °C were found to be 67 and 72 emu/g, respectively. The increase in particle size and saturation magnetization values with increase in incubation temperature is attributed to a decrease in supersaturation at elevated temperature. The Curie temperature was found to be 561 and 566 0C for the iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized at 45 and 85 °C, respectively. The FTIR spectrum of the iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized at different temperatures exhibited the characteristic peaks that corresponded to the stretching of bonds between octahedral and tetrahedral metal ions to oxide ions. Our results showed that the ferrite nanoparticle size can be varied by controlling the reaction temperature inside a microwave reactor.

  3. Single particle refuse-derived fuel devolatilization: Experimental measurements of reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Weichuan; Krieger-Brockett, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present experimentally measured devolatilization product yields from single particles of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a more uniform, transportable municipal solid waste. Disposal costs and environmental concerns have stimulated interest in thermochemical conversion of this material to chemicals and fuels. The composition, reaction conditions, and particle properties were systematically varied over the range found in practice to develop quantitative measures that rank the process controllables' influence on altering the product slate. Specialized regression methods and experimental designs enhanced the accuracy in view of the feed heterogeneity and offer a general method to extract real effects from experimental and sample noise''. The results have been verified successfully using actual commercial RDF and fabricated compositions that surpass those normally found in municipal waste to anticipate the influence of trends in recycling. The results show that the reaction conditions have a greater influence on altering fuel utilization and the relative yields of char, condensibles, and gases than does the composition over the range found in MSW and RDF.

  4. Laser scanning confocal microscopy for in situ monitoring of alkali-silica reaction.

    PubMed

    Collins, C L; Ideker, J H; Kurtis, K E

    2004-02-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) occurs in concrete between reactive siliceous components in the aggregate and the strongly alkaline pore solution, resulting in the formation of a potentially expansive gel product. Lithium additives have been shown to reduce expansion associated with ASR, but the mechanism(s) by which lithium reduces expansion have not been understood. Therefore, development of an in situ method to observe reactions associated with ASR is highly desirable, as it will allow for non-destructive observation of the reaction product formation and damage evolution over time, as the reaction progresses. A technique to image into mortar through glass aggregate by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), producing three-dimensional representations of the sample was developed. This LSCM technique was utilized to monitor the progress of alkali-silica reaction in mortar samples prepared with alkali-reactive glass aggregate both in the presence and in the absence of lithium additives: LiNO3, LiCl or LiOH. The method proved to be effective in qualitatively monitoring crack formation and growth and product formation, within cracks and at the paste/aggregate interface. In particular, dendritic products were observed at the paste/aggregate interface only in those samples containing lithium, suggesting that these products may play a role in ASR mitigation.

  5. Performance monitoring and response conflict resolution associated with choice stepping reaction tasks.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Tsutou, Kotaro; Saito, Kotaro; Ishida, Kazuto; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2016-11-01

    Choice reaction requires response conflict resolution, and the resolution processes that occur during a choice stepping reaction task undertaken in a standing position, which requires maintenance of balance, may be different to those processes occurring during a choice reaction task performed in a seated position. The study purpose was to investigate the resolution processes during a choice stepping reaction task at the cortical level using electroencephalography and compare the results with a control task involving ankle dorsiflexion responses. Twelve young adults either stepped forward or dorsiflexed the ankle in response to a visual imperative stimulus presented on a computer screen. We used the Simon task and examined the error-related negativity (ERN) that follows an incorrect response and the correct-response negativity (CRN) that follows a correct response. Error was defined as an incorrect initial weight transfer for the stepping task and as an incorrect initial tibialis anterior activation for the control task. Results revealed that ERN and CRN amplitudes were similar in size for the stepping task, whereas the amplitude of ERN was larger than that of CRN for the control task. The ERN amplitude was also larger in the stepping task than the control task. These observations suggest that a choice stepping reaction task involves a strategy emphasizing post-response conflict and general performance monitoring of actual and required responses and also requires greater cognitive load than a choice dorsiflexion reaction. The response conflict resolution processes appear to be different for stepping tasks and reaction tasks performed in a seated position.

  6. Online Monitoring of Enzymatic Reactions Using Time-Resolved Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Si; Wu, Qiuhua; Xiao, He; Chen, Hao

    2017-02-21

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is powerful for determining enzymatic reaction kinetics because of its soft ionization nature. However, it is limited to use ESI-favored solvents containing volatile buffers (e.g., ammonium acetate). In addition, lack of a quenching step for online ESI-MS reaction monitoring might introduce inaccuracy, due to the possible acceleration of reaction in the sprayed microdroplets. To overcome these issues, this study presents a new approach for online measuring enzymatic reaction kinetics using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). By using DESI-MS, enzymatic reaction products in a buffered aqueous media (e.g., a solution containing Tris buffer or high concentration of inorganic salts) could be directly detected. Furthermore, by adjusting the pH and solvent composition of the DESI spray, reaction can be online quenched to avoid the postionization reaction event, leading to fast and accurate measurement of kinetic constants. Reaction time control can be obtained simply by adjusting the injection flow rates of enzyme and substrate solutions. Enzymatic reactions examined in this study include hydrolysis of 2-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside by β-galactosidase and hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase. Derived Michaelis-Menten constants Km for these two reactions were determined to be 214 μM and 172 μM, respectively, which are in good agreement with the values of 300 μM and 230 μM reported in literature, validating the DESI-MS approach. Furthermore, this time-resolved DESI-MS also allowed us to determine Km and turnover number kcat for trypsin digestion of angiotensin II (Km and kcat are determined to be 6.4 mM and 1.3 s(-1), respectively).

  7. Overall kinetics of heterogeneous elemental mercury reactions on TiO2 sorbent particles with UV radiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A system consisting of a photochemical reaction was used to evaluate the kinetic parameters, such as reaction order and rate constant for the elemental mercury uptake by TiO2 in the presence of uv irradiation. TiO2 particles generated by an aerosol route were used in a fixed bed...

  8. Parameterization of N2O5 Reaction Probabilities on the Surface of Particles Containing Ammonium, Sulfate, and Nitrate

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive parameterization was developed for the heterogeneous reaction probability (γ) of N2O5 as a function of temperature, relative humidity, particle composition, and phase state, for use in advanced air quality models. The reaction probabilities o...

  9. Integration of a particle monitor into the control system for an ion implanter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Steven; McCarron, David; Blake, Julian

    1993-04-01

    The value of in situ particle monitors for both manufacturing process control and process development in the semiconductor industry is receiving considerable recognition. This paper discusses the integration of a high yield technology (HYT) sensor into the control system of an Baton high current ion implanter. The automatic triggering of the particle monitor during the various phases of the implant process and the autoclean cycle provides a definite representation of the machine state and the effect of processing over time. Utilizing existing features of the control system, specific thresholds can be associated with each implant process through its process recipe. By regular monitoring of the particle counter, these thresholds are used to anticipate the need for cleaning the process chamber, or if indicated, gracefully bring the current process to an immediate halt. A dedicated history log preserves detailed data for generating summary statistics and the complete data set of a particular process or overall machine performance. Future uses of this tool with the control system point toward statistical process control applications and intelligent self modifying process cycles. The presentation will include data from a system on which an HYT sensor was employed as a full time process monitor using modified SPC techniques for analysis.

  10. Detecting and Number Counting of Single Engineered Nanoparticles by Digital Particle Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Paunescu, Daniela; Mora, Carlos A; Querci, Lorenzo; Heckel, Reinhard; Puddu, Michela; Hattendorf, Bodo; Günther, Detlef; Grass, Robert N

    2015-10-27

    The concentrations of nanoparticles present in colloidal dispersions are usually measured and given in mass concentration (e.g. mg/mL), and number concentrations can only be obtained by making assumptions about nanoparticle size and morphology. Additionally traditional nanoparticle concentration measures are not very sensitive, and only the presence/absence of millions/billions of particles occurring together can be obtained. Here, we describe a method, which not only intrinsically results in number concentrations, but is also sensitive enough to count individual nanoparticles, one by one. To make this possible, the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was combined with a binary (=0/1, yes/no) measurement arrangement, binomial statistics and DNA comprising monodisperse silica nanoparticles. With this method, individual tagged particles in the range of 60-250 nm could be detected and counted in drinking water in absolute number, utilizing a standard qPCR device within 1.5 h of measurement time. For comparison, the method was validated with single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICPMS).

  11. Photochemical reactions of divalent mercury with thioglycolic acid: formation of mercuric sulfide particles.

    PubMed

    Si, Lin; Ariya, Parisa A

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a key toxic global pollutant. Studies in aquatic environment have suggested that thiols could be important for mercury speciation. Thioglycolic acid has been detected in various natural water systems and used as a model compound to study the complicated interaction between mercury and polyfunctional dissolved organic matter (DOM). We herein presented the first evidence for mercury particle formation during kinetic and product studies on the photochemistry of divalent mercury (Hg(2+)) with thioglycolic acid at near environmental conditions. Mercuric sulfide (HgS) particles formed upon photolysis were identified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry and select area electron diffraction. Kinetic data were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometry and cold vapour atomic fluorescent spectrometry. The apparent first-order reaction rate constant under our experimental conditions was calculated to be (2.3±0.4)×10(-5) s(-1) at T=296±2 K and pH 4.0. It was found that (89±3)% of the reactants undergo photoreduction to generate elemental mercury (Hg(0)). The effects of ionic strengths, pH and potassium ion were also investigated. The formation of HgS particles pointed to the possible involvement of heterogeneous processes. Our kinetic results indicated the importance of weak binding sites on DOM to Hg in photoreduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0). The potential implications of our data on environmental mercury transformation were discussed.

  12. The single-particle structure around ^132Sn explored through the (d,p) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kate

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear shell model^1, originally developed by Maria Geoppert Mayer in 1949 (Nobel Prize 1963) has been used extensively to explain the structure of nuclei. The atomic shell model describes the increased stability observed when an electron shell is filled. Correspondingly, nuclei with magic numbers of protons or neutrons (2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126) display additional stability. Only ten nuclei to date have been observed which have these standard magic numbers for both neutrons and protons, of these, half are stable or very long-lived. Many changes have been observed in nuclei as we move away from the valley of stability and it is important, both to nuclear structure physics and to understanding the synthesis of nuclei in the cosmos, to understand how these changes affect single-particle states.One exotic doubly-magic nucleus which can be produced with sufficient intensity to perform reactions on it is ^132Sn. Recent calculations^2 have shown that the structure around ^132Sn may affect the freeze out of the rapid neutron capture (r-)process, believed to occur in supernovae, which is responsible for the production of about half the nuclear species heavier than iron. By adding a neutron to a beam of ^132Sn via a transfer reaction, it is possible to study single-particle states beyond the double-shell closure. I will present results from a recent measurement of ^133Sn via the ^132Sn(d,p) reaction in inverse kinematics. [1] Maria Goeppert Mayer, Science 145 999 (1964). [2] R. Surman and J. Engel, Phys. Rev. C 64, 035801 (2001).

  13. An electrical sensor for long-term monitoring of ultrafine particles in workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanki, Timo; Tikkanen, Juha; Janka, Kauko; Taimisto, Pekka; Lehtimäki, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Pegasor Oy Ltd. (Finland) has developed a diffusion charging measurement device that enables continuous monitoring of fine particle concentration at a low initial and lifecycle cost. The innovation, for which an international process and apparatus patent has been applied for, opens doors for monitoring nanoparticle concentrations in workplaces. The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) operates by electrostatically charging particles passing through the sensor and then measuring the current caused by the charged particles as they leave the sensor. The particles never touch the sensor and so never accumulate on its surfaces or need to be cleaned off. The sensor uses an ejector pump to draw a constant sample flow into the sensing area where it is mixed with the clean, charged pump flow air (provided by an external source). The sample flow containing charged particles passes through the sensor. The current generated by the charge leaving the detection volume is measured and related to the particle surface area. This system is extremely simple and reliable - no contact, no moving parts, and all critical parts of the sensor are constantly cleaned by a stream of fresh, filtered air. Due to the ejector pump, the sample flow, and respectively the sensor response is independent of the flow and pressure conditions around the sampling inlet. Tests with the Pegasor Particle Sensor have been conducted in a laboratory, and at a workplace producing nanoparticles for glass coatings. A new measurement protocol has been designed to ensure that process workers are not exposed to unusually high nanoparticle concentrations at any time during their working day. One sensor is placed inside the process line, and a light alarm system indicates the worker not to open any protective shielding or ventilation systems before concentration inside has reached background levels. The benefits of PPS in industrial hygiene are that the same monitoring technology can be used at the source as well as at the

  14. Parallel Reaction Monitoring: A Targeted Experiment Performed Using High Resolution and High Mass Accuracy Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rauniyar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    The parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay has emerged as an alternative method of targeted quantification. The PRM assay is performed in a high resolution and high mass accuracy mode on a mass spectrometer. This review presents the features that make PRM a highly specific and selective method for targeted quantification using quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid instruments. In addition, this review discusses the label-based and label-free methods of quantification that can be performed with the targeted approach. PMID:26633379

  15. Rapid Bacterial Identification, Resistance, Virulence and Type Profiling using Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Charretier, Yannick; Dauwalder, Olivier; Franceschi, Christine; Degout-Charmette, Elodie; Zambardi, Gilles; Cecchini, Tiphaine; Bardet, Chloe; Lacoux, Xavier; Dufour, Philippe; Veron, Laurent; Rostaing, Hervé; Lanet, Veronique; Fortin, Tanguy; Beaulieu, Corinne; Perrot, Nadine; Dechaume, Dominique; Pons, Sylvie; Girard, Victoria; Salvador, Arnaud; Durand, Géraldine; Mallard, Frédéric; Theretz, Alain; Broyer, Patrick; Chatellier, Sonia; Gervasi, Gaspard; Van Nuenen, Marc; Ann Roitsch, Carolyn; Van Belkum, Alex; Lemoine, Jérôme; Vandenesch, François; Charrier, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode is proposed for in-depth characterisation of microorganisms in a multiplexed analysis. Within 60–80 minutes, the SRM method performs microbial identification (I), antibiotic-resistance detection (R), virulence assessment (V) and it provides epidemiological typing information (T). This SRM application is illustrated by the analysis of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating its promise for rapid characterisation of bacteria from positive blood cultures of sepsis patients. PMID:26350205

  16. Transport dissipative particle dynamics model for mesoscopic advection-diffusion-reaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Yazdani, Alireza; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Karniadakis, George Em

    2015-07-01

    We present a transport dissipative particle dynamics (tDPD) model for simulating mesoscopic problems involving advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) processes, along with a methodology for implementation of the correct Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in tDPD simulations. tDPD is an extension of the classic dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) framework with extra variables for describing the evolution of concentration fields. The transport of concentration is modeled by a Fickian flux and a random flux between tDPD particles, and the advection is implicitly considered by the movements of these Lagrangian particles. An analytical formula is proposed to relate the tDPD parameters to the effective diffusion coefficient. To validate the present tDPD model and the boundary conditions, we perform three tDPD simulations of one-dimensional diffusion with different boundary conditions, and the results show excellent agreement with the theoretical solutions. We also performed two-dimensional simulations of ADR systems and the tDPD simulations agree well with the results obtained by the spectral element method. Finally, we present an application of the tDPD model to the dynamic process of blood coagulation involving 25 reacting species in order to demonstrate the potential of tDPD in simulating biological dynamics at the mesoscale. We find that the tDPD solution of this comprehensive 25-species coagulation model is only twice as computationally expensive as the conventional DPD simulation of the hydrodynamics only, which is a significant advantage over available continuum solvers.

  17. Transport dissipative particle dynamics model for mesoscopic advection-diffusion-reaction problems

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Alireza; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Karniadakis, George Em

    2015-01-01

    We present a transport dissipative particle dynamics (tDPD) model for simulating mesoscopic problems involving advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) processes, along with a methodology for implementation of the correct Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in tDPD simulations. tDPD is an extension of the classic dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) framework with extra variables for describing the evolution of concentration fields. The transport of concentration is modeled by a Fickian flux and a random flux between tDPD particles, and the advection is implicitly considered by the movements of these Lagrangian particles. An analytical formula is proposed to relate the tDPD parameters to the effective diffusion coefficient. To validate the present tDPD model and the boundary conditions, we perform three tDPD simulations of one-dimensional diffusion with different boundary conditions, and the results show excellent agreement with the theoretical solutions. We also performed two-dimensional simulations of ADR systems and the tDPD simulations agree well with the results obtained by the spectral element method. Finally, we present an application of the tDPD model to the dynamic process of blood coagulation involving 25 reacting species in order to demonstrate the potential of tDPD in simulating biological dynamics at the mesoscale. We find that the tDPD solution of this comprehensive 25-species coagulation model is only twice as computationally expensive as the conventional DPD simulation of the hydrodynamics only, which is a significant advantage over available continuum solvers. PMID:26156459

  18. Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography Coupled to Multiple Reaction Monitoring Enables Reproducible Quantification of Phospho-signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jacob J.; Yan, Ping; Zhao, Lei; Ivey, Richard G.; Voytovich, Uliana J.; Moore, Heather D.; Lin, Chenwei; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L.; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Reding, Kerryn W.; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2016-01-01

    A major goal in cell signaling research is the quantification of phosphorylation pharmacodynamics following perturbations. Traditional methods of studying cellular phospho-signaling measure one analyte at a time with poor standardization, rendering them inadequate for interrogating network biology and contributing to the irreproducibility of preclinical research. In this study, we test the feasibility of circumventing these issues by coupling immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC)-based enrichment of phosphopeptides with targeted, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry to achieve precise, specific, standardized, multiplex quantification of phospho-signaling responses. A multiplex immobilized metal affinity chromatography- multiple reaction monitoring assay targeting phospho-analytes responsive to DNA damage was configured, analytically characterized, and deployed to generate phospho-pharmacodynamic curves from primary and immortalized human cells experiencing genotoxic stress. The multiplexed assays demonstrated linear ranges of ≥3 orders of magnitude, median lower limit of quantification of 0.64 fmol on column, median intra-assay variability of 9.3%, median inter-assay variability of 12.7%, and median total CV of 16.0%. The multiplex immobilized metal affinity chromatography- multiple reaction monitoring assay enabled robust quantification of 107 DNA damage-responsive phosphosites from human cells following DNA damage. The assays have been made publicly available as a resource to the community. The approach is generally applicable, enabling wide interrogation of signaling networks. PMID:26621847

  19. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology–fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01–0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics. PMID:27352840

  20. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-06-01

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology–fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01–0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics.

  1. When big brother is watching: goal orientation shapes reactions to electronic monitoring during online training.

    PubMed

    Watson, Aaron M; Foster Thompson, Lori; Rudolph, Jane V; Whelan, Thomas J; Behrend, Tara S; Gissel, Amanda L

    2013-07-01

    Web-based training is frequently used by organizations as a convenient and low-cost way to teach employees new knowledge and skills. As web-based training is typically unproctored, employees may be held accountable to the organization by computer software that monitors their behaviors. The current study examines how the introduction of electronic performance monitoring may provoke negative emotional reactions and decrease learning among certain types of e-learners. Through motivated action theory and trait activation theory, we examine the role of performance goal orientation when e-learners are exposed to asynchronous and synchronous monitoring. We show that some e-learners are more susceptible than others to evaluation apprehension when they perceive their activities are being monitored electronically. Specifically, e-learners higher in avoid performance goal orientation exhibited increased evaluation apprehension if they believed asynchronous monitoring was present, and they showed decreased skill attainment as a result. E-learners higher on prove performance goal orientation showed greater evaluation apprehension if they believed real-time monitoring was occurring, resulting in decreased skill attainment.

  2. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a Particle Radiation Monitor II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, C. E.; Ford, P. G.; Bautz, M. W.; ODell, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer is an instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. CCDs are vulnerable to radiation damage, particularly by soft protons in the radiation belts and solar storms. The Chandra team has implemented procedures to protect ACIS during high-radiation events including autonomous protection triggered by an on-board radiation monitor. Elevated temperatures have reduced the effectiveness of the on-board monitor. The ACIS team has developed an algorithm which uses data from the CCDs themselves to detect periods of high radiation and a flight software patch to apply this algorithm is currently active on-board the instrument. In this paper, we explore the ACIS response to particle radiation through comparisons to a number of external measures of the radiation environment. We hope to better understand the efficiency of the algorithm as a function of the flux and spectrum of the particles and the time-profile of the radiation event.

  3. Monitor of the concentration of particles of dense radioactive materials in a stream of air

    DOEpatents

    Yule, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    A monitor of the concentration of particles of radioactive materials such as plutonium oxide in diameters as small as 1/2 micron includes in combination a first stage comprising a plurality of virtual impactors, a second stage comprising a further plurality of virtual impactors, a collector for concentrating particulate material, a radiation detector disposed near the collector to respond to radiation from collected material and means for moving a stream of air, possibly containing particulate contaminants, through the apparatus.

  4. Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) onboard Rosetta/Philae: Tests with ice particles as comet analog materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, Alberto; Krüger, Harald; Loose, Alexander; Albin, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

    2014-09-01

    In 2014 the European Space Agency's spacecraft Rosetta will encounter the short-period comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta carries the lander spacecraft Philae on board which will attempt to land on the comet's nucleus. Amongst Philae's instruments, the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) using piezoelectric sensors is aimed at measuring the physical properties (size and impact speed) of the millimetric and submillimetric dust and ice particles that move near the surface of comet 67P. Given that DIM has three orthogonal sensor sides (with about 70 cm2) total area), it will also be able to collect dynamical data, like an estimation of the particle flux in three dimension, that will help to derive daily and secular variations in the surface activity. We show the results of a series of calibration experiments with the goal to extend the performance tests of DIM. We tested DIM under particle impacts of densities similar to and larger than that of water ice (0.92-7.80 g/cm3) and at speeds from 0.3 to 1.9 m/s. Then, we performed experiments with spherical water ice particles between -40 °C and -20 °C. Finally, we measured the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the impacting particles. These data show that there is a loss mechanism in the impact which is caused by plastic deformation in the contact zones of both the impinging particle and the PZT sensor.

  5. The Troublemaker In The Back: Equilibrium And Sources Of Particle Back-reaction In FRW Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Benoit Julien

    We explore various aspects of inflationary cosmologies with later work focusing on the back-reaction due to the universe's particle content. The background during the period over which inflation occurs being correctly approximated by the so-called quasi-de Sitter space, we examine the equilibration properties of a quantum scalar field placed in a spacetime which abruptly switches from a Minkowski universe to a de Sitter one. We show that the overall field's perception of the background, characterizing the equilibration procedure, is not unlike other familiar systems, provided a coarse graining incorporating enough modes. Having discussed the nature of equilibration in an inflationary background, we pursue our analysis by studying the back-reaction of numerous types of fields in assorted successful models of inflation. We first consider the back-reaction of modes with tachyonic masses in the context of Natural Inflation. Such modes are said to present the spinodal instability. Decomposing the effective potential via the Hartree approximation, we demonstrate how the tachyonic modes give rise to a second phase of inflation. Moreover, we display how accounting for the back-reaction of the tachyonic modes lifts the ban on sub-Planckian field excursions, while maintaining Natural Inflation's concordance with the data. We further the previous analysis to additional inflationary models. In the process, we elaborate a scheme to transform the potentials pertaining to the theories at hand, so as to incorporate the effect of long-wavelength modes. The latter are the ones that possess the spinodal instability and, as such, are responsible for the back-reaction onto the background. Our method allows us to obtain two-field effective potentials which are ultimately used to observe how the long-wavelength modes affect two cosmological parameters: the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the spectral tilt. We end with a discussion of the back-reaction due to the existence of fermions. We

  6. Diamine-sulfuric acid reactions are a potent source of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Coty N.; Bachman, Ryan; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nucleation from sulfuric acid depends on the concentrations and the stabilizing effect of other trace gases, such as ammonia and amines. Diamines are an understudied class of atmospherically relevant compounds, and we examine how they affect sulfuric acid nucleation in both flow reactor experiments and the atmosphere. The number of particles produced from sulfuric acid and diamines in the flow reactor was equal to or greater than the number formed from monoamines, implying that diamines are more effective nucleating agents. Upper limits of diamine abundance were also monitored during three field campaigns: Lamont, OK (2013); Lewes, DE (2012); and Atlanta, GA (2009). Mixing ratios were measured as high as tens of parts per trillion by volume (GA and OK). Laboratory results suggest that diamines at these levels are important for atmospheric nucleation. Diamines likely participate in atmospheric nucleation and should be considered in nucleation measurements and models.

  7. Radiation reaction on a classical charged particle: a modified form of the equation of motion.

    PubMed

    Alcaine, Guillermo García; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J

    2013-09-01

    We present and numerically solve a modified form of the equation of motion for a charged particle under the influence of an external force, taking into account the radiation reaction. This covariant equation is integro-differential, as Dirac-Röhrlich's, but has several technical improvements. First, the equation has the form of Newton's second law, with acceleration isolated on the left hand side and the force depending only on positions and velocities: Thus, the equation is linear in the highest derivative. Second, the total four-force is by construction perpendicular to the four-velocity. Third, if the external force vanishes for all future times, the total force and the acceleration automatically vanish at the present time. We show the advantages of this equation by solving it numerically for several examples of external force.

  8. Radiation reaction on a classical charged particle: A modified form of the equation of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaine, Guillermo García; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.

    2013-09-01

    We present and numerically solve a modified form of the equation of motion for a charged particle under the influence of an external force, taking into account the radiation reaction. This covariant equation is integro-differential, as Dirac-Röhrlich's, but has several technical improvements. First, the equation has the form of Newton's second law, with acceleration isolated on the left hand side and the force depending only on positions and velocities: Thus, the equation is linear in the highest derivative. Second, the total four-force is by construction perpendicular to the four-velocity. Third, if the external force vanishes for all future times, the total force and the acceleration automatically vanish at the present time. We show the advantages of this equation by solving it numerically for several examples of external force.

  9. Orthogonal Injection Ion Funnel Interface Providing Enhanced Performance for Selected Reaction Monitoring-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Prost, Spencer A.; ...

    2015-06-24

    The electrodynamic ion funnel facilitates efficient focusing and transfer of charged particles in the higher pressure regions (e.g. ion source interfaces) of mass spectrometers, and thus providing increased sensitivity. An “off-axis” ion funnel design has been developed to reduce the source contamination and interferences from, e.g. ESI droplet residue and other poorly focused neutral or charged particles with very high mass-to charge ratios. In this study a dual ion funnel interface consisting of an orthogonal higher pressure electrodynamic ion funnel (HPIF) and an ion funnel trap combined with a triple quadruple mass spectrometer was developed and characterized. An orthogonal ionmore » injection inlet and a repeller plate electrode was used to direct ions to an ion funnel HPIF at 9-10 Torr pressure. Several critical factors for the HPIF were characterized, including the effects of RF amplitude, DC gradient and operating pressure. Compared to the triple quadrupole standard interface more than 4-fold improvement in the limit of detection for the direct quantitative MS analysis of low abundance peptides was observed. Lastly, the sensitivity enhancement in liquid chromatography selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analyses of low abundance peptides spiked into a highly complex mixture was also compared with that obtained using a both commercial s-lens interface and a in-line dual ion funnel interface.« less

  10. Orthogonal Injection Ion Funnel Interface Providing Enhanced Performance for Selected Reaction Monitoring-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Prost, Spencer A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-24

    The electrodynamic ion funnel facilitates efficient focusing and transfer of charged particles in the higher pressure regions (e.g. ion source interfaces) of mass spectrometers, and thus providing increased sensitivity. An “off-axis” ion funnel design has been developed to reduce the source contamination and interferences from, e.g. ESI droplet residue and other poorly focused neutral or charged particles with very high mass-to charge ratios. In this study a dual ion funnel interface consisting of an orthogonal higher pressure electrodynamic ion funnel (HPIF) and an ion funnel trap combined with a triple quadruple mass spectrometer was developed and characterized. An orthogonal ion injection inlet and a repeller plate electrode was used to direct ions to an ion funnel HPIF at 9-10 Torr pressure. Several critical factors for the HPIF were characterized, including the effects of RF amplitude, DC gradient and operating pressure. Compared to the triple quadrupole standard interface more than 4-fold improvement in the limit of detection for the direct quantitative MS analysis of low abundance peptides was observed. Lastly, the sensitivity enhancement in liquid chromatography selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analyses of low abundance peptides spiked into a highly complex mixture was also compared with that obtained using a both commercial s-lens interface and a in-line dual ion funnel interface.

  11. [Methods Used for Monitoring Cure Reactions in Real-time in an Autoclave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John B.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time in an autoclave. This is of particular importance to NASA Langley Research Center because polyimides were proposed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program. Understanding the cure chemistry behind the polyimides would allow for intelligent processing of the composites made from their use. This work has led to two publications in peer-reviewed journals and a patent. The journal articles are listed as Appendix A which is on the instrument design of the research and Appendix B which is on the cure chemistry. Also, a patent has been awarded for the instrumental design developed under this grant which is given as Appendix C. There has been a significant amount of research directed at developing methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time within the autoclave. The various research efforts can be categorized as methods providing either direct chemical bonding information or methods that provide indirect chemical bonding information. Methods falling into the latter category are fluorescence, dielectric loss, ultrasonic and similar type methods. Correlation of such measurements with the underlying chemistry is often quite difficult since these techniques do not allow monitoring of the curing chemistry which is ultimately responsible for material properties. Direct methods such as vibrational spectroscopy, however, can often be easily correlated with the underlying chemistry of a reaction. Such methods include Raman spectroscopy, mid-IR absorbance, and near-IR absorbance. With the recent advances in fiber-optics, these spectroscopic techniques can be applied to remote on-line monitoring.

  12. Transport dissipative particle dynamics model for mesoscopic advection- diffusion-reaction problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, Li; Yazdani, Alireza; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Karniadakis, George E.

    2015-07-07

    We present a transport dissipative particle dynamics (tDPD) model for simulating mesoscopic problems involving advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) processes, along with a methodology for implementation of the correct Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in tDPD simulations. tDPD is an extension of the classic DPD framework with extra variables for describing the evolution of concentration fields. The transport of concentration is modeled by a Fickian flux and a random flux between particles, and an analytical formula is proposed to relate the mesoscopic concentration friction to the effective diffusion coefficient. To validate the present tDPD model and the boundary conditions, we perform three tDPD simulations of one-dimensional diffusion with different boundary conditions, and the results show excellent agreement with the theoretical solutions. We also performed two-dimensional simulations of ADR systems and the tDPD simulations agree well with the results obtained by the spectral element method. Finally, we present an application of the tDPD model to the dynamic process of blood coagulation involving 25 reacting species in order to demonstrate the potential of tDPD in simulating biological dynamics at the mesoscale. We find that the tDPD solution of this comprehensive 25-species coagulation model is only twice as computationally expensive as the DPD simulation of the hydrodynamics only, which is a significant advantage over available continuum solvers.

  13. Influence of fragment reaction of relativistic heavy charged particles on heavy-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Fukumura, Akifumi; Komori, Masataka; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2003-06-01

    The production of projectile fragments is one of the most important, but not yet perfectly understood, problems to be considered when planning for the utilization of high-energy heavy charged particles for radiotherapy. This paper reports our investigation of the fragments' fluence and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra produced from various incident ions using an experimental approach to reveal these physical qualities of the beams. Polymethyl methacrylate, as a substitute for the human body, was used as a target. A ΔE-E counter telescope with a plastic scintillator and a BGO scintillator made it possible to identify the species of fragments based on differences of various elements. By combining a gas-flow proportional counter with a counter telescope system, LET spectra as well as fluence spectra of the fragments were derived for each element down from the primary particles to hydrogen. Among them, the information on hydrogen and helium fragments was derived for the first time. The result revealed that the number of light fragments, such as hydrogen and helium, became larger than the number of primaries in the vicinity of the range end. However, the greater part of the dose delivered to a cell was still governed by the primaries. The calculated result of a simulation used for heavy-ion radiotherapy indicated room for improving the reaction model.

  14. Condensation reaction between carbohydrazide and salicylaldehyde: in-line vibrational spectroscopy monitoring and characterization of the reaction products in solution and solid state.

    PubMed

    Jednačak, Tomislav; Novak, Predrag; Hodzic, Aden; Scheibelhofer, Otto; Khinast, Johannes G; Plavec, Janez; Sket, Primož; Parlov, Vuković Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The condensation reaction between carbohydrazide and salicylaldehyde was monitored in-line by using vibrational NIR and Raman spectroscopies and statistical methods. Prior to in-line data analysis the reaction products were fully characterized in solution and solid state in order to check the potential of the in-line approach as a tool for in-process Schiff bases reaction control. It was demonstrated that a combination of vibrational spectroscopy and principal component analysis made it possible to detect and identify the reaction products, e.g. mono(salicylidene)carbohydrazide (1) and bis(salicylidene)carbohydrazide (2) in different solvents, and to determine the reaction end points in real time. Owing to complexity of the reaction mixtures and band overlapping, it was not possible to determine the relative ratio of the reaction products in-line. The off-line analysis showed that 1 was predominant in methanol while the highest portion of 2 was obtained in ethanol.

  15. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected. PMID:27249533

  16. Optical fiber sensor for an on-line monitoring of epoxy resin/amine reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchal, F.; Knight, J. A. G.; Garrington, N.; Cope, B.

    2002-05-01

    An optical fiber sensor is described; it permits a rapid determination of the state of chemical reaction in epoxy resin diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), and Triethylenetetramine stoichiometric reaction. Mid infrared Fourier transform technique was used to analyze the mixture via a pair of embedded optical fibers connected to an FTIR spectrometer, which operates in the region 4000-700 cm-1 of the electromagnetic waves. An accurate monitoring of the concentration changes over time of epoxy, amine and hydroxyl groups gave a good estimate of extent of reaction and description of physical state of the produced matrix. The chemical group peaks 1130 cm-1 and 3300-3400 cm-1 where used to follow the disappearance of the epoxy, and the amine respectively, while the peak 2970 cm-1 was used as reference peak. A review of a number of other techniques used to study the curing of epoxy resins together with on-line monitoring methods applied in processing thermoset resin is referred to.

  17. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Erik T; Dulay, Maria T; Zare, Richard N

    2016-06-21

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected.

  18. ReaDDy--a software for particle-based reaction-diffusion dynamics in crowded cellular environments.

    PubMed

    Schöneberg, Johannes; Noé, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the software package ReaDDy for simulation of detailed spatiotemporal mechanisms of dynamical processes in the cell, based on reaction-diffusion dynamics with particle resolution. In contrast to other particle-based reaction kinetics programs, ReaDDy supports particle interaction potentials. This permits effects such as space exclusion, molecular crowding and aggregation to be modeled. The biomolecules simulated can be represented as a sphere, or as a more complex geometry such as a domain structure or polymer chain. ReaDDy bridges the gap between small-scale but highly detailed molecular dynamics or Brownian dynamics simulations and large-scale but little-detailed reaction kinetics simulations. ReaDDy has a modular design that enables the exchange of the computing core by efficient platform-specific implementations or dynamical models that are different from Brownian dynamics.

  19. ReaDDy - A Software for Particle-Based Reaction-Diffusion Dynamics in Crowded Cellular Environments

    PubMed Central

    Schöneberg, Johannes; Noé, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the software package ReaDDy for simulation of detailed spatiotemporal mechanisms of dynamical processes in the cell, based on reaction-diffusion dynamics with particle resolution. In contrast to other particle-based reaction kinetics programs, ReaDDy supports particle interaction potentials. This permits effects such as space exclusion, molecular crowding and aggregation to be modeled. The biomolecules simulated can be represented as a sphere, or as a more complex geometry such as a domain structure or polymer chain. ReaDDy bridges the gap between small-scale but highly detailed molecular dynamics or Brownian dynamics simulations and large-scale but little-detailed reaction kinetics simulations. ReaDDy has a modular design that enables the exchange of the computing core by efficient platform-specific implementations or dynamical models that are different from Brownian dynamics. PMID:24040218

  20. Interfacing supercritical fluid reaction apparatus with on-line liquid chromatography: monitoring the progress of a synthetic organic reaction performed in supercritical fluid solution.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Edward D; Li, Ben; Guo, Wei; Liu, Jing Y

    2015-04-03

    An interface has been developed that connects a supercritical fluid reaction (SFR) vessel directly on-line to a liquid chromatograph. The combined SFR-LC system has enabled the progress of the esterification reaction between phenol and benzoyl chloride to synthesize phenyl benzoate in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solution to be dynamically monitored. This was achieved by the periodic SFR-LC analysis of samples directly withdrawn from the esterification reaction mixture. Using the series of SFR-LC analysis results obtained for individual esterification reactions, the reaction progress profile for each esterification reaction was obtained by expressing the measured yield of phenyl benzoate as a function of reaction time. With reaction temperature fixed at 75°C, four sets (n=3) of SFR-LC reaction progress profiles were obtained at four different SFR pressures ranging from 13.79 to 27.58 MPa. The maximum SFR yield obtained for phenyl benzoate using a standard set of reactant concentrations was 85.2% (R.S.D. 4.2%) when the reaction was performed at 13.79 MPa for 90 min. In comparison, a phenyl benzoate yield of less than 0.3% was obtained using the same standard reactant concentrations after 90 min reaction time at 75°C using either: heptane, ethyl acetate or acetonitrile as conventional organic reaction solvents.

  1. Kinetic Study of Radiation-Reaction-Limited Particle Acceleration During the Relaxation of Force-Free Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Blandford, Roger D.; East, William E.; Zrake, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over short time scales. This might be due to prodigal dissipation in a highly magnetized outflow. In order to understand the generic behavior of relativistic plasma with high magnetization, we consider a class of prototypical force-free equilibria which are shown to be unstable to ideal modes (East et al 2015 PRL 115, 095002). Kinetic simulations are carried out to follow the evolution of the instability and to study the basic mechanisms of particle acceleration, especially in the radiation-reaction-limited regime. We find that the instability naturally produces current layers and these are sites for efficient particle acceleration. Detailed calculations of the gamma ray spectrum, the evolution of the particle distribution function and the dynamical consequences of radiation reaction will be presented.

  2. The effects of back-reaction on turbulence modulation in shear flows: a new exact regularized point-particle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, P.; Picano, F.; Sardina, G.; Casciola, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Particles advected by turbulent flows spread non uniformly and form small scale aggregates known as clusters where their local concentration is much higher than it is in nearby rarefaction regions. Recently it has been shown that the addition of a mean flow, through its large scale anisotropy, induces a preferential orientation of the clusters whose directionality can even increase in the smallest scales. Such finding opens new issues in presence of large mass loads, when the momentum exchange between the two phases becomes significant and the back-reaction of the particles on the carrier flow cannot be neglected. These aspects are addressed by direct numerical simulations data of particle laden homogeneous shear flows in the two-way coupling regime. Particles with Stokes number of order one induce an energy depletion of the classical inertial scales and the amplitude increase of the smallest ones where the particle back-reaction pumps energy into the turbulent eddies. We find that increased mass loads results in a broadening of the energy co-spectrum extending the range of scales driven by anisotropic production mechanisms. Such results are obtained in the context of the classical "particle in cell" method. To go beyond this approach we propose a new methodology to model particle laden two phase flows. The method is based on the exact unsteady Stokes solution around a point-particle and is intended to provide a physically consistent picture of the momentum exchange between the carrier and disperse phase.

  3. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-03-01

    The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors. Some of them can cause allergy and severe diseases in humans, other animals and plants, with the subsequent economic impact. Despite the harsh conditions, they can be found from land and sea surfaces to beyond the troposphere and have been proposed to play a role also in weather conditions and climate change by acting as nucleation particles and inducing water vapour condensation. In regards to their global distribution, marine environments act mostly as a source for bacteria while continents additionally provide fungal and pollen elements. Within terrestrial environments, their abundances and diversity seem to be influenced by the land-use type (rural, urban, coastal) and their particularities. Temporal variability has been observed for all these organisms, mostly triggered by global changes in temperature, relative humidity, et cetera. Local fluctuations in meteorological factors may also result in pronounced changes in the airbiota. Although biological particles can be transported several hundreds of meters from the original source, and even intercontinentally, the time and final distance travelled are strongly influenced by factors such as wind speed and direction. [Int Microbiol 2016; 19(1):1-1 3].

  4. Phase-field study of electrochemical reactions at exterior and interior interfaces in Li-ion battery electrode particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Xu, Bai-Xiang; Stein, Peter; Gross, Dietmar

    2016-12-01

    To study the electrochemical reaction on surfaces, phase interfaces, and crack surfaces in the lithium ion battery electrode particles, a phase-field model is developed, which describes fracture in large strains and anisotropic Cahn-Hilliard-Reaction. Thereby the concentration-dependency of the elastic properties and the anisotropy of diffusivity are also considered. The implementation in 3D is carried out by isogeometric finite element methods in order to treat the high order terms in a straightforward sense. The electrochemical reaction is modeled through a modified Butler-Volmer equation to account for the influence of the phase change on the reaction on exterior surfaces. The reaction on the crack surfaces is considered through a volume source term weighted by a term related to the fracture order parameter. Based on the model, three characteristic examples are considered to reveal the electrochemical reactions on particle surfaces, phase interfaces, and crack surfaces, as well as their influence on the particle material behavior. Results show that the ratio between the timescale of reaction and the diffusion can have a significant influence on phase segregation behavior, as well as the anisotropy of diffusivity. In turn, the distribution of the lithium concentration greatly influences the reaction on the surface, especially when the phase interfaces appear on exterior surfaces or crack surfaces. The reaction rate increases considerably at phase interfaces, due to the large lithium concentration gradient. Moreover, simulations demonstrate that the segregation of a Li-rich and a Li-poor phase during delithiation can drive the cracks to propagate. Results indicate that the model can capture the electrochemical reaction on the freshly cracked surfaces.

  5. Large-Scale Targeted Proteomics Using Internal Standard Triggered-Parallel Reaction Monitoring (IS-PRM).

    PubMed

    Gallien, Sebastien; Kim, Sang Yoon; Domon, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Targeted high-resolution and accurate mass analyses performed on fast sequencing mass spectrometers have opened new avenues for quantitative proteomics. More specifically, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) implemented on quadrupole-orbitrap instruments exhibits exquisite selectivity to discriminate interferences from analytes. Furthermore, the instrument trapping capability enhances the sensitivity of the measurements. The PRM technique, applied to the analysis of limited peptide sets (typically 50 peptides or less) in a complex matrix, resulted in an improved detection and quantification performance as compared with the reference method of selected reaction monitoring performed on triple quadrupole instruments. However, the implementation of PRM for the analysis of large peptide numbers requires the adjustment of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters, which affects dramatically the quality of the generated data, and thus the overall output of an experiment. A newly designed data acquisition scheme enabled the analysis of moderate-to-large peptide numbers while retaining a high performance level. This new method, called internal standard triggered-parallel reaction monitoring (IS-PRM), relies on added internal standards and the on-the-fly adjustment of acquisition parameters to drive in real-time measurement of endogenous peptides. The acquisition time management was designed to maximize the effective time devoted to measure the analytes in a time-scheduled targeted experiment. The data acquisition scheme alternates between two PRM modes: a fast low-resolution "watch mode" and a "quantitative mode" using optimized parameters ensuring data quality. The IS-PRM method exhibited a highly effective use of the instrument time. Applied to the analysis of large peptide sets (up to 600) in complex samples, the method showed an unprecedented combination of scale and analytical performance, with limits of quantification in the low amol range. The successful analysis of

  6. Large-Scale Targeted Proteomics Using Internal Standard Triggered-Parallel Reaction Monitoring (IS-PRM)*

    PubMed Central

    Gallien, Sebastien; Kim, Sang Yoon; Domon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Targeted high-resolution and accurate mass analyses performed on fast sequencing mass spectrometers have opened new avenues for quantitative proteomics. More specifically, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) implemented on quadrupole-orbitrap instruments exhibits exquisite selectivity to discriminate interferences from analytes. Furthermore, the instrument trapping capability enhances the sensitivity of the measurements. The PRM technique, applied to the analysis of limited peptide sets (typically 50 peptides or less) in a complex matrix, resulted in an improved detection and quantification performance as compared with the reference method of selected reaction monitoring performed on triple quadrupole instruments. However, the implementation of PRM for the analysis of large peptide numbers requires the adjustment of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters, which affects dramatically the quality of the generated data, and thus the overall output of an experiment. A newly designed data acquisition scheme enabled the analysis of moderate-to-large peptide numbers while retaining a high performance level. This new method, called internal standard triggered-parallel reaction monitoring (IS-PRM), relies on added internal standards and the on-the-fly adjustment of acquisition parameters to drive in real-time measurement of endogenous peptides. The acquisition time management was designed to maximize the effective time devoted to measure the analytes in a time-scheduled targeted experiment. The data acquisition scheme alternates between two PRM modes: a fast low-resolution “watch mode” and a “quantitative mode” using optimized parameters ensuring data quality. The IS-PRM method exhibited a highly effective use of the instrument time. Applied to the analysis of large peptide sets (up to 600) in complex samples, the method showed an unprecedented combination of scale and analytical performance, with limits of quantification in the low amol range. The successful

  7. Comparison of POLDER Derived Aerosol Optical Thickness to Surface Monitor Fine Particle Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, J.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Chiapello, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Particulate Matter (PM) mass measured at the ground level is a common way to quantify the amount of aerosol particles in the atmosphere and is used as a standard to evaluate air quality. Satellite remote sensing is well suited for a daily monitoring of the aerosol load. However, there are no straightforward relationship between aerosol optical properties derived from the satellite sensor and the PM mass at the ground. This paper is focused on the use of Polarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectance (POLDER-2) derived aerosol optical thickness (AOT) for the monitoring of PM2.5. We present a correlation study between PM2.5 data collected in the frame of the French Environmental protection agency, aerosol optical properties derived from Sun photometer measurements, and POLDER derived-AOT over the land. POLDER AOT retrieval algorithm over the land is based on the use of the measurement of the linear polarized light in the 670 nm and 865 nm channels. We show that only the fine fraction (below 0.3 μm) of the aerosol size distribution contributes to the signal in polarization and then to the POLDER derived-AOT and then is well suited for monitoring of fine particle. The correlation between POLDER AOT and PM2.5 is significant (R between 0.6 and 0.7) over several sites. We present a tentative evaluation of Air Quality Categories from satellite data.

  8. Effect of reaction atmosphere on particle morphology of TiO2 produced by thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae Gil; Park, Kyun Young

    2006-04-01

    Thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was carried out in varying reaction atmospheres: nitrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen plus water vapor. The effect of reaction atmosphere on the morphology, size, and crystalline structure of produced TiO2 particles was studied. The reactor used was similar to the microreactor proposed earlier by Park et al. (2001, J. Nanopart. Res., 3, 309-319), but for a modification in the precursor evaporator. The reactor temperature was varied from 300 to 700°C and the TTIP concentration in the evaporator from 1.0 to 7.0 mol%, holding the reactor residence time at 0.7 s. The primary-particle size was in the range 25-250 nm, varying with operating condition. The crystalline structure was amorphous in nitrogen, a mixture of rutile and anatase in nitrogen plus water vapor, and anatase in oxygen atmospheres. In nitrogen, agglomerates composed of very small particles whose individual boundaries are not clearly distinguished were produced. In oxygen, the particles composing an agglomerate became larger and were clearly spherical. As the atmosphere was varied to the nitrogen plus water vapor, the particle size increased further. The variation of primary particle size with reaction atmosphere was discussed in comparison with previous experimental data.

  9. Simultaneous 19F-1H medium resolution NMR spectroscopy for online reaction monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zientek, Nicolai; Laurain, Clément; Meyer, Klas; Kraume, Matthias; Guthausen, Gisela; Maiwald, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Medium resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (MR-NMR) spectroscopy is currently a fast developing field, which has an enormous potential to become an important analytical tool for reaction monitoring, in hyphenated techniques, and for systematic investigations of complex mixtures. The recent developments of innovative MR-NMR spectrometers are therefore remarkable due to their possible applications in quality control, education, and process monitoring. MR-NMR spectroscopy can beneficially be applied for fast, non-invasive, and volume integrating analyses under rough environmental conditions. Within this study, a simple 1/16″ fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) tube with an ID of 0.04″ (1.02 mm) was used as a flow cell in combination with a 5 mm glass Dewar tube inserted into a benchtop MR-NMR spectrometer with a 1H Larmor frequency of 43.32 MHz and 40.68 MHz for 19F. For the first time, quasi-simultaneous proton and fluorine NMR spectra were recorded with a series of alternating 19F and 1H single scan spectra along the reaction time coordinate of a homogeneously catalysed esterification model reaction containing fluorinated compounds. The results were compared to quantitative NMR spectra from a hyphenated 500 MHz online NMR instrument for validation. Automation of handling, pre-processing, and analysis of NMR data becomes increasingly important for process monitoring applications of online NMR spectroscopy and for its technical and practical acceptance. Thus, NMR spectra were automatically baseline corrected and phased using the minimum entropy method. Data analysis schemes were designed such that they are based on simple direct integration or first principle line fitting, with the aim that the analysis directly revealed molar concentrations from the spectra. Finally, the performance of 1/16″ FEP tube set-up with an ID of 1.02 mm was characterised regarding the limit of detection (LOQ (1H) = 0.335 mol L-1 and LOQ (19F) = 0.130 mol L-1 for trifluoroethanol in

  10. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jessica B.; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103–104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 21% of those measured by reference instruments for polydisperse aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +130% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. PMID:23473056

  11. Heterogeneous Reactions of Gaseous Hydrogen Peroxide on Clean and Coated Mineral Particles: Dependence on Relative Humidity and Surface Coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, Z.; Shen, X.; Huang, D.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a significant atmospheric oxidant, playing an important role in secondary sulfate formation and HOx radical chemistry. Recent studies have shown that heterogeneous reactions on atmospheric aerosol particles seem to be an important sink for gaseous H2O2. The data concerning the kinetics and mechanisms of these reactions, however, are quite scarce so far. Here we investigated, for the first time, the heterogeneous reactions of gaseous H2O2 on the surface of clean and coated silica and alumina particles, two major components of mineral dust particles, as a function of relative humidity (RH) and surface coverage of coatings using transmission-Fourier Transform Infrared (T-FTIR) spectroscopy and online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It is found that H2O2 molecularly adsorbs on SiO2, and a small amount of molecularly adsorbed H2O2 decomposes due to its thermal instability. For α-Al2O3, catalytic decomposition of H2O2 evidently occurs, but there is also a small amount of H2O2 molecularly adsorbed on the particle surface. The measured uptake coefficients of H2O2 on both particles largely decrease with increasing RH. Pretreatment of the alumina surfaces with gaseous SO2 or HNO3 to simulate atmospheric aging of mineral particles has a strong impact on its reactivity toward H2O2. On SO2-processed particles, the presence of adsorbed S(IV) appears to enhance the intrinsic reactivity of the alumina surface and the uptake of H2O2 increases compared to that on unprocessed particles, in particular, at high RH, whereas the alumina surface is significantly deactivated when the S(IV) is completely transformed to S(VI), and the measured uptake of H2O2 apparently decreased. For HNO3-processed particles, the presence of nitrate coatings seems to decrease or increase the reactivity of the alumina particles toward H2O2, with a strong dependence on RH and surface nitrate coverage. For example, as the surface nitrate coverage increases, the uptake

  12. Excitation function of the alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on enriched 116Cd, production of the theranostic isotope 117mSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.; Szűcs, Z.; Saito, M.

    2016-10-01

    117mSn is one of the radioisotopes can be beneficially produced through alpha particle irradiation. The targets were prepared by deposition of 116Cd metal onto high purity 12 μm thick Cu backing. The average deposited thickness was 21.9 μm. The beam energy was thoroughly measured by Time of Flight (TOF) methods and proved to be 51.2 MeV. For the experiment the well-established stacked foil technique was used. In addition to the Cd targets, Ti foils were also inserted into the stacks for energy and intensity monitoring. The Cu backings were also used for monitoring and as recoil catcher of the reaction products from the cadmium layer. The activities of the irradiated foils were measured with HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry and cross section values were determined. As a result excitation functions for the formation of 117mSn, 117m,gIn, 116mIn, 115mIn and 115m,gCd from enriched 116Cd were deduced and compared with the available literature data and with the results of the nuclear reaction model code calculations EMPIRE 3.2 and TALYS 1.8. Yield curves were also deduced for the measured nuclear reactions and compared with the literature.

  13. Particle therapy of moving targets-the strategies for tumour motion monitoring and moving targets irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    Particle therapy of moving targets is still a great challenge. The motion of organs situated in the thorax and abdomen strongly affects the precision of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy. The motion is responsible for not only the dislocation of the tumour but also the alterations in the internal density along the beam path, which influence the range of particle beams. Furthermore, in case of pencil beam scanning, there is an interference between the target movement and dynamic beam delivery. This review presents the strategies for tumour motion monitoring and moving target irradiation in the context of hadron therapy. Methods enabling the direct determination of tumour position (fluoroscopic imaging of implanted radio-opaque fiducial markers, electromagnetic detection of inserted transponders and ultrasonic tumour localization systems) are presented. Attention is also drawn to the techniques which use external surrogate motion for an indirect estimation of target displacement during irradiation. The role of respiratory-correlated CT [four-dimensional CT (4DCT)] in the determination of motion pattern prior to the particle treatment is also considered. An essential part of the article is the review of the main approaches to moving target irradiation in hadron therapy: gating, rescanning (repainting), gated rescanning and tumour tracking. The advantages, drawbacks and development trends of these methods are discussed. The new accelerators, called "cyclinacs", are presented, because their application to particle therapy will allow making a breakthrough in the 4D spot scanning treatment of moving organs.

  14. A Methodology to Monitor Airborne PM10 Dust Particles Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Erskine, Peter; Cliff, David; Heuff, Darlene

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the process of coal extraction from surface mines, gases and particles are emitted in the form of fugitive emissions by activities such as hauling, blasting and transportation. As these emissions are diffuse in nature, estimations based upon emission factors and dispersion/advection equations need to be measured directly from the atmosphere. This paper expands upon previous research undertaken to develop a relative methodology to monitor PM10 dust particles produced by mining activities making use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A module sensor using a laser particle counter (OPC-N2 from Alphasense, Great Notley, Essex, UK) was tested. An aerodynamic flow experiment was undertaken to determine the position and length of a sampling probe of the sensing module. Flight tests were conducted in order to demonstrate that the sensor provided data which could be used to calculate the emission rate of a source. Emission rates are a critical variable for further predictive dispersion estimates. First, data collected by the airborne module was verified using a 5.0 m tower in which a TSI DRX 8533 (reference dust monitoring device, TSI, Shoreview, MN, USA) and a duplicate of the module sensor were installed. Second, concentration values collected by the monitoring module attached to the UAV (airborne module) obtaining a percentage error of 1.1%. Finally, emission rates from the source were calculated, with airborne data, obtaining errors as low as 1.2%. These errors are low and indicate that the readings collected with the airborne module are comparable to the TSI DRX and could be used to obtain specific emission factors from fugitive emissions for industrial activities. PMID:28216557

  15. A Methodology to Monitor Airborne PM10 Dust Particles Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Erskine, Peter; Cliff, David; Heuff, Darlene

    2017-02-14

    Throughout the process of coal extraction from surface mines, gases and particles are emitted in the form of fugitive emissions by activities such as hauling, blasting and transportation. As these emissions are diffuse in nature, estimations based upon emission factors and dispersion/advection equations need to be measured directly from the atmosphere. This paper expands upon previous research undertaken to develop a relative methodology to monitor PM10 dust particles produced by mining activities making use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A module sensor using a laser particle counter (OPC-N2 from Alphasense, Great Notley, Essex, UK) was tested. An aerodynamic flow experiment was undertaken to determine the position and length of a sampling probe of the sensing module. Flight tests were conducted in order to demonstrate that the sensor provided data which could be used to calculate the emission rate of a source. Emission rates are a critical variable for further predictive dispersion estimates. First, data collected by the airborne module was verified using a 5.0 m tower in which a TSI DRX 8533 (reference dust monitoring device, TSI, Shoreview, MN, USA) and a duplicate of the module sensor were installed. Second, concentration values collected by the monitoring module attached to the UAV (airborne module) obtaining a percentage error of 1.1%. Finally, emission rates from the source were calculated, with airborne data, obtaining errors as low as 1.2%. These errors are low and indicate that the readings collected with the airborne module are comparable to the TSI DRX and could be used to obtain specific emission factors from fugitive emissions for industrial activities.

  16. Increasing the sensitivity for stem cell monitoring in system-function based magnetic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Them, Kolja; Salamon, J.; Szwargulski, P.; Sequeira, S.; Kaul, M. G.; Lange, C.; Ittrich, H.; Knopp, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    The use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) has provided new possibilities in biophysics and biomedical imaging technologies. The magnetization dynamics of SPIONs, which can be influenced by the environment, are of central interest. In this work, different biological SPION environments are used to investigate three different calibration methods for stem cell monitoring in magnetic particle imaging. It is shown that calibrating using SPIONs immobilized via agarose gel or intracellular uptake results in superior stem cell image quality compared to mobile SPIONs in saline. This superior image quality enables more sensitive localization and identification of a significantly smaller number of magnetically labeled stem cells. The results are important for cell tracking and monitoring of future SPION based therapies such as hyperthermia based cancer therapies, targeted drug delivery, or tissue regeneration approaches where it is crucial to image a sufficiently small number of SPIONs interacting with biological matter.

  17. Monitoring of atmospheric particles and ozone in Sequoia National Park: 1985-1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    The Air Quality Group Monitored particles and ozone in Sequoia National Park as part of an effort to understand the impact of acid deposition and other air pollutants on the park's forests and watersheds. For high-elevation ozone measurement, the project developed a new solar-powered ozone monitoring system. The particulate matter sampled was analyzed for elemental content using nuclear techniques. The measurements were correlated with meteorology, known elemental sources, and wet and dry deposition measurements. The results show that particulate matter at Sequoia National Park is similar to that present at other sites on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada range at equivalent elevations. Some anthropogenic species, including nickel and sulfate, are present in higher concentrations at Sequoia than at Yosemite National Park.

  18. An anti-galvanic replacement reaction of DNA templated silver nanoclusters monitored by the light-scattering technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoliang; Feng, Da-Qian; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng; Li, Dan

    2013-09-18

    An anti-galvanic replacement reaction (AGRR) of copper(II) ions reduced by ultra-small ssDNA-templated silver nanoclusters forming Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles was observed. The reaction is against the classic galvanic theory and was monitored sensitively by the light-scattering technique.

  19. A non-invasive beam profile monitor for charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tzoganis, Vasilis; Welsch, Carsten P.

    2014-05-19

    Non-interceptive beam profile monitors are highly desirable in almost all particle accelerators. Such techniques are especially valuable in applications where real time monitoring of the beam properties is required while beam preservation and minimal influence on the vacuum are of the greatest importance. This applies to many kinds of accelerators such as high energy machines where the normal diagnostics cannot withstand the beam's power, medical machines where treatment time is valuable and cannot be allocated to diagnostics and also low energy, low intensity accelerators where the beam's properties are difficult to measure. This paper presents the design of a gas-jet based beam profile monitor which was developed and commissioned at the Cockcroft Institute and can operate in a very large background pressure range from 10{sup −7} down to below 10{sup −11} millibars. The functioning principle of the monitor is described and the first experimental results obtained using a 5 keV electron beam are discussed.

  20. Real-time and in situ monitoring of mechanochemical milling reactions.

    PubMed

    Friščić, Tomislav; Halasz, Ivan; Beldon, Patrick J; Belenguer, Ana M; Adams, Frank; Kimber, Simon A J; Honkimäki, Veijo; Dinnebier, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and structural transformations have long been carried out by milling. Such mechanochemical steps are now ubiquitous in a number of industries (such as the pharmaceutical, chemical and metallurgical industries), and are emerging as excellent environmentally friendly alternatives to solution-based syntheses. However, mechanochemical transformations are typically difficult to monitor in real time, which leaves a large gap in the mechanistic understanding required for their development. We now report the real-time study of mechanochemical transformations in a ball mill by means of in situ diffraction of high-energy synchrotron X-rays. Focusing on the mechanosynthesis of metal-organic frameworks, we have directly monitored reaction profiles, the formation of intermediates, and interconversions of framework topologies. Our results reveal that mechanochemistry is highly dynamic, with reaction rates comparable to or greater than those in solution. The technique also enabled us to probe directly how catalytic additives recently introduced in the mechanosynthesis of metal-organic frameworks, such as organic liquids or ionic species, change the reactivity pathways and kinetics.

  1. Parallel reaction monitoring using quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer: Principle and applications.

    PubMed

    Bourmaud, Adele; Gallien, Sebastien; Domon, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Targeted mass spectrometry-based approaches are nowadays widely used for quantitative proteomics studies and more recently have been implemented on high resolution/accurate mass (HRAM) instruments resulting in a considerable performance improvement. More specifically, the parallel reaction monitoring technique (PRM) performed on quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometers, leveraging the high resolution and trapping capabilities of the instrument, offers a clear advantage over the conventional selected reaction monitoring (SRM) measurements executed on triple quadrupole instruments. Analyses performed in HRAM mode allow for an improved discrimination between signals derived from analytes and those resulting from matrix interferences translating in the reliable quantification of low abundance components. The purpose of the study defines various implementation schemes of PRM, namely: (i) exploratory experiments assessing the detectability of very large sets of peptides (100-1000), (ii) wide-screen analyses using (crude) internal standards to obtain statistically meaningful (relative) quantitative analyses, and (iii) precise/accurate quantification of a limited number of analytes using calibrated internal standards. Each of the three implementation schemes requires specific acquisition methods with defined parameters to appropriately control the acquisition during the actual peptide elution. This tutorial describes the different PRM approaches and discusses their benefits and limitations in terms of quantification performance and confidence in analyte identification.

  2. Advancing the sensitivity of selected reaction monitoring-based targeted quantitative proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Su, Dian; Liu, Tao; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-04-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM)—also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)—has emerged as a promising high-throughput targeted protein quantification technology for candidate biomarker verification and systems biology applications. A major bottleneck for current SRM technology, however, is insufficient sensitivity for e.g., detecting low-abundance biomarkers likely present at the pg/mL to low ng/mL range in human blood plasma or serum, or extremely low-abundance signaling proteins in the cells or tissues. Herein we review recent advances in methods and technologies, including front-end immunoaffinity depletion, fractionation, selective enrichment of target proteins/peptides or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs), as well as advances in MS instrumentation, which have significantly enhanced the overall sensitivity of SRM assays and enabled the detection of low-abundance proteins at low to sub- ng/mL level in human blood plasma or serum. General perspectives on the potential of achieving sufficient sensitivity for detection of pg/mL level proteins in plasma are also discussed.

  3. Monitoring, Modeling, and Diagnosis of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Small Concrete Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Cai, Guowei; Gribok, Andrei V.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2015-09-01

    Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Structural health monitoring of concrete structures aims to understand the current health condition of a structure based on heterogeneous measurements to produce high-confidence actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. This report describes alkali-silica reaction (ASR) degradation mechanisms and factors influencing the ASR. A fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model developed by Saouma and Perotti by taking into consideration the effects of stress on the reaction kinetics and anisotropic volumetric expansion is presented in this report. This model is implemented in the GRIZZLY code based on the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment. The implemented model in the GRIZZLY code is randomly used to initiate ASR in a 2D and 3D lattice to study the percolation aspects of concrete. The percolation aspects help determine the transport properties of the material and therefore the durability and service life of concrete. This report summarizes the effort to develop small-size concrete samples with embedded glass to mimic ASR. The concrete samples were treated in water and sodium hydroxide solution at elevated temperature to study how ingress of sodium ions and hydroxide ions at elevated temperature impacts concrete samples embedded with glass. Thermal camera was used to monitor the changes in the concrete sample and results are summarized.

  4. Real-time and in situ monitoring of mechanochemical milling reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friščić, Tomislav; Halasz, Ivan; Beldon, Patrick J.; Belenguer, Ana M.; Adams, Frank; Kimber, Simon A. J.; Honkimäki, Veijo; Dinnebier, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and structural transformations have long been carried out by milling. Such mechanochemical steps are now ubiquitous in a number of industries (such as the pharmaceutical, chemical and metallurgical industries), and are emerging as excellent environmentally friendly alternatives to solution-based syntheses. However, mechanochemical transformations are typically difficult to monitor in real time, which leaves a large gap in the mechanistic understanding required for their development. We now report the real-time study of mechanochemical transformations in a ball mill by means of in situ diffraction of high-energy synchrotron X-rays. Focusing on the mechanosynthesis of metal-organic frameworks, we have directly monitored reaction profiles, the formation of intermediates, and interconversions of framework topologies. Our results reveal that mechanochemistry is highly dynamic, with reaction rates comparable to or greater than those in solution. The technique also enabled us to probe directly how catalytic additives recently introduced in the mechanosynthesis of metal-organic frameworks, such as organic liquids or ionic species, change the reactivity pathways and kinetics.

  5. Light-particle emission as a probe of the rotational degrees of freedom in deep-inelastic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sobotka, L.G.

    1982-05-01

    The emission of alpha particles in coincidence with the most deeply inelastic heavy-ion reactions has been studied for /sup 181/Ta/sup +/ /sup 165/Ho at 1354 MeV laboratory energy and /sup nat/Ag + /sup 84/Kr at 664 MeV. Alpha particle energy spectra and angular distributions, in coincidence with a projectile-like fragment, were acquired both in the reaction plane and out of the reaction plane at a fixed in-plane angle. The in-plane data for both systems are employed to show that the bulk of the alpha particles in coincidence with the deep-inelastic exit channel can be explained by evaporation from the fully accelerated fragments. Average velocity diagrams, ..cap alpha..-particle energy spectra as a function of angle in several rest frames, and ..cap alpha..-particle angular distributions are presented. The out-of-plane alpha particle angular distributions and the gamma-ray multiplicities are used to study the transfer and partitioning of angular momentum between the two fragments. For the /sup nat/Ag + /sup 84/Kr system, individual fragment spins are extracted form the alpha particle angular distributions as a function of mass asymmetry while the sum of the fragment spins is derived from the gamma-ray multiplicities. These data, together with the fragment kinetic energies, are consistent with rigid rotation of an intermediate complex consisting of two substantially deformed spheroids in near proximity. These data also indicate that some angular momentum fractionation exists at the largest asymmetries examined. Out-of-plane alpha particle distributions, gamma-ray multiplicities, fragment spins as well as the formalism for the spin evaluation at various levels of sophistication are presented.

  6. EFFECTS OF PARTICLE EVAPORATION ON THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF THE EMITTING NUCLEUS FOR DEEP INELASTIC AND COMPOUND NUCLEAR REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, S.K.; Moretto, L.G.

    1980-09-01

    A model is developed which allows one to calculate analytically the angular momentum removed, and the angular momentum misalignment created by the evaporation of light particles from an excited nucleus. The mass, temperature, and angular momentum of the emitting nucleus are explicitly considered. The formalism applies equally well to heavy ion and compound nuclear reactions.

  7. Particle size dependence on oxygen reduction reaction activity of electrodeposited TaO(x) catalysts in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeongsuk; Cha, Dongkyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-01-21

    The size dependence of the oxygen reduction reaction activity was studied for TaO(x) nanoparticles electrodeposited on carbon black for application to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Compared with a commercial Ta2O5 material, the ultrafine oxide nanoparticles exhibited a distinctively high onset potential different from that of the bulky oxide particles.

  8. Deriving reaction-diffusion models in ecology from interacting particle systems.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, R S; Cosner, C

    2004-02-01

    We use a scaling procedure based on averaging Poisson distributed random variables to derive population level models from local models of interactions between individuals. The procedure is suggested by using the idea of hydrodynamic limits to derive reaction-diffusion models for population interactions from interacting particle systems. The scaling procedure is formal in the sense that we do not address the issue of proving that it converges; instead we focus on methods for computing the results of the scaling or deriving properties of rescaled systems. To that end we treat the scaling procedure as a transform, in analogy with the Laplace or Fourier transform, and derive operational formulas to aid in the computation of rescaled systems or the derivation of their properties. Since the limiting procedure is adapted from work by Durrett and Levin, we refer to the transform as the Durrett-Levin transform. We examine the effects of rescaling in various standard models, including Lotka-Volterra models, Holling type predator-prey models, and ratio-dependent models. The effects of scaling are mostly quantitative in models with smooth interaction terms, but ratio-dependent models are profoundly affected by the scaling. The scaling transforms ratio-dependent terms that are singular at the origin into smooth terms. Removing the singularity at the origin eliminates some of the unique dynamics that can arise in ratio-dependent models.

  9. Reaction monitoring of toluenediisocyanate (TDI) polymerization on a non-mixable aqueous surface by MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Ji Seok; Kim, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    The polymerization reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl compounds has been widely used for the production of polyurea resins. Since the composition and molecular-weight distribution of polymer adducts greatly influence the final properties of the resuting polymer, the development of analytical tools capable of monitoring the polyaddition reactions is important to control them as well as the properties of the resuting polymer. Here we report that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful to precisely monitor time-dependent dynamic events occurring in the polymerization reaction of TDI with water. For this purpose, the polymerization reactions were conducted in two different reaction systems, continuously supplying sufficient water and depleting water after an initial exposure of water to provide an anhydrous storage condition of prepolymer adducts. Samples prepared in a time course from the two different reaction systems were analyzed by a MALDI TOF mass spectrometer. The polymerization adducts of TDI and water were monitored and showed to consist of three structural types of polymer adduct series, including diisocyanate, monoamino, and diamino series. These MALDI mass data efficiently reflected changes in the reaction conditions of each TDI polymerization reaction, thereby providing precise information at the molecular level for time-dependent events occurring during the polymerization reaction. These events included changes between the polymer adduct series and in the molecular-weight distribution of each polymer adduct series. The results obtained in this study suggest that high-throughput MALDI MS-based dynamic monitoring of polymerization can be used to precisely control the polymerization reaction as well as to rapidly monitor the state of prepolymers in storage.

  10. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  11. A Database of Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Assays for Elucidating Therapeutic Response in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Remily-Wood, Elizabeth R.; Liu, Richard Z.; Xiang, Yun; Chen, Yi; Thomas, C. Eric; Rajyaguru, Neal; Kaufman, Laura M.; Ochoa, Joana E.; Hazlehurst, Lori; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Lancet, Jeffrey; Zhang, Guolin; Haura, Eric; Shibata, David; Yeatman, Timothy; Smalley, Keiran S.M.; Dalton, William S.; Huang, Emina; Scott, Ed; Bloom, Gregory C.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Koomen, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Quantitative Assay Database (QuAD), http://proteome.moffitt.org/QUAD/, facilitates widespread implementation of quantitative mass spectrometry in cancer biology and clinical research through sharing of methods and reagents for monitoring protein expression and modification. Experimental Design Liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM) assays are developed using SDS-PAGE fractionated lysates from cancer cell lines. Pathway maps created using GeneGO Metacore provide the biological relationships between proteins and illustrate concepts for multiplexed analysis; each protein can be selected to examine assay development at the protein and peptide level. Results The coupling of SDS-PAGE and LC-MRM screening has been used to detect 876 peptides from 218 cancer-related proteins in model systems including colon, lung, melanoma, leukemias, and myeloma, which has led to the development of 95 quantitative assays including stable-isotope labeled peptide standards. Methods are published online and peptide standards are made available to the research community. Protein expression measurements for heat shock proteins, including a comparison with ELISA and monitoring response to the HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, are used to illustrate the components of the QuAD and its potential utility. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance This resource enables quantitative assessment of protein components of signaling pathways and biological processes and holds promise for systematic investigation of treatment responses in cancer. PMID:21656910

  12. Monitoring Chemical and Biological Electron Transfer Reactions with a Fluorogenic Vitamin K Analogue Probe.

    PubMed

    Belzile, Mei-Ni; Godin, Robert; Durantini, Andrés M; Cosa, Gonzalo

    2016-12-21

    We report herein the design, synthesis, and characterization of a two-segment fluorogenic analogue of vitamin K, B-VKQ, prepared by coupling vitamin K3, also known as menadione (a quinone redox center), to a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore (a lipophilic reporter segment). Oxidation-reduction reactions, spectroelectrochemical studies, and enzymatic assays conducted in the presence of DT-diaphorase illustrate that the new probe shows reversible redox behavior on par with that of vitamin K, provides a high-sensitivity fluorescence signal, and is compatible with biological conditions, opening the door to monitor remotely (i.e., via imaging) redox processes in real time. In its oxidized form, B-VKQ is non-emissive, while upon reduction to the hydroquinone form, B-VKQH2, BODIPY fluorescence is restored, with emission quantum yield values of ca. 0.54 in toluene. Density functional theory studies validate a photoinduced electron transfer intramolecular switching mechanism, active in the non-emissive quinone form and deactivated upon reduction to the emissive dihydroquinone form. Our results highlight the potential of B-VKQ as a fluorogenic probe to study electron transfer and transport in model systems and biological structures with optimal sensitivity and desirable chemical specificity. Use of such a probe may enable a better understanding of the role that vitamin K plays in biological redox reactions ubiquitous in key cellular processes, and help elucidate the mechanism and pathological significance of these reactions in biological systems.

  13. Comparison of Satellite Observations of Aerosol Optical Depth to Surface Monitor Fine Particle Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; AlSaadi, Jassim A.; Neil, Doreen O.; Pierce, Robert B.; Pippin, Margartet R.; Roell, Marilee M.; Kittaka, Chieko; Szykman, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Under NASA's Earth Science Applications Program, the Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) project examined the relationship between satellite observations and surface monitors of air pollutants to facilitate a more capable and integrated observing network. This report provides a comparison of satellite aerosol optical depth to surface monitor fine particle concentration observations for the month of September 2003 at more than 300 individual locations in the continental US. During September 2003, IDEA provided prototype, near real-time data-fusion products to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed toward improving the accuracy of EPA s next-day Air Quality Index (AQI) forecasts. Researchers from NASA Langley Research Center and EPA used data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument combined with EPA ground network data to create a NASA-data-enhanced Forecast Tool. Air quality forecasters used this tool to prepare their forecasts of particle pollution, or particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), for the next-day AQI. The archived data provide a rich resource for further studies and analysis. The IDEA project uses data sets and models developed for tropospheric chemistry research to assist federal, state, and local agencies in making decisions concerning air quality management to protect public health.

  14. An integrated system for the online monitoring of particle therapy treatment accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorina, E.

    2016-07-01

    Quality assurance in hadrontherapy remains an open issue that can be addressed with reliable monitoring of treatment accuracy. The INSIDE (INnovative SolutIons for DosimEtry in hadrontherapy) project aims to develop an integrated online monitoring system based on two dedicated PET panels and a tracking system, called Dose Profiler. The proposed solution is designed to operate in-beam and provide an immediate feedback on the particle range acquiring both photons produced by β+ decays and prompt secondary particle signals. Monte Carlo simulations cover an important role both in the system development, by confirming the design feasibility, and in the system operation, by understanding data. A FLUKA-based integrated simulation was developed taking into account the hadron beam structure, the phantom/patient features and the PET detector and Dose Profiler specifications. In addition, to reduce simulation time in signal generation on PET detectors, a two-step technique has been implemented and validated. The first PET modules were tested in May 2015 at the Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) with very satisfactory results: in-spill, inter-spill and post-treatment PET images were reconstructed and a quantitative agreement between data and simulation was found.

  15. Online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in bottom spray fluid bed coating--development and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-16

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop a visiometric process analyzer for online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process. The secondary purpose is to investigate the influences of partition gap and air accelerator insert size on particle mass flow rate using the developed visiometric process analyzer. Particle movement in the region between the product chamber and partition column was captured using a high speed camera. Mean particle velocity and number of particles in the images were determined by particle image velocimetry and morphological image processing method respectively. Mass flow rate was calculated using particle velocity, number of particles in the images, particle density and size information. Particle velocity and number findings were validated using image tracking and manual particle counting techniques respectively. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method was accurate. Partition gap was found to influence particle mass flow rate by limiting the rate of solids flux into the partition column; the air accelerator insert was found to influence particle mass flow rate by a Venturi effect. Partition gap and air accelerator insert diameter needed to be adjusted accordingly in relation to the other variability sources and diameter of coating cores respectively. The potential, challenges and possible solutions of the proposed visiometric process analyzer were further discussed.

  16. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of "hot" particles.

    PubMed

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application.

  18. INSIDE in-beam positron emission tomography system for particle range monitoring in hadrontherapy.

    PubMed

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Attili, Andrea; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Belcari, Nicola; Camarlinghi, Niccolo'; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Coli, Silvia; Del Guerra, Alberto; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ferrero, Veronica; Fiorina, Elisa; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Kostara, Eleftheria; Morrocchi, Matteo; Pennazio, Francesco; Peroni, Cristiana; Piliero, Maria Antonietta; Pirrone, Giovanni; Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel D; Rosso, Valeria; Sala, Paola; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Wheadon, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The quality assurance of particle therapy treatment is a fundamental issue that can be addressed by developing reliable monitoring techniques and indicators of the treatment plan correctness. Among the available imaging techniques, positron emission tomography (PET) has long been investigated and then clinically applied to proton and carbon beams. In 2013, the Innovative Solutions for Dosimetry in Hadrontherapy (INSIDE) collaboration proposed an innovative bimodal imaging concept that combines an in-beam PET scanner with a tracking system for charged particle imaging. This paper presents the general architecture of the INSIDE project but focuses on the in-beam PET scanner that has been designed to reconstruct the particles range with millimetric resolution within a fraction of the dose delivered in a treatment of head and neck tumors. The in-beam PET scanner has been recently installed at the Italian National Center of Oncologic Hadrontherapy (CNAO) in Pavia, Italy, and the commissioning phase has just started. The results of the first beam test with clinical proton beams on phantoms clearly show the capability of the in-beam PET to operate during the irradiation delivery and to reconstruct on-line the beam-induced activity map. The accuracy in the activity distal fall-off determination is millimetric for therapeutic doses.

  19. Ultrafine particles in four European urban environments: Results from a new continuous long-term monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, J.; Staelens, J.; Cordell, R.; Stroobants, C.; Zikova, N.; Hama, S. M. L.; Wyche, K. P.; Kos, G. P. A.; Van Der Zee, S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Weijers, E. P.; Monks, P. S.; Roekens, E.

    2016-07-01

    To gain a better understanding on the spatiotemporal variation of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in urban environments, this study reports on the first results of a long-term UFP monitoring network, set up in Amsterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE), Leicester (UK) and London (UK). Total number concentrations and size distributions were assessed during 1-2 years at four fixed urban background sites, supplemented with mobile trailer measurements for co-location monitoring and additional short-term monitoring sites. Intra- and interurban spatiotemporal UFP variation, associations with commonly-monitored pollutants (PM, NOx and BC) and impacts of wind fields were evaluated. Although comparable size distributions were observed between the four cities, source-related differences were demonstrated within specific particle size classes. Total and size-resolved particle number concentrations showed clear traffic-related temporal variation, confirming road traffic as the major UFP contributor in urban environments. New particle formation events were observed in all cities. Correlations with typical traffic-related pollutants (BC and NOx) were obtained for all monitoring stations, except for Amsterdam, which might be attributable to UFP emissions from Schiphol airport. The temporal variation in particle number concentration correlated fairly weakly between the four cities (rs = 0.28-0.50, COD = 0.28-0.37), yet improved significantly inside individual cities (rs = 0.59-0.77). Nevertheless, considerable differences were still obtained in terms of particle numbers (20-38% for total particle numbers and up to 49% for size-resolved particle numbers), confirming the importance of local source contributions and the need for careful consideration when allocating UFP monitoring stations in heterogeneous urban environments.

  20. Adverse drug reaction monitoring: support for pharmacovigilance at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are recognised as a common cause of hospital admissions, and they constitute a significant economic burden for hospitals. Hospital-based ADR monitoring and reporting programmes aim to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of drugs provided in a hospital setting. This information may be useful for identifying and minimising preventable ADRs and may enhance the ability of prescribers to manage ADRs more effectively. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate ADRs that occurred during inpatient stays at the Hospital Geral de Palmas (HGP) in Tocantins, Brazil, and to facilitate the development of a pharmacovigilance service. Methods A prospective study was conducted at HGP over a period of 8 months, from January 2009 to August 2009. This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study was based on an analysis of medical records. Several parameters were utilised in the data evaluation, including patient demographics, drug and reaction characteristics, and reaction outcomes. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results The overall incidence of ADRs in the patient population was 3.1%, and gender was not found to be a risk factor. The highest ADR rate (75.8%) was found in the adult age group 15 to 50 years, and the lowest ADR rate was found in children aged 3 to 13 years (7.4%). Because of the high frequency of ADRs in orthopaedic (25%), general medicine (22%), and oncology (16%) patients, improved control of the drugs used in these specialties is required. Additionally, the nurse team (52.7%) registered the most ADRs in medical records, most likely due to the job responsibilities of nurses. As expected, the most noticeable ADRs occurred in skin tissues, with such ADRs are more obvious to medical staff, with rashes being the most common reactions. Metamizole, tramadol, and vancomycin were responsible for 21, 11.6, and 8.4% of ADRs, respectively. The majority of ADRs had

  1. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jessica B; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride [NaCl] and spark-generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <10(3); Medium, 10(3)-10(4); and High, >10(4) particles/cm(3)). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared with those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm, but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: manufacturer-reported capabilities of instruments used, and information from the SMPS measurements for polydispersed test particles.].

  2. Adsorption and reactions of atmospheric constituents and pollutants on ice particles: an FTIR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakova, A. V.; Marinov, I. L.; Poretskiy, M. S.; Tsyganenko, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    Processes on icy particles attract much attention due to their importance for atmospheric science, ecology and astrophysics. In this work, adsorption and ecologically important reactions of some molecules on pure and mixed water icy films by means of FTIR spectroscopy have been investigated. The cell for spectral studies of adsorbed molecules at variable temperatures (55-370 K), described elsewhere1, enables one to run the spectra in the presence of gaseous adsorbate, and even to perform adsorption from the solution in some cryogenic solvents. For the studies of ice films, it was equipped with a device for water vapour sputtering from the heated capillaries and deposition onto the inner BaF2 or ZnSe windows of the cell, cooled by liquid nitrogen. Lower temperatures were obtained by pumping off evaporating nitrogen from the coolant volume. The estimated specific surface area of freshly deposited at 77 K water ice film was about 160 m2/g and decreases on raising the temperature together with the diminishing intensity of the bands of dangling OH (OD) groups at 3696 (2727) cm-1 until the latter disappear at 130 - 160 K when the changes of bulk absorption provide evidence for a phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline ice. CO adsorption at 77 K results in two bands at 2153 and 2137 cm-1 assigned to molecules forming weak H-bond with the dangling hydroxyl groups and bound to unsaturated surface oxygen atoms, respectively2. The band of dangling hydroxyl groups moves to lower wavenumbers on adsorption of different molecules (hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, ozone, NO, ethane or chlorinated ethenes, etc.). The shift value depends on the nature of adsorbate. Besides this shift, spectra of adsorbed nitrogen and methane registered at 55 K reveal the adsorption intensity decrease at ~ 2650 cm-1 at the high-frequency slope of bulk adsorption, and increase at about 25 cm-1 below. We interpret this perturbation as a strengthening of H-bonds between surface water molecules

  3. Evaluation of the Dekati mass monitor for the measurement of exhaust particle mass emissions.

    PubMed

    Mamakos, Athanasios; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Samaras, Zissis

    2006-08-01

    The Dekati mass monitor (OMM) is an instrument which measures the mass concentration of airborne particles in real time by combining aerodynamic and mobility size particle classification. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the DMM by sampling exhaust from five engines and vehicles of different technologies in both steady-state and transient tests. DMM results are found higher than the filter-based particulate matter (PM) by 39 +/- 24% (range stands for +/- one standard deviation) for 62 diesel tests conducted in total and 3% and 14% higher, respectively, in two gasoline tests. To explore whether the difference occurs because of the different measurement principles of DMM and filter-based PM, the DMM operation is replicated over steady-state tests by combining an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The correlation of ELPI and SMPS derived mass and filter-based PM is satisfactory (R2 = 0.95) with a mean deviation of 5 +/- 15%. For the same tests, the correlation of DMM with PM was also high (R2 = 0.95), but DMM exceeded PM by 44 +/- 23% on average. The comparison of ELPI and SMPS and DMM results reveals that the latter overestimates both the geometric mean diameter and especially the width of the particle mass-weighted size distribution. These findings demonstrate thatthe statistically significant difference between the DMM and the filter-based PM cannot just originate from the different measurement principles but also from the actual implementation of the combined aerodynamic-mobility measurement in the DMM. Optimizing the DMM will require changes in its design and/or the calculation algorithm to improve the resolution and width of the aerodynamic size distribution recorded.

  4. Considerations on selected reaction monitoring experiments: implications for the selectivity and accuracy of measurements.

    PubMed

    Domon, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    Targeted MS analyses based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) has enabled significant achievements in proteomic quantification, such that its application to clinical studies has augured great advancements for life sciences. The approach has been challenged by the complexity of clinical samples that affects the selectivity of measurements, in many cases limiting analytical performances to a larger extent than expected. This Personal Perspective discusses some insight to better comprehend the mismatch between the often underestimated sample complexity and the selectivity of SRM measurements performed on a triple quadrupole instrument. The implications for the design and evaluation of SRM assays are discussed and illustrated with selected examples, providing a baseline for a more critical use of the technique in the context of clinical samples and to evaluate alternative methods.

  5. Ultrasensitive Sample Quantitation via Selected Reaction Monitoring Using CITP/CZE-ESI-Triple Quadrupole MS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chenchen; Lee, Cheng S.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi

    2012-11-10

    We demonstrate the direct coupling of transient capillary isotachophoresis/ capillary zone electrophoresis (CITP/CZE) with a high sensitivity triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for sample quantitation. The capability of CITP/CZE for in situ sample enrichment and separation has been shown to significantly improve the analytical figures of merit. A linear dynamic range spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude was observed. An average signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 49.6 was observed for 50 attomoles of targeted peptide in the presence of a complex and much more abundant bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest products. A correlation of variation (CV) less than 10 % for peak area was measured from triplicate sample analyses at 50 pM peptide concentration, showing good reproducibility of this online CITP/CZE-SRM mass spectrometry (MS) platform, and with limit of quantitation (LOQ) demonstrated to be well below 50 pM.

  6. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Peters, TM; Elzey, S; Johnson, R; Park, H; Grassian, VH; Maher, T; O'Shaughnessy, P

    2016-01-01

    Two methods were used to distinguish airborne engineered nanomaterials from other airborne particles in a facility that produces nano-structured lithium titanate metal oxide powder. The first method involved off-line analysis of filter samples collected with conventional respirable samplers at each of seven locations (six near production processes and one outdoors). Throughout most of the facility and outdoors, respirable mass concentrations were low (<0.050 mg m−3) and were attributed to particles other than the nanomaterial (<10% by mass titanium determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). In contrast, in a single area with extensive material handling, mass concentrations were greatest (0.118 mg m−3) and contained up to 39% +/− 11% lithium titanium, indicating the presence of airborne nanomaterial. Analysis of the filter samples collected in this area by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope revealed that the airborne nanomaterial was associated only with spherical aggregates (clusters of fused 10–80 nm nanoparticles) that were larger than 200 nm. This analysis also showed that nanoparticles in this area were the smallest particles of a larger distribution of submicrometer chain agglomerates likely from welding in an adjacent area of the facility. The second method used two, hand-held, direct-reading, battery-operated instruments to obtain a time series of very fine particle number (<300 nm), respirable mass, and total mass concentration, which were then related to activities within the area of extensive material handling. This activity-based monitoring showed that very fine particle number concentrations (<300 nm) had no apparent correlation to worker activities, but that sharp peaks in the respirable and total mass concentration coincided with loading a hopper and replacing nanomaterial collection bags. These findings were consistent with those from the filter-based method in that they

  7. In-situ nanoelectrospray for high-throughput screening of enzymes and real-time monitoring of reactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuhan; Han, Feifei; Ouyang, Jin; Zhao, Yunling; Han, Juan; Na, Na

    2016-01-01

    The in-situ and high-throughput evaluation of enzymes and real-time monitoring of enzyme catalyzed reactions in liquid phase is quite significant in the catalysis industry. In-situ nanoelectrospray, the direct sampling and ionization method for mass spectrometry, has been applied for high-throughput evaluation of enzymes, as well as the on-line monitoring of reactions. Simply inserting a capillary into a liquid system with high-voltage applied, analytes in liquid reaction system can be directly ionized at the capillary tip with small volume consumption. With no sample pre-treatment or injection procedure, different analytes such as saccharides, amino acids, alkaloids, peptides and proteins can be rapidly and directly extracted from liquid phase and ionized at the capillary tip. Taking irreversible transesterification reaction of vinyl acetate and ethanol as an example, this technique has been used for the high-throughput evaluation of enzymes, fast optimizations, as well as real-time monitoring of reaction catalyzed by different enzymes. In addition, it is even softer than traditional electrospray ionization. The present method can also be used for the monitoring of other homogenous and heterogeneous reactions in liquid phases, which will show potentials in the catalysis industry.

  8. A Computational Tool to Detect and Avoid Redundancy in Selected Reaction Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Röst, Hannes; Malmström, Lars; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also called multiple reaction monitoring, has become an invaluable tool for targeted quantitative proteomic analyses, but its application can be compromised by nonoptimal selection of transitions. In particular, complex backgrounds may cause ambiguities in SRM measurement results because peptides with interfering transitions similar to those of the target peptide may be present in the sample. Here, we developed a computer program, the SRMCollider, that calculates nonredundant theoretical SRM assays, also known as unique ion signatures (UIS), for a given proteomic background. We show theoretically that UIS of three transitions suffice to conclusively identify 90% of all yeast peptides and 85% of all human peptides. Using predicted retention times, the SRMCollider also simulates time-scheduled SRM acquisition, which reduces the number of interferences to consider and leads to fewer transitions necessary to construct an assay. By integrating experimental fragment ion intensities from large scale proteome synthesis efforts (SRMAtlas) with the information content-based UIS, we combine two orthogonal approaches to create high quality SRM assays ready to be deployed. We provide a user friendly, open source implementation of an algorithm to calculate UIS of any order that can be accessed online at http://www.srmcollider.org to find interfering transitions. Finally, our tool can also simulate the specificity of novel data-independent MS acquisition methods in Q1–Q3 space. This allows us to predict parameters for these methods that deliver a specificity comparable with that of SRM. Using SRM interference information in addition to other sources of information can increase the confidence in an SRM measurement. We expect that the consideration of information content will become a standard step in SRM assay design and analysis, facilitated by the SRMCollider. PMID:22535207

  9. The parallel reaction monitoring method contributes to a highly sensitive polyubiquitin chain quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Tanaka, Keiji Saeki, Yasushi

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •The parallel reaction monitoring method was applied to ubiquitin quantification. •The ubiquitin PRM method is highly sensitive even in biological samples. •Using the method, we revealed that Ufd4 assembles the K29-linked ubiquitin chain. -- Abstract: Ubiquitylation is an essential posttranslational protein modification that is implicated in a diverse array of cellular functions. Although cells contain eight structurally distinct types of polyubiquitin chains, detailed function of several chain types including K29-linked chains has remained largely unclear. Current mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantification methods are highly inefficient for low abundant atypical chains, such as K29- and M1-linked chains, in complex mixtures that typically contain highly abundant proteins. In this study, we applied parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), a quantitative, high-resolution MS method, to quantify ubiquitin chains. The ubiquitin PRM method allows us to quantify 100 attomole amounts of all possible ubiquitin chains in cell extracts. Furthermore, we quantified ubiquitylation levels of ubiquitin-proline-β-galactosidase (Ub-P-βgal), a historically known model substrate of the ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. In wild-type cells, Ub-P-βgal is modified with ubiquitin chains consisting of 21% K29- and 78% K48-linked chains. In contrast, K29-linked chains are not detected in UFD4 knockout cells, suggesting that Ufd4 assembles the K29-linked ubiquitin chain(s) on Ub-P-βgal in vivo. Thus, the ubiquitin PRM is a novel, useful, quantitative method for analyzing the highly complicated ubiquitin system.

  10. Particle tracking via RFID technology to monitor bedload sediment dynamics in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, Matteo; Fraccarollo, Luigi; Corbo, Simona; Maggioni, Alberto; Brardinoni, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we present preliminary results on the monitoring of bedload entrainment and transport in two mountain streams, the Grigno Creek (90 km2) and its tributary, the Tolvà Creek (14 km2), located in Valsugana, Autonomous Province of Trento. In particular, we monitor bedload by means of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in conjunction with Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) (e.g., Lamarre et al., 2005) injected into pebble-to-cobble sized tracer stones (b-axis ranging from 30 to 130 mm). In the Grigno Creek 120 PITs were released in December 2013 along a 100-m channel reach and have been surveyed 10 times. In the Tolvà Creek 100 PITs were released in July 2013 along a 100-m channel reach, and the site has been surveyed 4 times. Particle tracking is conducted by integrating two complementary antenna types: (i) a portable one, which enables to estimate travel distances of tagged clasts; and (ii) a set of four fixed antennas (25m apart from each other), which allows detecting motion/rest periods of particles, entrainment thresholds and transport velocities. Particle tracking is combined with on-site high-frequency (i.e., 10 minutes) water stage monitoring. Salt dilution method is monthly applied to relate flow discharge to water stage. The analyzed river reaches extend over different morphologic units (steps, pools, glides and boulder-cascades). We are looking to estimate (i) the channel forming discharge; (ii) a quantitative evaluation of specific bedload transport. These information will be associated to the surficial bed texture and bed morphology. Data collected from fixed and mobile antennas will enable to infer statistical information of the trajectories run by tracer ensemble, in particular the step lengths, the total travel distances and the rest periods. Lamarre H., MacVicar B., Roy A.G. 2005 Using Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags to investigate sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers. Journal of Sedimentary Research

  11. Surface modification of Cu metal particles by the chemical reaction between the surface oxide layer and a halogen surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Shun; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Takashi; Motomiya, Kenichi; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Surface oxides on small (2-5 μm) copper metal particles can be removed by chemical reaction with tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TIC) in diethylene glycol mono-n-hexyl ether (DGHE) solution under mild conditions where metal particles are not damaged. Surface oxides convert to copper bromide species and subsequently dissolve into the solvent. It was found that resultant surface species are resistant to re-oxidation due to remaining surface bromides. This finding opens up a possibility to create microclines based on cheap copper nanoparticles.

  12. Data Pre-Processing for Label-Free Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Lisa M.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Zhao, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) conducted on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allows researchers to quantify the expression levels of a set of target proteins. Each protein is often characterized by several unique peptides that can be detected by monitoring predetermined fragment ions, called transitions, for each peptide. Concatenating large numbers of MRM transitions into a single assay enables simultaneous quantification of hundreds of peptides and proteins. In recognition of the important role that MRM can play in hypothesis-driven research and its increasing impact on clinical proteomics, targeted proteomics such as MRM was recently selected as the Nature Method of the Year. However, there are many challenges in MRM applications, especially data pre‑processing where many steps still rely on manual inspection of each observation in practice. In this paper, we discuss an analysis pipeline to automate MRM data pre‑processing. This pipeline includes data quality assessment across replicated samples, outlier detection, identification of inaccurate transitions, and data normalization. We demonstrate the utility of our pipeline through its applications to several real MRM data sets. PMID:24905083

  13. Monitoring transcranial direct current stimulation induced changes in cortical excitability during the serial reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Chaieb, Leila; Stilling, Roman; Rothkegel, Holger; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2016-03-11

    The measurement of the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a common method to observe changes in motor cortical excitability. The level of cortical excitability has been shown to change during motor learning. Conversely, motor learning can be improved by using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In the present study, we aimed to monitor cortical excitability changes during an implicit motor learning paradigm, a version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Responses from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and forearm flexor (FLEX) muscles were recorded before, during and after the performance of the SRTT. Online measurements were combined with anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS for the duration of the SRTT. Negative correlations between the amplitude of online FDI MEPs and SRTT reaction times (RTs) were observed across the learning blocks in the cathodal condition (higher average MEP amplitudes associated with lower RTs) but no significant differences in the anodal and sham conditions. tDCS did not have an impact on SRTT performance, as would be predicted based on previous studies. The offline before-after SRTT MEP amplitudes showed an increase after anodal and a tendency to decrease after cathodal stimulation, but these changes were not significant. The combination of different interventions during tDCS might result in reduced efficacy of the stimulation that in future studies need further attention.

  14. Development of an inertial confinement fusion platform to study charged-particle-producing nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics

    DOE PAGES

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; ...

    2017-03-28

    Here, this paper describes the development of a platform to study astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions using inertial-confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser facilities, with a particular focus on optimizing the implosions to study charged-particle- producing reactions. Primary requirements on the platform are high yield, for high statistics in the fusion product measurements, combined with low areal density, to allow the charged fusion products to escape. This is optimally achieved with direct-drive exploding pusher implosions using thin-glass-shell capsules. Mitigation strategies to eliminate a possible target sheath potential which would accelerate the emitted ions are discussed. Themore » potential impact of kinetic effects on the implosions is also considered. The platform is initially employed to study the complementary T(t,2n)α, T(3He,np)α and 3He(3He,2p)α reactions. Proof-of-principle results from the first experiments demonstrating the ability to accurately measure the energy and yields of charged particles are presented. Lessons learned from these experiments will be used in studies of other reactions. Ultimately, the goals are to explore thermonuclear reaction rates and fundamental nuclear physics in stellarlike plasma environments, and to push this new frontier of nuclear astrophysics into unique regimes not reachable through existing platforms, with thermal ion velocity distributions, plasma screening, and low reactant energies.« less

  15. Advanced online monitoring of cell culture off-gas using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidberger, Timo; Gutmann, Rene; Bayer, Karl; Kronthaler, Jennifer; Huber, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been frequently applied to monitor the O₂ and CO₂ content in the off-gas of animal cell culture fermentations. In contrast to classical mass spectrometry the proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) provides additional information of volatile organic compounds by application of a soft ionization technology. Hence, the spectra show less fragments and can more accurately assigned to particular compounds. In order to discriminate between compounds of non-metabolic and metabolic origin cell free experiments and fed-batch cultivations with a recombinant CHO cell line were conducted. As a result, in total eight volatiles showing high relevance to individual cultivation or cultivation conditions could be identified. Among the detected compounds methanethiol, with a mass-to-charge ratio of 49, qualifies as a key candidate in process monitoring due to its strong connectivity to lactate formation. Moreover, the versatile and complex data sets acquired by PTR MS provide a valuable resource for statistical modeling to predict non direct measurable parameters. Hence, partial least square regression was applied to the complete spectra of volatiles measured and important cell culture parameters such as viable cell density estimated (R²  = 0.86). As a whole, the results of this study clearly show that PTR-MS provides a powerful tool to improve bioprocess-monitoring for mammalian cell culture. Thus, specific volatiles emitted by cells and measured online by the PTR-MS and complex variables gained through statistical modeling will contribute to a deeper process understanding in the future and open promising perspectives to bioprocess control.

  16. Spectrophotometric assays for monitoring tRNA aminoacylation and aminoacyl-tRNA hydrolysis reactions.

    PubMed

    First, Eric A; Richardson, Charles J

    2017-01-15

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases play a central role in protein synthesis, catalyzing the attachment of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. Here, we describe a spectrophotometric assay for tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in which the Tyr-tRNA product is cleaved, regenerating the tRNA substrate. As tRNA is the limiting substrate in the assay, recycling it substantially increases the sensitivity of the assay while simultaneously reducing its cost. The tRNA aminoacylation reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by coupling the production of AMP to the conversion of NAD(+) to NADH. We have adapted the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase assay to monitor: (1) aminoacylation of tRNA by l- or d-tyrosine, (2) cyclodipeptide formation by cyclodipeptide synthases, (3) hydrolysis of d-aminoacyl-tRNAs by d-tyrosyl-tRNA deacylase, and (4) post-transfer editing by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. All of these assays are continuous and homogenous, making them amenable for use in high-throughput screens of chemical libraries. In the case of the cyclodipeptide synthase, d-tyrosyl-tRNA deacylase, and post-transfer editing assays, the aminoacyl-tRNAs are generated in situ, avoiding the need to synthesize and purify aminoacyl-tRNA substrates prior to performing the assays. Lastly, we describe how the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase assay can be adapted to monitor the activity of other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and how the approach to regenerating the tRNA substrate can be used to increase the sensitivity and decrease the cost of commercially available aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase assays.

  17. Measurement of charged particle yields from therapeutic beams in view of the design of an innovative hadrontherapy dose monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bellini, F.; Bini, F.; Collamati, F.; Collini, F.; De Lucia, E.; Durante, M.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F.; Frallicciardi, P. M.; La Tessa, C.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Miraglia, F.; Morganti, S.; Ortega, P. G.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pinci, D.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Vanstalle, M.; Voena, C.

    2015-02-01

    Particle Therapy (PT) is an emerging technique, which makes use of charged particles to efficiently cure different kinds of solid tumors. The high precision in the hadrons dose deposition requires an accurate monitoring to prevent the risk of under-dosage of the cancer region or of over-dosage of healthy tissues. Monitoring techniques are currently being developed and are based on the detection of particles produced by the beam interaction into the target, in particular: charged particles, result of target and/or projectile fragmentation, prompt photons coming from nucleus de-excitation and back-to-back γ s, produced in the positron annihilation from β + emitters created in the beam interaction with the target. It has been showed that the hadron beam dose release peak can be spatially correlated with the emission pattern of these secondary particles. Here we report about secondary particles production (charged fragments and prompt γ s) performed at different beam and energies that have a particular relevance for PT applications: 12C beam of 80 MeV/u at LNS, 12C beam 220 MeV/u at GSI, and 12C, 4He, 16O beams with energy in the 50-300 MeV/u range at HIT. Finally, a project for a multimodal dose-monitor device exploiting the prompt photons and charged particles emission will be presented.

  18. Heterogeneous reaction of gaseous hydrogen peroxide and its role in the oxidation of organic compounds on mineral dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, Z.; Huang, D.

    2012-12-01

    As a significant atmospheric oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role in the formation of secondary sulfate, HOx radical chemistry, as well as the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Recent field and model combined studies have revealed that heterogeneous reaction on mineral dust seems to be an important sink for gaseous H2O2. However, available kinetic data concerning this reaction are quite scarce and is mainly limited to the reaction on mineral oxide surfaces. In addition, H2O2 may act as a source of surface reactive species (e.g., OH and HO2 radicals) on mineral dust particles, and thus may favor the oxidation of surface co-adsorbed organics. However, little is known about this potential role that H2O2 may play. In this study, we have investigated heterogeneous reactions of gaseous H2O2 with two different authentic mineral dusts, Asian dust storm particles and Tengger Desert sand, using a filter-based flow tube reactor. The BET uptake coefficients of H2O2 were measured to be on the order of 10^-4 for both dust samples. Additionally, the potential role of H2O2 in the oxidation of organic compounds on mineral dust particles were studied by investigating the reactions of methacrolein (MAC) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) with alumina oxide, a major reactive components of mineral dust, in the absence and presence of H2O2. We found that in the presence of H2O2, the yield of organic acid products exhibits a marked enhancement relative to that in the absence of H2O2, that is, a factor of 2 for acetic acid and a factor of 3 for formic acid in MAC reaction system, and up to a factor of 10 for acetic acid in MVK reaction system. These data indicate a significant role of H2O2 in oxidation of MAC and MVK, probably related to formation of surface OH and HO2 radicals from H2O2 decomposition on the particles. Our results suggest that uptake by mineral dust can be an important removal process of gaseous H2O2, comparable to the loss due to the photolysis or

  19. Improvements on particle swarm optimization algorithm for velocity calibration in microseismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Wen, Jian; Chen, Xiaofei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we apply particle swarm optimization (PSO), an artificial intelligence technique, to velocity calibration in microseismic monitoring. We ran simulations with four 1-D layered velocity models and three different initial model ranges. The results using the basic PSO algorithm were reliable and accurate for simple models, but unsuccessful for complex models. We propose the staged shrinkage strategy (SSS) for the PSO algorithm. The SSS-PSO algorithm produced robust inversion results and had a fast convergence rate. We investigated the effects of PSO's velocity clamping factor in terms of the algorithm reliability and computational efficiency. The velocity clamping factor had little impact on the reliability and efficiency of basic PSO, whereas it had a large effect on the efficiency of SSS-PSO. Reassuringly, SSS-PSO exhibits marginal reliability fluctuations, which suggests that it can be confidently implemented.

  20. Reaction Mechanisms and Particle Interaction in Burning Two-Phase Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Shoshin, Yuriy L.; Murdyy, Ruslan S.; Hoffmann, Vern K.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the mechanisms by which particle interactions affect ignition and combustion in the two-phase systems. Combustion of metal aerosols representing the two-phase systems is carried out in the microgravity environment enabling one to avoid the buoyant flows that mask the particle motion due to the particle-particle interaction effects. In addition, relatively large, e.g., 100 micron diameter particles can be used, that remain aerosolized (i.e., do not fall down as they would at normal gravity) so that their behavior ahead, behind, and within the propagating flame can be resolved optically. An experimental apparatus exploiting this approach has been designed for the 2.2-s drop tower microgravity experiments. A typical experiment includes fluidizing metal particles under microgravity in an acoustic field, turning off the acoustic exciter, and igniting the created aerosol at a constant pressure using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of the individual particle combustion and particle interactions are studied using high-speed movie and video cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Recorded flame images are digitized and various image processing techniques including flame position tracking, color separation, and pixel by pixel image comparisons are employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosols. Condensed combustion products are collected after each experiment for the phase, composition, and morphology analyses. New experiments described in this paper address combustion of Ti and Al particle clouds in air and combustion of Mg particle clouds in CO2. In addition, microgravity combustion experiments have been conducted with the particles of the newly produced Al-Mg mechanical alloys aerosolized in air.

  1. Comparison of the SidePak personal monitor with the Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Tongeren, Martie; Galea, Karen S; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; MacCalman, Laura; Cherrie, John W

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and the TSI portable photometer SidePak to measure airborne oil mist particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters below 10 μm, 2.5 μm and 1 μm (PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1)). Three SidePaks each fitted with either a PM(10), PM(2.5) or a PM(1) impactor and an APS were run side by side in a controlled chamber. Oil mist from two different mineral oils and two different drilling fluid systems commonly used in offshore drilling technologies were generated using a nebulizer. Compared to the APS, the SidePaks overestimated the concentration of PM(10) and PM(2.5) by one order of magnitude and PM(1) concentrations by two orders of magnitude after exposure to oil mist for 3.3-6.5 min at concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 18.1 mg m(-3) for PM(10), 0.002 to 3.96 mg m(-3) for PM(2.5) and 0.001 to 0.418 mg m(-3) for PM(1) (as measured by the APS). In a second experiment a SidePak monitor previously exposed to oil mist overestimated PM(10) concentrations by 27% compared to measurements from another SidePak never exposed to oil mist. This could be a result of condensation of oil mist droplets in the optical system of the SidePak. The SidePak is a very useful instrument for personal monitoring in occupational hygiene due to its light weight and quiet pump. However, it may not be suitable for the measurement of particle concentrations from oil mist.

  2. Particle emission in the light heavy-ion fusion reactions: 14N, 16,18O+ 12C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin Filho, N.; Coimbra, M. M.; Acquadro, J. C.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto, E. M.; Farrelly-Pessoa, E.; Szanto de Toledo, A.

    1985-01-01

    From the energy spectra of light particles produced in light-heavy-ion-induced reactions, level densities of the final nuclei as well as the critical angular momenta for fusion may be obtained. The 14N, 16,18O+ 12C reactions were investigated in the energy range 30 MeVparticles (p,d,t,3He,α) emitted in the process were obtained. Fits of the magnitude and shape of the spectra by means of statistical model calculations were used to extract final nuclei level densities. The shape of the spectra and the ratio σ(α)/σ(p) are shown to be sensitive to the fusion critical angular momentum (Jcr), offering an alternative method for the total fusion cross-section determination.

  3. Spontaneous monitoring of adverse reactions to drugs by Italian dermatologists: a pilot study. Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    During 1988, the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED) coordinated a pilot study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a system for spontaneous monitoring of adverse drug reactions in dermatological practice in Italy. Approximately 400 dermatologists were asked to collaborate, and 141 agreed to the study. Procedures similar to those well established in other surveillance programs (including the use of standard forms and standardized assessment procedure) were adopted. In a 2-month period 775 reports were collected, of which 711 were maintained after careful evaluation. The general profile of the adverse reactions reported was in accordance with the experience derived by other spontaneous surveillance programs. The main purpose of spontaneous reporting systems is the identification of new reactions, and a model analysis was proposed, in our study, with reference to skin reactions to bamifylline. The demonstration of the feasibility of a drug-monitoring program in Italy, where little tradition exists in the area, is the most important result of our study.

  4. A multimodal optical and electrochemical device for monitoring surface reactions: redox active surfaces in porous silicon Rugate filters.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, Simone; Guan, Bin; Darwish, Nadim A; Zhu, Ying; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2012-12-21

    Herein, mesoporous silicon (PSi) is configured as a single sensing device that has dual readouts; as a photonic crystal sensor in a Rugate filter configuration, and as a high surface area porous electrode. The as-prepared PSi is chemically modified to provide it with stability in aqueous media and to allow for the subsequent coupling of chemical species, such as via Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions between 1-alkynes and azides ("click" reactions). The utility of the bimodal capabilities of the PSi sensor for monitoring surface coupling procedures is demonstrated by the covalent coupling of a ferrocene derivative, as well as by demonstrating ligand-exchange reactions (LER) at the PSi surface. Both types of reactions were monitored through optical reflectivity measurements, as well as electrochemically via the oxidation/reduction of the surface tethered redox species.

  5. A rotating disk electrode study of the particle size effects of Pt for the hydrogen oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Dai, Yu; Liu, Yuwen; Chen, Shengli

    2012-02-21

    By using a catalyst-lean thin-film RDE method, the fast kinetics of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) on highly dispersed Pt nanoparticle electrocatalysts can be determined, free from the interference of the mass transport of H(2) molecules in solution. Measurements with carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles of different sizes thus allow revealing the particle size effect of Pt for the HOR. It is shown that there is a "negative" particle size effect of Pt on the kinetics of HOR, i.e., the exchange current density j(0) decreases with the increased dispersion (i.e. decreased mean particle size). A maximum mass activity of Pt for the HOR is found at particle sizes of 3-3.5 nm. The observed particle size effect is interpreted in terms of the size dependent distribution of surface atoms on the facets and edges, which is implied by the voltammetric responses of Pt/C catalysts with differently sized Pt particles. The accompanied decrease in the HOR activity with the increase in the edge atom fraction suggests that the edge atoms on the surface of Pt nanoparticles are less active for the HOR than those on the facets.

  6. Visible light-induced photocatalytic reaction of gold-modified titanium(IV) oxide particles: action spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Ewa; Abe, Ryu; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2009-01-08

    Action spectrum analyses showed that visible light-induced oxidation of 2-propanol by aerated gold-modified titanium(IV) oxide (titania) suspensions is initiated by excitation of gold surface plasmon, and polychromatic irradiation experiments revealed that the photocatalytic reaction rate depends strongly on properties of titania, such as particle size, surface area and crystalline form (anatase or rutile) and on properties of gold deposits, such as size and shape.

  7. Experimental investigation of irregular motion impact on 4D PET-based particle therapy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Stützer, K.; Enghardt, W.; Priegnitz, M.; Helmbrecht, S.; Bert, C.; Fiedler, F.

    2016-01-01

    Particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) is an in vivo and non-invasive imaging technique to monitor treatment delivery in particle therapy. The inevitable patient respiratory motion during irradiation causes artefacts and inaccurate activity distribution in PET images. Four-dimensional (4D) maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (4D MLEM) allows for a compensation of these effects, but has up to now been restricted to regular motion for PT-PET investigations. However, intra-fractional motion during treatment might differ from that during acquisition of the 4D-planning CT (e.g. amplitude variation, baseline drift) and therefore might induce inaccurate 4D PET reconstruction results. This study investigates the impact of different irregular analytical one-dimensional (1D) motion patterns on PT-PET imaging by means of experiments with a radioactive source and irradiated moving phantoms. Three sorting methods, namely phase sorting, equal amplitude sorting and event-based amplitude sorting, were applied to manage the PET list-mode data. The influence of these sorting methods on the motion compensating algorithm has been analysed. The event-based amplitude sorting showed a superior performance and it is applicable for irregular motions with  ⩽4 mm amplitude elongation and drift. For motion with 10 mm baseline drift, the normalised root mean square error was as high as 10.5% and a 10 mm range deviation was observed.

  8. An improved electrostatic integrating radon monitor with the CR-39 as alpha-particle detector.

    PubMed

    Fan, D; Zhuo, W; Chen, B; Zhao, C; Yi, Y; Zhang, Y

    2015-11-01

    In this study, based on the electrostatic integrating radon monitor (EIRM) developed by Iida et al., a new type of EIRM with the allyl glycol carbonate (CR-39) as alpha-particle detector was developed for outdoor radon measurements. Besides using the CR-39 to replace the cellulose nitrate film as alpha-particle detector, the electrode and the setting place of the CR-39 were also optimally designed based on the simulation results of the electric field and the detection efficiency. The calibration factor of the new EIRM was estimated to be 0.136±0.002 tracks cm(-2) (Bq m(-3) h)(-1), with the lower detection limit of 0.6 Bq m(-3) for a 2-month exposure. Furthermore, both the battery and the dry agent were also replaced to protect the environment. The results of intercomparison and field experiments showed that the performances of the new EIRM were much better than the original one. It suggests that the new type of ERIM is more suitable for large-scale and long-term outdoor radon surveys.

  9. Neutron spectrometry with Bonner Spheres for area monitoring in particle accelerators.

    PubMed

    Bedogni, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    Selecting the instruments to determine the operational quantities in the neutron fields produced by particle accelerators involves a combination of aspects, which is peculiar to these environments: the energy distribution of the neutron field, the continuous or pulsed time structure of the beam, the presence of other radiations to which the neutron instruments could have significant response and the large variability in the dose rate, which can be observed when moving from areas near the beam line to free-access areas. The use of spectrometric techniques in support of traditional instruments is highly recommended to improve the accuracy of dosimetric evaluations. The multi-sphere or Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is certainly the most used device, due to characteristics such as the wide energy range, large variety of active and passive detectors suited for different workplaces, good photon discrimination and the simple signal management. Disadvantages are the poor energy resolution, weight and need to sequentially irradiate the spheres, leading to usually long measurement sessions. Moreover, complex unfolding analyses are needed to obtain the neutron spectra. This work is an overview of the BSS for area monitoring in particle accelerators.

  10. Noncovalent chirality sensing ensembles for the detection and reaction monitoring of amino acids, peptides, proteins, and aromatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Frank; Nau, Werner M

    2014-05-26

    Ternary complexes between the macrocyclic host cucurbit[8]uril, dicationic dyes, and chiral aromatic analytes afford strong induced circular dichroism (ICD) signals in the near-UV and visible regions. This allows for chirality sensing and peptide-sequence recognition in water at low micromolar analyte concentrations. The reversible and noncovalent mode of binding ensures an immediate response to concentration changes, which allows the real-time monitoring of chemical reactions. The introduced supramolecular method is likely to find applications in bioanalytical chemistry, especially enzyme assays, for drug-related analytical applications, and for continuous monitoring of enantioselective reactions, particularly asymmetric catalysis.

  11. Quantification of differences between occupancy and total monitoring periods for better assessment of exposure to particles in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, A.; Bohgard, M.; Pagels, J. H.; Dahl, A.; Löndahl, J.; Hussein, T.; Swietlicki, E.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-04-01

    For the assessment of personal exposure, information about the concentration of pollutants when people are in given indoor environments (occupancy time) are of prime importance. However this kind of data frequently is not reported. The aim of this study was to assess differences in particle characteristics between occupancy time and the total monitoring period, with the latter being the most frequently used averaging time in the published data. Seven indoor environments were selected in Sweden and Finland: an apartment, two houses, two schools, a supermarket, and a restaurant. They were assessed for particle number and mass concentrations and number size distributions. The measurements using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and two photometers were conducted for seven consecutive days during winter in each location. Particle concentrations in residences and schools were, as expected, the highest during occupancy time. In the apartment average and median PM2.5 mass concentrations during the occupancy time were 29% and 17% higher, respectively compared to total monitoring period. In both schools, the average and medium values of the PM2.5 mass concentrations were on average higher during teaching hours compared to the total monitoring period by 16% and 32%, respectively. When it comes to particle number concentrations (PNC), in the apartment during occupancy, the average and median values were 33% and 58% higher, respectively than during the total monitoring period. In both houses and schools the average and median PNC were similar for the occupancy and total monitoring periods. General conclusions on the basis of measurements in the limited number of indoor environments cannot be drawn. However the results confirm a strong dependence on type and frequency of indoor activities that generate particles and site specificity. The results also indicate that the exclusion of data series during non-occupancy periods can improve the estimates of particle concentrations and

  12. Monitoring the inorganic chemical reaction by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A case of Fe³⁺ to Fe²⁺ conversion.

    PubMed

    Qin, Suhua; Meng, Juan; Tang, Xianghu; Yang, Liangbao

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the process of organic chemical reactions to study the kinetics by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is currently of immense interest. However, monitoring the inorganic chemical reaction is still an extremely difficulty for researchers. This study exactly focused on the monitor of inorganic chemical reaction. Capillary coated with silver nanoparticles was introduced, which was an efficient platform for monitoring reactions with SERS due to the advantages of sensitivity and excellent reproducibility. The photoreduction of [Fe(phen)3](3+) to [Fe(phen)3](2+) was used as model reaction to demonstrated the feasibility of SERS monitoring inorganic chemical reaction by involving in metal-organic complexes. Moreover, the preliminary implementation demonstrated that the kinetics of photoreduction can be real-time monitored by in situ using the SERS technique on a single constructed capillary, which may be useful for the practical application of SERS technique.

  13. Monitoring mass transport in heterogeneously catalyzed reactions by field-gradient NMR for assessing reaction efficiency in a single pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buljubasich, L.; Blümich, B.; Stapf, S.

    2011-09-01

    An important aspect in assessing the performance of a catalytically active reactor is the accessibility of the reactive sites inside the individual pellets, and the mass transfer of reactants and products to and from these sites. Optimal design often requires a suitable combination of micro- and macropores in order to facilitate mass transport inside the pellet. In an exothermic reaction, fluid exchange between the pellet and the surrounding medium is enhanced by convection, and often by the occurrence of gas bubbles. Determining mass flow in the vicinity of a pellet thus represents a parameter for quantifying the reaction efficiency and its dependence on time or external reaction conditions. Field gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods are suggested as a tool for providing parameters sensitive to this mass flow in a contact-free and non-invasive way. For the example of bubble-forming hydrogen peroxide decomposition in an alumina pellet, the dependence of the mean-squared displacement of fluid molecules on spatial direction, observation time and reaction time is presented, and multi-pulse techniques are employed in order to separate molecular displacements from coherent and incoherent motion on the timescale of the experiment. The reaction progress is followed until the complete decomposition of H 2O 2.

  14. Direct Reactions at Relativistic Energies: A New Insight into the Single-Particle Structure of Exotic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina-Gil, Dolores

    Direct reactions proceed in a single step, allowing to disentangle structural properties of nuclei from the reaction mechanism. The availability of radioactive beams gives rise to a renewed activity in this field enlarging the opportunities to explore the single-particle properties of exotic nuclei. Different kinds of direct reactions have been employed in different energy regimes. At high energies, the removal of one(two)-nucleon(s) (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated, exploring the nuclear structure of the peripheral tail of wave functions and providing a direct insight into the single-particle properties. More than 25 years of experimental and theoretical work will be reviewed in this lecture. This exploration has recently been rejuvenated with the possibility of quasi-free scattering applied to rare isotopes. This method will be a substantial part of the program of future experimental facilities, with the results of pilot experiments now coming to light. Quasi-free scattering will complement the information gained with nucleon knockout studies, exploring deeper regions in the wave function and allowing the determination of spectral functions for both weakly and deeply bound nucleons. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental achievements reached so far using both complementary techniques. A brief introduction to the reaction mechanisms and a simplified interpretation of the observables obtained will be presented.

  15. Kinetics of nitrosamine and amine reactions with NO3 radical and ozone related to aqueous particle and cloud droplet chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Christian; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous phase reactivity experiments with the amines dimethylamine (DMA), diethanolamine (DEA) and pyrrolidine (PYL) and their corresponding nitrosamines nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrosodiethanolamine (NDEA) and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYL) have been performed. NO3 radical reaction rate coefficients for DMA, DEA and PYL were measured for the first time and are 3.7 × 105, 8.2 × 105 and 8.7 × 105 M-1 s-1, respectively. Rate coefficients for NO3 + NDMA, NDEA and NPYL are 1.2 × 108, 2.3 × 108 and 2.4 × 108 M-1 s-1. Compared to OH radical rate coefficients for reactions with amines, the NO3 radical will most likely not be an important oxidant but it is a potential nighttime oxidant for nitrosamines in cloud droplets or deliquescent particles. Ozone is unreactive towards amines and nitrosamines and upper limits of rate coefficients suggest that aqueous ozone reactions are not important in atmospheric waters.

  16. Dominant particles and reactions in a two-temperature chemical kinetic model of a decaying SF6 arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Gao, Qingqing; Fu, Yuwei; Yang, Aijun; Rong, Mingzhe; Wu, Yi; Niu, Chunping; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the computation of the non-equilibrium composition of an SF6 plasma, and determination of the dominant particles and reactions, at conditions relevant to high-voltage circuit breakers after current zero (temperatures from 12 000 K to 1000 K and a pressure of 4 atm). The non-equilibrium composition is characterized by departures from both thermal and chemical equilibrium. In thermal non-equilibrium process, the electron temperature (T e) is not equal to the heavy-particle temperature (T h), while for chemical non-equilibrium, a chemical kinetic model is adopted. In order to evaluate the reasonableness and reliability of the non-equilibrium composition, calculation methods for equilibrium composition based on Gibbs free energy minimization and kinetic composition in a one-temperature kinetic model are first considered. Based on the one-temperature kinetic model, a two-temperature kinetic model with the ratio T e/T h varying as a function of the logarithm of electron density ratio (n e/n\\text{e}\\max ) was established. In this model, T* is introduced to allow a smooth transition between T h and T e and to determine the temperatures for the rate constants. The initial composition in the kinetic models is obtained from the asymptotic composition as infinite time is approached at 12 000 K. The molar fractions of neutral particles and ions in the two-temperature kinetic model are consistent with the equilibrium composition and the composition obtained from the one-temperature kinetic model above 10 000 K, while significant differences appear below 10 000 K. Based on the dependence of the particle distributions on temperature in the two-temperature kinetic model, three temperature ranges, and the dominant particles and reactions in the respective ranges, are determined. The full model is then simplified into three models and the accuracy of the simplified models is assessed. The simplified models reduce the number of species and

  17. Wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory reactions in mouse macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

    2007-06-01

    Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. These health risks are of increasing concern in society, and to protect public health, a clarification of the toxic properties of particles from different sources is of importance. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized as a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries where studded tires are used. The aim of this study was to further investigate and compare the ability to induce inflammatory mediators of different traffic-related wear particles collected from an urban street, a subway station, and studded tire-pavement wear. Inflammatory effects were measured as induction of nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, TNF-alpha, arachidonic acid (AA), and lipid peroxidation after exposure of the murine macrophage like cell line RAW 264.7. In addition, the redox potential of the particles was measured in a cell-free system. The results show that all particles tested induce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and NO, and those from the urban street were the most potent ones. In contrast, particles collected from a subway station were most potent to induce lipid peroxidation, AA release, and formation of ROS. Particles from studded tire-pavement wear, generated using a road simulator, were able to induce inflammatory cytokines, NO, lipid peroxidation, and ROS formation. Interestingly, particles generated from pavement containing granite as the main stone material were more potent than those generated from pavement containing quartzite as the main stone material.

  18. Diffraction based optical particle sizer for on-line monitoring in hostile environments of low concentration particle laden flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golinelli, E.; Martinelli, P.; Musazzi, S.; Perini, U.; Trespidi, F.; Paganini, E.

    2001-06-01

    We present an optical particle sizer conceived for the on-line analysis of low concentration particle-laden flows. It belongs to the wide class of instruments based on the detection of the light scattered at small angle in the forward direction. Innovative solutions have been adopted both in the optical configuration and in the detection scheme which enable the instrument to operate at very low concentration regimes (i.e., at extinction values as small as 10-5). Particle classification is made over 31 size classes in the range of diameters 0.9-90 μm. The whole system has been designed for applications in hostile environments. Preliminary measurements have been carried out in a coal fired power plant on a flue duct downstream the electrostatic precipitators (average temperature 150 °C, particle concentration smaller than 50 mg/Nm3).

  19. Effect of competition between catalytic particles C on the rate of the reversible diffusion-controlled reaction A+C⇌B+C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderhof, B. U.; Jones, R. B.

    1999-11-01

    The effect of competition between catalytic particles C on the rate of the reversible diffusion-controlled reaction A+C⇌B+C is studied in a self-consistent approximation. The C-particles are assumed static with random configuration. The A- and B-particles diffuse in a fluid or solid background medium. Frequency-dependent effective rate coefficients are calculated as a function of the volume fraction of C-particles.

  20. In situ and real-time monitoring of mechanochemical milling reactions using synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Halasz, Ivan; Kimber, Simon A J; Beldon, Patrick J; Belenguer, Ana M; Adams, Frank; Honkimäki, Veijo; Nightingale, Richard C; Dinnebier, Robert E; Friščić, Tomislav

    2013-09-01

    We describe the only currently available protocol for in situ, real-time monitoring of mechanochemical reactions and intermediates by X-ray powder diffraction. Although mechanochemical reactions (inducing transformations by mechanical forces such as grinding and milling) are normally performed in commercially available milling assemblies, such equipment does not permit direct reaction monitoring. We now describe the design and in-house modification of milling equipment that allows the reaction jars of the operating mill to be placed in the path of a high-energy (∼90 keV) synchrotron X-ray beam while the reaction is taking place. Resulting data are analyzed using conventional software, such as TOPAS. Reaction intermediates and products are identified using the Cambridge Structural Database or Inorganic Crystal Structure Database. Reactions are analyzed by fitting the time-resolved diffractograms using structureless Pawley refinement for crystalline phases that are not fully structurally characterized (such as porous frameworks with disordered guests), or the Rietveld method for solids with fully determined crystal structures (metal oxides, coordination polymers).

  1. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES.

    PubMed

    Correia, Rion Brattig; Li, Lang; Rocha, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that Instagram

  2. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES

    PubMed Central

    CORREIA, RION BRATTIG; LI, LANG; ROCHA, LUIS M.

    2015-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this “Bibliome”, the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products—including cannabis—which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015. We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that

  3. Protein turnover measurement using selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Stephen W.; Hammond, Dean E.; Simpson, Deborah M.; Waters, John; Hurst, Jane L.

    2016-01-01

    Protein turnover represents an important mechanism in the functioning of cells, with deregulated synthesis and degradation of proteins implicated in many diseased states. Therefore, proteomics strategies to measure turnover rates with high confidence are of vital importance to understanding many biological processes. In this study, the more widely used approach of non-targeted precursor ion signal intensity (MS1) quantification is compared with selected reaction monitoring (SRM), a data acquisition strategy that records data for specific peptides, to determine if improved quantitative data would be obtained using a targeted quantification approach. Using mouse liver as a model system, turnover measurement of four tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins was performed using both MS1 and SRM quantification strategies. SRM outperformed MS1 in terms of sensitivity and selectivity of measurement, allowing more confident determination of protein turnover rates. SRM data are acquired using cheaper and more widely available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, making the approach accessible to a larger number of researchers than MS1 quantification, which is best performed on high mass resolution instruments. SRM acquisition is ideally suited to focused studies where the turnover of tens of proteins is measured, making it applicable in determining the dynamics of proteins complexes and complete metabolic pathways. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644981

  4. NeuCode labels with parallel reaction monitoring for multiplexed, absolute protein quantification

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Gregory K.; Voigt, Emily A.; Bailey, Derek J.; Westphall, Michael S.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Yin, John; Coon, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method to multiplex the throughput of samples for targeted mass spectrometry analysis. The current paradigm for obtaining absolute quantification from biological samples requires spiking isotopically heavy peptide standards into light biological lysates. Because each lysate must be run individually, this method places limitations on sample throughput and high demands on instrument time. When cell lines are first metabolically labeled with various neutron-encoded (NeuCode) lysine isotopologues possessing mDa mass differences from each other, heavy cell lysates may be mixed and spiked with an additional heavy peptide as an internal standard. We demonstrate that these NeuCode lysate peptides may be co-isolated with their internal standards, fragmented, and analyzed together using high resolving power parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Instead of running each sample individually, these methods allow samples to be multiplexed to obtain absolute concentrations of target peptides in 5, 15, and even 25 biological samples at a time during single mass spectrometry experiments. PMID:26882330

  5. Quantification of milk fat globule membrane proteins using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bertram Y; Norris, Carmen S

    2009-07-22

    Although some of the physiological roles of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are still unclear, there is increasing evidence that the consumption of bovine MFGM proteins has significant nutritional health benefits for humans; therefore, it may be important to be able to estimate the MFGM proteins in complex ingredients. In this study, the absolute quantification (AQUA) technique, which is typically used for the quantification of proteins in proteomic studies, was applied for the quantification of bovine MFGM proteins in butter milk protein concentrate. Six MFGM proteins (fatty acid binding protein, butyrophilin, PAS 6/7, adipophilin, xanthine oxidase, and mucin 1) were simultaneously quantified using high-resolution selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Samples were rehydrated in 6.7 M urea buffer prior to dilution to 2.2 M before tryspin digestion. Direct rehydration in 2.2 M urea buffer or 2.2 M urea/20% acetonitilrile buffer reduced peptide yield digestion. Isotopically labeled peptides were used as internal standards. The coefficient of variation ranged from 5 to 15%, with a recovery of 84-105%. The limit of detection was in the range of 20-40 pg.

  6. Protein turnover measurement using selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS).

    PubMed

    Holman, Stephen W; Hammond, Dean E; Simpson, Deborah M; Waters, John; Hurst, Jane L; Beynon, Robert J

    2016-10-28

    Protein turnover represents an important mechanism in the functioning of cells, with deregulated synthesis and degradation of proteins implicated in many diseased states. Therefore, proteomics strategies to measure turnover rates with high confidence are of vital importance to understanding many biological processes. In this study, the more widely used approach of non-targeted precursor ion signal intensity (MS1) quantification is compared with selected reaction monitoring (SRM), a data acquisition strategy that records data for specific peptides, to determine if improved quantitative data would be obtained using a targeted quantification approach. Using mouse liver as a model system, turnover measurement of four tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins was performed using both MS1 and SRM quantification strategies. SRM outperformed MS1 in terms of sensitivity and selectivity of measurement, allowing more confident determination of protein turnover rates. SRM data are acquired using cheaper and more widely available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, making the approach accessible to a larger number of researchers than MS1 quantification, which is best performed on high mass resolution instruments. SRM acquisition is ideally suited to focused studies where the turnover of tens of proteins is measured, making it applicable in determining the dynamics of proteins complexes and complete metabolic pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  7. Quantification of histone modifications by parallel-reaction monitoring: a method validation.

    PubMed

    Sowers, James L; Mirfattah, Barsam; Xu, Pei; Tang, Hui; Park, In Young; Walker, Cheryl; Wu, Ping; Laezza, Fernanda; Sowers, Lawrence C; Zhang, Kangling

    2015-10-06

    Abnormal epigenetic reprogramming is one of the major causes leading to irregular gene expression and regulatory pathway perturbations, in the cells, resulting in unhealthy cell development or diseases. Accurate measurements of these changes of epigenetic modifications, especially the complex histone modifications, are very important, and the methods for these measurements are not trivial. By following our previous introduction of PRM to targeting histone modifications (Tang, H.; Fang, H.; Yin, E.; Brasier, A. R.; Sowers, L. C.; Zhang, K. Multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring targeting histone modifications on the QExactive mass spectrometer. Anal. Chem. 2014, 86 (11), 5526-34), herein we validated this method by varying the protein/trypsin ratios via serial dilutions. Our data demonstrated that PRM with SILAC histones as the internal standards allowed reproducible measurements of histone H3/H4 acetylation and methylation in the samples whose histone contents differ at least one-order of magnitude. The method was further validated by histones isolated from histone H3 K36 trimethyltransferase SETD2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cells. Furthermore, histone acetylation and methylation in human neural stem cells (hNSC) treated with ascorbic acid phosphate (AAP) were measured by this method, revealing that H3 K36 trimethylation was significantly down-regulated by 6 days of treatment with vitamin C.

  8. Monitoring benzene formation from benzoate in model systems by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Carlin, Silvia; Märk, Tilmann D.; Gasperi, Flavia

    2008-08-01

    The presence of benzene in food and in particular in soft drinks has been reported in several studies and should be considered in fundamental investigations about formation of this carcinogen compound as well as in quality control. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used here for rapid, direct quantification of benzene and to monitor its formation in model systems related to the use of benzoate, a common preservative, in presence of ascorbic acid: a widespread situation that yields benzene in, e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices. Firstly, we demonstrate here that PTR-MS allows a rapid determination of benzene that is in quantitative agreement with independent solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography (SPME/GC) analysis. Secondly, as a case study, the effect of different sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) on benzene formation is investigated indicating that they inhibit its formation and that this effect is enhanced for reducing sugars. The sugar-induced inhibition of benzene formation depends on several parameters (type and concentration of sugar, temperature, time) but can be more than 80% in situations that can be expected in the storage of commercial soft drinks. This is consistent with the reported observations of higher benzene concentrations in sugar-free soft drinks.

  9. Multiple Reaction Monitoring for Direct Quantitation of Intact Proteins Using a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Evelyn H.; Combe, Peter C.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2016-05-01

    Methods that can efficiently and effectively quantify proteins are needed to support increasing demand in many bioanalytical fields. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QQQ-MS) is sensitive and specific, and it is routinely used to quantify small molecules. However, low resolution fragmentation-dependent MS detection can pose inherent difficulties for intact proteins. In this research, we investigated variables that affect protein and fragment ion signals to enable protein quantitation using QQQ-MS. Collision induced dissociation gas pressure and collision energy were found to be the most crucial variables for optimization. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for seven standard proteins, including lysozyme, ubiquitin, cytochrome c from both equine and bovine, lactalbumin, myoglobin, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were determined. Assuming the eventual goal of applying such methodology is to analyze protein in biological fluids, a liquid chromatography method was developed. Calibration curves of six standard proteins (excluding PSA) were obtained to show the feasibility of intact protein quantification using QQQ-MS. Linearity (2-3 orders), limits of detection (0.5-50 μg/mL), accuracy (<5% error), and precision (1%-12% CV) were determined for each model protein. Sensitivities for different proteins varied considerably. Biological fluids, including human urine, equine plasma, and bovine plasma were used to demonstrate the specificity of the approach. The purpose of this model study was to identify, study, and demonstrate the advantages and challenges for QQQ-MS-based intact protein quantitation, a largely underutilized approach to date.

  10. Automated selected reaction monitoring software for accurate label-free protein quantification.

    PubMed

    Teleman, Johan; Karlsson, Christofer; Waldemarson, Sofia; Hansson, Karin; James, Peter; Malmström, Johan; Levander, Fredrik

    2012-07-06

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a mass spectrometry method with documented ability to quantify proteins accurately and reproducibly using labeled reference peptides. However, the use of labeled reference peptides becomes impractical if large numbers of peptides are targeted and when high flexibility is desired when selecting peptides. We have developed a label-free quantitative SRM workflow that relies on a new automated algorithm, Anubis, for accurate peak detection. Anubis efficiently removes interfering signals from contaminating peptides to estimate the true signal of the targeted peptides. We evaluated the algorithm on a published multisite data set and achieved results in line with manual data analysis. In complex peptide mixtures from whole proteome digests of Streptococcus pyogenes we achieved a technical variability across the entire proteome abundance range of 6.5-19.2%, which was considerably below the total variation across biological samples. Our results show that the label-free SRM workflow with automated data analysis is feasible for large-scale biological studies, opening up new possibilities for quantitative proteomics and systems biology.

  11. Rapid verification of candidate serological biomarkers using gel-based, label-free multiple reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hsin-Yao; Beer, Lynn A; Barnhart, Kurt T; Speicher, David W

    2011-09-02

    Stable isotope dilution-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SID-MRM-MS) has emerged as a promising platform for verification of serological candidate biomarkers. However, cost and time needed to synthesize and evaluate stable isotope peptides, optimize spike-in assays, and generate standard curves quickly becomes unattractive when testing many candidate biomarkers. In this study, we demonstrate that label-free multiplexed MRM-MS coupled with major protein depletion and 1D gel separation is a time-efficient, cost-effective initial biomarker verification strategy requiring less than 100 μL of serum. Furthermore, SDS gel fractionation can resolve different molecular weight forms of targeted proteins with potential diagnostic value. Because fractionation is at the protein level, consistency of peptide quantitation profiles across fractions permits rapid detection of quantitation problems for specific peptides from a given protein. Despite the lack of internal standards, the entire workflow can be highly reproducible, and long-term reproducibility of relative protein abundance can be obtained using different mass spectrometers and LC methods with external reference standards. Quantitation down to ~200 pg/mL could be achieved using this workflow. Hence, the label-free GeLC-MRM workflow enables rapid, sensitive, and economical initial screening of large numbers of candidate biomarkers prior to setting up SID-MRM assays or immunoassays for the most promising candidate biomarkers.

  12. Label-Free Absolute Quantitation of Oligosaccharides Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An absolute quantitation method for measuring free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in milk samples was developed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). To obtain the best sensitivity, the instrument conditions were optimized to reduce the source and postsource fragmentation prior to the quadrupole transmission. Fragmentation spectra of HMOs using collision-induced dissociation were studied to obtain the best characteristic fragments. At least two MRM transitions were used to quantify and identify each structure in the same run. The fragment ions corresponded to the production of singly charged mono-, di-, and trisaccharide fragments. The sensitivity and accuracy of the quantitation using MRM were determined, with the detection limit in the femtomole level and the calibration range spanning over 5 orders of magnitude. Seven commercial HMO standards were used to create calibration curves and were used to determine a universal response for all HMOs. The universal response factor was used to estimate absolute amounts of other structures and the total oligosaccharide content in milk. The quantitation method was applied to 20 human milk samples to determine the variations in HMO concentrations from women classified as secretors and nonsecretors, a phenotype that can be identified by the concentration of 2′-fucosylation in their milk. PMID:24502421

  13. Generic HPLC platform for automated enzyme reaction monitoring: Advancing the assay toolbox for transaminases and other PLP-dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Börner, Tim; Grey, Carl; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Methods for rapid and direct quantification of enzyme kinetics independent of the substrate stand in high demand for both fundamental research and bioprocess development. This study addresses the need for a generic method by developing an automated, standardizable HPLC platform monitoring reaction progress in near real-time. The method was applied to amine transaminase (ATA) catalyzed reactions intensifying process development for chiral amine synthesis. Autosampler-assisted pipetting facilitates integrated mixing and sampling under controlled temperature. Crude enzyme formulations in high and low substrate concentrations can be employed. Sequential, small (1 µL) sample injections and immediate detection after separation permits fast reaction monitoring with excellent sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. Due to its modular design, different chromatographic techniques, e.g. reverse phase and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) can be employed. A novel assay for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes is presented using SEC for direct monitoring of enzyme-bound and free reaction intermediates. Time-resolved changes of the different cofactor states, e.g. pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate and the internal aldimine were traced in both half reactions. The combination of the automated HPLC platform with SEC offers a method for substrate-independent screening, which renders a missing piece in the assay and screening toolbox for ATAs and other PLP-dependent enzymes.

  14. Influence of supported gold particles on the surface reactions of diethylamine on TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento-Lopez, Adan G.; Berumen-España, Gerardo; Lopez-Serrano, Cesar; Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan C.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption and reactions of diethylamine on the surfaces of TiO2 and TiO2-supported gold samples were investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. IR spectra measured as the samples were treated in flowing diethylamine at room temperature indicate that the amine was preferentially adsorbed molecularly on surface Ti4 + sites. Thermal treatment of the samples with flowing diethylamine led to the formation of ethylene and acetonitrile as dehydrogenation products. The data show that the reactions occurred at lower temperatures in the presence of supported gold samples than on TiO2, and IR spectra recorded under reaction conditions show evidence of amine-derived surface species bonded to gold nanoparticles that could be regarded as reaction intermediates. The results indicate that the gold nanoparticles provide sites for subtraction and recombination of hydrogen atoms from the amine, ensuing its dehydrogenation.

  15. Fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams in a laser-produced plasma.

    PubMed

    Labaune, C; Baccou, C; Depierreux, S; Goyon, C; Loisel, G; Yahia, V; Rafelski, J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high-intensity-pulsed laser technology enables the generation of extreme states of matter under conditions that are far from thermal equilibrium. This in turn could enable different approaches to generating energy from nuclear fusion. Relaxing the equilibrium requirement could widen the range of isotopes used in fusion fuels permitting cleaner and less hazardous reactions that do not produce high-energy neutrons. Here we propose and implement a means to drive fusion reactions between protons and boron-11 nuclei by colliding a laser-accelerated proton beam with a laser-generated boron plasma. We report proton-boron reaction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously. Beyond fusion, our approach demonstrates a new means for exploring low-energy nuclear reactions such as those that occur in astrophysical plasmas and related environments.

  16. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICLES IN A RESIDENCE FOR 18 MONTHS IN 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous monitors were employed for 18 months in an occupied townhouse to measure ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles; air change rates; wind speed and direction; temperature; and relative humidity (RH). A main objective was to document short-term and long-term variation in...

  17. Using NMR, SIP, and MS measurements for monitoring subsurface biogeochemical reactions at the Rifle IFRC site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosier, C. L.; Keating, K.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Grunewald, E.; Walsh, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site is located on a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado (USA). Although removal of tailings and contaminated surface materials was completed in 1996, residual uranium contamination of groundwater and subsurface sediments remains. Since 2002, research at the site has primarily focused on quantifying uranium mobility associated with stimulated and natural biogeochemical processes. Uranium mobility at the Rifle IFRC site is typically quantified through direct sampling of groundwater; however, direct sampling does not provide information about the solid phase material outside of the borehole and continuous measurements are not always possible due to multiple constraints. Geophysical methods have been suggested as a minimally invasive alternative approach for long term monitoring of biogeochemical reactions associated with uranium remediation. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectral induced polarization (SIP), and magnetic susceptibility (MS) are considered as potential geophysical methods for monitoring the biogeochemical reactions occurring at the Rifle IFRC site. Additionally, a pilot field study using an NMR borehole-logging tool was carried out at the Rifle IFRC site. These methods are sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical subsurface properties that occur as a result of bioremediation efforts; specifically, changes in the redox state and chemical form of iron, production of iron sulfide minerals, production of the magnetic mineral magnetite, and associated changes in the pore geometry. Laboratory experiments consisted of monitoring changes in the NMR, SIP and MS response of an acetate-amended columns packed with sediments from the Rifle IFRC site over the course of two months. The MS values remained relatively stable throughout the course of the experiment suggesting negligible production of magnetic phases (e.g. magnetite, pyrrhotite) as a result of enhanced

  18. Quantitative Magnetic Particle Imaging Monitors the Transplantation, Biodistribution, and Clearance of Stem Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bo; von See, Marc P.; Yu, Elaine; Gunel, Beliz; Lu, Kuan; Vazin, Tandis; Schaffer, David V.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapies have enormous potential for treating many debilitating diseases, including heart failure, stroke and traumatic brain injury. For maximal efficacy, these therapies require targeted cell delivery to specific tissues followed by successful cell engraftment. However, targeted delivery remains an open challenge. As one example, it is common for intravenous deliveries of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to become entrapped in lung microvasculature instead of the target tissue. Hence, a robust, quantitative imaging method would be essential for developing efficacious cell therapies. Here we show that Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), a novel technique that directly images iron-oxide nanoparticle-tagged cells, can longitudinally monitor and quantify MSC administration in vivo. MPI offers near-ideal image contrast, depth penetration, and robustness; these properties make MPI both ultra-sensitive and linearly quantitative. Here, we imaged, for the first time, the dynamic trafficking of intravenous MSC administrations using MPI. Our results indicate that labeled MSC injections are immediately entrapped in lung tissue and then clear to the liver within one day, whereas standard iron oxide particle (Resovist) injections are immediately taken up by liver and spleen. Longitudinal MPI-CT imaging also indicated a clearance half-life of MSC iron oxide labels in the liver at 4.6 days. Finally, our ex vivo MPI biodistribution measurements of iron in liver, spleen, heart, and lungs after injection showed excellent agreement (R2 = 0.943) with measurements from induction coupled plasma spectrometry. These results demonstrate that MPI offers strong utility for noninvasively imaging and quantifying the systemic distribution of cell therapies and other therapeutic agents. PMID:26909106

  19. Quantitative Magnetic Particle Imaging Monitors the Transplantation, Biodistribution, and Clearance of Stem Cells In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; von See, Marc P; Yu, Elaine; Gunel, Beliz; Lu, Kuan; Vazin, Tandis; Schaffer, David V; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapies have enormous potential for treating many debilitating diseases, including heart failure, stroke and traumatic brain injury. For maximal efficacy, these therapies require targeted cell delivery to specific tissues followed by successful cell engraftment. However, targeted delivery remains an open challenge. As one example, it is common for intravenous deliveries of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to become entrapped in lung microvasculature instead of the target tissue. Hence, a robust, quantitative imaging method would be essential for developing efficacious cell therapies. Here we show that Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), a novel technique that directly images iron-oxide nanoparticle-tagged cells, can longitudinally monitor and quantify MSC administration in vivo. MPI offers near-ideal image contrast, depth penetration, and robustness; these properties make MPI both ultra-sensitive and linearly quantitative. Here, we imaged, for the first time, the dynamic trafficking of intravenous MSC administrations using MPI. Our results indicate that labeled MSC injections are immediately entrapped in lung tissue and then clear to the liver within one day, whereas standard iron oxide particle (Resovist) injections are immediately taken up by liver and spleen. Longitudinal MPI-CT imaging also indicated a clearance half-life of MSC iron oxide labels in the liver at 4.6 days. Finally, our ex vivo MPI biodistribution measurements of iron in liver, spleen, heart, and lungs after injection showed excellent agreement (R(2) = 0.943) with measurements from induction coupled plasma spectrometry. These results demonstrate that MPI offers strong utility for noninvasively imaging and quantifying the systemic distribution of cell therapies and other therapeutic agents.

  20. Compilation of high energy physics reaction data: inventory of the particle data group holdings 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.C.; Stevens, P.R.; Rittenberg, A.

    1980-12-01

    A compilation is presented of reaction data taken from experimental high energy physics journal articles, reports, preprints, theses, and other sources. Listings of all the data are given, and the data points are indexed by reaction and momentum, as well as by their source document. Much of the original compilation was done by others working in the field. The data presented also exist in the form of a computer-readable and searchable database; primitive access facilities for this database are available.

  1. Complementary optical-potential analysis of {alpha}-particle elastic scattering and induced reactions at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M. Obreja, A.C.; Roman, F.L.; Avrigeanu, V.; Oertzen, W. von

    2009-07-15

    A previously derived semi-microscopic analysis based on the Double Folding Model, for {alpha}-particle elastic scattering on A{approx}100 nuclei at energies below 32 MeV, is extended to medium mass A{approx}50-120 nuclei and energies from {approx}13 to 50 MeV. The energy-dependent phenomenological imaginary part for this semi-microscopic optical model potential was obtained including the dispersive correction to the microscopic real potential, and used within a concurrent phenomenological analysis of the same data basis. A regional parameter set for low-energy {alpha}-particles entirely based on elastic scattering data analysis was also obtained for nuclei within the above mentioned mass and energy ranges. Then, an ultimate assessment of ({alpha},{gamma}), ({alpha},n), and ({alpha},p) reaction cross sections considered target nuclei from {sup 45}Sc to {sup 118}Sn and incident energies below {approx}12 MeV. The former diffuseness of the real part of optical potential as well as the surface imaginary potential depth have been found to be responsible for the actual difficulties in the description of these data, and modified in order to obtain an optical potential which describes equally well both the low-energy elastic scattering and induced reaction data for {alpha}-particles.

  2. Still shimming or already measuring? - Quantitative reaction monitoring for small molecules on the sub minute timescale by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, J.; Thiele, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    In order to enable monitoring of rapidly occurring reactions Wagner et al. recently presented a simple scheme for 1D NMR experiments with continuous data acquisition, without inter-scan delays, using a spatially-selective and frequency-shifted excitation approach (Wagner et al., 2013). This scheme allows acquisition of proton spectra with temporal resolutions on the millisecond timescale. Such high temporal resolutions are desired in the case of reaction monitoring using stopped flow setups. In regular 1H NMR-spectra without spatial selection the line width increases for a given shim setting with changes in sample volume, susceptibility, convection and temperature or concentration gradients due to the disturbance of magnetic field homogeneity. Concerning reaction monitoring this is unfortunate as shimming prior to acquisition becomes necessary to obtain narrow signals after injection of a reactant into an NMR sample. Even automatic shim routines may last up to minutes. Thus fast reactions can hardly be monitored online without large hardware dead times in a single stopped flow experiment. This problem is reduced in the spatially-selective and frequency-shifted continuous NMR experiment as magnetic field inhomogeneties are less pronounced and negative effects on the obtained line shapes are reduced as pointed out by Bax and Freeman (1980) [2] and demonstrated by Wagner et al. (2013). Here we present the utilization of this technique for observation of reactions in small molecule systems in which chemical conversion and longitudinal relaxation occur on the same timescale. By means of the alkaline ethyl acetate hydrolysis, a stoichiometric reaction, we show advantages of spatially-selective excitation on both temporal resolution and line shapes in stopped flow experiments. Results are compared to data obtained by non-selective small angle excitation experiments.

  3. Demonstration of a Particle Impact Monitoring System for Crewed Space Exploration Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opiela, J. N.; Liou, J.-C.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Anz-Meador, P.

    2011-01-01

    When micrometeorite or debris impacts occur on a space habitat, crew members need to be quickly informed of the likely extent of damage, and be directed to the impact location for possible repairs. The goal of the Habitat Particle Impact Monitoring System (HIMS) is to develop a fully automated, end-to-end particle impact detection system for crewed space exploration modules, both in space and on the surfaces of Solar System bodies. The HIMS uses multiple thin film piezo-polymer vibration sensors to detect impacts on a surface, and computer processing of the acoustical signals to characterize the impacts. Development and demonstration of the HIMS is proceeding in concert with NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Project. The HDU Project is designed to develop and test various technologies, configurations, and operational concepts for exploration habitats. This paper describes the HIMS development, initial testing, and HDU integration efforts. Initial tests of the system on the HDU were conducted at NASA?s 2010 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (Desert-RATS). Four sensor locations were assigned near the corners of a rectangular pattern. To study the influence of wall thickness, three sets of four sensors were installed at different layer depths: on the interior of the PEM wall, on the exterior of the same wall, and on the exterior of a layer of foam insulation applied to the exterior wall. Once the system was activated, particle impacts were periodically applied by firing a pneumatic pellet gun at the exterior wall section. Impact signals from the sensors were recognized by a data acquisition system when they occurred, and recorded on a computer for later analysis. Preliminary analysis of the results found that the HIMS system located the point of impact to within 8 cm, provided a measure of the impact energy / damage produced, and was insensitive to other acoustic events. Based on this success, a fully automated version of this system will be completed and

  4. Variations of boundary reaction rate and particle size on the diffusion-induced stress in a phase separating electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; He, Linghui; Ni, Yong; Song, Yicheng

    2014-10-14

    In contrast to the case of single-phase delithiation wherein faster discharging leads to higher diffusion-induced stress (DIS), this paper reports nonmonotonous dependency of the boundary reaction rate on the DIS in nanosized spherical electrode accompanying phase separation. It is attributed to a transition from two-phase to single-phase delithiation driven by increase of the boundary reaction rate leading to narrowing and vanishing of the miscibility gap in a range of the particle size. The profiles of lithium concentration and the DIS are identified during the transition based on a continuum model. The resultant maximum DIS first decreases in the region of two-phase delithiation and later returns to increase in the region of single-phase delithiation with the increase of the boundary reaction rate. A map for the failure behavior in the spherical electrode particle is constructed based on the Tresca failure criterion. These results indicate that the failure caused by the DIS can be avoided by appropriate selection of the said parameters in such electrodes.

  5. Real-time monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respirable suspended particles from environmental tobacco smoke in a home

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, W.; Wilson, N.K.; Klepeis, N.; Switzer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Real-time measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on fine particles was evaluated in a home with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a source. Respirable suspended particles (RSP) were also monitored. Comparison of PAH and RSP concentrations from these experiments suggests: (1) the PAH concentrations for the two types of cigarettes--a regular Marlboro filter cigarette and a University of Kentucky reference cigarette No. 2R1--were similar, but the RSP concentrations were different; (2) concentrations from the real-time PAH monitor were linearly related to RSP concentrations; (3) the slopes of the regression lines between PAH and RSP differed for the two types of cigarettes. The real-time PAH monitor appears to be a useful tool for evaluating mathematical models to predict the concentration time series in indoor microenvironments.

  6. Particle filter based hybrid prognostics for health monitoring of uncertain systems in bond graph framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Mayank Shekhar; Dauphin-Tanguy, G.; Ould-Bouamama, B.

    2016-06-01

    The paper's main objective is to address the problem of health monitoring of system parameters in Bond Graph (BG) modeling framework, by exploiting its structural and causal properties. The system in feedback control loop is considered uncertain globally. Parametric uncertainty is modeled in interval form. The system parameter is undergoing degradation (prognostic candidate) and its degradation model is assumed to be known a priori. The detection of degradation commencement is done in a passive manner which involves interval valued robust adaptive thresholds over the nominal part of the uncertain BG-derived interval valued analytical redundancy relations (I-ARRs). The latter forms an efficient diagnostic module. The prognostics problem is cast as joint state-parameter estimation problem, a hybrid prognostic approach, wherein the fault model is constructed by considering the statistical degradation model of the system parameter (prognostic candidate). The observation equation is constructed from nominal part of the I-ARR. Using particle filter (PF) algorithms; the estimation of state of health (state of prognostic candidate) and associated hidden time-varying degradation progression parameters is achieved in probabilistic terms. A simplified variance adaptation scheme is proposed. Associated uncertainties which arise out of noisy measurements, parametric degradation process, environmental conditions etc. are effectively managed by PF. This allows the production of effective predictions of the remaining useful life of the prognostic candidate with suitable confidence bounds. The effectiveness of the novel methodology is demonstrated through simulations and experiments on a mechatronic system.

  7. Profiling Cys34 Adducts of Human Serum Albumin by Fixed-Step Selected Reaction Monitoring*

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Grigoryan, Hasmik; Funk, William E.; Lu, Sixin Samantha; Rose, Sherri; Williams, Evan R.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    A method is described for profiling putative adducts (or other unknown covalent modifications) at the Cys34 locus of human serum albumin (HSA), which represents the preferred reaction site for small electrophilic species in human serum. By comparing profiles of putative HSA-Cys34 adducts across populations of interest it is theoretically possible to explore environmental causes of degenerative diseases and cancer caused by both exogenous and endogenous chemicals. We report a novel application of selected-reaction-monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry, termed fixed-step SRM (FS-SRM), that allows detection of essentially all HSA-Cys34 modifications over a specified range of mass increases (added masses). After tryptic digestion, HSA-Cys34 adducts are contained in the third largest peptide (T3), which contains 21 amino acids and an average mass of 2433.87 Da. The FS-SRM method does not require that exact masses of T3 adducts be known in advance but rather uses a theoretical list of T3-adduct m/z values separated by a fixed increment of 1.5. In terms of added masses, each triply charged parent ion represents a bin of ±2.3 Da between 9.1 Da and 351.1 Da. Synthetic T3 adducts were used to optimize FS-SRM and to establish screening rules based upon selected b- and y-series fragment ions. An isotopically labeled T3 adduct is added to protein digests to facilitate quantification of putative adducts. We used FS-SRM to generate putative adduct profiles from six archived specimens of HSA that had been pooled by gender, race, and smoking status. An average of 66 putative adduct hits (out of a possible 77) were detected in these samples. Putative adducts covered a wide range of concentrations, were most abundant in the mass range below 100 Da, and were more abundant in smokers than in nonsmokers. With minor modifications, the FS-SRM methodology can be applied to other nucleophilic sites and proteins. PMID:21193536

  8. R-matrix description of particle energy spectra produced by low-energy 3H + 3H reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Brune, C. R.; Caggiano, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; ...

    2015-07-20

    An R-matrix model for three-body final states is presented and applied to a recent measurement of the neutron energy spectrum from the 3H + 3H→ 2n + α reaction. The calculation includes the n alpha and n n interactions in the final state, angular momentum conservation, antisymmetrization, and the interference between different channels. A good fit to the measured spectrum is obtained, where clear evidence for the 5He ground state is observed. The model is also used to predict the alpha-particle spectrum from 3H + 3H as well as particle spectra from 3He + 3He. The R-matrix approach presented heremore » is very general, and can be adapted to a wide variety of problems with three-body final states.« less

  9. Kinetic Study of Radiation-reaction-limited Particle Acceleration During the Relaxation of Unstable Force-free Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Zrake, Jonathan; East, William E.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2016-09-01

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over very short timescales. These are likely due to the rapid dissipation of electromagnetic energy in a highly magnetized, relativistic plasma. In order to understand the generic features of such processes, we have investigated simple models based on the relaxation of unstable force-free magnetostatic equilibria. In this work, we make the connection between the corresponding plasma dynamics and the expected radiation signal, using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that self-consistently include synchrotron radiation reactions. We focus on the lowest order unstable force-free equilibrium in a 2D periodic box. We find that rapid variability, with modest apparent radiation efficiency as perceived by a fixed observer, can be produced during the evolution of the instability. The “flares” are accompanied by an increased polarization degree in the high energy band, with rapid variation in the polarization angle. Furthermore, the separation between the acceleration sites and the synchrotron radiation sites for the highest energy particles facilitates acceleration beyond the synchrotron radiation reaction limit. We also discuss the dynamical consequences of the radiation reaction, and some astrophysical applications of this model. Our current simulations with numerically tractable parameters are not yet able to reproduce the most dramatic gamma-ray flares, e.g., from the Crab Nebula. Higher magnetization studies are promising and will be carried out in the future.

  10. In Situ Reaction Kinetics and Microstructure Evolution in Preparing Particle-Containing Copper Alloys by Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingxing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xukai

    2015-04-01

    To improve alloy properties and the distribution level of TiB2 particles in the alloy matrix, mechanical alloying was used to prepare the Cu-TiB2 alloy. But even after long-time ball milling, the in situ reaction between Cu-B and Cu-Ti alloy powders still cannot be observed in the whole process. The kinetics of the in situ reaction during high-temperature heat treatment was first investigated and led to the following results. With the increase of heat-treatment time t or diffusion depth X, both the moving speed Δ x/Δ t of reaction front edge and nucleation rate Z( x) of TiB2 particles decrease at a fast rate and finally stabilize at a very low level. The falling rate of moving speed Δ x/Δ t increases with the decrease of temperature. Although the C Ti' value of the Ti element gives a poor effect on the moving speed Δ x/Δ t, it significantly affects the nucleation rate of TiB2 particles, and its falling rate increases with a decreasing C Ti' value. And for the same diffusion depth X and C Ti', the nucleation rate of TiB2 decreases with increasing the heat-treatment temperature. These results were verified by the microstructure change after the heat treatments at temperatures of 773 K, 973 K, and 1173 K (500 °C, 700 °C, and 900 °C), respectively. Finally, the best combination of ball-milling and heat-treatment conditions was obtained.

  11. Kinetic study of radiation-reaction-limited particle acceleration during the relaxation of unstable force-free equilibria

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Zrake, Jonathan; ...

    2016-09-07

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over very short timescales. These are likely due to the rapid dissipation of electromagnetic energy in a highly magnetized, relativistic plasma. In order to understand the generic features of such processes, we have investigated simple models based on the relaxation of unstable force-free magnetostatic equilibria. In this work, we make the connection between the corresponding plasma dynamics and the expected radiation signal, using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that self-consistently include synchrotron radiation reactions. We focusmore » on the lowest order unstable force-free equilibrium in a 2D periodic box. We find that rapid variability, with modest apparent radiation efficiency as perceived by a fixed observer, can be produced during the evolution of the instability. The "flares" are accompanied by an increased polarization degree in the high energy band, with rapid variation in the polarization angle. Furthermore, the separation between the acceleration sites and the synchrotron radiation sites for the highest energy particles facilitates acceleration beyond the synchrotron radiation reaction limit. We also discuss the dynamical consequences of the radiation reaction, and some astrophysical applications of this model. Our current simulations with numerically tractable parameters are not yet able to reproduce the most dramatic gamma-ray flares, e.g., from the Crab Nebula. As a result, higher magnetization studies are promising and will be carried out in the future.« less

  12. Kinetic study of radiation-reaction-limited particle acceleration during the relaxation of unstable force-free equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Zrake, Jonathan; East, William E.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2016-09-07

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over very short timescales. These are likely due to the rapid dissipation of electromagnetic energy in a highly magnetized, relativistic plasma. In order to understand the generic features of such processes, we have investigated simple models based on the relaxation of unstable force-free magnetostatic equilibria. In this work, we make the connection between the corresponding plasma dynamics and the expected radiation signal, using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that self-consistently include synchrotron radiation reactions. We focus on the lowest order unstable force-free equilibrium in a 2D periodic box. We find that rapid variability, with modest apparent radiation efficiency as perceived by a fixed observer, can be produced during the evolution of the instability. The "flares" are accompanied by an increased polarization degree in the high energy band, with rapid variation in the polarization angle. Furthermore, the separation between the acceleration sites and the synchrotron radiation sites for the highest energy particles facilitates acceleration beyond the synchrotron radiation reaction limit. We also discuss the dynamical consequences of the radiation reaction, and some astrophysical applications of this model. Our current simulations with numerically tractable parameters are not yet able to reproduce the most dramatic gamma-ray flares, e.g., from the Crab Nebula. As a result, higher magnetization studies are promising and will be carried out in the future.

  13. A NIST Kinetic Data Base for PAH Reaction and Soot Particle Inception During Combusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    13 D. Kinetic Modeling of Heptane Combustion 62 and PAH Formation E. Ring Expansion...that can be competitive with oxidation and the unsaturated compounds are the precursors to soot models . It extends the application of combustion...soot particles and then through kinetic modeling extract rate constants that can now be used to simulate the process. The elements of the

  14. Modeling reaction pathways of low energy particle deposition on thiophene via ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crenshaw, Jasmine D.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Iordanova, Nedialka; Sinnott, Susan B.

    2011-07-01

    Chemical reactions of thiophene with organic molecules are of interest to modify thermally deposited coatings of conductive polymers. Here, energy barriers for reactions involving thiophene and small hydrocarbon radicals are identified. Enthalpies of formation involving reactants are also calculated using the B3LYP, BMK, and B98 hybrid functionals within the G AUSSIAN03 program. Experimental values, G3, and CBS-QB3 calculations are used as standards, due to their accurate thermochemistry parameters. The BMK functional is found to perform best for the selected organic molecules. These results provide insights into the reactivity of several polymerization and deposition processes.

  15. Two-particle correlation measurements in p+Nb reactions √sNN = 3.18 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present a two-particle correlation measurement of proton- and of Λp-pairs, measured with the HADES detector in p+Nb reactions at a kinetic beam energy of 3.5 GeV. The proton-proton correlation function is used to extract the size of the region of homogeneity. Using this information together with a UrQMD transport simulation opens the possibility to study the interaction of Λp pairs in terms of spin average scattering length and effective range.

  16. The role of nuclear reactions and {alpha}-particle transport in the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, Josselin; Cherfils-Clerouin, Catherine

    2008-10-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the deceleration phase of inertial confinement capsules. The purpose is to obtain a zero-dimensional model that has the form of a closed system of ordinary differential equations for the main hydrodynamic quantities. The model takes into account the energy released by nuclear reactions, a nonlocal model for the {alpha}-particle energy deposition process, and radiation loss by electron bremsstrahlung. The asymptotic analysis is performed in the case of a strong temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity. We finally study the beginning of the expansion phase after stagnation to derive an ignition criterion.

  17. Opportunities and challenges in single-molecule and single-particle fluorescence microscopy for mechanistic studies of chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, Thorben; Blum, Suzanne A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, single-molecule and single-particle fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a tool to investigate chemical systems. After an initial lag of over a decade with respect to biophysical studies, this powerful imaging technique is now revealing mechanisms of 'classical' organic reactions, spatial distribution of chemical reactivity on surfaces and the phase of active catalysts. The recent advance into commercial imaging systems obviates the need for home-built laser systems and thus opens this technique to traditionally trained synthetic chemists. We discuss the requisite photophysical and chemical properties of fluorescent reporters and highlight the main challenges in applying single-molecule techniques to chemical questions. The goal of this Perspective is to provide a snapshot of an emerging multidisciplinary field and to encourage broader use of this young experimental approach that aids the observation of chemical reactions as depicted in many textbooks: molecule by molecule.

  18. Opportunities and challenges in single-molecule and single-particle fluorescence microscopy for mechanistic studies of chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Thorben; Blum, Suzanne A

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, single-molecule and single-particle fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a tool to investigate chemical systems. After an initial lag of over a decade with respect to biophysical studies, this powerful imaging technique is now revealing mechanisms of 'classical' organic reactions, spatial distribution of chemical reactivity on surfaces and the phase of active catalysts. The recent advance into commercial imaging systems obviates the need for home-built laser systems and thus opens this technique to traditionally trained synthetic chemists. We discuss the requisite photophysical and chemical properties of fluorescent reporters and highlight the main challenges in applying single-molecule techniques to chemical questions. The goal of this Perspective is to provide a snapshot of an emerging multidisciplinary field and to encourage broader use of this young experimental approach that aids the observation of chemical reactions as depicted in many textbooks: molecule by molecule.

  19. MRMaid, the web-based tool for designing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions.

    PubMed

    Mead, Jennifer A; Bianco, Luca; Ottone, Vanessa; Barton, Chris; Kay, Richard G; Lilley, Kathryn S; Bond, Nicholas J; Bessant, Conrad

    2009-04-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of peptides uses tandem mass spectrometry to quantify selected proteins of interest, such as those previously identified in differential studies. Using this technique, the specificity of precursor to product transitions is harnessed for quantitative analysis of multiple proteins in a single sample. The design of transitions is critical for the success of MRM experiments, but predicting signal intensity of peptides and fragmentation patterns ab initio is challenging given existing methods. The tool presented here, MRMaid (pronounced "mermaid") offers a novel alternative for rapid design of MRM transitions for the proteomics researcher. The program uses a combination of knowledge of the properties of optimal MRM transitions taken from expert practitioners and literature with MS/MS evidence derived from interrogation of a database of peptide identifications and their associated mass spectra. The tool also predicts retention time using a published model, allowing ordering of transition candidates. By exploiting available knowledge and resources to generate the most reliable transitions, this approach negates the need for theoretical prediction of fragmentation and the need to undertake prior "discovery" MS studies. MRMaid is a modular tool built around the Genome Annotating Proteomic Pipeline framework, providing a web-based solution with both descriptive and graphical visualizations of transitions. Predicted transition candidates are ranked based on a novel transition scoring system, and users may filter the results by selecting optional stringency criteria, such as omitting frequently modified residues, constraining the length of peptides, or omitting missed cleavages. Comparison with published transitions showed that MRMaid successfully predicted the peptide and product ion pairs in the majority of cases with appropriate retention time estimates. As the data content of the Genome Annotating Proteomic Pipeline repository increases

  20. High resolution parallel reaction monitoring with electron transfer dissociation for middle-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sweredoski, Michael J; Moradian, Annie; Raedle, Matthias; Franco, Catarina; Hess, Sonja

    2015-08-18

    In recent years, middle-down proteomics has emerged as a popular technique for the characterization and quantification of proteins not readily amenable to typical bottom-up approaches. So far, all high resolution middle-down approaches are done in data-dependent acquisition mode, using both collision-induced dissociation or electron capture/transfer dissociation techniques. Here, we explore middle-down proteomics with electron transfer dissociation using a targeted acquisition mode, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), on an Orbitrap Fusion. As an example of a highly modified protein, we used histone H3 fractions from untreated and DMSO-treated Murine ErythroLeukemia (MEL) cells. We first determined optimized instrument parameters to obtain high sequence coverage using a synthetic standard peptide. We then setup a combined method of both MS1 scans and PRM scans of the 20 most abundant combinations of methylation and acetylation of the +10 charge state of the N-terminal tail of H3. Weak cation exchange hydrophilic interaction chromatography was used to separate the N-terminal H3 tail, primarily, by its acetylation and, to a secondary degree, by its methylation status, which aided in the interpretation of the results. After deconvolution of the highly charged ions, peaks were annotated to a minimum set of 254 H3 proteoforms in the untreated and treated samples. Upon DMSO treatment, global quantitation changes from the MS1 level show a relative decrease of 2, 3, 4, and 5 acetylations and an increase of 0 and 1 acetylations. A fragment ion map was developed to visualize specific differences between treated and untreated samples. Taken together, the data presented here show that middle-down proteomics with electron transfer dissociation using PRM is a novel, attractive method for the effective analysis and quantification of large and highly modified peptides.

  1. Interlaboratory Reproducibility of Selective Reaction Monitoring Assays Using Multiple Upfront Analyte Enrichment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Amol; Rezai, Taha; Krastins, Bryan; Sarracino, David; Athanas, Michael; Russo, Paul; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Yuan; Li, Yan; Kulasingam, Vathany; Drabovich, Andrei; Smith, Christopher R.; Batruch, Ihor; Oran, Paul E.; Fredolini, Claudia; Luchini, Alessandra; Liotta, Lance; Petricoin, Emanuel; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Chan, Daniel W.; Nelson, Randall; Lopez, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years, mass spectrometry has emerged as a technology to complement and potentially replace standard immunoassays in routine clinical core laboratories. Application of mass spectrometry to protein and peptide measurement can provide advantages including high sensitivity, the ability to multiplex analytes, and high specificity at the amino acid sequence level. In our previous study, we demonstrated excellent reproducibility of mass spectrometry-selective reaction monitoring (MS-SRM) assays when applying standardized standard operating procedures (SOPs) to measure synthetic peptides in a complex sample, as lack of reproducibility has been a frequent criticism leveled at the use of mass spectrometers in the clinical laboratory compared to immunoassays. Furthermore, an important caveat of SRM-based assays for proteins is that many low-abundance analytes require some type of enrichment before detection with MS. This adds a level of complexity to the procedure and the potential for irreproducibility increases, especially across different laboratories with different operators. The purpose of this study was to test the interlaboratory reproducibility of SRM assays with various upfront enrichment strategies and different types of clinical samples (representing real-world body fluids commonly encountered in routine clinical laboratories). Three different, previously published enrichment strategies for low-abundance analytes and a no-enrichment strategy for high-abundance analytes were tested across four different laboratories using different liquid chromatography-SRM (LC-SRM) platforms and previously developed SOPs. The results demonstrated that these assays were indeed reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 30% for the measurement of important clinical proteins across all four laboratories in real world samples. PMID:22639787

  2. Estimation of Absolute Protein Quantities of Unlabeled Samples by Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Christina; Claassen, Manfred; Schmidt, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    For many research questions in modern molecular and systems biology, information about absolute protein quantities is imperative. This information includes, for example, kinetic modeling of processes, protein turnover determinations, stoichiometric investigations of protein complexes, or quantitative comparisons of different proteins within one sample or across samples. To date, the vast majority of proteomic studies are limited to providing relative quantitative comparisons of protein levels between limited numbers of samples. Here we describe and demonstrate the utility of a targeting MS technique for the estimation of absolute protein abundance in unlabeled and nonfractionated cell lysates. The method is based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry and the “best flyer” hypothesis, which assumes that the specific MS signal intensity of the most intense tryptic peptides per protein is approximately constant throughout a whole proteome. SRM-targeted best flyer peptides were selected for each protein from the peptide precursor ion signal intensities from directed MS data. The most intense transitions per peptide were selected from full MS/MS scans of crude synthetic analogs. We used Monte Carlo cross-validation to systematically investigate the accuracy of the technique as a function of the number of measured best flyer peptides and the number of SRM transitions per peptide. We found that a linear model based on the two most intense transitions of the three best flying peptides per proteins (TopPep3/TopTra2) generated optimal results with a cross-correlated mean fold error of 1.8 and a squared Pearson coefficient R2 of 0.88. Applying the optimized model to lysates of the microbe Leptospira interrogans, we detected significant protein abundance changes of 39 target proteins upon antibiotic treatment, which correlate well with literature values. The described method is generally applicable and exploits the inherent performance advantages of SRM

  3. Quantitation of Permethylated N-Glycans through Multiple-Reaction Monitoring (MRM) LC-MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiyue; Hu, Yunli; DeSantos-Garcia, Janie L.; Mechref, Yehia

    2015-04-01

    The important biological roles of glycans and their implications in disease development and progression have created a demand for the development of sensitive quantitative glycomics methods. Quantitation of glycans existing at low abundance is still analytically challenging. In this study, an N-linked glycans quantitation method using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) on a triple quadrupole instrument was developed. Optimum normalized collision energy (CE) for both sialylated and fucosylated N-glycan was determined to be 30%, whereas it was found to be 35% for either fucosylated or sialylated N-glycans. The optimum CE for mannose and complex type N-glycan was determined to be 35%. Additionally, the use of three transitions was shown to facilitate reliable quantitation. A total of 88 N-glycan compositions in human blood serum were quantified using this MRM approach. Reliable detection and quantitation of these glycans was achieved when the equivalence of 0.005 μL of blood serum was analyzed. Accordingly, N-glycans down to the 100th of a μL level can be reliably quantified in pooled human blood serum, spanning a dynamic concentration range of three orders of magnitude. MRM was also effectively utilized to quantitatively compare the expression of N-glycans derived from brain-targeting breast carcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231BR) and metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Thus, the described MRM method of permethylated N-glycan enables a rapid and reliable identification and quantitation of glycans derived from glycoproteins purified or present in complex biological samples.

  4. Development of biomarkers for screening hepatocellular carcinoma using global data mining and multiple reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Kyunggon; Yu, Su Jong; Jang, Eun Sun; Yu, Jiyoung; Cho, Geunhee; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and aggressive cancers and is associated with a poor survival rate. Clinically, the level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC. The discovery of useful biomarkers for HCC, focused solely on the proteome, has been difficult; thus, wide-ranging global data mining of genomic and proteomic databases from previous reports would be valuable in screening biomarker candidates. Further, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), based on triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, has been effective with regard to high-throughput verification, complementing antibody-based verification pipelines. In this study, global data mining was performed using 5 types of HCC data to screen for candidate biomarker proteins: cDNA microarray, copy number variation, somatic mutation, epigenetic, and quantitative proteomics data. Next, we applied MRM to verify HCC candidate biomarkers in individual serum samples from 3 groups: a healthy control group, patients who have been diagnosed with HCC (Before HCC treatment group), and HCC patients who underwent locoregional therapy (After HCC treatment group). After determining the relative quantities of the candidate proteins by MRM, we compared their expression levels between the 3 groups, identifying 4 potential biomarkers: the actin-binding protein anillin (ANLN), filamin-B (FLNB), complementary C4-A (C4A), and AFP. The combination of 2 markers (ANLN, FLNB) improved the discrimination of the before HCC treatment group from the healthy control group compared with AFP. We conclude that the combination of global data mining and MRM verification enhances the screening and verification of potential HCC biomarkers. This efficacious integrative strategy is applicable to the development of markers for cancer and other diseases.

  5. Monitoring the injection of microscale zerovalent iron particles for groundwater remediation by means of complex electrical conductivity imaging.

    PubMed

    Flores Orozco, Adrián; Velimirovic, Milica; Tosco, Tiziana; Kemna, Andreas; Sapion, Hans; Klaas, Norbert; Sethi, Rajandrea; Bastiaens, Leen

    2015-05-05

    The injection of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles for groundwater remediation has received much interest in recent years. However, to date, monitoring of mZVI particle injection is based on chemical analysis of groundwater and soil samples and thus might be limited in its spatiotemporal resolution. To overcome this deficiency, in this study, we investigate the application of complex electrical conductivity imaging, a geophysical method, to monitor the high-pressure injection of mZVI in a field-scale application. The resulting electrical images revealed an increase in the induced electrical polarization (∼20%), upon delivery of ZVI into the targeted area, due to the accumulation of metallic surfaces at which the polarization takes place. Furthermore, larger changes (>50%) occurred in shallow sediments, a few meters away from the injection, suggesting the migration of particles through preferential flowpaths. Correlation of the electrical response and geochemical data, in particular the analysis of recovered cores from drilling after the injection, confirmed the migration of particles (and stabilizing solution) to shallow areas through fractures formed during the injection. Hence, our results demonstrate the suitability of the complex conductivity imaging method to monitor the transport of mZVI during subsurface amendment in quasi real-time.

  6. Monitoring Time-Dependent Formation of Oligomers and Brown Carbon in Reactions of Glycolaldehyde, Methylglyoxal, and Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espelien, B.; Galloway, M. M.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Brenna Espelien, Melissa Galloway, and David De Haan The brown carbon components of atmospheric aerosol exhibit strong UV absorbance with a featureless 'tail' that extends into the visible range. Recent work has shown that brown carbon (or HULIS) is formed at least in part by aqueous-phase chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Reactions between aldehydes (such as glycolaldehyde and methylglyoxal) and amines create brown products that have similar light-absorbing spectra as HULIS extracted from atmospheric aerosol. However, the structures of these products have not been well-characterized. Bulk-phase reactions were monitored using LCMS and UV-Vis spectroscopy over a period of 2-3 weeks to see what products formed, whether oligomerization is occurring, and how this correlates with the development of absorbance peaks in the visible range. UV-Vis data shows that these reactions generally take several days to reach maximum absorbance in the visible range. For the glycolaldehyde/glycine reaction, the appearance of a strong absorber at about 400 nm correlated with the appearance of high-mass products at m/z 227, 363, 393, and 431. Additional reactions between aldehydes and amines that quickly produce brown products are being studied. We suggest that imine oligomers are major products of these reactions.

  7. Enhancement of the Wear Particle Monitoring Capability of Oil Debris Sensors Using a Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform with Optimal Decomposition Depth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan; Peng, Juan; Liang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Oil debris sensors are effective tools to monitor wear particles in lubricants. For in situ applications, surrounding noise and vibration interferences often distort the oil debris signature of the sensor. Hence extracting oil debris signatures from sensor signals is a challenging task for wear particle monitoring. In this paper we employ the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) with optimal decomposition depth to enhance the wear particle monitoring capability. The sensor signal is decomposed by the MODWT into different depths for detecting the wear particle existence. To extract the authentic particle signature with minimal distortion, the root mean square deviation of kurtosis value of the segmented signal residue is adopted as a criterion to obtain the optimal decomposition depth for the MODWT. The proposed approach is evaluated using both simulated and experimental wear particles. The results show that the present method can improve the oil debris monitoring capability without structural upgrade requirements. PMID:24686730

  8. Current fluctuations in a particle-nonconserving reaction-diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkaman, Pegah; Jafarpour, Farhad H.

    2013-01-01

    We have considered a one-dimensional coagulation-decoagulation system of classical particles on a finite lattice with reflecting boundaries. It is known that the system undergoes a phase transition from a high-density to a low-density phase. Using a matrix product approach we have obtained an exact expression for the average entropy production rate of the system in the thermodynamic limit. We have also performed a large-deviation analysis for fluctuations of entropy production rate and particle current. It turns out that the characteristics of the kink in the large deviation function can be used to spot the phase transition point. We have found that for very weak driving field (when the system approaches its equilibrium) and also for very strong driving field (when the system is in the low-density phase) the large deviation function for fluctuations of entropy production rate is almost parabolic, while in the high-density phase it prominently deviates from Gaussian behavior. The validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation for the large deviation function for particle current is also verified.

  9. Current fluctuations in a particle-nonconserving reaction-diffusion process.

    PubMed

    Torkaman, Pegah; Jafarpour, Farhad H

    2013-01-01

    We have considered a one-dimensional coagulation-decoagulation system of classical particles on a finite lattice with reflecting boundaries. It is known that the system undergoes a phase transition from a high-density to a low-density phase. Using a matrix product approach we have obtained an exact expression for the average entropy production rate of the system in the thermodynamic limit. We have also performed a large-deviation analysis for fluctuations of entropy production rate and particle current. It turns out that the characteristics of the kink in the large deviation function can be used to spot the phase transition point. We have found that for very weak driving field (when the system approaches its equilibrium) and also for very strong driving field (when the system is in the low-density phase) the large deviation function for fluctuations of entropy production rate is almost parabolic, while in the high-density phase it prominently deviates from Gaussian behavior. The validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation for the large deviation function for particle current is also verified.

  10. Plasmon resonance scattering spectroscopy at the single-nanoparticle level: real-time monitoring of a click reaction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Jing, Chao; Ma, Wei; Li, Da-Wei; Halls, Jonathan E; Marken, Frank; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-06-03

    A method based on plasmon resonance Rayleigh scattering (PRRS) spectroscopy and dark-field microscopy (DFM) was established for the real-time monitoring of a click reaction at the single-nanoparticle level. Click reactions on the surface of single gold nanoparticles (GNPs) result in interparticle coupling, which leads to a red-shift of the λmax (Δλmax =43 nm) in the PRRS spectra and a color change of the single gold nanoparticles in DFM (from green to orange).

  11. Analysis of the Dynamic Sensitivity of Hemisphere-Shaped Electrostatic Sensors’ Circular Array for Charged Particle Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhong-Sheng; Li, Yue; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic sensor arrays (ESAs) are promising in industrial applications related to charged particle monitoring. Sensitivity is a fundamental and commonly-used sensing characteristic of an ESA. However, the usually used spatial sensitivity, which is called static sensitivity here, is not proper for moving particles or capable of reflecting array signal processing algorithms integrated in an ESA. Besides, reports on ESAs for intermittent particles are scarce yet, especially lacking suitable array signal processing algorithms. To solve the problems, the dynamic sensitivity of ESA is proposed, and a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors’ circular array (HSESCA) along with its application in intermittent particle monitoring are taken as an example. In detail, a sensing model of the HSESCA is built. On this basis, its array signals are analyzed; the dynamic sensitivity is thereupon defined by analyzing the processing of the array signals. Besides, a component extraction-based array signal processing algorithm for intermittent particles is proposed, and the corresponding dynamic sensitivity is analyzed quantitatively. Moreover, simulated and experimental results are discussed, which validate the accuracy of the models and the effectiveness of the relevant approaches. The proposed dynamic sensitivity of ESA, as well as the array signal processing algorithm are expected to provide references in modeling, designing and using ESAs. PMID:27589767

  12. Analysis of the Dynamic Sensitivity of Hemisphere-Shaped Electrostatic Sensors' Circular Array for Charged Particle Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhong-Sheng; Li, Yue; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yong-Min

    2016-08-31

    Electrostatic sensor arrays (ESAs) are promising in industrial applications related to charged particle monitoring. Sensitivity is a fundamental and commonly-used sensing characteristic of an ESA. However, the usually used spatial sensitivity, which is called static sensitivity here, is not proper for moving particles or capable of reflecting array signal processing algorithms integrated in an ESA. Besides, reports on ESAs for intermittent particles are scarce yet, especially lacking suitable array signal processing algorithms. To solve the problems, the dynamic sensitivity of ESA is proposed, and a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors' circular array (HSESCA) along with its application in intermittent particle monitoring are taken as an example. In detail, a sensing model of the HSESCA is built. On this basis, its array signals are analyzed; the dynamic sensitivity is thereupon defined by analyzing the processing of the array signals. Besides, a component extraction-based array signal processing algorithm for intermittent particles is proposed, and the corresponding dynamic sensitivity is analyzed quantitatively. Moreover, simulated and experimental results are discussed, which validate the accuracy of the models and the effectiveness of the relevant approaches. The proposed dynamic sensitivity of ESA, as well as the array signal processing algorithm are expected to provide references in modeling, designing and using ESAs.

  13. In-line monitoring of particle size in a fluid bed granulator: investigations concerning positioning and configuration of the sensor.

    PubMed

    Roßteuscher-Carl, Katrin; Fricke, Sabine; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2014-05-15

    According to the ICH Q8 guideline, analytic technologies (PAT) are important tools for characterization and optimization of pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Particle size as a critical quality attribute for granules is therefore an important parameter that should be monitored during the fluid bed granulation process. This work focusses on optimizing position and configuration of an SFT-sensor for the in-line measurement of particle size distribution in a Glatt GPCG 3 fluid bed granulator. As model-substances, different grades of microcrystalline cellulose were used. The in-line measured particle size and particle rate in the sensor were evaluated. A sensor position in the deceleration zone of the granulator was found to be promising for in-line particle size measurement. Most reliable data were generated in this position when the probe was placed in a distance of 11cm from the chamber wall to avoid bias by the inlet air stream. No major influence of rotation angle of the probe was found in this position. Furthermore, an entire fluid bed granulation process was successfully monitored with the sensor installed in the optimized setting.

  14. Nucleation and growth of new particles in the rural atmosphere of Northern Italy—relationship to air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Van Dingenen, Rita; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Martins-Dos Santos, Sebastiao; Roselli, Davide

    This study investigates the relationship between aerosols number size distribution on the one hand, and air quality in terms of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations (as usually monitored in the air quality networks) on the other hand. For this purpose, time series of trace gases levels, submicron aerosol size distributions, both recorded at a rural site in Northern Italy (ISPRA), and of trace gas levels and PM mass concentrations, recorded in the air quality network operating in this region, have been compared and interpreted. Because of the regional nature of the PM pollution events, the daily mean levels of the aerosol volume ( V), surface area ( S) and black carbon (BC) concentrations at ISPRA rural site are well correlated with the daily mean levels of PM mass concentrations recorded at the other air quality monitoring sites. At ISPRA, the submicron aerosol size distribution is strongly influenced by two main competing processes: nucleation of new particles and condensation of gas-phase components onto pre-existing particles (resulting in particles growth). These processes influence on the daily, seasonal and day-to-day variations of the submicron aerosol features. Because increasing aerosol S concentrations favour condensation and hinder nucleation (and vice versa) the 'mean' particle size DpN (mode of the d N/dlog D size distribution) increases with increasing PM concentrations (e.g. 45 nm for V=4μmcm and 110 nm for V=45μmcm). Owing to this, time series of aerosol DpN and V, S, mass and BC concentrations are strongly anti-correlated with those of the smallest ultrafine particle number concentration ( N, 5-10 and 10-20 nm). Nucleation episodes occur under the clean air conditions prompted by the North-Föehn meteorology. This anti-correlation between submicron aerosol mass and N<20 nm concentrations (prompted by the low contribution of the ultrafine particles to the aerosol mass) has important implications for a proper air quality monitoring: the

  15. Special features of isomeric ratios in nuclear reactions induced by various projectile particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H.; Bakhshiyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, G. V.

    2016-05-01

    Calculations for ( p, n) and (α, p3 n) reactions were performed with the aid of the TALYS-1.4 code. Reactions in which the mass numbers of target and product nuclei were identical were examined in the range of A = 44-124. Excitation functions were obtained for product nuclei in ground and isomeric states, and isomeric ratios were calculated. The calculated data reflect well the dependence of the isomeric ratios on the projectile type. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data reveals, that, for some nuclei in a high-spin state, the calculated data fall greatly short of their experimental counterparts. These discrepancies may be due to the presence of high-spin yrast states and rotational bands in these nuclei. Calculations involving various level-density models included in the TALYS-1.4 code with allowance for the enhancement of collective effects do not remove the discrepancies in the majority of cases.

  16. Particle-gamma studies of Gd isotopes by (p,p'), (p,d) and (p,t) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, T. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Allmond, J. M.; Burke, J. T.; Phair, L. W.; Scielzo, N.; Angell, C. T.; Basunia, M. S.; Bleuel, D. L.; Casperson, R. J.; Fallon, P.; Hatarik, R.; Munson, J.; Paschalis, S.; Petri, M.; Ressler, J. J.

    2010-11-01

    An experiment was conducted using the STARS-LIBERACE array at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study Gd isotopes around the N=90 transition region. A 25 MeV proton beam was incident on ^158/155/154Gd targets and used to populate states in ^152-158Gd by (p,p'), (p,d) and (p,t) reactions. This experiment compliments our earlier work on ^156Gd(p,x),[1]. The exit channel is selected by gating on charged particles using the STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) array, which also gives the excitation energy of the residual nucleus. Coincident gamma information is obtained using the LIBERACE (LIvermore BErkeley Array for Collaborative Experiments) clover detector array. Particle-gamma coincidence measurements provide a strong tool for probing the residual nucleus, [1]. Preliminary results pertaining to ^158Gd will be presented. [1] J. M. Allmond et al. Phys. Rev. C 81, 064316 (2010) This work is supported in part via DOE grant numbers DE-FG02-05 ER41379 & DE-FG52-06 NA26206(University of Richmond), DE-AC52 07NA27344(LLNL) and DE-AC02 05CH11231(LBNL).

  17. New potentialities of the Liège intranuclear cascade model for reactions induced by nucleons and light charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudard, A.; Cugnon, J.; David, J.-C.; Leray, S.; Mancusi, D.

    2013-01-01

    The new version (incl4.6) of the Liège intranuclear cascade (INC) model for the description of spallation reactions is presented in detail. Compared to the standard version (incl4.2), it incorporates several new features, the most important of which are: (i) the inclusion of cluster production through a dynamical phase space coalescence model, (ii) the Coulomb deflection for entering and outgoing charged particles, (iii) the improvement of the treatment of Pauli blocking and of soft collisions, (iv) the introduction of experimental threshold values for the emission of particles, (v) the improvement of pion dynamics, (vi) a detailed procedure for the treatment of light-cluster-induced reactions taking care of the effects of binding energy of the nucleons inside the incident cluster and of the possible fusion reaction at low energy. Performances of the new model concerning nucleon-induced reactions are illustrated by a comparison with experimental data covering total reaction cross sections, neutron, proton, pion, and composite double-differential cross-sections, neutron multiplicities, residue mass and charge distributions, and residue recoil velocity distributions. Whenever necessary, the incl4.6 model is coupled to the ABLA07 de-excitation model and the respective merits of the two models are then tentatively disentangled. Good agreement is generally obtained in the 200 MeV to 2 GeV range. Below 200 MeV and down to a few tens of MeV, the total reaction cross section is well reproduced and differential cross sections are reasonably well described. The model is also tested for light-ion induced reactions at low energy, below 100 MeV incident energy per nucleon. Beyond presenting the update of the incl4.2 model, attention has been paid to applications of the new model to three topics for which some particular aspects are discussed for the first time. The first topic is the production of clusters heavier than alpha particle. It is shown that the energy spectra of

  18. Investigation of the d(γ,n)p reaction for gamma beam monitoring at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, C.; Mueller, J. M.; Sikora, M. H.; Suliman, G.; Ur, C. A.; Weller, H. R.

    2016-05-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility will deliver brilliant gamma beams with high spectral density and a high degree of polarization starting in 2018 in Bucharest-Magurele, Romania. Several monitoring instruments are proposed for measuring the spectral, temporal, and spatial characteristics of the gamma beam. The d(γ,n)p reaction has been investigated for its use in determining the gamma beam parameters in a series of measurements carried out at the High Intensity Gamma Source, Durham, U.S.A.. Measurements of the emitted neutrons have been performed using liquid scintillator and 6Li-glass neutron detectors at several incident gamma energies between 2.5 to 20 MeV . The experimental results presented in this paper have shown that an instrument based on the d(γ,n)p reaction can be used to monitor the intensity and polarization of the gamma beam to be produced at ELI-NP.

  19. Development of ESI-MS-based continuous enzymatic assay for real-time monitoring of enzymatic reactions of acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Tang, Jun; Cui, Meng; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2015-05-15

    The continuous enzymatic assay based on ESI-MS was developed to real-time monitoring of enzymatic reactions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The changes of product concentrations were continuously measured. Calibration curves were established for quantitative calculation. By this method, the Michaelis constant (Km) of acetylcholinesterase was determined to be 70.60±0.93μM and Huperzine A as an effective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase displayed a mixed inhibition with competitive and noncompetitive inhibition behaviors. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and inhibition constant (Ki) value of Huperzine A were also calculated as 48.51±1.16nM and 26.73±0.27nM, respectively. This method provides the rapid and accurate ways to monitor enzyme reactions.

  20. Studies on supercritical hydrothermal syntheses of uranium and lanthanide oxide particles and their reaction mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, DongKi; Tsukahara, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kosuke; Osaka, Masahiko; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop preparation method of raw metal oxide particles for low decontaminated MOX fuels by supercritical hydrothermal (SH) treatments, we have investigated behavior of aqueous solutions dissolving U(VI), Ln(III) (Ln: lanthanide = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb), Cs(I), and Sr(II) nitrate or chloride compounds under SH conditions (temperature = 400-500 °C, pressure = 30-40 MPa). As a result, it was found that Ln(NO3)3 (Ln = Ce, Pr, Tb) compounds produce LnO2, that Ln(NO3)3 (Ln = Nd, Sm) compounds are hardly converted to their oxides, and that LnCl3 (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb), CsNO3, and Sr(NO3)2 do not form their oxide compounds. Furthermore, HNO2 species were detected in the liquid phase obtained after treating HNO3 aqueous solutions containing Ln(NO3)3 (Ln = Ce, Pr, Tb) under SH conditions, and also NO2 and NO compounds were found to be produced by decomposition of HNO3. From these results, it was proposed that the Ln oxide (LnO2) particles are directly formed with oxidation of Ln(III) to Ln(IV) by HNO3 and HNO2 species in the SH systems. Moreover, the uranyl ions were found to form U3O8 and UO3 depending on the concentration of HNO3. From these results, it is expected that the raw metal oxide particles for low decontaminated MOX fuels are efficiently prepared by the SH method.

  1. Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of ground state atomic oxygen with carbonyl sulfide. [using O(3P) monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, R. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The rate parameters for the reaction of O(3P) with carbonyl sulfide, O(3P) + OCS yields CO + SO have been determined directly by monitoring O(3P) using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The value for k sub 1 was measured over a temperature range of 263 - 502 K and the data were fitted to an Arrhenuis expression with good linearity.

  2. Land Use Regression Models of On-Road Particulate Air Pollution (Particle Number, Black Carbon, PM2.5, Particle Size) Using Mobile Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-08-04

    Land Use Regression (LUR) models typically use fixed-site monitoring; here, we employ mobile monitoring as a cost-effective alternative for LUR development. We use bicycle-based, mobile measurements (∼85 h) during rush-hour in Minneapolis, MN to build LUR models for particulate concentrations (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particulate matter [PM2.5], particle size). We developed and examined 1224 separate LUR models by varying pollutant, time-of-day, and method of spatial and temporal smoothing of the time-series data. Our base-case LUR models had modest goodness-of-fit (adjusted R(2): ∼0.5 [PN], ∼0.4 [PM2.5], 0.35 [BC], ∼0.25 [particle size]), low bias (<4%) and absolute bias (2-18%), and included predictor variables that captured proximity to and density of emission sources. The spatial density of our measurements resulted in a large model-building data set (n = 1101 concentration estimates); ∼25% of buffer variables were selected at spatial scales of <100m, suggesting that on-road particle concentrations change on small spatial scales. LUR model-R(2) improved as sampling runs were completed, with diminishing benefits after ∼40 h of data collection. Spatial autocorrelation of model residuals indicated that models performed poorly where spatiotemporal resolution of emission sources (i.e., traffic congestion) was poor. Our findings suggest that LUR modeling from mobile measurements is possible, but that more work could usefully inform best practices.

  3. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of the polymerase chain reaction by mediated redox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Deféver, Thibaut; Druet, Michel; Rochelet-Dequaire, Murielle; Joannes, Martine; Grossiord, Céline; Limoges, Benoit; Marchal, Damien

    2009-08-19

    We described the proof-of-principle of a nonoptical real-time PCR that uses cyclic voltammetry for indirectly monitoring the amplified DNA product generated in the PCR reaction solution after each PCR cycle. To enable indirect measurement of the amplicon produced throughout PCR, we monitor electrochemically the progressive consumption (i.e., the decrease of concentration) of free electroactive deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) used for DNA synthesis. This is accomplished by exploiting the fast catalytic oxidation of native deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) or its unnatural analogue 7-deaza-dGTP by the one-electron redox catalysts Ru(bpy)(3)(3+) (with bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) or Os(bpy)(3)(3+) generated at an electrode. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, a disposable array of eight miniaturized self-contained electrochemical cells (working volume of 50 microL) has been developed and implemented in a classical programmable thermal cycler and then tested with the PCR amplification of two illustrated examples of real-world biological target DNA sequences (i.e., a relatively long 2300-bp sequence from the bacterial genome of multidrug-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans and a shorter 283-bp target from the human cytomegalovirus). Although the method works with both mediator/base couples, the catalytic peak current responses recorded with the Ru(bpy)(3)(3+)/dGTP couple under real-time PCR conditions are significantly affected by a continuous current drift and interference with the background solvent discharge, thus leading to poorly reproducible data. Much more reproducible and reliable results are finally obtained with the Os(bpy)(3)(3+)/7-deaza-dGTP, a result that is attributed to the much lower anodic potential at which the catalytic oxidation of 7-deaza-dGTP by Os(bpy)(3)(3+) is detected. Under these conditions, an exponential decrease of the catalytic signal as a function of the number of PCR cycles is obtained, allowing definition of a cycle

  4. Catalyst assisted synthesis of initiator attached silica monolith particles via isocyanate-hydroxyl reaction for production of polystyrene bound chromatographic stationary phase of excellent separation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ali, Faiz; Kim, Yune Sung; Lee, Jin Wook; Cheong, Won Jo

    2014-01-10

    Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTDC) was used as a catalyst to chemically bind 4-chloromehtylphenylisocynate (4-CPI) to porous monolithic silica particles via isocyanate-hydroxyl reaction, and the reaction product was reacted with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (SDDC) to yield initiator attached silica monolith particles. Reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization was taken place on them to result in polystyrene attached silica particles that showed excellent separation efficiency when packed in a chromatographic column (1.0 mm × 300 mm). The numbers of theoretical plates (N) of 56,500 is better than those of any commercially available HPLC or UHPLC column yet.

  5. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reactions of Phenols in Fog Drops and Deliquesced Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.

    2014-12-01

    The formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in atmospheric condensed phases (i.e., aqueous SOA) can proceed rapidly, but relatively little is known of the important aqueous SOA precursors or their reaction pathways. In our work we are studying the aqueous SOA formed from reactions of phenols (phenol, guaiacol, and syringol), benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone), and phenolic carbonyls (e.g., vanillin and syringaldehyde). These species are potentially important aqueous SOA precursors because they are released in large quantities from biomass burning, have high Henry's Law constants (KH = 103 -109 M-1 atm-1) and are rapidly oxidized. To evaluate the importance of aqueous reactions of phenols as a source of SOA, we first quantified the kinetics and SOA mass yields for 11 phenols reacting via direct photodegradation, hydroxyl radical (•OH), and with an excited organic triplet state (3C*). In the second step, which is the focus of this work, we use these laboratory results in a simple model of fog chemistry using conditions during a previously reported heavy biomass burning event in Bakersfield, CA. Our calculations indicate that under aqueous aerosol conditions (i.e., a liquid water content of 100 μg m-3) the rate of aqueous SOA production (RSOA(aq)) from phenols is similar to the rate in the gas phase. In contrast, under fog/cloud conditions the aqueous RSOA from phenols is 10 times higher than the rate in the gas phase. In both of these cases aqueous RSOA is dominated by the oxidation of phenols by 3C*, followed by direct photodegradation of phenolic carbonyls, and then •OH oxidation. Our results suggest that aqueous oxidation of phenols is a significant source of SOA during fog events and also during times when deliquesced aerosols are present.

  6. Using advanced dispersion models and mobile monitoring to characterize spatial patterns of ultrafine particles in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwack, Leonard M.; Hanna, Steven R.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-09-01

    In urban settings with elevated bridges, buildings, and other complex terrain, the relationship between traffic and air pollution can be highly variable and difficult to accurately characterize. Atmospheric dispersion models are often used in this context, but incorporating background concentrations and characterizing emissions at high spatiotemporal resolution is challenging, especially for ultrafine particles (UFPs). Ambient pollutant monitoring can characterize this relationship, especially when using continuous real-time monitoring. However, it is challenging to quantify local source contributions over background or to characterize spatial patterns across a neighborhood. The goal of this study is to evaluate contributions of traffic to neighborhood-scale air pollution using a combination of regression models derived from mobile UFP monitoring observations collected in Brooklyn, NY and outputs from the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) model. QUIC is a dispersion model that can explicitly take into account the three-dimensional shapes of buildings. The monitoring-based regression model characterized concentration gradients from a major elevated roadway, controlling for real-time traffic volume, meteorological variables, and other local sources. QUIC was applied to simulate dispersion from this same major roadway. The relative concentration decreases with distance from the roadway estimated by the monitoring-based regression model after removal of background and by QUIC were similar. Horizontal contour plots with both models demonstrated non-uniform patterns related to building configuration and source heights. We used the best-fit relationship between the monitoring-based regression model after removal of background and the QUIC outputs ( R2 = 0.80) to estimate a UFP emissions factor of 5.7 × 10 14 particles/vehicle-km, which was relatively consistent across key model assumptions. Our joint applications of novel techniques for analyzing mobile monitoring

  7. Platinum particles supported on mesoporous carbons: fabrication and electrocatalytic performance in methanol-tolerant oxygen-reduction reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Cheng-Di; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng; Hung, Chang-Mao

    2014-08-01

    In this report, we describe the preparation and electrochemical characterization of a Pt electrocatalyst, which was synthesized from hexachloroplatinic acid, using the incipient wetness impregnation method. This carbon mesoporous materials (Pt-CMMs) electrocatalyst was used for catalyzing the oxidation of methanol and its oxygen-reduction reaction. The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol was studied using linear-sweep voltammograms (LSV), polarization and chronoamperometric measurements. Phase characterizations and morphological analyses were performed using 3D excitation-emission fluorescent matrix (EEFM) spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) techniques; the ESEM system was equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The oxidation capacity measured using a LSV might explain the high activity exhibited by the Pt-CMM electrocatalysts in methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction, and the results demonstrated that the potential and current density of the main reaction peak of the Pt-CMMs electrocatalyst changed during the reaction. Moreover, EEFM spectroscopy and XRD were determined to be appropriate and effective methods for characterizing Pt clusters that enhance their intrinsic emission from Pt-CMMs electrocatalysts in electrocatalytic-treatment systems. Furthermore, the ESEM-EDS results showed that fresh Pt nanoparticles were highly dispersed on CMMs and featured a 20 nm diameter and a narrow particle-size distribution.

  8. Particle γ/fission studies of Uranium nuclei via (p,x) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. O.; Ross, T. J.; Beausang, C. W.; Burke, J. T.; Scielzo, N. D.; Allmond, J. M.; Basunia, M. S.; Campbell, C. M.; Casperson, R. J.; Crawford, H. L.; Munson, J.; Phair, L.; Ressler, J. J.; Stars-Liberace Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    An experiment was conducted at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study the structure and measure (n, γ) /(n,fission) cross-sections (via surrogate reactions) of Uranium isotopes. A 28 MeV proton beam incident on236U and 23 8U targets populated states in Uranium isotopes via (p,p'), (p,d) and (p,t) reactions. The STARS array was used for detection of the outgoing light ions for exit channel nucleus tagging (as well as nuclear excitation energy information), and included a detector at backward angles for fission events. Coincident γ rays were detected using the 6 Clover detectors of the LIBERACE array and both p- γ and p-fission events were collected. The data provide a number of results including internal surrogate ratio measurements of (n γ) /(n,fission) cross-sections, and detailed structure information for nuclear levels from the ground state to well above the neutron evaporation thresholds across a range of Uranium isotopes. Preliminary results will be presented. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of energy via grant numbers DE-FG02-05 ER41379 & DE-FG52-06 NA26206(University of Richmond), DE-AC52 07NA27344(LLNL) and DE-AC02 05CH11231(LBNL).

  9. Growth behavior of LiMn2O4 particles formed by solid-state reactions in air and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Murakami, Takeshi; Naito, Makio

    2016-11-01

    Morphology control of particles formed during conventional solid-state reactions without any additives is a challenging task. Here, we propose a new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn2O4 particles based on water vapor-induced growth of particles during solid-state reactions. We have investigated the synthesis and microstructural evolution of LiMn2O4 particles in air and water vapor atmospheres as model reactions; LiMn2O4 is used as a low-cost cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. By using spherical MnCO3 precursor impregnated with LiOH, LiMn2O4 spheres with a hollow structure were obtained in air, while angulated particles with micrometer sizes were formed in water vapor. The pore structure of the particles synthesized in water vapor was found to be affected at temperatures below 700 °C. We also show that the solid-state reaction in water vapor is a simple and valuable method for the large-scale production of particles, where the shape, size, and microstructure can be controlled.

  10. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Personal monitoring coupled with GPS tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia; Schipperijn, Jasper; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Toftum, Jørn; Loft, Steffen; Clausen, Geo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) may have adverse health effects. Central monitoring stations do not represent the personal exposure to UFP accurately. Few studies have previously focused on personal exposure to UFP. Sixty non-smoking residents living in Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to carry a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of ˜48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure occurring in various microenvironments (residence, during active and passive transport, other indoor and outdoor environments) to the total daily exposure. On average, the fractional contribution of each microenvironment to the daily integrated personal exposure roughly corresponded to the fractions of the day the subjects spent in each microenvironment. The home environment accounted for 50% of the daily personal exposure. Indoor environments other than home or vehicles contributed with ˜40%. The highest median UFP concentration was obtained during passive transport (vehicles). However, being in transit or outdoors contributed 5% or less to the daily exposure. Additionally, the subjects recorded in a diary the periods when they were at home. With this approach, 66% of the total daily exposure was attributable to the home environment. The subjects spent 28% more time at home according to the diary, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data.

  11. The use of an experimental room for monitoring of airborne concentrations of microorganisms, glass fibers, and total particles

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, M.P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental room was used as a microcosm for studies of airborne particles and microorganisms in indoor environments. The interior of the room measures 4 by 4 by 2.2 m high and has a hardwood floor and the walls and ceiling are sheetrocked and coated with interior latex paint. Exterior walls are 11.4-cm thick plywood panels consisting of two outer sections of plywood insulated with fiber glass batts. The ceiling is of similar construction with 17.1-cm thick panels. Attached to the room entrance is an anteroom equipped with a HEPA-filtered air shower to reduce mixing of air resulting from entering and exiting during experiments. The room is equipped with a computer-controlled heating, ventilation, and cooling system. Temperature, relative humidity, air flow, and room pressure can be continuously monitored by probes located in the room and air handling system components. Several research projects have been conducted using this room including monitoring the potential for airborne glass fibers released from rigid fibrous ductboard, comparisons of commercially available samplers for monitoring of airborne fungal spores, and a study on the efficacy of vacuum bags to minimize dispersal of particles, including fungal spores from fungal-contaminated carpet. During studies designed to monitor airborne fiberglass, air samples were taken in the room serviced by new rigid fibrous glass ductwork, and the results were compared to those obtained in the room with bare metal ductwork installed. Monitoring of airborne fungal spores using the Andersen six-stage sampler, the high flow Spiral Biotech sampler, the Biotest RCS Plus sampler, and the Burkard spore trap sampler was performed following the release of Penicillium spores into the room through the supply register. Dispersal of carpet-associated particles and fungal spores was measured after vacuuming using conventional cellulose vacuum bags in comparison to recently developed bags.

  12. Light Charged Particles and Intermediate Mass Fragments from the Reactions 486, 550, 640, and 730 Mev KRYPTON-86 + COPPER-63

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, John Thomas

    1992-01-01

    A detailed study has been made of the reaction ^{86}Kr + ^ {63}Cu at incident energies of 486, 550, 640, and 730 MeV. Measurements include cross sections, angular distributions, and energy spectra for light charged particles (^{1,2,3}H and ^4He), intermediate mass fragments (IMF) (4 <= Z <= 17), and heavy fragments (Z >= 18). Coincidences between light charged particles and between particles and fragments have also been measured to obtain exclusive cross sections, energy spectra, and angular distributions. Statistical model analysis of the energy spectra for ^1 H and ^4He detected in coincidence with the fragments has allowed estimation of ^1 H and ^4He multiplicities associated with the evaporation residues, fragments, and composite nuclei prior to scission. In particular, the light charged particle multiplicities for the IMF's have allowed for the derivation of their primary masses. This in turn has permitted refined measurements of the kinetic energies of the primary IMF's. The ^{86}Kr bombarding energies were selected so that the excitation energies of the composite nuclei (^{149} Tb*) were matched to those of other entrance channel reactions that produce the same composite nuclei. A close comparison of cross sections, energy spectra, angular distributions, and particle multiplicities for these matched entrance channels has provided the means for a detailed test of the Bohr Independence Hypothesis. Results of this comparison indicate extensive shape and thermal equilibration of the composite nuclei over the excitation energy range of 128 to 231 MeV. This conclusion is reached even for nuclear systems whose decay lifetimes are expected to be similar to their relaxation times. For the 640 MeV ^{86} Kr + ^{63}Cu reaction, cross sections were measured for IMF's of 4 <= Z <= 17 in singles and in coincidence with heavy fragments. Three sources for IMF production have been identified: (1) asymmetric binary fission, (2) sequential binary fission, and (3) simultaneous

  13. Blood stained cerebrospinal fluid responsible for false positive reactions of latex particle agglutination tests.

    PubMed Central

    Camargos, P A; Almeida, M S; Filho, G L; Batista, K W; Carvalho, A G; Pereira, C L

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy of the latex particle agglutination test (LPAT) was assessed in blood stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 166 paediatric patients, aged from three months to 13 years. A commercial LPAT kit was used to detect Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis A, B, and C soluble antigens. Culture of CSF specimens was used as the standard and all laboratory procedures were performed blind. The mean CSF erythrocyte count was 66,406 cells/mm3 in the cases and 11,560 cells/mm3 in the controls. The sensitivity and the specificity of LPAT were 83.8 and 94.0%, respectively, suggesting that LPAT is a useful diagnostic tool even in blood stained CSF specimens. PMID:7876387

  14. Sub-particle reaction and photocurrent mapping to optimize catalyst-modified photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambur, Justin B.; Chen, Tai-Yen; Choudhary, Eric; Chen, Guanqun; Nissen, Erin J.; Thomas, Elayne M.; Zou, Ningmu; Chen, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The splitting of water photoelectrochemically into hydrogen and oxygen represents a promising technology for converting solar energy to fuel. The main challenge is to ensure that photogenerated holes efficiently oxidize water, which generally requires modification of the photoanode with an oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC) to increase the photocurrent and reduce the onset potential. However, because excess OEC material can hinder light absorption and decrease photoanode performance, its deposition needs to be carefully controlled—yet it is unclear which semiconductor surface sites give optimal improvement if targeted for OEC deposition, and whether sites catalysing water oxidation also contribute to competing charge-carrier recombination with photogenerated electrons. Surface heterogeneity exacerbates these uncertainties, especially for nanostructured photoanodes benefiting from small charge-carrier transport distances. Here we use super-resolution imaging, operated in a charge-carrier-selective manner and with a spatiotemporal resolution of approximately 30 nanometres and 15 milliseconds, to map both the electron- and hole-driven photoelectrocatalytic activities on single titanium oxide nanorods. We then map, with sub-particle resolution (about 390 nanometres), the photocurrent associated with water oxidation, and find that the most active sites for water oxidation are also the most important sites for charge-carrier recombination. Site-selective deposition of an OEC, guided by the activity maps, improves the overall performance of a given nanorod—even though more improvement in photocurrent efficiency correlates with less reduction in onset potential (and vice versa) at the sub-particle level. Moreover, the optimal catalyst deposition sites for photocurrent enhancement are the lower-activity sites, and for onset potential reduction the optimal sites are the sites with more positive onset potential, contrary to what is obtainable under typical deposition

  15. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations.

    PubMed

    Nicolás, J F; Crespo, J; Yubero, E; Soler, R; Carratalá, A; Mantilla, E

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25-1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm(-3), was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm(-3)). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5-2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1cm(-3) at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1cm(-3) at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of >4.0 cm(-3), than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O3 levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3-17%) with respect to its mean value.

  16. Monitoring the injection of microscale zero-valent iron particles for groundwater remediation by means of complex electrical conductivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Orozco, A.; Velimirovic, M.; Tosco, T.; Kemna, A.; Sapion, H.; Klaas, N.; Sethi, R.; Bastiaens, L.

    2015-12-01

    The injection of nano- and microscale zerovalent iron (ZVI) particles has emerged as a promising technique for groundwater remediation. In particular, ZVI injections offer a suitable alternative for the remediation of areas not accessible with other techniques, such as areas characterized by low hydraulic conductivity. In such cases, the injection is performed at high pressure in order to create preferential flow paths (i.e., fractures). Particle injection via fracturing demands an adequate monitoring of the ZVI delivery to track the migration path of the particles as well as to delineate the extension and distribution of the iron slurry. However, characterization of ZVI injections is to date based mainly on the analysis of groundwater and soil samples, thus, limiting the spatio-temporal resolution of the investigation and making it not suitable for real-time monitoring. To overcome this, here we present the application of the complex conductivity (CC) imaging method to characterize the delivery of guar gum stabilized microscale ZVI (GG-mZVI) particles during a field-scale injection by hydraulic fracturing. Our results demonstrated that CC images provide not only an improved characterization of the contaminant distribution, but also valuable information to identify the migration pathway of the injected GG-mZVI. The relatively short acquisition time of CC datasets permitted to obtain monitoring data with enhanced temporal resolution, i.e., after each injection (every ~15 minutes), while still covering an extended area of investigation in comparison to conventional geochemical monitoring by means of soil and water samples. As presented in Figure 1, the CC images revealed an increase (~20%) in the induced electrical polarization (Φ), upon delivery of ZVI into the targeted area, due to the accumulation of ZVI. Furthermore, larger changes (>50%) occurred in shallow sediments, a few meters away from the injection, suggesting the migration of particles through

  17. MULTIYEAR REAL-TIME MONITORING OF PARTICLES, PAH, AND BLACK CARBON IN AN OCCUPIED HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and black carbon have been measured continuously (every 1 to 5 minutes) in an occupied townhouse for 2-3 years. Also, since the summer of 1999, temperature (outdoors...

  18. Key role of temperature monitoring in interpretation of microwave effect on transesterification and esterification reactions for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mazubert, Alex; Taylor, Cameron; Aubin, Joelle; Poux, Martine

    2014-06-01

    Microwave effects have been quantified, comparing activation energies and pre-exponential factors to those obtained in a conventionally-heated reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oils via transesterification and esterification reactions. Several publications report an enhancement of biodiesel production using microwaves, however recent reviews highlight poor temperature measurements in microwave reactors give misleading reaction performances. Operating conditions have therefore been carefully chosen to investigate non-thermal microwave effects alone. Temperature is monitored by an optical fiber sensor, which is more accurate than infrared sensors. For the transesterification reaction, the activation energy is 37.1kJ/mol (20.1-54.2kJ/mol) in the microwave-heated reactor compared with 31.6kJ/mol (14.6-48.7kJ/mol) in the conventionally-heated reactor. For the esterification reaction, the activation energy is 45.4kJ/mol (31.8-58.9kJ/mol) for the microwave-heated reactor compared with 56.1kJ/mol (55.7-56.4kJ/mol) for conventionally-heated reactor. The results confirm the absence of non-thermal microwave effects for homogenous-catalyzed reactions.

  19. Interfacial reaction using particle-immobilized reagents in a fluidized reactor. Determination of glycerol in biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Shishov, Andrey; Zabrodin, Andrey; Moskvin, Leonid; Andruch, Vasil; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-03-31

    A novel fluidized beads strategy for utilization of particle-immobilized reagents in flow analysis was developed in this study. The performance of the suggested strategy was demonstrated by the determination of glycerol in biodiesel. This analytical task was used as a proof-of-concept example. The method is based on on-line extraction of glycerol from biodiesel into aqueous stationary phase of extraction-chromatographic column, followed by elution and spectrophotometric determination in the form of copper glycerate formed in a fluidized reactor of stepwise injection system. The floating of cation exchange resin Dowex(®) 50WX4, saturated with Cu(II) ions in liquid phase, was accomplished by air-bubbling. The linear range was from 100 to 1000 mg kg(-1), and the limit of detection, calculated as 3s of a blank test (n = 5), was found to be 30 mg kg(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biodiesel and biodiesel-blend (B 20) samples.

  20. Formation of hollow nanoshells in solution-based reactions via collision coalescence of nanobubble-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongehr, Sascha; Tang, Shaochun

    2016-06-01

    Research on hollow nanoshells has, for years, claimed to involve free, pre-existing nanobubbles as soft templates. It is a challenge to demonstrate this due to the difficulty of in situ observation during solution-based reactions. We show that no available free-bubble theory can describe the mysterious behavior of the bubble number density n. A new mechanism of collision coalescence of bubble-particle systems is suggested to form hollow nanoshells. By approximating relative velocity as ˜R -z (R is bubble radius), numerical simulations can reproduce the counterintuitive observations in the regime 1 < z < 2. We discuss the mechanism based on successful synthesis of grain-monolayer thin, fractal-like incomplete, multi-metallic nanoshells with superior catalytic activity. The behaviors of n, R, and shell thickness h are closely reproduced by z = 1.6.

  1. Using automatic particle counting to monitor aluminum cold mill coolant{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    A comprehensive program of testing and evaluation of aluminum cold rolling coolant conditions has been conducted using an automatic particle counting instrument. The project had three objectives. First, there was a need to know at what level of coolant particle contamination is surface cleanliness of an aluminum sheet affected during the rolling process. Secondly, is application of particle counting technology a reliable tool for troubleshooting coolant filtration systems and finally, what are the advantages of analyzing rolling coolants for contamination levels? A testing program was designed and performed over a two-year period. The test results revealed that mineral seal and synthetic-type coolants can begin to affect aluminum sheet surface cleanliness levels when particle sizes greater than five microns are in excess of 10,000 particles power 100 milliliters of rolling coolant. After performing over 3,000 separate tests, it was very clean that particle count levels are direct indicators of how well a filtration facility is performing. Through the application of particle counting, a number of conditions in coolant filtration facilities can be readily detected. Such items as defective filter valving, torn or fractured filter cloth, damaged filter parts, improper equipment operation and many other factors will directly impact the operation of aluminum cold rolling coolant filters. 11 figs.

  2. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring mesoscale continuous-flow organic synthesis: Equipment interface and assessment in four medicinally-relevant reactions

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Trevor A

    2013-01-01

    Summary An apparatus is reported for real-time Raman monitoring of reactions performed using continuous-flow processing. Its capability is assessed by studying four reactions, all involving formation of products bearing α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moieties; synthesis of 3-acetylcoumarin, Knoevenagel and Claisen–Schmidt condensations, and a Biginelli reaction. In each case it is possible to monitor the reactions and also in one case, by means of a calibration curve, determine product conversion from Raman spectral data as corroborated by data obtained using NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24062851

  3. Determination of molecular weight and other characteristics of co- and terpolymers using automatic continuous online monitoring of polymerization reactions (ACOMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enohnyaket, Pascal E. A.

    The Automatic Continuous Online Monitoring of Polymerization reactions (ACOMP), is a technique developed by the Reed Research Group at Tulane University. By simultaneously monitoring and combining signals from a continuously dilute reactor stream, detectors such as a multi-angle light scattering detector, near infra-red spectrometer, viscometer, differential refractive index, and a full wavelength UV/Visible detector were used in a model-independent fashion to follow the weight-average molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity, the concentrations of each comonomer, and hence the evolution of the average instantaneous and cumulative compositions along the chains as comonomers are consumed. The goal of this dissertation is to make the ACOMP system more useful in very complex polymerization situations by improving it with additional detectors and formalisms (such as a new expression for computing the molecular weight a copolymer of nth degree) and to exploit its robustness in situations where traditional routes fail or are of limited value. By providing a continuum of data, ACOMP allows polymer scientists to better understand and control new reaction schemes. At the pilot plant, it can be used to optimize reaction conditions. Because the ACOMP system is relatively cheap, user friendly, can be environmentally friendly, less bulky and very efficient, it is my desire to use ACOMP to solve some of the problems in the petroleum, plastic and drug manufacturing industries in Cameroon (and Africa).

  4. Micro flow reactor chips with integrated luminescent chemosensors for spatially resolved on-line chemical reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Leonid; Hoera, Christian; Meier, Robert J; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2013-10-21

    Real-time chemical reaction monitoring in microfluidic environments is demonstrated using luminescent chemical sensors integrated in PDMS/glass-based microscale reactors. A fabrication procedure is presented that allows for straightforward integration of thin polymer layers with optical sensing functionality in microchannels of glass-PDMS chips of only 150 μm width and of 10 to 35 μm height. Sensor layers consisting of polystyrene and an oxygen-sensitive platinum porphyrin probe with film thicknesses of about 0.5 to 4 μm were generated by combining spin coating and abrasion techniques. Optimal coating procedures were developed and evaluated. The chip-integrated sensor layers were calibrated and investigated with respect to stability, reproducibility and response times. These microchips allowed observation of dissolved oxygen concentration in the range of 0 to over 40 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 368 μg L(-1). The sensor layers were then used for observation of a model reaction, the oxidation of sulphite to sulphate in a microfluidic chemical reactor and could observe sulphite concentrations of less than 200 μM. Real-time on-line monitoring of this chemical reaction was realized at a fluorescence microscope setup with 405 nm LED excitation and CCD camera detection.

  5. Magnetic and structural properties of nanosize Ni Zn Cr ferrite particles synthesized by combustion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama, L.; Hernandez, E. P.; Cornejo, D. R.; Costa, A. A.; Rezende, S. M.; Kiminami, R. H. G. A.; Costa, A. C. F. M.

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports on Cr 3+-doped and undoped Ni-Zn nanosize ferrite obtained by reaction combustion synthesis. The powders resulting from this synthesis were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their magnetic properties examined with an alternative gradient magnetometer (AGM) and by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The XRD results confirmed the formation of Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 bulk spinel and small quantities of second phase hematite (αFe 2O 4) to the powders without chromium. However, the powders containing 0.1 mol of chromium showed only a Ni-Zn ferrite cubic phase. The Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 and Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 1.9Cr 0.1O 4 showed average crystallite sizes of 20.7 and 22.7 nm, respectively. The SEM micrographs of the powders to the sample without chromium reveals nanoparticles with a regular morphology without pre-sintering and with the presence of soft agglomerations. The powder with 0.1 mol of chromium displays homogeneous and finer nanoparticles, which are more reactive and hence more agglomerated. Saturation magnetization of the phase without Cr 3+ was 61.97 emu/g, while that of the powder with chromium was 40.56 emu/g. The inclusion of chromium caused the magnetization index to drop by 34% and decreased the coercive field, Hc, by 77%. It is known that the inclusion of chromium is advantageous for high-frequency transformer applications.

  6. Spherical carbon particles and carbon nanotubes prepared by autogenic reactions : evaluation as anodes in lithium electrochemical cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Pol, V. G.; Thackeray, M. M.

    2011-05-01

    Autogenic reactions, based on the decomposition of one or more precursors at elevated temperatures with self generated pressures can be used to prepare a wide range of materials with interesting structural, morphological and technological properties. Recent reports that spherical carbon particles and carbon nanotubes can be prepared by this technique from waste products, such as used plastic bags, have highlighted this environmentally-attractive approach to synthesize new or modified carbon-based materials. In this paper, we report the synthesis of spherical carbon particles and carbon nanotubes and their evaluation as negative electrodes (anodes) in lithium electrochemical cells. A steady reversible capacity of approximately 240 mAh/g for hundreds of cycles was achieved from both types of carbon, when cycled at a 1C rate between 1.5 V and 5 mV. A reversible capacity of 372 mAh/g, i.e., the theoretical value for graphite, was obtained from the carbon nanotube electrodes by raising the upper voltage limit to 3 V. To increase the graphitic order in the carbon spheres, the particles were heated to 2400 C in an inert atmosphere. This treatment reduced the first cycle irreversible capacity loss of Li/C half cells from 60 to 20%, the spherical carbon electrodes yielding a stable 252 mAh/g discharge capacity for numerous cycles. Structural and morphological information about the parent and cycled carbon electrodes, obtained by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive analysis of X-rays is provided.

  7. Spherical Carbon Particles and Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Autogenic Reactions: Evaluation as Anodes in Lithium Electrochemical Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    Autogenic reactions, based on the decomposition of one or more precursors at elevated temperatures with self generated pressures can be used to prepare a wide range of materials with interesting structural, morphological and technological properties. Recent reports that spherical carbon particles and carbon nanotubes can be prepared by this technique from waste products, such as used plastic bags, have highlighted this environmentally-attractive approach to synthesize new or modified carbon-based materials. In this paper, we report the synthesis of spherical carbon particles and carbon nanotubes and their evaluation as negative electrodes (anodes) in lithium electrochemical cells. A steady reversible capacity of approximately 240 mAh/g for hundreds of cycles was achieved from both types of carbon, when cycled at a 1C rate between 1.5 V and 5 mV. A reversible capacity of 372 mAh/g, i.e., the theoretical value for graphite, was obtained from the carbon nanotube electrodes by raising the upper voltage limit to 3 V. To increase the graphitic order in the carbon spheres, the particles were heated to 2400 °C in an inert atmosphere. This treatment reduced the first cycle irreversible capacity loss of Li/C half cells from 60 to 20%, the spherical carbon electrodes yielding a stable 252 mAh/g discharge capacity for numerous cycles. Structural and morphological information about the parent and cycled carbon electrodes, obtained by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive analysis of X-rays is provided.

  8. Formation of Light Absorbing Soluble Secondary Organics and Insoluble Polymeric Particles from the Dark Reaction of Catechol and Guaiacol with Fe(III).

    PubMed

    Slikboer, Samantha; Grandy, Lindsay; Blair, Sandra L; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Smith, Richard W; Al-Abadleh, Hind A

    2015-07-07

    Transition metals such as iron are reactive components of environmentally relevant surfaces. Here, dark reaction of Fe(III) with catechol and guaiacol was investigated in an aqueous solution at pH 3 under experimental conditions that mimic reactions in the adsorbed phase of water. Using UV-vis spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy techniques, we characterized the reactants, intermediates, and products as a function of reaction time. The reactions of Fe(III) with catechol and guaiacol produced significant changes in the optical spectra of the solutions due to the formation of light absorbing secondary organics and colloidal organic particles. The primary steps in the reaction mechanism were shown to include oxidation of catechol and guaiacol to hydroxy- and methoxy-quinones. The particles formed within a few minutes of reaction and grew to micron-size aggregates after half an hour reaction. The mass-normalized absorption coefficients of the particles were comparable to those of strongly absorbing brown carbon compounds produced by biomass burning. These results could account for new pathways that lead to atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation and abiotic polymer formation on environmental surfaces mediated by transition metals.

  9. Monitoring enzyme-catalyzed reactions in micromachined nanoliter wells using a conventional microscope-based microarray reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Doel, L. Richard; Moerman, R.; van Dedem, G. W. K.; Young, Ian T.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2002-06-01

    Yeast-Saccharomyces cerevisiae - it widely used as a model system for other higher eukaryotes, including man. One of the basic fermentation processes in yeast is the glycolytic pathway, which is the conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide. This pathway consists of 12 enzyme-catalyzed reactions. With the approach of microarray technology we want to explore the metabolic regulation of this pathway in yeast. This paper will focus on the design of a conventional microscope based microarray reader, which is used to monitor these enzymatic reactions in microarrays. These microarrays are fabricated in silicon and have sizes of 300 by 300 micrometers 2. The depth varies from 20 to 50 micrometers . Enzyme activity levels can be derived by monitoring the production or consumption rate of NAD(P)H, which is excited at 360nm and emits around 450nm. This fluorophore is involved in all 12 reactions of the pathway. The microarray reader is equipped with a back-illuminated CCD camera in order to obtain a high quantum efficiency for the lower wavelengths. The dynamic range of our microarray reader varies form 5(mu) Molar to 1mMolar NAD(P)H. With this microarray reader enzyme activity levels down to 0.01 unit per milliliter can be monitored. The acquisition time per well is 0.1s. The total scan cycle time for a 5 X 5 microarray is less than half a minute. The number of cycles for a proper estimation of the enzyme activity is inversely proportional to the enzyme activity: long measurement times are needed to determine low enzyme activity levels.

  10. Quantitative Profiling of Protein Tyrosine Kinases in Human Cancer Cell Lines by Multiplexed Parallel Reaction Monitoring Assays*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lin, De; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Li, Ming; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in cellular signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell division, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of PTK-activated pathways, often by receptor overexpression, gene amplification, or genetic mutation, is a causal factor underlying numerous cancers. In this study, we have developed a parallel reaction monitoring-based assay for quantitative profiling of 83 PTKs. The assay detects 308 proteotypic peptides from 54 receptor tyrosine kinases and 29 nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in a single run. Quantitative comparisons were based on the labeled reference peptide method. We implemented the assay in four cell models: 1) a comparison of proliferating versus epidermal growth factor-stimulated A431 cells, 2) a comparison of SW480Null (mutant APC) and SW480APC (APC restored) colon tumor cell lines, and 3) a comparison of 10 colorectal cancer cell lines with different genomic abnormalities, and 4) lung cancer cell lines with either susceptibility (11–18) or acquired resistance (11–18R) to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We observed distinct PTK expression changes that were induced by stimuli, genomic features or drug resistance, which were consistent with previous reports. However, most of the measured expression differences were novel observations. For example, acquired resistance to erlotinib in the 11–18 cell model was associated not only with previously reported up-regulation of MET, but also with up-regulation of FLK2 and down-regulation of LYN and PTK7. Immunoblot analyses and shotgun proteomics data were highly consistent with parallel reaction monitoring data. Multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring assays provide a targeted, systems-level profiling approach to evaluate cancer-related proteotypes and adaptations. Data are available through Proteome eXchange Accession PXD002706. PMID:26631510

  11. Quantitative and Selective Analysis of Feline Growth Related Proteins Using Parallel Reaction Monitoring High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mårten; Strage, Emma M.; Bergquist, Jonas; Holst, Bodil S.

    2016-01-01

    Today immunoassays are widely used in veterinary medicine, but lack of species specific assays often necessitates the use of assays developed for human applications. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an attractive alternative due to high specificity and versatility, allowing for species-independent analysis. Targeted MS-based quantification methods are valuable complements to large scale shotgun analysis. A method referred to as parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), implemented on Orbitrap MS, has lately been presented as an excellent alternative to more traditional selected reaction monitoring/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) methods. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system is not well described in the cat but there are indications of important differences between cats and humans. In feline medicine IGF–I is mainly analyzed for diagnosis of growth hormone disorders but also for research, while the other proteins in the IGF-system are not routinely analyzed within clinical practice. Here, a PRM method for quantification of IGF–I, IGF–II, IGF binding protein (BP) –3 and IGFBP–5 in feline serum is presented. Selective quantification was supported by the use of a newly launched internal standard named QPrEST™. Homology searches demonstrated the possibility to use this standard of human origin for quantification of the targeted feline proteins. Excellent quantitative sensitivity at the attomol/μL (pM) level and selectivity were obtained. As the presented approach is very generic we show that high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with PRM and QPrEST™ internal standards is a versatile tool for protein quantitation across multispecies. PMID:27907059

  12. Using magnetic levitation to distinguish atomic-level differences in chemical composition of polymers, and to monitor chemical reactions on solid supports.

    PubMed

    Mirica, Katherine A; Phillips, Scott T; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Whitesides, George M

    2008-12-31

    This communication describes a density-based method that uses magnetic levitation for monitoring solid-supported reactions and for distinguishing differences in chemical composition of polymers. The method is simple, rapid, and inexpensive and is similar to thin-layer chromatography (TLC; for solution-phase chemistry) in its potential for monitoring reactions in solid-phase chemistry. The technique involves levitating a sample of beads (taken from a reaction mixture) in a cuvette containing a paramagnetic solution (e.g., GdCl(3) dissolved in H(2)O) positioned between two NdFeB magnets. The vertical position at which the beads levitate corresponds to the density of the beads and correlates with the progress of a chemical reaction on a solid support. The method is particularly useful for monitoring the kinetics of reactions occurring on polymer beads.

  13. Core-shell self-assembly triggered via a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction for reduced glutathione detection and single cells monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Jiao, Yuting; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel core-shell DNA self-assembly catalyzed by thiol-disulfide exchange reactions was proposed, which could realize GSH-initiated hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for signal amplification and molecules gathering. Significantly, these self-assembled products via electrostatic interaction could accumulate into prominent and clustered fluorescence-bright spots in single cancer cells for reduced glutathione monitoring, which will effectively drive cell monitoring into a new era. PMID:27412605

  14. PULSED ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUE FOR MONITORING ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTIONS AT INTERFACES. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The mechanism of pulsed potential waveform for monitoring antibody¯antigen interactions at immunosensor interfaces is discussed. Some examples of antibody¯antigen interactions at quartz crystal microbalance and polymer-modified ...

  15. Benzoin Condensation: Monitoring a Chemical Reaction by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Apurba; Purohit, Vikram C.; Bellar, Nicholas R.

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the preferred method of separating a variety of materials in complex mixtures such as pharmaceuticals, polymers, soils, food products and biological fluids and is also considered to be a powerful analytical tool in both academia and industry. The use of HPLC analysis as a means of monitoring and…

  16. A fluorescence-based coupling reaction for monitoring the activity of recombinant human NAD synthetase.

    PubMed

    Bembenek, Michael E; Kuhn, Eric; Mallender, William D; Pullen, Lester; Li, Ping; Parsons, Thomas

    2005-10-01

    NAD synthetase is responsible for the conversion of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. This reaction provides a biosynthetic route of the coenzyme and, thus, a source of cellular reducing equivalents. Alterations in the oxidative reductive potential of the cell have been implicated as a contributing factor in many disease states. Thus, this enzyme represents a new class of potential drug targets, and, hence, our efforts were focused upon developing a robust assay for utilization in a high throughput screen. Toward that end, we describe a coupled enzyme assay format for the measurement of recombinant human NAD synthetase by employing lactate dehydrogenase in a cycling/amplification reaction linked ultimately to the fluorescence generation of resorufin from resazurin via diaphorase. We present kinetics of the reaction of NAD synthetase in the coupled assay format, optimization conditions, and inhibition of the reaction by gossypol [1,1',6,6',7,7'-hexahydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-5,5'-bis(1-methylethyl)-[2,2'- binaphthalene]-8,8'-dicarboxaldehyde] and illustrate the robustness of the assay by demonstrating 384-well microtiter plate uniformity statistics. Collectively, our results show that the assay method is both robust and well suited for this class of enzymes involved in the NAD+ biosynthetic pathway.

  17. NACRE II: an update of the NACRE compilation of charged-particle-induced thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei with mass number A<16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Goriely, S.; Arnould, M.; Ohta, M.; Utsunomiya, H.

    2013-11-01

    An update of the NACRE compilation [3] is presented. This new compilation, referred to as NACRE II, reports thermonuclear reaction rates for 34 charged-particle induced, two-body exoergic reactions on nuclides with mass number A<16, of which fifteen are particle-transfer reactions and the rest radiative capture reactions. When compared with NACRE, NACRE II features in particular (1) the addition to the experimental data collected in NACRE of those reported later, preferentially in the major journals of the field by early 2013, and (2) the adoption of potential models as the primary tool for extrapolation to very low energies of astrophysical S-factors, with a systematic evaluation of uncertainties.

  18. Dust Impact Monitor DIM onboard Rosetta/Philae: Calibration experiments with ice particles as cometary analogue materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, H.; Albin, T.; Flandes, A.; Fischer, H.; Hirn, A.; Loose, A.; Seidensticker, K.; Arnold, W.

    2014-07-01

    The Rosetta lander spacecraft Philae will land on the nucleus surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014. Philae is equipped with the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM). DIM is part of the SESAME instrument package onboard Philae and employs piezoelectric PZT sensors to detect impacts by sub-millimetre and millimetre-sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma by the escaping gas flow. DIM will measure fluxes, impact directions, as well as the speed and size of the impacting particles. We studied the performance of DIM based on impact experiments and compared the measurements with the sensor's expected theoretical behaviour as derived from the Hertz theory of elastic impacts. We simulated impacts onto the DIM sensor with spherical ice particles with radii of approximately 0.7 mm and porous particles of other materials with radii up to 4 mm. Impact speeds range up to 2 m s^{-1}. Cometary grains on ballistic trajectories will have impact speeds below the escape speed from the nucleus surface (approximately 1.5 m s^{-1}), thus the impact speeds achievable by our experiments cover the range expected at the comet. Our results show that the signal strength and the contact durations measured with the DIM PZT sensors can be well approximated by the Hertz contact mechanics.

  19. Monitoring of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and correlation with other fouling indicators.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, T; Lesjean, B; Drews, A; Kraume, M

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP), an acidic fraction of polysaccharides, was monitored for more than six months in the activated sludge of three MBR units, and the relationship between TEP and other fouling indicators was studied. These compounds consist mainly of exopolysaccharides of a sticky nature, a characteristic which makes them a group of interesting substances in processes like sedimentation, flocculation and membrane fouling. The relationship between capillary suction time (CST) and polysaccharides (PS) was linear for the three tested sludges, although the correlation with TEP concentrations was stronger. A slight linear correlation of both TEP and PS was found with the critical flux (CF) measured with a small filtration test cell, which was submerged in the membrane tank to assess the filterability performance of the sludge in situ. However, the correlation CF-PS was clearer. The relationship between TEP, polysaccharides and sludge filterability highlights the potential of this parameter for the monitoring of membrane systems.

  20. Magnetic particles in ultrasensitive biomarker protein measurements for cancer detection and monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Vigneshwaran; Chikkaveeraiah, Bhaskara V.; Rusling, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Devices for the reliable detection of panels of biomarker proteins facilitated by magnetic bead-based technologies have the potential to greatly improve future cancer diagnostics. The reason for this review is to highlight promising research on emerging procedures for protein capture, transport and detection featuring magnetic particles. Areas covered in this review The review covers applications of magnetic particles in protein immunoassays in emerging research and commercial methods, and stresses multiplexed protein assays for reliable future cancer diagnostics. Research literature over the past dozen years has been surveyed and specific examples are presented in detail. Expert Opinion Magnetic particles are important components of emerging protein detection systems. They need to be integrated into simple inexpensive systems for accurate, sensitive detection of fully validated panels of biomarker proteins to be widely useful in clinical cancer diagnostics. PMID:22102846

  1. Neutron Monitor Observations and Space Weather, 1. Automatically Search of Great Solar Energetic Particle Event Beginning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Zukerman, I. G.

    It is well known that in periods of great SEP fluxes of energetic particles can be so big that memory of computers and other electronics in space may be destroyed, satellites and spacecrafts became dead: according to NOAA Space Weather Scales are danger- ous Solar Radiation Storms S5-extreme (flux level of particles with energy > 10 MeV more than 10^5), S4-severe (flux more than 10^4) and S3-strong (flux more than 10^3). In these periods is necessary to switch off some part of electronics for few hours to protect computer memories. These periods are also dangerous for astronauts on space- ships, and passengers and crew in commercial jets (especially during S5 storms). The problem is how to forecast exactly these dangerous phenomena. We show that exact forecast can be made by using high-energy particles (few GeV/nucleon and higher) which transportation from the Sun is characterized by much bigger diffusion coeffi- cient than for small and middle energy particles. Therefore high energy particles came from the Sun much more early (8-20 minutes after acceleration and escaping into so- lar wind) than main part of smaller energy particles caused dangerous situation for electronics (about 30-60 minutes later). We describe here principles and experience of automatically working of program "FEP-Search". The positive result which shows the exact beginning of FEP event on the Emilio Segre' Observatory (2025 m above sea level, Rc=10.8 GV), is determined now automatically by simultaneously increas- ing on 2.5 St. Dev. in two sections of neutron supermonitor. The next 1-min data the program "FEP-Search" uses for checking that the observed increase reflects the begin- ning of real great FEP or not. If yes, automatically starts to work on line the programs "FEP-Research".

  2. Modeling kinetic partitioning of secondary organic aerosol and size distribution dynamics: representing effects of volatility, phase state, and particle-phase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Shilling, John E.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-05-27

    Evidence is mounting that the majority of the climatically active aerosols are produced through the growth of smaller particles via secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gas-to-particle conversion of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The timescale of SOA partitioning and the associated size distribution dynamics are expected to depend on the gas-phase oxidation of the precursor VOCs and their products, volatility of these organic solutes, composition and phase state of the pre-existing particles, and diffusivity and reactivity of the solute within the particle phase. This paper describes a new framework for modeling kinetic gas-particle partitioning of SOA, with an analytical treatment for the diffusion-reaction process within the particle phase. The formulation is amenable for eventual use in regional and global climate models, although it currently awaits implementation of the actual particle-phase reactions that are important for SOA formation. In the present work, the model is applied to investigate the competitive growth dynamics of the Aitken and accumulation mode particles while the Kelvin effect and coagulation are neglected for simplicity. The timescale of SOA partitioning and evolution of number and composition size distributions are evaluated for a range of solute volatilities (C*), particle-phase bulk diffusivities (Db), and particle-phase reactivity, as exemplified by a pseudo-first-order rate constant (kc). Results show that irreversible condensation of non-volatile organic vapors (equivalent to ) produces significant narrowing of the size distribution. At the other extreme, non-reactive partitioning of semi-volatile organic vapors is volume-controlled in which the final (equilibrium) size distribution simply shifts to the right on the diameter axis while its shape remains unchanged. However, appreciable narrowing of the size distribution may occur when the pre-existing particles are highly viscous semi-solids such

  3. Reaction monitoring using hyperpolarized NMR with scaling of heteronuclear couplings by optimal tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guannan; Schilling, Franz; Glaser, Steffen J; Hilty, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Off-resonance decoupling using the method of Scaling of Heteronuclear Couplings by Optimal Tracking (SHOT) enables determination of heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts in single scan NMR spectra. Through modulation of J-coupling evolution by shaped radio frequency pulses, off resonance decoupling using SHOT pulses causes a user-defined dependence of the observed J-splitting, such as the splitting of (13)C peaks, on the chemical shift offset of coupled nuclei, such as (1)H. Because a decoupling experiment requires only a single scan, this method is suitable for characterizing on-going chemical reactions using hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). We demonstrate the calculation of [(13)C, (1)H] chemical shift correlations of the carbanionic active sites from hyperpolarized styrene polymerized using sodium naphthalene as an initiator. While off resonance decoupling by SHOT pulses does not enhance the resolution in the same way as a 2D NMR spectrum would, the ability to obtain the correlations in single scans makes this method ideal for determination of chemical shifts in on-going reactions on the second time scale. In addition, we present a novel SHOT pulse that allows to scale J-splittings 50% larger than the respective J-coupling constant. This feature can be used to enhance the resolution of the indirectly detected chemical shift and reduce peak overlap, as demonstrated in a model reaction between p-anisaldehyde and isobutylamine. For both pulses, the accuracy is evaluated under changing signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the peaks from reactants and reaction products, with an overall standard deviation of chemical shift differences compared to reference spectra of 0.02ppm when measured on a 400MHz NMR spectrometer. Notably, the appearance of decoupling side-bands, which scale with peak intensity, appears to be of secondary importance.

  4. Reaction monitoring using hyperpolarized NMR with scaling of heteronuclear couplings by optimal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guannan; Schilling, Franz; Glaser, Steffen J.; Hilty, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Off-resonance decoupling using the method of Scaling of Heteronuclear Couplings by Optimal Tracking (SHOT) enables determination of heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts in single scan NMR spectra. Through modulation of J-coupling evolution by shaped radio frequency pulses, off resonance decoupling using SHOT pulses causes a user-defined dependence of the observed J-splitting, such as the splitting of 13C peaks, on the chemical shift offset of coupled nuclei, such as 1H. Because a decoupling experiment requires only a single scan, this method is suitable for characterizing on-going chemical reactions using hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). We demonstrate the calculation of [13C, 1H] chemical shift correlations of the carbanionic active sites from hyperpolarized styrene polymerized using sodium naphthalene as an initiator. While off resonance decoupling by SHOT pulses does not enhance the resolution in the same way as a 2D NMR spectrum would, the ability to obtain the correlations in single scans makes this method ideal for determination of chemical shifts in on-going reactions on the second time scale. In addition, we present a novel SHOT pulse that allows to scale J-splittings 50% larger than the respective J-coupling constant. This feature can be used to enhance the resolution of the indirectly detected chemical shift and reduce peak overlap, as demonstrated in a model reaction between p-anisaldehyde and isobutylamine. For both pulses, the accuracy is evaluated under changing signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the peaks from reactants and reaction products, with an overall standard deviation of chemical shift differences compared to reference spectra of 0.02 ppm when measured on a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer. Notably, the appearance of decoupling side-bands, which scale with peak intensity, appears to be of secondary importance.

  5. Online Monitoring of Methanol Electro-Oxidation Reactions by Ambient Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Si; Wu, Qiuhua; Dewald, Howard D.; Chen, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Online detection of methanol electro-oxidation reaction products [e.g., formaldehyde (HCHO)] by mass spectrometry (MS) is challenging, owing to the high salt content and extreme pH of the electrolyte solution as well as the difficulty in ionizing the reaction products. Herein we present an online ambient mass spectrometric approach for analyzing HCHO generated from methanol electro-oxidation, taking the advantage of high salt tolerance of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). It was found that HCHO can be detected as PhNHNH+=CH2 (m/z 121) by DESI after online derivatization with PhNHNH2. With this approach, the analysis of HCHO from methanol electro-oxidation by MS was carried out not only in acidic condition but also in alkaline media for the first time. Efficiencies of different electrodes for methanol oxidation at different pHs were also evaluated. Our results show that Au electrode produces more HCHO than Pt-based electrodes at alkaline pH, while the latter have higher yields at acidic solution. The presented methodology would be of great value for elucidating fuel cell reaction mechanisms and for screening ideal fuel cell electrode materials.

  6. Process spectroscopy in microemulsions—setup and multi-spectral approach for reaction monitoring of a homogeneous hydroformylation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K.; Ruiken, J.-P.; Illner, M.; Paul, A.; Müller, D.; Esche, E.; Wozny, G.; Maiwald, M.

    2017-03-01

    Reaction monitoring in disperse systems, such as emulsions, is of significant technical importance in various disciplines like biotechnological engineering, chemical industry, food science, and a growing number other technical fields. These systems pose several challenges when it comes to process analytics, such as heterogeneity of mixtures, changes in optical behavior, and low optical activity. Concerning this, online nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for process monitoring in complex reaction mixtures due to its unique direct comparison abilities, while at the same time being non-invasive and independent of optical properties of the sample. In this study the applicability of online-spectroscopic methods on the homogeneously catalyzed hydroformylation system of 1-dodecene to tridecanal is investigated, which is operated in a mini-plant scale at Technische Universität Berlin. The design of a laboratory setup for process-like calibration experiments is presented, including a 500 MHz online NMR spectrometer, a benchtop NMR device with 43 MHz proton frequency as well as two Raman probes and a flow cell assembly for an ultraviolet and visible light (UV/VIS) spectrometer. Results of high-resolution online NMR spectroscopy are shown and technical as well as process-specific problems observed during the measurements are discussed.

  7. Single Particle ICPMS for Characterizing Metal-based Nanoparticles and Monitoring Transformation Processes in Surface Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered metal-based nanomaterials will likely be used in increasing quantities in consumer and industrial products. These may be introduced into surface waters by a variety of paths depending on usage. Other naturally occurring and anthropogenic particles containing these met...

  8. Dielectrophoretic sample preparation for environmental monitoring of microorganisms: Soil particle removal.

    PubMed

    Fatoyinbo, Henry O; McDonnell, Martin C; Hughes, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Detection of pathogens from environmental samples is often hampered by sensors interacting with environmental particles such as soot, pollen, or environmental dust such as soil or clay. These particles may be of similar size to the target bacterium, preventing removal by filtration, but may non-specifically bind to sensor surfaces, fouling them and causing artefactual results. In this paper, we report the selective manipulation of soil particles using an AC electrokinetic microfluidic system. Four heterogeneous soil samples (smectic clay, kaolinitic clay, peaty loam, and sandy loam) were characterised using dielectrophoresis to identify the electrical difference to a target organism. A flow-cell device was then constructed to evaluate dielectrophoretic separation of bacteria and clay in a continous flow through mode. The average separation efficiency of the system across all soil types was found to be 68.7% with a maximal separation efficiency for kaolinitic clay at 87.6%. This represents the first attempt to separate soil particles from bacteria using dielectrophoresis and indicate that the technique shows significant promise; with appropriate system optimisation, we believe that this preliminary study represents an opportunity to develop a simple yet highly effective sample processing system.

  9. Development of a selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry-based assay to detect asparaginyl endopeptidase activity in biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Michael J.; Gray, Oliver J.; Parker, Catriona; Holland, Mark; Williamson, Andrew J.K.; Pierce, Andrew; Unwin, Richard D.; Krishnan, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer Biomarkers have the capability to improve patient outcomes. They have potential applications in diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of disease progression and measuring response to treatment. This type of information is particularly useful in the individualisation of treatment regimens. Biomarkers may take many forms but considerable effort has been made to identify and quantify proteins in biological fluids. However, a major challenge in measuring protein in biological fluids, such as plasma, is the sensitivity of the assay and the complex matrix of proteins present. Furthermore, determining the effect of proteases in disease requires measurement of their activity in biological fluids as quantification of the protein itself may not provide sufficient information. To date little progress has been made towards monitoring activity of proteases in plasma. The protease asparaginyl endopeptidase has been implicated in diseases such as breast cancer, leukaemia and dementia. Here we describe a new approach to sensitively and in a targeted fashion quantify asparaginyl endopeptidase activity in plasma using a synthetic substrate peptide protected from nonspecific hydrolysis using D-amino acids within the structure. Our selected reaction monitoring approach enabled asparaginyl endopeptidase activity to be measured in human plasma with both a high dynamic range and sensitivity. This manuscript describes a paradigm for future development of assays to measure protease activities in biological fluids as biomarkers of disease. PMID:27683124

  10. Monitoring structural transformations in crystals. 11. Yang photocyclizations--one type of reaction, but diversity of structural changes.

    PubMed

    Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Bakowicz, Julia; Scheffer, John R

    2007-12-01

    Structural changes proceeding in a crystal during the Yang photocyclization of the salt 6,6-diethyl-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-carboxylate with (1S)-1-(4-methylphenyl)ethylamine were monitored by means of X-ray structure analysis. The course of the photoreaction was evaluated on the basis of the geometrical parameters for the pure reactant crystal. Variations in the cell constants, the product content, the geometry of the reaction centre, the orientation of molecular fragments and the geometry of hydrogen bonds were described and analyzed. It was found that the cell volume increased until 56% product content and decreased thereafter. The distance between the directly reacting C atoms was constant, approximately 3.0 A, until approximately 75% reaction progress. Analysis of the distance between atoms that would participate in the formation of the second (unobserved) enantiomorph excluded the formation of such an isomer. Molecular fragments varied their orientation during the photoreaction, and the largest change was observed for the carboxylate group despite its participation in strong hydrogen bonds. The geometry of the hydrogen bonds changed during the photoreaction. The largest change was 0.17 A for the D...A distance and 13 degrees for the D-H...A angle. A comparison of the intra- and intermolecular parameters for the studied salt with data for other compounds undergoing the Yang photocyclization in crystals revealed a diversity of structural changes brought about by this type of photochemical reaction.

  11. The application of selected radionuclides for monitoring of the D-D reactions produced by dense plasma-focus device.

    PubMed

    Jednorog, S; Szydlowski, A; Bienkowska, B; Prokopowicz, R

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) device-DPF-1000U which is operated at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion is the largest that type plasma experiment in the world. The plasma that is formed in large plasma experiments is characterized by vast numbers of parameters. All of them need to be monitored. A neutron activation method occupies a high position among others plasma diagnostic methods. The above method is off-line, remote, and an integrated one. The plasma which has enough temperature to bring about nuclear fusion reactions is always a strong source of neutrons that leave the reactions area and take along energy and important information on plasma parameters and properties as well. Silver as activated material is used as an effective way of neutrons measurement, especially when they are emitted in the form of short pulses like as it happens from the plasma produced in Dense Plasma-Focus devices. Other elements such as beryllium and yttrium are newly introduced and currently tested at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion to use them in suitable activation neutron detectors. Some specially designed massive indium samples have been recently adopted for angular neutrons distribution measurements (vertical and horizontal) and have been used in the recent plasma experiment conducted on the DPF-1000U device. This choice was substantiated by relatively long half-lives of the neutron induced isotopes and the threshold character of the (115)In(n,n')(115m)In nuclear reaction.

  12. Municipal waste incinerators: air and biological monitoring of workers for exposure to particles, metals, and organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, A; Collot-Fertey, D; Anzivino, L; Marques, M; Hours, M; Stoklov, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate occupational exposure to toxic pollutants at municipal waste incinerators (MWIs). Methods: Twenty nine male subjects working near the furnaces in two MWIs, and 17 subjects not occupationally exposed to combustion generated pollutants were studied. Individual air samples were taken throughout the shift; urine samples were collected before and after. Stationary air samples were taken near potential sources of emission. Results: Occupational exposure did not result in the infringement of any occupational threshold limit value. Atmospheric exposure levels to particles and metals were 10–100 times higher in MWIs than at the control site. The main sources were cleaning operations for particles, and residue transfer and disposal operations for metals. MWI workers were not exposed to higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons than workers who are routinely in contact with vehicle exhaust. The air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes were low and did not appear to pose any significant threat to human health. Only the measurement of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels would seem to be a reliable marker for the combustion of plastics. Urine metal levels were significantly higher at plant 1 than at plant 2 because of high levels of pollutants emanating from one old furnace. Conclusion: While biological monitoring is an easy way of acquiring data on long term personal exposure, air monitoring remains the only method that makes it possible to identify the primary sources of pollutant emission which need to be controlled if occupational exposure and environmental pollution are to be reduced. PMID:12883016

  13. In-Situ Cure Monitoring of the Immidization Reaction of PMR-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cossins, Sheryl; Kellar, Jon J.; Winter, Robb M.

    1997-01-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer composites are becoming widely used in industry. With this increase in production, an in-situ method of quality control for the curing of the polymer is desirable. This would allow for the production of high-quality parts having more uniform properties.' Recently, in-situ fiber optic monitoring of polymer curing has primarily focused on epoxy resins and has been performed by Raman or fluorescence methods. In addition, some infrared (IR) investigations have been performed using transmission or ATR cells. An alternate IR approach involves using optical fibers as a sensor by utilizing evanescent wave spectroscopy.

  14. Destructions of 7Be and 7Li in Big Bang nucleosynthesis through reactions with exotic long-lived sub-strongly interacting massive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    An observed plateau abundance of 7Li in metal-poor halo stars indicates its primordial origin. The 7Li abundances are about a factor of three smaller than that predicted in standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. In addition, some of the stars possibly contain 6Li in abundances larger than standard BBN prediction. Particle models sometimes include heavy longlived colored particles which are confined in exotic strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs). We have found reactions which destroy 7Be and 7Li during BBN in the scenario of BBN affected by a long-lived sub-strongly interactingmassive particle (sub-SIMP, X). The reactions are non radiative X captures of 7Be and 7Li which can operate if the X particle interacts with nuclei strongly enough to drive 7Be destruction but not strongly enough to form a bound state with 4He of relative angular momentum L = 1. The processes can be a cause of the 7Li problem. In this paper we suggest new possible reactions for 6Li production. Especially, a 6Li production through the deuteron capture of 4He bound to X can operate in the parameter region solving the 7Li problem.

  15. Destructions of {sup 7}Be and {sup 7}Li in Big Bang nucleosynthesis through reactions with exotic long-lived sub-strongly interacting massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2012-11-12

    An observed plateau abundance of {sup 7}Li in metal-poor halo stars indicates its primordial origin. The {sup 7}Li abundances are about a factor of three smaller than that predicted in standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. In addition, some of the stars possibly contain {sup 6}Li in abundances larger than standard BBN prediction. Particle models sometimes include heavy longlived colored particles which are confined in exotic strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs). We have found reactions which destroy {sup 7}Be and {sup 7}Li during BBN in the scenario of BBN affected by a long-lived sub-strongly interactingmassive particle (sub-SIMP, X). The reactions are non radiative X captures of {sup 7}Be and {sup 7}Li which can operate if the X particle interacts with nuclei strongly enough to drive {sup 7}Be destruction but not strongly enough to form a bound state with {sup 4}He of relative angular momentum L = 1. The processes can be a cause of the {sup 7}Li problem. In this paper we suggest new possible reactions for {sup 6}Li production. Especially, a {sup 6}Li production through the deuteron capture of {sup 4}He bound to X can operate in the parameter region solving the {sup 7}Li problem.

  16. Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Christina H.; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige L.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Durant, John L.; Spengler, John D.

    2012-09-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 μm) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1-3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification.

  17. Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christina H; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige; Mittleman, Murray; Durant, John L; Spengler, John D

    2012-09-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 micrometers) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1 - 3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification.

  18. Combining UAV and high-resolution image-based particle image velocimetry to monitor flow in lakes and rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blois, G.; Best, J.; Christensen, K. T.; Kennedy, A. B.; Donahue, A. S.; Hovakimyan, N.; Cichella, V.; Pakrasi, I.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly being applied by the geophysical community for large-scale surveys of environments that are challenging to reach (e.g. volcanoes, glaciers). Some of these natural systems include large bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and rivers. These environments are highly dynamic and, even in normal conditions, their characterization requires long surveys involving the deployment of expensive equipment and large crews. Technical challenges, and thus costs, become prohibitive especially during extreme natural events that may pose a threat not only to the monitoring facilities but, more importantly, to the surrounding residential areas (e.g. river flooding, extreme waves). Traditional measurement techniques have difficulty or are unable to monitor some flow quantities (i.e. flow discharge and wave energy content) associated with these natural systems, especially during emergencies. Extreme hydrodynamic loads due to high flow discharges and/or highly energetic waves may tamper with traditional monitoring systems that are typically submerged or fixed in the vicinity of the water body. Here, we propose to employ specially developed UAV systems to remotely and safely gain high-resolution images of the water surface. Such images are processed using robust large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) algorithms that are able to accurately resolve the complex two-dimensional flow field of the water surface over extensive areas. These systems can theoretically be deployed in a cost-effective way for long periods of time for continuous monitoring. Such monitoring is key to inform and calibrate predictive tools that can reconstruct potential emergency scenarios. In addition, during extreme natural events, data can be collected with no risk to human operators. Here, we discuss the concept and technology employed to render these measurement systems effective, and provide examples of applications that show the depth of the data that can

  19. Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Christina H.; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige; Mittleman, Murray; Durant, John L.; Spengler, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 micrometers) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1 – 3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification. PMID

  20. Combining Particle Filters and Consistency-Based Approaches for Monitoring and Diagnosis of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimhan, Sriram; Dearden, Richard; Benazera, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation are critical tasks to ensure correct operation of systems. When we consider stochastic hybrid systems, diagnosis algorithms need to track both the discrete mode and the continuous state of the system in the presence of noise. Deterministic techniques like Livingstone cannot deal with the stochasticity in the system and models. Conversely Bayesian belief update techniques such as particle filters may require many computational resources to get a good approximation of the true belief state. In this paper we propose a fault detection and isolation architecture for stochastic hybrid systems that combines look-ahead Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters (RBPF) with the Livingstone 3 (L3) diagnosis engine. In this approach RBPF is used to track the nominal behavior, a novel n-step prediction scheme is used for fault detection and L3 is used to generate a set of candidates that are consistent with the discrepant observations which then continue to be tracked by the RBPF scheme.

  1. Comparison of different fluorescence fluctuation methods for their use in FRET assays: monitoring a protease reaction.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, C; Jäger, S; Winkler, D; Kask, Peet

    2005-10-01

    We compare the accuracy of a variety of Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy (FFS) methods for the study of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assays. As an example, the cleavage of a doubly labeled, FRET-active peptide substrate by the protease Trypsin is monitored and analyzed using methods based on fluorescence intensity, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and Fluorescence Intensity Distribution Analysis (FIDA). The presented fluorescence data are compared to High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) data obtained from the same assay. The HPLC analysis discloses general disadvantages of the FRET approach, such as incomplete labeling and the need for aliquots. However, the simultaneous use of two photon detectors monitoring the fluorescence signal of both labels significantly improves the analysis. In particular, the two global analysis tools Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Intensity Distribution Analysis (2D-FIDA) and Two-Color Global Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (2CG-FCS) highlight the potential of a combination of FFS and FRET. While conventional FIDA and FCS auto- or cross-correlation analysis leaves the user with drawbacks inherent in two-color and FRET applications, these effects are overcome by the global analysis on the molecular level. Furthermore, it is advantageous to analyze the unnormalized as opposed to the normalized correlation data when combining any fluorescence correlation method with FRET, since the analysis of the unnormalized data introduces more accuracy and is less sensitive to the experimental drawbacks.

  2. BJT detector with FPGA-based read-out for alpha particle monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyzhnevyi, V.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Rovati, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce a new prototype of readout electronics (ALPHADET), which was designed for an α-particle detection system based on a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) detector. The system uses an FPGA, which provides many advantages at the stage of prototyping and testing the detector. The main design and electrical features of the board are discussed in this paper, along with selected results from the characterization of ALPHADET coupled to BJT detectors.

  3. Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Hergert, T.R.

    1995-03-01

    Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical pretreatment of the water was utilized during this study. The treatment system was staged as follows: multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, hollow tube ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane filtration. Various recovery rates and two RO membrane models were tested. Analytical measurements included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), gross alpha ({alpha}) and gross beta ({beta}) activity, uranium isotopes {sup 233/234}U and {sup 238}U, plutonium {sup 239/240}Pu, and americium {sup 241}Am. Particle measurement between 1--150 microns ({mu}) included differential particle counts (DPC), and total particle counts (TPC) before and after treatment at various sampling points throughout the test. Performance testing showed this treatment system produced a high quality effluent in clarity and purity. Compared to raw water levels, TSS was reduced to below detection of 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and TDS reduced by 98%. Gross {alpha} was essentially removed 100%, and gross {beta} was reduced an average of 94%. Uranium activity was reduced by 99%. TPC between 1-150{mu} were reduced by an average 99.8% to less than 1,000 counts per milliliter (mL), similar in purity to a good drinking water treatment plant. Raw water levels of {sup 239/240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were below reliable quantitation limits and thus no removal efficiencies could be determined for these species.

  4. An Improved Reaction Rate Formulation for Charged-Particle Induced Thermonuclear Reaction of {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Yusof, Norhasliza; Idris, Mahirah; Kassim, Hasan Abu

    2011-03-30

    The reaction rate formula utilized in compilations such as the Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE) uses low energy approximation due to temperatures in stars are in the region of a few keVs. Most nuclear reaction experiments were done in MeV range and the interior temperatures of massive stars are {approx}10{sup 9} K. Hence an improved formulation for calculating the nuclear reaction rate that is applicable to high temperatures is discussed in this work. The exact tunneling probability that is applicable for all energies is obtained by solving the Schroedinger equation. This yields an enhanced expression for the astrophysical S-factor for calculating the thermonuclear reaction rate at high temperature. The thermonuclear reaction rate from this work is applied to the {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He reaction and is compared with the NACRE compilation. This improved reaction rate can be included in the nuclear reaction network in a Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) code or a stellar nuclear network code.

  5. Surface reaction characteristics at low temperature synthesis BaTiO 3 particles by barium hydroxide aqueous solution and titanium tetraisopropoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Min

    2011-05-01

    Well-crystallized cubic phase BaTiO 3 particles were prepared by heating the mixture of barium hydroxide aqueous solution and titania derived from the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) at 328 K, 348 K or 368 K for 24 h. The morphology and size of obtained particles depended on the reaction temperature and the Ba(OH) 2/TTIP molar ratio. By the direct hydrolytic reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide, the high surface area titania (TiO 2) was obtained. The surface adsorption characteristics of the titania particles had been studied with different electric charges OH - ions or H + ions. The formation mechanism and kinetics of BaTiO 3 were examined by measuring the concentration of [Ba 2+] ions in the solution during the heating process. The experimental results showed that the heterogeneous nucleation of BaTiO 3 occurred on the titania surface, according to the Avrami's equation.

  6. New High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled Mass Spectrometry Method for the Detection of Lobster and Shrimp Allergens in Food Samples via Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Multiple Reaction Monitoring Cubed.

    PubMed

    Korte, Robin; Monneuse, Jean-Marc; Gemrot, Elodie; Metton, Isabelle; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2016-08-10

    Crustacean shellfish allergy ranks among the most frequent and severe food allergies for adults, demanding rugged and sensitive analytical routine methods. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a mass spectrometric approach for the detection of contamination with shrimp and lobster, two economically important types of crustaceans, in complex food matrices. Following a biomarker approach, we identified proteotypic peptides and developed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method allowing for the identification and differentiation of shrimp and lobster in the food matrix at concentrations down to 0.1%. To further enhance sensitivity, we employed the MRM-cubed (MRM(3)) mode, which allowed us to detect crustaceans down to concentrations of 25 μg/g (crustacean/food, 0.0025%). We hereby present the first mass spectrometric method for the detection of shrimp and lobster in food matrices.

  7. Video monitoring in the Gadria debris flow catchment: preliminary results of large scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theule, Joshua; Crema, Stefano; Comiti, Francesco; Cavalli, Marco; Marchi, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Large scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) is a technique mostly used in rivers to measure two dimensional velocities from high resolution images at high frame rates. This technique still needs to be thoroughly explored in the field of debris flow studies. The Gadria debris flow monitoring catchment in Val Venosta (Italian Alps) has been equipped with four MOBOTIX M12 video cameras. Two cameras are located in a sediment trap located close to the alluvial fan apex, one looking upstream and the other looking down and more perpendicular to the flow. The third camera is in the next reach upstream from the sediment trap at a closer proximity to the flow. These three cameras are connected to a field shelter equipped with power supply and a server collecting all the monitoring data. The fourth camera is located in an active gully, the camera is activated by a rain gauge when there is one minute of rainfall. Before LSPIV can be used, the highly distorted images need to be corrected and accurate reference points need to be made. We decided to use IMGRAFT (an opensource image georectification toolbox) which can correct distorted images using reference points and camera location, and then finally rectifies the batch of images onto a DEM grid (or the DEM grid onto the image coordinates). With the orthorectified images, we used the freeware Fudaa-LSPIV (developed by EDF, IRSTEA, and DeltaCAD Company) to generate the LSPIV calculations of the flow events. Calculated velocities can easily be checked manually because of the already orthorectified images. During the monitoring program (since 2011) we recorded three debris flow events at the sediment trap area (each with very different surge dynamics). The camera in the gully was in operation in 2014 which managed to record granular flows and rockfalls, which particle tracking may be more appropriate for velocity measurements. The four cameras allows us to explore the limitations of camera distance, angle, frame rate, and image

  8. Evaluation of resistive-plate-chamber-based TOF-PET applied to in-beam particle therapy monitoring.

    PubMed

    Torres-Espallardo, I; Diblen, F; Rohling, H; Solevi, P; Gillam, J; Watts, D; España, S; Vandenberghe, S; Fiedler, F; Rafecas, M

    2015-05-07

    Particle therapy is a highly conformal radiotherapy technique which reduces the dose deposited to the surrounding normal tissues. In order to fully exploit its advantages, treatment monitoring is necessary to minimize uncertainties related to the dose delivery. Up to now, the only clinically feasible technique for the monitoring of therapeutic irradiation with particle beams is Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this work we have compared a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC)-based PET scanner with a scintillation-crystal-based PET scanner for this application. In general, the main advantages of the RPC-PET system are its excellent timing resolution, low cost, and the possibility of building large area systems. We simulated a partial-ring scanner based on an RPC prototype under construction within the Fondazione per Adroterapia Oncologica (TERA). For comparison with the crystal-based PET scanner we have chosen the geometry of a commercially available PET scanner, the Philips Gemini TF. The coincidence time resolution used in the simulations takes into account the current achievable values as well as expected improvements of both technologies. Several scenarios (including patient data) have been simulated to evaluate the performance of different scanners. Initial results have shown that the low sensitivity of the RPC hampers its application to hadron-beam monitoring, which has an intrinsically low positron yield compared to diagnostic PET. In addition, for in-beam PET there is a further data loss due to the partial ring configuration. In order to improve the performance of the RPC-based scanner, an improved version of the RPC detector (modifying the thickness of the gas and glass layers), providing a larger sensitivity, has been simulated and compared with an axially extended version of the crystal-based device. The improved version of the RPC shows better performance than the prototype, but the extended version of the crystal-based PET outperforms all other options.

  9. Evaluation of resistive-plate-chamber-based TOF-PET applied to in-beam particle therapy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Espallardo, I.; Diblen, F.; Rohling, H.; Solevi, P.; Gillam, J.; Watts, D.; España, S.; Vandenberghe, S.; Fiedler, F.; Rafecas, M.

    2015-05-01

    Particle therapy is a highly conformal radiotherapy technique which reduces the dose deposited to the surrounding normal tissues. In order to fully exploit its advantages, treatment monitoring is necessary to minimize uncertainties related to the dose delivery. Up to now, the only clinically feasible technique for the monitoring of therapeutic irradiation with particle beams is Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this work we have compared a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC)-based PET scanner with a scintillation-crystal-based PET scanner for this application. In general, the main advantages of the RPC-PET system are its excellent timing resolution, low cost, and the possibility of building large area systems. We simulated a partial-ring scanner based on an RPC prototype under construction within the Fondazione per Adroterapia Oncologica (TERA). For comparison with the crystal-based PET scanner we have chosen the geometry of a commercially available PET scanner, the Philips Gemini TF. The coincidence time resolution used in the simulations takes into account the current achievable values as well as expected improvements of both technologies. Several scenarios (including patient data) have been simulated to evaluate the performance of different scanners. Initial results have shown that the low sensitivity of the RPC hampers its application to hadron-beam monitoring, which has an intrinsically low positron yield compared to diagnostic PET. In addition, for in-beam PET there is a further data loss due to the partial ring configuration. In order to improve the performance of the RPC-based scanner, an improved version of the RPC detector (modifying the thickness of the gas and glass layers), providing a larger sensitivity, has been simulated and compared with an axially extended version of the crystal-based device. The improved version of the RPC shows better performance than the prototype, but the extended version of the crystal-based PET outperforms all other options.

  10. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and dynamic multiple reaction monitoring method for determining multiple pesticide residues in tomato.

    PubMed

    Andrade, G C R M; Monteiro, S H; Francisco, J G; Figueiredo, L A; Botelho, R G; Tornisielo, V L

    2015-05-15

    A quick and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring and a 1.8-μm particle size analytical column, was developed to determine 57 pesticides in tomato in a 13-min run. QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method for samples preparations and validations was carried out in compliance with EU SANCO guidelines. The method was applied to 58 tomato samples. More than 84% of the compounds investigated showed limits of detection equal to or lower than 5 mg kg(-1). A mild (<20%), medium (20-50%), and strong (>50%) matrix effect was observed for 72%, 25%, and 3% of the pesticides studied, respectively. Eighty-one percent of the pesticides showed recoveries ranging between 70% and 120%. Twelve pesticides were detected in 35 samples, all below the maximum residue levels permitted in the Brazilian legislation; 15 samples exceeded the maximum residue levels established by the EU legislation for methamidophos; and 10 exceeded limits for acephate and four for bromuconazole.

  11. Pressure-induced perturbation on the active site of beta-amylase monitored from the sulfhydryl reaction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Mitani, D; Kunugi, S

    2001-05-22

    We investigated the pressure effect on the conformation of beta-amylase by monitoring the chemical reaction of the unpaired cysteine. Sweet potato beta-amylase is composed of four identical subunits, each of which contains six cysteine residues. These residues are inert to 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) in the native state due to steric hindrance. With the increase of the pressure from 0.1 to 400 MPa, the reactivity of one cysteine out of six residues was enhanced. We have identified that the reacted cysteine residue was Cys345 by the chemical cleavage at the reacted site. The reaction kinetics of Cys345 were pseudo-first-order, and the apparent rate constant was increased from 0.001 to 0.05 min(-)(1) with the increase of pressure from 100 to 400 MPa. The activation volume of the reaction rate was calculated as -24 +/- 2 mL/mol from the slope of the logarithmic plot of the pressure dependence of the rate constant. Hysteresis was not evident in the change of intrinsic fluorescence during the cycle of compression and decompression between 0.1 and 400 MPa, indicating that the tetramer does not dissociate under high pressure. This indicates that the enhancement of the reactivity of Cys345 was caused by the perturbation of local conformation under high pressure. The reaction of Cys345 was also enhanced by low concentrations of GuHCl, suggesting the significant role of hydration-driven fluctuation in the pressure-induced enhancement of the reactivity.

  12. Video and thermal imaging system for monitoring interiors of high temperature reaction vessels

    DOEpatents

    Saveliev, Alexei V [Chicago, IL; Zelepouga, Serguei A [Hoffman Estates, IL; Rue, David M [Chicago, IL

    2012-01-10

    A system and method for real-time monitoring of the interior of a combustor or gasifier wherein light emitted by the interior surface of a refractory wall of the combustor or gasifier is collected using an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end. Color information in the light is captured with primary color (RGB) filters or complimentary color (GMCY) filters placed over individual pixels of color sensors disposed within a digital color camera in a BAYER mosaic layout, producing RGB signal outputs or GMCY signal outputs. The signal outputs are processed using intensity ratios of the primary color filters or the complimentary color filters, producing video images and/or thermal images of the interior of the combustor or gasifier.

  13. Modeling kinetic partitioning of secondary organic aerosol and size distribution dynamics: representing effects of volatility, phase state, and particle-phase reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Easter, R. C.; Shilling, J. E.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes and evaluates a new framework for modeling kinetic gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that takes into account diffusion and chemical reaction within the particle phase. The framework uses a combination of (a) an analytical quasi-steady-state treatment for the diffusion-reaction process within the particle phase for fast-reacting organic solutes, and (b) a two-film theory approach for slow- and nonreacting solutes. The framework is amenable for use in regional and global atmospheric models, although it currently awaits specification of the various gas- and particle-phase chemistries and the related physicochemical properties that are important for SOA formation. Here, the new framework is implemented in the computationally efficient Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) to investigate the competitive growth dynamics of the Aitken and accumulation mode particles. Results show that the timescale of SOA partitioning and the associated size distribution dynamics depend on the complex interplay between organic solute volatility, particle-phase bulk diffusivity, and particle-phase reactivity (as exemplified by a pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant), each of which can vary over several orders of magnitude. In general, the timescale of SOA partitioning increases with increase in volatility and decrease in bulk diffusivity and rate constant. At the same time, the shape of the aerosol size distribution displays appreciable narrowing with decrease in volatility and bulk diffusivity and increase in rate constant. A proper representation of these physicochemical processes and parameters is needed in the next generation models to reliably predict not only the total SOA mass, but also its composition- and number-diameter distributions, all of which together determine the overall optical and cloud-nucleating properties.

  14. Glider monitoring of shelf suspended particle dynamics and transport during storm and flooding conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrin, François; Many, Gaël; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Martín, Jacobo; Puig, Pere; Houpert, Loic; Testor, Pierre; Kunesch, Stéphane; Mahiouz, Karim; Béguery, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    Transfers of particulate matter on continental margins primarily occur during energetic events. As part of the CASCADE (CAscading, Storm, Convection, Advection and Downwelling Events) experiment, a glider equipped with optical sensors was deployed in the coastal area of the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean in March 2011 to assess the spatio-temporal variability of hydrology, suspended particles properties and fluxes during energetic conditions. This deployment complemented a larger observational effort, a part of the MOOSE (Mediterranean Ocean Observing System of the Environment) network, composed of a coastal benthic station, a surface buoy and moorings on the continental slope. This set of observations permitted to measure the impact of three consecutive storms and a flood event across the entire continental shelf. Glider data showed that the sediment resuspension and transport observed at the coastal station during the largest storm (Hs>4 m) was effective down to a water depth of 80 m. The mid-shelf mud belt, located between 40 and 90 m depth, appears as the zone where the along-shelf flux of suspended sediment is maximum. Besides, the across-shelf flux of suspended sediment converges towards the outer limit of the mid-shelf mud belt, where deposition of suspended particles probably occurs and contributes to the nourishment of this area. Hydrological structures, suspended particles transport and properties changed drastically during stormy periods and the following flood event. Prior to the storms, the shelf waters were weakly stratified due in particular to the presence of cold dense water on the inner- and mid-shelf. The storms rapidly swept away this dense water, as well as the resuspended sediments, along the shelf and towards a downstream submarine canyon. The buoyant river plumes that spread along the shelf after the flooding period provoked a restratification of the water column on the inner- and mid-shelf. The analysis of glider's optical data at

  15. Effect of Particle Non-Sphericity on Satellite Monitoring of Drifting Volcanic Ash Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nicholay A.; Flittner, D. E.; Krueger, A. J.; Kostinski, A.; Riley, C.; Rose, W.

    1998-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions loft gases and ash particles into the atmosphere and produce effects that are both short term (aircraft hazards, interference with satellite measurements) and long term (atmospheric chemistry, climate). Large (greater than 0.5mm) ash particles fall out in minutes [Rose et al, 1995], but fine ash particles can remain in the atmosphere for many days. This fine volcanic ash is a hazard to modem jet aircraft because the operating temperatures of jet engines are above the solidus temperature of volcanic ash, and because ash causes abrasion of windows and airframe, and disruption of avionics. At large distances(10(exp 2)-10(exp 4) km or more) from their source, drifting ash clouds are increasingly difficult to distinguish from meteorological clouds, both visually and on radar [Rose et al., 1995]. Satellites above the atmosphere are unique platforms for viewing volcanic clouds on a global basis and measuring their constituents and total mass. Until recently, only polar AVHRR and geostationary GOES instruments could be used to determine characteristics of drifting volcanic ash clouds using the 10-12 micron window [Prata 1989; Wen and Rose 1994; Rose and Schneider 1996]. The NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments aboard the Nimbus-7, Meteor3, ADEOS, and Earth Probe satellites have produced a unique data set of global SO2 volcanic emissions since 1978 (Krueger et al., 1995). Besides SO2, a new technique has been developed which uses the measured spectral contrast of the backscattered radiances in the 330-380nm spectral region (where gaseous absorption is negligible) in conjunction with radiative transfer models to retrieve properties of volcanic ash (Krotkov et al., 1997) and other types of absorbing aerosols (Torres et al., 1998).

  16. Monitoring of event based mobilization of hydrophobic pollutants in rivers: Calibration of turbidity as a proxy for particle facilitated transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rügner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to transport of suspended particles which is typically enhanced during events such as floods, snow melts etc. As the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in rivers can be monitored by turbidity measurements this may be used as a proxy for the total concentration of particle associated pollutants in rivers such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, etc. and several heavy metals. On-line turbidity measurements (e.g. by optical backscattering sensors) then allow for an assessment of particle and pollutant flux dynamics. In this study, pronounced flood and thus turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in three contrasting catchments in Southwest Germany (Rivers Ammer, Goldersbach, Steinlach) as well as in the River Neckar. Samples were analyzed for turbidity, the total amount of PAH and total suspended solids (TSS) in water. Additionally, the grain size distributions of suspended solids were determined. Discharge and turbidity were measured on-line at gauging stations in three of the catchments. Results showed that turbidity and TSS were linearly correlated over an extended turbidity range up to 2000 NTU for the flood samples (i.e. independent on grain size). This also holds for total PAH concentrations which can be reasonably well predicted based on the turbidity measurements and TSS versus PAH relationships - even for very high turbidity or TSS values (> 2000 NTU or mg l-1, respectively). From these linear regressions concentrations of PAHs on suspended particles were obtained which varied by catchment. The values comprise a robust measure of the average sediment quality in a river network and may be correlated to the degree of urbanization represented by the number of inhabitants per total flux of suspended particles. Based on long-term on-line turbidity measurements mass flow rates of particle bound pollutants over time could be calculated. Results showed that by far the largest amount

  17. First results of the INSIDE in-beam PET scanner for the on-line monitoring of particle therapy treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliero, M. A.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M. G.; Camarlinghi, N.; Cerello, P.; Coli, S.; Del Guerra, A.; Ferrero, V.; Fiorina, E.; Giraudo, G.; Kostara, E.; Morrocchi, M.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C.; Pirrone, G.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Rosso, V.; Sportelli, G.; Wheadon, R.

    2016-12-01

    Quality assessment of particle therapy treatments by means of PET systems has been carried out since late `90 and it is one of the most promising in-vivo non invasive monitoring techniques employed clinically. It can be performed with a diagnostic PET scanners installed outside the treatment room (off-line monitoring) or inside the treatment room (in-room monitoring). However the most efficient way is by integrating a PET scanner with the treatment delivery system (on-line monitoring) so that the biological wash out and the patient repositioning errors are minimized. In this work we present the performance of the in-beam PET scanner developed within the INSIDE project. The INSIDE PET scanner is made of two planar heads, 10 cm wide (transaxially) and 25 cm long (axially), composed of pixellated LFS crystals coupled to Hamamatsu MPPCs. Custom designed Front-End Electronics (FE) and Data AcQuisition (DAQ) systems allow an on-line reconstruction of PET images from separated in-spill and inter-spill data sets. The INSIDE PET scanner has been recently delivered at the CNAO (Pavia, Italy) hadrontherapy facility and the first experimental measurements have been carried out. Homogeneous PMMA phantoms and PMMA phantoms with small air and bone inserts were irradiated with monoenergetic clinical proton beams. The activity range was evaluated at various benchmark positions within the field of view to assess the homogeneity of response of the PET system. Repeated irradiations of PMMA phantoms with clinical spread out Bragg peak proton beams were performed to evaluate the reproducibility of the PET signal. The results found in this work show that the response of the INSIDE PET scanner is independent of the position within the radiation field. Results also show the capability of the INSIDE PET scanner to distinguish variations of the activity range due to small tissue inhomogeneities. Finally, the reproducibility of the activity range measurement was within 1 mm.

  18. In situ monitoring of brain tissue reaction of chronically implanted electrodes with an optical coherence tomography fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yijing; Hassler, Christina; Stieglitz, Thomas; Seifert, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2014-03-01

    Neural microelectrodes are well established tools for delivering therapeutic electrical pulses, and recording neural electrophysiological signals. However, long term implanted neural probes often become functionally impaired by tissue encapsulation. At present, analyzing this immune reaction is only feasible with post-mortem histology; currently no means for specific in vivo monitoring exist and most applicable imaging modalities provide no sufficient resolution for a cellular measurement in deep brain regions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well developed imaging modality, providing cellular resolution and up to 1.2 mm imaging depth in brain tissue. Further more, a fiber based spectral domain OCT was shown to be capable of minimally invasive brain intervention. In the present study, we propose to use a fiber based spectral domain OCT to monitor the the progression of the tissue's immune response and scar encapsulation of microprobes in a rat animal model. We developed an integrated OCT fiber catheter consisting of an implantable ferrule based fiber cannula and a fiber patch cable. The fiber cannula was 18.5 mm long, including a 10.5 mm ceramic ferrule and a 8.0 mm long, 125 μm single mode fiber. A mating sleeve was used to fix and connect the fiber cannula to the OCT fiber cable. Light attenuation between the OCT fiber cable and the fiber cannula through the mating sleeve was measured and minimized. The fiber cannula was implanted in rat brain together with a microelectrode in sight used as a foreign body to induce the brain tissue immune reaction. Preliminary data showed a significant enhancement of the OCT backscattering signal during the brain tissue scarring process, while the OCT signal of the flexible microelectrode was getting weaker consequentially.

  19. Infrared Thermography-based Biophotonics: Integrated Diagnostic Technique for Systemic Reaction Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainer, Boris G.; Morozov, Vitaly V.

    A peculiar branch of biophotonics is a measurement, visualisation and quantitative analysis of infrared (IR) radiation emitted from living object surfaces. Focal plane array (FPA)-based IR cameras make it possible to realize in medicine the so called interventional infrared thermal diagnostics. An integrated technique aimed at the advancement of this new approach in biomedical science and practice is described in the paper. The assembled system includes a high-performance short-wave (2.45-3.05 μm) or long-wave (8-14 μm) IR camera, two laser Doppler flowmeters (LDF) and additional equipment and complementary facilities implementing the monitoring of human cardiovascular status. All these means operate synchronously. It is first ascertained the relationship between infrared thermography (IRT) and LDF data in humans in regard to their systemic cardiovascular reactivity. Blood supply real-time dynamics in a narcotized patient is first visualized and quantitatively represented during surgery in order to observe how the general hyperoxia influences thermoregulatory mechanisms; an abrupt increase in temperature of the upper limb is observed using IRT. It is outlined that the IRT-based integrated technique may act as a take-off runway leading to elaboration of informative new methods directly applicable to medicine and biomedical sciences.

  20. Quantitation of human milk proteins and their glycoforms using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jincui; Kailemia, Muchena J; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Parker, Evan A; Hong, Qiuting; Sabia, Rocchina; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2017-01-01

    Human milk plays a substantial role in the child growth, development and determines their nutritional and health status. Despite the importance of the proteins and glycoproteins in human milk, very little quantitative information especially on their site-specific glycosylation is known. As more functions of milk proteins and other components continue to emerge, their fine-detailed quantitative information is becoming a key factor in milk research efforts. The present work utilizes a sensitive label-free MRM method to quantify seven milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, α1-antitrypsin, and lysozyme) using their unique peptides while at the same time, quantifying their site-specific N-glycosylation relative to the protein abundance. The method is highly reproducible, has low limit of quantitation, and accounts for differences in glycosylation due to variations in protein amounts. The method described here expands our knowledge about human milk proteins and provides vital details that could be used in monitoring the health of the infant and even the mother. Graphical Abstract The glycopeptides EICs generated from QQQ.

  1. Cost-effective scalable synthesis of mesoporous germanium particles via a redox-transmetalation reaction for high-performance energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sinho; Kim, Jieun; Choi, Nam-Soon; Kim, Min Gyu; Park, Soojin

    2015-02-24

    Nanostructured germanium is a promising material for high-performance energy storage devices. However, synthesizing it in a cost-effective and simple manner on a large scale remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report a redox-transmetalation reaction-based route for the large-scale synthesis of mesoporous germanium particles from germanium oxide at temperatures of 420-600 °C. We could confirm that a unique redox-transmetalation reaction occurs between Zn(0) and Ge(4+) at approximately 420 °C using temperature-dependent in situ X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. This reaction has several advantages, which include (i) the successful synthesis of germanium particles at a low temperature (∼450 °C), (ii) the accommodation of large volume changes, owing to the mesoporous structure of the germanium particles, and (iii) the ability to synthesize the particles in a cost-effective and scalable manner, as inexpensive metal oxides are used as the starting materials. The optimized mesoporous germanium anode exhibits a reversible capacity of ∼1400 mA h g(-1) after 300 cycles at a rate of 0.5 C (corresponding to the capacity retention of 99.5%), as well as stable cycling in a full cell containing a LiCoO2 cathode with a high energy density (charge capacity = 286.62 mA h cm(-3)).

  2. Mass Spectrometric-Based Selected Reaction Monitoring of Protein Phosphorylation during Symbiotic Signaling in the Model Legume, Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Junko; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the major cereal crops corn, rice, and wheat, leguminous plants such as soybean and alfalfa can meet their nitrogen requirement via endosymbiotic associations with soil bacteria. The establishment of this symbiosis is a complex process playing out over several weeks and is facilitated by the exchange of chemical signals between these partners from different kingdoms. Several plant components that are involved in this signaling pathway have been identified, but there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the early events in symbiotic signaling, i.e., within the first minutes and hours after the rhizobial signals (Nod factors) are perceived at the plant plasma membrane. The presence of several protein kinases in this pathway suggests a mechanism of signal transduction via posttranslational modification of proteins in which phosphate is added to the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine amino acid side chains. To monitor the phosphorylation dynamics and complement our previous untargeted 'discovery' approach, we report here the results of experiments using a targeted mass spectrometric technique, Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) that enables the quantification of phosphorylation targets with great sensitivity and precision. Using this approach, we confirm a rapid change in the level of phosphorylation in 4 phosphosites of at least 4 plant phosphoproteins that have not been previously characterized. This detailed analysis reveals aspects of the symbiotic signaling mechanism in legumes that, in the long term, will inform efforts to engineer this nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in important non-legume crops such as rice, wheat and corn. PMID:27203723

  3. Evaluation of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Size Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Seok; Lee, Cheolju

    2015-01-01

    Eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (M, K, Q, D, R, I, EP and LARS) and three auxiliary proteins (AIMP1, 2 and 3) are known to form a multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in mammalian cells. We combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with reversed-phase liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (RPLC-MRM-MS) to characterize MSC components and free ARS proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T) cells. Crude cell extract and affinity-purified proteins were fractionated by SEC in non-denaturing state and ARSs were monitored in each fraction by MRM-MS. The eleven MSC components appeared mostly in earlier SEC fractions demonstrating their participation in complex formation. TARSL2 and AIMP2-DX2, despite their low abundance, were co-purified with KARS and detected in the SEC fractions, where MSC appeared. Moreover, other large complex-forming ARS proteins, such as VARS and FARS, were detected in earlier fractions. The MRM-MS results were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Our study demonstrates usefulness of combined SEC-MRM analysis for the characterization of protein complexes and in understanding the behavior of minor isoforms or variant proteins. PMID:26544075

  4. Accurate Quantification of Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Serum Using Protein Standard Absolute Quantification (PSAQ™) and Selected Reaction Monitoring*

    PubMed Central

    Huillet, Céline; Adrait, Annie; Lebert, Dorothée; Picard, Guillaume; Trauchessec, Mathieu; Louwagie, Mathilde; Dupuis, Alain; Hittinger, Luc; Ghaleh, Bijan; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Jaquinod, Michel; Garin, Jérôme; Bruley, Christophe; Brun, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Development of new biomarkers needs to be significantly accelerated to improve diagnostic, prognostic, and toxicity monitoring as well as therapeutic follow-up. Biomarker evaluation is the main bottleneck in this development process. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising option to speed this step, particularly because of its multiplexing capacities. However, analytical variabilities because of upstream sample handling or incomplete trypsin digestion still need to be resolved. In 2007, we developed the PSAQ™ method (Protein Standard Absolute Quantification), which uses full-length isotope-labeled protein standards to quantify target proteins. In the present study we used clinically validated cardiovascular biomarkers (LDH-B, CKMB, myoglobin, and troponin I) to demonstrate that the combination of PSAQ and SRM (PSAQ-SRM) allows highly accurate biomarker quantification in serum samples. A multiplex PSAQ-SRM assay was used to quantify these biomarkers in clinical samples from myocardial infarction patients. Good correlation between PSAQ-SRM and ELISA assay results was found and demonstrated the consistency between these analytical approaches. Thus, PSAQ-SRM has the capacity to improve both accuracy and reproducibility in protein analysis. This will be a major contribution to efficient biomarker development strategies. PMID:22080464

  5. Continuous monitoring of the zinc-phosphate acid-base cement setting reaction by proton nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apih, T.; Lebar, A.; Pawlig, O.; Trettin, R.

    2001-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic relaxation is a well-established technique for continuous and non destructive monitoring of hydration of conventional Portland building cements. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) monitoring of the setting reaction of zinc-phosphate acid-base dental cements, which harden in minutes as compared to days, as in the case of Portland cements. We compare the setting of cement powder (mainly, zinc oxide) prepared with clinically used aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid solution with the setting of a model system where cement powder is mixed with pure orthophosphoric acid solution. In contrast to previously published NMR studies of setting Portland cements, where a decrease of spin-lattice relaxation time is attributed to enhanced relaxation at the growing internal surface, spin-lattice relaxation time T1 increases during the set of clinically used zinc-phosphate cement. Comparison of these results with a detailed study of diffusion, viscosity, and magnetic-field dispersion of T1 in pure and aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid demonstrates that the increase of T1 in the setting cement is connected with the increase of molecular mobility in the residual phosphoric acid solution. Although not taken into account so far, such effects may also significantly influence the relaxation times in setting Portland cements, particularly when admixtures with an effect on water viscosity are used.

  6. Sensitive and reliable multianalyte quantitation of herbal medicine in rat plasma using dynamic triggered multiple reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhixiang; Li, Tianxue; Lv, Pin; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Chen; Yang, Xinghao

    2013-06-01

    There is a growing need both clinically and experimentally to improve the determination of the blood levels of multiple chemical constituents in herbal medicines. The conventional multiple reaction monitoring (cMRM), however, is not well suited for multi-component determination and could not provide qualitative information for identity confirmation. Here we apply a dynamic triggered MRM (DtMRM) algorithm for the quantification of 20 constituents in an herbal prescription Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (BZYQT) in rat plasma. Dynamic MRM (DMRM) dramatically reduced the number of concurrent MRM transitions that are monitored during each MS scan. This advantage has been enhanced with the addition of triggered MRM (tMRM) for simultaneous confirmation, which maximizes the dwell time in the primary MRM quantitation phase, and also acquires sufficient MRM data to create a composite product ion spectrum. By allowing optimized collision energy for each product ion and maximizing dwell times, tMRM is significantly more sensitive and reliable than conventional product ion scanning. The DtMRM approach provides much higher sensitivity and reproducibility than cMRM.

  7. Electrochemical study of quinone redox cycling: A novel application of DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Jamei, Hamid Reza; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Rezaei, B

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of voltammetric and impedimetric DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biological and chemical redox cycling reactions involving free radical intermediates. The concept is based on associating the amounts of radicals generated with the electrochemical signals produced, using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For this purpose, a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and poly-diallydimethlammonium chloride decorated with double stranded fish sperm DNA was prepared to detect DNA damage induced by the radicals generated from a redox cycling quinone (i.e., menadione (MD; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone)). Menadione was employed as a model compound to study the redox cycling of quinones. A direct relationship was found between free radical production and DNA damage. The relationship between MD-induced DNA damage and free radical generation was investigated in an attempt to identify the possible mechanism(s) involved in the action of MD. Results showed that DPV and EIS were appropriate, simple and inexpensive techniques for the quantitative and qualitative comparisons of different reducing reagents. These techniques may be recommended for monitoring DNA damages and investigating the mechanisms involved in the production of redox cycling compounds.

  8. A schizophrenia relevant 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task for mice assessing broad monitoring, distractibility and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huiping; Guadagna, Simone; Mereu, Maddalena; Ciampoli, Mariasole; Pruzzo, Giacomo; Ballard, Theresa; Papaleo, Francesco

    2017-04-05

    The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) is an automated test for rodents allowing the assessment of multiple cognitive measures. Originally designed to assess cognitive deficits relevant to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it has been widely used in the investigation of neural systems of attention. In the current study, we have set up a modified version, which reduced the training phase to only 8-9 days with minimal food deprivation and without single-housing. Furthermore, based on evidence that patients with schizophrenia are more impaired in broad monitoring abilities than in sustained attention, we successfully developed a protocol replicating the Spatial Attentional Resource Allocation Task (SARAT), used in humans to assess broad monitoring. During this task, when the target appeared at a single pre-cued location, mice selectively responded faster. Instead, increasing the number of validly cued locations proportionately decreased accuracy. We then validated a protocol which is relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders in which additional irrelevant pre-cue lights selectively disrupted attention (distractibility). Finally, we improved previously used protocols changing inter-trial intervals from 5 to 7 s by randomly presenting this shift only in 20% of the trials. This resulted in a selective effect on premature responses (impulsivity), with important implications for schizophrenia as well as for other mental disorders. Therefore, this revised 5-CSRTT reduced training and stress on the animals while selectively measuring different cognitive functions with translational validity to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.

  9. Highly Sensitive Raman Spectroscopy with Low Laser Power for Fast In-Line Reaction and Multiphase Flow Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braun, Frank; Schwolow, Sebastian; Seltenreich, Julia; Kockmann, Norbert; Röder, Thorsten; Gretz, Norbert; Rädle, Matthias

    2016-10-04

    In process analytics, the applicability of Raman spectroscopy is restricted by high excitation intensities or the long integration times required. In this work, a novel Raman system was developed to minimize photon flux losses. It allows specific reduction of spectral resolution to enable the use of Raman spectroscopy for real-time analytics when strongly increased sensitivity is required. The performance potential of the optical setup was demonstrated in two exemplary applications: First, a fast exothermic reaction (Michael addition) was monitored with backscattering fiber optics under strongly attenuated laser power (7 mW). Second, high-speed scanning of a segmented multiphase flow (water/toluene) with submicroliter droplets was achieved by aligning the focus of a coaxial Raman probe with long focal length directly into a perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) capillary. With an acquisition rate of 333 Raman spectra per second, chemical information was obtained separately for both of the rapidly alternating phases. The experiment with reduced laser power demonstrates that the technique described in this paper is applicable in chemical production processes, especially in hazardous environments. Further potential uses can be envisioned in medical or biological applications with limited power input. The realization of high-speed measurements shows new possibilities for analysis of heterogeneous phase systems and of fast reactions or processes.

  10. The quantitative monitoring of mechanochemical reaction between solid L-tartaric acid and sodium carbonate monohydrate by terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Guifeng; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Zengyang; Wei, Yongbo; Liu, Min; Wen, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2011-11-01

    The solid-state reaction of chiral tartaric acid and alkali carbonate was studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The sodium tartrate dihydrate was synthesized with high efficiency by mechanical grinding in the solid-state without waste that is particularly sustainable and environmentally benign. Distinct THz absorptions were observed for reactants and products. It indicates that THz spectroscopy is sensitive to different materials and crystal structures. The characteristic THz absorption peak at 1.09 THz of L (+)-Tartaric acid was selected for quantitative analysis. The reaction kinetics could be expressed by the Second-order equation and the Jander equation, which is consistent with a three-dimensional diffusion mechanism. The combination of multi-techniques including synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SRXRPD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the grinding process and presented supporting evidences. The results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy technique has great potential applications in process monitoring and analysis in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis industry.

  11. Monitoring equilibrium reaction dynamics of a nearly barrierless molecular rotor using ultrafast vibrational echoes

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, Ian A.; Osborne, Derek G.; White, Aaron M.; Anna, Jessica M.; Kubarych, Kevin J.

    2014-10-07

    Using rapidly acquired spectral diffusion, a recently developed variation of heterodyne detected infrared photon echo spectroscopy, we observe ∼3 ps solvent independent spectral diffusion of benzene chromium tricarbonyl (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}Cr(CO){sub 3}, BCT) in a series of nonpolar linear alkane solvents. The spectral dynamics is attributed to low-barrier internal torsional motion. This tripod complex has two stable minima corresponding to staggered and eclipsed conformations, which differ in energy by roughly half of k{sub B}T. The solvent independence is due to the relative size of the rotor compared with the solvent molecules, which create a solvent cage in which torsional motion occurs largely free from solvent damping. Since the one-dimensional transition state is computed to be only 0.03 k{sub B}T above the higher energy eclipsed conformation, this model system offers an unusual, nearly barrierless reaction, which nevertheless is characterized by torsional coordinate dependent vibrational frequencies. Hence, by studying the spectral diffusion of the tripod carbonyls, it is possible to gain insight into the fundamental dynamics of internal rotational motion, and we find some evidence for the importance of non-diffusive ballistic motion even in the room-temperature liquid environment. Using several different approaches to describe equilibrium kinetics, as well as the influence of reactive dynamics on spectroscopic observables, we provide evidence that the low-barrier torsional motion of BCT provides an excellent test case for detailed studies of the links between chemical exchange and linear and nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy.

  12. Pharmacovigilance program to monitor adverse reactions of recombinant streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Blas Y; Marrero-Miragaya, María A; Jiménez-López, Giset; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; García-Iglesias, Elizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Debesa-García, Francisco; González-López, Tania; Alvarez-Falcón, Leovaldo; López-Saura, Pedro A

    2005-01-01

    Background Streptokinase (SK) is an effective fibrinolytic agent for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of the present study was to assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with intravenous recombinant SK in patients with AMI in routine clinical practice. Methods A national, prospective and spontaneous reporting-based pharmacovigilance program was conducted in Cuba. Patient demographics, suspected ADR description, elements to define causality, and outcomes were documented and analyzed. Results A total of 1496 suspected ADRs identified in 792 patients out of the 1660 (47.7 %) prescriptions reported in the program, were received from July 1995 to July 2002. Most of the patients (71.3%) were male, 67.2% were white and mean age was 61.6 ± 13.0 years. The mean time interval between the onset of symptoms and the start of the SK infusion was 4.9 ± 3.7 h. The most frequently reported ADRs were hypotension, arrhythmias, chills, tremors, vomiting, nauseas, allergy, bleeding and fever. ADR severity was 38% mild, 38% moderate, 10% severe, and 4% very severe. Only 3 patients with hemorrhagic stroke were reported. Seventy-two patients died in-hospital mainly because of cardiac causes associated with the patient's underlying clinical condition. Mortality was 3 times more likely in patients suffering arrhythmias than in those without this event (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.1). Most of the reported ADRs were classified as possibly or probably associated with the study medication. Conclusion Recombinant SK was associated with a similar post-marketing safety profile to those suggested in previous clinical trials. PMID:16262910

  13. Membrane events in the acrosomal reaction of Limulus sperm. Membrane fusion, filament-membrane particle attachment, and the source and formation of new membrane surface

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The membranes of Limulus (horseshoe crab) sperm were examined before and during the acrosomal reaction by using the technique of freeze- fracturing and thin sectioning. We focused on three areas. First, we examined stages in the fusion of the acrosomal vacuole with the cell surface. Fusion takes place in a particle-free zone which is surrounded by a circlet of particles on the P face of the plasma membrane and an underlying circlet of particles on the P face of the acrosomal vauole membrane. These circlets of particles are present before induction. Up to nine focal points of fusion occur within the particle-free zone. Second, we describe a system of fine filaments, each 30 A in diameter, which lies between the acrosomal vacuole and the plasma membrane. These filaments change their orientation as the vacuole opens, a process that takes place in less than 50 ms. Membrane particles seen on the P face of the acrosomal vacuole membrane change their orientation at the same time and in the same way as do the filaments, thus indicating that the membrane particles and filaments are probably connected. Third, we examined the source and the point of fusion of new membrane needed to cover the acrosomal process. This new membrane is almost certainly derived from the outer nuclear envelope and appears to insert into the plasma membrane in a particle-free area adjacent to an area rich in particles. The latter is the region where the particles are probably connected to the cytoplasmic filaments. The relevance of these observations in relation to the process of fertilization of this fantastic sperm is discussed. PMID:582596

  14. Decoration of Micro-/Nanoscale Noble Metal Particles on 3D Porous Nickel Using Electrodeposition Technique as Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xin; Hang, Tao; Shanmugam, Sangaraju; Li, Ming

    2015-07-29

    Micro-/nanoscale noble metal (Ag, Au, and Pt) particle-decorated 3D porous nickel electrodes for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolyte are fabricated via galvanostatic electrodeposition technique. The developed electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements including Tafel polarization curves, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is clearly shown that the enlarged real surface area caused by 3D highly porous dendritic structure has greatly reinforced the electrocatalytic activity toward HER. Comparative analysis of electrodeposited Ag, Au, and Pt particle-decorated porous nickel electrodes for HER indicates that both intrinsic property and size of the noble metal particles can lead to distinct catalytic activities. Both nanoscale Au and Pt particles have further reinforcement effect toward HER, whereas microscale Ag particles exhibit the reverse effect. As an effective 3D hydrogen evolution cathode, the nanoscale Pt-particle-decorated 3D porous nickel electrode demonstrates the highest catalytic activity with an extremely low overpotential of -0.045 V for hydrogen production, a considerable exchange current density of 9.47 mA cm(-2) at 25 °C, and high durability in long-term electrolysis, all of which are attributed to the intrinsic catalytic property and the extremely small size of Pt particles.

  15. Measurement of double differential charged-particle emission cross sections for reactions induced by 26 MeV protons and FKK model analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y.; Aoto, A.; Kashimoto, H.

    1994-06-01

    Double differential charged-particle emission cross sections of proton-induced reactions have been measured for {sup nat}C, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Si, {sup 98}Mo, {sup 106}Pd, {sup 159}Tb and {sup 181}Ta at energies around 26 MeV. Several (p,p{prime}) and (p,n) data for {sup 98}Mo and {sup 106}Pd in the incident energy range from 12 to 26 MeV are analysed in terms of the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin model, in order to study preequilibrium nucleon emission from nucleon-induced reactions.

  16. Heterogeneous reactions of gaseous hydrogen peroxide on pristine and acidic gas-processed calcium carbonate particles: Effects of relative humidity and surface coverage of coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Chen, Zhongming; Shen, Xiaoli; Huang, Dao

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric aging appears to alter physical and chemical properties of mineral dust aerosol and thus its role as reactive surface in the troposphere. Yet, previous studies in the atmosphere have mainly focused on the pristine surfaces of mineral dust aerosol, and the reactivity of aged mineral dust toward atmospheric trace gases is poorly recognized. This work presents the first laboratory investigation of heterogeneous reactions of gaseous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an important atmospheric oxidant, on the surfaces of HNO3 and SO2-processed calcium carbonate particles as surrogates of atmospheric mineral dust aged by acidic trace gases. It is found that the processing of the calcium carbonate particles with HNO3 and SO2 has a strong impact on their reactivity toward H2O2. On HNO3-processed particles, the presence of nitrate acts to either decrease or increase H2O2 uptake, greatly depending on RH and surface coverage of nitrate. On SO2-processed particles, the presence of surface sulfite appears to enhance the intrinsic reactivity of the mineral particles due to its affinity for H2O2, and the uptake of H2O2 increases significantly relative to the pristine particles, in particular at high RH. The mechanisms for heterogeneous reactions of H2O2 with these processed particles are discussed, as well as their potential implications on tropospheric chemistry. The results of our study suggest that the reactivity of mineral dust aerosol toward H2O2 and maybe other trace gases is markedly dependent on the chemical composition and coverage of the coatings as well as ambient RH, and thus will vary considerably in different polluted air masses.

  17. Land Use Regression Models for Ultrafine Particles and Black Carbon Based on Short-Term Monitoring Predict Past Spatial Variation.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Denise R; Hoek, Gerard; Klompmaker, Jochem O; Wang, Meng; Meliefste, Kees; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-07-21

    Health effects of long-term exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) have not been investigated in epidemiological studies because of the lack of spatially resolved UFP exposure data. Short-term monitoring campaigns used to develop land use regression (LUR) models for UFP typically had moderate performance. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate spatial and spatiotemporal LUR models for UFP and Black Carbon (BC), including their ability to predict past spatial contrasts. We measured 30 min at each of 81 sites in Amsterdam and 80 in Rotterdam, The Netherlands in three different seasons. Models were developed using traffic, land use, reference site measurements, routinely measured pollutants and weather data. The percentage explained variation (R(2)) was 0.35-0.40 for BC and 0.33-0.42 for UFP spatial models. Traffic variables were present in every model. The coefficients for the spatial predictors were similar in spatial and spatiotemporal models. The BC LUR model explained 61% of the spatial variation in a previous campaign with longer sampling duration, better than the model R(2). The UFP LUR model explained 36% of UFP spatial variation measured 10 years earlier, similar to the model R(2). Short-term monitoring campaigns may be an efficient tool to develop LUR models.

  18. Magnetic particle imaging: advancements and perspectives for real-time in vivo monitoring and image-guided therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablico-Lansigan, Michele H.; Situ, Shu F.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology that allows the direct quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. MPI's increased sensitivity and short image acquisition times foster the creation of tomographic images with high temporal and spatial resolution. The contrast and sensitivity of MPI is envisioned to transcend those of other medical imaging modalities presently used, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray scans, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review, we present an overview of the recent advances in the rapidly developing field of MPI. We begin with a basic introduction of the fundamentals of MPI, followed by some highlights over the past decade of the evolution of strategies and approaches used to improve this new imaging technique. We also examine the optimization of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used for imaging, underscoring the importance of size homogeneity and surface engineering. Finally, we present some future research directions for MPI, emphasizing the novel and exciting opportunities that it offers as an important tool for real-time in vivo monitoring. All these opportunities and capabilities that MPI presents are now seen as potential breakthrough innovations in timely disease diagnosis, implant monitoring, and image-guided therapeutics.

  19. Monitoring an eruption fissure in 3D: video recording, particle image velocimetry and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.

    2015-04-01

    The processes during an eruption are very complex. To get a better understanding several parameters are measured. One of the measured parameters is the velocity of particles and patterns, as ash and emitted magma, and of the volcano itself. The resulting velocity field provides insights into the dynamics of a vent. Here we test our algorithm for 3 dimensional velocity fields on videos of the second fissure eruption of Bárdarbunga 2014. There we acquired videos from lava fountains of the main fissure with 2 high speed cameras with small angles between the cameras. Additionally we test the algorithm on videos from the geyser Strokkur, where we had 3 cameras and larger angles between the cameras. The velocity is calculated by a correlation in the Fourier space of contiguous images. Considering that we only have the velocity field of the surface smaller angles result in a better resolution of the existing velocity field in the near field. For general movements also larger angles can be useful, e.g. to get the direction, height and velocity of eruption clouds. In summary, it can be stated that 3D velocimetry can be used for several application and with different setup due to the application.

  20. Alpha particle induced reactions on natCr up to 39 MeV: Experimental cross-sections, comparison with theoretical calculations and thick target yields for medically relevant 52gFe production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Adam Rebeles, R.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.

    2015-08-01

    Thin natCr targets were obtained by electroplating, using 23.75 μm Cu foils as backings. In five stacked foil irradiations, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy, the cross sections for production of 52gFe, 49,51cumCr, 52cum,54,56cumMn and 48cumV in Cr and 61Cu,68Ga in Cu were measured up to 39 MeV incident α-particle energy. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the natCu(α,x)67,66Ga monitor reactions over the whole energy range. Comparisons with the scarce literature values and results from the TENDL-2013 on-line library, based on the theoretical code family TALYS-1.6, were made. A discussion of the production routes for 52gFe with achievable yields and contamination rates was made.

  1. Observations of the UARS Particle Environment Monitor and computation of ionization rates in the middle and upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Biard, J. C.; Lummerzheim, D.; Rees, M. H.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.; Nightingale, R. W.; Imhof, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present observations made by the Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) instruments during the geomagnetic storm of 8-9 November, 1991. Ionization and energy deposition rates as functions of altitude in the middle and upper atmosphere by incident electrons and positive ions in the storm interval are computed. The suite of PEM instruments provides a systematic measurement of energetic particles and their associated X-rays over an energy range not fully covered by previous satellite missions.

  2. Monitoring and forecasting of radiation hazard from great solar energetic particle events by using on-line one-min neutron monitor and satellite data.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Lev I

    2007-01-01

    The method of automatically determining the start of great solar energetic particle (SEP) events are described on the basis of cosmic ray (CR) one-min observations by neutron monitors in real-time scale. It is shown that the probabilities of false alarms and missed triggers are negligible. After the start of SEP event, it is automatically determined by the method of coupling functions the SEP energy spectrum and flux for each minute of observations. By solving the inverse problem during few first minutes of SEP event, diffusion coefficient in the interplanetary space, source function on the Sun, and time of ejection of SEP into solar wind are determined. For extending obtained results into small energy range we use also available from Internet the satellite one-min CR data. This make possible to give forecast of space-time variation of SEP for more than 2 days and estimate expected radiation dose for satellite and aircrafts. With each new minute of observations, the quality of forecast increased, and after approximately 30 min became near 100%.

  3. Re-examination of the Pt Particle Size Effect on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction for Ultrathin Uniform Pt/C Catalyst Layers without Influence from Nafion

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Morimoto, Yu; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2016-09-01

    The platinum 'particle size effect' on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been re-evaluated using commercial Pt/C catalysts (2-10 nm Pt particle) and polycrystalline Pt (poly-Pt) in 0.1 M HClO4 with a rotating disk electrode method. Nafion-free catalyst layers were employed to obtain specific activities (SA) that were not perturbed (suppressed) by sulfonate anion adsorption/blocking. By using ultrathin uniform catalyst layers, O2 diffusion limitation was minimized as confirmed from the high SAs of our supported catalysts that were comparable to unsupported sputtered Pt having controlled sizes. The specific activity (SA) steeply increased for the particle sizes in the range -2-10 nm (0.8-1.8 mA/cm2Pt at 0.9 V vs. RHE) and plateaued over -10 nm to 2.7 mA/cm2Pt for bulk poly-Pt. On the basis of the activity trend for the range of particle sizes studied, it appears that the effect of carbon support on activity is negligible. The experimental results and the concomitant profile of SA vs. particle size was found to be in an agreement to a truncated octahedral particle model that assumes active terrace sites.

  4. Neutron single-particle states above the N=164 subshell in {sub 98}{sup 251}Cf and {sub 96}{sup 249}Cm studied by neutron transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Chasman, R. R.

    2009-12-15

    Single-particle state assignments in {sup 251}Cf and {sup 249}Cm at {approx}1 MeV excitation have been deduced from cross sections previously measured for the {sup 250}Cf(d,p){sup 251}Cf and {sup 248}Cm({sup 4}He,{sup 3}He){sup 249}Cm reactions. The assignments are supported by observed cross-section signatures and intraband level spacings. The observed energies of these single-particle states, after pairing effects are removed, are in good agreement with values calculated using a Woods-Saxon single-particle potential. Neutron level diagrams, showing level spacings as a function of {nu}{sub 2},{nu}{sub 4}, and {nu}{sub 6}, are extended to include neutron orbitals above N=164.

  5. Optical fiber chemical sensors with sol-gel derived nanomaterials for monitoring high temperature/high pressure reactions in clean energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shiquan

    2010-04-01

    The development of sensor technologies for in situ, real time monitoring the high temperature/high pressure (HTP) chemical processes used in clean energy technologies is a tough challenge, due to the HTP, high dust and corrosive chemical environment of the reaction systems. A silica optical fiber is corrosive resistance, and can work in HTP conditions. This paper presents our effort in developing fiber optic sensors for in situ, real time monitoring the concentration of trace ammonia and hydrogen in high temperature gas samples. Preliminary test results illustrate the feasibility of using fiber optic sensor technologies for monitoring HTP processes for next generation energy industry.

  6. Particle-size effect of nanoscale platinum catalysts in oxygen reduction reaction: an electrochemical and 195Pt EC-NMR study.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hiroshi; Inukai, Junji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Babu, Panakkattu K; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Chung, Jong Ho; Oldfield, Eric; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-14

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) measurements and (195)Pt electrochemical nuclear magnetic resonance (EC-NMR) spectroscopy were combined to study a series of carbon-supported platinum nanoparticle electrocatalysts (Pt/CB) with average diameters in the range of roughly 1-5 nm. ORR rate constants and H(2)O(2) yields evaluated from hydrodynamic voltammograms did not show any particle size dependency. The apparent activation energy of 37 kJ mol(-1), obtained for the ORR rate constant, was identical to that obtained for bulk platinum electrodes. Pt/CB catalysts on Nafion produced only 0.7-1% of H(2)O(2), confirming that the direct four-electron reduction of O(2) to H(2)O is the predominant reaction. NMR spectral features showed characteristic size dependence, and the line shapes were reproduced by using the layer-deconvolution model. Namely, the variations in the NMR spectra with particle size can be explained as due to the combined effect of the layer-by-layer variation of the s-type and d-type local density of states. However, the surface peak position of (195)Pt NMR spectra and the spin-lattice relaxation time of surface platinum atoms showed practically no change with the particle size variation. We conclude that there is a negligible difference in the surface electronic properties of these Pt/CB catalysts due to size variations and therefore, the ORR activities are not affected by the differences in the particle size.

  7. A Generic Multiple Reaction Monitoring Based Approach for Plant Flavonoids Profiling Using a Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhixiang; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Yan, Ru

    2014-06-01

    Flavonoids are one of the largest classes of plant secondary metabolites serving a variety of functions in plants and associating with a number of health benefits for humans. Typically, they are co-identified with many other secondary metabolites using untargeted metabolomics. The limited data quality of untargeted workflow calls for a shift from the breadth-first to the depth-first screening strategy when a specific biosynthetic pathway is focused on. Here we introduce a generic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approach for flavonoids profiling in plants using a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QTrap) mass spectrometer. The approach includes four steps: (1) preliminary profiling of major aglycones by multiple ion monitoring triggered enhanced product ion scan (MIM-EPI); (2) glycones profiling by precursor ion triggered EPI scan (PI-EPI) of major aglycones; (3) comprehensive aglycones profiling by combining MIM-EPI and neutral loss triggered EPI scan (NL-EPI) of major glycone; (4) in-depth flavonoids profiling by MRM-EPI with elaborated MRM transitions. Particularly, incorporation of the NH3 loss and sugar elimination proved to be very informative and confirmative for flavonoids screening. This approach was applied for profiling flavonoids in Astragali radix ( Huangqi), a famous herb widely used for medicinal and nutritional purposes in China. In total, 421 flavonoids were tentatively characterized, among which less than 40 have been previously reported in this medicinal plant. This MRM-based approach provides versatility and sensitivity that required for flavonoids profiling in plants and serves as a useful tool for plant metabolomics.

  8. Monitoring of adverse drug reactions in psychiatry outpatient department of a Secondary Care Hospital of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Al-Thamer, Sura Saad Faris; Jabbar, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in increased healthcare cost. Association of psychotropic medications with ADRs is common. Pharmacovigilance can play a vital role in alerting the healthcare providers from the possible ADRs and thus protecting the patients receiving psychotropic medications. Aim: To monitor and report the incidence and nature of ADRs in psychiatry outpatient department (OPD). Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out in the psychiatry OPD. All the patients attending psychiatry outpatient and satisfying the inclusion criteria were monitored for ADRs. The causality, severity and preventability assessment of documented ADRs was done. Chi-square test was done to identify the association between ADRs and sociodemographic, disease and treatment-related variables. Paired Student's t-test was carried out to compare the significance difference in the weight of the patients who reported weight gain to psychotropic medications. Results: The incidence rate of ADR was found to be 10.2%. A total of 112 ADRs were documented. Weight gain 18 (16.07%) followed by somnolence 8 (7.14%) was the most commonly reported ADR. Atypical antipsychotics 37 (33.0%) were the most common class of psychotropic drugs implicated in ADRs. Escitalopram 16 (14.28%) followed by quetiapine 14 (12.5%) were associated with a maximum number of ADRs. No significant association (P > 0.05) documented between demographic and treatment-related variables with number of ADRs. Conclusion: Study revealed a moderate incidence of ADRs in patients attending the psychiatry OPD. Majority of the ADRs reported during the study were mild in nature and not preventable type. PMID:27330260

  9. Hairpin stabilized fluorescent silver nanoclusters for quantitative detection of NAD(+) and monitoring NAD(+)/NADH based enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Jain, Priyamvada; Chakma, Babina; Patra, Sanjukta; Goswami, Pranab

    2017-03-01

    A set of 90 mer long ssDNA candidates, with different degrees of cytosine (C-levels) (% and clusters) was analyzed for their function as suitable Ag-nanocluster (AgNC) nucleation scaffolds. The sequence (P4) with highest C-level (42.2%) emerged as the only candidate supporting the nucleation process as evident from its intense fluorescence peak at λ660 nm. Shorter DNA subsets derived from P4 with only stable hairpin structures could support the AgNC formation. The secondary hairpin structures were confirmed by PAGE, and CD studies. The number of base pairs in the stem region also contributes to the stability of the hairpins. A shorter 29 mer sequence (Sub 3) (ΔG = -1.3 kcal/mol) with 3-bp in the stem of a 7-mer loop conferred highly stable AgNC. NAD(+) strongly quenched the fluorescence of Sub 3-AgNC in a concentration dependent manner. Time resolved photoluminescence studies revealed the quenching involves a combined static and dynamic interaction where the binding constant and number of binding sites for NAD(+) were 0.201 L mol(-1) and 3.6, respectively. A dynamic NAD(+) detection range of 50-500 μM with a limit of detection of 22.3 μM was discerned. The NAD(+) mediated quenching of AgNC was not interfered by NADH, NADP(+), monovalent and divalent ions, or serum samples. The method was also used to follow alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase catalyzed physiological reactions in a turn-on and turn-off assay, respectively. The proposed method with ssDNA-AgNC could therefore be extended to monitor other NAD(+)/NADH based enzyme catalyzed reactions in a turn-on/turn-off approach.

  10. Particle-size speciation of Pu isotopes in surface soils from Inner Mongolia (China) and its implications for Asian Dust monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju

    2017-02-01

    To study the applications of Pu isotopes in long-distance dust migration monitoring, Pu isotopes in surface soil of Inner Mongolia have been analyzed using SF-ICP-MS after size fractionation. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged narrowly (0.169-0.200) and indicated global fallout character, while (239+240)Pu activities increased with decreasing particle size. A spherical model could well simulate (239+240)Pu activities as a function of particle diameter when soil particle size was less than 600µm, and the soil particle surface sorption phenomenon of Pu isotopes in natural soil samples was revealed. Furthermore, (239+240)Pu activity in fine particles (sized less than 53µm) had good consistency with that in atmospheric depositions of Japan since the 2000s, suggesting new Asian Dust sources (i.e. central Inner Mongolia) other than the well-known Chinese deserts.

  11. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  12. Environmental monitoring for biological threat agents using the autonomous pathogen detection system with multiplexed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Regan, John F; Makarewicz, Anthony J; Hindson, Benjamin J; Metz, Thomas R; Gutierrez, Dora M; Corzett, Todd H; Hadley, Dean R; Mahnke, Ryan C; Henderer, Bruce D; Breneman, John W; Weisgraber, Todd H; Dzenitis, John M

    2008-10-01

    We have developed and field-tested a now operational civilian biodefense capability that continuously monitors the air in high-risk locations for biological threat agents. This stand-alone instrument, called the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), collects and selectively concentrates particles from the air into liquid samples and analyzes the samples using multiplexed PCR amplification coupled with microsphere array detection. During laboratory testing, we evaluated the APDS instrument's response to Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis by spiking the liquid sample stream with viable spores and cells, bead-beaten lysates, and purified DNA extracts. APDS results were also compared to a manual real-time PCR method. Field data acquired during 74 days of continuous operation at a mass-transit subway station are presented to demonstrate the specificity and reliability of the APDS. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security recently selected the APDS reported herein as the first autonomous detector component of their BioWatch antiterrorism program. This sophisticated field-deployed surveillance capability now generates actionable data in one-tenth the time of manual filter collection and analysis.

  13. Quantitation of low molecular weight sugars by chemical derivatization-liquid chromatography/multiple reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Lin, Karen; Sequria, Carita; Yang, Juncong; Borchers, Christoph H

    2016-07-01

    A new method for the separation and quantitation of 13 mono- and disaccharides has been developed by chemical derivatization/ultra-HPLC/negative-ion ESI-multiple-reaction monitoring MS. 3-Nitrophenylhydrazine (at 50°C for 60 min) was shown to be able to quantitatively derivatize low-molecular weight (LMW) reducing sugars. The nonreducing sugar, sucrose, was not derivatized. A pentafluorophenyl-bonded phase column was used for the chromatographic separation of the derivatized sugars. This method exhibits femtomole-level sensitivity, high precision (CVs of ≤ 4.6%) and high accuracy for the quantitation of LMW sugars in wine. Excellent linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9993) and linear ranges of ∼500-fold for disaccharides and ∼1000-4000-fold for monosaccharides were achieved. With internal calibration ((13) C-labeled internal standards), recoveries were between 93.6% ± 1.6% (xylose) and 104.8% ± 5.2% (glucose). With external calibration, recoveries ranged from 82.5% ± 0.8% (ribulose) to 105.2% ± 2.1% (xylulose). Quantitation of sugars in two red wines and two white wines was performed using this method; quantitation of the central carbon metabolism-related carboxylic acids and tartaric acid was carried out using a previously established derivatization procedure with 3-nitrophenylhydrazine as well. The results showed that these two classes of compounds-both of which have important organoleptic properties-had different compositions in red and white wines.

  14. Deciphering chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma by liquid chromatography with transformed multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhao; Liu, Ting; Liao, Jie; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we propose an integrated strategy for the efficient identification and quantification of herbal constituents using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. First, liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for the chemical profiling of herbs, where a targeted following nontargeted approach was developed to detect trace constituents by using structural correlations and extracted ion chromatograms. Next, ion pairs and parameters of MS(2) of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were selected to design multiple reaction monitoring transitions for the identified compounds on liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of each constituent was then calculated using a semiquantitative calibration curve. The proposed strategy was applied in a study of chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 140 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from the herbs, 132 of which were relatively quantified. The visualized quantitative results clearly showed codecoction produced significant constituent concentration variations especially for those with a low polarity. The case study also indicated that the present methodology could provide a reliable, accurate, and labor-saving solution for chemical studies of herbal medicines.

  15. Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña; Ugarte, Magdalena; Gregersen, Niels; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Bross, Peter; Palmfeldt, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited metabolic disorder. Four different genes encode the catalytic subunits of BCKDH: E1α (BCKDHA), E1β (BCKDHB), E2 (DBT), and E3 (DLD). All four proteins were successfully quantified in healthy individuals. However, the E1α and E1β proteins were not detected in patients carrying mutations in one of those genes, whereas mRNA levels were almost unaltered, indicating instability of E1α and E1β monomers. Using SRM we elucidated the protein effects of mutations generating premature termination codons or misfolded proteins. SRM is a complement to transcript level measurements and a valuable tool to shed light on molecular mechanisms and on effects of pharmacological therapies at protein level. SRM is particularly effective for inherited disorders caused by multiple proteins such as defects in multienzyme complexes. PMID:25333063

  16. Real-Time Optical Monitoring of Flow Kinetics and Gas Phase Reactions Under High-Pressure OMCVD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, N.; McCall, S.; Bachmann, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution addresses the real-time optical characterization of gas flow and gas phase reactions as they play a crucial role for chemical vapor phase depositions utilizing elevated and high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) conditions. The objectives of these experiments are to validate on the basis of results on real-time optical diagnostics process models simulation codes, and provide input parameter sets needed for analysis and control of chemical vapor deposition at elevated pressures. Access to microgravity is required to retain high pressure conditions of laminar flow, which is essential for successful acquisition and interpretation of the optical data. In this contribution, we describe the design and construction of the HPCVD system, which include access ports for various optical methods of real-time process monitoring and to analyze the initial stages of heteroepitaxy and steady-state growth in the different pressure ranges. To analyze the onset of turbulence, provisions are made for implementation of experimental methods for in-situ characterization of the nature of flow. This knowledge will be the basis for the design definition of experiments under microgravity, where gas flow conditions, gas phase and surface chemistry, might be analyzed by remote controlled real-time diagnostics tools, developed in this research project.

  17. Rapid determination of parabens in personal care products by stable isotope GC-MS/MS with dynamic selected reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Perry G; Zhou, Wanlong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl esters of para-hydroxy benzoic acid (parabens) in personal care products was developed and fully validated. Test portions were extracted with methanol followed by vortexing, sonication, centrifugation, and filtration without derivatization. The four parabens were quantified by GC-MS/MS in the electron ionization mode. Four corresponding isotopically labeled parabens were selected as internal standards, which were added at the beginning of the sample preparation and used to correct for recovery and matrix effects. Sensitivity, extraction efficiency, and recovery of the respective analytes were evaluated. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) were all greater than 0.995 for the four parabens investigated. The recoveries ranged from 97 to 107% at three spiked levels and a one-time (single) extraction efficiency greater than 97% was obtained. This method has been applied to screen 26 personal care products. This is the first time that a unique GC-MS/MS method with dynamic selected reaction monitoring and confirmation of analytes has been used to determine these parabens in cosmetic personal care products.

  18. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268-luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF-luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF-luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0×10 to 1.0×10(6) copies.

  19. Simultaneous determination of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) in foods by selected reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dimartino, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) were determined simultaneously by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry for different food matrixes. A small amount of starting sample was saponified and extracted before injection into a linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Dihydrotachysterol, which is absent from food and has a structure similar to that of vitamins D3 and D2, was used as an internal standard. Calibration curves for the 2 vitamins showed linearity with R2 values of 0.9999 and 0.9989 for vitamins D3 and D2, respectively. Limits of detection for vitamins D3 and D2 were 0.5 ng/g (1.3 pmol/g) and 1.75 ng/g (4.4 pmol/g) and limits of quantitation were 1.25 ng/g (3.24 pmol/g), and 3.75 ng/g (9.45 pmol/g), respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method were tested with the infant formula reference standard of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which showed a relative standard deviation of 6%. Recoveries ranged from 95 to 105%. Several food products were tested with AOAC Method 982.29, which is currently in use for vitamins D3 and D2, and results were comparable within 6%.

  20. Identification of a seven glycopeptide signature for malignant pleural mesothelioma in human serum by selected reaction monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum biomarkers can improve diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, the evaluation of potential new serum biomarker candidates is hampered by a lack of assay technologies for their clinical evaluation. Here we followed a hypothesis-driven targeted proteomics strategy for the identification and clinical evaluation of MPM candidate biomarkers in serum of patient cohorts. Results Based on the hypothesis that cell surface exposed glycoproteins are prone to be released from tumor-cells to the circulatory system, we screened the surfaceome of model cell lines for potential MPM candidate biomarkers. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) assay technology allowed for the direct evaluation of the newly identified candidates in serum. Our evaluation of 51 candidate biomarkers in the context of a training and an independent validation set revealed a reproducible glycopeptide signature of MPM in serum which complemented the MPM biomarker mesothelin. Conclusions Our study shows that SRM assay technology enables the direct clinical evaluation of protein-derived candidate biomarker panels for which clinically reliable ELISA’s currently do not exist. PMID:24207061

  1. Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple reaction monitoring from 100 pg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2013-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple/single reaction monitoring (CZE-MRM/SRM), which employed an electrokinetically driven sheath-flow electrospray interface, was used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of protein analytes in complex tryptic digests. MRM channels were developed against a commercial exponential mixture of bovine proteins. Five proteins spanning four orders of magnitude concentration range were confidently detected from only 2.5 ng of the digest mixture; the mass detection limits (S/N=3) of two detected proteins, alpha-casein and glutamate dehydrogenasewere about 600 zmole and 30 amole, respectively. This technique was then applied to a RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest. Three proteins were confidently and reproducibly detected from 100 pg of this digest. The sample amount corresponds to the approximate protein content from a single cell, which suggests that CZE-MRM may be a useful analytical tool in chemical cytometry. In addition to providing highly sensitive detection of proteins in complex mixtures, this system is highly rapid; migration time of the protein digests was less than 10 min. PMID:23591184

  2. Microwave NDE method for health-monitoring of concrete structures containing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, A.; Hatfield, S.; Donnell, K. M.; Zoughi, R.; Kurtis, K. E.

    2014-02-01

    The presence of reactive aggregates combined with sufficient moisture and concentration of alkalis are the three basic requirements for damage due alkali-silica reaction (ASR) gel formation and expansion in concrete. For health-monitoring of concrete structures, and in order to investigate the potential for detecting ASR gel formation in existing structures, one potential technique involves studying changes in the temporal complex dielectric constant of concrete structures. In this paper, a microwave nondestructive testing approach is proposed which involves soaking two hardened mortar samples and measuring the change in their temporal complex dielectric constant in order to distinguish between the sample containing ASR gel and the one devoid of it. Part of the free water becomes bound in the sample containing ASR gel and since a portion of the microcracks in this sample contain ASR gel, the rate of evaporation of water of the two samples is expected to be different. The complex dielectric constant of the samples is significantly dependent upon the volumetric level and movement (in and out of the samples) of free water. Therefore, studying the relative different temporal rate of change in this parameter is expected to yield information about the presence or absence of ASR gel.

  3. Structural characterizaiton and gas reactions of small metal particles by high-resolution, in-situ TEM and TED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The existing in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) facility was improved by adding a separately pumped mini-specimen chamber. The chamber contains wire-evaporation sources for three metals and a specimen heater for moderate substrate temperatures. A sample introduction device was constructed, installed, and tested, facilitating rapid introduction of a specimen into the mini-chamber while maintaining the background pressure in that chamber in the 10(-9) millibar range. Small particles and clusters of Pd, grown by deposition from the vapor phase in an in-situ TEM facility on amorphous and crystalline support films of alumina and on ultra-thin carbon films, were analyzed by conventional high-resolution TEM and image analysis in terms of detectability, number density, and size distribution. The smallest particles that could be detected and counted contained no more than 6 atoms; size determinations could be made for particles 1 nm in diameter. The influence of various oxygen plasma treatments, annealing treatments, and of increasing the substrate temperature during deposition was investigated. The TEM technique was employed to demonstrate that under otherwise identica l conditions the lattice parameter of Pd particles in the 1 to 2 nm size range and supported in random orientation on ex-situ prepared mica films is expanded by some 3% when compared to 5 nm size particles. It is believed that this expansion is neither a small-particle diffraction effect nor due to pseudomorphism, but that it is due to a annealing-induced transformation of the small as-deposited particles with predominantly composite crystal structures into larger particles with true f.c.c. structure and thus inherently smaller lattice parameter.

  4. Discriminative detection of low-abundance point mutations using a PCR/ligase detection reaction/capillary gel electrophoresis method and fluorescence dual-channel monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mariko; Shimase, Koji; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2014-04-01

    We applied a facile LIF dual-channel monitoring system recently developed and reported by our group to the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction/CGE method for detecting low-abundance point mutations present in a wild-type sequence-dominated population. Mutation discrimination limits and signaling fidelity of the analytical system were evaluated using three mutant variations in codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene that have high diagnostic value for colorectal cancer. We demonstrated the high sensitivity of the present method by detecting rare mutations present among an excess of wild-type alleles (one mutation among ~100 normal sequences). This method also simultaneously interrogated the allelic compositions of the test samples with high specificity through spectral discrimination of the dye-tagged ligase detection reaction products using the dual-channel monitoring system.

  5. Active coatings for SiC particles to reduce the degradation by liquid aluminium during processing of aluminium matrix composites: study of interfacial reactions.

    PubMed

    Ureña, A.; Rodrigo, P.; Baldonedo, J. L.; Gil, L.

    2001-02-01

    The application of a surface coating on SiC particles is studied as an alternative means of solving problems of reactivity between SiC reinforcements and molten aluminium and problems of low wetting which limit the application of casting routes for fabrication of Al-SiCp composites. The selected active barrier was a ceramic composed of SiO2, which was generated by controlled oxidation of the SiC particles. The coating behaves as an active barrier, preventing a direct reaction between molten aluminium and SiC to form Al4C3 as the main degradation product. At the same time, the SiO2 provokes other interfacial reactions, which are responsible for an improvement in wetting behaviour. Composites were prepared by mixing and compacting SiC particles with Al powders followed by melting in a vacuum furnace, and varying the residence time. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and field emission TEM were employed as the main characterization techniques to study the interfacial reactions occurring between the barrier and the molten aluminium. These studies showed that the SiO2 coating behaves as an active barrier which reacts with the molten Al to form a glassy phase Al-Si-O. This compound underwent partial crystallization during the composite manufacture to form mullite. The formation of an outer crystalline layer, composed mainly of Al2O3, was also detected. Participation of other secondary interface reactions inside the active barrier was also identified by HREM techniques.

  6. Monitoring human parvovirus B19 virus-like particles and antibody complexes in solution by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Toivola, Jouni; Michel, Patrik O; Gilbert, Leona; Lahtinen, Tomi; Marjomäki, Varpu; Hedman, Klaus; Vuento, Matti; Oker-Blom, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used in monitoring human parvovirus B19 virus-like particle (VLP) antibody complexes from acute phase and past-immunity serum samples. The Oregon Green 488-labeled VLPs gave an average diffusion coefficient of 1.7 x 10(-7) cm2 s(-1) with an apparent hydrodynamic radius of 14 nm. After incubation of the fluorescent VLPs with an acute phase serum sample, the mobility information obtained from the fluorescence intensity fluctuation by autocorrelation analysis showed an average diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1), corresponding to an average radius of 157 nm. In contrast, incubation of the fluorescent VLPs with a past-immunity serum sample gave an average diffusion coefficient of 3.5 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1) and a radius of 69 nm. A control serum devoid of B19 antibodies caused a change in the diffusion coefficient from 1.7 x 10(-7) to 1.6 x 10(-7) cm2 s(-1), which is much smaller than that observed with acute phase or past-immunity sera. Thus, VLP-antibody complexes with different diffusion coefficients could be identified for the acute phase and past-immunity sera. FCS measurement of VLP-immune complexes could be useful in distinguishing between antibodies present in acute phase or past-immunity sera as well as in titration of the VLPs.

  7. An Experimental Study of Atmospheric Homogeneous Nucleation: Cluster Growth and Gas-Particle Reactions of H2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisele, F. L.

    1996-01-01

    The work proposed on this project included both field and laboratory studies. The laboratory studies were to consist of measurements of H2SO4 uptake and evaporation from aerosols of varying chemical composition, while the field component would include measurements of H2SO4 and other comp