Science.gov

Sample records for particle movement solids

  1. Understanding the lateral movement of particles adsorbed at a solid-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Savaji, Kunal; Li, Xue; Couzis, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we study the phenomenon of lateral movement of particles that are electrostatically adsorbed at a solid-liquid interface. The experimental system involves negatively charged silica particles of two different sizes (65 nm and 90 nm) that are exposed to the positively charged solid surface (silane coated silicon wafer) in sequential steps. The particle-adsorbed wafers are analyzed under a scanning electron microscope and the images are processed to determine the pair-correlation function for the particles adsorbed in the first step. From the pair correlation data and the particle surface coverage data we show that the adsorbed particles are mobile at the solid-liquid interface. In specific, we show that the adsorbed particles are mobile at the solid-liquid interface when there is a driving force for the adsorbed particles to move. The driving force in the scheme of experiments discussed in this paper is the reduction in the free energy of the system.

  2. The movement of particles in liquid metals under gravity forces and the interaction of particles with advancing solid-liquid interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    The problems of shrinkage and gas porosity are discussed. Gravity forces enhance the removal of gas bubbles from a metal melt and contribute to the feeding of shrinkage porosity in castings. Experiments are reviewed which determine how large a density difference is required for metal particles to float or sink in a metal melt and to what extent do factors not considered in Stokes Law influence particle movement in a real system. As to the interaction of particles with an advancing solid-liquid interface, the results indicate that the metal particles are not rejected in a metal melt, and that concentrations of particles in a metal following solidification are due to other factors.

  3. Movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-02-03

    Manipulation of DNA and cells/spores using dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces to perform sample preparation protocols for polymerized chain reaction (PCR) based assays for various applications. This is accomplished by movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping. DEP forces induce a dipole in particles, and these particles can be trapped in non-uniform fields. The particles can be trapped in the high field strength region of one set of electrodes. By switching off this field and switching on an adjacent electrodes, particles can be moved down a channel with little or no flow.

  4. Mars - Wind friction speeds for particle movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Leach, R.; White, B.; Iversen, J.; Pollack, J.

    1976-01-01

    Wind friction threshold speeds for particle movement were determined in a low pressure boundary layer wind tunnel at an atmospheric pressure of 5.3 mb. The results imply that for comparable pressures on Mars, the minimum wind friction threshold speed is about 2.5 m/sec, which would require free-stream winds of 50 to 135 m/sec, depending on the character of the surface and the atmospheric conditions. The corresponding wind speeds at the height of the Viking lander meteorology instrument would be about a factor of two less than the free-stream wind speed. The particle size most easily moved by winds on Mars is about 160 microns; particles both larger and smaller than this (at least down to about 5 microns) require stronger winds to initiate movement.

  5. In Situ Solid Particle Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Particle seeding is a key diagnostic component of filter testing and flow imaging techniques. Typical particle generators rely on pressurized air or gas sources to propel the particles into the flow field. Other techniques involve liquid droplet atomizers. These conventional techniques have drawbacks that include challenging access to the flow field, flow and pressure disturbances to the investigated flow, and they are prohibitive in high-temperature, non-standard, extreme, and closed-system flow conditions and environments. In this concept, the particles are supplied directly within a flow environment. A particle sample cartridge containing the particles is positioned somewhere inside the flow field. The particles are ejected into the flow by mechanical brush/wiper feeding and sieving that takes place within the cartridge chamber. Some aspects of this concept are based on established material handling techniques, but they have not been used previously in the current configuration, in combination with flow seeding concepts, and in the current operational mode. Unlike other particle generation methods, this concept has control over the particle size range ejected, breaks up agglomerates, and is gravity-independent. This makes this device useful for testing in microgravity environments.

  6. Solid Hydrogen Particles Analyzed for Atomic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    Solid hydrogen particles have been selected as a means of storing atomic propellants in future launch vehicles (refs. 1 to 2). In preparation for this, hydrogen particle formation in liquid helium was tested experimentally. These experiments were conducted to visually characterize the particles and to observe their formation and molecular transformations (aging) while in liquid helium. The particle sizes, molecular transformations, and agglomeration times were estimated from video image analyses. The experiments were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF, ref. 3). The facility has a vacuum tank, into which the experimental setup was placed. The vacuum tank prevented heat leaks and subsequent boiloff of the liquid helium, and the supporting systems maintained the temperature and pressure of the liquid helium bath where the solid particles were created. As the operation of the apparatus was developed, the hydrogen particles were easily visualized. The figures (ref. 1) show images from the experimental runs. The first image shows the initial particle freezing, and the second image shows the particles after the small particles have agglomerated. The particles finally all clump, but stick together loosely. The solid particles tended to agglomerate within a maximum of 11 min, and the agglomerate was very weak. Because the hydrogen particles are buoyant in the helium, the agglomerate tends to compact itself into a flat pancake on the surface of the helium. This pancake agglomerate is easily broken apart by reducing the pressure above the liquid. The weak agglomerate implies that the particles can be used as a gelling agent for the liquid helium, as well as a storage medium for atomic boron, carbon, or hydrogen. The smallest particle sizes that resulted from the initial freezing experiments were about 1.8 mm. About 50 percent of the particles formed were between 1.8 to 4.6 mm in diameter. These very

  7. Movement mechanisms of gross solids in intermittent flow.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, K; Butler, D

    2003-01-01

    Gross solids, such as used tampons, sanitary towels and faecal stools, are introduced into the sewer network via the WC. Although small diameter pipes (< or = 150mm diameter) make up a large proportion of most sewer networks, the transport behaviour of gross solids in these smaller pipes is not fully established. In particular, there are concerns about the effect of water conservation measures on the transport of gross solids in the intermittent flow regime prevalent in small pipes. This paper introduces a study carried out on the movement of solids in this flow regime. An extensive series of experiments has been carried out to investigate the movement mechanisms and behaviour in detail. It was found that there are three different mechanisms of movement, and photographic evidence is provided in the paper. The concept and implications of the "limiting solid transport distance" is also introduced. It is argued that solid movement is dependent on factors other than just WC flush volume and that increased blockage potential is not inevitable.

  8. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Haverty, Thomas W.; Nordin, Carl W.; Tyree, William H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  9. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  10. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  11. Particle Movements in a Rotating Ultrasonic Waveguide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Glenn

    An apparatus was designed to allow a suspension of biological cells to be subjected to a well-defined, 160 kHz standing ultrasonic field while being viewed through a stereo microscope. Cell positions were recorded either photographically or by means of a video camera. The chamber cavity, which has a square cross-section and pressure-release walls, acts as a single-mode acoustic waveguide. The well -defined, single-mode field is achieved through use of a special design involving air-filled chamber windows. Aqueous metrizamide solution is used to fill the ultrasonic chamber because it has a unique combination of properties including low viscosity, low osmolarity, and high density. The chamber rotates about its axis (whose inclination can be varied) producing the centripetal force necessary to contain the buoyant cells in the axial region. Observations were made on stroboscopically illuminated suspensions both of latex microspheres and of red blood cells (RBC's). Small (6-14 μm) latex microspheres or RBC's formed aggregates at half-wavelength intervals along the rotation axis near positions of acoustic pressure-amplitude (PA) minima. In addition, near the positions of PA maxima the particles would typically arrange themselves into axially symmetric distributions with evidence of flow. Larger (273 μm) latex microspheres also formed aggregates near the axial positions of PA minima. If these aggregates were sufficiently large, then much smaller aggregates would often form near positions of PA maxima. (This is in contrast with the flowing distributions seen near these positions when smaller particles were used.). The presence and shape of aggregates near positions of PA minima are explained by a scalar-potential theory for non-interacting particles that considers gravitational, rotational, and acoustic radiation forces on the particles. Theory was developed to describe acoustic streaming in a rotating fluid. This theory was then generalized to treat flow generated by a

  12. Stationary solid particle attractors in standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappa, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present analysis extends earlier theories on patterns formed by the spontaneous accumulation and ordering of solid particles in certain types of flow by considering the case in which the particle carrier flow has the typical features of a "standing wave." For the first time an explanation for this phenomenon is elaborated through arguments based on the interplay between vorticity and wave-interference dynamics (following a deductive approach after the so-called phase-locking or "resonance" model originally introduced by Pushkin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 234501 (2011)] and later variants developed by Lappa [Phys. Fluids 25(1), 012101 (2013) and Lappa, Chaos 23(1), 013105 (2013)]). The results of dedicated numerical simulations are used in synergy with available experimental work. An interesting analogy is proposed with the famous Chladni's series of experiments on patterns formed by sand on vibrating plates.

  13. Stationary solid particle attractors in standing waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lappa, Marcello E-mail: marcello.lappa@telespazio.com

    2014-01-15

    The present analysis extends earlier theories on patterns formed by the spontaneous accumulation and ordering of solid particles in certain types of flow by considering the case in which the particle carrier flow has the typical features of a “standing wave.” For the first time an explanation for this phenomenon is elaborated through arguments based on the interplay between vorticity and wave-interference dynamics (following a deductive approach after the so-called phase-locking or “resonance” model originally introduced by Pushkin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 234501 (2011)] and later variants developed by Lappa [Phys. Fluids 25(1), 012101 (2013) and Lappa, Chaos 23(1), 013105 (2013)]). The results of dedicated numerical simulations are used in synergy with available experimental work. An interesting analogy is proposed with the famous Chladni's series of experiments on patterns formed by sand on vibrating plates.

  14. Stochastic analysis of particle movement over a dune bed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Baum K.; Jobson, Harvey E.

    1977-01-01

    Stochastic models are available that can be used to predict the transport and dispersion of bed-material sediment particles in an alluvial channel. These models are based on the proposition that the movement of a single bed-material sediment particle consists of a series of steps of random length separated by rest periods of random duration and, therefore, application of the models requires a knowledge of the probability distributions of the step lengths, the rest periods, the elevation of particle deposition, and the elevation of particle erosion. The procedure was tested by determining distributions from bed profiles formed in a large laboratory flume with a coarse sand as the bed material. The elevation of particle deposition and the elevation of particle erosion can be considered to be identically distributed, and their distribution can be described by either a ' truncated Gaussian ' or a ' triangular ' density function. The conditional probability distribution of the rest period given the elevation of particle deposition closely followed the two-parameter gamma distribution. The conditional probability distribution of the step length given the elevation of particle erosion and the elevation of particle deposition also closely followed the two-parameter gamma density function. For a given flow, the scale and shape parameters describing the gamma probability distributions can be expressed as functions of bed-elevation. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trell, Erik

    2008-10-01

    The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it "is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation" also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)×O(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each

  16. Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite

    SciTech Connect

    Trell, Erik

    2008-10-17

    The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it ''is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation'' also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)xO(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each

  17. Experimental detection of transverse particle movement with structured light

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Belmonte, Aniceto; Torres, Juan P.

    2013-01-01

    One procedure widely used to detect the velocity of a moving object is by using the Doppler effect. This is the perceived change in frequency of a wave caused by the relative motion between the emitter and the detector, or between the detector and a reflecting target. The relative movement, in turn, generates a time-varying phase which translates into the detected frequency shift. The classical longitudinal Doppler effect is sensitive only to the velocity of the target along the line-of-sight between the emitter and the detector (longitudinal velocity), since any transverse velocity generates no frequency shift. This makes the transverse velocity undetectable in the classical scheme. Although there exists a relativistic transverse Doppler effect, it gives values that are too small for the typical velocities involved in most laser remote sensing applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate a novel way to detect transverse velocities. The key concept is the use of structured light beams. These beams are unique in the sense that their phases can be engineered such that each point in its transverse plane has an associated phase value. When a particle moves across the beam, the reflected light will carry information about the particle's movement through the variation of the phase of the light that reaches the detector, producing a frequency shift associated with the movement of the particle in the transverse plane. PMID:24085150

  18. Derivative particles for simulating detailed movements of fluids.

    PubMed

    Song, Oh-young; Kim, Doyub; Ko, Hyeong-Seok

    2007-01-01

    We present a new fluid simulation technique that significantly reduces the nonphysical dissipation of velocity. The proposed method is based on an apt use of particles and derivative information. We note that a major source of numerical dissipation in the conventional Navier-Stokes equations solver lies in the advection step. Hence, starting with the conventional grid-based simulator, when the details of fluid movements need to be simulated, we replace the advection part with a particle simulator. When swapping between the grid-based and particle-based simulators, the physical quantities such as the level set and velocity must be converted. For this purpose, we develop a novel dissipation-suppressing conversion procedure that utilizes the derivative information stored in the particles, as well as in the grid points. For the fluid regions where such details are not needed, the advection is simulated using an octree-based constrained interpolation profile (CIP) solver, which we develop in this work. Through several experiments, we show that the proposed technique can reproduce the detailed movements of high-Reynolds-number fluids such as droplets/bubbles, thin water sheets, and whirlpools. The increased accuracy in the advection, which forms the basis of the proposed technique, can also be used to produce better results in larger scale fluid simulations.

  19. Undergraduate Teaching in Solids Processing and Particle Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, George G.; Jacob, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Argues that newly-graduated chemical engineers frequently encounter projects that involve solids processing and find their knowledge of particle technology to be inadequate. Describes a senior undergraduate course on solids processing. (DDR)

  20. Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

  1. Surface activity of solid particles with extremely rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Yoshimune; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2008-01-15

    The solid particles are adsorbed at liquid-liquid interfaces and form self-assembled structures when the particles have suitable wettability to both liquids. Here, we show theoretically how the extreme roughness on the particle surface affects their adsorption properties. In our previous work, we discussed the adsorption behavior of the solid particles with microstructured surfaces using the so-called Wenzel model [Y. Nonomura et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 13124]. In the present study, the wettability and the adsorbed position of the particles with extremely rough surfaces are studied based on the Cassie-Baxter model. We predict that the adsorbed position and the interfacial energy depend on the interfacial tensions between the solid and liquid phases, the radius of the particle, and the fraction of the particle surface area that is in contact with the external liquid phase. Interestingly, the initial state of the system governs whether the particle is adsorbed at the interface or not. The shape of the particle is also an important factor which governs the adsorbed position. The disk-shaped particle and the spherical particle which is partially covered with the extremely rough surface, i.e. Janus particle, are adsorbed at the liquid-liquid interface in an oriented state. We should consider not only the interfacial tensions, but also the surface structure and the particle shape to control the adsorption behavior of the particle.

  2. Application of The Stochastic Particle Tracking Model To Evaluate Particle Movement Uncertainty in Extreme Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.; Lin, E.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, modeling of suspended sediment particle movement in extreme flows is proposed by stochastic particle tracking modeling approaches. The proposed stochastic model is governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE) composed of two random processes (a Wiener process and a Poisson process), and a random variable (i.e., flow magnitude) simulated by the extreme value Type I distribution. An extreme flow is defined as a hydrologic flow event (such as a flash flood) or a large flow perturbation with a low probability of occurrence and a high impact on its ambient flow environment. In the proposed particle tracking model, a random term mainly caused by fluid eddy motions is modeled as a Wiener process, while the random occurrences of a sequence of extreme flows can be modeled as a Poisson process. Following previous work by Oh and Tsai (2010)[1] and Tsai et al. (2014)[2], this study is intended to modify the jump term, which models the abrupt changes of particle position in the extreme flow environments. It is proposed that the probabilistic magnitude of extreme events can be simulated by the extreme value type I (EV I) distribution. The ensemble mean and variance of particle trajectory can be obtained from the proposed stochastic models via simulations. Our findings suggest that the ability to consider the probabilistic magnitude of extreme events can provide a more comprehensive and realistic estimate of the uncertainty of particle movement when extreme flow events occur. It is also found that the variance of particle position may be attributed to both the random magnitudes and occurrences of particle jumps in the presence of extreme flow events. It is demonstrated from this study that the proposed model can more explicitly quantify the uncertainty of particle movement by taking into considerations both the random arrival process of extreme flows and the variability of the extreme flow magnitude. [1] Oh, J. S., and Tsai, C.W.(2010). "A stochastic jump

  3. Application of nuclear techniques in two-phase liquid-solid particles hydrotransport investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Marcin; Hanus, Robert; Vlasak, Pavel; Petryka, Leszek; Jaszczur, Marek

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents gamma radiation application to two-phase flow investigation in a vertical pipeline, where the flow of solid particles transported by water was examined by use of both: radiotracers and gamma-absorption method. The simultaneous use of two methods allows analyzing of important parameters of solid particles hydrotransport. In the described experiments as solid phase the ceramic models representing natural polymetallic ocean nodules were used. Radiotracers allow to track the movements of selected models, representing specified grain size and the designation of its velocity. However gamma-absorption method enables measurement of average solid-phase velocity. For analysis of electrical signals obtained from scintillation detectors the cross-correlation method has been applied.

  4. Development of surfaces repelling negatively buoyant solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmler, Carina; Alexeev, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Using a hybrid computational method that integrates the lattice Boltzmann model for fluid dynamics and the lattice spring model for solids, we examine the motion of negatively buoyant solid microparticles in shear flow near a solid wall decorated with regularly distributed rigid posts. The posts are arranged in a square pattern and tilted relative to the flow direction. We show that when rigid posts are tilted against flow, secondary flows emerge that prevent the deposition of suspended particles on the solid surface. We probe the effect of post geometry on the development of secondary flows and identify the optimal post architecture in terms of the mass of levitated solid particles. Our results are useful for designing anti-fouling surfaces that repel colloidal particles carried by fluid.

  5. Solid Hydrogen Particles and Flow Rates Analyzed for Atomic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments were conducted at Glenn's Small Multipurpose Research Facility (SMIRF, ref. 5). The experimental setup was placed in the facility's vacuum tank to prevent heat leaks and subsequent boiloff of the liquid helium. Supporting systems maintained the temperature and pressure of the liquid helium bath where the solid particles were created. Solid hydrogen particle formation was tested from February 23 to April 2, 2001. Millimeter-sized solid-hydrogen particles were formed in a Dewar of liquid helium as a prelude to creating atomic fuels and propellants for aerospace vehicles. Atomic fuels or propellants are created when atomic boron, carbon, or hydrogen is stored in solid hydrogen particles. The current testing characterized the solid hydrogen particles without the atomic species, as a first step to creating a feed system for the atomic fuels and propellants. This testing did not create atomic species, but only sought to understand the solid hydrogen particle formation and behavior in the liquid helium. In these tests, video images of the solid particle formation were recorded, and the total mass flow rate of the hydrogen was measured. The mass of hydrogen that went into the gaseous phase was also recorded using a commercially available residual gas analyzer. The temperatures, pressures, and flow rates of the liquids and gases in the test apparatus were recorded as well. Testing conducted in 1999 recorded particles as small as 2 to 5 mm in diameter. The current testing extended the testing conditions to a very cold Dewar ullage gas of about 20 to 90 K above the 4 K liquid helium. With the very cold Dewar gas, the hydrogen freezing process took on new dimensions, in some cases creating particles so small that they seemed to be microscopic, appearing as infinitesimally small scintillations on the videotaped images.

  6. Inclusion of solid particles in bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Serafica, G; Mormino, R; Bungay, H

    2002-05-01

    Depending upon the strain and the method of cultivation, bacterial cellulose can be reticulated filaments, pellets, or a dense, tough gel called a pellicle. The pellicular form is commonly made by surface culture, but a rotating disk bioreactor is more efficient and reduces the time of a run to about 3.5 days instead of the usual 12-20 days. Particles added to the medium as the gel is forming are trapped to form a new class of composite materials. Particles enter the films that are forming on the disks at rates depending on the size and geometry of the particle, as well as the rotational speed and concentration of the suspension.

  7. Foam drainage in the presence of solid particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Nguyen, A V

    2016-03-28

    We conducted forced drainage experiments to study the liquid flow within the foams stabilized by a cationic surfactant (CTAB) in the presence of partially hydrophobic silica particles. The results show that the presence of solid particles, even when present in small amounts (0.0932 g L(-1) foam), can significantly decrease the foam permeability. The scaling behaviour (power law) between the drainage velocity and the imposed flow rate indicates that the presence of solid particles in the foams triggers a transition of the foam drainage regime from a node-dominated regime to a Plateau border-dominated regime. We applied two foam drainage equations for aqueous foams to simulate the experimental data and interpret the transition. The simulation results show that the presence of solid particles in the foams increases the rigidity of the interfaces and the viscous losses in the channels (the Plateau borders) of the foams, and decreases the foam permeability. We also generalize the theory for the effects of unattached hydrophilic particles on foam drainage by considering the effects of hydrophobicity and concentration of solid particles on the confinement of foam networks. This study explores liquid drainage in three-phase foams and is relevant to the field of hydrophobic particle separation by froth flotation, in which the wash water is commonly applied to the froth layer to improve the product grade.

  8. Particle Sizing in Solid Rocket Motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    reduced. A reduction in agglomeration can be expected due to the geometry of the closely packed AP particles. Tighter AP intersticial spacing reduces... intersticial "pockets" which enhanced agglomeration more than did the 4.69% aluminum content propellant matrix. * There was a large increase in quantities of

  9. A continuum theory of a lubrication problem with solid particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Fuling; Khonsari, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    The governing equations for a two-dimensional lubrication problem involving the mixture of a Newtonian fluid with solid particles at an arbitrary volume fraction are developed using the theory of interacting continuua (mixture theory). The equations take the interaction between the fluid and the particles into consideration. Provision is made for the possibility of particle slippage at the boundaries. The equations are simplified assuming that the solid volume fraction varies in the sliding direction alone. Equations are solved for the velocity of the fluid phase and that of the solid phase of the mixture flow in the clearance space of an arbitrary shaped bearing. It is shown that the classical pure fluid case can be recovered as a special case of the solutions presented. Extensive numerical solutions are presented to quantify the effect of particulate solid for a number of pertinent performance parameters for both slider and journal bearings. Included in the results are discussions on the influence of particle slippage on the boundaries as well as the role of the interacting body force between the fluid and solid particles.

  10. Trajectories of solid particles spalled from a carbonaceous heat shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. B.; Park, C.

    1982-01-01

    Trajectories are calculated of solid carbon particles that spall from a carbonaceous heat shield and travel through a given flow field. The mathematical model takes into account mass, momentum, and energy conservation during evaporation of the particles in an effort to understand spallation phenomena and their consequences in a physical way. The solution technique is applied to available Galileo Probe flow field solutions. Plots of trajectories and other particle parameters are presented for a range of initial particle sizes and velocities. It is shown that a significant amount of gaseous carbon is deposited in the inviscid region and ahead of the bow shock as well as in the ablation layer.

  11. Experimental validation of different modeling approaches for solid particle receivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Khalsa, Siri Sahib S.; Amsbeck, Lars , Spain and Stuttgart, Germany); Roger, Marc , Spain and Stuttgart, Germany); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Buck, Reiner , Spain and Stuttgart, Germany); Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2009-07-01

    Solid particle receivers have the potential to provide high-temperature heat for advanced power cycles, thermochemical processes, and thermal storage via direct particle absorption of concentrated solar energy. This paper presents two different models to evaluate the performance of these systems. One model is a detailed computational fluid dynamics model using FLUENT that includes irradiation from the concentrated solar flux, two-band re-radiation and emission within the cavity, discrete-phase particle transport and heat transfer, gas-phase convection, wall conduction, and radiative and convective heat losses. The second model is an easy-to-use and fast simulation code using Matlab that includes solar and thermal radiation exchange between the particle curtain, cavity walls, and aperture, but neglects convection. Both models were compared to unheated particle flow tests and to on-sun heating tests. Comparisons between measured and simulated particle velocities, opacity, particle volume fractions, particle temperatures, and thermal efficiencies were found to be in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were also performed with the models to identify parameters and modifications to improve the performance of the solid particle receiver.

  12. An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Annele; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Koop, Thomas; Kannosto, Jonna; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Jani; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Laaksonen, Ari

    2010-10-14

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed in the atmosphere from condensable oxidation products of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). On a global scale, biogenic VOCs account for about 90% of VOC emissions and of SOA formation (90 billion kilograms of carbon per year). SOA particles can scatter radiation and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and thereby influence the Earth's radiation balance and climate. They consist of a myriad of different compounds with varying physicochemical properties, and little information is available on the phase state of SOA particles. Gas-particle partitioning models usually assume that SOA particles are liquid, but here we present experimental evidence that they can be solid under ambient conditions. We investigated biogenic SOA particles formed from oxidation products of VOCs in plant chamber experiments and in boreal forests within a few hours after atmospheric nucleation events. On the basis of observed particle bouncing in an aerosol impactor and of electron microscopy we conclude that biogenic SOA particles can adopt an amorphous solid-most probably glassy-state. This amorphous solid state should provoke a rethinking of SOA processes because it may influence the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds, reduce the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions, affect the particles' ability to accommodate water and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and change the atmospheric lifetime of the particles. Thus, the results of this study challenge traditional views of the kinetics and thermodynamics of SOA formation and transformation in the atmosphere and their implications for air quality and climate.

  13. Global Evolution of Solid Matter in Turbulent Protoplanetry Disks. Part 1; Aerodynamics of Solid Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Valageas, P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of planetary system formation and its subsequent character can only be addressed by studying the global evolution of solid material entrained in gaseous protoplanetary disks. We start to investigate this problem by considering the space-time development of aerodynamic forces that cause solid particles to decouple from the gas. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that only the smallest particles are attached to the gas, or that the radial distribution of the solid matter has no momentary relation to the radial distribution of the gas. We present the illustrative example wherein a gaseous disk of 0.245 solar mass and angular momentum of 5.6 x 10(exp 52) g/sq cm/s is allowed to evolve due to turbulent viscosity characterized by either alpha = 10(exp -2) or alpha = 10(exp -3). The motion of solid particles suspended in a viscously evolving gaseous disk is calculated numerically for particles of different sizes. In addition we calculate the global evolution of single-sized, noncoagulating particles. We find that particles smaller than 0.1 cm move with the gas; larger particles have significant radial velocities relative to the gas. Particles larger than 0.1 cm but smaller than 10(exp 3) cm have inward radial velocities much larger than the gas, whereas particles larger than 10(exp 4) cm have inward velocities much smaller than the gas. A significant difference in the form of the radial distribution of solids and the gas develops with time. It is the radial distribution of solids, rather than the gas, that determines the character of an emerging planetary system.

  14. Study of Solid Particle Behavior in High Temperature Gas Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, A.; Bauder, U.; Stindl, T.; Fertig, M.; Herdrich, G.; Röser, H.-P.

    2009-01-01

    The Euler-Lagrangian approach is used for the simulation of solid particles in hypersonic entry flows. For flow field simulation, the program SINA (Sequential Iterative Non-equilibrium Algorithm) developed at the Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme is used. The model for the effect of the carrier gas on a particle includes drag force and particle heating only. Other parameters like lift Magnus force or damping torque are not taken into account so far. The reverse effect of the particle phase on the gaseous phase is currently neglected. Parametric analysis is done regarding the impact of variation in the physical input conditions like position, velocity, size and material of the particle. Convective heat fluxes onto the surface of the particle and its radiative cooling are discussed. The variation of particle temperature under different conditions is presented. The influence of various input conditions on the trajectory is explained. A semi empirical model for the particle wall interaction is also discussed and the influence of the wall on the particle trajectory with different particle conditions is presented. The heat fluxes onto the wall due to impingement of particles are also computed and compared with the heat fluxes from the gas.

  15. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  16. Modification of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence by solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Wontae

    2005-12-01

    Particle-laden flows are prevalent in natural and industrial environments. Dilute loadings of small, heavy particles have been observed to attenuate the turbulence levels of the carrier-phase flow, up to 80% in some cases. We attempt to increase the physical understanding of this complex phenomenon by studying the interaction of solid particles with the most fundamental type of turbulence, which is homogeneous and isotropic with no mean flow. A flow facility was developed that could create air turbulence in a nearly-spherical chamber by means of synthetic jet actuators mounted on the corners. Loudspeakers were used as the actuators. Stationary turbulence and natural decaying turbulence were investigated using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry for the base flow qualification. Results indicated that the turbulence was fairly homogeneous throughout the measurement domain and very isotropic, with small mean flow. The particle-laden flow experiments were conducted in two different environments, the lab and in micro-gravity, to examine the effects of particle wakes and flow structure distortion caused by settling particles. The laboratory experiments showed that glass particles with diameters on the order of the turbulence Kolmogorov length scale attenuated the fluid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and dissipation rate with increasing particle mass loadings. The main source of fluid TKE production in the chamber was the speakers, but the loss of potential energy of the settling particles also resulted in a significant amount of production of extra TKE. The sink of TKE in the chamber was due to the ordinary fluid viscous dissipation and extra dissipation caused by particles. This extra dissipation could be divided into "unresolved" dissipation caused by local velocity disturbances in the vicinity of the small particles and dissipation caused by large-scale flow distortions from particle wakes and particle clusters. The micro-gravity experiments in NASA's KC-135

  17. Environmental solid particle effects on compressor cascade performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabakoff, W.; Balan, C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of suspended solid particles on the performance of the compressor cascade was investigated experimentally in a specially built cascade tunnel, using quartz sand particles. The cascades were made of NACA 65(10)10 airfoils. Three cascades were tested, one accelerating cascade and two diffusing cascades. The theoretical analysis assumes inviscid and incompressible two dimensional flow. The momentum exchange between the fluid and the particle is accounted for by the interphase force terms in the fluid momentum equation. The modified fluid phase momentum equations and the continuity equation are reduced to the conventional stream function vorticity formulation. The method treats the fluid phase in the Eulerian system and the particle phase in Lagrangian system. The experimental results indicate a small increase in the blade surface static pressures, while the theoretical results indicate a small decrease. The theoretical analysis, also predicts the loss in total pressure associated with the particulate flow through the cascade.

  18. Kinetic behavior of solid particles in fluidized beds: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kono, H.O.; Huang, C.C.

    1987-10-01

    This report summarizes technical accomplishments for the first year in a 3-year contract project for the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract number AC21-86MC23249. The objectives of the project are (1) to develop experimental techniques for measuring the forces of fluidized particles, and (2) to predict solid particle performance in fluidized beds using data analysis and mathematical modeling. During the first year, the fracture-sensitive tracer-particle method was developed and applied to investigate the effects of fluidized particle size, superficial gas velocity, bed height, bed diameter, and bed configuration on the kinetic behavior of solid particles in fluidized beds. Quantitative data and comprehensive information were obtained. A piezoresistive strain-gauge sensor and a PC data-acquisition system were also developed; these are being used to measure the force distribution in fluidized beds. The pressure fluctuation method will also be investigated in the near future. 12 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A Refined Model for Solid Particle Rock Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momber, A. W.

    2016-02-01

    A procedure for the estimation of distribution parameters of a Weibull distribution model K 1 = f( K Ic 12/4 / σ C 23/4 ) for solid particle erosion, as recently suggested in Rock Mech Rock Eng, doi: 10.1007/s00603-014-0658-x, 2014, is derived. The procedure is based on examinations of elastic-plastically responding rocks (rhyolite, granite) and plastically responding rocks (limestone, schist). The types of response are quantified through SEM inspections of eroded surfaces. Quantitative numbers for the distribution parameter K 1 are calculated for 30 rock materials, which cover a wide range of mechanical properties. The ranking according to the parameter K 1 is related to qualitative rock classification schemes. A modified proposal for the erosion of schist due to solid particle impingement at normal incidence is introduced.

  20. Peristaltic pumping of solid particles immersed in a viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrispell, John; Fauci, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Peristaltic pumping of fluid is a fundamental method of transport in many biological processes. In some instances, particles of appreciable size are transported along with the fluid, such as ovum transport in the oviduct or kidney stones in the ureter. In some of these biological settings, the fluid may be viscoelastic. In such a case, a nonlinear constitutive equation to describe the evolution of the viscoelastic contribution to the stress tensor must be included in the governing equations. Here we use an immersed boundary framework to study peristaltic transport of a macroscopic solid particle in a viscoelastic fluid governed by a Navier-Stokes/Oldroyd-B model. Numerical simulations of peristaltic pumping as a function of Weissenberg number are presented. We examine the spatial and temporal evolution of the polymer stress field, and also find that the viscoelasticity of the fluid does hamper the overall transport of the particle in the direction of the wave.

  1. Solid dispersion particles of amorphous indomethacin with fine porous silica particles by using spray-drying method.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hirofumi; Nagira, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2005-04-11

    The solid dispersion particles of indomethacin (IMC) were prepared with different types of silica, non-porous (Aerosil 200) or porous silica (Sylysia 350) by using spray-drying method. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis showed that IMC in solid dispersion particles is in amorphous state irrespective of the type of silica formulated. In DSC analysis, the melting peak of IMC in solid dispersion particles with Sylysia 350 shifted to lower temperature than that in solid dispersion particles with Aerosil 200 although the peak of each solid dispersion particles was much smaller than that of original IMC crystals. Dissolution property of IMC was remarkably improved by formulating the silica particles to the solid dispersion particles. In comparing the effect of the type of the silica particles, the dissolution rate of solid dispersion particles with Sylysia 350 was faster than that with Aerosil 200. The formulation amount of IMC did not affect on the amorphous state of IMC in the resultant solid dispersion particles in powder X-ray diffraction patterns. However, the area of the melting peak of IMC in the solid dispersion particles increased and an exothermic peak owing to recrystallization was observed with increasing the IMC content in the DSC patterns. The dissolution rate of IMC from the solid dispersion particles with Sylysia 350 was faster than that of Aerosil 200 irrespective of IMC content. In stability test, amorphous IMC in the solid dispersion particles with each silica particles did not crystallize under storing at severe storage conditions (40 degrees C, 75% RH) for 2 months, while amorphous IMC without silica easily crystallized under same conditions.

  2. Transport coefficients of solid particles immersed in a viscous gas.

    PubMed

    Garzó, Vicente; Fullmer, William D; Hrenya, Christine M; Yin, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Transport properties of a suspension of solid particles in a viscous gas are studied. The dissipation in such systems arises from two sources: inelasticity in particle collisions and viscous dissipation due to the effect of the gas phase on the particles. Here we consider a simplified case in which the mean relative velocity between the gas and solid phases is taken to be zero, such that "thermal drag" is the only remaining gas-solid interaction. Unlike the previous, more general, treatment of the drag force [Garzó et al., J. Fluid Mech. 712, 129 (2012)]JFLSA70022-112010.1017/jfm.2012.404, here we take into account contributions to the (scaled) transport coefficients η^{*} (shear viscosity), κ^{*} (thermal conductivity), and μ^{*} (Dufour-like coefficient) coming from the temperature dependence of the (dimensionless) friction coefficient γ^{*} characterizing the amplitude of the drag force. At moderate densities, the thermal drag model (which is based on the Enskog kinetic equation) is solved by means of the Chapman-Enskog method and the Navier-Stokes transport coefficients are determined in terms of the coefficient of restitution, the solid volume fraction, and the friction coefficient. The results indicate that the effect of the gas phase on η^{*} and μ^{*} is non-negligible (especially in the case of relatively dilute systems) while the form of κ^{*} is the same as the one obtained in the dry granular limit. Finally, as an application of these results, a linear stability analysis of the hydrodynamic equations is carried out to analyze the conditions for stability of the homogeneous cooling state. A comparison with direct numerical simulations shows a good agreement for conditions of practical interest.

  3. Acoustofluidics 15: streaming with sound waves interacting with solid particles.

    PubMed

    Sadhal, S S

    2012-08-07

    In Part 15 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics-exploiting ultrasonic standing waves forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation," we examine the interaction of acoustic fields with solid particles. The main focus here is the interaction of standing waves with spherical particles leading to streaming, together with some discussion on one non-spherical case. We begin with the classical problem of a particle at the velocity antinode of a standing wave, and then treat the problem of a sphere at the velocity node, followed by the intermediate situation of a particle between nodes. Finally, we discuss the effect of deviation from sphericity which brings about interesting fluid mechanics. The entire Focus article is devoted to the analysis of the nonlinear fluid mechanics by singular perturbation methods, and the study of the streaming phenomenon that ensues from the nonlinear interaction. With the intention of being instructive material, this tutorial cannot by any means be considered 'complete and comprehensive' owing to the complexity of the class of problems being covered herein.

  4. Homogenous Surface Nucleation of Solid Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Hamill, P.; Salcedo, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A general surface nucleation rate theory is presented for the homogeneous freezing of crystalline germs on the surfaces of aqueous particles. While nucleation rates in a standard classical homogeneous freezing rate theory scale with volume, the rates in a surface-based theory scale with surface area. The theory is used to convert volume-based information on laboratory freezing rates (in units of cu cm, seconds) of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) aerosols into surface-based values (in units of sq cm, seconds). We show that a surface-based model is capable of reproducing measured nucleation rates of NAT and NAD aerosols from concentrated aqueous HNO3 solutions in the temperature range of 165 to 205 K. Laboratory measured nucleation rates are used to derive free energies for NAT and NAD germ formation in the stratosphere. NAD germ free energies range from about 23 to 26 kcal mole, allowing for fast and efficient homogeneous NAD particle production in the stratosphere. However, NAT germ formation energies are large (greater than 26 kcal mole) enough to prevent efficient NAT particle production in the stratosphere. We show that the atmospheric NAD particle production rates based on the surface rate theory are roughly 2 orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from a standard volume-based rate theory. Atmospheric volume and surface production of NAD particles will nearly cease in the stratosphere when denitrification in the air exceeds 40 and 78%, respectively. We show that a surface-based (volume-based) homogeneous freezing rate theory gives particle production rates, which are (not) consistent with both laboratory and atmospheric data on the nucleation of solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  5. Fracture Toughness Effects in Geomaterial Solid Particle Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momber, A. W.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of fracture toughness on the impingement of geomaterials (rocks and cementitious composites) by quartz particles at velocities between 40 and 140 m/s are investigated experimentally and analytically. If schist is excluded, relative erosion (in g/g) reduces according to a reverse power function if fracture toughness increases. The power exponent depends on impingement velocity, and it varies between -0.64 and -1.33. Lateral cracking erosion models, developed for brittle materials, deliver too high values for relative material erosion. This discrepancy is partly attributed to stress rate effects. Effects of R-curve behavior seem to be marginal. An integral approach E R = K 1 · E {R/P} + (1 - K 1) · E {R/L} is introduced, which considers erosion due to plastic deformation and lateral cracking. A transition function is suggested in order to classify geomaterials according to their response against solid particle impingement.

  6. Fundamental studies of the solid-particle erosion of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Routbort, J. L.; Scattergood, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    The predictions of the theories of solid-particle erosion of brittle materials are compared to experimental results of studies in which angular Al2O3 particles with mean diameters D of 23 to 270 microns are used to erode (111) surfaces of silicon single crystals at impact angles alpha from 20 to 90 deg and velocities v from 30 to 150 m/s. The description of the steady state erosion rate by a power law, delta W varies directly as (v sin alpha)(n)D(m) must be modified to include threshold and plasticity effects. Furthermore the velocity exponent n depends on D. Results using abrasives of different sizes mixed together can be explained using a logarithmic-normal distribution. The results of transient experiments can be used to explain the synergistic effects which are observed using a biomodal distribution of abrasives.

  7. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Shinohara, K.; Darrow, D. S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Medley, S. S.; Cecil, F. E.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2004-11-01

    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure the energy distribution of charge exchange fast neutral particles. The array consists of four Si diode detectors on chords with fixed tangency radii (60, 90, 100, and 120 cm), which view across the three co-injection neutral beam (NB) lines. The calibrated energy range is 40 120KeV and its energy resolution is about 10KeV. Time resolved measurements have been obtained and compared with the E//B Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) results. It is observed that particle fluxes increase strongly and then decay rapidly to a steady level just after NB injection commences. Though this temporal behavior is also observed in the E//B NPA, it is not predicted in TRANSP simulations. In addition, the increase and decay rates in the two NPA systems are different. Example data from plasma discharges will be presented with explanations of these differences.

  8. Alignment of 3-D optical coherence tomography scans to correct eye movement using a particle filtering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S

    2012-07-01

    Eye movement artifacts occurring during 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning is a well-recognized problem that may adversely affect image analysis and interpretation. A particle filtering algorithm is presented in this paper to correct motion in a 3-D dataset by considering eye movement as a target tracking problem in a dynamic system. The proposed particle filtering algorithm is an independent 3-D alignment approach, which does not rely on any reference image. 3-D OCT data is considered as a dynamic system, while the location of each A-scan is represented by the state space. A particle set is used to approximate the probability density of the state in the dynamic system. The state of the system is updated frame by frame to detect A-scan movement. The proposed method was applied on both simulated data for objective evaluation and experimental data for subjective evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of the x-movement detection were 98.85% and 99.43%, respectively, in the simulated data. For the experimental data (74 3-D OCT images), all the images were improved after z-alignment, while 81.1% images were improved after x-alignment. The proposed algorithm is an efficient way to align 3-D OCT volume data and correct the eye movement without using references.

  9. Effect of suspended particles upon drying process of volatile droplet sitting on solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, I.; Kochiya, K.

    Particle motion in volatile droplet on the solid surface especially the behavior of particles depositing in the vicinity of solid-liquid-gas boundary line contact line is focused This phenomenon is called as coffee stain problem Particle motion in the droplet is analyzed by reconstruction of spatio-temporal particle motion by applying three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry 3-D PTV We discuss the effect of the suspended particles upon the drying process of the droplet Morphological discussion on the particles stuck on the solid surface after the dryout the droplet is also conducted

  10. Spontaneous pairing and cooperative movements of micro-particles in a two dimensional plasma crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhdanov, S. K.; Couëdel, L.; Nosenko, V.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2015-05-15

    In an argon plasma of 20 W rf discharge at a pressure of 1.38 Pa, a stable highly ordered monolayer of microparticles is suspended. We observe spontaneous particle pairing when suddenly reducing the gas pressure. Special types of dynamical activity, in particular, entanglement and cooperative movements of coupled particles have been registered. In the course of the experiment first appeared single vertical pairs of particles, in further they gradually accumulated causing melting of the entire crystal. To record pairing events, the particle suspension is side-view imaged using a vertically extended laser sheet. The long-lasting pre-melting phase assured the credible recording and identification of isolated particle pairs. The high monolayer charge density is crucial to explain the spontaneous pairing events observed in our experiments as the mutual repulsion between the particles comprising the monolayer make its vertical extend thicker.

  11. Angular scattering of sound from solid particles in turbulent suspension.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephanie A; Hay, Alex E

    2009-09-01

    Sound scattering by solid particles suspended in a turbulent jet is investigated. Measurements of the scattered amplitude were made in a bistatic geometry at frequencies between 1.5 and 4.0 MHz, and at scattering angles from 95 degrees to 165 degrees relative to the forward direction. Two types of particle were used: nearly spherical lead-glass beads and aspherical natural sand grains. For each particle type, experiments were carried out using approximately 200 and approximately 500 microm median diameter grain sizes, corresponding to 0.7 < or approximately ka < or approximately 4. The sphericity of the sand grains, defined as the ratio of projected perimeter size to projected area size, was 1.08. The lead-glass bead results are consistent with an elastic sphere model. A rigid movable sphere model provides the best fit to the sand data, and the best-fit diameter is within 4% of the equivalent volume size. However, the scattering pattern for sand is systematically smoother than predicted: that is, the undulations in the angular scattering pattern predicted by spherical scatterer theory are present, but muted. This observed departure from spherical scatterer theory is attributed to disruption of the interference among creeping waves by the irregular surfaces of natural sand grains.

  12. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynda S.

    This document summarizes 20 articles and books which stress the importance of movement in the overall development of the human species. Each summary ranges in length from 100 to 200 words and often includes direct quotations. A wide range of movement activities suitable for people of all ages (from infants to adults) are discussed. Many summaries…

  13. Methods of conveying fluids and methods of sublimating solid particles

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-10-01

    A heat exchanger and associated methods for sublimating solid particles therein, for conveying fluids therethrough, or both. The heat exchanger includes a chamber and a porous member having a porous wall having pores in communication with the chamber and with an interior of the porous member. A first fluid is conveyed into the porous member while a second fluid is conveyed into the porous member through the porous wall. The second fluid may form a positive flow boundary layer along the porous wall to reduce or eliminate substantial contact between the first fluid and the interior of the porous wall. The combined first and second fluids are conveyed out of the porous member. Additionally, the first fluid and the second fluid may each be conveyed into the porous member at different temperatures and may exit the porous member at substantially the same temperature.

  14. Launch Vehicle Performance with Solid Particle Feed Systems for Atomic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of launch vehicle Gross Liftoff Weight (GLOW) using high energy density atomic propellants with solid particle feed systems was conducted. The analyses covered several propellant combinations, including atoms of aluminum (Al), boron (B). carbon (C), and hydrogen (H) stored in a solid cryogenic particle, with a cryogenic liquid as the carrier fluid. Several different weight percents (wt%) for the liquid carrier were investigated and the gross lift off weight (GLOW) of the vehicles using the solid particle feed systems were compared with a conventional 02/H2 propellant vehicle. The potential benefits and effects of feed systems using solid particles in a liquid cryogenic fluid are discussed.

  15. Particle engineering in pharmaceutical solids processing: surface energy considerations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daryl R

    2015-01-01

    During the past 10 years particle engineering in the pharmaceutical industry has become a topic of increasing importance. Engineers and pharmacists need to understand and control a range of key unit manufacturing operations such as milling, granulation, crystallisation, powder mixing and dry powder inhaled drugs which can be very challenging. It has now become very clear that in many of these particle processing operations, the surface energy of the starting, intermediate or final products is a key factor in understanding the processing operation and or the final product performance. This review will consider the surface energy and surface energy heterogeneity of crystalline solids, methods for the measurement of surface energy, effects of milling on powder surface energy, adhesion and cohesion on powder mixtures, crystal habits and surface energy, surface energy and powder granulation processes, performance of DPI systems and finally crystallisation conditions and surface energy. This review will conclude that the importance of surface energy as a significant factor in understanding the performance of many particulate pharmaceutical products and processes has now been clearly established. It is still nevertheless, work in progress both in terms of development of methods and establishing the limits for when surface energy is the key variable of relevance.

  16. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation Energy and Imaging Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents particle formation energy balances and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium during the Phase II testing in 2001. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. The particle formation efficiency is also estimated. Particle sizes from the Phase I testing in 1999 and the Phase II testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles and it allows designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  17. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  18. A new dimension in retrograde flow: centripetal movement of engulfed particles.

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, A; Yeger, O; Grosheva, I; Bershadsky, A D; Elbaum, M

    2001-01-01

    Centripetal motion of surface-adherent particles is a classic experimental system for studying surface dynamics on a eukaryotic cell. To investigate bead migration over the entire cell surface, we have developed an experimental assay using multinuclear giant fibroblasts, which provide expanded length scales and an unambiguous frame of reference. Beads coated by adhesion ligands concanavalin A or fibronectin are placed in specific locations on the cell using optical tweezers, and their subsequent motion is tracked over time. The adhesion, as well as velocity and directionality of their movement, expose distinct regions of the cytoplasm and membrane. Beads placed on the peripheral lamella initiate centripetal motion, whereas beads placed on the central part of the cell attach to a stationary cortex and do not move. Careful examination by complementary three-dimensional methods shows that the motion of a bead placed on the cell periphery takes place after engulfment into the cytoplasm, whereas stationary beads, placed near the cell center, are not engulfed. These results demonstrate that centripetal motion of adhering particles may occur inside as well as outside the cell. Inhibition of actomyosin activity is used to explore requirements for engulfment and aspects of the bead movement. Centripetal movement of adherent particles seems to depend on mechanisms distinct from those driving overall cell contractility. PMID:11566772

  19. Thermocapillary Interaction between a Solid Particle and a Liquid-Gas Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, A. A.; Leshansky, A. M.; Nir, A.

    1996-11-01

    Interaction between solid particles and a free liquid-gas interface is very important for flotation processes and for various processes involving multiphase flows. In the present contribution, interaction between a hot solid particle submerged into an ambient fluid, and a free liquid-gas interface is considered. A non-uniform temperature field around the solid particle produces surface tension gradients at the liquid-gas interface which generate a thermocapillary flow in the surrounding fluid. This flow yields the motion of the solid particle itself. Three cases are considered: (i) interaction between a solid particle and a spherical gas bubble at a finite separation distance; (ii) thermocapillary motion of a solid particle and an attached gas bubble; (iii) interaction between a solid particle and a plane undeformable liquid-gas interface. In all cases the velocity of the thermocapillarity induced motion of the solid particle is calculated in the approximation of the Stokes flow and a low Peclet number as a function of the separation distance and the bubble-to-particle radii ratio. Some preliminary results of the present work have been published in (A.A.Golovin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21), 715 (1995)..

  20. Fundamental equations of a mixture of gas and small spherical solid particles from simple kinetic theory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental equations of a mixture of a gas and pseudofluid of small spherical solid particles are derived from the Boltzmann equation of two-fluid theory. The distribution function of the gas molecules is defined in the same manner as in the ordinary kinetic theory of gases, but the distribution function for the solid particles is different from that of the gas molecules, because it is necessary to take into account the different size and physical properties of solid particles. In the proposed simple kinetic theory, two additional parameters are introduced: one is the radius of the spheres and the other is the instantaneous temperature of the solid particles in the distribution of the solid particles. The Boltzmann equation for each species of the mixture is formally written, and the transfer equations of these Boltzmann equations are derived and compared to the well-known fundamental equations of the mixture of a gas and small solid particles from continuum theory. The equations obtained reveal some insight into various terms in the fundamental equations. For instance, the partial pressure of the pseudofluid of solid particles is not negligible if the volume fraction of solid particles is not negligible as in the case of lunar ash flow.

  1. Lidar measurements of solid rocket propellant fire particle plumes.

    PubMed

    Brown, David M; Brown, Andrea M; Willitsford, Adam H; Dinello-Fass, Ryan; Airola, Marc B; Siegrist, Karen M; Thomas, Michael E; Chang, Yale

    2016-06-10

    This paper presents the first, to our knowledge, direct measurement of aerosol produced by an aluminized solid rocket propellant (SRP) fire on the ground. Such fires produce aluminum oxide particles small enough to loft high into the atmosphere and disperse over a wide area. These results can be applied to spacecraft launchpad accidents that expose spacecraft to such fires; during these fires, there is concern that some of the plutonium from the spacecraft power system will be carried with the aerosols. Accident-related lofting of this material would be the net result of many contributing processes that are currently being evaluated. To resolve the complexity of fire processes, a self-consistent model of the ground-level and upper-level parts of the plume was determined by merging ground-level optical measurements of the fire with lidar measurements of the aerosol plume at height during a series of SRP fire tests that simulated propellant fire accident scenarios. On the basis of the measurements and model results, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) team was able to estimate the amount of aluminum oxide (alumina) lofted into the atmosphere above the fire. The quantification of this ratio is critical for a complete understanding of accident scenarios, because contaminants are transported through the plume. This paper provides an estimate for the mass of alumina lofted into the air.

  2. Interactions of energetic particles and clusters with solids

    SciTech Connect

    Averback, R.S.; Hsieh, Horngming . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Diaz de la Rubia, T. ); Benedek, R. )

    1990-12-01

    Ion beams are being applied for surface modifications of materials in a variety of different ways: ion implantation, ion beam mixing, sputtering, and particle or cluster beam-assisted deposition. Fundamental to all of these processes is the deposition of a large amount of energy, generally some keV's, in a localized area. This can lead to the production of defects, atomic mixing, disordering and in some cases, amorphization. Recent results of molecular dynamics computer simulations of energetic displacement cascades in Cu and Ni with energies up to 5 keV suggest that thermal spikes play an important role in these processes. Specifically, it will be shown that many aspects of defect production, atomic mixing and cascade collapse'' can be understood as a consequence of local melting of the cascade core. Included in this discussion will be the possible role of electron-phonon coupling in thermal spike dynamics. The interaction of energetic clusters of atoms with solid surfaces has also been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. this process is of interest because a large amount of energy can be deposited in a small region and possibly without creating point defects in the substrate or implanting cluster atoms. The simulations reveal that the dynamics of the collision process are strongly dependent on cluster size and energy. Different regimes where defect production, local melting and plastic flow dominate will be discussed. 43 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Low energy charged particles interacting with amorphous solid water layers

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Asscher, Micha

    2012-04-07

    The interaction of charged particles with condensed water films has been studied extensively in recent years due to its importance in biological systems, ecology as well as interstellar processes. We have studied low energy electrons (3-25 eV) and positive argon ions (55 eV) charging effects on amorphous solid water (ASW) and ice films, 120-1080 ML thick, deposited on ruthenium single crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Charging the ASW films by both electrons and positive argon ions has been measured using a Kelvin probe for contact potential difference (CPD) detection and found to obey plate capacitor physics. The incoming electrons kinetic energy has defined the maximum measurable CPD values by retarding further impinging electrons. L-defects (shallow traps) are suggested to be populated by the penetrating electrons and stabilize them. Low energy electron transmission measurements (currents of 0.4-1.5 {mu}A) have shown that the maximal and stable CPD values were obtained only after a relatively slow change has been completed within the ASW structure. Once the film has been stabilized, the spontaneous discharge was measured over a period of several hours at 103 {+-} 2 K. Finally, UV laser photo-emission study of the charged films has suggested that the negative charges tend to reside primarily at the ASW-vacuum interface, in good agreement with the known behavior of charged water clusters.

  4. High-Speed Transport of Fluid Drops and Solid Particles via Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Lih, Shyh-shiuh

    2012-01-01

    A compact sampling tool mechanism that can operate at various temperatures, and transport and sieve particle sizes of powdered cuttings and soil grains with no moving parts, has been created using traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs) that are emitted by an inter-digital transducer (IDT). The generated waves are driven at about 10 MHz, and it causes powder to move towards the IDT at high speed with different speeds for different sizes of particles, which enables these particles to be sieved. This design is based on the use of SAWs and their propelling effect on powder particles and fluids along the path of the waves. Generally, SAWs are elastic waves propagating in a shallow layer of about one wavelength beneath the surface of a solid substrate. To generate SAWs, a piezoelectric plate is used that is made of LiNbO3 crystal cut along the x-axis with rotation of 127.8 along the y-axis. On this plate are printed pairs of fingerlike electrodes in the form of a grating that are activated by subjecting the gap between the electrodes to electric field. This configuration of a surface wave transmitter is called IDT. The IDT that was used consists of 20 pairs of fingers with 0.4-mm spacing, a total length of 12.5 mm. The surface wave is produced by the nature of piezoelectric material to contract or expand when subjected to an electric field. Driving the IDT to generate wave at high amplitudes provides an actuation mechanism where the surface particles move elliptically, pulling powder particles on the surface toward the wavesource and pushing liquids in the opposite direction. This behavior allows the innovation to separate large particles and fluids that are mixed. Fluids are removed at speed (7.5 to 15 cm/s), enabling this innovation of acting as a bladeless wiper for raindrops. For the windshield design, the electrodes could be made transparent so that they do not disturb the driver or pilot. Multiple IDTs can be synchronized to transport water or powder over larger

  5. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation, Imaging, Observations, and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    This report presents particle formation observations and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Hydrogen was frozen into particles in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. These newly analyzed data are from the test series held on February 28, 2001. Particle sizes from previous testing in 1999 and the testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed: microparticles and delayed particle formation. These experiment image analyses are some of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and they allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  6. Solid particle erosion mechanisms of protective coatings for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousser, Etienne

    The main objective of this PhD project is to investigate the material loss mechanisms during Solid Particle Erosion (SPE) of hard protective coatings, including nanocomposite and nanostructured systems. In addition, because of the complex nature of SPE mechanisms, rigorous testing methodologies need to be employed and the effects of all testing parameters need to be fully understood. In this PhD project, the importance of testing methodology is addressed throughout in order to effectively study the SPE mechanisms of brittle materials and coatings. In the initial stage of this thesis, we studied the effect of the addition of silicon (Si) on the microstructure, mechanical properties and, more specifically, on the SPE resistance of thick CrN-based coatings. It was found that the addition of Si significantly improved the erosion resistance and that SPE correlated with the microhardness values, i.e. the coating with the highest microhardness also had the lowest erosion rate (ER). In fact, the ERs showed a much higher dependence on the surface hardness than what has been proposed for brittle erosion mechanisms. In the first article, we study the effects of the particle properties on the SPE behavior of six brittle bulk materials using glass and alumina powders. First, we apply a robust methodology to accurately characterize the elasto-plastic and fracture properties of the studied materials. We then correlate the measured ER to materials' parameters with the help of a morphological study and an analysis of the quasi-static elasto-plastic erosion models. Finally, in order to understand the effects of impact on the particles themselves and to support the energy dissipation-based model proposed here, we study the particle size distributions of the powders before and after erosion testing. It is shown that tests using both powders lead to a material loss mechanism related to lateral fracture, that the higher than predicted velocity exponents point towards a velocity

  7. Development of three-dimensional integrated microchannel-electrode system to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Obara, H; Sapkota, A; Takei, M

    2016-03-01

    An optical transparent 3-D Integrated Microchannel-Electrode System (3-DIMES) has been developed to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics in the microchannel. In this system, 40 multilayered electrodes are embedded at the 2 opposite sides along the 5 square cross-sections of the microchannel by using Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems technology in order to achieve the optical transparency at the other 2 opposite sides. The concept of the 3-DIMES is that the particles are driven by electrokinetic forces which are dielectrophoretic force, thermal buoyancy, electrothermal force, and electroosmotic force in a three-dimensional scope by selecting the excitation multilayered electrodes. As a first step to understand the particles' movement driven by electrokinetic forces in high conductive fluid (phosphate buffer saline (PBS)) with the 3-DIMES, the velocities of particles' movement with one pair of the electrodes are measured three dimensionally by Particle Image Velocimetry technique in PBS; meanwhile, low conductive fluid (deionized water) is used as a reference. Then, the particles' movement driven by the electrokinetic forces is discussed theoretically to estimate dominant forces exerting on the particles. Finally, from the theoretical estimation, the particles' movement mainly results from the dominant forces which are thermal buoyancy and electrothermal force, while the velocity vortex formed at the 2 edges of the electrodes is because of the electroosmotic force. The conclusions suggest that the 3-DIMES with PBS as high conductive fluid helps to understand the three-dimensional advantageous flow structures for cell manipulation in biomedical applications.

  8. Development of three-dimensional integrated microchannel-electrode system to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Obara, H.; Sapkota, A.; Takei, M.

    2016-01-01

    An optical transparent 3-D Integrated Microchannel-Electrode System (3-DIMES) has been developed to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics in the microchannel. In this system, 40 multilayered electrodes are embedded at the 2 opposite sides along the 5 square cross-sections of the microchannel by using Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems technology in order to achieve the optical transparency at the other 2 opposite sides. The concept of the 3-DIMES is that the particles are driven by electrokinetic forces which are dielectrophoretic force, thermal buoyancy, electrothermal force, and electroosmotic force in a three-dimensional scope by selecting the excitation multilayered electrodes. As a first step to understand the particles' movement driven by electrokinetic forces in high conductive fluid (phosphate buffer saline (PBS)) with the 3-DIMES, the velocities of particles' movement with one pair of the electrodes are measured three dimensionally by Particle Image Velocimetry technique in PBS; meanwhile, low conductive fluid (deionized water) is used as a reference. Then, the particles' movement driven by the electrokinetic forces is discussed theoretically to estimate dominant forces exerting on the particles. Finally, from the theoretical estimation, the particles' movement mainly results from the dominant forces which are thermal buoyancy and electrothermal force, while the velocity vortex formed at the 2 edges of the electrodes is because of the electroosmotic force. The conclusions suggest that the 3-DIMES with PBS as high conductive fluid helps to understand the three-dimensional advantageous flow structures for cell manipulation in biomedical applications. PMID:27042247

  9. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-05-15

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes.

  10. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin; Parrish, Colin R

    2014-05-01

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes.

  11. Activating Molecules, Ions, and Solid Particles with Acoustic Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Pflieger, Rachel; Chave, Tony; Virot, Matthieu; Nikitenko, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical and physical effects of ultrasound arise not from a direct interaction of molecules with sound waves, but rather from the acoustic cavitation: the nucleation, growth, and implosive collapse of microbubbles in liquids submitted to power ultrasound. The violent implosion of bubbles leads to the formation of chemically reactive species and to the emission of light, named sonoluminescence. In this manuscript, we describe the techniques allowing study of extreme intrabubble conditions and chemical reactivity of acoustic cavitation in solutions. The analysis of sonoluminescence spectra of water sparged with noble gases provides evidence for nonequilibrium plasma formation. The photons and the "hot" particles generated by cavitation bubbles enable to excite the non-volatile species in solutions increasing their chemical reactivity. For example the mechanism of ultrabright sonoluminescence of uranyl ions in acidic solutions varies with uranium concentration: sonophotoluminescence dominates in diluted solutions, and collisional excitation contributes at higher uranium concentration. Secondary sonochemical products may arise from chemically active species that are formed inside the bubble, but then diffuse into the liquid phase and react with solution precursors to form a variety of products. For instance, the sonochemical reduction of Pt(IV) in pure water provides an innovative synthetic route for monodispersed nanoparticles of metallic platinum without any templates or capping agents. Many studies reveal the advantages of ultrasound to activate the divided solids. In general, the mechanical effects of ultrasound strongly contribute in heterogeneous systems in addition to chemical effects. In particular, the sonolysis of PuO2 powder in pure water yields stable colloids of plutonium due to both effects. PMID:24747272

  12. Activating molecules, ions, and solid particles with acoustic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Pflieger, Rachel; Chave, Tony; Virot, Matthieu; Nikitenko, Sergey I

    2014-04-11

    The chemical and physical effects of ultrasound arise not from a direct interaction of molecules with sound waves, but rather from the acoustic cavitation: the nucleation, growth, and implosive collapse of microbubbles in liquids submitted to power ultrasound. The violent implosion of bubbles leads to the formation of chemically reactive species and to the emission of light, named sonoluminescence. In this manuscript, we describe the techniques allowing study of extreme intrabubble conditions and chemical reactivity of acoustic cavitation in solutions. The analysis of sonoluminescence spectra of water sparged with noble gases provides evidence for nonequilibrium plasma formation. The photons and the "hot" particles generated by cavitation bubbles enable to excite the non-volatile species in solutions increasing their chemical reactivity. For example the mechanism of ultrabright sonoluminescence of uranyl ions in acidic solutions varies with uranium concentration: sonophotoluminescence dominates in diluted solutions, and collisional excitation contributes at higher uranium concentration. Secondary sonochemical products may arise from chemically active species that are formed inside the bubble, but then diffuse into the liquid phase and react with solution precursors to form a variety of products. For instance, the sonochemical reduction of Pt(IV) in pure water provides an innovative synthetic route for monodispersed nanoparticles of metallic platinum without any templates or capping agents. Many studies reveal the advantages of ultrasound to activate the divided solids. In general, the mechanical effects of ultrasound strongly contribute in heterogeneous systems in addition to chemical effects. In particular, the sonolysis of PuO2 powder in pure water yields stable colloids of plutonium due to both effects.

  13. The interaction of solid particles with laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misconi, Nebil Y.; Rusk, Edwin T.; Oliver, John P.

    1989-04-01

    Light scattering curves of intensity vs. scattering angle were made of layers of transparent silica particles, single silica particles isolated by optical levitation; using an Argon ion laser light source and a goniometer mounted silicon photodiode detector. Scattering measurements of spherical particles demonstrated an excellent agreement with Mie theory. Spheroids and irregular particles were also measured. Dynamics of particles in a space environment were studied both theoretically, and experimentally inside a 10 to the -7th power Torr vacuum chamber. Research in this area will be continued to determine the effective moment arm of optically induced particle rotation.

  14. Simulation of drop movement over an inclined surface using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Das, Arup K; Das, Prasanta K

    2009-10-06

    Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to numerically simulate the movement of drops down an inclined plane. Diffuse interfaces have been assumed for tracking the motion of the contact line. The asymmetric shape of the three-dimensional drop and the variation of contact angle along its periphery can be calculated using the simulation. During the motion of a liquid drop down an inclined plane, an internal circulation of liquid particles is observed due to gravitational pull which causes periodic change in the drop shape. The critical angle of inclination required for the inception of drop motion is also evaluated for different fluids as a function of drop volume. The numerical predictions exhibit a good agreement with the published experimental results.

  15. Universal Features of the Fluid to Solid Transition for Attractive Colloidal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipelletti, L.; Prasad, V.; Dinsmore, A.; Segre, P. N.; Weitz, D. A.; Trappe, V.

    2002-01-01

    Attractive colloidal particles can exhibit a fluid to solid phase transition if the magnitude of the attractive interaction is sufficiently large, if the volume fraction is sufficiently high, and if the applied stress is sufficiently small. The nature of this fluid to solid transition is similar for many different colloid systems, and for many different forms of interaction. The jamming phase transition captures the common features of these fluid to solid translations, by unifying the behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction, the energy of interparticle attractions, and the applied stress. This paper describes the applicability of the jamming state diagram, and highlights those regions where the fluid to solid transition is still poorly understood. It also presents new data for gelation of colloidal particles with an attractive depletion interaction, providing more insight into the origin of the fluid to solid transition.

  16. Bioremediation of solid TNT particles in a soil slurry reactor: Mass transfer considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gilcrease, P.C.; Murphy, V.G.; Reardon, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The bioreduction of solid TNT by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was investigated in a stirred tank reactor. Experiments in which TNT beads were the only solids present indicated that the biodegradation mechanism is dissolution followed by degradation in bulk solution. Dissolution may limit the overall rate, in which case degradation can be enhanced through increased agitation. Since soil slurries may contain high concentrations of solids other than TNT, Teflon chips were added to investigate two separate effects on TNT dissolution in slurries. First, Teflon solids increase the viscosity of the slurry, resulting in lower solid-liquid mass transfer coefficients. Second, the agitated Teflon slurry can grind or comminute TNT particles, creating additional surface area for mass transfer. Enhanced dissolution rates were observed for TNT beads in a Teflon slurry at higher agitator speeds. This suggests that the biodegradation of solid TNT nuggets in a soil slurry bioreactor may be enhanced under conditions that promote particle attrition.

  17. A novel method for tracing the movement of multiple individual soil particles under rainfall conditions using florescent videography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Robert; Pates, Jackie; Quinton, John

    2016-04-01

    The importance of developing new techniques to study soil movement cannot be underestimated especially those that integrate new technology. Currently there are limited empirical data available about the movement of individual soil particles, particularly high quality time-resolved data. Here we present a new technique which allows multiple individual soil particles to be traced in real time under simulated rainfall conditions. The technique utilises fluorescent videography in combination with a fluorescent soil tracer, which is based on natural particles. The system has been successfully used on particles greater than ~130 micrometres diameter. The technique uses HD video shot at 50 frames per second, providing extremely high temporal (0.02 s) and spatial resolution (sub-millimetre) of a particle's location without the need to perturb the system. Once the tracer has been filmed then the images are processed and analysed using a particle analysis and visualisation toolkit written in python. The toolkit enables the creation of 2 and 3-D time-resolved graphs showing the location of 1 or more particles. Quantitative numerical analysis of a pathway (or collection of pathways) is also possible, allowing parameters such as particle speed and displacement to be assessed. Filming the particles removes the need to destructively sample material and has many side-benefits, reducing the time, money and effort expended in the collection, transport and laboratory analysis of soils, while delivering data in a digital form which is perfect for modern computer-driven analysis techniques. There are many potential applications for the technique. High resolution empirical data on how soil particles move could be used to create, parameterise and evaluate soil movement models, particularly those that use the movement of individual particles. As data can be collected while rainfall is occurring it may offer the ability to study systems under dynamic conditions(rather than rainfall of a

  18. Size effect on solid solid reaction growth between Cu film and Se particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaito, Chihiro; Nonaka, Akira; Kimura, Seiji; Suzuki, Nobuhiko; Saito, Yoshio

    1998-03-01

    A recently developed experimental method of producing a compound by making use of the reaction between thin film and ultrafine particles has been used for copper selenide crystal formation to elucidate the particle size effect on the reaction process. In the case of reaction between Cu film Se particles with size of μm order, CuSe crystals were grown on Se particles by the diffusion of predominantly Cu atoms. In the case of Se particles of the order of 100 nm, amorphous Se particles changed into copper selenide particles by the mutual diffusion of Cu and Se atoms. If the size of Se particles was less than 20 nm, a part of the Cu film changed to copper selenide crystal due to the diffusion of Se atoms to the Cu film. Morphological differences have also been shown and discussed to be the result of the particle size effect.

  19. A solid-phase mechanism of shock-wave formation of dust particles of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. E.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Khvorostin, V. N.

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of formation of dust particles in solid as a result of shock-wave destruction of the initial crystalline material structure and subsequent coalescence of atomic clusters (nanoparticles), which leads to the aggregation of mesocrystalline particles (grains) in the shocked layer, is discussed.

  20. A rocket-borne energy spectrometer using multiple solid-state detectors for particle identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, K. L.; Smith, L. G.; Voss, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment using energy spectrometers that allows particle identification by the use of multiple solid-state detectors is described. The instrumentation provides information regarding the energy spectrum, pitch-angle distribution, and the type of energetic particles present in the ionosphere. Particle identification was accomplished by considering detector loss mechanisms and their effects on various types of particles. Solid state detectors with gold and aluminum surfaces of several thicknesses were used. The ratios of measured energies for the various detectors were compared against known relationships during ground-based analysis. Pitch-angle information was obtained by using detectors with small geometrical factors mounted with several look angles. Particle flux was recorded as a function of rocket azimuth angle. By considering the rocket azimuth, the rocket precession, and the location of the detectors on the rocket, the pitched angle of the incident particles was derived.

  1. Growth of solid and hollow gold particles through the thermal annealing of nanoscale patterned thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Junhao; He, Weidong; Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Wang, Bin; Palepu, Sandeep; Remec, Miroslav; Hess, Wayne P.; Hmelo, Anthony B.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Dickerson, James

    2013-11-27

    Through thermally annealing well-arrayed, circular, nanoscale thin films of gold, deposited onto [111] silicon/silicon dioxide substrates, both solid and hollow gold particles of different morphologies with controllable sizes were obtained. The thin film could form individual particle or clusters of particles by tuning the diameter of it. Hollow gold particles were featured by their large size whose diameter was larger than 500 nm and confirmed by a cross-section view. Hollow gold particles show greater plasmonic field enhancement under photoemission electron microscopy. Potential growth mechanisms for these structures are explored

  2. Velocity measurement of pneumatically conveyed solid particles using an electrostatic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Zhou, B.; Yang, D.; Tang, G.; Wang, S.

    2008-02-01

    The paper proposes a method to measure the mean velocity of solid particles based on the spatial filtering effect of the electrostatic sensor. To determine the relationship between the spatial frequency characteristics of the sensor and solid particle velocity, a general formula is derived by analyzing quantitatively the spatial filtering characteristics of the electrostatic sensor along with the accepted assumptions. The effects of the geometric parameters of the sensor, particle velocity distribution, particle concentration distribution over the cross-section of a pneumatic pipeline, particle size, particle material type and frequency resolution on particle velocity measurement accuracy are also discussed in detail. Experiments are performed on a bench-scale gravity-fed particle flow experimental rig to test the performance of the velocity measurement system. The off-line experimental results show that the system repeatability is within ±5% over the velocity range of 2-6 m s-1 for concentrations of solid particles in the range of 0.5-6.0%.

  3. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    SciTech Connect

    Mazza, G.; Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G.; Soria, J.

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  4. Two-phase flow of solid hydrogen particles and liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Rouelle, A.; Smith, K. M.; Celik, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2004-06-01

    Atomic hydrogen propellant feed systems may require transporting solid hydrogen particles containing atomic species from storage tanks to the engines using liquid helium as the carrier fluid. In this paper, a three-dimensional two-phase mixture model, along with the standard k- ɛ mixture turbulence model is employed to study the turbulent mixing of the fluid-particle slurry system. Numerical results show that turbulent flow is required to keep the hydrogen particles in suspension, which otherwise form a sliding layer of particles on top of the helium layer. Hydrogen particle concentration profiles in the slurry system are functions of particle size, flow velocity, and influx volume fraction of hydrogen particles. Particle dispersion at different Stokes numbers, different Kolmogorov length scales, and different time scales are discussed.

  5. Lattice-Boltzmann methods for suspensions of solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, dedicated to Prof. Jean-Pierre Hansen, I will summarise the development of lattice-Boltzmann methods for simulating the dynamics of colloidal suspensions. I will describe the main ideas and subsequent improvements, and place them in the wider context of particle-based methods for fluid dynamics.

  6. Quantification of solid pressure in the concentration polarization (CP) layer of colloidal particles and its impact on ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Mao; Li, Xiao-Yan; David Waite, T

    2011-06-01

    Here we describe the nature and implications of the "concentration polarization" (CP) layer that is formed during ultrafiltration of colloidal particles using a new approach in which the solid pressure, which arises from inter-particle interactions, and the inherent osmotic pressure are separately considered. The approach makes use of the particle transport mass balance between the convective and diffusive fluxes. The particle convection rate is hindered when inter-particle interactions take effect by reducing the particle velocities while the particle diffusion is solely controlled by the Brownian motion. An increase in solid pressure accounts for the reduction of the water potential caused by the relative motions of the particles and the surrounding water. A cell model is adopted to relate the local solid pressure with the local solid fraction and inter-particle interactions. The inter-particle interactions critically determine the form of particle accumulation (i.e. CP or gel/cake) on the membrane. The Shirato-Darcy equation is employed to relate the rate of increase in solid pressure, the relative liquid velocity and the solid fraction. Numerical integration approaches are employed to quantify the properties of the CP layer during both the development as well as the steady state phases (with steady state normally being achieved in a few minutes). The solid fractions are always no higher than those obtained when the inter-particle interactions are not considered. The decrease of the water potential caused by CP formation leads to the increase of both the solid pressure and the osmotic pressure. The dependence of the solid pressure on the solid fraction is usually stronger than that of the osmotic pressure. It is thus apparent that the solid pressure would be expected to dominate water potential reduction for solid fractions above a certain value though the solid pressure will be negligible when the solid fraction is relatively low.

  7. Effects of solid inertial particles on the velocity and temperature statistics of wall bounded turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessani, Bamdad; Nakhaei, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    The effect of solid inertial particles on the velocity and temperature statistics of a non-isothermal turbulent channel flow is studied using direct numerical simulation.A two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is adopted.Three different particle Stokes numbers of St = 25, 60, 200, at a constant particle mass loading of ϕm = 0 . 57 , are considered. The variations of different budget terms for the turbulent kinetic energy equation and fluctuating temperature variance equation in the presence of particles are reported. It is shown that the near wall dissipation and viscous transport terms are larger for St = 25 particles compared to the ones of higher inertia particles (St = 60, 200). The same behavior is observed for the dissipation and viscous transport terms of the fluctuating temperature variance equation. The fluid turbulent heat flux is also reduced by the presence of particles, but as a result of fluid-particle heat exchange, the total heat transfer rate stays always higher for particle-laden flow even for the largest particles considered. The total Nusselt number is split into a turbulence contribution and a particle contribution, and the effects of particles inertia on fluid turbulent heat flux and fluid-particle heat transfer are examined.

  8. Alpha-particle radiotherapy: For large solid tumors diffusion trumps targeting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Charles; Sempkowski, Michelle; Holleran, Timothy; Linz, Thomas; Bertalan, Thomas; Josefsson, Anders; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sofou, Stavroula

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion limitations on the penetration of nanocarriers in solid tumors hamper their therapeutic use when labeled with α-particle emitters. This is mostly due to the α-particles' relatively short range (≤100 μm) resulting in partial tumor irradiation and limited killing. To utilize the high therapeutic potential of α-particles against solid tumors, we designed non-targeted, non-internalizing nanometer-sized tunable carriers (pH-tunable liposomes) that are triggered to release, within the slightly acidic tumor interstitium, highly-diffusive forms of the encapsulated α-particle generator Actinium-225 ((225)Ac) resulting in more homogeneous distributions of the α-particle emitters, improving uniformity in tumor irradiation and increasing killing efficacies. On large multicellular spheroids (400 μm-in-diameter), used as surrogates of the avascular areas of solid tumors, interstitially-releasing liposomes resulted in best growth control independent of HER2 expression followed in performance by (a) the HER2-targeting radiolabeled antibody or (b) the non-responsive liposomes. In an orthotopic human HER2-negative mouse model, interstitially-releasing (225)Ac-loaded liposomes resulted in the longest overall and median survival. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of a general strategy to bypass the diffusion-limited transport of radionuclide carriers in solid tumors enabling interstitial release from non-internalizing nanocarriers of highly-diffusing and deeper tumor-penetrating molecular forms of α-particle emitters, independent of cell-targeting.

  9. Particle acceleration model for gas--solid suspensions at moderate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenneti, Sudheer; Garg, Rahul; Hrenya, Christine; Fox, Rodney; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2009-11-01

    Particle granular temperature plays an important role in the prediction of core annular structure in riser flows. The covariance of fluctuating particle acceleration and fluctuating particle velocity governs the evolution of the granular temperature in homogeneous suspensions undergoing elastic collisions. Koch and co--workers (Phys. Fluid. 1990, JFM 1999) showed that the granular temperature has a source term due to hydrodynamic interactions in gas--solid suspensions in the Stokes flow regime. We performed direct numerical simulations (DNS) of freely evolving suspensions at moderate Reynolds numbers using the immersed boundary method (IBM). We found that simple extension of a class of mean particle acceleration models to their instantaneous counterparts does not predict the correct fluctuating particle acceleration--fluctuating velocity covariance that is obtained from DNS. The fluctuating particle velocity autocorrelation function decay and the Lagrangian structure function obtained from DNS motivate the use of a Langevin model for the instantaneous particle acceleration.

  10. Dispersion of finite size droplets and solid particles in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, Michele

    Turbulent disperse two-phase flows, of either fluid/fluid or fluid/solid type, are common in natural phenomena and engineering devices. Notable examples are atmospheric clouds, i.e. dispersed liquid water droplets and ice particles in a complex turbulent flow, and spray of fuel droplets in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. However, the physics of the interaction between a dispersed phase and turbulence is not yet fully understood. The objective of this study is to compare the dispersion of deformable finite size droplets with that of solid particles in a turbulent flow in the absence of gravity, by performing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The droplets and the particles have the same diameter, of the order of the Taylor's microscale of turbulence, and the same density ratio to the carrier flow. The solid particle-laden turbulence is simulated by coupling a standard projection method with the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM). The solid particles are fully resolved in space and time without considering particle/particle collisions (two-way coupling). The liquid droplet-laden turbulence is simulated by coupling a variable-density projection method with the Accurate Conservative Level Set Method (ACLSM). The effect of the surface tension is accounted for by using the Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) in order to avoid any numerical smearing, while the discontinuities in the viscous term of the Navier-Stokes equation are smoothed out via the Continuum Surface Force approach. Droplet/droplet interactions are allowed (four-way coupling). The results presented here show that in isotropic turbulence the dispersion of liquid droplets in a given direction is larger than that of solid particles due to the reduced decay rate of turbulence kinetic energy via the four-way coupling effects of the droplets.

  11. Absorption removal of sulfur dioxide by falling water droplets in the presence of inert solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, I.-Hung; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Liu, Su-Chin; Chang, I.-Cheng; Shih, Shin-Min

    An experimental analysis of the absorption removal of sulfur dioxide by the free falling water droplets containing the inert solid particles is presented. The wheat flour powder is introduced as the inert solid particles. Tests with and without the flour powder in the water droplets are examined. The mass fluxes and mass transfer coefficients of SO 2 for the cases with and without the flour powder are compared to elucidate the effects of the inert solid particles contained in the water droplets on the gas absorption. The results indicate aignificant difference between the two cases for the concentrations of the flour powder in the absorbent droplets ( Cs) within the ranges of the experimental conditions, namely 0.1 to 10 wt% flour powder in the absorbent droplets. In general, the inert solid particles of the flour powder as the impurities in the water droplets tend to decrease the SO 2 absorption rate for the experimental absorption system under investigation. Various values of Cs cause various levels of the interfacial resistance and affect the gas absorption rate. The interfacial resistance is recognized by introducing an interfacial mass transfer coefficient ks with its reciprocal being proportional to the magnitude of the interfacial resistance. The values of 1/ ks may be computed by the use of the equation 1/ ks=(1/ KOLs-1/ KOL), where KOLs and KOL are the overall liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients with and without the inert solid particles, respectively. The values of ks with Cs of 0.1 to 10 wt% are about 0.295-0.032 cms -1 for absorbing 1000-3000 ppmv SO 2 with the water droplets. This kind of information is useful for the SO 2 removal and the information of acid rain that the impurities of the inert solid particles contaminate the water droplets.

  12. Modeling of combustion processes in a solid fuel particle

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    During the production of granules of uranium oxide, granules of ion exchange resin, loaded with uranium ions, are burned to remove the resin matrix and leave a uranium oxide ash''. Under some conditions of combustion, the oxide granules are produced in a highly fractured, porous state, while other conditions result in hard, dense, solid granules. ABAQUS, a commercial finite-element code, run on an IBM 3090, was used to model the physical processes occurring during combustion: heat transfer with a very nonlinear temperature-dependent rate of heat generation, diffusion of reactants and products, and stress/strain resulting from the differential temperatures and from the phase changes during the combustion. The ABAQUS simulation successfully explained the differences in morphology of the granules under different conditions, and lead to control strategies to produce the desired morphology. 10 figs.

  13. Isostructural solid-solid phase transition in monolayers of soft core-shell particles at fluid interfaces: structure and mechanics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Marcel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Steinacher, Mathias; Scheidegger, Laura; Geisel, Karen; Richtering, Walter; Squires, Todd M; Isa, Lucio

    2016-04-21

    We have studied the complete two-dimensional phase diagram of a core-shell microgel-laden fluid interface by synchronizing its compression with the deposition of the interfacial monolayer. Applying a new protocol, different positions on the substrate correspond to different values of the monolayer surface pressure and specific area. Analyzing the microstructure of the deposited monolayers, we discovered an isostructural solid-solid phase transition between two crystalline phases with the same hexagonal symmetry, but with two different lattice constants. The two phases corresponded to shell-shell and core-core inter-particle contacts, respectively; with increasing surface pressure the former mechanically failed enabling the particle cores to come into contact. In the phase-transition region, clusters of particles in core-core contacts nucleate, melting the surrounding shell-shell crystal, until the whole monolayer moves into the second phase. We furthermore measured the interfacial rheology of the monolayers as a function of the surface pressure using an interfacial microdisk rheometer. The interfaces always showed a strong elastic response, with a dip in the shear elastic modulus in correspondence with the melting of the shell-shell phase, followed by a steep increase upon the formation of a percolating network of the core-core contacts. These results demonstrate that the core-shell nature of the particles leads to a rich mechanical and structural behavior that can be externally tuned by compressing the interface, indicating new routes for applications, e.g. in surface patterning or emulsion stabilization.

  14. Numerical Calculation of the Drag Force Acting on a Solid Particle Pushed by a Solid/Liquid Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Sen, Subhayu

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of insoluble particles in a metal casting depends primarily on the interaction of the particles with the solid/liquid interface (SLI) during the solidification process. The balance of the forces acting on the particle essentially determines whether a particle will be engulfed or pushed by the SLI. An important component of this force balance is the drag force generated by the particle motion in front of the SLI. Previously developed mathematical models for particle/SLI interaction made use of steady-state solutions of this force provided by the lubrication theory. However, our numerical model based on the SLI tracking approach shows that the steady-state approach is inappropriate to model the interaction process and that at steady-state the theoretical solution underestimates the drag force. It was found that regression analysis of steady-state numerical solutions for cylindrical particles moving normal to a flat SLI gives a relationship of the form: Abstract The distribution of insoluble particles in a metal casting depends primarily on the interaction of the particles with the solid/liquid interface (SLI) during the solidification process. The balance of the forces acting on the particle essentially determines whether a particle will be engulfed or pushed by the SLI. An important component of this force balance is the drag force generated by the particle motion in front of the SLI. Previously developed mathematical models for particle/SLI interaction made use of steady-state solutions of this force provided by the lubrication theory. However, our numerical model based on the SLI tracking approach shows that the steady-state approach is inappropriate to model the interaction process and that at steady-state the theoretical solution underestimates the drag force. It was found that regression analysis of steady-state numerical solutions for cylindrical particles moving normal to a flat SLI gives a relationship of the form: F(sub D, sup num) =sqoare

  15. An analysis of particle track effects on solid mammalian tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and quality factor (Q) at extreme values of linear energy transfer (LET) have been determined on the basis of experiments with single-cell systems and specific tissue responses. In typical single-cell systems, each heavy particle (Ar or Fe) passes through a single cell or no cell. In experiments on animal tissues, however, each heavy particle passes through several cells, and the LET can exceed 200 keV micrometers-1 in every cell. In most laboratory animal tissue systems, however, only a small portion of the hit cells are capable of expressing the end-point being measured, such as cell killing, mutation or carcinogenesis. The following question was therefore addressed: do RBEs and Q factors derived from single-cell experiments properly account for the damage at high LET when multiple cells are hit by HZE tracks? A review is offered in which measured radiation effects and known tissue properties are combined to estimate on the one hand, the number of cells at risk, p3n, per track, where n is the number of cells per track based on tissue and organ geometry, and p3 is the probability that a cell in the track is capable of expressing the experimental end-point. On the other hand, the tissue and single-cell responses are compared by determining the ratio RBE in tissue/RBE in corresponding single cells. Experimental data from the literature indicate that tissue RBEs at very high LET (Fe and Ar ions) are higher than corresponding single-cell RBEs, especially in tissues in which p3n is high.

  16. Internal damping due to dislocation movements induced by thermal expansion mismatch between matrix and particles in metal matrix composites. [Al/SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Girand, C.; Lormand, G.; Fougeres, R.; Vincent, A. )

    1993-05-01

    In metal matrix composites (MMCs), the mechanical 1 of the reinforcement-matrix interface is an important parameter because it governs the load transfer from matrix to particles, from which the mechanical properties of these materials are derived. Therefore, it would be useful to set out an experimental method able to characterize the interface and the adjacent matrix behaviors. Thus, a study has been undertaken by means of internal damping (I.D.) measurements, which are well known to be very sensitive for studying irreversible displacements at the atomic scale. More especially, this investigation is based on the fact that, during cooling of MMC's, stress concentrations originating from differences in coefficients of thermal expansion (C.T.E.) of matrix and particles should induce dislocation movements in the matrix surrounding the reinforcement; that is, local microplastic strains occur. Therefore, during I.D. measurements vs temperature these movements should contribute to MMCs I.D. in a process similar to those involved around first order phase transitions in solids. The aim of this paper is to present, in the case of Al/SiC particulate composites, new developments of this approach that has previously led to promising results in the case of Al-Si alloys.

  17. Innovative method using magnetic particle tracking to measure solids circulation in a spouted fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Ms. Emily; Halow, John; Daw, C Stuart

    2009-01-01

    We describe an innovative method for measuring particle motion inside spouted fluidized beds. The method uses a magnetic tracer particle, which follows the bulk particle flow and is continuously tracked by multiple magnetic field detectors located outside the bed. We analyze signals from the detectors to determine the tracer position at each instant in time. From statistical analysis of the tracer trajectory, characteristic measures of the bulk particle flow, such as the average recirculation frequency, can be determined as a function of operating conditions. For experiments with a range of particle sizes and densities in a 3.9-cm-diameter spouted bed, we find that average solids recirculation rates correlate with excess velocity (superficial minus minimum spouting velocity), particle density, and bed depth.

  18. Innovative Method Using Magnetic Particle Tracking to Measure Solids Circulation in a Spouted Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Ms. Emily; Halow, John; Daw, C Stuart

    2010-01-01

    We describe an innovative method for measuring particle motion inside spouted fluidized beds. The method uses a magnetic tracer particle, which follows the bulk particle flow and is continuously tracked by multiple magnetic field detectors located outside the bed. We analyze signals from the detectors to determine the tracer position at each instant in time. From statistical analysis of the tracer trajectory, characteristic measures of the bulk particle flow, such as the average recirculation frequency, can be determined as a function of operating conditions. For experiments with a range of particle sizes and densities in a 3.9-cm-diameter spouted bed, we find that average solids recirculation rates correlate with excess velocity (superficial minus minimum spouting velocity), particle density, and bed depth.

  19. Exceptionally Slow Movement of Gold Nanoparticles at a Solid/Liquid Interface Investigated by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Verch, Andreas; Pfaff, Marina; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-06-30

    Gold nanoparticles were observed to move at a liquid/solid interface 3 orders of magnitude slower than expected for the movement in a bulk liquid by Brownian motion. The nanoscale movement was studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a liquid enclosure consisting of microchips with silicon nitride windows. The experiments involved a variation of the electron dose, the coating of the nanoparticles, the surface charge of the enclosing membrane, the viscosity, and the liquid thickness. The observed slow movement was not a result of hydrodynamic hindrance near a wall but instead explained by the presence of a layer of ordered liquid exhibiting a viscosity 5 orders of magnitude larger than a bulk liquid. The increased viscosity presumably led to a dramatic slowdown of the movement. The layer was formed as a result of the surface charge of the silicon nitride windows. The exceptionally slow motion is a crucial aspect of electron microscopy of specimens in liquid, enabling a direct observation of the movement and agglomeration of nanoscale objects in liquid.

  20. Scalability, Scintillation Readout and Charge Drift in a Kilogram Scale Solid Xenon Particle Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, J.; Cease, H.; Jaskierny, W. F.; Markley, D.; Pahlka, R. B.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Saab, T.; Filipenko, M.

    2014-10-23

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employ a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat combined with a xenon purification and chiller system to measure the scintillation light output and electron drift speed from both the solid and liquid phases of xenon. Scintillation light output from sealed radioactive sources is measured by a set of high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes suitable for cryogenic applications. We observed a reduced amount of photons in solid phase compared to that in liquid phase. We used a conventional time projection chamber system to measure the electron drift time in a kilogram of solid xenon and observed faster electron drift speed in the solid phase xenon compared to that in the liquid phase.

  1. Differences in physical chemistry and dissolution rate of solid particle aerosols from solution pressurised inhalers.

    PubMed

    Buttini, Francesca; Miozzi, Michele; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Royall, Paul G; Brambilla, Gaetano; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Forbes, Ben

    2014-04-25

    Solution composition alters the dynamics of beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) particle formation from droplets emitted by pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The hypothesis that differences in inhaler solutions result in different solid particle physical chemistry was tested using a suite of complementary calorimetric techniques. The atomisation of BDP-ethanol solutions from commercial HFA-pMDI produced aerodynamically-equivalent solid particle aerosols. However, differences in particle physico-chemistry (morphology and solvate/clathrate formation) were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and supported by hot stage microscopy (HSM). Increasing the ethanol content of the formulation from 8 to 12% (w/w), which retards the evaporation of propellant and slows the increase in droplet surface viscosity, enhanced the likelihood of particles drying with a smooth surface. The dissolution rate of BDP from the 12% (w/w) ethanol formulation-derived particles (63% dissolved over 120 min) was reduced compared to the 8% (w/w) ethanol formulation-derived particles (86% dissolved over 120 min). The addition of 0.01% (w/w) formoterol fumarate or 1.3% (w/w) glycerol to the inhaler solution modified the particles and reduced the BDP dissolution rate further to 34% and 16% dissolved in 120 min, respectively. These data provide evidence that therapeutic aerosols from apparently similar inhaler products, including those with similar aerodynamic performance, may behave non-equivalently after deposition in the lungs.

  2. System design of a 1 MW north-facing, solid particle receiver

    DOE PAGES

    Christian, J.; Ho, C.

    2015-05-01

    Falling solid particle receivers (SPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. The components required to operate an SPR include the receiver (to heat the particles), bottom hopper (to catch the falling particles), particle lift elevator (to lift particles back to the top of the receiver), top hopper (to store particles before being dropped through the receiver), and ducting. In addition to the required components, there are additional features needed for an experimental system. These features include: a support structure to house all components, calibration panel to measure incident radiation, cooling loops, and sensorsmore » (flux gages, thermocouples, pressure gages). Each of these components had to be designed to withstand temperatures ranging from ambient to 700 °C. Thermal stresses from thermal expansion become a key factor in these types of high temperature systems. The SPR will be housing ~3000 kg of solid particles. The final system will be tested at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM.« less

  3. Motion of a distant solid particle in a shear flow along a porous slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabthani, S.; Sellier, A.; Feuillebois, F.

    2013-12-01

    The motion of a solid and no-slipping particle immersed in a shear flow along a sufficiently porous slab is investigated. The fluid flow outside and inside of the slab is governed by the Stokes and Darcy equations, respectively, and the so-called Beavers and Joseph slip boundary conditions are enforced on the slab surface. The problem is solved for a distant particle with length scale a in terms of the small parameter a/ d where d designates the large particle-slab separation. This is achieved by asymptotically inverting a relevant boundary-integral equation on the particle surface, which has been recently proposed for any particle location (distant or close particle) in Khabthani et al. (J Fluid Mech 713:271-306, 2012). It is found that at order O( a/ d) the slab behaves for any particle shape as a solid plane no-slip wall while the slab properties (thickness, permeability, associated slip length) solely enter at O(( a/ d)2). Moreover, for a spherical particle, the numerical results published in Khabthani et al. (J Fluid Mech 713:271-306, 2012) perfectly agree with the present asymptotic analysis.

  4. System design of a 1 MW north-facing, solid particle receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.; Ho, C.

    2015-05-01

    Falling solid particle receivers (SPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. The components required to operate an SPR include the receiver (to heat the particles), bottom hopper (to catch the falling particles), particle lift elevator (to lift particles back to the top of the receiver), top hopper (to store particles before being dropped through the receiver), and ducting. In addition to the required components, there are additional features needed for an experimental system. These features include: a support structure to house all components, calibration panel to measure incident radiation, cooling loops, and sensors (flux gages, thermocouples, pressure gages). Each of these components had to be designed to withstand temperatures ranging from ambient to 700 °C. Thermal stresses from thermal expansion become a key factor in these types of high temperature systems. The SPR will be housing ~3000 kg of solid particles. The final system will be tested at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM.

  5. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver

    DOEpatents

    Kolb, Gregory J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-07

    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  6. Solid versus liquid particle sampling efficiency of three personal aerosol samplers when facing the wind.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Kirsten A; Anthony, T Renee; Van Dyke, Michael; Volckens, John

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the facing-the-wind sampling efficiency of three personal aerosol samplers as a function of particle phase (solid versus liquid). Samplers examined were the IOM, Button, and a prototype personal high-flow inhalable sampler head (PHISH). The prototype PHISH was designed to interface with the 37-mm closed-face cassette and provide an inhalable sample at 10 l min(-1) of flow. Increased flow rate increases the amount of mass collected during a typical work shift and helps to ensure that limits of detection are met, particularly for well-controlled but highly toxic species. Two PHISH prototypes were tested: one with a screened inlet and one with a single-pore open-face inlet. Personal aerosol samplers were tested on a bluff-body disc that was rotated along the facing-the-wind axis to reduce spatiotemporal variability associated with sampling supermicron aerosol in low-velocity wind tunnels. When compared to published data for facing-wind aspiration efficiency for a mouth-breathing mannequin, the IOM oversampled relative to mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency for all sizes and particle types (solid and liquid). The sampling efficiency of the Button sampler was closer to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency than the IOM for solid particles, but the screened inlet removed most liquid particles, resulting in a large underestimation compared to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency. The open-face PHISH results showed overestimation for solid particles and underestimation for liquid particles when compared to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency. Substantial (and statistically significant) differences in sampling efficiency were observed between liquid and solid particles, particularly for the Button and screened-PHISH, with a majority of aerosol mass depositing on the screened inlets of these samplers. Our results suggest that large droplets have low penetration efficiencies

  7. Solid rocket motor plume particle size measurements using multiple optical techniques in a probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manser, John R.

    1995-03-01

    An experimental investigation to measure particle size distributions in the plume of sub-scale solid rocket motors was conducted. A phase-Doppler particle analyzer (pDPA) in conjunction with three-wavelength extinction measurements were used in a specially designed particle collection probe in an attempt to determine the entire plume particle size distribution. In addition, a laser ensemble particle sizer was used for comparative data. The PDPA and Malvem distributions agreed in the observed modes near 1 and 4.5 micron diameter (d). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures of collected particles were in good agreement with the measured Malvem Sauter mean diameter (d(sub 32)) of 2.59 micron. Data analysis indicates that less than 3% of the total mass of the particles was contained in particles with diameter d dess than 0.5 micron. Therefore, the PDPA, which can typically measure particles down to a minimum diameter of 0.5 micron with a dynamic range (d(sub max):d(sub min)) of 50:1, can be used by itself to determine the particle size distribution. Multiple wavelength measurements were found to be very sensitive to inaccuracies in the measured transmittances.

  8. Sensing, capturing, and interrogation of single virus particles with solid state nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, Armin; Goyal, Gaurav; Kim, Minjun

    2015-05-01

    Solid-state nanopores have gained much attention as a bioanalytical platform. By virtue of their tunable nanoscale dimensions, nanopore sensors can a spatial resolution that spans a wide range of biological species from a single-molecule to a single virus or microorganism. Several groups have already used solid-state nanopores for tag-free detection of viruses. However, no one has reported use of nanopores to capture a single virus for further interrogation by the electric field inside nanopores. In this paper we will report detection of single HIV-1 particle with solid-state nanopores and demonstrate the ability to trap a single HIV-1 particle on top of a nanopore and force it to squeeze through the pore using an electric field.

  9. Measurements of alpha particle energy using nuclear tracks in solids methodology.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, G; Amero, C; Gammage, R B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the measurement of alpha particle energy using polycarbonate materials as nuclear track detectors (NTDs). This method is based on the interaction of the radiation with the solid-state materials, using the relationship between the energy deposited in the material by the ionising particle and the track developed after an established chemical process. The determination of the geometrical parameters of the formed track, such as major axis, minor axis and overall track length, permit determination of the energy of the alpha particle. The track analysis is performed automatically using a digital image system, and the data are processed in a PC with commercial software. In this experiment 148Gd, 238U, 230Th, 239Pu and 244Cm alpha particle emitters were used. The values for alpha particle energy resolution, the linear response to energy, the confidence in the results and the automatisation of the procedure make this method a promising analysis system.

  10. Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O'hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie

    2005-06-04

    Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at

  11. Modelling study of three-dimensional circulation and particle movement over the Sable Gully of Nova Scotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Shiliang; Sheng, Jinyu; Greenan, Blair John William

    2014-01-01

    The Sable Gully is a broad deep underwater canyon located to the east of Sable Island on the edge of the Scotian Shelf. Being the home of many marine species including the endangered Northern Bottlenose Whale, the Gully was designated as a marine protected area (MPA) in 2004. Better understanding of physical environmental conditions over this MPA is needed for sustainable ecosystem management. In this study, a multi-nested ocean circulation model and a particle tracking model are used to examine the three-dimensional (3D) circulation and movement of particles carried passively by the flow over the Sable Gully. The 3D circulation model is driven by tides, wind, and surface heat/freshwater fluxes. The model performance is assessed by comparing the results with the previous numerical tidal results and current meter observations made in the Gully. The simulated tidal circulation over the Gully and adjacent waters is relatively strong on shallow banks and relatively weak on the continental slope. Below the depth of the Gully rim ( ˜ 200 m), the tidal currents are constrained by the thalweg of the Gully and amplified toward the Gully head. The simulated subtidal circulation in the Gully has a complex spatial structure and significant seasonal variability. The simulated time-dependent 3D flow fields are then used in a particle tracking model to study the particle movements, downstream and upstream areas, and residence time of the Gully. Based on the movements of particles released at the depth of the Gully rim and tracked forward in time, the e-folding residence time is estimated to be about 7 and 13 days in February and August 2006, respectively. The Gully flanks are identified as high retention areas with the typical residence time of 10 and 20 days in February and August 2006, respectively. Tracking particles with and without tides reveals that tidal circulation reduces the value of residence time in the Gully, particularly along the Gully flanks.

  12. Numerical investigation of the liquid fuel particles movement in the schematic duct ramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vnuchkov, D. A.; Nalivaychenko, D. G.; Starov, A. V.; Zvegintsev, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation of fluid particles motion in combustor of schematic ramjet engine are described. Two schemes of particle injection into the combustion chamber were considered. Analysis of particle trajectories in the oxidant flow was carried out and residence time of particles in the combustion chamber for each feeding scheme was determined.

  13. Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-06-30

    One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed

  14. Effect of particle inertia on fluid turbulence in gas-solid disperse flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mito, Yoichi

    2016-11-01

    The effect of particle inertia on the fluid turbulence in gas-solid disperse flow through a vertical channel has been examined by using a direct numerical simulation, to calculate the gas velocities seen by the particles, and a simplified non-stationary flow model, in which a uniform distribution of solid spheres of density ratio of 1000 are added into the fully-developed turbulent gas flow in an infinitely wide channel. The gas flow is driven downward with a constant pressure gradient. The frictional Reynolds number defined with the frictional velocity before the addition of particles, v0*, is 150. The feedback forces are calculated using a point force method. Particle diameters of 0.95, 1.3 and 1.9, which are made dimensionless with v0* and the kinematic viscosity, and volume fractions, ranging from 1 ×10-4 to 2 ×10-3 , in addition to the one-way coupling cases, are considered. Gravitational effect is not clearly seen where the fluid turbulence is damped by feedback effect. Gas flow rate increases with the decrease in particle inertia, that causes the increase in feedback force. Fluid turbulence decreases with the increase in particle inertia, that causes the increase in diffusivity of feedback force and of fluid turbulence. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420097.

  15. Analysis of motion of solid hydrogen tracer particles in oscillating superfluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemma, E.; Luzuriaga, J.; Babuin, S.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a relatively simple cryostat which allows us to image turbulent flows in superfluid helium at temperatures below 2 K, using frozen H2 particles. We analyze the statistics of the velocities of these solid tracers, which follow the turbulent flow generated by oscillating bodies. We have also studied one of the oscillators working in air at room temperature, and traced the flow with solid talcum particles for comparison. Images were recorded by a digital camera at 240 frames per second, while frequencies of the oscillators are between 20 to 45 Hz. The flow is characterized by a modified Reynolds number Reδ based on the viscous penetration depth δ. Software in a dedicated particle tracking velocimetry code allows us to compute the trajectories and velocities of tens of thousands of particles. We have obtained the number of particles for equally spaced intervals of the velocity modulus. For the oscillators in the superfluid, the probability of finding particles at higher velocities has an exponential decay. Within our resolution the statistics in the superfluid for oscillating objects with sharp borders is largely independent of Reδ, while the logarithmic decay at low velocities seems faster than for high velocities for rounded objects. On the other hand, for data taken in air the result is closer to a classical Gaussian distribution of velocities.

  16. Biodegradation of organic compounds sequestered in organic solids or in nanopores within silica particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M.

    1997-11-01

    A study was conducted using model solids to determine whether the time-dependent decline in availability for biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil might result from the entrapment of these compounds in porous or nonporous solids. A strain of Pseudomonas mineralized phenanthrene in solid alkanes containing 18 to 32 carbons, three waxes, and low-molecular-weight polycaprolactone, polyethylene, and polypropylene. The rates were appreciably slower than when the substrate was not initially present within these nonporous solids. From 1.4 to 63.4% of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon added to the solids was mineralized in 90 d. The rates and extents of partitioning of phenanthrene varied markedly among the solids. The rates of partitioning and biodegradation of phenanthrene initially present in the alkanes were positively correlated. The bacterium rapidly and extensively mineralized phenanthrene provided in calcium alginate beads containing varying amounts of soluble soil organic matter. The rates and extents of phenanthrene mineralization declined as the percentage of the substrate in the nanopores within silica particles increased, but the reductions in rate, extent, or both were less pronounced than with nonporous solids. The rate of 4-nitrophenol biodegradation also declined with increasing percentages of the compound in these nanopores. The data are consistent with hypotheses that the sequestration and consequent decrease in bioavailability of organic compounds that persist in soil result from their partitioning into organic matter or their presence within nanopores in soil.

  17. Gas dynamic and force effects of a solid particle in a shock wave in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obruchkova, L. R.; Baldina, E. G.; Efremov, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    Shock wave interaction with an adiabatic solid microparticle is numerically simulated. In the simulation, the shock wave is initiated by the Riemann problem with instantaneous removal of a diaphragm between the high- and low-pressure chambers. The calculation is performed in the two-dimensional formulation using the ideal gas equation of state. The left end of the tube is impermeable, while outflow from the right end is permitted. The particle is assumed to be motionless, impermeable, and adiabatic, and the simulation is performed for time intervals shorted than the time of velocity and temperature relaxation of the particle. The numerical grid is chosen for each particle size to ensure convergence. For each particle size, the calculated hydraulic resistance coefficient describing the particle force impact on the flow is compared with that obtained from the analytical Stokes formula. It is discovered that the Stokes formula can be used for calculation of hydraulic resistance of a motionless particle in a shock wave flow. The influence of the particle diameter on the flow perturbation behind the shock front is studied. Specific heating of the flow in front of the particle is calculated and a simple estimate is proposed. The whole heated region is divided by the acoustic line into the subsonic and supersonic regions. It is demonstrated that the main heat generated by the particle in the flow is concentrated in the subsonic region. The calculations are performed using two different 2D hydro codes. The energy release in the flow induced by the particle is compared with the maximum possible heating at complete termination of the flow. The results can be used for estimating the possibility of gas ignition in front of the particle by a shock wave whose amplitude is insufficient for initiating detonation in the absence of a particle.

  18. Magnetic separation of general solid particles realised by a permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisayoshi, K.; Uyeda, C.; Terada, K.

    2016-12-01

    Most existing solids are categorised as diamagnetic or weak paramagnetic materials. The possibility of magnetic motion has not been intensively considered for these materials. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ensembles of heterogeneous particles (diamagnetic bismuth, diamond and graphite particles, as well as two paramagnetic olivines) can be dynamically separated into five fractions by the low field produced by neodymium (NdFeB) magnets during short-duration microgravity (μg). This result is in contrast to the generally accepted notion that ordinary solid materials are magnetically inert. The materials of the separated particles are identified by their magnetic susceptibility (χ), which is determined from the translating velocity. The potential of this approach as an analytical technique is comparable to that of chromatography separation because the extraction of new solid phases from a heterogeneous grain ensemble will lead to important discoveries about inorganic materials. The method is applicable for the separation of the precious samples such as lunar soils and/or the Hayabusa particles recovered from the asteroids, because even micron-order grains can be thoroughly separated without sample-loss.

  19. Magnetic separation of general solid particles realised by a permanent magnet

    PubMed Central

    Hisayoshi, K.; Uyeda, C.; Terada, K.

    2016-01-01

    Most existing solids are categorised as diamagnetic or weak paramagnetic materials. The possibility of magnetic motion has not been intensively considered for these materials. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ensembles of heterogeneous particles (diamagnetic bismuth, diamond and graphite particles, as well as two paramagnetic olivines) can be dynamically separated into five fractions by the low field produced by neodymium (NdFeB) magnets during short-duration microgravity (μg). This result is in contrast to the generally accepted notion that ordinary solid materials are magnetically inert. The materials of the separated particles are identified by their magnetic susceptibility (χ), which is determined from the translating velocity. The potential of this approach as an analytical technique is comparable to that of chromatography separation because the extraction of new solid phases from a heterogeneous grain ensemble will lead to important discoveries about inorganic materials. The method is applicable for the separation of the precious samples such as lunar soils and/or the Hayabusa particles recovered from the asteroids, because even micron-order grains can be thoroughly separated without sample-loss. PMID:27929081

  20. Integration of active pharmaceutical ingredient solid form selection and particle engineering into drug product design.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, Martyn David; Marziano, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This review seeks to offer a broad perspective that encompasses an understanding of the drug product attributes affected by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) physical properties, their link to solid form selection and the role of particle engineering. While the crucial role of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solid form selection is universally acknowledged in the pharmaceutical industry, the value of increasing effort to understanding the link between solid form, API physical properties and drug product formulation and manufacture is now also being recognised. A truly holistic strategy for drug product development should focus on connecting solid form selection, particle engineering and formulation design to both exploit opportunities to access simpler manufacturing operations and prevent failures. Modelling and predictive tools that assist in establishing these links early in product development are discussed. In addition, the potential for differences between the ingoing API physical properties and those in the final product caused by drug product processing is considered. The focus of this review is on oral solid dosage forms and dry powder inhaler products for lung delivery.

  1. Direct Numerical Simulation of Particle Behaviour in a Gas-Solid Three Dimensional Plane Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Qazi, N. A.; Tang, J. C. K.; Hawkes, E. R.; Yeoh, G. H.; Grout, Ray W.; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Talei, M.; Taylor, R. A.; Bolla, M.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a three-dimensional (3D), non-reacting, temporally evolving planar jet laden with mono-dispersed solid particles in the two-way coupling (TWC) regime are performed. Three different particles Stokes numbers (St = 0.1, 1, 10) have been considered. This has been achieved by varying the particle diameter while keeping the particle mass loading (fm = 1) and the jet Reynolds number (Rejet = 2000) unchanged. The objective is to study the effect of the particle Stokes number TWC regime on the temporal development of the planar jet. Two-way coupled momentum and heat transfer has been studied by investigating mean relative velocity and temperature. Results indicate that the relative parameters are more pronounced on the edges of the jet and decrease in time in general. At the center of the jet however, the mean value first increases and then decreases again. Additionally, lighter particles spread farther than heavier particles from the center of the jet. Furthermore, the heavier particles delay the development of the jet due to TWC effects.

  2. The effects of solid rocket motor effluents on selected surfaces and solid particle size, distribution, and composition for simulated shuttle booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, D. W.; Linton, R. C.; Russell, W. M.; Trenkle, J. J.; Wilkes, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A series of three tests was conducted using solid rocket propellants to determine the effects a solid rocket plume would have on thermal protective surfaces (TPS). The surfaces tested were those which are baselined for the shuttle vehicle. The propellants used were to simulate the separation solid rocket motors (SSRM) that separate the solid rocket boosters (SRB) from the shuttle launch vehicle. Data cover: (1) the optical effects of the plume environment on spacecraft related surfaces, and (2) the solid particle size, distribution, and composition at TPS sample locations.

  3. Preliminary data on the optical properties of solid ammonia and scattering parameters for ammonia cloud particles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectrum of solid ammonia is obtained from 2 to 125 microns as a composite of the published measurements. From this, the absorption coefficient and the complex refractive index are calculated as a function of frequency by integration of the Kramers-Kroenig dispersion relations. These data are used in a Mie theory analysis to obtain the basic parameters for scattering of long wavelength radiation by solid ammonia particles; this is believed to be an important process in radiative transfer within the atmospheres of the giant planets.

  4. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of contact angle hysteresis on a patterned solid/air composite surface.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bin; Yang, Xiaozhen

    2006-02-28

    We have studied two types of topological substrates--the continuous solid substrates (CSS) and the discontinuous solid substrates (DSS)--by using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method for a better understanding of the contact angle hysteresis on two such substrates. After the validation of DPD in the system, we found that DSS has a different distribution of the metastable states from that of CSS and that DSS has relatively larger contact angle hysteresis at lower temperature. Obtained results also show that CSS is more suitable for making an ultrahydrophobic or ultralyophobic surface than DSS from the point of view of dynamic wettability.

  5. Jumping liquid metal droplet in electrolyte triggered by solid metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianbo; Wang, Junjie; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    We report the electron discharge effect due to point contact between liquid metal and solid metal particles in electrolyte. Adding nickel particles induces drastic hydrogen generating and intermittent jumping of a sub-millimeter EGaIn droplet in NaOH solution. Observations from different orientations disclose that such jumping behavior is triggered by pressurized bubbles under the assistance of interfacial interactions. Hydrogen evolution around particles provides clear evidence that such electric instability originates from the varied electric potential and morphology between the two metallic materials. The point-contact-induced charge concentration significantly enhances the near-surface electric field intensity at the particle tips and thus causes electric breakdown of the electrolyte.

  6. Dependence of charge transfer phenomena during solid-air two-phase flow on particle disperser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, Ken-ichiro; Suedomi, Yuuki; Honda, Hirotaka; Furutani, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tatsuo; Masuda, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    An experimental investigation of the tribo-electrification of particles has been conducted during solid-air two-phase turbulent flow. The current induced in a metal plate by the impact of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles in a high-speed air flow was measured for two different plate materials. The results indicated that the contact potential difference between the particles and a stainless steel plate was positive, while for a nickel plate it was negative. These results agreed with theoretical contact charge transfer even if not only the particle size but also the kind of metal plate was changed. The specific charge of the PMMA particles during solid-air two-phase flow using an ejector, a stainless steel branch pipe, and a stainless steel straight pipe was measured using a Faraday cage. Although the charge was negative in the ejector, the particles had a positive specific charge at the outlet of the branch pipe, and this positive charge increased in the straight pipe. The charge decay along the flow direction could be reproduced by the charging and relaxation theory. However, the proportional coefficients in the theory changed with the particle size and air velocity. Therefore, an unexpected charge transfer occurred between the ejector and the branch pipe, which could not be explained solely by the contact potential difference. In the ejector, an electrical current in air might have been produced by self-discharge of particles with excess charge between the nickel diffuser in the ejector and the stainless steel nozzle or the stainless steel pipe due to a reversal in the contact potential difference between the PMMA and the stainless steel. The sign of the current depended on the particle size, possibly because the position where the particles impacted depended on their size. When dual coaxial glass pipes were used as a particle disperser, the specific charge of the PMMA particles became more positive along the particle flow direction due to the contact

  7. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  8. Warm spraying—a novel coating process based on high-velocity impact of solid particles

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Seiji; Kawakita, Jin; Watanabe, Makoto; Katanoda, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, coating processes based on the impact of high-velocity solid particles such as cold spraying and aerosol deposition have been developed and attracting much industrial attention. A novel coating process called ‘warm spraying’ has been developed, in which coatings are formed by the high-velocity impact of solid powder particles heated to appropriate temperatures below the melting point of the powder material. The advantages of such process are as follows: (1) the critical velocity needed to form a coating can be significantly lowered by heating, (2) the degradation of feedstock powder such as oxidation can be significantly controlled compared with conventional thermal spraying where powder is molten, and (3) various coating structures can be realized from porous to dense ones by controlling the temperature and velocity of the particles. The principles and characteristics of this new process are discussed in light of other existing spray processes such as high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and cold spraying. The gas dynamics of particle heating and acceleration by the spraying apparatus as well as the high-velocity impact phenomena of powder particles are discussed in detail. Several examples of depositing heat sensitive materials such as titanium, metallic glass, WC–Co cermet and polymers are described with potential industrial applications. PMID:27877996

  9. Particle reflection and its energy spectrum from solid surfaces with adsorbate atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Using the ACAT and ACOCT codes, the particle reflection coefficients and energy spectra reflected from solid surfaces covered with adsorbated atoms have been calculated in the low-energy region. It is found that the particle reflection coefficients of low energy ions are much reduced due to the collision between an incoming ion and an adsorbate atom, especially for M1 > M3 ( M1 and M3 being the atomic masses of an ion and an adsorbate atom, respectively), and the surface peak from a substrate atom becomes strongly suppressed as the coverage increases.

  10. A smooth dissipative particle dynamics method for domains with arbitrary-geometry solid boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.; Potami, Raffaele; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A smooth dissipative particle dynamics method with dynamic virtual particle allocation (SDPD-DV) for modeling and simulation of mesoscopic fluids in wall-bounded domains is presented. The physical domain in SDPD-DV may contain external and internal solid boundaries of arbitrary geometries, periodic inlets and outlets, and the fluid region. The SDPD-DV method is realized with fluid particles, boundary particles, and dynamically allocated virtual particles. The internal or external solid boundaries of the domain can be of arbitrary geometry and are discretized with a surface grid. These boundaries are represented by boundary particles with assigned properties. The fluid domain is discretized with fluid particles of constant mass and variable volume. Conservative and dissipative force models due to virtual particles exerted on a fluid particle in the proximity of a solid boundary supplement the original SDPD formulation. The dynamic virtual particle allocation approach provides the density and the forces due to virtual particles. The integration of the SDPD equations is accomplished with a velocity-Verlet algorithm for the momentum and a Runge-Kutta for the entropy equation. The velocity integrator is supplemented by a bounce-forward algorithm in cases where the virtual particle force model is not able to prevent particle penetration. For the incompressible isothermal systems considered in this work, the pressure of a fluid particle is obtained by an artificial compressibility formulation for liquids and the ideal gas law for gases. The self-diffusion coefficient is obtained by an implementation of the generalized Einstein and the Green-Kubo relations. Field properties are obtained by sampling SDPD-DV outputs on a post-processing grid that allows harnessing the particle information on desired spatiotemporal scales. The SDPD-DV method is verified and validated with simulations in bounded and periodic domains that cover the hydrodynamic and mesoscopic regimes for

  11. From porous gold nanocups to porous nanospheres and solid particles--a new synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ihsan, Ayesha; Katsiev, Habib; Alyami, Noktan; Anjum, Dalaver H; Khan, Waheed S; Hussain, Irshad

    2015-05-15

    We report a versatile approach for the synthesis of porous gold nanocups, porous gold nanospheres and solid gold nanoparticles. Gold nanocups are formed by the slow reduction of gold salt (HAuCl4⋅3H2O) using aminoantipyrene (AAP) as a reducing agent. Adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to the gold salt followed by reduction with AAP resulted in the formation of porous gold nanospheres. Microwave irradiation of both of these porous gold particles resulted in the formation of slightly smaller but solid gold particles. All these nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and bright-field tomography. Due to the larger size, porous nature, low density and higher surface area, these nanomaterials may have interesting applications in catalysis, drug delivery, phototherapy and sensing.

  12. Development of stress boundary conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for the modeling of solids deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet-Grellier, Thomas; Pramanik, Ranjan; Pan, Kai; Albaiz, Abdulaziz; Jones, Bruce D.; Williams, John R.

    2016-10-01

    This paper develops a method for imposing stress boundary conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with and without the need for dummy particles. SPH has been used for simulating phenomena in a number of fields, such as astrophysics and fluid mechanics. More recently, the method has gained traction as a technique for simulation of deformation and fracture in solids, where the meshless property of SPH can be leveraged to represent arbitrary crack paths. Despite this interest, application of boundary conditions within the SPH framework is typically limited to imposed velocity or displacement using fictitious dummy particles to compensate for the lack of particles beyond the boundary interface. While this is enough for a large variety of problems, especially in the case of fluid flow, for problems in solid mechanics there is a clear need to impose stresses upon boundaries. In addition to this, the use of dummy particles to impose a boundary condition is not always suitable or even feasibly, especially for those problems which include internal boundaries. In order to overcome these difficulties, this paper first presents an improved method for applying stress boundary conditions in SPH with dummy particles. This is then followed by a proposal of a formulation which does not require dummy particles. These techniques are then validated against analytical solutions to two common problems in rock mechanics, the Brazilian test and the penny-shaped crack problem both in 2D and 3D. This study highlights the fact that SPH offers a good level of accuracy to solve these problems and that results are reliable. This validation work serves as a foundation for addressing more complex problems involving plasticity and fracture propagation.

  13. Solid Particle Erosion Behaviors of Carbon-Fiber Epoxy Composite and Pure Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Feng; Gao, Feng; Pant, Shashank; Huang, Xiao; Yang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Rotor blades of Bell CH-146 Griffon helicopter experience excessive solid particle erosion at low altitudes in desert environment. The rotor blade is made of an advanced light-weight composite which, however, has a low resistance to solid particle erosion. Coatings have been developed and applied to protect the composite blade. However, due to the influence of coating process on composite material, the compatibility between coating and composite base, and the challenges of repairing damaged coatings as well as the inconsistency between the old and new coatings, replaceable thin metal shielding is an alternative approach; and titanium, due to its high-specific strength and better formability, is an ideal candidate. This work investigates solid particle erosion behaviors of carbon-fiber epoxy composite and titanium in order to assess the feasibility of titanium as a viable candidate for erosion shielding. Experiment results showed that carbon-fiber epoxy composite showed a brittle erosion behavior, whereas titanium showed a ductile erosion mode. The erosion rate on composite was 1.5 times of that on titanium at impingement angle 15° and increased to 5 times at impact angle 90°.

  14. Combined discrete particle and continuum model predicting solid-state fermentation in a drum fermentor.

    PubMed

    Schutyser, M A I; Briels, W J; Boom, R M; Rinzema, A

    2004-05-20

    The development of mathematical models facilitates industrial (large-scale) application of solid-state fermentation (SSF). In this study, a two-phase model of a drum fermentor is developed that consists of a discrete particle model (solid phase) and a continuum model (gas phase). The continuum model describes the distribution of air in the bed injected via an aeration pipe. The discrete particle model describes the solid phase. In previous work, mixing during SSF was predicted with the discrete particle model, although mixing simulations were not carried out in the current work. Heat and mass transfer between the two phases and biomass growth were implemented in the two-phase model. Validation experiments were conducted in a 28-dm3 drum fermentor. In this fermentor, sufficient aeration was provided to control the temperatures near the optimum value for growth during the first 45-50 hours. Several simulations were also conducted for different fermentor scales. Forced aeration via a single pipe in the drum fermentors did not provide homogeneous cooling in the substrate bed. Due to large temperature gradients, biomass yield decreased severely with increasing size of the fermentor. Improvement of air distribution would be required to avoid the need for frequent mixing events, during which growth is hampered. From these results, it was concluded that the two-phase model developed is a powerful tool to investigate design and scale-up of aerated (mixed) SSF fermentors.

  15. Research on particle swarm optimization algorithm based on optimal movement probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianhong; Zhang, Han; He, Baofeng

    2017-01-01

    The particle swarm optimization algorithm to improve the control precision, and has great application value training neural network and fuzzy system control fields etc.The traditional particle swarm algorithm is used for the training of feed forward neural networks,the search efficiency is low, and easy to fall into local convergence.An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed based on error back propagation gradient descent. Particle swarm optimization for Solving Least Squares Problems to meme group, the particles in the fitness ranking, optimization problem of the overall consideration, the error back propagation gradient descent training BP neural network, particle to update the velocity and position according to their individual optimal and global optimization, make the particles more to the social optimal learning and less to its optimal learning, it can avoid the particles fall into local optimum, by using gradient information can accelerate the PSO local search ability, improve the multi beam particle swarm depth zero less trajectory information search efficiency, the realization of improved particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm in the initial stage of rapid convergence to the global optimal solution can be near to the global optimal solution and keep close to the trend, the algorithm has faster convergence speed and search performance in the same running time, it can improve the convergence speed of the algorithm, especially the later search efficiency.

  16. Optimization of circular plate separators with cross flow for removal of oil droplets and solid particles.

    PubMed

    Ngu, Hei; Wong, Kien Kuok; Law, Puong Ling

    2012-04-01

    A circular gravity-phase separator using coalescing medium with cross flow was developed to remove oil and suspended solids from wastewaters. Coalescence medium in the form of inclined plates promotes rising of oil droplets through coalescence and settling of solid particles through coagulation. It exhibits 22.67% higher removal of total suspended solids (TSS) compared to separators without coalescing medium. Moreover, it removed more than 70% of oil compared to conventional American Petroleum Institute separators, which exhibit an average of 33% oil removal. The flowrate required to attain an effluent oil concentration of 10 mg/L (Q(o10)) at different influent oil concentrations (C(io)) can be represented by Q(o10) x 10(-5) = -0.0012C(io) + 0.352. The flowrate required to attain an effluent TSS concentration of 50 mg/L (Q(ss50)) at different influent TSS concentrations (C(iss)) can be represented by Q(ss50) x 10(-5) = 1.0 x 10(6) C(iss)(-2.9576). The smallest removable solid particle size was 4.87 microm.

  17. Manipulation of small particles at solid liquid interface: light driven diffusioosmosis

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, David; Maduar, Salim R.; Santer, Mark; Lomadze, Nino; Vinogradova, Olga I.; Santer, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    The strong adhesion of sub-micron sized particles to surfaces is a nuisance, both for removing contaminating colloids from surfaces and for conscious manipulation of particles to create and test novel micro/nano-scale assemblies. The obvious idea of using detergents to ease these processes suffers from a lack of control: the action of any conventional surface-modifying agent is immediate and global. With photosensitive azobenzene containing surfactants we overcome these limitations. Such photo-soaps contain optical switches (azobenzene molecules), which upon illumination with light of appropriate wavelength undergo reversible trans-cis photo-isomerization resulting in a subsequent change of the physico-chemical molecular properties. In this work we show that when a spatial gradient in the composition of trans- and cis- isomers is created near a solid-liquid interface, a substantial hydrodynamic flow can be initiated, the spatial extent of which can be set, e.g., by the shape of a laser spot. We propose the concept of light induced diffusioosmosis driving the flow, which can remove, gather or pattern a particle assembly at a solid-liquid interface. In other words, in addition to providing a soap we implement selectivity: particles are mobilized and moved at the time of illumination, and only across the illuminated area. PMID:27808170

  18. Manipulation of small particles at solid liquid interface: light driven diffusioosmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, David; Maduar, Salim R.; Santer, Mark; Lomadze, Nino; Vinogradova, Olga I.; Santer, Svetlana

    2016-11-01

    The strong adhesion of sub-micron sized particles to surfaces is a nuisance, both for removing contaminating colloids from surfaces and for conscious manipulation of particles to create and test novel micro/nano-scale assemblies. The obvious idea of using detergents to ease these processes suffers from a lack of control: the action of any conventional surface-modifying agent is immediate and global. With photosensitive azobenzene containing surfactants we overcome these limitations. Such photo-soaps contain optical switches (azobenzene molecules), which upon illumination with light of appropriate wavelength undergo reversible trans-cis photo-isomerization resulting in a subsequent change of the physico-chemical molecular properties. In this work we show that when a spatial gradient in the composition of trans- and cis- isomers is created near a solid-liquid interface, a substantial hydrodynamic flow can be initiated, the spatial extent of which can be set, e.g., by the shape of a laser spot. We propose the concept of light induced diffusioosmosis driving the flow, which can remove, gather or pattern a particle assembly at a solid-liquid interface. In other words, in addition to providing a soap we implement selectivity: particles are mobilized and moved at the time of illumination, and only across the illuminated area.

  19. Manipulation of small particles at solid liquid interface: light driven diffusioosmosis.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, David; Maduar, Salim R; Santer, Mark; Lomadze, Nino; Vinogradova, Olga I; Santer, Svetlana

    2016-11-03

    The strong adhesion of sub-micron sized particles to surfaces is a nuisance, both for removing contaminating colloids from surfaces and for conscious manipulation of particles to create and test novel micro/nano-scale assemblies. The obvious idea of using detergents to ease these processes suffers from a lack of control: the action of any conventional surface-modifying agent is immediate and global. With photosensitive azobenzene containing surfactants we overcome these limitations. Such photo-soaps contain optical switches (azobenzene molecules), which upon illumination with light of appropriate wavelength undergo reversible trans-cis photo-isomerization resulting in a subsequent change of the physico-chemical molecular properties. In this work we show that when a spatial gradient in the composition of trans- and cis- isomers is created near a solid-liquid interface, a substantial hydrodynamic flow can be initiated, the spatial extent of which can be set, e.g., by the shape of a laser spot. We propose the concept of light induced diffusioosmosis driving the flow, which can remove, gather or pattern a particle assembly at a solid-liquid interface. In other words, in addition to providing a soap we implement selectivity: particles are mobilized and moved at the time of illumination, and only across the illuminated area.

  20. The Penetration Behavior of an Annular Gas-Solid Jet Impinging on a Liquid Bath: The Effects of the Density and Size of Solid Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. S.; Sohn, H. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Top-blow injection of a gas-solid jet through a circular lance is used in the Mitsubishi Continuous Smelting Process. One problem associated with this injection is the severe erosion of the hearth refractory below the lances. A new configuration of the lance to form an annular gas-solid jet rather than the circular jet was designed in this laboratory. With this new configuration, the solid particles fed through the center tube leave the lance at a much lower velocity than the gas, and the penetration behavior of the jet is significantly different from that with a circular lance where the solid particles leave the lance at the same high velocity as the gas. In previous cold-model investigations in this laboratory, the effects of the gas velocity, particle feed rate, lance height of the annular lance, and the cross-sectional area of the gas jet were studied and compared with the circular lance. This study examined the effect of the density and size of the solid particles on the penetration behavior of the annular gas-solid jet, which yielded some unexpected results. The variation in the penetration depth with the density of the solid particles at the same mass feed rate was opposite for the circular lance and the annular lance. In the case of the circular lance, the penetration depth became shallower as the density of the solid particles increased; on the contrary, for the annular lance, the penetration depth became deeper with the increasing density of particles. However, at the same volumetric feed rate of the particles, the density effect was small for the circular lance, but for the annular lance, the jets with higher density particles penetrated more deeply. The variation in the penetration depth with the particle diameter was also different for the circular and the annular lances. With the circular lance, the penetration depth became deeper as the particle size decreased for all the feed rates, but with the annular lance, the effect of the particle size was

  1. Particle size distribution of suspended solids in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and adjacent shelf waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, M. R.; Oertel, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of suspended solids, including total suspended matter, total suspended inorganics, total suspended organics, particle size distribution, and the presence of the ten most prominent particle types were determined. Four research vessels simultaneously collected samples along four transects. Samples were collected within a 2-hour period that coincided with the maximum ebb penetration of Chesapeake Bay outwelling. The distribution of primary and secondary particle size modes indicate the presence of a surface or near-surface plume, possibly associated with three sources: (1) runoff, (2) resuspension of material within the Bay, and/or (3) resuspension of material in the area of shoals at the Bay mouth. Additional supportive evidence for this conclusion is illustrated with ocean color scanner data.

  2. On the optimization of the solid core radius of superficially porous particles for finite adsorption rate.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof

    2011-02-18

    Packed chromatographic columns with the superficially porous particles (porous shell particles) guarantee higher efficiency. The theoretical equation of the Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP), for columns packed with spherical superficially porous particles, was used for the analysis of the column efficiency for finite rate of adsorption-desorption process. The HETP equation was calculated by the application of the moment analysis to elution peaks evaluated with the General Rate (GR) model. The optimal solid core radius for maximum column efficiency was estimated for a wide spectrum of internal and external mass transfer resistances, adsorption kinetic rate and axial dispersion. The separation power of the shell adsorbent for two component mixture, in analytical and preparative chromatography, was discussed. The conditions of the equivalence between the solutions of the General Rate model with slow adsorption kinetic and the Lumped Kinetic Model (LKM) or the Equilibrium Dispersive (ED) model were formulated.

  3. Can infrared spectroscopy be used to measure change in potassium nitrate concentration as a proxy for soil particle movement?

    PubMed

    Luleva, Mila Ivanova; van der Werff, Harald; Jetten, Victor; van der Meer, Freek

    2011-01-01

    Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope ((137)Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K) has similar electrical, chemical and physical properties as Cs. Our hypothesis is that it can be used as possible replacement in soil particle tracing. Soils differing in texture were sampled for the study. Laboratory soil chemical analyses and spectral sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the wavelength range related to K concentration. Different concentrations of K fertilizer were added to soils with varying texture properties in order to establish spectral characteristics of the absorption feature associated with the element. Changes in position of absorption feature center were observed at wavelengths between 2,450 and 2,470 nm, depending on the amount of fertilizer applied. Other absorption feature parameters (absorption band depth, width and area) were also found to change with K concentration with coefficient of determination between 0.85 and 0.99. Tracing soil particles using K fertilizer and infrared spectral response is considered suitable for soils with sandy and sandy silt texture. It is a new approach that can potentially grow to a technique for rapid monitoring of soil particle movement over large areas.

  4. Characterisation of solid particles emitted from diesel and petrol engines as a contribution to the determination of the origin of carbonaceous particles in urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalik, M.; Brzeżański, M.; Wilczyńska-Michalik, W.; Fisior, K.; Klimas, B.; Samek, L.; Pietras, B.

    2016-09-01

    Solid particles emitted from diesel and petrol engines were studied using a scanning electron microscope fitted with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The soot emitted from different engines under different operating conditions differed in particle size, and the form and size of aggregates. Identification of the soot particles emitted from diesel or petrol engines in urban aerosol based on their size and morphology was found to be impossible.

  5. Electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy method for characterising particles in solid-liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yanlin; Wang, Mi; Yao, Jun

    2014-04-11

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is one of the process tomography techniques to provide an on-line non-invasive imaging for multiphase flow measurement. With EIT measurements, the images of impedance real part, impedance imaginary part, phase angle, and magnitude can be obtained. However, most of the applications of EIT in the process industries rely on the conductivity difference between two phases in fluids to obtain the concentration profiles. It is not common to use the imaginary part or phase angle due to the dominant change in conductivity or complication in the use of other impedance information. In a solid-liquid two phases system involving nano- or submicro-particles, characterisation of particles (e.g. particle size and concentration) have to rely on the measurement of impedance phase angle or imaginary part. Particles in a solution usually have an electrical double layer associated with their surfaces and can form an induced electrical dipole moment due to the polarization of the electrical double layer under the influence of an alternating electric field. Similar to EIT, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement can record the electrical impedance data, including impedance real part, imaginary part and phase angle (θ), which are caused by the polarization of the electrical double layer. These impedance data are related to the particle characteristics e.g. particle size, particle and ionic concentrations in the aqueous medium, therefore EIS method provides a capability for characterising the particles in suspensions. Electrical impedance tomography based on EIS measurement or namely, electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy (EITS) could image the spatial distribution of particle characteristics. In this paper, a new method, including test set-up and data analysis, for characterisation of particles in suspensions are developed through the experimental approach. The experimental results on tomographic imaging of colloidal particles

  6. Method for producing solid or hollow spherical particles of chosen chemical composition and of uniform size

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is provided for producing commercially large quantities of high melting temperature solid or hollow spherical particles of a predetermined chemical composition and having a uniform and controlled size distribution. An end (18, 50, 90) of a solid or hollow rod (20, 48, 88) of the material is rendered molten by a laser beam (14, 44, 82). Because of this, there is no possibility of the molten rod material becoming contaminated with extraneous material. In various aspects of the invention, an electric field is applied to the molten rod end (18, 90), and/or the molten rod end (50, 90) is vibrated. In a further aspect of the invention, a high-frequency component is added to the electric field applied to the molten end of the rod (90). By controlling the internal pressure of the rod, the rate at which the rod is introduced into the laser beam, the environment of the process, the vibration amplitude and frequency of the molten rod end, the electric field intensity applied to the molten rod end, and the frequency and intensity of the component added to the electric field, the uniformity and size distribution of the solid or hollow spherical particles (122) produced by the inventive method is controlled. The polarity of the electric field applied to the molten rod end can be chosen to eliminate backstreaming electrons, which tend to produce run-away heating in the rod, from the process.

  7. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

  8. Effect of particle asphericity on single-scattering parameters: comparison between Platonic solids and spheres.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W; Wiscombe, Warren J

    2004-08-01

    The single-scattering properties of the Platonic shapes, namely, the tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron, are investigated by use of the finite-difference time-domain method. These Platonic shapes have different extents of asphericity in terms of the ratios of their volumes (or surface areas) to those of their circumscribed spheres. We present the errors associated with four types of spherical equivalence that are defined on the basis of (a) the particle's geometric dimension (b) equal surface area (A), (c) equal volume (V), and (d) equal-volume-to-surface-area ratio (V/A). Numerical results show that the derivations of the scattering properties of a nonspherical particle from its spherical counterpart depend on the definition of spherical equivalence. For instance, when the Platonic and spherical particles have the same geometric dimension, the phase function for a dodecahedron is more similar than that for an icosahedron to the spherical result even though an icosahedron has more faces than a dodecahedron. However, when the nonspherical and spherical particles have the same volume, the phase function of the icosahedral particle essentially converges to the phase function of the sphere, whereas the result for the dodecahedron is quite different from its spherical counterpart. Furthermore, the present scattering calculation shows that the approximation of a Platonic solid with a sphere based on V/A leads to larger errors than the spherical equivalence based on either volume or projected area.

  9. Laser-induced alteration of Raman spectra for micron-sized solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, U.; Pavlov, S. G.; Deßmann, N.; Hanke, F.; Weber, I.; Fritz, J.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2017-04-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) instrument on board of the future ESAs ExoMars mission will analyze micron-sized powder samples in a low pressure atmosphere. Such micron-sized polycrystalline solid particles might be heated by the laser during the Raman measurements. Here, we report on the temperature-induced alteration of Raman spectra from micron-sized polycrystalline solid particles by comparing Raman spectra on silicon and the rock forming minerals olivine and pyroxene taken at different laser intensities and different ambient temperatures. Our analyses indicate that laser-induced heating results in both broadening and shifting of characteristic Raman lines in the Stokes and anti-Stokes spectral regions. For elementary crystalline silicon a significant local temperature increase and relevant changes in Raman spectra have been observed in particles with median sizes below 250 μm. In comparison, significantly weaker laser-induced Raman spectral changes were observed in more complex rock-forming silicate minerals; even for lower grain sizes. Laser power densities realized in the RLS ExoMars instrument should cause only low local heating effects and, thus, negligible frequency shifts of the major Raman lines in common silicate minerals such as olivine and pyroxene.

  10. Many-body dissipative particle dynamics simulation of liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arienti, Marco; Pan, Wenxiao; Li, Xiaoyi; Karniadakis, George

    2011-05-01

    The combination of short-range repulsive and long-range attractive forces in many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) is examined at a vapor/liquid and liquid/solid interface. Based on the radial distribution of the virial pressure in a drop at equilibrium, a systematic study is carried out to characterize the sensitivity of the surface tension coefficient with respect to the inter-particle interaction parameters. For the first time, the approximately cubic dependence of the surface tension coefficient on the bulk density of the fluid is evidenced. In capillary flow, MDPD solutions are shown to satisfy the condition on the wavelength of an axial disturbance leading to the pinch-off of a cylindrical liquid thread; correctly, no pinch-off occurs below the cutoff wavelength. Moreover, in an example that illustrates the cascade of fluid dynamics behaviors from potential to inertial-viscous to stochastic flow, the dynamics of the jet radius is consistent with the power law predictions of asymptotic analysis. To model interaction with a solid wall, MDPD is augmented by a set of bell-shaped weight functions; hydrophilic and hydrophobic behaviors, including the occurrence of slip in the latter, are reproduced using a modification in the weight function that avoids particle clustering. The dynamics of droplets entering an inverted Y-shaped fracture junction is shown to be correctly captured in simulations parametrized by the Bond number, confirming the flexibility of MDPD in modeling interface-dominated flows.

  11. Measurements of Turbulence Attenuation by a Dilute Dispersion of Solid Particles in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses turbulent gas flows laden with fine solid particles at sufficiently large mass loading that strong two-way coupling occurs. By two-way coupling we mean that the particle motion is governed largely by the flow, while the particles affect the gas-phase mean flow and the turbulence properties. Our main interest is in understanding how the particles affect the turbulence. Computational techniques have been developed which can accurately predict flows carrying particles that are much smaller than the smallest scales of turbulence. Also, advanced computational techniques and burgeoning computer resources make it feasible to fully resolve very large particles moving through turbulent flows. However, flows with particle diameters of the same order as the Kolmogorov scale of the turbulence are notoriously difficult to predict. Some simple flows show strong turbulence attenuation with reductions in the turbulent kinetic energy by up to a factor of five. On the other hand, some seemingly similar flows show almost no modification. No model has been proposed that allows prediction of when the strong attenuation will occur. Unfortunately, many technological and natural two-phase flows fall into this regime, so there is a strong need for new physical understanding and modeling capability. Our objective is to study the simplest possible turbulent particle-laden flow, namely homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with a uniform dispersion of monodisperse particles. We chose such a simple flow for two reasons. First, the simplicity allows us to probe the interaction in more detail and offers analytical simplicity in interpreting the results. Secondly, this flow can be addressed by numerical simulation, and many research groups are already working on calculating the flow. Our detailed data can help guide some of these efforts. By using microgravity, we can further simplify the flow to the case of no mean velocity for either the turbulence or the particles. In fact

  12. First results from solid state neutral particle analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. Z.; Zhu, Y. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2016-11-01

    Full function integrated, compact solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) based on absolute extreme ultraviolet silicon photodiode have been successfully implemented on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak to measure energetic particle. The ssNPA system has been operated in advanced current mode with fast temporal and spatial resolution capabilities, with both active and passive charge exchange measurements. It is found that the ssNPA flux signals are increased substantially with neutral beam injection (NBI). The horizontal active array responds to modulated NBI beam promptly, while weaker change is presented on passive array. Compared to near-perpendicular beam, near-tangential beam brings more passive ssNPA flux and a broader profile, while no clear difference is observed on active ssNPA flux and its profile. Significantly enhanced intensities on some ssNPA channels have been observed during ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  13. Neutral particle background in cosmic ray telescopes composed of silicon solid state detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The energy loss-spectrum of secondary charged particles produced by the interaction of gamma-rays and energetic neutrons in silicon solid state detectors has been measured with a satellite-borne cosmic ray telescope. In the satellite measurements presented here two distinct neutral background effects are identified: secondary protons and alpha particles with energies of about 2 to 100 MeV produced by neutron interactions, and secondary electrons with energies of about 0.2 to 10 MeV produced by X-ray interactions. The implications of this neutral background for satellite measurements of low energy cosmic rays are discussed, and suggestions are given for applying these results to other detector systems in order to estimate background contamination and optimize detector system design.

  14. High energy particle tracking using scintillating fibers and solid state photomultipliers

    SciTech Connect

    Petroff, M.D.; Atac, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Solid State Photomultiplier (SSPM) recently developed at the Rockwell International Science Center, coupled with fast scintillating fibers can have a rate capacity of 10/sup 8/ tracks per second per cm/sup 2/ of fiber cross section in systems for tracking of high energy ionizing particles. Relative to other approaches the SSPM can provide substantial improvements in spatial and temporal tracking accuracy. Results of preliminary experiments with 0.225 /times/ 0.225 mm/sup 2/ cross section step-index-of-refraction fiber exposed to electrons from a beta source are presented. The experiments involved pulse height analysis of SSPM photon detection pulses induced by coincident scintillations in two adjacent fibers traversed by the same electron. The data for two different scintillating fibers tested indicate that meter long fibers of this type, optimally coupled to SSPMs, will be effective in detecting minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Single-sheet identification method of heavy charged particles using solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, M. F.; Abdel-Naby, A.; Morsy, A. Ahmed

    2007-08-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of the penetration of charged particles in matter played a very important role in the development of modern physics. Solid state nuclear track detectors have become one of the most important tools for many branches of science and technology. An attempt has been made to examine the suitability of the single-sheet particle identification technique in CR-39 and CN-85 polycarbonate by plotting track cone length vs. residual range for different heavy ions in these detectors. So, the maximum etchable ranges of heavy ions such as ^{93}Nb, ^{86}Kr and ^{4}He in CR-39 and ^{4}He and ^{132}Xe in CN-85 polycarbonate have been determined. The ranges of these ions in these detectors have also been computed theoretically using the Henke-Benton program. A reasonably good agreement has been observed between the experimentally and theoretically computed values.

  16. Toluene vapor capture by activated carbon particles in a dual gas-solid cyclone system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Hui; Ngo, Khanh Quoc; Park, Young Koo; Jo, Young Min

    2012-08-01

    Capturing of odorous compounds such as toluene vapor by a particulate-activated carbon adsorbent was investigated in a gas-solid cyclone, which is one type of mobile beds. The test cyclone was early modified with the post cyclone (PoC) and a spiral flow guide to the vortex finder. The proposed process may contribute to the reduction of gases and dust from industrial exhausts, especially when dealing with a low concentration of odorous elements and a large volume ofdust flow. In this device, the toluene capturing efficiency at a 400 ppm concentration rose up to 77.4% when using activated carbon (AC) particles with a median size of 27.03 microm. A maximum 96% of AC particles could be collected for reuse depending on the size and flow rate. The AC regenerated via thermal treatment showed an adsorption potential up to 66.7% throughout repeated tests.

  17. Numerical Calculation of the Morphology of a Solid/Liquid Interface Near an Insoluble Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Sen, Subhayu

    2003-01-01

    A numerical mathematical model capable of accurately describing the evolution of the shape of the solid/liquid interface in the proximity of a foreign particle is presented in this paper. The model accounts for the influence of the temperature gradient and the Gibbs-Thomson and disjoining pressure effects. It shows that for the systems characterized by k(sub P) < k(sub L) the disjoining pressure causes the interface curvature to change its sign in the close-contact particle/interface region. It also shows that the increase of the temperature gradient diminishes the effect of the disjoining pressure. Calculated critical solidification velocities for the pushing/engulfment transition are compared with experimental measurements performed in microgravity conditions.

  18. First results from solid state neutral particle analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J Z; Zhu, Y B; Zhao, J L; Wan, B N; Li, J G; Heidbrink, W W

    2016-11-01

    Full function integrated, compact solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) based on absolute extreme ultraviolet silicon photodiode have been successfully implemented on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak to measure energetic particle. The ssNPA system has been operated in advanced current mode with fast temporal and spatial resolution capabilities, with both active and passive charge exchange measurements. It is found that the ssNPA flux signals are increased substantially with neutral beam injection (NBI). The horizontal active array responds to modulated NBI beam promptly, while weaker change is presented on passive array. Compared to near-perpendicular beam, near-tangential beam brings more passive ssNPA flux and a broader profile, while no clear difference is observed on active ssNPA flux and its profile. Significantly enhanced intensities on some ssNPA channels have been observed during ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  19. Particle velocity and solid volume fraction measurements with a new capacitive flowmeter at the Solid/Gas Flow Test Facility. [Glass beads

    SciTech Connect

    Bobis, J.P.; Porges, K.G.A.; Raptis, A.C.; Brewer, W.E.; Bernovich, L.T.

    1986-08-01

    The performance of a new capacitive flowmeter has been assessed experimentally in a gas-entrained solid flow stream at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Solid/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) for solid feedrates in the range of 0.5 to 2 kg/s and solid-gas loadings up to 22, corresponding to a range of solid volume fractions extending from 0.004 to 0.016. Two types of nonintrusive instruments using the capacitive principle were fabricated at ANL and installed in the horizontal leg of a 12.3 m test section to sense the solids. An improved electrode geometry designed to maximize the coverage of the duct interior while minimizing the readout error due to a nonuniform electric field, was incorporated for one spoolpiece with the sensing electrodes on the outside surface of a ceramic liner and for another spoolpiece with the sensing electrodes mounted flush with the duct inside surface. The capacitive instruments measured the solid volume fraction and the average particle velocity. The results are compared with time-of-flight measurements of short-lived radioactive particles that duplicate closely the size and density of the 1000..mu.. glass beads used in these flow tests. Results show that the solid volume fraction measurements agree with the theoretical models presented and that the particle velocity deduced from the cross-correlation scheme agreed to within 5% of the irradiated particle velocity technique for the 21 to 31 m/s range generated with the S/GFTF. 43 refs., 36 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Large-eddy simulation of zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer with solid particle suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mustafa; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    We present results of solid particles suspension and transport in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow using large-eddy simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We adopt the Eulerian-Eulerian approach to simulating particle laden flow with a large number of particles, in which the particles are characterized by statistical descriptors. For the particulate phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The underlying approach in modeling the turbulence of fluid phase utilizes the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work proposed by Inoue & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech. 2011). The solver is verified against simple analytical solutions and the computational results are found to be in a good agreement with these. The capability of the new numerical solver will be exercised to investigate turbulent transport of sand in sandstorms. Finally, the adequacy and limitations of the solver will be discussed. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1704-01.

  1. Plume particle collection and sizing from static firing of solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambamurthi, Jay K.

    1995-01-01

    A unique dart system has been designed and built at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to collect aluminum oxide plume particles from the plumes of large scale solid rocket motors, such as the space shuttle RSRM. The capability of this system to collect clean samples from both the vertically fired MNASA (18.3% scaled version of the RSRM) motors and the horizontally fired RSRM motor has been demonstrated. The particle mass averaged diameters, d43, measured from the samples for the different motors, ranged from 8 to 11 mu m and were independent of the dart collection surface and the motor burn time. The measured results agreed well with those calculated using the industry standard Hermsen's correlation within the standard deviation of the correlation . For each of the samples analyzed from both MNASA and RSRM motors, the distribution of the cumulative mass fraction of the plume oxide particles as a function of the particle diameter was best described by a monomodal log-normal distribution with a standard deviation of 0.13 - 0.15. This distribution agreed well with the theoretical prediction by Salita using the OD3P code for the RSRM motor at the nozzle exit plane.

  2. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne Particle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, Emily A.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2010-07-15

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed in the atmosphere from the condensation of semivolatile oxidation products are a significant component of airborne particles which have deleterious effects on health, visibility, and climate. In this study, atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS) is applied for the first time to the identification of organics in particles from laboratory systems as well as from ambient air. SOA were generated in the laboratory from the ozonolysis of r-pinene and isoprene, as well as from NO3 oxidation of r-pinene, and ambient air was sampled at forested and suburban sites. Particles were collected by impaction on ZnSe disks, analyzed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and then transferred to an ASAP-MS probe for further analysis. ASAP-MS data for the laboratory-generated samples show peaks from wellknown products of these reactions, and higher molecular weight oligomers are present in both laboratory and ambient samples. Oligomeric products are shown to be present in the NO3 reaction products for the first time. A major advantage of this technique is that minimal sample preparation is required, and complementary information from nondestructive techniques such as FT-IR can be obtained on the same samples. In addition, a dedicated instrument is not required for particle analysis. This work establishes that ASAP-MS will be useful for identification of organic components of SOA in a variety of field and laboratory studies.

  3. Plume Particle Collection and Sizing from Static Firing of Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambamurthi, Jay K.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal radiation from the plume of any solid rocket motor, containing aluminum as one of the propellant ingredients, is mainly from the microscopic, hot aluminum oxide particles in the plume. The plume radiation to the base components of the flight vehicle is primarily determined by the plume flowfield properties, the size distribution of the plume particles, and their optical properties. The optimum design of a vehicle base thermal protection system is dependent on the ability to accurately predict this intense thermal radiation using validated theoretical models. This article describes a successful effort to collect reasonably clean plume particle samples from the static firing of the flight simulation motor (FSM-4) on March 10, 1994 at the T-24 test bed at the Thiokol space operations facility as well as three 18.3% scaled MNASA motors tested at NASA/MSFC. Prior attempts to collect plume particles from the full-scale motor firings have been unsuccessful due to the extremely hostile thermal and acoustic environment in the vicinity of the motor nozzle.

  4. Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R.

    2008-12-15

    The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

  5. The research on particle trajectory of solid-liquid two-phase flow and erosion predicting in screw centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Z. J.; Li, R. N.; Han, W.; Zhao, W. G.; Wang, X. H.

    2016-05-01

    Use the Discrete Phase Model (DPM) based on Euler-Lagrange method, the internal flow field of screw centrifugal pump was simulated by computational fluid dynamics(CFD) code when transmission medium is solid-liquid two phase flow with large-size particles. The research of liquid phase is under the Euler coordinate system while the solid phase is under the Lagrange coordinate system. The energy change, trajectory characteristic of solid phase particle and its erosion damage rule of solid-phase particle in whole computational domain is analyzed with different density, partical size(d=0.05mm, d=0.2mm, d=2mm) and solid volume fraction(Cv=3%, Cv=5%, Cv=7%).The result shows that within a given diameter range, the low density fine particles trajectory are longer, more collision times with flow passage components, more energy loss and the erosion parts are relatively uniform, but particles which are large-size diameter and high density has a big collision angle with the surface of impeller and volute, even the area of impact and abrasion are quite focus, and easy to be transported. particles will impact with the head of impeller when it enter into impeller domain, the erosion mainly occurs on the work side of impeller.

  6. Optimum design of the constant-volume gas pycnometer for determining the volume of solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamari, S.

    2004-03-01

    Gas pycnometry is based on Boyle-Mariotte's law of volume-pressure relationships. This method has been widely used to determine the volume (and thus the density) of rock fragments, soluble powders, light objects and even living beings. Surprisingly, little is known about the optimum design of gas pycnometers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimum design of a gas pycnometer, so that it can determine the volume of solid particles with the greatest accuracy. The 'constant-volume' gas pycnometer was considered because of its widespread use. The law of propagation of uncertainty was used to derive a theoretical formula that relates the pycnometer's accuracy to the main sources of random error (gas-pressure measurements, pycnometer temperature and sample-chamber volume). The consequences of this formula in terms of optimizing the geometry and working conditions of the pycnometer are discussed. It was found that some gas pycnometers described in the literature may have not been used under the best conditions. Guidelines are given to design a gas pycnometer that can theoretically determine the volume of solid particles with a relative standard uncertainty smaller than 0.2%.

  7. Barrier coated drug layered particles for enhanced performance of amorphous solid dispersion dosage form.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vibha; Dantuluri, Ajay K; Bansal, Arvind K

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) may entail tailor-made dosage form design to exploit their solubility advantage. Surface phenomena dominated the performance of amorphous celecoxib solid dispersion (ACSD) comprising of amorphous celecoxib (A-CLB), polyvinylpyrrolidone, and meglumine (7:2:1, w/w). ACSD cohesive interfacial interactions hindered its capsule dosage form dissolution (Puri V, Dhantuluri AK, Bansal AK 2011. J Pharm Sci 100:2460-2468). Furthermore, ACSD underwent significant devitrification under environmental stress. In the present study, enthalpy relaxation studies revealed its free surface to contribute to molecular mobility. Based on all these observations, barrier coated amorphous CLB solid dispersion layered particles (ADLP) were developed by Wurster process, using microcrystalline cellulose as substrate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), inulin, and polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP) as coating excipients. Capsule formulations of barrier coated-ADLP could achieve rapid dispersibility and high drug release. Evaluation under varying temperature and RH conditions suggested the crystallization inhibitory efficiency in order of inulin < PVA ≈ PVAP; however, under only temperature treatment, crystallization inhibition increased with increase in T(g) of the coating material. Simulated studies using DSC evidenced drug-polymer mixing at the interface as a potential mechanism for surface stabilization. In conclusion, surface modification yielded a fast dispersing robust high drug load ASD based dosage form.

  8. Meteorological phenomena affecting the presence of solid particles suspended in the air during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñanos, P.; Galán, C.; Alcázar, P.; Dominguez, E.

    Winter is not traditionally considered to be a risky season for people who suffer from pollen allergies. However, increasing numbers of people are showing symptoms in winter. This prompted our investigation into the levels of solid material in the air, and some of the meteorological phenomena that allow their accumulation. This study showed a possible relationship between the phenomenon of thermal inversion, which occurs when very low temperatures, cloudless skies and atmospheric calms coincide, and an increase in the concentration of solid material in the atmosphere. Frequently, this situation is associated with other predictable phenomena such as fog, dew and frost. This may allow a warning system to be derived for urban pollution episodes. The effect caused by parameters such as wind and rainfall was also analysed. Solid material was differentiated into non-biological material from natural and non-natural sources (e.g. soot, dust, sand, diesel exhaust particles, partially burnt residues) and biological material. The latter mainly comprises pollen grains and fungal spores. Owing to its abundance and importance as a causal agent of winter allergies, Cupressaceae pollen was considered separately.

  9. Comparison of particle mass and solid particle number (SPN) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle under on-road driving conditions and a standard testing cycle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhongqing; Durbin, Thomas D; Xue, Jian; Johnson, Kent C; Li, Yang; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Kittelson, David B; Jung, Heejung S

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the differences between emissions from standard laboratory testing cycles and those from actual on-road driving conditions, especially for solid particle number (SPN) emissions now being regulated in Europe. This study compared particle mass and SPN emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle operating over the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) and actual on-road driving conditions. Particle mass emissions were calculated using the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method and called MIPSD. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS and on-road tests were more than 6 times lower than the U.S. 2007 heavy-duty particulate matter (PM) mass standard. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS fell between those for the on-road uphill and downhill driving. SPN and MIPSD measurements were dominated by nucleation particles for the UDDS and uphill driving and by accumulation mode particles for cruise and downhill driving. The SPN emissions were ∼ 3 times lower than the Euro 6 heavy-duty SPN limit for the UDDS and downhill driving and ∼ 4-5 times higher than the Euro 6 SPN limit for the more aggressive uphill driving; however, it is likely that most of the "solid" particles measured under these conditions were associated with a combination release of stored sulfates and enhanced sulfate formation associated with high exhaust temperatures, leading to growth of volatile particles into the solid particle counting range above 23 nm. Except for these conditions, a linear relationship was found between SPN and accumulation mode MIPSD. The coefficient of variation (COV) of SPN emissions of particles >23 nm ranged from 8 to 26% for the UDDS and on-road tests.

  10. A multi-channel integrated readout circuit (MIROC) chip for solid state charged particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiang

    2011-12-01

    Various electronic amplifier systems have been developed during the past years for solid state detectors for energetic charged particle detection. Most of them were based on the design of discrete parts or high performance hybrid packaged chips. With rapid development of modern integrated circuit industry, there are more and more integrated systems built for such applications. This work describes a novel multi-channel integrated readout circuit (MIROC) mixed-signal ASIC for solid stage charged particle detectors. The chip contains nineteen analog amplifier channels including the test channel, three on-chip 8-bit ADCs, each equipped with a 8-bit parallel-to-serial shift register, three 19-input analog multiplexers, and other digital control logic modules. This was the first known integrated readout system with multiple channels and multiple ADCs, by the time the project started. The chip is designed with special interest in 1MeV electrons. It is a highly integrated system that only requires minimal external controls, which could significantly reduce cost, space, power and total mass of the readout system, and reduce the development cycle of new instruments. MIROC chip was fabricated with IBM 7WL 0.18microm SiGe BiCMOS technology through MOSIS MEP research license, and has been tested, with key components characterized. Measured only 4mmx4mm, this highly integrated readout system has a FWHM noise below 20keV. The four configurable conversion gain levels of the amplifier chains, measured to be 164mV/MeV, 378mV/MeV, 611mV/MeV and 950mV/MeV, make the chip capable of studying energetic charged particles over the range of 100keV up to 6MeV.

  11. Near-field optical mapping of single gold nano particles using photo-induced polymer movement of azo-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitobi, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Taka-aki; Ono, Atsushi; Inouye, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    In this study, polymer movement was induced in azo-polymer films by optical near-fields generated in the vicinity of single gold nano particles (GNPs) to visualize near-field distribution with a spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of light. A linearly polarized (Ex) laser beam was irradiated into GNPs to excite local surface plasmon resonance that enhanced the near-field around the GNPs. The findings indicated that different GNP diameters (that is, 50 nm and 80 nm) resulted in different deformation patterns on the films. The results were compared with theoretical calculations of near-field distributions, and the observations revealed that the deformation patterns were dependent on the ratio between Ex and Ey wherein each possessed a different field distribution.

  12. Diesel exhaust particles induce aberrant alveolar epithelial directed cell movement by disruption of polarity mechanisms.

    PubMed

    LaGier, Adriana J; Manzo, Nicholas D; Dye, Janice A

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following injury requires efficient and directed alveolar epithelial cell migration, this study's goal was to understand the mechanisms underlying alveolar epithelial cells response to DEP, particularly when exposure is accompanied with comorbid lung injury. Separate mechanistic steps of directed migration were investigated in confluent murine LA-4 cells exposed to noncytotoxic concentrations (0-100 μg/cm(2)) of either automobile-emitted diesel exhaust particles (DEP(A)) or carbon black (CB) particles. A scratch wound model ascertained how DEP(A) exposure affected directional cell migration and BCECF ratio fluorimetry-monitored intracellular pH (pHi). Cells were immunostained with giantin to assess cell polarity, and with paxillin to assess focal cell adhesions. Cells were immunoblotted for ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) to assess cytoskeletal anchoring. Data demonstrate herein that exposure of LA-4 cells to DEP(A) (but not CB) resulted in delayed directional cell migration, impaired de-adhesion of the trailing edge cell processes, disrupted regulation of pHi, and altered Golgi polarity of leading edge cells, along with modified focal adhesions and reduced ERM levels, indicative of decreased cytoskeletal anchoring. The ability of DEP(A) to disrupt directed cell migration at multiple levels suggests that signaling pathways such as ERM/Rho are critical for transduction of ion transport signals into cytoskeletal arrangement responses. These results provide insights into the mechanisms by which chronic exposure to traffic-based emissions may result in decrements in lung capacity.

  13. Coarse-grained single-particle dynamics in two-dimensional solids and liquids.

    PubMed

    Silbermann, Jörg R; Schoen, Martin; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2008-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of a single tagged particle in a two-dimensional system governed by Lennard-Jones interactions. Previous work based on the Mori-Zwanzig projection operator formalism has shown that the single-particles dynamics can be described via a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) which is exact within the harmonic approximation, that is, for a low-temperature solid [J. M. Deutch and R. Silbey, Phys. Rev. A 3, 2049 (1971)]. In the present work we explore to what an extent the GLE reproduces the effective dynamics under thermodynamic conditions where the harmonic approximation is no longer justified. To this end we compute characteristic time autocorrelation functions for the tagged particle in molecular dynamics simulations of the full system and compare these functions with those obtained from solving the GLE. At low temperatures we find excellent agreement between both data sets. Deviations emerge at higher temperatures which are, however, surprisingly small even in the high-temperature liquid phase.

  14. Electrostatic Introduction Theory Based Spatial Filtering Method for Solid Particle Velocity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chuanlong; Tang, Guanghua; Zhou, Bin; Yang, Daoye; Zhang, Jianyong; Wang, Shimin

    2007-06-01

    Electrostatic induction theory based spatial filtering method for particle velocity measurement has the advantages of the simplicity of measurement system and of the convenience of data processing. In this paper, the relationship between solid particle velocity and the power spectrum of the output signal of the electrostatic senor was derived theoretically. And the effects of the length of the electrode, the thickness of the dielectric pipe and its length on the spatial filtering characteristics of the electrostatic sensor were investigated numerically using finite element method. Additionally, as for the roughness and the difficult determination of the peak frequency fmax of the power spectrum characteristics curve of the output signal, a wavelet analysis based filtering method was adopted to smooth the curve, which can determine peak frequency fmax accurately. Finally, the velocity measurement method was applied in a dense phase pneumatic conveying system under high pressure, and the experimental results show that the system repeatability is within ±4% over the gas superficial velocity range of 8.63-18.62 m/s for particle concentration range 0.067-0.130 m3/m3.

  15. Accelerators for critical experiments involving single-particle upset in solid-state microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Charged-particle interactions in microelectronic circuit chips (integrated circuits) present a particularly insidious problem for solid-state electronic systems due to the generation of soft errors or single-particle event upset (SEU) by either cosmic rays or other radiation sources. Particle accelerators are used to provide both light and heavy ions in order to assess the propensity of integrated circuit chips for SEU. Critical aspects of this assessment involve the ability to analytically model SEU for the prediction of error rates in known radiation environments. In order to accurately model SEU, the measurement and prediction of energy deposition in the form of an electron-hole plasma generated along an ion track is of paramount importance. This requires the use of accelerators which allow for ease in both energy control (change of energy) and change of ion species. This and other aspects of ion-beam control and diagnostics (e.g., uniformity and flux) are of critical concern for the experimental verification of theoretical SEU models.

  16. Effect of evaporation and solutocapillary-driven flow upon motion and resultant deposition of suspended particles in volatile droplet on solid substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, I.; Kochiya, K.

    Particle motion in a volatile droplet on a solid surface, especially the behavior of particles depositing in the vicinity of a solid liquid gas boundary line (contact line) is focused. This phenomenon is called the ‘coffee stain problem’. Motion and deposition of the particles suspended in distilled water droplets and distilled water ethanol mixture droplets are discussed. The spatio-temporal particle motion is analyzed by the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D PTV). A discussion of the morphology of the particles stuck to the solid surface after the dryout of the droplet is also given.

  17. The Role of Cohesive Particle Interactions on Solids Uniformity and Mobilization During Jet Mixing: Testing Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Fort, James A.; Chun, Jaehun; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

    2010-04-01

    Radioactive waste that is currently stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site will be staged in selected double-shell tanks (DSTs) and then transferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Before being transferred, the waste will be mixed, sampled, and characterized to determine if the waste composition and meets the waste feed specifications. Washington River Protection Solutions is conducting a Tank Mixing and Sampling Demonstration Program to determine the mixing effectiveness of the current baseline mixing system that uses two jet mixer pumps and the adequacy of the planned sampling method. The overall purpose of the demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risk associated with the mixing and sampling systems meeting the feed certification requirements for transferring waste to the WTP.The purpose of this report is to analyze existing data and evaluate whether scaled mixing tests with cohesive simulants are needed to meet the overall objectives of the small-scale mixing demonstration program. This evaluation will focus on estimating the role of cohesive particle interactions on various physical phenomena that occur in parts of the mixing process. A specific focus of the evaluation will be on the uniformity of suspended solids in the mixed region. Based on the evaluation presented in this report and the absence of definitive studies, the recommendation is to conduct scaled mixing tests with cohesive particles and augment the initial testing with non-cohesive particles. In addition, planning for the quantitative tests would benefit from having test results from some scoping experiments that would provide results on the general behavior when cohesive inter-particle forces are important.

  18. Heat and water transfer in a rotating drum containing solid substrate particles.

    PubMed

    Schutyser, M A I; Weber, F J; Briels, W J; Rinzema, A; Boom, R M

    2003-06-05

    In previous work we reported on the simulation of mixing behavior of a slowly rotating drum for solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a discrete particle model. In this investigation the discrete particle model is extended with heat and moisture transfer. Heat transfer is implemented in the model via interparticle contacts and the interparticle heat transfer coefficient is determined experimentally. The model is shown to accurately predict heat transfer and resulting temperature gradients in a mixed wheat grain bed. In addition to heat transfer, the addition and subsequent distribution of water in the substrate bed is also studied. The water is added to the bed via spray nozzles to overcome desiccation of the bed during evaporative cooling. The development of moisture profiles in the bed during spraying and mixing are studied experimentally with a water-soluble fluorescent tracer. Two processes that affect the water distribution are considered in the model: the intraparticle absorption process, and the interparticle transfer of free water. It is found that optimum distribution can be achieved when the free water present at the surface of the grains is quickly distributed in the bed, for example, by fast mixing. Alternatively, a short spraying period, followed by a period of mixing without water addition, can be applied. The discrete particle model developed is used successfully to examine the influence of process operation on the moisture distribution (e.g., fill level and rotation rate). It is concluded that the extended discrete particle model can be used as a powerful predictive tool to derive operating strategies and criteria for design and scale-up for mixed SSF and other processes with granular media.

  19. Application of the phase method in radioisotope measurements of the liquid - solid particles flow in the vertical pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek; Mosorov, Volodymyr; Hanus, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents idea and an application of the gamma-absorption method to a two-phase flow investigation in a vertical pipeline, where the flow of solid particles transported by water was examined by a set of two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals. In the described experiments as solid phase the ceramic models representing natural polymetallic ocean nodules were used. For advanced analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the phase of cross-spectral density function has been applied. Results of the average solid-phase velocity measurements were compared with one obtained by application of the classical cross-correlation. It was found that the combined uncertainties of the velocity of solid particles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 0.6% in phase method and 3.2% in cross-correlation method.

  20. Analytic study of heat transfer with variable viscosity on solid particle motion in dusty Jeffery fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, M. M.; Zeeshan, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, effects of variable viscosity with heat transfer on solid particle motion of dusty Jeffrey fluid model through a planar channel has been examined. The governing flow problem for fluid phase and dusty phase is formulated with the help of momentum and energy equation. The resulting coupled ordinary differential equations have been solved analytically and closed form solutions are presented. The influence of all the physical parameters are sketched for velocity profile, pressure rise and temperature profile. Numerical computation is used to evaluate the expression for pressure rise. The present analysis is also presented for Newtonian fluid by taking λ1 → 0 as a special case of our study. It is found that due to the influence of variable viscosity, the fluid velocity changes in the center of the channel and shows opposite behavior near the walls. It is also found that temperature profile increases for larger values of Prandtl number (Pr) and Eckert number (Ec).

  1. Solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for serum amyloid A protein using magnetisable cellulose particles.

    PubMed

    De Beer, F C; Dyck, R F; Pepys, M B

    1982-10-29

    An immunoradiometric assay for human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was developed using magnetisable cellulose particles as the solid phase. Rabbit antiserum to to SAA was raised by immunization with SAA isolated from acute-phase serum by gel filtration in formic acid. The antiserum was rendered monospecific for SAA by solid-phase immunoabsorption with normal human serum, which contains only traces of SAA, and some was coupled covalently to the cellulose particles. Immunopurified anti-SAA antibodies were isolated from the monospecific anti-SAA serum by binding to, and elution from insolubilized acute-phase serum and were radiolabelled with 125I. The assay was calibrated with an acute phase serum which contained 6000 times more SAA than normal sera with the lowest detectable level of SAA, and an arbitrary value of 6000 U/l was assigned to this standard. Sera were tested in the native, undenatured state and there was no increase in SAA immunoreactivity following alkali treatment or heating. The assay range was from 1-2000 U/l so that all SAA levels above 6 U/l could be measured on a single (1:6) dilution of serum. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 11.7 and 15.0% respectively. Among 100 healthy normal subjects (50 male, 50 female) the median SAA level was 9 U/l, range less than 1-100, with 93% below 20 U/l and only 2% below the lower limit of sensitivity of the assay (1 U/l).

  2. All about Solids, Liquids & Gases. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In All About Solids, Liquids and Gases, young students will be introduced to the three common forms of matter. They'll learn that all things are made up of tiny particles called atoms and that the movement of these particles determines the form that matter takes. In solids, the particles are packed tightly together and move very little. The…

  3. Impact of surfactants on the crystallization of aqueous suspensions of celecoxib amorphous solid dispersion spray dried particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Ormes, James D; Higgins, John D; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-02-02

    Amorphous solid dispersions are frequently prepared by spray drying. It is important that the resultant spray dried particles do not crystallize during formulation, storage, and upon administration. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the impact of surfactants on the crystallization of celecoxib amorphous solid dispersions (ASD), suspended in aqueous media. Solid dispersions of celecoxib with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate were manufactured by spray drying, and aqueous suspensions were prepared by adding the particles to acidified media containing various surfactants. Nucleation induction times were evaluated for celecoxib in the presence and absence of surfactants. The impact of the surfactants on drug and polymer leaching from the solid dispersion particles was also evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Polysorbate 80 were found to promote crystallization from the ASD suspensions, while other surfactants including sodium taurocholate and Triton X100 were found to inhibit crystallization. The promotion or inhibition of crystallization was found to be related to the impact of the surfactant on the nucleation behavior of celecoxib, as well as the tendency to promote leaching of the drug from the ASD particle into the suspending medium. It was concluded that surfactant choice is critical to avoid failure of amorphous solid dispersions through crystallization of the drug.

  4. The impact of particle size and initial solid loading on thermochemical pretreatment of wheat straw for improving sugar recovery.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rejón, Oscar A; Sánchez, Arturo

    2014-07-01

    This work studies the effect of initial solid load (4-32 %; w/v, DS) and particle size (0.41-50 mm) on monosaccharide yield of wheat straw subjected to dilute H(2)SO(4) (0.75 %, v/v) pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a full factorial design (FFD) was used for the statistical analysis of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest xylose yield obtained during pretreatment (ca. 86 %; of theoretical) was achieved at 4 % (w/v, DS) and 25 mm. The solid fraction obtained from the first set of experiments was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at constant enzyme dosage (17 FPU/g); statistical analysis revealed that glucose yield was favored with solids pretreated at low initial solid loads and small particle sizes. Dynamic experiments showed that glucose yield did not increase after 48 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Once established pretreatment conditions, experiments were carried out with several initial solid loading (4-24 %; w/v, DS) and enzyme dosages (5-50 FPU/g). Two straw sizes (0.41 and 50 mm) were used for verification purposes. The highest glucose yield (ca. 55 %; of theoretical) was achieved at 4 % (w/v, DS), 0.41 mm and 50 FPU/g. Statistical analysis of experiments showed that at low enzyme dosage, particle size had a remarkable effect over glucose yield and initial solid load was the main factor for glucose yield.

  5. Colloidal interactions between Langmuir-Blodgett bitumen films and fine solid particles.

    PubMed

    Long, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob H

    2006-10-10

    In oil sand processing, accumulation of surface-active compounds at various interfaces imposes a significant impact on bitumen recovery and bitumen froth cleaning (i.e., froth treatment) by altering the interfacial properties and colloidal interactions among various oil sand components. In the present study, bitumen films were prepared at toluene/water interfaces using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) upstroke deposition technique. The surface of the prepared LB bitumen films was found to be hydrophobic, comprised of wormlike aggregates containing a relatively high content of oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen, indicating an accumulation of surface-active compounds in the films. Using an atomic force microscope, colloidal interactions between the LB bitumen films and fine solids (model silica particles and clay particles chosen directly from an oil sand tailing stream) were measured in industrial plant process water and compared with those measured in simple electrolyte solutions of controlled pH and divalent cation concentrations. The results show a stronger long-range repulsive force and weaker adhesion force in solutions of higher pH and lower divalent cation concentration. In plant process water, a moderate long-range repulsive force and weak adhesion were measured despite its high electrolyte content. These findings provide more insight into the mechanisms of bitumen extraction and froth treatment.

  6. Mobile magnetic particles as solid-supports for rapid surface-based bioanalysis in continuous flow.

    PubMed

    Peyman, Sally A; Iles, Alexander; Pamme, Nicole

    2009-11-07

    An extremely versatile microfluidic device is demonstrated in which multi-step (bio)chemical procedures can be performed in continuous flow. The system operates by generating several co-laminar flow streams, which contain reagents for specific (bio)reactions across a rectangular reaction chamber. Functionalized magnetic microparticles are employed as mobile solid-supports and are pulled from one side of the reaction chamber to the other by use of an external magnetic field. As the particles traverse the co-laminar reagent streams, binding and washing steps are performed on their surface in one operation in continuous flow. The applicability of the platform was first demonstrated by performing a proof-of-principle binding assay between streptavidin coated magnetic particles and biotin in free solution with a limit of detection of 20 ng mL(-1) of free biotin. The system was then applied to a mouse IgG sandwich immunoassay as a first example of a process involving two binding steps and two washing steps, all performed within 60 s, a fraction of the time required for conventional testing.

  7. Hydrodynamic mobility of a solid particle near a spherical elastic membrane: Axisymmetric motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Abdallah; Gekle, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We use the image solution technique to compute the leading order frequency-dependent self-mobility function of a small solid particle moving perpendicular to the surface of a spherical capsule whose membrane possesses shearing and bending rigidities. Comparing our results with those obtained earlier for an infinitely extended planar elastic membrane, we find that membrane curvature leads to the appearance of a prominent additional peak in the mobility. This peak is attributed to the fact that the shear resistance of the curved membrane involves a contribution from surface-normal displacements, which is not the case for planar membranes. In the vanishing frequency limit, the particle self-mobility near a no-slip hard sphere is recovered only when the membrane possesses a nonvanishing resistance toward shearing. We further investigate capsule motion, finding that the pair-mobility function is solely determined by membrane shearing properties. Our analytical predictions are validated by fully resolved boundary integral simulations where a very good agreement is obtained.

  8. Hydrodynamic mobility of a solid particle near a spherical elastic membrane: Axisymmetric motion.

    PubMed

    Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Abdallah; Gekle, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We use the image solution technique to compute the leading order frequency-dependent self-mobility function of a small solid particle moving perpendicular to the surface of a spherical capsule whose membrane possesses shearing and bending rigidities. Comparing our results with those obtained earlier for an infinitely extended planar elastic membrane, we find that membrane curvature leads to the appearance of a prominent additional peak in the mobility. This peak is attributed to the fact that the shear resistance of the curved membrane involves a contribution from surface-normal displacements, which is not the case for planar membranes. In the vanishing frequency limit, the particle self-mobility near a no-slip hard sphere is recovered only when the membrane possesses a nonvanishing resistance toward shearing. We further investigate capsule motion, finding that the pair-mobility function is solely determined by membrane shearing properties. Our analytical predictions are validated by fully resolved boundary integral simulations where a very good agreement is obtained.

  9. Planetesimal Growth through the Accretion of Small Solids: Hydrodynamics Simulations with Gas-Particle Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna; Boley, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    The growth and migration of planetesimals in young protoplanetary disks are fundamental to the planet formation process. A number of mechanisms seemingly inhibit small grains from growing to sizes much larger than a centimeter, limiting planetesimal growth. In spite of this, the meteoritic record, abundance of exoplanets, and the lifetimes of disks considered altogether indicate that growth must be rapid and common. If a small number of 100-km sized planetesimals do form by some method such as the streaming instability, then gas drag effects could enable those objects to accrete small solids efficiently. In particular, accretion rates for such planetesimals could be higher or lower than rates based on the geometric cross-section and gravitational focusing alone. The local gas conditions and properties of accreting bodies select a locally optimal accretion size for the pebbles. As planetesimals accrete pebbles, they feel an additional angular momentum exchange - causing the planetesimal to slowly drift inward, which becomes significant at short orbital periods. We present self-consistent hydrodynamic simulations with direct particle integration and gas-drag coupling to evaluate the rate of planetesimal growth due to pebble accretion. We explore a range of particle sizes, planetesimal properties, and disk conditions using wind tunnel simulations. These results are followed by numerical analysis of planetesimal drift rates at a variety of stellar distances.

  10. How long can culturable bacteria and total DNA persist in environmental waters? The role of sunlight and solid particles.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Cacciabue, Dolores; Cid, Alicia G; Rajal, Verónica B

    2016-01-01

    In this work, sunlight inactivation of two indicator bacteria in freshwater, with and without solid particles, was studied and the persistence of culturable cells and total DNA was compared. Environmental water was used to prepare two matrices, with and without solid particles, which were spiked with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. These matrices were used to prepare microcosm bags that were placed in two containers: one exposed to sunlight and the other in the dark. During one month, samples were removed from each container and detection was done by membrane filter technique and real-time PCR. Kinetic parameters were calculated to assess sunlight effect. Indicator bacteria without solid particles exposed to sunlight suffered an immediate decay (<4h) compared with the ones which were shielded from them. In addition, the survival of both bacteria with solid particles varied depending on the situation analyzed (T99 from 3 up to 60days), being always culturable E. coli more persistent than E. faecalis. On the other side, E. faecalis DNA persisted much longer than culturable cells (T99>40h in the dark with particles). In this case active cells were more prone to sunlight than total DNA and the protective effect of solid particles was also observed. Results highlight that the effects caused by the parameters which describe the behavior of culturable microorganisms and total DNA in water are different and must be included in simulation models but without forgetting that these parameters will also depend on bacterial properties, sensitizers, composition, type, and uses of the aquatic environment under assessment.

  11. Template-Engaged Solid-State Synthesis of Barium Magnesium Silicate Yolk@Shell Particles and Their High Photoluminescence Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuncai; Kim, Woo-Sik

    2016-05-17

    This study presents a new synthetic method for fabricating yolk@shell-structured barium magnesium silicate (BMS) particles through a template-engaged solid-state reaction. First, as the core template, (BaMg)CO3 spherical particles were prepared based on the coprecipitation of Ba(2+) and Mg(2+) . These core particles were then uniformly shelled with silica (SiO2 ) by using CTAB as the structure-directing template to form (BaMg)CO3 @SiO2 particles with a core@shell structure. The (BaMg)CO3 @SiO2 particles were then converted to yolk@shell barium magnesium silicate (BMS) particles by an interfacial solid-state reaction between the (BaMg)CO3 (core) and the SiO2 (shell) at 750 °C. During this interfacial solid-state reaction, Kirkendall diffusion contributed to the formation of yolk@shell BMS particles. Thus, the synthetic temperature for the (BaMg)SiO4 :Eu(3+) phosphor is significantly reduced from 1200 °C with the conventional method to 750 °C with the proposed method. In addition, the photoluminescence intensity of the yolk@shell (BaMg)SiO4 :Eu(3+) phosphor was found to be 9.8 times higher than that of the conventional (BaMg)SiO4 :Eu(3+) phosphor. The higher absorption of excitation light by the structure of the yolk@shell phosphor is induced by multiple light-reflection and -scattering events in the interstitial void between the yolk and the shell. When preparing the yolk@shell (BaMg)SiO4 :Eu(3+) phosphor, a hydrogen environment for the solid-state reaction results in higher photoluminescence efficiency than nitrogen and air environments. The proposed synthetic method can be easily extended to the synthesis of other yolk@shell multicomponent metal silicates.

  12. Combustion of single and agglomerated aluminum particles in solid rocket motor flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, John Charles, IV

    2001-07-01

    Single and agglomerated aluminum droplets were studied in a solid rocket motor (SRM) test chamber with optical access to the internal flow at 6--22 atm and 2300 K. The chamber was pressurized by burning a main grain AP/HTPB propellant, and the burning aluminum droplets were generated by a smaller aluminized solid propellant sample, center-mounted in the flow. A 35 mm camera was used with a chopper wheel to give droplet flame diameter vs. time measurements of the burning droplets in flight, from which bum-rate laws were developed. A high-speed video CCD was used with high-magnification optics in order to image the flame/smoke cloud surrounding the burning liquid droplets. The intensity profiles of the droplet images were de-convoluted using an Abel inversion to give true intensity profiles. Both single and agglomerated droplets were studied, where agglomerates are comprised of hundreds of parent particles or more. The Abel inversion results show that the relative smoke cloud size is not constant with diameter, but instead grows as the droplet shrinks, by ˜D -0.5, for both the single and agglomerated droplets. Measured diameter trajectories show that for single droplets, the diameter law is D 0.75 = DO0.75 = 8·t [mu m, msec], and for agglomerated droplets, D 1.0 = Do1.0 - 20·t, such that the single droplets burn faster than the agglomerates. For both single and agglomerated droplets, the burning rate slope k did not change significantly over the chamber pressure studied. Lastly, a model was developed to describe the oxide cap accumulation on the droplet surface from the oxide smoke cloud surrounding the droplet. Results suggest that less oxide accumulates in high-pressure SRMs when considering mass burning rates for different relative cap sizes. The thermophoretic force, which can control oxide transport only over the cap, decreases with pressure.

  13. A Dynamic Model for the Interaction Between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, A. V.; Mukherjee, S.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    Most models that describe the interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid-liquid interface are based on the assumption of steady state. However, as demonstrated by experimental work, the process does not reach steady state until the particle is pushed for a while by the interface. In this work, a dynamic mathematical model was developed. The dynamic model demonstrates that this interaction is essentially non-steady state and that steady state eventually occurs only when solidification is conducted at sub-critical velocities. The model was tested for three systems: aluminum-zirconia particles, succinonitrilepolystyrene particles, and biphenyl-glass particles. The calculated values for critical velocity of the pushing/engulfment transition were in same range with the experimental ones.

  14. Development of Criteria and Identification of Particle Cluster Size Based on Measurements of Void Fraction in Gas-Solid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David Roelant; Seckin Gokaltun

    2009-06-30

    A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) built at FIU was used to study particle motion in the riser in order to simulate flow regimes in a cold gasifier. High speed imaging was used in order to capture the dynamics of the particles flowing in the riser. The imaging method used here is called the shadow sizing technique which allowed the determination of particle areas and trajectories at various flow rates in the riser. The solid volume fraction and particle velocities calculated using the images acquired during the experiments can be related to granular temperature in order to detect formations of clusters in the riser section of the CFB. The shadow sizing technique was observed to be an effective method in detecting dynamics of particles in motion and formation of clusters when supported with high-speed imaging.

  15. Study of Heat Transfer with Nonlinear Thermal Radiation on Sinusoidal Motion of Magnetic Solid Particles in a Dusty Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, M. M.; Zeeshan, A.; Ellahi, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, heat transfer with nonlinear thermal radiation on sinusoidal motion of magnetic solid particles in a dust Jeffrey fluid has been studied. The effects of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hall current are also taken under consideration. The governing equation of motion and energy equation are modelled with help of Ohms law for fluid and dust phases. The solutions of the resulting ordinary coupled partial differential equations are solved analytically. The impact of all the physical parameters of interest such as Hartmann number, slip parameter, Hall parameter, radiation parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and particle volume fraction are demonstrated mathematically and graphically. Trapping mechanism is also discussed in detail by drawing contour lines. The present analysis affirms many interesting behaviours, which permit further study on solid particles motion with heat and mass transfer.

  16. Prediction of Solids Circulation Rate of Cork Particles in an Ambient-Pressure Pilot-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yue; Turton, Richard; Famouri, Parviz; Boyle, Edward J.

    2009-01-07

    Circulating fluidized beds (CFB) are currently used in many industrial processes for noncatalytic and catalytic because its effective control is the key to smooth operation of a CFB system. This paper presents a method for solids flow metering from pressure drop measurements in the standpipe dense phase. A model based on the Ergun equation is developed to predict the solids flow rate and voidage in the dense phase of the standpipe. The profile of the solids flow rate under unsteady state is also presented. With the use of this method, the dynamic response time at different locations along the standpipe of a pilot-scale fluidized bed operating at ambient conditions with 812 mu m cork particles is estimated successfully. Through the use of a pressure balance analysis, solids flow models for the standpipe, riser, and other sections of the flow loop are combined to give an integrated CFB model.

  17. Quench-Condensed Microalloyed Particles: a Microscopic View of Solid Solubility and Metastability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Vincent Edward

    Solid solubility and metastability in noble-metal and iron-silver alloys have been studied from the perspective of microalloyed particles. Samples were obtained through a novel, gram-scale technique that consisted of cocondensation of two elemental metal vapors with a large excess of inert gas on the reaction surface of a rotating cryostat at 77 K. This technique permitted greater control of both particle size and composition than conventional gas aggregation methods. The chemical and physical characteristics of the microalloys have been elaborated through chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, temperature-programmed mass spectrometry, EXAFS, XPS and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Electron microscopy indicated the microstructures of copper-gold and copper-silver microalloys prepared in sulfur hexafluoride to consist of discrete collections of crystallites suspended in amorphous "baths". The average dimensions of the crystallites were <100 A, while the aggregates spanned hundreds of nanometers. The microstructures of both systems were metastable. The EXAFS of a copper-silver microalloy showed it to be stiffer, as well as more disordered, than a homometallic copper product. The EXAFS also showed no detectable Cu-Ag contacts, but suggested the existence (through a "missing-atom" effect) of a large number of disordered copper sites. Moessbauer spectra of an iron -silver microalloy prepared in xenon revealed the presence of a superparamagnetic alloy phase characterized by a blocking temperature of approximately 45 K. Cocondensations of iron vapor with excess sulfur hexafluoride produced ultrafine (dimensions ~ 100 A), amorphous particles that were decorated with a -CF_{2^-} polymer. The formation of the polymer was attributed to reaction of the iron with the matrix and adventitious organic compounds--that is, to activation of S-F and C-H bonds. Matrix isolation experiments indicated that, although inert in their ground-state configuration, photoexcited (4p

  18. Migration of a Moonlet in a Ring of Solid Particles: Theory and Application to Saturn's Propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, Aurélien; Papaloizou, John C. B.; Rein, Hanno; Charnoz, Sébastien; Salmon, Julien

    2010-10-01

    Hundred-meter-sized objects have been identified by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's A ring through the so-called propeller features they create in the ring. These moonlets should migrate due to their gravitational interaction with the ring; in fact, some orbital variations have been detected. The standard theory of type I migration of planets in protoplanetary disks cannot be applied to the ring system as it is pressureless. Thus, we compute the differential torque felt by a moonlet embedded in a two-dimensional disk of solid particles, with a flat surface density profile, both analytically and numerically. We find that the corresponding migration rate is too small to explain the observed variations of the propeller's orbit in Saturn's A ring. However, local density fluctuations (due to gravity wakes in the marginally gravitationally stable A ring) may exert a stochastic torque on a moonlet. Our simulations show that this torque can be large enough to account for the observations depending on the parameters of the rings. We find that on timescales of several years the migration of propellers is likely to be dominated by stochastic effects (while the former, non-stochastic migration dominates after ~104-105 years). In that case, the migration rates provided by observations so far suggest that the surface density of the A ring should be on the order of 700 kg m-2. The age of the propellers should not exceed 1-100 million years depending on the dominant migration regime.

  19. Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D. Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. B.; Tritz, K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Medley, S. S.

    2014-11-15

    A new compact, multi-channel Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode array has been designed and is being fabricated for the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The SSNPA system utilizes a set of vertically stacked photodiode arrays in current mode viewing the same plasma region with different filter thickness to obtain fast temporal resolution (∼120 kHz bandwidth) and coarse energy information in three bands of >25 keV, >45 keV, and >65 keV. The SSNPA system consists of 15 radial sightlines that intersect existing on-axis neutral beams at major radii between 90 and 130 cm, 15 tangential sightlines that intersect new off-axis neutral beams at major radii between 120 and 145 cm. These two subsystems aim at separating the response of passing and trapped fast ions. In addition, one photodiode array whose viewing area does not intersect any neutral beams is used to monitor passive signals produced by fast ions that charge exchange with background neutrals.

  20. A smooth particle hydrodynamics code to model collisions between solid, self-gravitating objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, C.; Riecker, S.; Maindl, T. I.; Speith, R.; Scherrer, S.; Kley, W.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) lead to a major increase in the performance of the computation of astrophysical simulations. Owing to the different nature of GPU architecture compared to traditional central processing units (CPUs) such as x86 architecture, existing numerical codes cannot be easily migrated to run on GPU. Here, we present a new implementation of the numerical method smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using CUDA and the first astrophysical application of the new code: the collision between Ceres-sized objects. Aims: The new code allows for a tremendous increase in speed of astrophysical simulations with SPH and self-gravity at low costs for new hardware. Methods: We have implemented the SPH equations to model gas, liquids and elastic, and plastic solid bodies and added a fragmentation model for brittle materials. Self-gravity may be optionally included in the simulations and is treated by the use of a Barnes-Hut tree. Results: We find an impressive performance gain using NVIDIA consumer devices compared to our existing OpenMP code. The new code is freely available to the community upon request. If you are interested in our CUDA SPH code miluphCUDA, please write an email to Christoph Schäfer. miluphCUDA is the CUDA port of miluph. miluph is pronounced [maßl2v]. We do not support the use of the code for military purposes.

  1. Safety and pharmacokinetics of a solid lipid curcumin particle formulation in osteosarcoma patients and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gota, Vikram S; Maru, Girish B; Soni, Tejal G; Gandhi, Tejal R; Kochar, Nitin; Agarwal, Manish G

    2010-02-24

    Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant compound obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and inflammatory pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, the clinical literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent due to its low bioavailability in humans. The purpose of this study was to quantify plasma levels of free curcumin after dosing of a solid lipid curcumin particle (SLCP) formulation versus unformulated curcumin in healthy volunteers and to determine its tolerability and dose-plasma concentration relationship in late-stage osteosarcoma patients. Doses of 2, 3, and 4 g of SLCP were evaluated in 11 patients with osteosarcoma. Plasma curcumin levels were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The limit of detection of the assay was 1 ng/mL of curcumin. In healthy subjects, the mean peak concentration of curcumin achieved from dosing 650 mg of SLCP was 22.43 ng/mL, whereas plasma curcumin from dosing an equal quantity of unformulated 95% curcuminoids extract was not detected. In both healthy individuals and osteosarcoma patients, high interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and nonlinear dose dependency was observed, suggesting potentially complex absorption kinetics. Overall, good tolerability was noted in both healthy and osteosarcoma groups.

  2. The Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Liquids Containing Solid Particles of Nanometer Dimensions: A Critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tertsinidou, Georgia; Assael, Marc J.; Wakeham, William A.

    2015-07-01

    There have been conflicting statements in the literature of the last twenty years about the behavior of the apparent thermal conductivity of two- or three-phase systems comprising solid particles with nanometer dimensions suspended in fluids. It has been a feature of much of the work that these multiphase systems have been treated as if a single-phase fluid and that the thermodynamic characteristics of the system have varied even though the systems have been given the same name. These so-called nanofluids have been the subject of a large number of investigations by a variety of different experimental techniques. In the current paper, we critically evaluate the studies of seven of the simplest particulate/fluid systems: Cu, CuO, , and suspended in water and ethylene glycol. Our conclusion is that when results for exactly the same thermodynamic system are obtained with proven experimental techniques, the apparent thermal conductivity of the nanofluid exhibits no behavior that is unexpected and inconsistent with a simple model of conduction in stationary, multiphase systems. The wider variety of behavior that has been reported in the literature for these systems is therefore attributed to ill-characterization of the thermodynamic system and/or the application of experimental techniques of unproven validity.

  3. Novel apparatus and methods for performing remotely controlled particle-solid interaction experiments at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, H. F.; Deveney, E. F.; Jones, N. L.; Vane, C. R.; Datz, S.; Knudsen, H.; Grafström, P.; Schuch, R.

    1997-04-01

    Recent atomic physics studies involving ultrarelativistic Pb ions required solid target positioners, scintillators, and a sophisticated data acquisition and control system placed in a remote location at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron near Geneva, Switzerland. The apparatus, installed in a high-radiation zone underground, had to (i) function for months, (ii) automatically respond to failures such as power outages and particle-induced computer upsets, and (iii) communicate with the outside world via a telephone line. The heart of the apparatus developed was an Apple Macintosh-based CAMAC system that answered the telephone and interpreted and executed remote control commands that (i) sensed and set targets, (ii) controlled voltages and discriminator levels for scintillators, (iii) modified data acquisition hardware logic, (iv) reported control information, and (v) automatically synchronized data acquisition to the CERN spill cycle via a modem signal and transmitted experimental data to a remote computer. No problems were experienced using intercontinental telephone connections at 1200 baud. Our successful "virtual laboratory" approach that uses off-the-shelf electronics is generally adaptable to more conventional bench-type experiments.

  4. Charging and transmission of low energy particles through Amorphous Solid Water films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Asscher, Micha

    2012-02-01

    The interaction of charged particles with condensed water films has drawn significant attention in recent years due to its importance in biological and atmospheric processes. We have studied low energy electrons (3-25 eV) and positive argon ions (55 eV) charging and transmission effects while striking Amorphous Solid Water (ASW) films, 240-1080 ML thick, deposited on ruthenium single crystal substrate, utilizing contact potential difference (CPD) measurements. Charging by both species has shown a plate capacitor-like behaviour. L-defects energetically located just below the conduction band of ice, are likely to stabilize them. The incoming electrons kinetic energy dictates the maximal CPD by retardation of any further electrons from adding up to the already accumulated charges. Electron transmission measurements (0.5-1.5 microamps) have shown that the maximal and stable CPD values were obtained only following a relatively slow change that has developed within the ASW structure. Upon film stabilization, the spontaneous discharge was measured over a period of up to three hours. UV laser photo-emission study of the charged films has suggested that the negative charges tend to reside primarily at the ASW-vacuum interface, in good agreement with a study of charged water nano-clusters.

  5. Experimental observations and dissipative particle dynamic simulations on microstructures of pH-sensitive polymer containing amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengchi; Li, Bingyu; Li, Yanchun; Liu, Yangdan; Liu, Qi; Jiang, Hailun; He, Zhonggui; Zhao, Yongshan; Sun, Jin

    2017-01-30

    Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) technique is an effective strategy to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. However, it is inherently unstable, and the molecular basis for achieving kinetic stability is not well understood. In this study, lacidipine-Eudragit_E_100 solid dispersions with 20% drug loading were prepared using the solvent evaporation. Dissolution tested showed that ASD had a significantly high rate, which was dependent on the pH of the medium. Based on time-dependent measurement of supersaturation and particle size, inhibition of crystal growth by Eudragit_E_100 differed at pH 1.2 and 6.8 to a great extent. Dissipative particle dynamic (DPD) simulation revealed that at pH 1.2, the swollen microstructures of the particles were associated with rapid drug release. At pH 6.8, a compacted microstructure of small amorphous particle-aggregated large particles was associated with slow dissolution. The DPD simulation provides insight into the structural basis for experimental observations, and thus is a useful tool to investigate the microstructures of ASD.

  6. MIGRATION OF A MOONLET IN A RING OF SOLID PARTICLES: THEORY AND APPLICATION TO SATURN'S PROPELLERS

    SciTech Connect

    Crida, Aurelien; Papaloizou, John C. B.; Rein, Hanno; Charnoz, Sebastien; Salmon, Julien

    2010-10-15

    Hundred-meter-sized objects have been identified by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's A ring through the so-called propeller features they create in the ring. These moonlets should migrate due to their gravitational interaction with the ring; in fact, some orbital variations have been detected. The standard theory of type I migration of planets in protoplanetary disks cannot be applied to the ring system as it is pressureless. Thus, we compute the differential torque felt by a moonlet embedded in a two-dimensional disk of solid particles, with a flat surface density profile, both analytically and numerically. We find that the corresponding migration rate is too small to explain the observed variations of the propeller's orbit in Saturn's A ring. However, local density fluctuations (due to gravity wakes in the marginally gravitationally stable A ring) may exert a stochastic torque on a moonlet. Our simulations show that this torque can be large enough to account for the observations depending on the parameters of the rings. We find that on timescales of several years the migration of propellers is likely to be dominated by stochastic effects (while the former, non-stochastic migration dominates after {approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} years). In that case, the migration rates provided by observations so far suggest that the surface density of the A ring should be on the order of 700 kg m{sup -2}. The age of the propellers should not exceed 1-100 million years depending on the dominant migration regime.

  7. Mathematical modeling of convective heat and mass transfer in the drying of solid particles in a bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakorchevskii, A. I.; Vylegzhanin, A. N.; Gaskevich, I. V.

    1994-07-01

    A closed system of equations is proposed for calculating convective heat and mass transfer in the drying of solid particles by a gaseous heat transfer agent in a moving bed. As an example, the operation of a belt-type dryer with crossed interaction of a drying agent and a bed of fruit cut into circular slices is considered. Results of a numerical solution of the problem are presented in figures.

  8. The fate of solid particles in the Jovian circumplanetary disk : Implications for the formation of the Galilean satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronnet, Thomas; Mousis, Olivier; Vernazza, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The Galilean satellites are thought to have formed within an accretion disk surrounding Jupiter at the late stages of its formation. However, the structure of the gaseous disk, as well as the size and origin of the solids that eventually formed the satellites are yet to be constrained.Here we model an evolving gaseous disk around Jupiter and investigate the fate of solid particles of different sizes submitted to aerodynamic drag, turbulent diffusion, and heated by the surrounding gas. The motion of the solid particles is integrated in the (r-z) plane, taking into account dust settling and radial drift. The evolution of their ice-to-rock ratio is tracked when they cross the snowline and start to sublimate. Sublimation is coupled to the equations of motion as it changes the radius of the particle and consequently acts on the drag force. The I/R ratio then serves as a comparison to the observed bulk compositions of Io and Europa.

  9. A Test Study of 50% Lightning Impulse Breakdown Voltage on Rod-Plane Gap with Two-Phase Mixture of Gas and Solid Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhenghao; Xu, Huaili; Bai, Jing; Yu, Fusheng; Hu, Feng; Li, Jin

    2007-12-01

    A test study on 50% lightning impulse breakdown voltage in two-phase mixture of gas and solid particles has been carried out in a specially designed discharge cabinet. A mechanical sieve is set up for sifting different solid particles into the discharge space uniformly. The lightning impulse voltage according with international electro-technical commission (IEC) standard is applied to the electrodes inside the discharge cabinet by the rule of up-down method in a total of 40 times. The results showed that the 50% lightning impulse breakdown voltage in two-phase mixture of gas and solid particles has its own features and is much different from that in air.

  10. Al-MoSi2 Composite Materials: Analysis of Microstructure, Sliding Wear, Solid Particle Erosion, and Aqueous Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gousia, V.; Tsioukis, A.; Lekatou, A.; Karantzalis, A. E.

    2016-08-01

    In this effort, AMCs reinforced with new intermetallic phases, were produced through casting and compared as far as their microstructure, sliding wear, solid particle erosion, and aqueous corrosion response. Casting was selected as a production method based on the concept: (a) ease-to-handle and low cost production route and (b) optimum homogeneity of the reinforcing phase distribution. The MoSi2 phase was produced through vacuum arc melting and the resulting drops were milled for 30 h to produce fine powder, the characteristics of which were ascertained through SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. MoSi2 was used as precursor source for the final reinforcing phase. The powder material was incorporated in molten Al1050 alloy to additions of 2, 5 and 10 vol.% respectively. Extensive reactivity between the molten Al and the MoSi2 particles was observed, leading to the formation of new reinforcing phases mainly of the Al-Mo system. In all cases, a uniform particle distribution was observed, mainly characterized by isolated intermetallic phases and few intermetallic phase clusters. Sliding wear showed a beneficial action of the reinforcing phase on the wear of the composites. Surface oxidation, plastic deformation, crack formation, and debris abrasive action were the main degradation features. The results of solid particle erosion showed that the mechanism is different as the impact angle and the vol.% change. Regarding the corrosion, the analysis revealed localized corrosion effects. The composite behavior was not altered significantly compared to that of the monolithic matrix.

  11. Velocity lag of solid particles in oscillating gases and in gases passing through normal shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, B. R.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The velocity lag of micrometer size spherical particles is theoretically determined for gas particle mixtures passing through a stationary normal shock wave and also for particles embedded in an oscillating gas flow. The particle sizes and densities chosen are those considered important for laser Doppler velocimeter applications. The governing equations for each flow system are formulated. The deviation from Stokes flow caused by inertial, compressibility, and rarefaction effects is accounted for in both flow systems by use of an empirical drag coefficient. Graphical results are presented which characterize particle tracking as a function of system parameters.

  12. Linear and Non-Linear Response of Liquid and Solid Particles to Energetic Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-11

    for particle 2 located on the + x6 axis (perpendicular to the beam propagation axis) one diameter surface-to-surface from particle 1 (i 12 = 4.0, Obd2 ...axis direction. Off is the far field scattering angle relative to the beam propagation axis. Obd2 is the orientation angle of particle 2 relative to...Particle 2 in the Xb - Zb plane and positioned one diameter surface-to-surface from particle 1 (P12 = 4.0). a.) Obd2 = 00, b.) Obd2 = 30 ° , c.) ebd

  13. Insights into metals in individual fine particles from municipal solid waste using synchrotron radiation-based micro-analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yumin; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2015-01-01

    Excessive inter-contamination with heavy metals hampers the application of biological treatment products derived from mixed or mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW). In this study, we investigated fine particles of <2mm, which are small fractions in MSW but constitute a significant component of the total heavy metal content, using bulk detection techniques. A total of 17 individual fine particles were evaluated using synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction. We also discussed the association, speciation and source apportionment of heavy metals. Metals were found to exist in a diffuse distribution with heterogeneous intensities and intense hot-spots of <10 μm within the fine particles. Zn-Cu, Pb-Fe and Fe-Mn-Cr had significant correlations in terms of spatial distribution. The overlapped enrichment, spatial association, and the mineral phases of metals revealed the potential sources of fine particles from size-reduced waste fractions (such as scraps of organic wastes or ceramics) or from the importation of other particles. The diverse sources of heavy metal pollutants within the fine particles suggested that separate collection and treatment of the biodegradable waste fraction (such as food waste) is a preferable means of facilitating the beneficial utilization of the stabilized products.

  14. Solid particles adsorbed on capillary-bridge-shaped fluid polystyrene surfaces.

    PubMed

    McEnnis, Kathleen; Dinsmore, Anthony D; Russell, Thomas P

    2015-05-19

    Particles adsorbed on microscopic polystyrene (PS) capillary bridge surfaces were observed to investigate their motion under capillary forces arising from a nonuniform shape. Capillary bridges were created by placing thin PS films, heated above the glass transition temperature (Tg), between two electrodes with an air gap between the surface of the PS and the upper electrode. Silica particles, 100 nm in diameter, were placed on the surface of the PS capillary bridges, and the sample was heated above the Tg of PS to enable particle motion. Samples were cooled to below Tg, and the locations of the particles were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The particles did not preferentially locate around the center of the capillary bridge, as predicted by others, but instead segregated to the edges. These results indicate that the forces driving particles to the three-phase contact line (air/PS/electrode surface) are greater than those locating particles around the center.

  15. Gold-coated magnetic particles for solid-phase immunoassays: enhancing immobilized antibody binding efficiency and analytical performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hairong; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2006-01-15

    The preparation and characterization of gold-coated magnetic particles are described for use as more efficient solid-phase materials in immunoassay development. A thin gold coating on commercial tosylated magnetic polystyrene particles (4.5 microm) is achieved via an electroless plating method involving initial reaction of the particles with Sn(II), followed by redox deposition of Ag0, that serves as a catalytic site for the subsequent reduction of Na3Au(SO3)2 in the presence of formaldehyde to yield the adhered gold layer. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the presence of the desired Au0 outer layer. To characterize the improved yield of antibody binding sites on such gold-coated phases, the modified particles are reacted with the free thiols of Fab' fragments of an anti-alkaline phosphatase (ALP) antibody to orient all the antigenic binding sites in a favorable direction. After equilibration with ALP, the amount of ALP bound to the surface of such particles is nearly 2.5-fold greater than on non-gold-coated particles possessing the same amount of immobilized anti-ALP Fab', but oriented randomly on the surface. The new gold-coated magnetic particles are further used as a solid phase for developing a sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay to detect C-reactive protein (CRP) using horseradish peroxidase as the enzyme label. The gold-coated magnetic particles with anti-CRP monoclonal Fab' reagents provide assays with enhanced assay slope (1.8-fold), lower nonspecific adsorption, and a detection limit improvement of nearly 10-fold (0.14 vs 1.9 ng/mL) compared to the same Fab' anti-CRP immobilized on the initial tosylated polystyrene magnetic particles. The improved assay performance is attributed to the more favorable binding orientation of the self-assembled monolayer of Fab' fragments on the gold-coated particles compared to the random orientation on the non-gold-coated surfaces.

  16. Study of Particle Rotation Effect in Gas-Solid Flows using Direct Numerical Simulation with a Lattice Boltzmann Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Kyung; Fan, Liang-Shih; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Hui

    2014-09-30

    fluid is accelerated from rest by a constant average pressure gradient toward a steady Stokes flow. The simulation results agree well with the theories for the short- and long-time behavior of the drag force. Flows through non-rotational and rotational spheres in simple cubic arrays and random arrays are simulated over the entire range of packing fractions, and both low and moderate particle Reynolds numbers to compare the simulated results with the literature results and develop a new drag force formula, a new lift force formula, and a new torque formula. Random arrays of solid particles in fluids are generated with Monte Carlo procedure and Zinchenko's method to avoid crystallization of solid particles over high solid volume fractions. A new drag force formula was developed with extensive simulated results to be closely applicable to real processes over the entire range of packing fractions and both low and moderate particle Reynolds numbers. The simulation results indicate that the drag force is barely affected by rotational Reynolds numbers. Drag force is basically unchanged as the angle of the rotating axis varies.

  17. Discrimination of charged particles in a neutral beam line by using a solid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle-detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a chargedparticle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  18. Solid state speciation and potential bioavailability of depleted uranium particles from Kosovo and Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Lind, O C; Salbu, B; Skipperud, L; Janssens, K; Jaroszewicz, J; De Nolf, W

    2009-04-01

    A combination of synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopic techniques (mu-XRF, mu-XANES, mu-XRD) applied on single depleted uranium (DU) particles and semi-bulk leaching experiments has been employed to link the potential bioavailability of DU particles to site-specific particle characteristics. The oxidation states and crystallographic forms of U in DU particles have been determined for individual particles isolated from selected samples collected at different sites in Kosovo and Kuwait that were contaminated by DU ammunition during the 1999 Balkan conflict and the 1991 Gulf war. Furthermore, small soil or sand samples heavily contaminated with DU particles were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal fluid (0.16 M HCl) extractions. Characteristics of DU particles in Kosovo soils collected in 2000 and in Kuwait soils collected in 2002 varied significantly depending on the release scenario and to some extent on weathering conditions. Oxidized U (+6) was determined in large, fragile and bright yellow DU particles released during fire at a DU ammunition storage facility and crystalline phases such as schoepite (UO(3).2.25H(2)O), dehydrated schoepite (UO(3).0.75H(2)O) and metaschoepite (UO(3).2.0H(2)O) were identified. As expected, these DU particles were rapidly dissolved in 0.16 M HCl (84 +/- 3% extracted after 2 h) indicating a high degree of potential mobility and bioavailability. In contrast, the 2 h extraction of samples contaminated with DU particles originating either from corrosion of unspent DU penetrators or from impacted DU ammunition appeared to be much slower (20-30%) as uranium was less oxidized (+4 to +6). Crystalline phases such as UO(2), UC and metallic U or U-Ti alloy were determined in impacted DU particles from Kosovo and Kuwait, while the UO(2,34) phase, only determined in particles from Kosovo, could reflect a more corrosive environment. Although the results are based on a limited number of DU particles, they indicate that the structure and

  19. Investigation of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Solid Particle Formation Mechanisms Using ILAS and AVHRR Observations in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irie, H.; Pagan, K. L.; Tabazadeh, A.; Legg, M. J.; Sugita, T.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite observations of denitrification and ice clouds in the Arctic lower stratosphere in February 1997 are used with Lagrangian microphysical box model calculations to evaluate nucleation mechanisms of solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. The occurrences of ice clouds are not correlated in time and space with the locations of back trajectories of denitrified air masses, indicating that ice particle surfaces are not always a prerequisite for the formation of solid PSCs that lead to denitrification. In contrast, the model calculations incorporating a pseudoheterogeneous freezing process occurring at the vapor-liquid interface can quantitatively explain most of the observed denitrification when the nucleation activation free energy for nitric acid dihydrate formation is raised by only approx.10% relative to the current published values. Once nucleated, the conversion of nitric acid dihydrate to the stable trihydrate phase brings the computed levels of denitrification closer to the measurements. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801); 0320 Atmospheric Composition and SblctureC: loud physics and chemistry; 0340 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Middle atmosphere-composition and chemistry

  20. Emission of ultrafine particles from the incineration of municipal solid waste: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan M.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-09-01

    Ultrafine particles (diameter <100 nm) are of great topical interest because of concerns over possible enhanced toxicity relative to larger particles of the same composition. While combustion processes, and especially road traffic exhaust are a known major source of ultrafine particle emissions, relatively little is known of the magnitude of emissions from non-traffic sources. One such source is the incineration of municipal waste, and this article reviews studies carried out on the emissions from modern municipal waste incinerators. The effects of engineering controls upon particle emissions are considered, as well as the very limited information on the effects of changing waste composition. The results of measurements of incinerator flue gas, and of atmospheric sampling at ground level in the vicinity of incinerators, show that typical ultrafine particle concentrations in flue gas are broadly similar to those in urban air and that consequently, after the dispersion process dilutes incinerator exhaust with ambient air, ultrafine particle concentrations are typically indistinguishable from those that would occur in the absence of the incinerator. In some cases the ultrafine particle concentration in the flue gas may be below that in the local ambient air. This appears to be a consequence of the removal of semi-volatile vapours in the secondary combustion zone and abatement plant, and the high efficiency of fabric filters for ultrafine particle collection.

  1. Measurement and Image Processing Techniques for Particle Image Velocimetry Using Solid-Phase Carbon Dioxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    doppler anemometry LED Light-emitting diode MgO Magnesium Oxide Nd:YAG Neodymium -doped yttrium aluminum garnet PSV Particle shadow velocimetry PTV Particle...density” ideal for PIV, and c) “high density” suitable for LSV [2] neodymium -doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser that emits visible green light

  2. The Interaction Between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface: Micro-Gravity Experiments and Theoretical Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Ssen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid/liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the past four decades. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (e.g., frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that the complex science associated with such an interaction is relevant to many other scientific fields encompassing metal matrix composites (MMCs), high temperature superconductors, inclusion management in steel, growth of monotectics, and preservation of biological cells. During solidification of a liquid containing an insoluble particle, three distinct interaction phenomena have been experimentally observed: instantaneous engulfment of the particle, continuous pushing, and particle pushing followed by engulfment. It was also observed that for given experimental conditions and particle size there is a critical solidification velocity, V(sub cr), above which a particle is engulfed. During solidification of MMCs pushing leads to particle agglomeration at the grain boundaries and this has detrimental effects on mechanical properties of the casting. Consequently, the process must be designed for instantaneous engulfment to occur. This implies the development of accurate theoretical models to predict V(sub cr), and perform benchmark experiments to test the validity of such models. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the pushing/engulfment phenomenon (PEP), its quantification in terms of the material and processing parameters remains a focus of research. Since natural convection currents occurring during terrestrial solidification experiments complicate the study of PEP, execution of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has been approved and funded by NASA. Extensive terrestrial (1g) experiments and preliminary micro-gravity (mu g) experiments on two space shuttle missions have been conducted in preparation for future experiments on the ISS. The investigated

  3. Low speed centrifugal casting of Functionally Graded solid cast ingot by anomalous particle distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mer, K. K. S.; Ray, S.

    2011-12-01

    Functionally graded cylindrical ingot of Al-Al2O3 composite synthesized by centrifugal casting shows particle distribution and hardness decreasing radially from the outer radius to inner radius. The progressive decrease in alumina content and hardness from the outer radius towards the center may be attributed to higher centrifugal force acting on relatively denser alumina particles during rotation, as compared to that acting on lighter alloy melt. It is also observed, as one moves down from the top to the bottom of cast ingot the alumina content decreases. This is surprising in view of higher density of alumina particles relative to the melt. The particle settling should have resulted at more particles towards the bottom, but distribution observed is in contradiction.

  4. Fresnel reflectance in refractive index estimation of light scattering solid particles in immersion liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räty, J.; Niskanen, I.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2010-06-01

    The refractive index of homogenous particle population can be determined by the so-called immersion liquid method. The idea is to find a known liquid whose refractive index matches the index of the particles. We report on a method that simultaneously obtains the refractive index of particles and that of the immersion liquid. It is based on a system using internal light reflection and Fresnel's theory. The method includes a series of straightforward reflection measurements and a fitting procedure. The validity of the method was tested with CaF2 particles. The method has applications within scientific studies of microparticles and nanoparticles or micro-organism in suspensions. It can be also be utilized in industry for the detection of the refractive index of products involving particles for the purpose of improvement of product quality.

  5. Toner display based on particle control technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Toner Display is based on an electrical movement of charged particles. Two types of black toner and white particles charged in the different electric polarity are enclosed between two electrodes. The particle movement is controlled by the external electric field applied between two transparent electrodes. The toner is collected to the electrode by an electrostatic force across the insulating layer to display a black image. The toners can be put back to the counter electrode by applying a reverse electric field, and white solid image is displayed. We have studied on the movement of three color particles independently to display color image in Toner Display. Two positively charged color particles with different amount of charge to mass ratio and negatively charged white particles were enclosed in the toner display cell. Yellow, cyan and white images were displayed by an application of voltage.

  6. Filtration of nano-particles by a gas-solid fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuang-Yu; Wey, Ming-Yen

    2007-08-17

    The filtration of 80 nm SiO2 and Al(2)O(3) particles in a gas stream using fluidized beds was studied. Silica sand and activated carbon (A.C.) were adopted as bed materials to filtrate 80 nm SiO2 and Al(2)O(3) particles. The collected particles were elutriated from the fluidized bed, so the filtration was a dynamic process and the variations of the removal efficiency with time were studied. Experimental results showed that the filtrations of 80 nm SiO2 and Al(2)O(3) particles with a bed material of silica sand were not dynamic processes but the filtration by A.C. was. The removal efficiencies for SiO2 and Al(2)O(3) particles using silica sand as bed material were held steady and found to be equal, between 86 and 93%. A.C. is considered to be more efficient than silica sand because it has a high specific surface area. However, the experimental data yield conflicting results. The removal efficiency of Al(2)O(3) particles fell from 92% initially to 80% at the end of test-a little lower than that obtained by filtration using silica sand. A higher voidage of A.C. than silica sand weakens the removal of nanoparticles since the diffusion mechanism dominates. The removal efficiency of SiO2 by A.C. decayed from 83 to 40% with time passed. The huge differences between the filtration efficiency of SiO2 and that of Al(2)O(3) particles by A.C. was associated with the extensive segregation of SiO2 and A.C. particles, which caused more SiO2 particles to move to the top of the bed, where they were elutriated. The weak inter-particle force for SiO2 decreased the removal efficiency also.

  7. Propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a mixture of a non-ideal gas and small solid particles under the action of monochromatic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Praveen Kumar; Nath, Gorakh

    2016-07-01

    Cylindrical shock wave in a dusty gas is discussed under the action of monochromatic radiation into stellar atmosphere with a constant intensity on unit area. The gas is assumed to be grey and opaque and shock to be transparent. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. To obtain some essential features of the shock propagation, small solid particles are taken as pseudo-fluid and it is assumed that the equilibrium flow condition is maintained in the flow-field. The effects of variation of the parameters of the non-idealness of the gas, the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas and the radiation parameter are investigated. It is shown that an increase in the parameters of the non-idealness of the gas and the radiation parameter have decaying effect on the shock waves; whereas with an increase in the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas the shock strength increases. It is found that an increase in the parameter non-idealness of the gas and the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas have opposite behaviour on fluid velocity, pressure and shock strength. Also, it is shown that an increase in the radiation parameter has effect to decrease the flow variables and the shock strength.

  8. The Impact of Variables on Particle Size of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers; A Comparative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Azhar Shekoufeh Bahari, Leila; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, pharmaceutical science has seen rapid growth in interest for nanoscale materials. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are popular research topics recently introduced as nano-scale drug carriers; they have shown numerous merits in drug delivery. Size is the most important index in a nanocarrier affecting its drug delivery efficiency. The influence of preparation conditions and type of lipidic components on the size of SLN and NLC in comparable states seems to be interesting for researchers who investigate these types of carriers. This review highlights the results of SLN and NLC particle size and size distribution comparisons. PMID:27478775

  9. Solid-particle erosion of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-TiC composite

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, M.; Goretta, K.C.; Singh, D.; Routbort, J.L.; Schuldies, J.J.

    1996-11-01

    An electrodischarge-machinable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-TiC composite developed by Industrial Ceramic Technology, Inc., has a high fracture toughness, 9.6{+-}0.6 MPm{sup 1/2}, as measured by indentation, and a Vickers hardness of 20.3{+-}0.6 GPa. The composite`s resistance to solid-particle erosion was measured for 143-{mu}m dia SiC particles impacting at 20-90{degree} angles and 50-100 m/s velocities. Erosion rate exhibited a maximum for normal incidence, and the erosion resistance was better than that of commercial Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. SEM indicated that material wastage was by a combination of brittle fracture and microplasticity.

  10. Effect of Particle Size on the Mechanical Properties of Semi-Solid, Powder-Rolled AA7050 Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xia; Liu, Yunzhong

    2016-12-01

    The AA7050 alloy strips can be successfully prepared by semi-solid powder rolling. The effect and factors of particle size on the microstructure, relative density, and mechanical properties were discussed. The results show that coarse starting powders require less liquid to achieve high relative density, and the formed strips have lower elongation compared with that prepared with the fine starting powders. The strength is more related to defects, whereas elongation partially depends on the grain size. Additionally, the fracture mechanism of strips prepared with fine powders is the ductile fracture because many dimples are observed. For relative density, when the initial liquid fraction is lower than 10%, the difference of deformation degree is the main factor. When the liquid fraction is higher than 10-20%, premature solidification and more particle interfaces are the two main factors.

  11. A Preliminary Investigation on the Destruction of Solid-Propellant Rocket Motors by Impact from Small Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David J., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether solid-propellant rocket motors could be ignited and destroyed by small-particle impacts at particle velocities up to a approximately 10,940 feet per second. Spheres ranging from 1/16 to 7/32 inch in diameter were fired into simulated rocket motors containing T-22 propellant over a range of ambient pressures from sea level to 0.12 inch of mercury absolute. Simulated cases of stainless steel, aluminum alloy, and laminated Fiberglas varied in thickness from 1/50 to 1/8 inch. Within the scope of this investigation, it was found that ignition and explosive destruction of simulated steel-case rocket motors could result from impacts by steel spheres at the lowest attainable pressure.

  12. Evaporation of suspensions to form an incompressible cake and to fill filter pores with solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuzhayorov, B. Kh.

    2011-11-01

    Equations of filtration of suspensions to form an incompressible cake of particles on the surface of the filter with simultaneous passage of a certain share of the particles from the cake to the filter's pore space and next to the region of a filtered liquid are derived from the principles of the mechanics of multiphase media. The influence of the travel of the particles in the region of the cake and the filter on the dynamics of growth of the cake bed is investigated. An analysis of the derived dynamic filtration equations shows that allowance for the factors of travel and accumulation of particles in the cake and the filter causes their total filtration resistance, in particular the resistance in the inertial component of the filtration law, to decrease.

  13. Particle Engineering Via Mechanical Dry Coating in the Design of Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cohesive powders are problematic in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms because they exhibit poor flowability, fluidization and aerosolization. These undesirable bulk properties of cohesive powders represent a fundamental challenge in the design of efficient pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Recently, mechanical dry coating has attracted increasing attention as it can improve the bulk properties of cohesive powders in a cheaper, simpler, safer and more environment-friendly way than the existing solvent-based counterparts. In this review, mechanical dry coating techniques are outlined and their potential applications in formulation and manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are discussed. Reported data from the literature have shown that mechanical dry coating holds promise for the design of superior pharmaceutical solid formulations or manufacturing processes by engineering the interfaces of cohesive powders in an efficient and economical way.

  14. Optical Properties Of Solid Particle Receiver Materials I: Angular Scattering And Extinction Characteristics Of Norton Masterbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, J. W.; Stahl, K. A.; Pettit, R. B.

    1985-12-01

    As part of the Solar Thermal Technology Program, the direct absorption of sunlight by free-falling particles inside a cavity receiver is being evaluated. The objective of the on-going optical properties measurement program is to obtain information to be used as input to radiation transfer models for prediction of receiver performance. Instrumenta tion and data analysis techniques have been developed to determine both the angular scattering properties and the scattering and absorption components of the extinction coefficient of candidate materials. This report summarizes the measurement procedures and presents data for an ion-doped alumina spheroid, Masterbeads, manufactured by Norton Chemical Company. This material exhibits good optical absorption properties over the solar insolation spectrum and favorable thermal and mechanical properties for temperatures up to 1000°C. Scattering and extinction measurements were performed at 632.8 nm in a falling curtain geometry of one-particle nominal thickness. Data were obtained over a range of mass flow rates and particle areal densities. Photographic documentation of curtain particle density enabled calculation of mean particle scattering and absorption loss components in the absence of multiple-particle optical interactions. Prediction of optical extinction properties at other wavelengths is anticipated to be straightforward using spectral hemispherical reflectance measurements on bulk samples. Additional scattering and extinction data were obtained on transparent glass microspheres for comparison and as a verification of the measurement apparatus and procedures.

  15. Disclination loops, standing alone and around solid particles, in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentjev, E. M.

    1995-02-01

    A suspended particle with specific director anchoring on its surface introduces a complex distortion field in a nematic liquid crystal matrix. Topological defects-disclination loops, boojums, and hedgehogs, are needed to match the director near the particle surface with that at the far distance, which is determined by boundary conditions on the sample. This paper analyzes the elastic energy and stability of a singular loop of wedge disclination and the first-order transition of the radial hedgehog into a wide singular loop, driven by an external magnetic field. The far field of distortions, created by a ``Saturn ring'' of disclination around the spherical radial particle, allows one to calculate the potential of interaction between such particles and with the surface of the liquid crystal. Particles are repelled from each other and from the rigidly anchored surface with the potential U~1/r3. If the sample surface has soft anchoring, the particle is attracted to it at close distances and is repelled, if beyond the anchoring coherence length ξw. Several experiments to test these conclusions are suggested.

  16. Thermal response of superparamagnetic particles suspended in liquid and solid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Pengyun; Kline, Timothy L.; Wang, Jian-ping; Wiedmann, Timothy Scott

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the properties of coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNs) specifically for their use in thermal-responsive drug delivery systems. Coated, magnetite SPNs were prepared and dispersed in cyclohexane or cetyl alcohol, a solid lipid at the physiological temperatures of 37 °C. The induced temperature change as a function of SPN concentration and external magnetic field and frequency was consistent with theoretical predictions. SPNs dispersed in a solid lipid matrix underwent heating and the associated melting occurred at a temperature suitable for a thermal-responsive drug delivery system.

  17. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-04-25

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  19. On the metastability of the hexatic phase during the melting of two-dimensional charged particle solids

    SciTech Connect

    Derzsi, Aranka; Kovács, Anikó Zs.; Donkó, Zoltán; Hartmann, Peter

    2014-02-15

    For two-dimensional many-particle systems, first-order, second-order, single step continuous, as well as two-step continuous (KTHNY-like) melting transitions have been found in previous studies. Recent computer simulations, using particle numbers in the ≥10{sup 5} range, as well as a few experimental studies, tend to support the two-step scenario, where the solid and liquid phases are separated by a third, so called hexatic phase. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations on Yukawa (Debye-Hückel) systems at conditions earlier predicted to belong to the hexatic phase. Our simulation studies on the time needed for the equilibration of the systems conclude that the hexatic phase is metastable and disappears in the limit of long times. We also show that simply increasing the particle number in particle simulations does not necessarily result in more accurate conclusions regarding the existence of the hexatic phase. The increase of the system size has to be accompanied with the increase of the simulation time to ensure properly thermalized conditions.

  20. Supercritical fluid precipitation of ketoprofen in novel structured lipid carriers for enhanced mucosal delivery--a comparison with solid lipid particles.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V S S; Matias, A A; Rodríguez-Rojo, S; Nogueira, I D; Duarte, C M M

    2015-11-10

    Structured lipid carriers based on mixture of solid lipids with liquid lipids are the second generation of solid lipid particles, offering the advantage of improved drug loading capacity and higher storage stability. In this study, structured lipid carriers were successfully prepared for the first time by precipitation from gas saturated solutions. Glyceryl monooleate (GMO), a liquid glycerolipid, was selected in this work to be incorporated into three solid glycerolipids with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) ranging from 1 to 13, namely Gelucire 43/01™, Geleol™ and Gelucire 50/13™. In general, microparticles with a irregular porous morphology and a wide particle size distribution were obtained. The HLB of the individual glycerolipids might be a relevant parameter to take into account during the processing of solid:liquid lipid blends. As expected, the addition of a liquid lipid into a solid lipid matrix led to increased stability of the lipid carriers, with no significant modifications in their melting enthalpy after 6 months of storage. Additionally, Gelucire 43/01™:GMO particles were produced with different mass ratios and loaded with ketoprofen. The drug loading capacity of the structured lipid carriers increased as the GMO content in the particles increased, achieving a maximum encapsulation efficiency of 97% for the 3:1 mass ratio. Moreover, structured lipid carriers presented an immediate release of ketoprofen from its matrix with higher permeation through a mucous-membrane model, while solid lipid particles present a controlled release of the drug with less permeation capacity.

  1. Fundamental Combustion Processes of Particle-Laden Shear Flows in Solid Fuel Ramjets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-17

    1978. Ozisik, M. N., Radiative Transfer and Interactions with Conduction and Convection, Wiley, New York, New York. 1973. 330j Stufflebeam , J.H., and... Stufflebeam , J.H., and Eckbreth, A.C., "Multi- land Ohio, pp. 1-7, July 1982. pIe Species CARS Measurements of High Pres- 3 Psure Solid Propellant Combustion

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell cathode infiltrate particle size control and oxygen surface exchange resistance determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burye, Theodore E.

    Over the past decade, nano-sized Mixed Ionic Electronic Conducting (MIEC) -- micro-sized Ionic Conducting (IC) composite cathodes produced by the infiltration method have received much attention in the literature due to their low polarization resistance (RP) at intermediate (500-700°C) operating temperatures. Small infiltrated MIEC oxide nano-particle size and low intrinsic MIEC oxygen surface exchange resistance (Rs) have been two critical factors allowing these Nano-Micro-Composite Cathodes (NMCCs) to achieve high performance and/or low temperature operation. Unfortunately, previous studies have not found a reliable method to control or reduce infiltrated nano-particle size. In addition, controversy exists on the best MIEC infiltrate composition because: 1) Rs measurements on infiltrated MIEC particles are presently unavailable in the literature, and 2) bulk and thin film Rs measurements on nominally identical MIEC compositions often vary by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Here, two processing techniques, precursor nitrate solution desiccation and ceria oxide pre-infiltration, were developed to systematically produce a reduction in the average La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe 0.2O3-delta (LSCF) infiltrated nano-particle size from 50 nm to 22 nm. This particle size reduction reduced the SOFC operating temperature, (defined as the temperature where RP=0.1 Ocm 2) from 650°C to 540°C. In addition, Rs values for infiltrated MIEC particles were determined for the first time through finite element modeling calculations on 3D Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB-SEM) reconstructions of electrochemically characterized infiltrated electrodes.

  3. Model of Chlorocarbon (CFC-12) Chemisorption on Solid Rocket Motor Alumina Exhaust Particles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    propellant for solid rocket motors currently used in the United States is a mixture commonly known as ammonium per chlorate, or AP. The three main...chamber, the sodium ions 23 scavenge most of the chloride ions , forming NaCL thus preventing the chloride ions from forming HC1. Laboratory...an accurate quantification of the acid reducing capability of the scavenged propellants during an open ah test has not yet been made.33 The sodium

  4. Entrainment of Solid Particles from a Fluidized-Bed Cyclone Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsukha, E. A.; Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Borodulya, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental study has been made of the entrainment of crushed-corn particles of diameter d = 0.88 mm from a fluidized bed with the vortex organization of an over-bed space. The dependence of the entrainment rate on the characteristics of the fluidized bed and the cyclone chamber has been established.

  5. Cross-correlation focus method with an electrostatic sensor array for local particle velocity measurement in dilute gas-solid two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jingyu; Gao, Wenbin; Ding, Hongbing; Wu, Weiping

    2015-11-01

    The gas-solid two-phase flow has been widely applied in the power, chemical and metallurgical industries. It is of great significance in the research of gas-solid two-phase flow to measure particle velocity at different locations in the pipeline. Thus, an electrostatic sensor array comprising eight arc-shaped electrodes was designed. The relationship between the cross-correlation (CC) velocity and the distribution of particle velocity, charge density and electrode spatial sensitivity was analysed. Then the CC sensitivity and its calculation method were proposed. According to the distribution of CC sensitivity, it was found that, between different electrode pairs, it had different focus areas. The CC focus method was proposed for particle velocity measurement at different locations and validated by a belt-style electrostatic induction experiment facility. Finally, the particle velocities at different locations with different flow conditions were measured to research the particle velocity distribution in a dilute horizontal pneumatic conveying pipeline.

  6. Characterization of exposures to nanoscale particles and fibers during solid core drilling of hybrid carbon nanotube advanced composites.

    PubMed

    Bello, Dhimiter; Wardle, Brian L; Zhang, Jie; Yamamoto, Namiko; Santeufemio, Christopher; Hallock, Marilyn; Virji, M Abbas

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated exposures to nanoparticles and nanofibers during solid core drilling of two types of advanced carbon nanotube (CNT)-hybrid composites: (1) reinforced plastic hybrid laminates (alumina fibers and CNT); and (2) graphite-epoxy composites (carbon fibers and CNT). Multiple real-time instruments were used to characterize the size distribution (5.6 nm to 20 microm), number and mass concentration, particle-bound polyaromatic hydrocarbons (b-PAHs), and surface area of airborne particles at the source and breathing zone. Time-integrated samples included grids for electron microscopy characterization of particle morphology and size resolved (2 nm to 20 microm) samples for the quantification of metals. Several new important findings herein include generation of airborne clusters of CNTs not seen during saw-cutting of similar composites, fewer nanofibers and respirable fibers released, similarly high exposures to nanoparticles with less dependence on the composite thickness, and ultrafine (< 5 nm) aerosol originating from thermal degradation of the composite material.

  7. High-solids paint overspray aerosols in a spray painting booth: particle size analysis and scrubber efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.L.; D'arcy, J.B.; Schreck, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    Particle size distributions of high-solids acrylic-enamel paint overspray aerosols were determined isokinetically in a typical downdraft spray painting booth in which a 7-stage cascade impactor was used. Three different industrial paint atomizers were used, and the paint aerosols were characterized before and after a paint both scrubber. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a metallic basecoat and an acrylic clearcoat paint aerosol from air-atomized spray guns ranged from 4-12 ..mu..m and was dependent on atomization pressure. When the paint booth was operated under controlled conditions simulating those in a plant, the collection efficiency of paint overspray aerosols by a paint scrubber was found to be size dependent and decreased sharply for particles smaller than 2 ..mu..m to as low as 64% for clearcoat paint particles of 0.6 ..mu..m. Improvement in the overall particulate removal efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the spray painting operations so as to produce the least amount of fine overspray paint aerosols less than 2 ..mu..m. Maintaining a higher static pressure drop across the paint both scrubber also will improve scrubber performance.

  8. The Effect of Particle Size on the Deposition of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles in Different Skin Layers: A Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mardhiah Adib, Zahra; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Yari Khosroshahi, Ahmad; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study the effect of particle size, as a substantial parameters in skin penetration, on the deposition depth and rate of SLNs in different layers of skin was explored. Methods: SLNs in different particle size ranges (80, 333 and 971 nm) made of Precirol as solid lipid were prepared using hot melt homogenization technique and pigmented by Rhodamine B to be able to be tracked in the skin under inspection of fluorescent microscopy. After 0.5 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h of SLNs administration on rat skin, animals were sacrificed and exercised skins were sliced by a freeze microtome. SLNs were monitored in the skin structure under fluorescence microscope. Results: The size of SLNs played a crucial role in the penetration to deep skin layers. The sub100 nm size range of SLNs showed the most promising skin penetration rate and depth mainly via hair follicles. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the selection of an appropriate size of particles may be a valuable factor impacting the therapeutic outcomes of dermal drug administration. PMID:27123415

  9. Final Technical Report: Using Solid Particles as Heat Transfer Fluid for use in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lattanzi, Aaron; Hrenya, Christine

    2016-03-31

    In today’s industrial economy, energy consumption has never been higher. Over the last 15 years the US alone has consumed an average of nearly 100 quadrillion BTUs per year [21]. A need for clean and renewable energy sources has become quite apparent. The SunShot Initiative is an ambitious effort taken on by the United States Department of Energy that targets the development of solar energy that is cost-competitive with other methods for generating electricity. Specifically, this work is concerned with the development of concentrating solar power plants (CSPs) with granular media as the heat transfer fluid (HTF) from the solar receiver. Unfortunately, the prediction of heat transfer in multiphase flows is not well understood. For this reason, our aim is to fundamentally advance the understanding of multiphase heat transfer, particularly in gas-solid flows, while providing quantitative input for the design of a near black body receiver (NBB) that uses solid grains (like sand) as the HTF. Over the course of this three-year project, a wide variety of contributions have been made to advance the state-of-the art description for non-radiative heat transfer in dense, gas-solid systems. Comparisons between a state-of-the-art continuum heat transfer model and discrete element method (DEM) simulations have been drawn. The results of these comparisons brought to light the limitations of the continuum model due to inherent assumptions in its derivation. A new continuum model was then developed for heat transfer at a solid boundary by rigorously accounting for the most dominant non-radiative heat transfer mechanism (particle-fluid-wall conduction). The new model is shown to be in excellent agreement with DEM data and captures the dependence of heat transfer on particle size, a dependency that previous continuum models were not capable of. DEM and the new continuum model were then employed to model heat transfer in a variety of receiver geometries. The results provided crucial

  10. Solid-particle erosion behavior of cast alloys used in the mining industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atapek, Ş. Hakan; Fidan, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    The erosive-wear response of five commercial ferrous-based cast alloys used for crushing was examined in this study. The microstructures of the alloys were modified to elucidate the effect of microstructural features on wear. Erosion tests were conducted using aluminum oxide particles (90-125 μm) at 70 m/s and a normal impact angle (90°). The worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and 3D non-contact laser profilometry. It is found that (i) a pearlitic structure exhibiting a greater plastic deformation than both bainitic and martensitic structures shows the greatest resistance to erosive wear at normal impact and (ii) the fracture characteristics of carbide and graphite particles plays an important role in determining the erosion wear behavior of the cast alloy matrices.

  11. Solid Hydrocarbon Assisted Reduction: A New Process of Generating Micron Scale Metal Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    mol mole µm micron NDR no data recorded xiv Na2CO3 H2O sodium carbonate monohydrate Ni nickel NiO nickel oxide Nm nanometer PIM particle...quality brown coal, or lignite. Two different catalysts were chosen for this experiment, sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3.H2O) and potassium...61-9) and nickel oxide powder (Nickel (II) Oxide green, -325 mesh, 99%, CAS 1313-99-1) as the source material, with sodium carbonate monohydrate

  12. Radioluminescence of solid neodymium-doped laser materials excited by α-particles and fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seregina, E. A.; Seregin, A. A.

    2013-02-01

    The characteristics of radioluminescence of Nd3+ : Y3Al5O12 crystals and laser glasses under excitation by plutonium-239 (239Pu) α-particles, as well as by α-particles and spontaneous fission fragments of californium-252 (252Cf), are studied. The radioluminescence branching ratios βij for the transition from the 2F25/2 level to the 2S+1LJ levels in Nd3+ : Y3Al5O12 crystals are measured. Radioluminescence from the 2P3/2 level to low-lying levels is observed. The βij ratios for transitions from the high-lying 2F25/2, 4D3/2, and 2P3/2 levels are theoretically calculated. The lifetimes of metastable levels of Nd3+ excited by 252Cf fission fragments are measured. The efficiency of the conversion of energy of α-particles and fission fragments to the energy of optical radiation of Nd3+ : Y3Al5O12 crystals and laser glasses is determined.

  13. Radioluminescence of solid neodymium-doped laser materials excited by {alpha}-particles and fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Seregina, E A; Seregin, A A

    2013-02-28

    The characteristics of radioluminescence of Nd{sup 3+} : Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals and laser glasses under excitation by plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) {alpha}-particles, as well as by {alpha}-particles and spontaneous fission fragments of californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf), are studied. The radioluminescence branching ratios {beta}{sub ij} for the transition from the {sup 2}F2{sub 5/2} level to the {sup 2S+1}L{sub J} levels in Nd{sup 3+} : Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals are measured. Radioluminescence from the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} level to low-lying levels is observed. The {beta}{sub ij} ratios for transitions from the high-lying {sup 2}F2{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}D{sub 3/2}, and {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} levels are theoretically calculated. The lifetimes of metastable levels of Nd{sup 3+} excited by {sup 252}Cf fission fragments are measured. The efficiency of the conversion of energy of {alpha}-particles and fission fragments to the energy of optical radiation of Nd{sup 3+} : Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals and laser glasses is determined. (active media)

  14. Collisions of energetic particles with atoms, molecules & solids: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quashie, Edwin Exam

    The detailed knowledge of the accurate ion-solid interaction is at the heart of many technological applications such as nuclear safety, applied material science, medical physics and fusion and fission applications. Its accurate evaluation poses an enormous challenge due to the need of incorporating electronic structure, bound states, size effects, basis sets, and the quantum classical aspects of the problem. Most recent approaches relying on the fitting to experimental data or phenomenological model, fail to describe the ion-solid interaction properly (see [S. N. Markin, D. Primetzhofer, M. Spitz, and P. Bauer, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009)]) for slow ions. A general Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) is used in this thesis to evaluate electron-dynamics easily. For the first time a unified theory is proposed to describe the ion-solid interaction accurately over several orders of magnitude in the ion velocities, unveiling different regimes that before were only partially seen by separate experiments and rarely by any level of existing theory. We identified an electronic stopping which in the band-regime produces a quantum friction that is nonlinear with a power-law with an exponent ˜1.5. At low velocity this nonlinear effect will provide a new impetus for experimental investigations and an improve microscopic models of electron-ion dissipative dynamics. Our study will potentially impact both the experimental and theoretical research in condensed matter. We have applied our developed theory to study stopping of H+ in Cu. The target Cu comprises complicated band structure and this system will help to understand radiation of matter, both in its experimental understanding and also in the modeling of the process, for example in the context of damped molecular dynamics for the simulation of radiation cascades. At this present stage in the field of ion-solid interactions and quantum dissipative dynamics, our findings remain very significant. The same techniques are

  15. Formation of a disordered solid via a shock-induced transition in a dense particle suspension.

    PubMed

    Petel, Oren E; Frost, David L; Higgins, Andrew J; Ouellet, Simon

    2012-02-01

    Shock wave propagation in multiphase media is typically dominated by the relative compressibility of the two components of the mixture. The difference in the compressibility of the components results in a shock-induced variation in the effective volume fraction of the suspension tending toward the random-close-packing limit for the system, and a disordered solid can take form within the suspension. The present study uses a Hugoniot-based model to demonstrate this variation in the volume fraction of the solid phase as well as a simple hard-sphere model to investigate the formation of disordered structures within uniaxially compressed model suspensions. Both models are discussed in terms of available experimental plate impact data in dense suspensions. Through coordination number statistics of the mesoscopic hard-sphere model, comparisons are made with the trends of the experimental pressure-volume fraction relationship to illustrate the role of these disordered structures in the bulk properties of the suspensions. A criterion for the dynamic stiffening of suspensions under high-rate dynamic loading is suggested as an analog to quasi-static jamming based on the results of the simulations.

  16. Solid phospholipid nano-particles: investigations into formulation and dissolution properties of griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann-Trettenes, Ulla; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2014-06-05

    Solid phospholipid (PL) nanoparticles with griseofulvin (GRIS) as a model drug were prepared by co-spray drying. Their dissolution properties were compared with formulations containing the physical blends of the native crystalline drug and excipient materials, and physical blends of the spray dried materials. Co-spray drying was performed from ethanol+water solutions (80+20) using Büchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Dissolution profiles in phosphate buffer (PBS), simulated intestinal fluids (fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF)) and pancreatin containing media (PAN) were studied. It was found that the influence of PL on the dissolution profile was affected by both the solid state of the drug formulation and the dissolution medium: the co-SD formulations showed the fastest release in all media. The amount of GRIS dissolved after 5h increases by a factor of 7 for the co SD as compared to physical blend of native materials in PBS, and a factor of 4 in FaSSIF respectively. Surprisingly, in contrast to PBS, dissolution rate in FaSSIF decreased with increasing the PL content. All the pancreatin containing media showed a decrease in dissolution rate and extent independently of the processing methods due to an incompatibility between GRIS and PAN.

  17. Growth behavior of LiMn2O4 particles formed by solid-state reactions in air and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Murakami, Takeshi; Naito, Makio

    2016-11-01

    Morphology control of particles formed during conventional solid-state reactions without any additives is a challenging task. Here, we propose a new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn2O4 particles based on water vapor-induced growth of particles during solid-state reactions. We have investigated the synthesis and microstructural evolution of LiMn2O4 particles in air and water vapor atmospheres as model reactions; LiMn2O4 is used as a low-cost cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. By using spherical MnCO3 precursor impregnated with LiOH, LiMn2O4 spheres with a hollow structure were obtained in air, while angulated particles with micrometer sizes were formed in water vapor. The pore structure of the particles synthesized in water vapor was found to be affected at temperatures below 700 °C. We also show that the solid-state reaction in water vapor is a simple and valuable method for the large-scale production of particles, where the shape, size, and microstructure can be controlled.

  18. Particle Size Distributions Obtained Through Unfolding 2D Sections: Towards Accurate Distributions of Nebular Solids in the Allende Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, P. A.; Simon, Justin I.; Ross, D. K.; Friedrich, J. M.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Size distributions of nebular solids in chondrites suggest an efficient sorting of these early forming objects within the protoplanetary disk. The effect of this sorting has been documented by investigations of modal abundances of CAIs (e.g., [1-4]) and chondrules (e.g., [5-8]). Evidence for aerodynamic sorting in the disk is largely qualitative, and needs to be carefully assessed. It may be a way of concentrating these materials into planetesimal-mass clumps, perhaps 100 fs of ka after they formed. A key parameter is size/density distributions of particles (i.e., chondrules, CAIs, and metal grains), and in particular, whether the radius-density product (rxp) is a better metric for defining the distribution than r alone [9]. There is no consensus between r versus rxp based models. Here we report our initial tests and preliminary results, which when expanded will be used to test the accuracy of current dynamical disk models.

  19. Radiation from particles moving in small-scale magnetic fields created in solid-density laser-plasma laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, Brett D. Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-15

    Plasmas created by high-intensity lasers are often subject to the formation of kinetic-streaming instabilities, such as the Weibel instability, which lead to the spontaneous generation of high-amplitude, tangled magnetic fields. These fields typically exist on small spatial scales, i.e., “sub-Larmor scales.” Radiation from charged particles moving through small-scale electromagnetic (EM) turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and it carries valuable information on the statistical properties of the EM field structure and evolution. Consequently, this radiation from laser-produced plasmas may offer insight into the underlying electromagnetic turbulence. Here, we investigate the prospects for, and demonstrate the feasibility of, such direct radiative diagnostics for mildly relativistic, solid-density laser plasmas produced in lab experiments.

  20. Radiation from particles moving in small-scale magnetic fields created in solid-density laser-plasma laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Brett D.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas created by high-intensity lasers are often subject to the formation of kinetic-streaming instabilities, such as the Weibel instability, which lead to the spontaneous generation of high-amplitude, tangled magnetic fields. These fields typically exist on small spatial scales, i.e., "sub-Larmor scales." Radiation from charged particles moving through small-scale electromagnetic (EM) turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and it carries valuable information on the statistical properties of the EM field structure and evolution. Consequently, this radiation from laser-produced plasmas may offer insight into the underlying electromagnetic turbulence. Here, we investigate the prospects for, and demonstrate the feasibility of, such direct radiative diagnostics for mildly relativistic, solid-density laser plasmas produced in lab experiments.

  1. Lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds, 1988 - Signature of small, solid particles above the frost point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Osborn, M. T.; Hunt, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents recent (January 1988) Arctic airborne lidar data which suggest that Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are composed of small solid particles with radii on the order of 0.5 micron. PSCs were observed remotely in the 21-24 km altitude range north of Greenland during a round-trip flight from Andenes, Norway on January 29, 1988, aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility P-3 Orion aircraft. Synoptic analyses at the 30-mb level show local temperatures of 191-193 K, which are well above the estimated frost point temperature of 185 K; this suggests that the PSCs were probably of the binary HNO3-H2O (Type I) class.

  2. The SPRITE and POS-SPRITE user report: An extensible calculation of particle, positron and electron implantation in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Ritley, K.A.; Ghosh, V.J.; Lynn, K.G.; McKewown, M.; Welch, D.O.

    1997-10-20

    SPRITE (Simulation of Particle Reemission, Implantation and Transmission--Extensible) is a Fortran computer program designed to model the transport of a stream of energetic particles as they scatter through a solid or multilayer. SPRITE is intended to be a user-friendly and easily-extensible engine for performing basic transport calculations, and SPRITE incorporates such physics as is required to simulate the transport process, but specifically omits the details of the scattering mechanisms. PSPRITE is a Fortran computer program, built around the SPRITE transport engine and incorporating physical information necessary for modeling the implantation and thermalization of a stream of positrons or electrons with a solid. This document is intended to be the primary source of information and the only operations manual for SPRITE and the POS-SPRITE family of programs. This information includes the mode of operation of SPRITE, the format of the required and optional file types, as well as information about the output and results of the calculation. Information about installing and running these programs on a variety of computer systems will not be addressed in this report. Such information is rapidly expanding as these programs are adapted to run on different platforms, and thus the user can expect such information to be contained with the source code distribution set. Detailed information about the calculations of the structure of the POS-SPRITE programs are provided in this report, but detailed benchmark comparisons between the output of these calculations and experimental data are an active topic of research, and they refer the reader to the published literature for this information.

  3. Analysis of suspended solids by single-particle scattering. [for Lake Superior pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, S. R.; Smith, D. T.; Sydor, M.

    1979-01-01

    Light scattering by individual particulates is used in a multiple-detector system to categorize the composition of suspended solids in terms of broad particulate categories. The scattering signatures of red clay and taconite tailings, the two primary particulate contaminants in western Lake Superior, along with two types of asbestiform fibers, amphibole and chrysolite, were studied in detail. A method was developed to predict the concentration of asbestiform fibers in filtration plant samples for which electron microscope analysis was done concurrently. Fiber levels as low as 50,000 fibers/liter were optically detectable. The method has application in optical categorization of samples for remote sensing purposes and offers a fast, inexpensive means for analyzing water samples from filtration plants for specific particulate contaminants.

  4. Time dependence of solid-particle impingement erosion of an aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Erosion studies were conducted on 6061-T6511 aluminum alloy by using jet impingement of glass beads and crushed glass particles to investigate the influence of exposure time on volume loss rate at different pressures. The results indicate a direct relationship between erosion-versus-time curves and pitmorphology (width, depth, and width-depth ratio)-versus-time curves for both glass forms. Extensive erosion data from the literature were analyzed to find the variations of erosion-rate-versus-time curves with respect to the type of device, the size and shape of erodent particles, the abrasive charge, the impact velocity, etc. Analysis of the experimental data, obtained with two forms of glass, resulted in three types of erosion-rate-versus-time curves: (1) curves with incubation, acceleration, and steadystate periods (type 1); (2) curves with incubation, acceleration, decleration, and steady-state periods (type 3); and (3) curves with incubation, acceleration, peak rate, and deceleration periods (type 4). The type 4 curve is a less frequently seen curve and was not reported in the literature. Analysis of extensive literature data generally indicated three types of erosion-rate-versus-time curves. Two types (types 1 and 3) were observed in the present study; the third type involves incubation (and deposition), acceleration, and steady-state periods (type 2). Examination of the extensive literature data indicated that it is absolutely necessary to consider the corresponding stages or periods of erosion in correlating and characterizing erosion resistance of a wide spectrum of ductile materials.

  5. Solid particle impingement erosion characteristics of cylindrical surfaces, pre-existing holes and slits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The erosion characteristics of aluminum cylinders sand-blasted with both spherical and angular erodent particles were studied and compared with results from previously studied flat surfaces. The cylindrical results are discussed with respect to impact conditions. The relationship between erosion rate and pit morphology (width, depth, and width to depth ratio) is established. The aspects of (1) erosion rate versus time curves on cylindrical surfaces; (2) long-term exposures; and (3) erosion rate versus time curves with spherical and angular particles are presented. The erosion morphology and characteristics of aluminum surfaces with pre-existing circular cylindrical and conical holes of different sizes were examined using weight loss measurements, scanning electron microscopy, a profilometer, and a depth gage. The morphological features (radial and concentric rings) are discussed with reference to flat surfaces, and the erosion features with spherical microglass beads. The similarities and differences of erosion and morphological features are highlighted. The erosion versus time curves of various shapes of holes are discussed and are compared with those of a flat surface. The erosion process at slits is considered.

  6. Gallic Acid Production with Mouldy Polyurethane Particles Obtained from Solid State Culture of Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Mata-Gómez, Marco; Mussatto, Solange I; Rodríguez, Raul; Teixeira, Jose A; Martinez, Jose L; Hernandez, Ayerim; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-06-01

    Gallic acid production in a batch bioreactor was evaluated using as catalytic material the mouldy polyurethane solids (MPS) obtained from a solid-state fermentation (SSF) bioprocess carried out for tannase production by Aspergillus niger GH1 on polyurethane foam powder (PUF) with 5 % (v/w) of tannic acid as inducer. Fungal biomass, tannic acid consumption and tannase production were kinetically monitored. SSF was stopped when tannase activity reached its maximum level. Effects of washing with distilled water and drying on the tannase activity of MPS were determined. Better results were obtained with dried and washed MPS retaining 84 % of the tannase activity. Maximum tannase activity produced through SSF after 24 h of incubation was equivalent to 130 U/gS with a specific activity of 36 U/mg. The methylgallate was hydrolysed (45 %) in an easy, cheap and fast bioprocess (30 min). Kinetic parameters of tannase self-immobilized on polyurethane particles were calculated to be 5 mM and 04.1 × 10(-2) mM/min for K M and V max, respectively. Results demonstrated that the MPS, with tannase activity, can be successfully used for the production of the antioxidant gallic acid from methyl-gallate substrate. Direct use of PMS to produce gallic acid can be advantageous as no previous extraction of enzyme is required, thus reducing production costs.

  7. Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator (FINS): A particle-based model of juvenile salmonid movement and dissolved gas exposure history in the Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2002-01-30

    This paper describes a numerical model of juvenile salmonid migration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, employs a discrete, particle-based approach to simulate the migration and history of exposure to dissolved gases of individual fish. FINS is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories can be input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. Therefore, FINS serves as a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological impacts. FINS was parameterized and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998. A quasi-inverse approach was used to decouple fish swimming movements from advection with the local water velocity, allowing inference of time series of non-advective displacements of individual fish from the radiotelemetry data. Statistical analyses of these displacements are presented, and confirm that strong temporal correlation of fish swimming behavior persists in some cases over several hours. A correlated random-walk model was employed to simulate the observed migration behavior, and parameters of the model were estimated that lead to close correspondence between predictions and observations.

  8. Particle generator

    DOEpatents

    Hess, Wayne P.; Joly, Alan G.; Gerrity, Daniel P.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Sushko, Peter V.; Shlyuger, Alexander L.

    2005-06-28

    Energy tunable solid state sources of neutral particles are described. In a disclosed embodiment, a halogen particle source includes a solid halide sample, a photon source positioned to deliver photons to a surface of the halide, and a collimating means positioned to accept a spatially defined plume of hyperthermal halogen particles emitted from the sample surface.

  9. Enrichment of heavy metals in fine particles of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and associated health risk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jizhi; Wu, Simiao; Pan, Yun; Zhang, Lingen; Cao, Zhenbang; Zhang, Xiaoqiao; Yonemochi, Shinichi; Hosono, Shigeo; Wang, Yao; Oh, Kokyo; Qian, Guangren

    2015-09-01

    During the pretreatment and recycling processes, the re-suspended dust from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash might pose a significant health risk to onsite workers due to its toxic heavy metal content. In this work, the morphological and mineralogical characteristics of fly ash in different particle sizes are presented. The concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn) in these samples were determined. The results show that volatile metals, such as Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd, were easily concentrated in the fine particles, especially in Dp2.5-1 and Dp1, with soluble and exchangeable substances as the main chemical species. The health risk assessment illustrated that the cumulative hazard indexes for non-carcinogenic metals in Dp10-5, Dp5-2.5, Dp2.5-1, and Dp1 were 1.69, 1.41, 1.78 and 2.64, respectively, which were higher than the acceptable threshold values (1.0). The cumulative carcinogenic risk was also higher than the threshold value (10(-6)). For the onsite workers, the relatively apparent non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects were from Pb and Cr, respectively. The above findings suggest that fine-grained fly ash contained a considerable amount of heavy metals and exhibited a great health risk.

  10. An improved bonded-polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction fiber obtained by a sol-gel/silica particle blend.

    PubMed

    Azenha, Manuel; Nogueira, Pedro; Fernando-Silva, A

    2008-03-10

    A novel procedure for solid-phase microextraction fiber preparation is presented, which combines the use of a rigid titanium alloy wire as a substrate with a blend of PDMS sol-gel mixture/silica particles, as a way of increasing both the mechanical robustness and the extracting capability of the sol-gel fibers. The approximately 30 microm average thick fibers displayed an improvement in the extraction capacity as compared to the previous sol-gel PDMS fibers, due to a greater load of stable covalently bonded sol-gel PDMS. The observed extraction capacity was comparable to that of 100 microm non-bonded PDMS fiber, having in this case the advantages of the superior robustness and stability conferred, respectively, by the unbreakable substrate and the sol-gel intrinsic characteristics. Repeatability (n=3) ranged 1-8% while fiber production reproducibility (n=3) ranged 15-25%. The presence of the silica particles was found to have no direct influence on the kinetics and mechanism of the extraction process, thus being possible to consider the new procedure as a refinement of the previous ones. The applicability potential of the devised fiber was illustrated with the analysis of gasoline under the context of arson samples.

  11. Effects of Formulation Variables on the Particle Size and Drug Encapsulation of Imatinib-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Biki; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Pathak, Shiva; Tak, Jin Wook; Lee, Hee Hyun; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2016-06-01

    Imatinib (IMT), an anticancer agent, inhibits receptor tyrosine kinases and is characterized by poor aqueous solubility, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance. The aims of the current study are to prepare imatinib-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (IMT-SLN) and study the effects of associated formulation variables on particle size and drug encapsulation on IMT-SLN using an experimental design. IMT-SLN was optimized by use of a "combo" approach involving Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). PBD screening resulted in the determination of organic-to-aqueous phase ratio (O/A), drug-to-lipid ratio (D/L), and amount of Tween® 20 (Tw20) as three significant variables for particle size (S z), drug loading (DL), and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of IMT-SLN, which were used for optimization by BBD, yielding an optimized criteria of O/A = 0.04, D/L = 0.03, and Tw20 = 2.50% w/v. The optimized IMT-SLN exhibited monodispersed particles with a size range of 69.0 ± 0.9 nm, ζ-potential of -24.2 ± 1.2 mV, and DL and EE of 2.9 ± 0.1 and 97.6 ± 0.1% w/w, respectively. Results of in vitro release study showed a sustained release pattern, presumably by diffusion and erosion, with a higher release rate at pH 5.0, compared to pH 7.4. In conclusion, use of the combo experimental design approach enabled clear understanding of the effects of various formulation variables on IMT-SLN and aided in the preparation of a system which exhibited desirable physicochemical and release characteristics.

  12. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P A; Blank, H; Geiger, B; Mank, K; Martinov, S; Ryter, F; Weiland, M; Weller, A

    2015-07-01

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  13. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, P. A.; Blank, H.; Geiger, B.; Mank, K.; Martinov, S.; Ryter, F.; Weiland, M.; Weller, A.

    2015-07-15

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  14. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  15. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  16. Effects of microstructure on the erosion of Al-Si alloys ny solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y. W.; Sargent, G. A.; Conrad, H.

    1987-03-01

    The effects of microstructure on the erosion of Al-Si alloys by 40 μm Al2O3 particles were investigated. The impact angle dependence of the erosion rate of Al and the Al-Si alloys exhibited the ductile signature, whereas that for pure Si showed the brittle signature. The eroded surface of pure Al was characterized by craters, lips, overlaps and folds, and platelets; that for pure Si exhibited complex radial and lateral cracking at the impact site. At shallow impact angles these features were elongated in the direction of the tangential component of the velocity in both materials. The measured erosion rates of the Al-Si alloys were found to be in accord with an inverse rule of mixtures based on pure Al and pure Si; better agreement was, however, obtained if pure Al and the eutectic were taken as the two constituents for the hypoeutectic alloys, and pure Si and the eutectic for the hypereutectic alloys. The microstructure size had two effects: (a) scaling with respect to the impact damage zone size and (b) an influence on the physical and mechanical properties which govern material removal. The present results are considered in terms of current models for the erosion of ductile and brittle materials.

  17. A two-dimensional Segmented Boundary Algorithm for complex moving solid boundaries in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasanizade, Sh.; Sousa, J. M. M.

    2016-03-01

    A Segmented Boundary Algorithm (SBA) is proposed to deal with complex boundaries and moving bodies in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Boundaries are formed in this algorithm with chains of lines obtained from the decomposition of two-dimensional objects, based on simple line geometry. Various two-dimensional, viscous fluid flow cases have been studied here using a truly incompressible SPH method with the aim of assessing the capabilities of the SBA. Firstly, the flow over a stationary circular cylinder in a plane channel was analyzed at steady and unsteady regimes, for a single value of blockage ratio. Subsequently, the flow produced by a moving circular cylinder with a prescribed acceleration inside a plane channel was investigated as well. Next, the simulation of the flow generated by the impulsive start of a flat plate, again inside a plane channel, has been carried out. This was followed by the study of confined sedimentation of an elliptic body subjected to gravity, for various density ratios. The set of test cases was completed with the simulation of periodic flow around a sunflower-shaped object. Extensive comparisons of the results obtained here with published data have demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, namely in cases involving complex geometries and moving bodies.

  18. Small deletions in the potato leafroll virus readthrough protein affect particle morphology, aphid transmission, virus movement and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Peter, Kari A; Liang, Delin; Palukaitis, Peter; Gray, Stewart M

    2008-08-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) capsid comprises 180 coat protein (CP) subunits, with some percentage containing a readthrough domain (RTD) extension located on the particle's surface. The RTD N terminus is highly conserved in luteovirids and this study sought to identify biologically active sites within this region of the PLRV RTD. Fourteen three-amino-acid-deletion mutants were generated from a cloned infectious PLRV cDNA and delivered to plants by Agrobacterium inoculations. All mutant viruses accumulated locally in infiltrated tissues and expressed the readthrough protein (RTP) containing the CP and RTD sequences in plant tissues; however, when purified, only three mutant viruses incorporated the RTP into the virion. None of the mutant viruses were aphid transmissible, but the viruses persisted in aphids for a period sufficient to allow for virus transmission. Several mutant viruses were examined further for systemic infection in four host species. All mutant viruses, regardless of RTP incorporation, moved systemically in each host, although they accumulated at different rates in systemically infected tissues. The biological properties of the RTP are sensitive to modifications in both the RTD conserved and variable regions.

  19. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Kong, Ming; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin; Fan, Ying

    2015-12-10

    The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within -3%-8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  20. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Kong, Ming; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin; Fan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s. PMID:26690434

  1. Nanoscale science and engineering forum (706c) design of solid lipid particles with iron oxide quantum dots for the delivery of therapeutic agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid lipid particles provide a method to encapsulate and control the release of drugs in vivo but lack the imaging capability provided by CdS quantum dots. This shortcoming was addressed by combining these two technologies into a model system that uses iron oxide as a non-toxic imaging component in...

  2. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOEpatents

    Bulicz, Tytus R.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

  3. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

  4. Evaluation of solid particle number and black carbon for very low particulate matter emissions standards in light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Chang, M-C Oliver; Shields, J Erin

    2017-01-03

    To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1-mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, d50 = 23 nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass, as well as the variability of each of these metrics. More than 150 Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) tests were conducted on 46 light-duty vehicles, including port-fuel-injected and direct-injected gasoline vehicles, as well as several light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters (LDD/DPF). For FTP tests, emission variability of gravimetric PM mass was found to be slightly less than that of either SPN or BC, whereas the opposite was observed for US06 tests. Emission variability of PM mass for LDD/DPF was higher than that of both SPN and BC, primarily because of higher PM mass measurement uncertainties (background and precision) near or below 0.1 mg/mile. While strong correlations were observed from both SPN and BC to PM mass, the slopes are dependent on engine technologies and driving cycles, and the proportionality between the metrics can vary over the course of the test. Replacement of the LEV III PM mass emission standard with one other measurement metric may imperil the effectiveness of emission reduction, as a correlation-based relationship may evolve over future technologies for meeting stringent greenhouse standards.

  5. Time-Dependent Changes in Morphology and Composition of Solid Particles Collected From Heavy Water Electrolyte after Electrolysis with a Palladium Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, John; Wang, Q.

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we have observed particles floating on the surfaces of electrolytes after electrolysis, in four cells, each of which contained a heavy water electrolyte and a Pd cathode. Solid particles were unexpected from electrolysis, so it seemed important to characterize these particles. Cu grids were used to collect particles from the electrolyte surface. Then, a scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) and an energy dispersive spectrometer ( EDS ) were used to study the surfaces of these particles and to record time-dependent changes which were occurring. The morphology and composition of the particles were determined . After storage at ambient for 11 days, there were large changes in the morphology and composition of the particles. For example, one portion of the particles contained a large number of microspheres. A typical microsphere contained mostly carbon and palladium, whereas the matrix near the microsphere contained mostly palladium with less carbon and a significant amount of silver. One day later the same microsphere had increased carbon and reduced palladium, but there was no significant change in the composition of the matrix. Results for other particles from other cells will also be presented.

  6. Measuring and modeling solids movement in a large, cold fluidized bed test facility. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T. J.; Mrazek, R. V.; Crane, S. D.

    1980-03-01

    The plume model is developed to represent a tube-filled AFBC with large particles, in which air-entrained coal enters in a number of feed ports from below. It assumes that the volatiles are rapidly released from the coal at the feed entry ports to rise as plumes of combustible vapors. Graphs have been prepared to display the predictions of this model for narrow size cuts of a typical coal feed. For a feed of wide size distribution, use these single size charts and properly sum. The lowest carbon efficiency always comes with an intermediate size of feed coal, not with very large or very small feed sizes. Thus the coal feed to the AFBC should try to avoid this critical size. The plume behavior, whether it breaks the surface of the bed, the temperature jump above the bed, concentration variations across the bed, etc., are all governed by one dimensionless group HD/u/sub 0/L/sub 2//sup 2/, which depends primarily on the spacing of feed ports in the bed. For a given coal feed, the carbon efficiency depends only on superficial gas velocity in the bed, the excess air, and elutriation rate constant. A special case and simplification of this model views the coal as being uniformly distributed all over the bed before the volatiles are released. Here analysis is very much simpler, not involving plumes and no volatiles leaving the bed. This plumeless model should reasonably represent AFBC using large feed particles, introduced across the top of the bed and then rapidly mixed by large scale convective flow of solids. The analysis shows that, even in beds with plumes, the simpler plumeless model can be used with negligible error to calculate carbon efficiency; for volatile efficiency, temperature jumps and composition variations across the bed, the complete plume model must be used.

  7. Monte Carlo approach to calculate ionization dynamics of hot solid-density plasmas within particle-in-cell simulations.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; He, X T; Yu, W; Fritzsche, S

    2017-02-01

    A physical model based on a Monte Carlo approach is proposed to calculate the ionization dynamics of hot-solid-density plasmas within particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, and where the impact (collision) ionization (CI), electron-ion recombination (RE), and ionization potential depression (IPD) by surrounding plasmas are taken into consideration self-consistently. When compared with other models, which are applied in the literature for plasmas near thermal equilibrium, the temporal relaxation of ionization dynamics can also be simulated by the proposed model. Besides, this model is general and can be applied for both single elements and alloys with quite different compositions. The proposed model is implemented into a PIC code, with (final) ionization equilibriums sustained by competitions between CI and its inverse process (i.e., RE). Comparisons between the full model and model without IPD or RE are performed. Our results indicate that for bulk aluminium at temperature of 1 to 1000 eV, (i) the averaged ionization degree increases by including IPD; while (ii) the averaged ionization degree is significantly over estimated when the RE is neglected. A direct comparison from the PIC code is made with the existing models for the dependence of averaged ionization degree on thermal equilibrium temperatures and shows good agreements with that generated from Saha-Boltzmann model and/or FLYCHK code.

  8. Optimization of a PGSS (particles from gas saturated solutions) process for a fenofibrate lipid-based solid dispersion formulation.

    PubMed

    Pestieau, Aude; Krier, Fabrice; Lebrun, Pierre; Brouwers, Adeline; Streel, Bruno; Evrard, Brigitte

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation containing fenofibrate and Gelucire(®) 50/13 (Gattefossé, France) in order to improve the oral bioavailability of the drug. Particles from gas saturated solutions (PGSS) process was chosen for investigation as a manufacturing process for producing a solid dispersion. The PGSS process was optimized according to the in vitro drug dissolution profile obtained using a biphasic dissolution test. Using a design of experiments approach, the effects of nine experimental parameters were investigated using a PGSS apparatus provided by Separex(®) (Champigneulles, France). Within the chosen experimental conditions, the screening results showed that the drug loading level, the autoclave temperature and pressure, the connection temperature and the nozzle diameter had a significant influence on the dissolution profile of fenofibrate. During the optimization step, the three most relevant parameters were optimized using a central composite design, while other factors remained fixed. In this way, we were able to identify the optimal production conditions that would deliver the highest level of fenofibrate in the organic phase at the end of the dissolution test. The closeness between the measured and the predicted optimal dissolution profiles in the organic phase demonstrated the validity of the statistical analyses.

  9. N-methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles as adsorbents for solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid from genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Deng, Manchen; Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Li

    2013-04-10

    N-Methylimidazolium modified magnetic particles (MIm-MPs) were prepared and applied in the solid phase extraction of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from genetically modified soybeans. The adsorption of MIm-MPs for DNA mainly resulted from the strong electrostatic interaction between the positively charged MPs and the negatively charged DNA. The elution of DNA from MPs-DNA conjugates using phosphate buffer resulted from the stronger electrostatic interaction of phosphate ions with MPs than DNA. In the extraction procedure, no harmful reagents (e.g. phenol, chloroform and isopropanol, etc.) used, high yield (10.4 μg DNA per 30 mg sample) and high quality (A260/A280=1.82) of DNA can be realized. The as-prepared DNA was used as template for duplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were analyzed by a sieving capillary electrophoresis method. Quick and high quality extraction of DNA template, and fast and high resolution detection of duplex PCR products can be realized using the developed method. No toxic reagents are used throughout the method.

  10. Monte Carlo approach to calculate ionization dynamics of hot solid-density plasmas within particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D.; He, X. T.; Yu, W.; Fritzsche, S.

    2017-02-01

    A physical model based on a Monte Carlo approach is proposed to calculate the ionization dynamics of hot-solid-density plasmas within particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, and where the impact (collision) ionization (CI), electron-ion recombination (RE), and ionization potential depression (IPD) by surrounding plasmas are taken into consideration self-consistently. When compared with other models, which are applied in the literature for plasmas near thermal equilibrium, the temporal relaxation of ionization dynamics can also be simulated by the proposed model. Besides, this model is general and can be applied for both single elements and alloys with quite different compositions. The proposed model is implemented into a PIC code, with (final) ionization equilibriums sustained by competitions between CI and its inverse process (i.e., RE). Comparisons between the full model and model without IPD or RE are performed. Our results indicate that for bulk aluminium at temperature of 1 to 1000 eV, (i) the averaged ionization degree increases by including IPD; while (ii) the averaged ionization degree is significantly over estimated when the RE is neglected. A direct comparison from the PIC code is made with the existing models for the dependence of averaged ionization degree on thermal equilibrium temperatures and shows good agreements with that generated from Saha-Boltzmann model and/or FLYCHK code.

  11. Room-temperature storage of microalgae in water-in-oil emulsions: influence of solid particle type and concentration in the oil phase.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lorena; Scher, Herbert; Jeoh, Tina; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-12-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions containing silica nanoparticles (Aerosil R974) have the potential to stabilize microalgae for long-term storage. Studies were completed to determine if smectite clays could be used as an alternative to Aerosil R974. Emulsions were prepared with Aerosil R974, and hectorite and bentonite clays in the continuous phase and Chlorella sorokiniana was added to the aqueous phase to monitor the effects of solid particles on emulsion stability. Biological stability (cell viability) was determined using cell density measurements, and physical stability was measured from water droplet size distributions obtained by light scattering measurements and by examining phase separation over time. Measurements were also made to determine the effects of particles in the oil phase on emulsion viscosity. Particle concentrations greater than 0.25 wt% in the oil phase were required for maintaining physical stability. In emulsions containing 1 wt% solid particles and microalgae, biological stability of cells could be sustained for 340 days, regardless of particle type. At 1 wt% particles in the oil phase, apparent viscosity was 165% greater for samples containing hectorite and bentonite clays compared to samples containing Aerosil R974. The higher viscosity would need to be considered in large-scale production of emulsions for commercial application.

  12. Easy measurement and analysis method of zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility of water-dispersed colloidal particles by using a self-mixing solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, S.; Ohtomo, T.; Otsuka, K.

    2013-08-01

    We describe a highly sensitive method of measuring electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential of water-dispersed colloidal particles by using a self-mixing laser Doppler velocimeter with a laser-diode-pumped, thin-slice solid-state laser with extremely high optical sensitivity. The power spectra of laser output modulated by reinjected laser light scattered by the electrophoretic particles were observed. The power spectrum cannot be described by the well-known formula for translational motion or flowing Brownian motion, i.e., a combination of Doppler shift, diffusion, and translation. The power spectra shape is found to reflect the velocity distribution of electrophoretic particles in a capillary tube due to the electro-osmotic flow contribution. Not only evaluation of the electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential but also the particle diameter undergoing electrophoretic motion can be performed from the shape of the power spectrum.

  13. Direct numerical simulation of gas-solid-liquid flows with capillary effects: An application to liquid bridge forces between spherical particles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaosong; Sakai, Mikio

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a numerical method is developed to perform the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of gas-solid-liquid flows involving capillary effects. The volume-of-fluid method employed to track the free surface and the immersed boundary method is adopted for the fluid-particle coupling in three-phase flows. This numerical method is able to fully resolve the hydrodynamic force and capillary force as well as the particle motions arising from complicated gas-solid-liquid interactions. We present its application to liquid bridges among spherical particles in this paper. By using the DNS method, we obtain the static bridge force as a function of the liquid volume, contact angle, and separation distance. The results from the DNS are compared with theoretical equations and other solutions to examine its validity and suitability for modeling capillary bridges. Particularly, the nontrivial liquid bridges formed in triangular and tetrahedral particle clusters are calculated and some preliminary results are reported. We also perform dynamic simulations of liquid bridge ruptures subject to axial stretching and particle motions driven by liquid bridge action, for which accurate predictions are obtained with respect to the critical rupture distance and the equilibrium particle position, respectively. As shown through the simulations, the strength of the present method is the ability to predict the liquid bridge problem under general conditions, from which models of liquid bridge actions may be constructed without limitations. Therefore, it is believed that this DNS method can be a useful tool to improve the understanding and modeling of liquid bridges formed in complex gas-solid-liquid flows.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of gas-solid-liquid flows with capillary effects: An application to liquid bridge forces between spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaosong; Sakai, Mikio

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a numerical method is developed to perform the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of gas-solid-liquid flows involving capillary effects. The volume-of-fluid method employed to track the free surface and the immersed boundary method is adopted for the fluid-particle coupling in three-phase flows. This numerical method is able to fully resolve the hydrodynamic force and capillary force as well as the particle motions arising from complicated gas-solid-liquid interactions. We present its application to liquid bridges among spherical particles in this paper. By using the DNS method, we obtain the static bridge force as a function of the liquid volume, contact angle, and separation distance. The results from the DNS are compared with theoretical equations and other solutions to examine its validity and suitability for modeling capillary bridges. Particularly, the nontrivial liquid bridges formed in triangular and tetrahedral particle clusters are calculated and some preliminary results are reported. We also perform dynamic simulations of liquid bridge ruptures subject to axial stretching and particle motions driven by liquid bridge action, for which accurate predictions are obtained with respect to the critical rupture distance and the equilibrium particle position, respectively. As shown through the simulations, the strength of the present method is the ability to predict the liquid bridge problem under general conditions, from which models of liquid bridge actions may be constructed without limitations. Therefore, it is believed that this DNS method can be a useful tool to improve the understanding and modeling of liquid bridges formed in complex gas-solid-liquid flows.

  15. Direct and Rapid Analysis of the Adhesion of Bacteria to Solid Surfaces: Interaction of Fluorescently Labeled Rhodococcus Strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) Cells with Titanium-Rich Particles

    PubMed Central

    Fleminger, G.; Shabtai, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fluorimetric assay which enables direct and accurate analysis of the adhesion of bacteria to solid particles was developed. The assay is based on labeling of the bacteria with fluorescamine, which reacts with primary amino groups on the cell surface to yield a yellow fluorescence that is easily detectable by both fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. As an example, fluorescent labeling of Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) cells enabled the detection and quantitative determination of their adsorption to TiO(inf2) and coal fly ash particles. Exposure of the cells to 10% acetone during the labeling reaction affected neither their viability nor their ability to adhere to these particles. Only a small fraction (^sim2%) of the total cell protein was labeled by fluorescamine upon staining of intact bacterial cells, which may indicate preferential labeling of certain proteins. Specificity studies carried out with the fluorescence assay confirmed previous findings that Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 cells possess high affinities for TiO(inf2), ZnO, and coal fly ash and low affinities for other metal oxides. In principle, the newly developed fluorimetric assay may be used for determination of cell adhesion to any solid matrix by either microscopic examination or epifluorescence measurements. In the present work, the adhesion of several other microorganisms to TiO(inf2) particles was tested as well, but their ability to adhere to these particles was significantly lower than that of Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 cells. PMID:16535188

  16. Direct and Rapid Analysis of the Adhesion of Bacteria to Solid Surfaces: Interaction of Fluorescently Labeled Rhodococcus Strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) Cells with Titanium-Rich Particles.

    PubMed

    Fleminger, G; Shabtai, Y

    1995-12-01

    A fluorimetric assay which enables direct and accurate analysis of the adhesion of bacteria to solid particles was developed. The assay is based on labeling of the bacteria with fluorescamine, which reacts with primary amino groups on the cell surface to yield a yellow fluorescence that is easily detectable by both fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. As an example, fluorescent labeling of Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) cells enabled the detection and quantitative determination of their adsorption to TiO(inf2) and coal fly ash particles. Exposure of the cells to 10% acetone during the labeling reaction affected neither their viability nor their ability to adhere to these particles. Only a small fraction (;sim2%) of the total cell protein was labeled by fluorescamine upon staining of intact bacterial cells, which may indicate preferential labeling of certain proteins. Specificity studies carried out with the fluorescence assay confirmed previous findings that Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 cells possess high affinities for TiO(inf2), ZnO, and coal fly ash and low affinities for other metal oxides. In principle, the newly developed fluorimetric assay may be used for determination of cell adhesion to any solid matrix by either microscopic examination or epifluorescence measurements. In the present work, the adhesion of several other microorganisms to TiO(inf2) particles was tested as well, but their ability to adhere to these particles was significantly lower than that of Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 cells.

  17. Effect of Variable Solvents on Particle Size of Geranium Oil-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle (Ge-SLN) For Mosquito Repellent Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asnawi, Syalwati; Aziz, Azila A.; Aziz, Ramlan A.

    2009-06-01

    A new delivery system for insect repellent is proposed by the incorporation of geranium oil into solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN). A variety of solvents which act as co-surfactants, were introduced to increase the particle size of GE-SLN. Ethanol, which has a high boiling point and a long chain alcohol produced larger particle than dichloromethane. The structure of SLN was not stable when methanol and acetone were used as co-solvents. Concentration of solvents can also influence the size of SLN. In vitro release experiments showed that SLN was able to reduce the rapid evaporation of geranium oil.

  18. Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere: Detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Brogniez, Colette; Berthet, GwenaëL.; Bourgeois, Quentin; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Chartier, Michel; Balois, Jean-Yves; Verwaerde, Christian; Auriol, FréDéRique; Francois, Philippe; Daugeron, Daniel; Engrand, CéCile

    2008-11-01

    Stratospheric aerosols play a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. In the past, it was assumed that only liquid droplets are present in the stratosphere. Nevertheless, a few lidar measurements have shown that sudden enhancement of aerosol content in the middle stratosphere could be due to meteoritic debris. Aircraft measurements have shown that solid particles can be found in the lower stratosphere; these particles are mainly soot, but also include some interplanetary material. In order to better document the various characteristics of aerosols in the unperturbed stratosphere (i.e., free of volcanic aerosols), we have performed observations using different balloon-borne instruments (Stratospheric and Tropospheric Aerosol Counter (STAC), Spectroscopie d'Absorption Lunaire pour l'Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (SALOMON), and Micro Radiomètre Ballon (MicroRADIBAL)) and also some satellite data (Global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars Envisat (GOMOS-Envisat)). These instruments allow us to obtain the number of particles in different size classes, the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction, and the radiance of the light scattered by aerosols. Combining all the data together, it appears that significant amounts of particles are ubiquitous in the middle stratosphere, above the canonical sulfate aerosol layer. "Background" interplanetary dusts in low concentration are likely present in the stratosphere. Above 30 km, interplanetary dust and largest grains from meteoroid disintegration dominate. Although the disintegration of meteoroids occurs in the upper stratosphere or in the mesosphere at all latitudes, these solid aerosols can be transported to the polar regions by the general circulation and can descend into the middle and lower stratosphere during winter mesospheric descents. Between about 22 km and 30 km, soot particles contribute to the population of aerosols at all latitudes. These soot, likely originating from biomass burning at

  19. Fabrication of a composite colloidal particle with unusual Janus structure as a high-performance solid emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaohui; Guan, Yinyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Qiu, Dong

    2012-08-28

    Core-shell particles with cross-linked core and shell were used as seed particles to produce composite Janus particles. It was found that when the shell has distinctly higher cross-linking degree than the core, Janus particles with very unusual structures can be obtained. These particles have two parts, with one part embraced partially or entirely by the other part, adjustable by parameters such as phase ratio or cross-linking degree. On the basis of experimental observations, a possible mechanism for the formation of such unusual Janus particles has been proposed. Janus particles with arms are used to emulsify water-toluene mixtures, forming oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions at very high internal phase content with rather low concentration of particles. Nonspherical emulsion droplets were observed, indicating that these Janus particles are likely to jam at the interface, forming a strong protecting layer to stabilize emulsions.

  20. Study of adsorption of detergent-dispersion additives on solid particles dispersed in oil using the method of electrical conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Waligora, B.; Buczak, H.; Olszewska, A.; Szeglowski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    By measuring electrical conductivity of paraffin oil solutions in isooctane (1:1 by volume) the variation in concentration of detergent-dispersant additives is studied; this variation is caused by their adsorption on solid particles (carbon black, aluminum powder). It is shown that dispersants have an improved ability to undergo adsorption, compared with detergents. Studies of adsorption of additives on model sorbents may be used to develop tests for evaluating additive properties. 7 references, 4 figures.

  1. Self-similar solution of cylindrical shock wave propagation in a rotational axisymmetric mixture of a non-ideal gas and small solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Gorakh

    Similarity solutions are obtained for one-dimensional isothermal and adiabatic unsteady flow behind a strong cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas, which has a variable azimuthal fluid velocity together with a variable axial fluid velocity. The experimental studies and astrophysical observations show that the outer atmosphere of the planets rotates due to rotation of the planets. Macroscopic motion with supersonic speed occurs in an interplanetary atmosphere and shock waves are generated. Thus rotation of planets or stars significantly affect the process taking place in their outer layers, therefore question connected with the explosions in rotating gas atmospheres are of definite astrophysical interest. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-condition is maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The shock Mach number is not infinite, but has a finite value. The azimuthal and axial component of the fluid velocity in the ambient medium are assume to be vary and obey power laws, and the density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. In order to obtain the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assume to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. Effects of the variation of the parameter of non-idealness of the gas in the mixture, the mass concentration of solid particles and the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas are investigated.

  2. Microstructures of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials fabricated by centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in situ method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Zhou, Qi; Sato, Hisashi; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Inamura, Tomonari

    2017-01-01

    Methods of fabrication by centrifugal casting for functionally graded materials (FGMs) can be classified into two categories on the basis of the relationship between the process temperature and the liquidus temperature of a master alloy. They are the centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in situ method, which could be carried out at process temperatures lower and higher than the liquidus temperature of the master alloy, respectively. In a previous study, it was found that the microstructures of Al-Al3Ti FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal in situ method processed at 1600 °C were different from those fabricated by the centrifugal solid-particle method processed at 800 °C. Although it is expected that the FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal in situ method processed at approximately the liquidus temperature should show extraordinary microstructures, those microstructures have not been observed. In this study, the microstructures of Al-Al3Ti FGMs fabricated at 1000 °C (centrifugal solid-particle method) and 1200 °C (centrifugal in situ method) were investigated.

  3. Comparison between Synthesized Lead Particles and Lead Solids Formed on Surfaces in Real Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to compare the properties of lead solids formed during bench-scale precipitation experiments to solids found on lead pipe removed from real drinking water distribution systems and metal coupons used in pilot scale corrosion testing. Specifically, so...

  4. Thermally driven metastable solid-solution Li0.5FePO4 in nanosized particles and its phase separation behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sunyoung; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2013-10-01

    Nanosized LiFePO4 particles easily show a fast electrochemical response that can be achieved via a non-equilibrium pathway. To understand this intriguing phase transition behavior in nanosized LiFePO4 particles, the metastable solid-solution phase was prepared by thermal treatment with a chemically delithiated nanosized Li0.5FePO4 sample. Thermal treatment makes all the nanosized particles transform easily to the metastable solid-solution phase because of the large thermal energy while an electrochemical reaction does not. The phase separation behavior of the metastable solid-solution sample (Li0.5FePO4) was investigated under various kinetic conditions to understand critical factors affecting the phase separation behavior of nanosized LiFePO4 particles. The main findings in this study are as follows. The first finding is that the depressed phase separation behavior of the metastable phase may originate from the nanoparticle effect, in which the formation of a second phase inside a nanosized particle is not energetically favored because of the large interfacial energy. Therefore, phase separation in nanosized particles occurs between particles rather than inside a particle. If there was no over-potential, such as in the relaxed pellet experiment or in the relaxed electrode experiment in the electrolyte, the metastable phase was quite stable showing no phase separation behavior even though efficient pathways for lithium ions and electrons were well developed. The second finding is that the phase separation behavior of the metastable phase actually depends on the over-potential. Under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions, the metastable phase started to exhibit a slight structural change during a long relaxation time, about ten days. The slow change of the metastable phase may be due to the low driving force, less than 10 mV, which comes from the energetic difference between the two-phase state and the metastable phase. This indicates that the phase separation

  5. Thermally driven metastable solid-solution Li(0.5)FePO4 in nanosized particles and its phase separation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sunyoung; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2013-10-25

    Nanosized LiFePO4 particles easily show a fast electrochemical response that can be achieved via a non-equilibrium pathway. To understand this intriguing phase transition behavior in nanosized LiFePO4 particles, the metastable solid-solution phase was prepared by thermal treatment with a chemically delithiated nanosized Li0.5FePO4 sample. Thermal treatment makes all the nanosized particles transform easily to the metastable solid-solution phase because of the large thermal energy while an electrochemical reaction does not. The phase separation behavior of the metastable solid-solution sample (Li0.5FePO4) was investigated under various kinetic conditions to understand critical factors affecting the phase separation behavior of nanosized LiFePO4 particles. The main findings in this study are as follows. The first finding is that the depressed phase separation behavior of the metastable phase may originate from the nanoparticle effect, in which the formation of a second phase inside a nanosized particle is not energetically favored because of the large interfacial energy. Therefore, phase separation in nanosized particles occurs between particles rather than inside a particle. If there was no over-potential, such as in the relaxed pellet experiment or in the relaxed electrode experiment in the electrolyte, the metastable phase was quite stable showing no phase separation behavior even though efficient pathways for lithium ions and electrons were well developed. The second finding is that the phase separation behavior of the metastable phase actually depends on the over-potential. Under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions, the metastable phase started to exhibit a slight structural change during a long relaxation time, about ten days. The slow change of the metastable phase may be due to the low driving force, less than 10 mV, which comes from the energetic difference between the two-phase state and the metastable phase. This indicates that the phase separation

  6. Effects of hydrodynamic retardation and interparticle interactions on the self-assembly in a drying droplet containing suspended solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebovka, N. I.; Khrapatiy, S.; Melnyk, R.; Vygornitskii, M.

    2014-05-01

    Self-assembly of particles, suspended in a drying droplet, were studied by the Monte Carlo method. The Brownian diffusion of particles was simulated accounting for the effect of hydrodynamic retardation and interparticle interactions. The model allowed for explaining formation of the "coffee ring" patterns even without accounting for the radial flows towards the three-phase contact line. Morphologies of the drying patterns and their dependence on interparticle interactions and concentration of particles are discussed.

  7. Solid-particle erosion in the tube end of the tube sheet of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, M. A.; Badr, H. M.; Said, S. A. M.; Ben-Mansour, R.; Al-Anizi, S. S.

    2006-03-01

    Erosion is one of the major problems in many industrial processes, and in particular, in heat exchangers. The effects of flow velocity and sand particle size on the rate of erosion in a typical shell-and-tube heat exchanger were investigated numerically using the Lagrangian particle-tracking method. Erosion and penetration rates were obtained for sand particles of diameters ranging from 10 to 500 μm and for inlet flow velocities ranging from 0.197 to 2.95 m/s. A flow visualization experiment was conducted with the objective of verifying the accuracy of the continuous phase calculation procedure. Comparison with available experimental data of penetration rates was also conducted. These comparisons resulted in a good agreement. The results show that the location and number of eroded tubes depend mainly on the particle size and velocity magnitude at the header inlet. The rate of erosion depends exponentially on the velocity. The particle size shows negligible effect on the erosion rate at high velocity values and the large-size particles show less erosion rates compared to the small-size particles at low values of inlet flow velocities. The results indicated that the erosion and penetration rates are insignificant at the lower end of the velocity range. However, these rates were found to increase continuously with the increase of the inlet flow velocity for all particle sizes. The particle size creating the highest erosion rate was found to depend on the flow velocity range.

  8. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  9. Movement - uncontrollable

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral nervous system References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders: diagnosis and assessment. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  10. Determination of the Cd-bearing phases in municipal solid waste and biomass single fly ash particles using SR-microXRF spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Camerani, Maria Caterina; Somogyi, Andrea; Vekemans, Bart; Ansell, Stuart; Simionovici, Alexandre S; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Panas, Itai

    2007-09-01

    By using an excitation energy of 27.0 keV, synchrotron radiation-induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-microXRF) is employed to extract information regarding the composition and distribution of Cd-bearing phases in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biomass fly ashes. Significance of observation is based on statistics of totally more than 100 individual MSW and biomass fly ash particles from a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant. Cd concentrations in the parts-per-million range are determined. In general, although previous leaching studies have indicated Cd to be predominant in the smaller-size ash particles, in the present study Cd is more evenly distributed throughout all the particle sizes. For MSW fly ashes, results indicate the presence of Cd mainly as CdBr2 hot-spots, whereas for biomass fly ashes, which exhibit lower CdX2 concentration, a thin Cd layer on/in the particles is reported. For both ashes, Ca-containing matrixes are found to be the main Cd-bearing phases. Support for this observation is found from independent first-principles periodic density functional theory calculations. The observations are condensed into a schematic mechanism for Cd adsorption on the fly ash particles.

  11. Propagation of a spherical shock wave in mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Gorakh

    Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind a spherical shock wave propagating in a dusty gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes under a gravitational field. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-conditions are maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is express in terms of Fourier’s law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The medium is assumed to be under a gravitational field due to heavy nucleus at the origin (Roche Model). The unsteady model of Roche consists of a dusty gas distributed with spherical symmetry around a nucleus having large mass It is assumed that the gravitational effect of the mixture itself can be neglected compared with the attraction of the heavy nucleus. The density of the ambient medium is taken to be constant. Our analysis reveals that after inclusion of gravitational field effect surprisingly the shock strength increases and remarkable difference can be found in the distribution of flow variables. The effects of the variation of the heat transfer parameters, the gravitational parameter and non-idealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. Also, the effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are investigated. It is found that the shock strength is increased with an increase in the value of gravitational parameter. Further, it is investigated that the presence of gravitational field increases the

  12. In-line continuous sizing of biomass particles in gas-solid two-phase flow at a biomass-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Yan, Y.; Sun, D.; Qian, X.; Xu, C. L.

    2014-04-01

    Gas-solid two-phase flows are widely seen in many industrial processes. A good exampleis the pneumatically conveyed pulverised fuel flow in the power generation industry. As a significant renewable fuel source, biomass has been widely adopted in electrical power generation. The particle size distribution of pneumatically conveyed biomass correlates closely with combustion efficiency and pollutant emissions and should therefore be monitored on anin-line, continuous basis. In this paper an integrated instrumentation system using both a piezoelectric sensorand anelectrostatic sensor arrayis proposed to measure the size distribution and flow velocity of biomass particles. A prototype system was tested on a 250mm bore pipe at a biomass-fired power plantand its performance has been evaluated under industrial conditions.

  13. Faxén relations in solids-a generalized approach to particle motion in elasticity and viscoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Norris, Andrew N

    2008-01-01

    A movable inclusion in an elastic material oscillates as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom. Displacement/rotation and force/moment tensors which express the motion of the inclusion in terms of the displacement and force at arbitrary exterior points are introduced. Using reciprocity arguments two general identities are derived relating these tensors. Applications of the identities to spherical particles provide several new results, including simple expressions for the force and moment on the particle due to plane wave excitation.

  14. The n-particle picture and the calculation of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids

    SciTech Connect

    Gonis, A.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Schulthess, T.C.; Ek, J. van

    1997-08-01

    The works referred to above indicate the usefulness of viewing an N-particle system from a higher-dimensional perspective. In doing so, one should attempt to strike a balance between conceptual clarity and computational efficiency, which mitigates against considering calculations in 3n-dimensional space except for rather small values of n. It appears that such a procedure may be profitably employed if a system of N particles were to be considered as consisting of a collection of units or sets, (I{sub k}), each containing n{sub k} particles so that {Sigma}{sub k} n{sub k} = N. The resulting problem associated with these sets of particles that interact with one another is obviously formally identical to the original one. However, it possesses the formal advantage of allowing, in principle, the systematic approach to an exact solution by treating the entire system as a single unit. The operative words here are in principle, as practical applications do not seem to be possible but for the smallest number of particles in a unit, say n = 2 or n = 3. However, in such an implementation, the interparticle correlation is treated directly and explicitly within a unit, resulting in a more accurate treatment of the system the larger the number of particle in a unit.

  15. Airborne measurements of cloud-forming nuclei and aerosol particles in stabilized ground clouds produced by solid rocket booster firings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E., II; Ala, G. G.; Parungo, F. P.; Willis, P. T.; Bendura, R. J.; Woods, D.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne measurements of cloud volumes, ice nuclei and cloud condensation nuclei, liquid particles, and aerosol particles were obtained from stabilized ground clouds (SGCs) produced by Titan 3 launches at Kennedy Space Center, 20 August and 5 September 1977. The SGCs were bright, white, cumulus clouds early in their life and contained up to 3.5 g/m3 of liquid in micron to millimeter size droplets. The measured cloud volumes were 40 to 60 cu km five hours after launch. The SGCs contained high concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei active at 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% supersaturation for periods of three to five hours. The SGCs also contained high concentrations of submicron particles. Three modes existed in the particle population: a 0.05 to 0.1 micron mode composed of aluminum-containing particles, a 0.2 to 0.8 micron mode, and a 2.0 to 10 micron mode composed of particles that contained primarily aluminum.

  16. Forensic analysis of a single particle of partially burnt gunpowder by solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detector.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Garrett Lee; Gonzalez, Brittney; Simons, Kelsie; Yu, Jorn C C

    2009-05-29

    Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was adopted to extract organic gun shot residues (OGSRs) from a single particle of partially burnt gunpowder. The partially burnt particle samples were collected from gun shot residue (GSR) deposited near the target areas. OGSRs, such as diphenylamine (DPA), methyl centralite (MC), ethyl centralite (EC), from only one single particle of partially burnt gunpowder were successfully extracted by SPME and analyzed by a gas chromatography coupled to a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). The results confirmed that the new extraction procedure is capable of extracting trace amount of MC and EC as signature molecules for the identification of GSR. The method represents a solvent-free extraction as a complementary analytical procedure for the forensic analysis of GSR-related evidences. The new extraction scheme with the capability of analyzing single particle of partially burnt gunpowder can also be applied to the identification of explosive residues, such as in post-blast investigations of improvised explosive devices.

  17. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  18. A study of the nature of solid particle impact and shape on the erosion morphology of ductile metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Young, S. G.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Impulsive versus steady jet impingement of spherical glass bead particles on metal surfaces was studied using a gas gun facility and a commercial sand blasting apparatus. Crushed glass particles were also used in the sand blasting apparatus as well as glass beads. Comparisons of the different types of erosion patterns were made. Scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis were used to characterize erosion patterns. The nature of the wear can be divided into cutting and deformation, each with its own characteristic features. Surface chemistry analysis indicates the possibility of complex chemical and/or mechanical interactions between erodants and target materials.

  19. Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction based on self-assembling, ionic liquid-coated magnetic particles for the determination of clofentezine and chlorfenapyr in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bing; Zhang, Jiaheng; Lu, Runhua; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang

    2013-11-21

    Two ionic liquid-coated-Fe3O4 magnetic particles (IL-Fe3O4 MPs) were developed for use in two types of dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) for the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of clofentezine and chlorfenapyr in environmental water samples. Self-assembling IL-Fe3O4 MPs were used in D-μ-SPE as adsorbents. Two D-μ-SPE extraction methods, namely, direct dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (d-D-μ-SPE) and in situ solvent formation-based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (ISF-D-μ-SPE), were proposed, using [C8MIM][PF6] to extract analytes through two pathways. Lower IL doses were required in the extraction process compared with those in other IL-based methods. Fe3O4 MPs can also be recycled and reused after extraction and are thus environmentally friendly. These newly developed methods were demonstrated to be feasible for use in the quantitation of clofentezine and chlorfenapyr at trace levels, with lower limit of detection values ranging from 0.4 to 0.5 ng mL(-1) for d-D-μ-SPE and 0.4 ng mL(-1) for ISF-D-μ-SPE. Finally, relative standard deviations of less than 6.0% were obtained.

  20. Cellular uptake of beta-carotene from protein stabilized solid lipid nano-particles prepared by homogenization-evaporation method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a homogenization-evaporation method, beta-carotene (BC) loaded nano-particles were prepared with different ratios of food-grade sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or soy protein isolate (SPI) to BC and evaluated for their physiochemical stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and cel...

  1. Thermophysical properties of gases, liquids, and solids composed of particles interacting with a short-range attractive potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Siegfried; Kröger, Martin

    2001-07-01

    A short-range polynomial interaction potential is introduced which has both a repulsive core and an attractive part. It is cut off smoothly such that its first and second derivatives vanish at the cutoff distance. The potential therefore enables efficient simulation studies of a model material that exhibits similarities to a full (but computationally expensive) classical Lennard-Jones system. Thermophysical properties of the model are calculated by (nonequilibrium) molecular dynamics computer simulations and compared with analytical results. Among the quantities studied is the pressure as a function of the density for various temperatures. Equations of state for the fluid and the solid are tested. The coexistence of gaseous, (metastable) liquid, and fcc solid phases is found for a range of temperatures. Bulk and shear moduli are computed. The response of the system to a shear deformation with a constant shear rate is analyzed. The liquid shows viscoelastic behavior that can be described with a Maxwell model. The solid behaves as an elastic medium up to a finite deformation and then undergoes a transition to plastic flow, which is stick-slip-like at small shear rates and continuous at higher ones.

  2. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOEpatents

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  3. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Sato, Yoshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    The study of chloroplast movement made a quantum leap at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Research based on reverse-genetic approaches using targeted mutants has brought new concepts to this field. One of the most exciting findings has been the discovery of photoreceptors for both accumulation and avoidance responses in Arabidopsis and in the fern Adiantum. Evidence for the adaptive advantage of chloroplast avoidance movements in plant survival has also been found. Additional discoveries include mechano-stress-induced chloroplast movement in ferns and mosses, and microtubule-mediated chloroplast movement in the moss Physcomitrella. The possible ecological significance of chloroplast movement is discussed in the final part of this review.

  4. Characterization of solid state nuclear track detectors of the polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39/PM-355) type for light charged particle spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowska, A. Jaskóła, M.; Korman, A.; Kuk, M.; Szydłowski, A.

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a method which uses the characteristics of the etch pits induced in a polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate (PADC) detector of the CR-39/PM-355 type to estimate particle energy. This method is based on the data provided by a semiautomatic system that selects tracks according to two parameters, crater diameters, and mean gray level values. In this paper we used the results of the calibration measurements that were obtained in our laboratory in the period 2000–2014. Combining the information on the two parameters it is possible to determine unambiguously the incident projectile energy values. The paper presents the results of an attempt to estimate the energy resolution of the method when analyzing the tracks produced in the CR-39/PM-355 detector by energetic ions such as alpha particles, protons, and deuterons. We discuss the energy resolution of the measurement of light charged particle energy which is based on the parameters (crater diameter and mean gray level value) of tracks induced in solid state nuclear track detectors of the PADC type.

  5. Simulations of groundwater-surface water interaction and particle movement due to the effect of weir construction in the sub-watershed of the river Labe in the town of Děčín.

    PubMed

    Matula, S; Mekonnen, G B; Báťková, K; Nešetřil, K

    2014-11-01

    Steady- and transient-state simulations of groundwater flow and particle movement in the sub-watershed of the river Labe in Děčín town was carried out using Visual MODFLOW software. The simulations were performed for calibration and for the scenarios that the change in the water level of the river Labe was undergoing. Steady-state simulation was carried out for the sake of calibration of model outputs. For transient simulation, two different scenarios were considered in order to investigate the response of the aquifer system to the stresses applied on surface water of the river. The simulation results have shown that the surface water and groundwater interactions, and the subsequent particle movement were affected by the stresses applied on the surface water in the river Labe. The first scenario involved the rapid recharge of surface water to the aquifer in the vicinity of the river while particles still move towards the river at the places far away from the river. At the end of the second scenario, particles still tend to move towards the river slowly and finally tend to stay within the aquifer as equilibrium of hydraulic gradient is reached between the surface and groundwater levels. The time series graphs of hydraulic heads at all observation wells show that the groundwater level in the surrounding aquifer rises significantly as a result of recharges from the river. The local water balance of the study area was calculated and expressed as the rates of water entering and leaving the system. At the end of the second scenario, the difference between the rate of flow into and out of the model area was 0.73 m(3) day(-1).

  6. Chemical compositions of solid particles present in the Greenland NEEM ice core over the last 110,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyabu, Ikumi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Fischer, Hubertus; Schüpbach, Simon; Gfeller, Gideon; Svensson, Anders; Fukui, Manabu; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Hansson, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of particles present along Greenland's North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core, back to 110,000 years before present. Insoluble and soluble particles larger than 0.45 µm were extracted from the ice core by ice sublimation, and their chemical composition was analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We show that the dominant insoluble components are silicates, whereas NaCl, Na2SO4, CaSO4, and CaCO3 represent major soluble salts. For the first time, particles of CaMg(CO3)2 and Ca(NO3)2•4H2O are identified in a Greenland ice core. The chemical speciation of salts varies with past climatic conditions. Whereas the fraction of Na salts (NaCl + Na2SO4) exceeds that of Ca salts (CaSO4 + CaCO3) during the Holocene (0.6-11.7 kyr B.P.), the two fractions are similar during the Bølling-Allerød period (12.9-14.6 kyr B.P.). During cold climate such as over the Younger Dryas (12.0-12.6 kyr B.P.) and the Last Glacial Maximum (15.0-26.9 kyr B.P.), the fraction of Ca salts exceeds that of Na salts, showing that the most abundant ion generally controls the salt budget in each period. High-resolution analyses reveal changing particle compositions: those in Holocene ice show seasonal changes, and those in LGM ice show a difference between cloudy bands and clear layers, which again can be largely explained by the availability of ionic components in the atmospheric aerosol body of air masses reaching Greenland.

  7. HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING OF SOLIDS THROUGH SOLAR NEBULAR BOW SHOCKS: 3D RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS WITH PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Desch, S. J.

    2013-10-20

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H{sub 2} is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ∼few× 10{sup –8} L{sub ☉}. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.

  8. Angularly-resolved elastic scatter from single particles collected over a large solid angle and with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Chang, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Elastic light scattering from a single non-spherical particle of various morphologies has been measured simultaneously with a large angular range (90° < θ < 165° and 0° < phi < 360°) and with high angular resolution (1024 pixels in θ and 512 pixels in phi). Because the single-shot laser pulse is short (pulse duration of 70 ns), the tumbling and flowing particle can be treated as frozen in space. The large angle two-dimensional angular optical scattering (hereafter referred to as LA TAOS) intensity pattern, I(θ,phi), has been measured for a variety of particle morphology, such as the following: (1) single polystyrene latex (PSL) sphere; (2) cluster of PSL spheres; (3) single Bacillus subtilis (BG) spore; (4) cluster of BG spores; (5) dried aggregates of bio-aerosols as well as background clutter aerosols. All these measurements were made using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (0.532 μm). Islands structures in the LA TAOS patterns seem to be the prominent feature. Efforts are being made to extract metrics from these islands and compare them to theoretical results based on the T-matrix method.

  9. Two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction study of liquid/solid fraction and solid particle size in Fe-C binary system with an electrostatic levitator furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, M.; Okada, J.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nanao, S.; Shobu, T.; Toyokawa, H.

    2013-03-01

    Liquid state provides functions such as matter transport or a reaction field and plays an important role in manufacturing processes such as refining, forging or welding. However, experimental procedures are significantly difficult for an observation of solidification process of iron and iron-based alloys in order to identify rapid transformations subjected to fast temperature evolution. Therefore, in order to study the solidification in iron and iron-based alloys, we considered a combination of high energy X-ray diffraction measurements and an electrostatic levitation method (ESL). In order to analyze the liquid/solid fraction, the solidification of melted spherical specimens was measured at a time resolution of 0.1 seconds during rapid cooling using the two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the observation of particle sizes and phase identification was performed on a trial basis using X-ray small angle scattering with X-ray diffraction.

  10. Magnetic hysteresis properties, Mössbauer spectra and structural data of spherical 250 nm particles of solid solutions Fe3O4- γ- Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidbauer, E.; Keller, M.

    2006-02-01

    Magnetic hysteresis, 57Fe Mössbauer and X-ray data are presented for spherical 250 nm particles of solid solutions in the spinel system Fe3O4- γ- Fe2O3 ( Fe3-u□uO4, 0⩽u⩽1/3 ( □=cation vacancy)). For dispersed particles, the composition of u˜0.24 exhibits maxima of coercive force Hc˜25 kA/m, relative saturation remanence σrs/σs˜0.3, switching field distribution HSFD˜100 kA/m and of anhysteretic remanence susceptibility at room temperature. The experimental results point to single domain particles with non-homogeneous magnetization mode or to a magnetization mode intermediate between single domain and two domain particles. The maxima are probably a consequence of the superposed action of (i) Fe—single ion anisotropy and (ii) microstresses. Mössbauer spectra were used to analyse the cation distribution on A- and B-sites of the spinel lattice. The experimental data were found to disagree with the cation distribution according to a formula used in the literature for Mössbauer analysis. From X-ray diffractograms, lattice parameters a0 and intensity of superstructure reflections, due to ordering of □ in the spinel lattice, were determined as a function of the □ concentration u. The reflections are in agreement with a tetragonal cell with c0/a0=3 which has been frequently observed for γ- Fe2O3 ( u={1}/{3}) in the literature.

  11. Ultrathin SmCo5 nanoflakes with high-coercivity prepared by solid particle (NaCl) and surfactant co-assisted ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Wen-Liang; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Tong-Yun; Hu, Feng-Xia; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen

    2016-05-01

    The ultrathin SmCo5 nanoflakes with average thickness smaller than 50 nm are prepared by a novel method of solid particle (NaCl) and surfactant co-assisted ball milling. The as-prepared nanoflakes exhibit a narrower thickness distribution of 10–50 nm and high coercivity of 23 kOe. The possible formation mechanism of nanoflakes are proposed. Temperature dependence of demagnetization curves indicate that the magnetization reversal may be controlled by both nucleation and pinning. The results of X-ray powder diffraction and magnetic measurement for aligned SmCo5 nanoflakes resin composite indicate that the nanoflakes have a high texture degree. The ultrathin thickness and high coercivity are beneficial for preparing the high performance soft/hard coupling magnets and nanocomposite magnets.

  12. Detection of flunixin in equine urine using high-performance liquid chromatography with particle beam and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Stanley, S M; Owens, N A; Rodgers, J P

    1995-05-05

    A normal-phase HPLC method combined with particle-beam mass spectrometry (PB-MS) was developed for the analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The forty one NSAIDs analysed responded in one or more (electron impact, positive and negative chemical ionisation) modes and highly characteristic spectra were produced. A mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for isolating acidic NSAIDs was developed using the Bond Elut Certify II cartridge. The average recovery was 88.5%. Flunixin, extracted by SPE from urine of a mare to which the meglumine salt had been administered was positively identified by HPLC-PB-MS and HPLC-atmospheric pressure ionization (API) MS methods.

  13. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  14. Co-grinding significance for calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate mixed cement. Part I: effect of particle size and mixing on solid phase reactivity.

    PubMed

    Tadier, S; Le Bolay, N; Rey, C; Combes, C

    2011-04-01

    In part I of this study we aim to evaluate and control the characteristics of the powders constituting the solid phase of a vaterite CaCO(3)-dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cement using a co-grinding process and to determine their impact on cement setting ability. An original methodology involving complementary analytical techniques was implemented to thoroughly investigate the grinding mechanism of separated or mixed reactive powders and the effects on solid phase reactivity. We showed that the association of both reactive powders during co-grinding improves the efficiency of this process in terms of the particle size decrease, thus making co-grinding adaptable to industrial development of the cement. For the first time the usefulness of horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to follow the chemical setting reaction at 37°C in real time has been demonstrated. We point out the antagonist effects that co-grinding can have on cement setting: the setting time is halved; however, progress of the chemical reaction involving dissolution-reprecipitation is delayed by 30 min, probably due to the increased contact area between the reactive powders, limiting their hydration. More generally, we can take advantage of the co-grinding process to control powder mixing, size and reactivity and this original analytical methodology to better understand its effect on the phenomena involved during powder processing and cement setting, which is decisive for the development of multi-component cements.

  15. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; Sakadjian, B. B.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the cost and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.

  16. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; ...

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the costmore » and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.« less

  17. Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, B.N.; Thompson, W.R.; Chyba, C.F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on ices composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar system objects. The IR transmission spectra of four ice-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed. 56 refs.

  18. Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Chyba, C. F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on ices composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar system objects. The IR transmission spectra of four ice-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed.

  19. NbN and NaNbN2 particles: selective solid state synthesis and conduction performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangbiao; Zhu, Yongchun; Shi, Liang; Si, Lulu; Li, Qianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2012-09-01

    Starting from Nb2O5, NaN3 and different metallic reductants such as magnesium or aluminum, cubic NbN and hexagonal NaNbN2 were selectively synthesized in a stainless steel autoclave at 400-700 degrees C. When magnesium was used as a metallic reductant, NbN can be synthesized at 400 degrees C for 10 h. If the metallic reductant was replaced by aluminum, NaNbN2 was obtained at 700 degrees C for 40 h. The structures and morphologies of the samples were derived from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). FE-SEM images showed that the NbN sample consisted of particles with an average size of about 100 nm, and the NaNbN2 sample is composed of with an average size of 500 nm. Furthermore, the electric resistivity of the obtained samples reveals the obtained NbN sample is a superconductor with transition temperature of 17 K, and the obtained NaNbN2 sample can be classified as a semiconductor.

  20. Effect of solid particles on the turbulent flow of a round gaseous jet, a mathematical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elghobashi, S. E.

    1981-10-01

    Progress in mathematical and experimental studies aimed at modeling and measuring flow rates for the two-phase gases with dispersed particles in turbulent flows of jets is reported. Exact transport equations of mass and momentum for the two phases, the carrier fluid's kinetic energy of turbulence, and its dissipation rate were derived for incompressible two-phase flows. In the area of clear air jet measurements, attempts were made to obtain two-dimensional measurements of the clear air jet using a two-color, bragg cell shifted laser velocimeter. A complete data set for the streamwise component of mean velocity and turbulence intensity and some data for tangential velocity components were recorded and are included. These data were obtained using a recently modified software package for two-component data acquisition. The data for streamwise flow were compared with the available data for circular jet flow. The agreement was good in the inner half of the jet while some scatter was observed in the outer region of the jet.

  1. Combined dispersive solid-phase extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction-derivatization for gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of aliphatic amines on atmospheric fine particles.

    PubMed

    Majedi, Seyed Mohammad; Lee, Hian Kee

    2017-02-24

    Short-chain aliphatic amines are ubiquitous in the atmospheric environment. They play an important role in the formation and growth of atmospheric particles. As such, there is a pressing need to monitor these particle-bound compounds present at trace quantities. The present work describes an efficient, one-step microextraction technique for the preconcentration and detection of trace levels of 10 aliphatic amines on fine particles (particulate matter of 2.5μm or less (PM2.5)) in the atmosphere. After extraction of amines from particles in acidified water samples, carbon-based sorbents (in dispersive solid-phase extraction mode), and vortex agitation were utilized for simultaneous derivatization-extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The approach significantly increased the recoveries and enrichment of the amine derivatives. This one-step, combined technique is proposed for the first time. Several influential factors including type and concentration of derivatization reagent (for gas chromatographic separation), type of buffer, sample pH, types and volumes of extraction and disperser solvents, type and amount of sorbent, vortex time and temperature, desorption solvent type and volume, and salt content were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, high enrichment factors (in the range of between 307 and 382) and good reproducibility (relative standard deviations, below 7.0%, n=5) were achieved. The linearity ranged from 0.1μg/L-100μg/L, and from 0.5μg/L-100μg/L, depending on the analytes. The limits of detection were between 0.02μg/L (corresponding to ∼0.01ng/m(3) in air) and 0.09μg/L (corresponding to ∼0.04ng/m(3) in air). The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PM2.5 samples collected by air sampling through polytetrafluoroethylene filters. The concentration levels of amines ranged from 1.04 to 4.16ng/m(3) in the air sampled.

  2. Thermal emission from large solid particles in the coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) around perihelion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, J.; Milam, S.; Coulson, I.; Gicquel, A.; Meech, K.; Yang, B.; Riesen, T.; Remijan, A.; Villanueva, G.; Corrinder, M.; Charnley, S.; Mumma, M.

    2014-07-01

    We report submillimeter dust-continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained during the time period immediately before perihelion on 2013 November 28 (r = 0.0125 au). The variability and time resolution obtained in these images has revealed significant dust outbursts and have likely captured the onset of the final disruption event of comet ISON. The measured 450-μ m and 850-μ m submillimeter continuua are the strongest yet detected from a comet. Data were obtained with the SCUBA-2 submillimetre camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) located at the 4000-m level of Mauna Kea, Hawaii during a week of scheduled day-time observing. Imaging is achieved simultaneously at wavelengths of 850 μ m and 450 μ m. Conditions necessary to obtain valuable results at 450 μ m occur relatively infrequently, and while atmospheric zenith opacities on the days involved were good (low), ranging between 0.08 (nepers at 225 GHz on the first day) and 0.05 (on the day of perihelion), the relatively low elevations of the observations (30--45 degrees), and consequent high line-of-sight opacities, limit the impact of the 450-μ m data. Each of the focal planes of SCUBA-2 is populated with 5000 bolometers, and provides an instantaneous Field of View of almost 10 arc minutes. In order to account effectively for the rapidly varying sky transmissions, the observational strategies adopted at JCMT involve scanning the telescope rapidly around the target in a daisy pattern, which produces fairly uniform coverage in exposure time of an area of diameter 3 arc minutes around the target centre. When comet ISON was first detected at 850 μ m, the 1-mm-sized dust particles were tightly bound to the comet nucleus until at least November 23. Three days later the dust was less tightly bound and became elongated and diffuse, spread out over as much as 120 arc seconds (80,000 km) in the anti-solar direction. Preliminary analyses of these observations suggest the detection of either a

  3. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.

  4. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  5. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  6. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  7. A Monte Carlo simulation code for calculating damage and particle transport in solids: The case for electron-bombarded solids for electron energies up to 900 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiang; Shao, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Current popular Monte Carlo simulation codes for simulating electron bombardment in solids focus primarily on electron trajectories, instead of electron-induced displacements. Here we report a Monte Carol simulation code, DEEPER (damage creation and particle transport in matter), developed for calculating 3-D distributions of displacements produced by electrons of incident energies up to 900 MeV. Electron elastic scattering is calculated by using full-Mott cross sections for high accuracy, and primary-knock-on-atoms (PKAs)-induced damage cascades are modeled using ZBL potential. We compare and show large differences in 3-D distributions of displacements and electrons in electron-irradiated Fe. The distributions of total displacements are similar to that of PKAs at low electron energies. But they are substantially different for higher energy electrons due to the shifting of PKA energy spectra towards higher energies. The study is important to evaluate electron-induced radiation damage, for the applications using high flux electron beams to intentionally introduce defects and using an electron analysis beam for microstructural characterization of nuclear materials.

  8. Assessment of the LuminoTox leachate phase assay as a complement to the LuminoTox solid phase assay: effect of fine particles in natural sediments.

    PubMed

    Burga Pérez, Karen F; Charlatchka, Rayna; Férard, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    The LuminoTox solid phase assay (Lum-SPA), developed to assess the potential ecotoxicity of natural polluted sediments, employs stabilized thylakoids isolated from spinach plant extracts. When thylakoids are exposed to polluted samples, the action of pollutants can interfere with transmission of chlorophyll fluorescence linked to Photosystems I and II, causing a decrease in fluorescence emission. To differentiate between bulk and leachate effects, we developed a complementary assay of the Lum-SPA named the LuminoTox leachate phase assay (Lum-LPA). Twelve natural sediments were selected on the basis of their potential ecotoxicity and different quantities of fines. Results showed that in the Lum-LPA, the IC50s were always lower than those observed in the Lum-SPA. Significant inverse correlations were found between the IC50s obtained with the Lum-SPA and the percentage of fines (silt+clay fraction). In order to identify the cause of the higher ecotoxicity found in the Lum-LPA, we tested the supernatant of the liquid phase recovered after centrifugation (3000 g), and it appeared far less toxic than the Lum-LPA filtrates. To confirm the hypothesis that sensitivity in the Lum-LPA could be due to the presence of very fine particles, Photosynthetic Enzyme Complexes (PECs) were exposed to two kinds of clay materials with and without copper (0.6 mg L(-1)). Similar results were obtained in the Lum-LPA for both cases, revealing the sensitivity of this test to very fine particles.

  9. Particle charge spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An airflow through a tube is used to guide a charged particle through the tube. A detector may be used to detect charge passing through the tube on the particle. The movement of the particle through the tube may be used to both detect its charge and size.

  10. Structural variation of solid core and thickness of porous shell of 1.7 μm core-shell silica particles on chromatographic performance: narrow bore columns.

    PubMed

    Omamogho, Jesse O; Hanrahan, John P; Tobin, Joe; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2011-04-15

    Chromatographic and mass transfer kinetic properties of three narrow bore columns (2.1×50 mm) packed with new core-shell 1.7 μm EIROSHELL™-C(18) (EiS-C(18)) particles have been studied. The particles in each column varied in the solid-core to shell particle size ratio (ρ), of 0.59, 0.71 and 0.82, with a porous silica shell thickness of 350, 250 and 150 nm respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Coulter counter analysis, gas pycnometry, nitrogen sorption analysis and inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) elucidated the physical properties of these materials. The porosity measurement of the packed HILIC and C(18) modified phases provided the means to estimate the phase ratios of the three different shell columns (EiS-150-C(18), EiS-250-C(18) and EiS-350-C(18)). The dependence of the chromatographic performance to the volume fraction of the porous shell was observed for all three columns. The naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene retention factor of k'∼10 on the three EiS-C(18s) employed to obtain the height equivalents to theoretical plates (HETPs) data were achieved by varying the mobile phase compositions and applying the Wilke and Chang relationship to obtain a parallel reduced linear velocity. The Knox fit model gave the coefficient of the reduce HETPs for the three EiS-C(18s). The reduced plate height minimum h(min)=1.9 was achieved for the EiS-150-C(18) column, and generated an efficiency of over 350,000 N/m and h(min)=2.5 equivalent to an efficiency of 200,000 N/m for the EiS-350-C(18) column. The efficiency loss of the EiS-C18 column emanating from the system extra-column volume was discussed with respect to the porous shell thickness.

  11. Activation of the Solid Silica Layer of Aerosol-Based C/SiO₂ Particles for Preparation of Various Functional Multishelled Hollow Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangcun; Luo, Fan; He, Gaohong

    2015-05-12

    Double-shelled C/SiO2 hollow microspheres with an outer nanosheet-like silica shell and an inner carbon shell were reported. C/SiO2 aerosol particles were synthesized first by a one-step rapid aerosol process. Then the solid silica layer of the aerosol particles was dissolved and regrown on the carbon surface to obtain novel C/SiO2 double-shelled hollow microspheres. The new microspheres prepared by the facile approach possess high surface area and pore volume (226.3 m(2) g(-1), 0.51 cm(3) g(-1)) compared with the original aerosol particles (64.3 m(2) g(-1), 0.176 cm(3) g(-1)), providing its enhanced enzyme loading capacity. The nanosheet-like silica shell of the hollow microspheres favors the fixation of Au NPs (C/SiO2/Au) and prevents them from growing and migrating at 500 °C. Novel C/C and C/Au/C (C/Pt/C) hollow microspheres were also prepared based on the hollow nanostructure. C/C microspheres (482.0 m(2) g(-1), 0.92 cm(3) g(-1)) were ideal electrode materials. In particular, the Au NPs embedded into the two carbon layers (C/Au/C, 431.2 m(2) g(-1), 0.774 cm(3) g(-1)) show a high catalytic activity and extremely chemical stability even at 850 °C. Moreover, C/SiO2/Au, C/Au/C microspheres can be easily recycled and reused by an external magnetic field because of the presence of Fe3O4 species in the inner carbon shell. The synthetic route reported here is expected to simplify the fabrication process of double-shelled or yolk-shell microspheres, which usually entails multiple steps and a previously synthesized hard template. Such a capability can facilitate the preparation of various functional hollow microspheres by interfacial design.

  12. Determination of trace mercury by solid substrate room temperature phosphorescence quenching method based on lead carboxymethyl cellulose (Pb(CMC)(2)) particles containing luminescent salicyl fluorones molecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Wu, Ai-Hong; Xu, Huan-Huan; Wang, Qing-Hua; Li, Long-Di; Zhu, Guo-Hui

    2005-01-30

    Luminescent particles of lead carboxymethyl cellulose (Pb(CMC)(2)), which contains salicyl fluorones (THBF), Pb(CMC)(2)-THBF, were synthesized by sol-gel method. Pb(CMC)(2)-THBF can emit intense and stable solid substrate room temperature phosphorescence (SS-RTP) on filter paper. EDTA can chelate the Pb(2+) in Pb(CMC)(2)-THBF, causing it decompose into aqueous soluble components PbY(2-), CMC(-) and THBF, and these components can react with Hg(2+) to form (CMC)(2)Hg-THBF, causing decrease of phosphorescence intensity. Based on the facts above, a new method for the determination of trace mercury by SS-RTP quenching method was established. The linear range of this method is 2.0-40.0fgspot(-1) (5.0-100.0pgml(-1)) of Hg(2+), with a detection limit (LD) of 0.26fgspot(-1), and the regression equation of working curve is [Formula: see text] (fgspot(-1), 0.4mul spot(-1)), r = 0.9994. This method has been applied to the determination of trace mercury in water sample with satisfactory results. The mechanism of SS-RTP emission is also discussed.

  13. Liquid crystalline and solid phases for a system of hard zigzag particles with Lennard-Jones sites in two-dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechuga-Sanabria, Fidelmar; Chapela, Gustavo A.; Quintana-H, Jacqueline

    2013-10-01

    The map of low and high density phases of an idealized system, the infinitely hard zigzag line model with two Lennard-Jones (LJ) sites is presented. LJ sites are added to a previous model composed of the infinitely hard zigzag line shape particles, R.A. Perusqía, J. Peón, J. Quintana, Physica A 345 (1) (2005) 130-142. The attractions and the molecular volume added to this system through the LJ sites create a more realistic model and, as a consequence, a richer phase behavior is obtained. Although the volume of the LJ sites is quite small it is enough to produce solid phases, absent in the original model. On the other hand the smectic phase that was present in the hard system was not found in this case. Two molecular conformations are chosen to provide a comparison with the previous model. The isothermal-isobaric is used to establish the thermodynamic regions of the different molecular self aggregations and to compare them to already published results.

  14. Determination of trace silver by solid substrate room temperature phosphorescence quenching method based on lead carboxymethyl cellulose particles (Pb(CMC)2) containing luminescent salicyl fluorenes molecules.

    PubMed

    Jiaming, Liu; Wenqi, Li; Xuelin, Li; Hailing, Chen; Qiaomei, Lu; Longdi, Li; Zhimin, Li; Guohui, Zhu; Cuilian, Chen

    2005-10-01

    Luminescent particles of lead carboxymethyl cellulose (Pb(CMC)2) containing salicyl fluorones (THBF), Pb(CMC)2-THBF were synthesized by the sol-gel method, using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) as precursor and Pb2+ as precipitant. Pb(CMC)2-THBF can emit the intense and stable solid substrate room temperature phosphorescence (SS-RTP) on filter paper. And EDTA can chelate Pb2+ in Pb(CMC)2-THBF, causing it to decompose into aqueous soluble components PbY2-, CMC- and THBF, which can react with Ag+ to form Ag(CMC)2-THBF, causing the decrease of phosphorescence intensity. Based on the facts above, a new method for the determination of trace silver by SS-RTP quenching method was established. The linear range of this method is 8.0-40.0 fg spot(-1) (20.0-100.0 pg ml(-1)), with a detection limit (LD) of 2.2 fg spot(-1) (corresponding to a concentration range of 5.5 x 10(-13) g ml(-1)), and the regression equation of working curve is DeltaI(p) = 12.56 + 0.5527C(Ag+) (fg spot(-1), 0.4 microl spot(-1)), n = 8, r = 0.9992. This method has been applied to the determination of trace silver in human hair and tea sample with satisfactory results. The mechanism of SS-RTP emission is also discussed.

  15. 40 CFR 262.84 - Movement document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transporter to handle the waste in the United States if exported by rail. (b) The movement document must....84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste...

  16. 40 CFR 262.84 - Movement document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transporter to handle the waste in the United States if exported by rail. (b) The movement document must....84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste...

  17. 40 CFR 262.84 - Movement document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transporter to handle the waste in the United States if exported by rail. (b) The movement document must....84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste...

  18. Solid colloidal optical wavelength filter

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    A solid colloidal optical wavelength filter includes a suspension of spheal particles dispersed in a coagulable medium such as a setting plastic. The filter is formed by suspending spherical particles in a coagulable medium; agitating the particles and coagulable medium to produce an emulsion of particles suspended in the coagulable medium; and allowing the coagulable medium and suspended emulsion of particles to cool.

  19. Experiments with solid particle seeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, C. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Kaoline, a hydrated aluminum silicate clay, is investigated as a seeding material for laser velocimetry. It is inexpensive but is polydispersed with some of the fineparticles being too large to follow wind tunnel flow and is in the form of nonspherical platelets having an aspect ratio of approximately 4/1. Gravity sedimentation experiments as a means of narrowing the fineparticle sizes distribution are being conducted. The fineparticle size distribution of Engelhard ASP 200 kaolin suspended in ethanol (0.00792 grams kaolin/ml ethanol) as received, after 24 hours gravity sedimentation and after 48 hours sedimentation, respectively is shown. A shearing atomizer is used to inject the fineparticles. Gravity sedimentation is carried out in an 800 ml pyrex beaker. Following gravity sedimentation, the top 3.5 inches are siphoned from the liquid, which has a column height of 4.5 inches. In a like manner, longer settling times will serve to further narrow the fineparticle distribution range. As successive sedimentations are effected, the number of fineparticles per unit volume of ethanol decreased markedly.

  20. Saltation of particles in turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chunning; Munjiza, Ante; Avital, Eldad; Xu, Dong; Williams, John

    2014-05-01

    This paper numerically investigates particle saltation in a turbulent channel flow having a rough bed consisting of two to three layers of densely packed spheres. The Shields function is 0.065 which is just above the sediment entrainment threshold to give a bed-load regime. The applied methodology is a combination of three technologies, i.e., the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow; the combined finite-discrete element modeling of the deformation, movement, and collision of the particles; and the immersed boundary method for the fluid-solid interaction. It is shown that the presence of entrained particles significantly modifies the flow profiles of velocity, turbulent intensities, and shear stresses in the vicinity of a rough bed. The quasi-streamwise-aligned streaky structures are not observed in the near-wall region and the particles scatter on the rough bed owing to their large size. However, in the outer flow region, the turbulent coherent structures recover due to the weakening rough-bed effects and particle interferences. First- and second-order statistical features of particle translational and angular velocities, together with sediment concentration and volumetric flux density profiles, are presented. Several key parameters of the particle saltation trajectory are calculated and agree closely with published experimental data. Time histories of the hydrodynamic forces exerted upon a typical saltating particle, together with those of the particle's coordinates and velocities, are presented. A strong correlation is shown between the abruptly decreasing streamwise velocity and increasing vertical velocity at collision which indicates that the continuous saltation of large-grain-size particles is controlled by collision parameters such as particle incident angle, local bed packing arrangement, and particle density, etc.

  1. Saltation of particles in turbulent channel flow.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chunning; Munjiza, Ante; Avital, Eldad; Xu, Dong; Williams, John

    2014-05-01

    This paper numerically investigates particle saltation in a turbulent channel flow having a rough bed consisting of two to three layers of densely packed spheres. The Shields function is 0.065 which is just above the sediment entrainment threshold to give a bed-load regime. The applied methodology is a combination of three technologies, i.e., the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow; the combined finite-discrete element modeling of the deformation, movement, and collision of the particles; and the immersed boundary method for the fluid-solid interaction. It is shown that the presence of entrained particles significantly modifies the flow profiles of velocity, turbulent intensities, and shear stresses in the vicinity of a rough bed. The quasi-streamwise-aligned streaky structures are not observed in the near-wall region and the particles scatter on the rough bed owing to their large size. However, in the outer flow region, the turbulent coherent structures recover due to the weakening rough-bed effects and particle interferences. First- and second-order statistical features of particle translational and angular velocities, together with sediment concentration and volumetric flux density profiles, are presented. Several key parameters of the particle saltation trajectory are calculated and agree closely with published experimental data. Time histories of the hydrodynamic forces exerted upon a typical saltating particle, together with those of the particle's coordinates and velocities, are presented. A strong correlation is shown between the abruptly decreasing streamwise velocity and increasing vertical velocity at collision which indicates that the continuous saltation of large-grain-size particles is controlled by collision parameters such as particle incident angle, local bed packing arrangement, and particle density, etc.

  2. The patient movement as an emancipation movement

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To suggest that the patient movement is an emancipation movement. Background  The patient movement is young and fragmented; and it can seem confusing because it lacks an explicit ideology with intellectual and theoretical underpinnings. Methods  Drawing mainly on the experiences and the published writings of patient activists, the author identified eight aspects of the patient movement that could be compared with aspects of recognized emancipation movements: the radicalization of activists; the creation of new knowledge; the identification of guiding principles; the sense of direction; the unmasking of new issues; schisms within the movement and allies outside it; and the gradual social acceptance of some of the ideas (here standards of health care) that activists work to promote. Results  Similarities between certain aspects of the patient movement and of the recognized emancipation movements were close. Conclusion  The patient movement can be regarded as an emancipation movement, albeit an immature one. PMID:18494955

  3. A numerical study of initial-stage interaction between shock and particle curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Jiang, Lingjie

    2016-11-01

    High speed particulate flow appears in many scientific and engineering problems. Wagner et al., 2012 studied the planar shock - particle curtain interaction experimentally, found the movement and expansion of the particle curtain, together with the movement of shock waves. Theofanous et al., 2016 did similar experiments, discovered a time scaling that reveals a universal regime for cloud expansion. In these experiments, both the particle-fluid interaction and the particle-particle collision are not negligible, which make it challenging to be dealt with. This work aims to numerically study and understand this problem. Applying the stratified multiphase model presented by Chang & Liou 2007 and regarding one phase as solid, following Regele et al., 2014, we study the initial stage of a planar shock impacting on a particle curtain in 2D, in which the particles can be regarded as static so that the collision between particles are not considered. The locations of reflected shock, transmitted shock, and contact discontinuity are examined. The turbulent energy generated in the interacting area is investigated. Keeping the total volume fraction of particles, and changing the particle number, good convergence results are obtained. Effective drag coefficient in 1D model is also calibrated. The authors acknowledge the support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91230203).

  4. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  5. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOEpatents

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  6. Detection of oligonucleotide hybridization on a single microparticle by time-resolved fluorometry: hybridization assays on polymer particles obtained by direct solid phase assembly of the oligonucleotide probes.

    PubMed

    Hakala, H; Heinonen, P; Iitiä, A; Lönnberg, H

    1997-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides were assembled by conventional phosphoramidite chemistry on uniformly sized (50 microns) porous glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate (SINTEF) and compact polystyrene (Dynosphere) particles, the aminoalkyl side chains of which were further derivatized with DMTrO-acetyl groups. The linker was completely resistant toward ammonolytic deprotection of the base moieties. The quality of oligonucleotides was assessed by repeating the synthesis on the same particles derivatized with a cleavable ester linker. The ability of the oligonucleotide-coated particles to bind complementary sequences via hybridization was examined by following the attachment of oligonucleotides bearing a photoluminescent europium(III) chelate to the particles. The fluorescence emission was measured directly on a single particle. The effects of the following factors on the kinetics and efficiency of hybridization were studied: number of particles in a given volume of the assay solution, loading of oligonucleotide on the particle, concentration of the target oligonucleotide in solution, length of the hybridizing sequence, presence of noncomplementary sequences, and ionic strength. The fluorescence signal measured on a single particle after hybridization was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the target oligonucleotide in solution over a concentration range of 5 orders of magnitude.

  7. Solid Fuel Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    Continu.T on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP diffusion flame, solid fuel, flame radiation thermophoresis 19... thermophoresis and particle Brownian diffusion on particle profiles. In the first effort, a theoretical analysis is performed to study the distribution of small...particles (e.g., soot) of an assumed average dimension form at a global rate depending on the local fuel I concentration and temperature. Thermophoresis

  8. Nondestructive characterization of municipal-solid-waste-contaminated surface soil by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dhrubajyoti; Ghosh, Rita; Mitra, Ajoy K; Roy, Subinit; Sarkar, Manoranjan; Chowdhury, Subhajit; Bhowmik, Asit; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal; Maskey, Shila; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-11-01

    The long-term environmental impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfilling is still under investigation due to the lack of detailed characterization studies. A MSW landfill site, popularly known as Dhapa, in the eastern fringe of the metropolis of Kolkata, India, is the subject of present study. A vast area of Dhapa, adjoining the current core MSW dump site and evolving from the raw MSW dumping in the past, is presently used for the cultivation of vegetables. The inorganic chemical characteristics of the MSW-contaminated Dhapa surface soil (covering a 2-km stretch of the area) along with a natural composite (geogenic) soil sample (from a small countryside farm), for comparison, were investigated using two complementary nondestructive analytical techniques, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for bulk analysis and low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) for single-particle analysis. The bulk concentrations of K, Rb, and Zr remain almost unchanged in all the soil samples. The Dhapa soil is found to be polluted with heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, and Pb (highly elevated) and Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Sr (moderately elevated), compared to the natural countryside soil. These high bulk concentration levels of heavy metals were compared with the Ecological Soil Screening Levels for these elements (U.S. Environment Protection Agency) to assess the potential risk on the immediate biotic environment. Low-Z particle EPMA results showed that the aluminosilicate-containing particles were the most abundant, followed by SiO2, CaCO3-containing, and carbonaceous particles in the Dhapa samples, whereas in the countryside sample only aluminosilicate-containing and SiO2 particles were observed. The mineral particles encountered in the countryside sample are solely of geogenic origin, whereas those from the Dhapa samples seem to have evolved from a mixture of raw dumped MSW, urban dust, and other contributing factors such as wind

  9. 75 FR 2845 - Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of an Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... movement of palletized or containerized baled municipal solid waste to three existing ports on the Columbia... a revised petition from Hawaiian Waste Systems, LLC, to transport 150,000 tons of municipal solid... programmatic environmental assessment (REA) titled ``Regional Movement of Plastic-baled Municipal Solid...

  10. Propagation of a spherical shock wave in mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles under the influence of gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.

    2016-01-01

    Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind a spherical shock wave propagating in a dusty gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes under the influence of a gravitational field. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are uniformly distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-conditions are maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The medium is assumed to be under the influence of a gravitational field due to central mass ( bar{m} ) at the origin (Roche Model). It is assumed that the gravitational effect of the mixture itself can be neglected compared with the attraction of the central mass. The initial density of the ambient medium is taken to be always constant. The effects of the variation of the gravitational parameter and nonidealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. Also, the effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are investigated. It is shown that due to an increase in the gravitational parameter the compressibility of the medium at any point in the flow-field behind the shock decreases and all other flow variables and the shock strength are increased. Further, it is found that the presence of gravitational field increases the compressibility of the medium, due to which it is compressed and therefore the distance between the piston and the shock surface is reduced. The shock waves in dusty gas under the influence of a

  11. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  12. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-07

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

    2012-12-10

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These

  14. Biomechanics of foetal movement.

    PubMed

    Nowlan, N C

    2015-01-02

    Foetal movements commence at seven weeks of gestation, with the foetal movement repertoire including twitches, whole body movements, stretches, isolated limb movements, breathing movements, head and neck movements, jaw movements (including yawning, sucking and swallowing) and hiccups by ten weeks of gestational age. There are two key biomechanical aspects to gross foetal movements; the first being that the foetus moves in a dynamically changing constrained physical environment in which the freedom to move becomes increasingly restricted with increasing foetal size and decreasing amniotic fluid. Therefore, the mechanical environment experienced by the foetus affects its ability to move freely. Secondly, the mechanical forces induced by foetal movements are crucial for normal skeletal development, as evidenced by a number of conditions and syndromes for which reduced or abnormal foetal movements are implicated, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, arthrogryposis and foetal akinesia deformation sequence. This review examines both the biomechanical effects of the physical environment on foetal movements through discussion of intrauterine factors, such as space, foetal positioning and volume of amniotic fluid, and the biomechanical role of gross foetal movements in human skeletal development through investigation of the effects of abnormal movement on the bones and joints. This review also highlights computational simulations of foetal movements that attempt to determine the mechanical forces acting on the foetus as it moves. Finally, avenues for future research into foetal movement biomechanics are highlighted, which have potential impact for a diverse range of fields including foetal medicine, musculoskeletal disorders and tissue engineering.

  15. Ambient Tropospheric Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in ambient air (also known as the atmospheric aerosol). Ambient PM arises from a wide-range of sources and/or processes, and consists of particles of different shapes, sizes, and com...

  16. On the existence and multiplicity of one-dimensional solid particle attractors in time-dependent Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    PubMed

    Lappa, Marcello

    2013-03-01

    For the first time evidence is provided that one-dimensional objects formed by the accumulation of tracer particles can emerge in flows of thermogravitational nature (in the region of the space of parameters, in which the so-called OS (oscillatory solution) flow of the Busse balloon represents the dominant secondary mode of convection). Such structures appear as seemingly rigid filaments, rotating without changing their shape. The most interesting (heretofore unseen) feature of such a class of physical attractors is their variety. Indeed, distinct shapes are found for a fixed value of the Rayleigh number depending on parameters accounting for particle inertia and viscous drag. The fascinating "sea" of existing potential paths, their multiplicity and tortuosity are explained according to the granularity of the loci in the physical space where conditions for phase locking between the traveling thermofluid-dynamic disturbance and the "turnover time" of particles in the basic toroidal flow are satisfied. It is shown, in particular, how the observed wealth of geometric objects and related topological features can be linked to a general overarching attractor representing an intrinsic (particle-independent) property of the base velocity field.

  17. Preparation of organic solutions or solid films of small particles of ruthenium, palladium, and platinum from organometallic precursors in the presence of cellulose derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Duteil, A.; Queau, R.; Chaudret, B. ); Mazel, R.; Roucau, C. ); Bradley, J.S. )

    1993-03-01

    Reaction of Ru(cod)(cot) with hydrogen in the presence of nitrocellulose (NC) or cellulose acetate (CA) at 20[degree]C yields colloidal ruthenium solutions containing particles of 10, 15, and 20 [angstrom], respectively, and showing a low dispersity for concentrations in Ru of 2, 5, and 10 wt% (NC) or particles of average size 15, 20, and 25 [angstrom] for concentrations in Ru of 2, 5, and 10 wt% (CA). No change in particle size is observed upon reaction with CO in NC whereas agglomeration occurs in CA. The infrared spectra of CO adsorbed on Ru colloids have been recorded. Whatever the stabilizing polymer, two bands were observed. A band at 2030 cm[sup [minus]1] has been assigned to the stretching vibration of CO linearly adsorbed on the Ru surface. A low-frequency band at 1965 cm[sup [minus]1] has been assigned to bridging CO. The relative intensities of these two bands were found to vary with particle size. Reaction of M(dba)[sub 2] (M = Pd, Pt; dba = dibenzylidene acetone) under CO in the presence of NC or AC leads to colloidal solutions containing small metal particles (respectively 35 [angstrom] for Pd in NC or CA, 12 [angstrom] for Pt in NC, 15 [angstrom] for Pt in CA independent of metal/polymer concentration). The presence of coordinated CO was observed in all cases. At maximum coverage, palladium colloids showed 3-fold and 2-fold bridging CO respectively at 1950 and 1890 cm[sup [minus]1]; platinum colloids showed both bridging and terminal CO at 1880 and 2050 cm[sup [minus]1]. 35 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Particle classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Etkin, B.

    1987-04-14

    This patent describes a classifier for particulate material comprising a housing having an inlet to receive a classifying air flow flowing in a given direction, collection means downstream of the inlet to receive material classified by the air flow, and material introduction means intermediate the inlet and the collection means to introduce particles entrained in a secondary air stream into the housing in a direction other than the given direction. The material introduction means includes a material outlet aperture in a wall of the housing extending generally perpendicular to the given direction, conveying means to convey material and the secondary air stream to the material outlet and diverting means to divert the secondary air stream to a direction generally parallel to the classifying air flow flowing in the given direction. The diverting means includes a surface extending downstream from the outlet and adjacent thereto and being dimensioned to divert the secondary airstream by a Coanda effect generally parallel to the given direction and thereby segregate the secondary air/stream from the particles and permit continued movement of the particles along predictable trajectories.

  19. Online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in bottom spray fluid bed coating--development and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-16

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop a visiometric process analyzer for online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process. The secondary purpose is to investigate the influences of partition gap and air accelerator insert size on particle mass flow rate using the developed visiometric process analyzer. Particle movement in the region between the product chamber and partition column was captured using a high speed camera. Mean particle velocity and number of particles in the images were determined by particle image velocimetry and morphological image processing method respectively. Mass flow rate was calculated using particle velocity, number of particles in the images, particle density and size information. Particle velocity and number findings were validated using image tracking and manual particle counting techniques respectively. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method was accurate. Partition gap was found to influence particle mass flow rate by limiting the rate of solids flux into the partition column; the air accelerator insert was found to influence particle mass flow rate by a Venturi effect. Partition gap and air accelerator insert diameter needed to be adjusted accordingly in relation to the other variability sources and diameter of coating cores respectively. The potential, challenges and possible solutions of the proposed visiometric process analyzer were further discussed.

  20. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  1. Functional Movement Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... that controls muscles during contraction and at rest. Electroencephalography (EEG) can correlate the movement and detect any ... that controls muscles during contraction and at rest. Electroencephalography (EEG) can correlate the movement and detect any ...

  2. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  3. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  4. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  5. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  6. Use of a small particle solid-core packing for improved efficiency and rapid measurement of sirolimus and everolimus by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Phillip; Nwafor, Magnus; Tredger, Mike

    2016-06-01

    Measurement of whole blood sirolimus and everolimus is required in order to optimize patient treatment following solid organ transplant. Assay by LC-MS/MS is increasingly preferred; however efficient use of the instrument and short turnaround times are crucial. Use of a 1.6 µm solid-core packing HPLC column (Cortecs) gave significant increases in efficiency, sensitivity and throughput compared with an existing method, following simple protein precipitation of small-volume (20 μL) whole blood samples. Sirolimus, everolimus and the stable isotopic internal standard ((13) C2 D4 - everolimus) eluted at around 0.8 min, and total analytical run time was 2.2 min, saving almost 4 min per sample compared with an existing method. Within-assay imprecision (CV) was 3.3-8.5%, and between-assay imprecision was 2.2-10.8%. Retrospective assay of external quality assurance samples and comparison of patient samples assayed in parallel showed only small differences (between +6.8 and -1.9%) in results using the Cortecs column when compared with the existing method. No significant interferences or ion suppression were observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  8. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  9. Making Solid Geometry Solid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Viggo

    1981-01-01

    Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)

  10. CoFe2O4 nano-particles functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline for dispersive solid-phase micro-extraction and direct fluorometric monitoring of aluminum in human serum and water samples.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Rahimpour, Elaheh

    2015-06-30

    A simple dispersive solid-phase micro-extraction method based on CoFe2O4 nano-particles (NPs) functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) with the aid of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was developed for separation of Al(III) ions from aqueous solutions. Al(III) ions are separated at pH 7 via complex formation with 8-HQ using the functionalized CoFe2O4 nano-particles sol solution as a dispersed solid-phase extractor. The separated analyte is directly quantified by a spectrofluorometric method at 370nm excitation and 506nm emission wavelengths. A comparison of the fluorescence of Al(III)-8-HQ complex in bulk solution and that of Al(III) ion interacted with 8-HQ/SDS/CoFe2O4 NPs revealed a nearly 5-fold improvement in intensity. The experimental factors influencing the separation and in situ monitoring of the analyte were optimized. Under these conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-300ngmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9986. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.03ngmL(-1) and 0.10ngmL(-1), respectively. The inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations for six replicate determinations of 150ngmL(-1) Al(III) ion were 2.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to direct determine Al(III) ion in various human serum and water samples.

  11. Characterization of particle morphology of biochanin A molecularly imprinted polymers and their properties as a potential sorbent for solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowska, Anna M; Poliwoda, Anna; Wieczorek, Piotr P

    2015-04-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with biochanin A as a template were obtained using a bulk polymerization with non-covalent imprinting approach. The polymers were prepared in acetonitrile as porogen, using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The synthesis, with an application of 1',1'-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) (ACHN) as an initiator, has been performed thermally. During the synthesis process the effect of different functional monomers such as methacrylic acid (MAA), acrylamide (AA) and 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) was investigated. The application of nitrogen sorption porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) permitted the characterization and evaluation of synthesized polymers. The adsorption capacity of obtained MIPs was checked by using the binding testing. All synthesized polymers were evaluated as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for isolation and preconcentration of biochanin A and its analogues, daidzein and genistein. The MIPs exhibited higher affinity for biochanin A over competitive compounds.

  12. Ion-Specific Modulation of Interfacial Interaction Potentials between Solid Substrates and Cell-Sized Particles Mediated via Zwitterionic, Super-Hydrophilic Poly(sulfobetaine) Brushes.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Yuji; Fröhlich, Benjamin; Yamamoto, Akihisa; Murakami, Ryo; Kaneko, Makoto; Takahara, Atsushi; Tanaka, Motomu

    2017-02-16

    Zwitterionic polymer brushes draw increasing attention not only because of their superhydrophilic, self-cleaning capability but also due to their excellent antifouling capacity. We investigated the ion-specific modulation of the interfacial interaction potential via densely packed, uniform poly(sulfobetaine) brushes. The vertical Brownian motion of a cell-sized latex particle was monitored by microinterferometry, yielding the effective interfacial interaction potentials V(Δh) and the autocorrelation function of height fluctuation. The potential curvature V″(Δh) exhibited a monotonic increase according to the increase in monovalent salt concentrations, implying the sharpening of the potential confinement. An opposite tendency was observed in CaCl2 solutions, suggesting that the ion specific modulation cannot be explained by the classical Hofmeister series. When the particle fluctuation was monitored in the presence of free sulfobetaine molecules, the increase in [sulfobetaine] resulted in a distinct increase in hydrodynamic friction. This was never observed in all the other salt solutions, suggesting the interference of zwitterionic pairing of sulfobetaine side chains by the intercalation of sulfobetaine molecules into the brush layer. Furthermore, poly(sulfobetaine) brushes exhibited a very low V″(Δh) and hydrodynamic friction to human erythrocytes, which seems to explain the excellent blood repellency of zwitterionic polymer materials.

  13. In situ measurement technique for simultaneous detection of K, KCl, and KOH vapors released during combustion of solid biomass fuel in a single particle reactor.

    PubMed

    Sorvajärvi, Tapio; DeMartini, Nikolai; Rossi, Jussi; Toivonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative and simultaneous measurement of K, KCl, and KOH vapors from a burning fuel sample combusted in a single particle reactor was performed using collinear photofragmentation and atomic absorption spectroscopy (CPFAAS) with a time resolution of 0.2 s. The previously presented CPFAAS technique was extended in this work to cover two consecutive fragmentation pulses for the photofragmentation of KCl and KOH. The spectral overlapping of the fragmentation spectra of KCl and KOH is discussed, and a linear equation system for the correction of the spectral interference is introduced. The detection limits for KCl, KOH, and K with the presented measurement arrangement and with 1 cm sample length were 0.5, 0.1, and 0.001 parts per million, respectively. The experimental setup was applied to analyze K, KCl, and KOH release from 10 mg spruce bark samples combusted at the temperatures of 850, 950, and 1050 °C with 10% of O2. The combustion experiments provided data on the form of K vapors and their release during different combustion phases and at different temperatures. The measured release histories agreed with earlier studies of K release. The simultaneous direct measurement of atomic K, KCl, and KOH will help in the impact of both the form of K in the biomass and fuel variables, such as particle size, on the release of K from biomass fuels.

  14. Detecting Space Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Humes, Donald H.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Wortman, Jim; Singer, S. Fred; Stanley, John

    1988-01-01

    Technique records times specific craters formed in targets exposed in space and permits determination of direction in which impacting particles traveled at times of impacts. MOS capacitor is short-circuited by impact of particle striking at high speed. After recovery of targets from space, compositions of impacting particles established through post-flight laboratory analyses of residual materials in craters. On earth technique has industrial and military uses in detection of fragments driven by explosions. Studies of orbital dynamics of particles produced by solid-propellant rocket-motor firings in space made using technique.

  15. A multinuclear solid-state magnetic resonance study of the interactions between the inorganic and organic coatings of BaSO4 submicronic particles.

    PubMed

    Borsacchi, S; Geppi, M; Veracini, C A; Lazzeri, A; Di Cuia, F; Geloni, C

    2008-01-01

    Silica-coated BaSO4 submicronic particles, modified on the surface by treatment with stearic acid, have been characterized by means of 29Si, 13C, and 1H magic-angle-spinning (MAS) high-resolution techniques, and low-resolution 1H-FID analysis. Two types of adsorbed water were identified; adsorbed either inside or on the surface of BaSO4, most of the latter being removed by the silica coating. Evidences of silica-stearic acid interactions were found involving either carboxylic acid or carboxylate functional groups, and occurring by means of hydrogen and/or covalent bonds. Stearic acid was present as monolayer only, its chain being mostly rigid, even though a small fraction was subjected to fast inter-conformational motions.

  16. Fundamental study on transient bubble (slug) behavior by characterizing transient forces of solid particles in fluidized beds. Topical report, January 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kono, H.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this work is to recognize and interpret the signals of transient motion of bubbles (slugs) in fluidized beds (METC/DOE) by measuring and utilizing the signals of transient gas phase pressure fluctuation, and also by taking the video pictures of transient motions of the bubbles and emulsion phase in fluidized beds. The two signals were measured simultaneously in a three dimensional fluidized bed. Correlation study on the voidage signal and pressure fluctuation was carried out. A domain concept was introduced and new bubble classification was suggested. A video recording approach was also developed to record the transient bubble motion in a two dimensional fluidized bed with a special consideration. This new approach enhances the understanding of bubble image and the physical meaning of transient particle forces. The fundamental mechanism of bubble flow was experimentally investigated and interesting new findings of the transient bubble flow were obtained.

  17. Suspended-sediment concentrations, yields, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, as well as transporting harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples were collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011. Analyses of these data indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. The single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River during the 2011 spring runoff. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been known to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. For this study, comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong

  18. Method for using magnetic particles in droplet microfluidics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Gaurav Jitendra (Inventor); Kim, Chang-Jin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods of utilizing magnetic particles or beads (MBs) in droplet-based (or digital) microfluidics are disclosed. The methods may be used in enrichment or separation processes. A first method employs the droplet meniscus to assist in the magnetic collection and positioning of MBs during droplet microfluidic operations. The sweeping movement of the meniscus lifts the MBs off the solid surface and frees them from various surface forces acting on the MBs. A second method uses chemical additives to reduce the adhesion of MBs to surfaces. Both methods allow the MBs on a solid surface to be effectively moved by magnetic force. Droplets may be driven by various methods or techniques including, for example, electrowetting, electrostatic, electromechanical, electrophoretic, dielectrophoretic, electroosmotic, thermocapillary, surface acoustic, and pressure.

  19. Enhanced methane steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance of Ni0.9Fe0.1-supported solid oxide fuel cells with infiltrated Ni-TiO2 particles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Jia, Lichao; Wang, Xin; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ni0.9Fe0.1 alloy-supported solid oxide fuel cells with NiTiO3 (NTO) infiltrated into the cell support from 0 to 4 wt.% are prepared and investigated for CH4 steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance. The infiltrated NiTiO3 is reduced to TiO2-supported Ni particles in H2 at 650 °C. The reforming activity of the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support is increased by the presence of the TiO2-supported Ni particles; 3 wt.% is the optimal value of the added NTO, corresponding to the highest reforming activity, resistance to carbon deposition and electrochemical performance of the cell. Fueled wet CH4 at 100 mL min−1, the cell with 3 wt.% of NTO demonstrates a peak power density of 1.20 W cm−2 and a high limiting current density of 2.83 A cm−2 at 650 °C. It performs steadily for 96 h at 0.4 A cm−2 without the presence of deposited carbon in the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support and functional anode. Five polarization processes are identified by deconvoluting and data-fitting the electrochemical impedance spectra of the cells under the testing conditions; and the addition of TiO2-supported Ni particles into the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support reduces the polarization resistance of the processes ascribed to CH4 steam reforming and gas diffusion in the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support and functional anode. PMID:27775092

  20. Enhanced methane steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance of Ni0.9Fe0.1-supported solid oxide fuel cells with infiltrated Ni-TiO2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Jia, Lichao; Wang, Xin; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Li, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Ni0.9Fe0.1 alloy-supported solid oxide fuel cells with NiTiO3 (NTO) infiltrated into the cell support from 0 to 4 wt.% are prepared and investigated for CH4 steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance. The infiltrated NiTiO3 is reduced to TiO2-supported Ni particles in H2 at 650 °C. The reforming activity of the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support is increased by the presence of the TiO2-supported Ni particles; 3 wt.% is the optimal value of the added NTO, corresponding to the highest reforming activity, resistance to carbon deposition and electrochemical performance of the cell. Fueled wet CH4 at 100 mL min‑1, the cell with 3 wt.% of NTO demonstrates a peak power density of 1.20 W cm‑2 and a high limiting current density of 2.83 A cm‑2 at 650 °C. It performs steadily for 96 h at 0.4 A cm‑2 without the presence of deposited carbon in the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support and functional anode. Five polarization processes are identified by deconvoluting and data-fitting the electrochemical impedance spectra of the cells under the testing conditions; and the addition of TiO2-supported Ni particles into the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support reduces the polarization resistance of the processes ascribed to CH4 steam reforming and gas diffusion in the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support and functional anode.

  1. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental water samples by Fe3O4@dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride@silica magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Liu, Donghui; Li, Ranhong; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2012-10-17

    A magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was proposed for the determination of five sulfonylurea herbicides (bensulfuron-methyl, prosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, chlorimuron-ethyl and triflusulfuron-methyl) in environmental water samples. The magnetic adsorbent was prepared by incorporating Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles and surfactant into a silica matrix according to a sol-gel procedure, which can provide surfactant free extracts during the eluting step to avoid chromatographic interference. The prepared adsorbent was used to extract the sulfonylurea herbicides in several kinds of water samples. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including desorption conditions, extraction time, sample volume, and sample solution pH were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained within the range of 0.2-50.0 μg L(-1) for all analytes, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9993 to 0.9999. The enrichment factors were between 1200 and 1410, and the limits of detection were between 0.078 and 0.10 μg L(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental samples (tap, reservoir, river, and rice field). The recoveries of the method ranged between 80.4% and 107.1%. This study reported for the first time the use of MSPE procedure in the preconcentration of sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental samples. The procedure proved to be efficient, environmentally friendly, and fast.

  2. Magnetic solid phase extraction of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples with metal organic framework MIL-101 (Cr) modified zero valent iron nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Lei, Man; Wu, Yalin; Yuan, Yongyong

    2017-03-03

    Metal-organic framework material has been paid more attention because of its good physical and chemical properties. Nanoscale zero valent iron is also in the center of concern recently. Combination of their merits will give impressive results. Present study firstly synthesized a new magnetic nanomaterial nano-scale zero valent iron-functionalized metal-organic framworks MIL-101 (Fe@MIL-101) by co-precipitation method. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared Fe@MIL-101 were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, etc. The experimental results showed that Fe@MIL-101 earned good adsorption ability to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The limits of detection of developed magnetic solid phase extraction were all below 0.064μgL(-1) and precision can be expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD, %) and which was better than 4.4% (n=6). The real water analysis indicated that the spiked recoveries were satisfied, and Fe@MIL-101 earned excellent reusability. All these demonstrated that Fe@MIL-101 exhibited excellent adsorption capability to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and would be a good adsorbent for development of new monitoring methods for environmental pollutants.

  3. The Formation of Solid Particles from their Gas-Phase Molecular Precursors in Cosmic Environments with NASA Ames' COSmIC Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss the unique characteristics and capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory. COSmIC stands for Cosmic Simulation Chamber and is dedicated to the study of molecules and ions under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate interstellar, circumstellar and planetary physical environments in space. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. COSmIC is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a free jet supersonic expansion coupled to two ultrahigh-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) system for photonic detection and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection. Recent, unique, laboratory astrophysics results that were obtained using the capabilities of COSmIC will be discussed, in particular the progress that have been achieved in monitoring in the laboratory the formation of solid gains from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as stellar/circumstellar outflow and planetary atmospheres. Plans for future, next generation, laboratory experiments on cosmic molecules and grains in the growing field of laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed as well as the implications of these studies for current and upcoming space missions.

  4. Particle Deposition in Drying Drops of Colloidal Suspensions Containing Different Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, Tim; Yunker, Peter J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    When a drop of water containing small solid particles dries, most of the solid material is deposited in a ring-shape stain after evaporation (the so-called coffee ring), driven by initial contact line pinning and a subsequent outward-flow. The fluid dynamics and, hence, the deposition mechanism in such suspensions can be dramatically changed when surfactants are introduced into the system. In a colloidal model-system, the ionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) produces a concentration-driven Marangoni flow counteracting the outward-flow of the coffee ring effect. SDS locally concentrates at the air/water interface next to the contact line, leading to a reduced local surface tension. Thus, a circulating flow (`Marangoni eddy') is introduced that prevents particles from deposition. This flow is visualized by the movements of the dragged particles using video microscopy. Other surfactants can influence this highly non-equilibrium systems in completely other ways. E.g., the non-ionic Polaxamer block-copolymer surfactants lead to a uniform particle deposition, which we explain by hydrophilization of the colloidal particles. Controlling the solid deposition in drying drops is of major importance for many technical applications.

  5. Scalability study of solid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, J.; Cease, H.; Jaskierny, W. F.; Markley, D.; Pahlka, R. B.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Saab, T.; Filipenko, M.

    2015-04-01

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employed a cryostat cooled by liquid nitrogen combined with a xenon purification and chiller system. A modified {\\it Bridgeman's technique} reproduces a large scale optically transparent solid xenon.

  6. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  7. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  8. MOVEMENT IN THE CYANOPHYCEAE

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Paul R.

    1933-01-01

    The effect of pH upon the velocity of translatory movement of Oscillatoria formosa Bory in inorganic culture solutions was determined. Unhindered movement occurred in the range of about pH 6.4 to 9.5. Above and below these limits inhibition was marked. In the unfavorable acid and alkaline ranges inhibition was progressive with exposure time; in the favorable range continuous movement was maintained for 24 hours. PMID:19872745

  9. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines

  10. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  11. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combusion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai

    2003-09-24

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. The nitric oxide sensor has been used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based sensor measurements showed good agreement with the results from physical probe sampling of the combustion exhaust. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. Future planned modifications will lead to even faster response times at sensitivity levels at or below 1 ppm.

  12. Photocatalytic/Magnetic Composite Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Chang-Yu; Goswami, Yogi; Garretson, Charles; Andino, Jean; Mazyck, David

    2007-01-01

    Photocatalytic/magnetic composite particles have been invented as improved means of exploiting established methods of photocatalysis for removal of chemical and biological pollutants from air and water. The photocatalytic components of the composite particles are formulated for high levels of photocatalytic activity, while the magnetic components make it possible to control the movements of the particles through the application of magnetic fields. The combination of photocatalytic and magnetic properties can be exploited in designing improved air- and water treatment reactors.

  13. Analysis of the chemical composition of ultrafine particles from two domestic solid biomass fired room heaters under simulated real-world use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgen, Senem; Becagli, Silvia; Bernardoni, Vera; Caserini, Stefano; Caruso, Donatella; Corbella, Lorenza; Dell'Acqua, Manuela; Fermo, Paola; Gonzalez, Raquel; Lonati, Giovanni; Signorini, Stefano; Tardivo, Ruggero; Tosi, Elisa; Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta; Marinovich, Marina

    2017-02-01

    Two common types of wood (beech and fir) were burned in commercial pellet (11.1 kW) and wood (8.2 kW) stoves following a combustion cycle simulating the behavior of a real-world user. Ultrafine particulate matter (UFP, dp < 100 nm) was sampled with three parallel multistage impactors and analyzed for metals, main water soluble ions, anhydrosugars, total carbon, and PAH content. The measurement of the number concentration and size distribution was also performed by a fourth multistage impactor. UFP mass emission factors averaged to 424 mg/kgfuel for all the tested stove and wood type (fir, beech) combinations except for beech log burning in the wood stove (838 mg/kgfuel). Compositional differences were observed for pellets and wood UFP samples, where high TC levels characterize the wood log combustion and potassium salts are dominant in every pellet sample. Crucial aspects determining the UFP composition in the wood stove experiments are critical situations in terms of available oxygen (a lack or an excess of combustion air) and high temperatures. Whereas for the automatically controlled pellets stove local situations (e.g., hindered air-fuel mixing due to heaps of pellets on the burner pot) determine the emission levels and composition. Wood samples contain more potentially carcinogenic PAHs with respect to pellets samples. Some diagnostic ratios related to PAH isomers and anhydrosugars compiled from experimental UFP data in the present study and compared to literature values proposed for the emission source discrimination for atmospheric aerosol, extend the evaluation usually limited to higher particle size fractions also to UFP.

  14. A New Mechanism for Ozonolysis of Unsaturated Organics on Solids: Phosphocholines on NaCl as A Model for Sea Salt particles

    SciTech Connect

    Karagulian, Federico; Lea, Alan S; Dilbeck, Christopher W; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-28

    The ozonolysis of an approximately one monolayer film of 1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OPPC) on NaCl was followed in real time using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (DRIFTS) at 23 °C. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and AUGER electron spectroscopy were used as complementary analytical techniques. Ozone concentrations ranged from 1.7 x 1012 to 7.0 x 1013 molecules cm-3 (70 ppb to 2.5 ppm). Upon exposure to O3, there was a loss of C=C accompanied by the formation of a strong band at ~1110 cm-1 due to the formation of a stable secondary ozonide (1,3,4-trioxolane, SOZ). The yield of the SOZ was lower when the reaction was carried out in the presence of water vapor at concentrations corresponding to relative humidities between 2 and 25 %. The dependencies of the rate of SOZ formation on the concentrations of ozone and water vapor are consistent with the initial formation of a primary ozonide (1,2,3-trioxolane, POZ) that can react with O3 or H2O in competition with its thermal decomposition to a Criegee intermediate and aldehyde. This interpretation is also consistent with the measured dependence of the SOZ yield on the ozone concentration. Estimates were obtained for the rate constants for the POZ thermal decomposition and for its reactions with O3 and H2O, as well as for the initial reaction of O3 with OPPC. The SOZ decomposed upon photolysis at x > 300 nm, generating aldehydes, carboxylic acids and anhydrides. These studies show that the primary ozonide has a sufficiently long lifetime when formed on a solid substrate that direct reactions with O3 and H2O can compete with its thermal decomposition. In dry polluted atmospheres, ozone-alkene reactions may lead in part to the formation of stable secondary ozonides whose chemistry, photochemistry and toxicity should be taken into account in models of such regions.

  15. Microgravity Particle Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ivan O.; Johnson, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This research seeks to identify the experiment design parameters for future flight experiments to better resolve the effects of thermal and velocity gradients on gas-solid flows. By exploiting the reduced body forces and minimized thermal convection current of reduced gravity experiments, features of gas-solid flow normally masked by gravitationally induced effects can be studied using flow regimes unattainable under unigravity. This paper assesses the physical scales of velocity, length, time, thermal gradient magnitude, and velocity gradient magnitude likely to be involved in laminar gas-solid multiphase flight experiments for 1-100 micro-m particles.

  16. Designing Preschool Movement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Stephen W.

    This guide contains developmentally appropriate movement activities designed to help teachers of children ages 3 through 5 plan and administer a successful movement education program. The book is organized into three parts. The first part presents a model upon which teachers can base their selection of physical activities for children, addresses…

  17. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  18. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  19. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  20. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  1. Research for a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Randy G.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the new era of the Religious Education Association (REA) and how it may be seen to function as a "movement" with purposes, scope, and connectivity that bring together diverse groups. The author contends that religious education as a movement needs: (1) Research that describes patterns and uniquenesses in the religious…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF ALL-SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR MEASUREMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE AND AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN PARTICLE-LADEN COMBUSTION EXHAUST STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2004-09-30

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2 described in this progress report, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be

  3. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2005-09-30

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the

  4. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2006-12-31

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the

  5. Student Misapplication of a Gas-Like Model to Explain Particle Movement in Heated Solids: Implications for Curriculum and Instruction towards Students' Creation and Revision of Accurate Explanatory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwma-Gearhart, Jana; Stewart, James; Brown, Keffrelyn

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the particulate nature of matter (PNM) is vital for participating in many areas of science. We assessed 11 students' atomic/molecular-level explanations of real-world phenomena after their participation in a modelling-based PNM unit. All 11 students offered a scientifically acceptable model regarding atomic/molecular behaviour in…

  6. Particle segregation during explosive dispersal of binary particle mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, David L.; Loiseau, Jason; Marr, Bradley J.; Goroshin, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles surrounding a spherical high explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. The shock-compacted particle layer typically fractures into discrete fragments which move radially outwards on ballistic trajectories. The fragments shed particles in their wakes forming jet-like structures. The tendency to form jets depends on the mass-ratio of the particles to explosive and the type of particles. Brittle or soft, ductile particles are more susceptible to forming jets during compaction and dispersal, whereas particles that are comprised of material with moderate hardness, high compressive strength and high toughness are much less prone to forming jets. Experiments have been carried out to determine the degree of particle segregation that occurs during the explosive dispersal of a uniform, binary mixture containing both "jetting" (silicon carbide) and "non-jetting" (steel) particles with various mass fractions of each particle type. During the dispersal of mixtures that contain predominantly non-jetting (steel) particles, the steel particles form a stable layer whereas the jetting (silicon carbide) particles rapidly segregate and form jets which are confined within the shell of steel particles. As the fraction of silicon carbide particles increases, the jet structures dominate the particle motion and the steel particles are entrained into the jet structures.

  7. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins.

  8. Eye movement tics.

    PubMed Central

    Shawkat, F; Harris, C M; Jacobs, M; Taylor, D; Brett, E M

    1992-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with opsoclonus-like eye movement and an 18 month history of intermittent facial tics. Investigations were all normal. Electro-oculography showed the eye movements to be of variable amplitude (10-40 degrees), with no intersaccadic interval, and with a frequency of 3-4 Hz. Saccades, smooth pursuit, optokinetic, and vestibular reflexes were all normal. These abnormal eye movements eventually disappeared. It is thought that they were a form of ocular tics. PMID:1477052

  9. A new experiment to measure shocked particle drag using multi-pulse particle image velocimetry and particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Adam A.; Orlicz, Gregory C.; Prestridge, Katherine P.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the measurement capabilities for a new horizontal shock tube facility designed to measure the displacements, velocities and accelerations of shock-accelerated particles just after shock passage. Eight-frame particle image accelerometry and particle tracking velocimetry accelerometry diagnostics are implemented, along with a shadowgraphy system for measuring the shock location during experiments. We demonstrate the driving conditions of the facility using a unique membraneless pneumatic driver and particle seeding system that can accommodate both solid and liquid particles in the carrier phase. Measurements of two types of solid particles show unsteady drag forces higher than those for steady drag.

  10. Ligandless surfactant mediated solid phase extraction combined with Fe₃O₄ nano-particle for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium and lead in water and soil samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: multivariate strategy.

    PubMed

    Jalbani, N; Soylak, M

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, a microextraction technique combining Fe3O4 nano-particle with surfactant mediated solid phase extraction ((SM-SPE)) was successfully developed for the preconcentration/separation of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water and soil samples. The analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effective variables such as the amount of adsorbent (NPs), the pH, concentration of non-ionic (TX-114) and centrifugation time (min) were investigated by Plackett-Burman (PBD) design. The important variables were further optimized by central composite design (CCD). Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (LODs) of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 0.15 and 0.74 µg/L, respectively. The validation of the proposed procedure was checked by the analysis of certified reference materials of TMDA 53.3 fortified water and GBW07425 soil. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water and soil samples.

  11. Movement and Coordination

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Movement and Coordination Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  12. Experimental Methods to Estimate Accumulated Solids in Nuclear Waste Tanks - 13313

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, Mark R.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Steimke, John L.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: - Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream. - Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel. - Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas. - Laser range finders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds. - Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. - Computer driven positioner that placed the laser range finders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities

  13. Active intranuclear movement of herpesvirus capsids.

    PubMed

    Forest, Thomas; Barnard, Sandra; Baines, Joel D

    2005-04-01

    Although small molecules diffuse rapidly through the interphase nucleus, recent reports indicate that nuclear diffusion is limited for particles that are larger than 100 nm in diameter. Given the apparent size limits to nuclear diffusion, there is some debate as to whether the movement of large particles should be attributed to diffusion or to active transport. Here, we show that 125 nm-diameter herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsids are actively transported within infected nuclei. Movement is directed, temperature- and energy-dependent, sensitive to the putative myosin inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) and to actin depolymerization with latrunculin-A, but insensitive to actin depolymerization with cytochalasin-D.

  14. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  15. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  16. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  17. Four particle exchange in solid He-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations which demonstrate a physically important four-atom exchange process in bodycentered cubic He crystal and thus an important four-spin term in the exchange Hamiltonian are discussed. A simple, mean-field analysis of this Hamiltonian appears to account for a number of the perplexing properties of bodycentered cubic He crystal. It is suggested that an understanding of other properties may require treatment of the exact four-spin term.

  18. Solids flow mapping in gas-solid risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhusarapu, Satish Babu

    Gas-solid risers are extensively used in many industrial processes for gas-solid reactions (e.g. coal combustion and gasification) and for solid catalyzed gas phase reactions (e.g. fluid catalytic cracking, butane oxidation to maleic anhydride). Ab initio prediction of the complex multiphase fluid dynamics in risers is not yet possible, which makes reactor modeling difficult. In particular, quantification of solids flow and mixing is important. Almost all the experimental techniques used to characterize solids flow lead to appreciable errors in measured variables in large scale, high mass flux systems. In addition, none of the experimental techniques provide all the relevant data required to develop a satisfactory solids flow model. In this study, non-invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) is employed to visualize and quantify the solids dynamics and mixing in the gas-solid riser of a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB). A single radioactive tracer particle is monitored during its multiple visits to the riser and with an assumption of ergodicity, the following flow parameters are estimated: (a) Overall solids mass flux in the CFB loop. (b) Solids residence time distribution in the riser and down-comer. (c) Lagrangian and Eulerian solids velocity fields in a fully-developed section of the riser. This includes velocity fluctuations and components of the diffusivity tensor. The existing CARPT technique is extended to large scale systems. A new algorithm, based on a cross-correlation search, is developed for position rendition from CARPT data. Two dimensional solids holdup profiles are estimated using gamma-ray computed tomography. The image quality from the tomography data is improved by implementing an alternating minimization algorithm. This work establishes for the first time a reliable database for local solids dynamic quantities such as time-averaged velocities, Reynolds stresses, eddy diffusivities and turbulent kinetic energy. In addition

  19. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  20. [Sleep and movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Poryazova, R; Bassetti, C L

    2007-01-01

    The three different states of being (wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep) are associated with profound neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the brain. These changes explain the existence of movement disorders appearing only or preferentially during sleep, and the effects of sleep on movement disorders. Sleep-related movement disorders are of clinical relevance for multiple reasons: 1) high frequency (e.g. restless legs syndrome (RLS)); 2) diagnostic relevance (e.g. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as first manifestation of Parkinson disorder); 3) diagnostic uncertainty (e.g. parasomnias vs nocturnal epilepsy); 4) association with injuries (e.g. RBD, sleepwalking), sleep disruption/daytime sleepiness (e.g. RLS), and psycho-social burden (e.g. enuresis); 5) requirement of specific treatments (e.g. nocturnal epilepsy, stridor, RBD). This article gives an overview on clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, work-up and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders (e.g. RLS, bruxism), parasomnias (e.g. sleepwalking, RBD), sleep-related epilepsies, and on sleep-associated manifestations of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy).

  1. Posttraumatic functional movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Ganos, C; Edwards, M J; Bhatia, K P

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the nervous system may account for a range of neurologic symptoms. Trauma location and severity are important determinants of the resulting symptoms. In severe head injury with structural brain abnormalities, the occurrence of trauma-induced movement disorders, most commonly hyperkinesias such as tremor and dystonia, is well recognized and its diagnosis straightforward. However, the association of minor traumatic events, which do not lead to significant persistent structural brain damage, with the onset of movement disorders is more contentious. The lack of clear clinical-neuroanatomic (or symptom lesion) correlations in these cases, the variable timing between traumatic event and symptom onset, but also the presence of unusual clinical features in a number of such patients, which overlap with signs encountered in patients with functional neurologic disorders, contribute to this controversy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the movement disorders, most notably dystonia, that have been associated with peripheral trauma and focus on their unusual characteristics, as well as their overlap with functional neurologic disorders. We will then provide details on pathophysiologic views that relate minor peripheral injuries to the development of movement disorders and compare them to knowledge from primary organic and functional movement disorders. Finally, we will comment on the appropriate management of these disorders.

  2. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  3. Oxidative particle mixtures for groundwater treatment

    DOEpatents

    Siegrist, Robert L.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is a method and a composition of a mixture for degradation and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The oxidative particle mixture and method includes providing a material having a minimal volume of free water, mixing at least one inorganic oxidative chemical in a granular form with a carrier fluid containing a fine grained inorganic hydrophilic compound and injecting the resulting mixture into the subsurface. The granular form of the inorganic oxidative chemical dissolves within the areas of injection, and the oxidative ions move by diffusion and/or advection, therefore extending the treatment zone over a wider area than the injection area. The organic contaminants in the soil and groundwater are degraded by the oxidative ions, which form solid byproducts that can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants, metals, and radionuclides for in situ treatment and immobilization of contaminants. The method and composition of the oxidative particle mixture for long-term treatment and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater provides for a reduction in toxicity of contaminants in a subsurface area of contamination without the need for continued injection of treatment material, or for movement of the contaminants, or without the need for continuous pumping of groundwater through the treatment zone, or removal of groundwater from the subsurface area of contamination.

  4. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  5. Legacy of the Environmental Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to select an important contemporary social movement (the environmental movement) and to assess some of the important impacts it has had on the larger society. This review of the environmental movement indicates it may be following a path similiar to the life-cycle of previous movements. (Author/BT)

  6. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  7. Movement as utopia.

    PubMed

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  8. Particle fuel diversion structure

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, R. D.

    1985-07-30

    A particle fuel burning furnace has an upper combustion chamber for holding a pile of particle fuel and burning the same from the bottom thereof. The furnace also includes a lower combustion chamber for after-burning combustible gases given off by the burning of solid fuel in the upper chamber and a series of spaced apart vertically-extending passageways arranged in a row and interconnecting the upper and lower chambers for communicating the combustible gases from the upper to the lower chamber. A first improved feature relates to a particle fuel delivery control device which operates an auger for filling the upper chamber with particle fuel to a desired level. A beam of light is transmitted and reflected between a photoelectric cell and reflector respectively of the device. When the particle fuel pile has grown in height during filling to the desired level the light beam is interrupted and filling is terminated. A second improved feature relates to a particle fuel diversion structure positioned in spaced relationship above and overlying the row of passageways. The structure forms a horizontal slot which extends laterally from the passageways which prevents particles of fuel from falling through the passageways and relocates the flame which burns the particle fuel pile from the bottom to a region away from the passageways.

  9. Psychogenic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) can present with varied phenomenology that may resemble organic movement disorders. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation with a supporting history and classic features on neurologic examination. Ancillary testing, such as imaging and neurophysiologic studies, can provide supplementary information but is not necessary for diagnosis. There is no standard protocol for the treatment of PMDs, but a multidisciplinary approach has been recommended. This review discusses the clinical characteristics of various PMDs as well as ancillary testing, treatment, and research in the pathophysiology of this complex group of disorders.

  10. On the modification of particle dispersion in isotropic turbulence by free rotation of particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongnam; Lee, Changhoon

    2008-11-01

    Effect of a particle's spin is investigated numerically by considering the effect of lift occurring due to difference of rotations of a particle and of fluid such as the Saffman lift and Magnus force. These lift forces have been neglected in many previous works on particle-laden turbulence. The trajectory of particles can be changed by the lift forces, resulting in significant modification of the stochastic characteristics of heavy particles. Probability density functions and autocorrelations are examined of velocity, acceleration of solid particle and acceleration of fluid at the position of solid particle. Changes in velocity statistics are negligible but statistics related with acceleration are a little bit changed by particle's rotation. When a laden particle encounters with coherent structures during the motion, the particle's rotation might significantly affects the motion due to intermittently large fluid acceleration near coherent structures. The result can be used for development of stochastic model for particle dispersion. Detailed physical interpretation will be presented in the meeting.

  11. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    This paper illustrates experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their molecular structure transitions, and their agglomeration times were estimated. article sizes of 1.8 to 4.6 mm (0.07 to 0. 18 in.) were measured. The particle agglomeration times were 0.5 to 11 min, depending on the loading of particles in the dewar. These experiments are the first step toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  12. Overlap of movement planning and movement execution reduces reaction time.

    PubMed

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Legrain, Valéry; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Motor planning is the process of preparing the appropriate motor commands in order to achieve a goal. This process has largely been thought to occur before movement onset and traditionally has been associated with reaction time. However, in a virtual line bisection task we observed an overlap between movement planning and execution. In this task performed with a robotic manipulandum, we observed that participants (n = 30) made straight movements when the line was in front of them (near target) but often made curved movements when the same target was moved sideways (far target, which had the same orientation) in such a way that they crossed the line perpendicular to its orientation. Unexpectedly, movements to the far targets had shorter reaction times than movements to the near targets (mean difference: 32 ms, SE: 5 ms, max: 104 ms). In addition, the curvature of the movement modulated reaction time. A larger increase in movement curvature from the near to the far target was associated with a larger reduction in reaction time. These highly curved movements started with a transport phase during which accuracy demands were not taken into account. We conclude that an accuracy demand imposes a reaction time penalty if processed before movement onset. This penalty is reduced if the start of the movement consists of a transport phase and if the movement plan can be refined with respect to accuracy demands later in the movement, hence demonstrating an overlap between movement planning and execution.

  13. A hybrid particle/continuum approach for nonequilibrium hypersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Lan

    A hybrid particle-continuum computational framework is developed and presented for simulating nonequilibrium hypersonic flows, aimed to be more accurate than conventional continuum methods and faster than particle methods. The frame work consists of the direct simulation Monte Carlo-Information Preservation (DSMC-IP) method coupled with a Navier-Stokes solver. Since the DSMC-IP method provides the macroscopic information at each time step, determination of the continuum fluxes across the interface between the particle and continuum domains becomes straightforward. Buffer and reservoir calls are introduced in the continuum domain and work as an extension of the particle domain. At the end of the particle movement phase, particles in either particle or buffer cells are retained. All simulated particles in the reservoir cells are first deleted for each time, step and re-generated based on the local cell values. The microscopic velocities for the newly generated particles are initialized to the Chapman-Enskog distribution using an acceptance-rejection scheme. Continuum breakdown in a flow is defined as when the continuum solution departs from the particle solution to at least 5%. Numerical investigations show that a Knudsen-number-like parameter can best predict the continuum breakdown in the flows of interest. Numerical experiments of hypersonic flows over a simple blunted cone and a much more complex hollow cylinder/flare are conducted. The solutions for the two geometries considered from the hybrid framework are compared with experimental data and pure particle solutions. Generally speaking, it is concluded that the hybrid approach works quite well. In the blunted cone flow, numerical accuracy is improved when 10 layers of buffer cells are employed and the continuum breakdown cut-off value is set to be 0.03. In the hollow cylinder/flare hybrid simulation, the size of the separation zone near the conjunction of the cylinder and flare is improved from the initial

  14. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 1, in-situ measurements of flow dynamics, tracer particle movement and video imagery from the summer of 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Scott W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Tucker, Greg E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Debris flows initiated by surface-water runoff during short duration, moderate- to high-intensity rainfall are common in steep, rocky, and sparsely vegetated terrain. Yet large uncertainties remain about the potential for a flow to grow through entrainment of loose debris, which make formulation of accurate mechanical models of debris-flow routing difficult. Using a combination of in situ measurements of debris flow dynamics, video imagery, tracer rocks implanted with passive integrated transponders (PIT) and pre- and post-flow 2-cm resolution digital terrain models (terrain data presented in a companion paper by STALEY et alii, 2011), we investigated the entrainment and transport response of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, CO, USA. Four monitored events during the summer of 2009 all initiated from surface-water runoff, generally less than an hour after the first measurable rain. Despite reach-scale morphology that remained relatively constant, the four flow events displayed a range of responses, from long-runout flows that entrained significant amounts of channel sediment and dammed the main-stem river, to smaller, short-runout flows that were primarily depositional in the upper basin. Tracer-rock travel-distance distributions for these events were bimodal; particles either remained immobile or they travelled the entire length of the catchment. The long-runout, large-entrainment flow differed from the other smaller flows by the following controlling factors: peak 10-minute rain intensity; duration of significant flow in the channel; and to a lesser extent, peak surge depth and velocity. Our growing database of natural debris-flow events can be used to develop linkages between observed debris-flow transport and entrainment responses and the controlling rainstorm characteristics and flow properties.

  15. Managing Movement as Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  16. The Hopi Traditionalist Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Richard O.

    1994-01-01

    Traces development of Hopi Traditionalism since 1906 as a social movement within the context of Hopi culture and sociopolitical history. Discusses the role of ideology in mediating political and economic conditions of history and collective cultural consciousness. Offers conclusions about the political role of indigenous culture and culturally…

  17. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  18. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

  19. Teaching the Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2012-01-01

    Every January, Charles Cobb Jr. makes the 1,100-mile trek from sunny Jacksonville, Florida, to chilly Providence, Rhode Island. For the past eight years, Cobb--a veteran of the civil rights movement who in the 1960s served as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi--becomes a visiting professor of…

  20. Movement Disorders in 2012

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Nikolaus R.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Standfirst Research in movement disorders in 2012 had led to advances in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of disease and to development of potential novel therapeutic approaches. Key advances include elucidating mechanisms of spreading neurodegenerative pathology, immunotherapy, stem cells, genetics and deep brain stimulation in Parkinsonisms and related disorders. PMID:23296342

  1. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  2. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  3. [Architecture and movement].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  4. Frequent Bowel Movements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sanjoaquin MA, et al. Nutrition and lifestyle in relation to bowel movement frequency: A cross-sectional study of 20,630 men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutrition. 2004;7:77. Evaluation of the GI patient. The Merck Manual Professional ...

  5. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  6. Solid consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  7. Particle separation

    DOEpatents

    Moosmuller, Hans [Reno, NV; Chakrabarty, Rajan K [Reno, NV; Arnott, W Patrick [Reno, NV

    2011-04-26

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  8. Particle separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moosmuller, Hans (Inventor); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Inventor); Arnott, W. Patrick (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  9. Movement and Movement Patterns of Early Childhood. [Complete Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Caroline

    This study investigated the progressive development in movement and movement patterns of children ages 2-6. Data were collected over a 3-year period at six-month intervals, based on films of 57 children performing 25 motor tasks. The results are presented along two dimensions: (1) Descriptive analysis of progress of young children in movement with…

  10. On quantifying insect movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. ); Milne, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    We elaborate on methods described by Turchin, Odendaal Rausher for quantifying insect movement pathways. We note the need to scale measurement resolution to the study insects and the questions being asked, and we discuss the use of surveying instrumentation for recording sequential positions of individuals on pathways. We itemize several measures that may be used to characterize movement pathways and illustrate these by comparisons among several Eleodes beetles occurring in shortgrass steppe. The fractal dimension of pathways may provide insights not available from absolute measures of pathway configuration. Finally, we describe a renormalization procedure that may be used to remove sequential interdependence among locations of moving individuals while preserving the basic attributes of the pathway.

  11. Automatic Chloroplast Movement Analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Zeidler, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In response to low or high intensities of light, the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf are able to increase or decrease their exposure to light by accumulating at the upper and lower sides or along the side walls of the cell respectively. This movement, regulated by the phototropin blue light photoreceptors phot1 and phot2, results in a decreased or increased transmission of light through the leaf. This way the plant is able to optimize harvesting of the incoming light or avoid damage caused by excess light. Here we describe a method that indirectly measures the movement of chloroplasts by taking advantage of the resulting change in leaf transmittance. By using a microplate reader, quantitative measurements of chloroplast accumulation or avoidance can be monitored over time, for multiple samples with relatively little hands-on time.

  12. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  13. [Ergonomic movement in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Bos-Huizer, J J A; Bolderman, F W

    2014-02-01

    'Ergonomic movement in dentistry' is a recently developed ergonomic programme for dental healthcare professionals which is intended to prevent work-related complaints and assist in recovering from them. The programme is recommended by disability insurers in cases of specific physical complaints, limitations or disability, as a consequence of which a dental healthcare professional is unable to carry out his or her work. In a four-day training programme, in one's own workplace, skills are taught in the areas of work organization, work attitude and movement. These skills are directly applied in the treatment ofpatients and, if necessary, further improved. In this way, one advances step by step to an ergonomic way of working. Evaluations have shown that the programme is advantageous for the attitude toward work, the workplace and the work organization as well as the reduction of disability.

  14. Numerical simulation of wind sand movement in straw checkerboard barriers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ning; Xia, Xianpan; Tong, Ding

    2013-09-01

    Straw checkerboard barrier (SCB) is the most representative antidesertification measure and plays a significant role in antidesertification projects. Large-eddy simulation and discrete-particle tracing were used to numerically simulate the wind sand movement inside the straw checkerboard barrier (SCB), study the movement characteristics of sand particles, find the transverse velocities of sand particles and flow field, and obtain the contour of the transverse velocity of coupled wind field within the SCB. The results showed that 1) compared with that at the inlet of the SCB, the sand transport rate inside the SCB greatly decreases and the speed of sand grain movement also evidently drops, indicating that the SCB has very good sand movement preventing and fixing function; 2) within the SCB there exists a series of unevenly distributed eddies of wind sand flow, their strength decreases gradually with increasing the transverse distance; 3) affected by eddies or reflux, sand particles carried by the wind sand flow have to drop forward and backward the two interior walls inside the SCB, respectively, forming a v-shaped sand trough; 4) the sand transport rate gradually decreases with increasing number of SCBs, which reveals that the capacity of the wind field to transport sand particles decreases. This research is of significance in sandstorm and land desertification control.

  15. Integral equation study of particle confinement effects in a polymer/particle mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D; Trokhymchuk, A; Kalyuzhnyi, Y; Gee, R; Lacevic, N

    2007-05-09

    Integral equation theory techniques are applied to evaluate the structuring of the polymer when large solid particles are embedded into a bulk polymer melt. The formalism presented here is applied to obtain an insight into the filler particle aggregation tendency. We find that with the employed polymer-particle interaction model it is very unlikely that the particles will aggregate. We believe that in such a system aggregation and clustering can occur when the filler particles are dressed by tightly bound polymer layers.

  16. Behavior of colloidal particles and micelles in thin liquid films with application to foam stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethumadhavan, Gopi Nath

    Foams, emulsions and colloidal dispersions are frequently seen to occur in many industrial systems like ink, paint, milk, butter, shaving foams, etc. The key structural elements in these systems are the thin liquid films that form between the dispersed phase bubbles or droplets. Whenever two droplets or bubbles of different sizes come close together, the film formed between them is a curved film. Thus, experiments using surfactant-free, curved, single-foam-films containing colloidal particles were carried out to understand the effect of particle concentration, size, polydispersity, bidispersity and film size on the particle structuring phenomenon in the confined environment of a thin liquid film. Such layering provides additional stabilizing force and was also found to have a significant impact on the long-term stability of surfactant foams containing micelles. The work in this thesis using colloidal particles in curved films is the first of its kind. Experimentally it was observed that the particles moved from the film to the bulk in the process of reaching an equilibrium and the flux of particles from the film periphery was a constant. A critical film size was observed for the curved films below which the particles did not show a tendency to leave the film. At high particle concentrations, the particle movement from the film to the bulk was low. Polydispersed and bidispersed particles displayed high rates of particle exodus from the film to the bulk, which are indicative of poor particle structuring in the thin liquid films. Particle behavior in confinement was satisfactorily explained using the diffusive-osmotic model. Our preliminary studies also show that micelles with higher ability to form ordered layers in a confined environment display a higher pollutant removal efficiency from solid surfaces. Monte Carlo simulations of mono and bidispersed particles in thin liquid films corroborated the experimental observations. Particle layering was pronounced at high

  17. Analysis of particle kinematics in spheronization via particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Koester, Martin; Thommes, Markus

    2013-02-01

    Spheronization is a wide spread technique in pellet production for many pharmaceutical applications. Pellets produced by spheronization are characterized by a particularly spherical shape and narrow size distribution. The particle kinematic during spheronization is currently not well-understood. Therefore, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was implemented in the spheronization process to visualize the particle movement and to identify flow patterns, in order to explain the influence of various process parameters. The spheronization process of a common formulation was recorded with a high-speed camera, and the images were processed using particle image velocimetry software. A crosscorrelation approach was chosen to determine the particle velocity at the surface of the pellet bulk. Formulation and process parameters were varied systematically, and their influence on the particle velocity was investigated. The particle stream shows a torus-like shape with a twisted rope-like motion. It is remarkable that the overall particle velocity is approximately 10-fold lower than the tip speed of the friction plate. The velocity of the particle stream can be correlated to the water content of the pellets and the load of the spheronizer, while the rotation speed was not relevant. In conclusion, PIV was successfully applied to the spheronization process, and new insights into the particle velocity were obtained.

  18. Stability of Dynamic Trunk Movement

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Kevin P.; England, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Nonlinear systems analyses of trunk kinematics were performed to estimate control of dynamic stability during repetitive flexion and extension movements. Objective. Determine whether movement pace and movement direction of dynamic trunk flexion and extension influence control of local dynamic stability. Summary of Background Data. Spinal stability has been previously characterizedz in static, but not in dynamic movements. Biomechanical models make inferences about static spinal stability, but existing analyses provide limited insight into stability of dynamic movement. Stability during dynamic movements can be estimated from Lyapunov analyses of empirical data. Methods. There were 20 healthy subjects who performed repetitive trunk flexion and extension movements at 20 and 40 cycles per minute. Maximum Lyapunov exponents describing the expansion of the kinematic state-space were calculated from the measured trunk kinematics to estimate stability of the dynamic system. Results. The complexity of torso movement dynamics required at least 5 embedded dimensions, which suggests that stability components of lumbar lordosis may be empirically measurable in addition to global stability of trunk dynamics. Repeated trajectories from fast paced movements diverged more quickly than slower movement, indicating that local dynamic stability is limited in fast movements. Movements in the midsagittal plane showed higher multidimensional kinematic divergence than asymmetric movements. Conclusion. Nonlinear dynamic systems analyses were successfully applied to empirically measured data, which were used to characterize the neuromuscular control of stability during repetitive dynamic trunk movements. Movement pace and movement direction influenced the control of spinal stability. These stability assessment techniques are recommended for improved workplace design and the clinical assessment of spinal stability in patients with low back pain. PMID:16648732

  19. Detrended-Fluctuation Analysis of Nematode Movement in Heterogeneous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapca, S. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    We consider multifractal analysis in time scale to analyse the effect of structural heterogeneity on the movement of the slug-parasitic nematode, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. The study involves image recording and analysis of nematode movement on a homogeneous layer of technical agar compared to movement of nematodes in a structurally heterogeneous environment that was created by adding sand particles to the plates of agar. The temporal scaling properties of the recorded trails were studied using a detrended fluctuation based method to capture the complex dynamic of movement data by comparing the multiscaling characteristics of nematode step lengths as affected by the different environments. A systematic analysis of the exponent of the structure function and the generalized Hurst exponent revealed that, while in homogeneous environment the movement was characterized by a long-range correlation with a Hurst exponent H(q) close to 1, varying little with respect to the order q of the fluctuation function, the impact of sand particle was to reduce the degree of persistence in the movement, the step lenghts being characterized by a smaller Hurst exponent, yet more variable. The results suggest that the presence of structural heterogeneity introduces a new bias into the movement, which plays an important role in complex environments where the nematode movement may be obstructed by soil particles. References Tarquis, A.M., Morato, M. C., Castellanos M.T., Perdigones A. 2009. Comparison of Structure Function and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Wind Time Series, Riv. Nuevo Cimento, in press. Gao, J., Cao, Y., Tung, W.-W., Hu J., 2007. Multiscale Analysis of Complex Times Series. Eds. John Wiley & Sons.

  20. Recognizing People from Their Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loula, Fani; Prasad, Sapna; Harber, Kent; Shiffrar, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Human observers demonstrate impressive visual sensitivity to human movement. What defines this sensitivity? If motor experience influences the visual analysis of action, then observers should be most sensitive to their own movements. If view-dependent visual experience determines visual sensitivity to human movement, then observers should be most…

  1. Foundations in Elementary Education: Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    The eight chapters in this book explain a teaching model to help students develop their kinesthetic intelligence through purposeful movement education. The major focus is the kindergarten through third grade child, but because in movement one can be a "beginner" at any age, movement experiences of both older and younger learners are occasionally…

  2. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…

  3. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  4. Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Lim, Young Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Byeong-Jun; Hwang, Chang-Won

    2014-06-01

    Since Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 have the same crystal structure, they form a homogeneous solid solution. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of the solid solution can be reduced by phonon scattering. The thermoelectric figure of merit can be improved by controlling the carrier concentration through doping. In this study, Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:D m (D: dopants such as I, Cu, Ag, Ni, Zn) solid solutions were prepared by encapsulated melting and hot pressing. All specimens exhibited n-type conduction in the measured temperature range (323 K to 523 K), and their electrical conductivities decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The undoped solid solution showed a carrier concentration of 7.37 × 1019 cm-3, power factor of 2.1 mW m-1 K-1, and figure of merit of 0.56 at 323 K. The figure of merit ( ZT) was improved due to the increased power factor by I, Cu, and Ag dopings, and maximum ZT values were obtained as 0.76 at 323 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:Cu0.01 and 0.90 at 423 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:I0.005. However, the thermoelectric properties of Ni- and Zn-doped solid solutions were not enhanced.

  5. Pulsed supersonic expansion of nonvolatile solids

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Wolfgang; Geggier, Stephanie; Grigorenko, Svitlana; Rademann, Klaus

    2004-11-01

    A compact apparatus for transferring nonvolatile particles into the gas phase and depositing them on a solid surface has been built and tested successfully. As initial experiment, solid caffeine with a vanishingly low vapor pressure has been dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide, expanded into vacuum using a pulsed, supersonic molecular beam, and detected using a simple residual gas analyzer.

  6. Large Particle Titanate Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This research project was aimed at developing a synthesis technique for producing large particle size monosodium titanate (MST) to benefit high level waste (HLW) processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two applications were targeted, first increasing the size of the powdered MST used in batch contact processing to improve the filtration performance of the material, and second preparing a form of MST suitable for deployment in a column configuration. Increasing the particle size should lead to improvements in filtration flux, and decreased frequency of filter cleaning leading to improved throughput. Deployment of MST in a column configuration would allow for movement from a batch process to a more continuous process. Modifications to the typical MST synthesis led to an increase in the average particle size. Filtration testing on dead-end filters showed improved filtration rates with the larger particle material; however, no improvement in filtration rate was realized on a crossflow filter. In order to produce materials suitable for column deployment several approaches were examined. First, attempts were made to coat zirconium oxide microspheres (196 µm) with a layer of MST. This proved largely unsuccessful. An alternate approach was then taken synthesizing a porous monolith of MST which could be used as a column. Several parameters were tested, and conditions were found that were able to produce a continuous structure versus an agglomeration of particles. This monolith material showed Sr uptake comparable to that of previously evaluated samples of engineered MST in batch contact testing.

  7. Transport of large solids in sewer pipes.

    PubMed

    Walski, Thomas; Edwards, Bryce; Helfer, Emil; Whitman, Brian E

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the conditions under which large solids (i.e., solids with a vertical dimension greater than the depth of water) are able to move in a pipe. Depending on the value of a dimensionless number [s(d/y) - 1], where s = specific gravity of the solids, d = water depth, and y = height of solids, motion will occur if a sufficient velocity (also reported as a Froude number or modified "solids" Froude number) is exceeded. Flume experiments were used to determine the coefficients to be used in the design. The velocity required to reach fluid movement was approximately 0.6 to 1.0 m/s (2 to 3 ft/s), which is consistent, although slightly higher than values generally used in conventional sewer design practice. However, it was demonstrated that increasing the pipe slope to achieve a higher velocity does not ensure that the solid will move.

  8. Algorithm for Computing Particle/Surface Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm has been devised for predicting the behaviors of sparsely spatially distributed particles impinging on a solid surface in a rarefied atmosphere. Under the stated conditions, prior particle-transport models in which (1) dense distributions of particles are treated as continuum fluids; or (2) sparse distributions of particles are considered to be suspended in and to diffuse through fluid streams are not valid.

  9. Moving particle composition analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A mass spectrometry apparatus for analyzing the composition of moving microscopic particles is introduced. The apparatus includes a capacitor with a front electrode upon which the particles impinge, a back electrode, and a solid dielectric sandwiched between the front and back electrodes. In one embodiment, the electrodes and dielectric are arcuately shaped as concentric peripheral segments of different spheres having a common center and different radii. The front electrode and dielectric together have a thickness such that an impinging particle can penetrate them. In a second embodiment, the capacitor has planar, parallel electrodes, in which case the ejected positive ions are deflected downstream of a planar grid by a pair of spaced, arcuate capacitor plates having a region between them through which the ejected ions travel.

  10. Solid electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  11. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-03-31

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids.

  12. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable.

  13. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  14. Movement disorders in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.

  15. Multi-physics/scale simulations using particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-03-01

    Particle simulations of continuum and discrete phenomena can be formulated by following the motion of interacting particles that carry the physical properties of the systems that is being approximated (continuum) or modeled (discrete) by the particles. We identify the common computational characteristics of particle methods and emphasize their key properties that enable the formulation of a novel, systematic framework for multiscale simulations, that can be applicable to the simulation of diverse physical problems. We present novel multiresolution particle methods for continuum (fluid/solid) simulations, using adaptive mesh refinement and wavelets, by relaxing the grid-free character of particle methods and discuss the coupling of scales in continuum-atomistic flow simulations.

  16. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification. PMID:25434372

  17. Movement disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review movement disorders in children. They are common but have etiology and phenomenology different than in adults. Tics are the most common phenomena although in most instances they are mild and have a favorable long-term prognosis. Dystonia is the second most common phenomena but when present it is usually genetic or idiopathic and causes meaningful disability. Sydenham's chorea is the most common cause of chorea in children worldwide. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a much rarer cause of chorea but it is always to be ruled out given the lack of a specific diagnostic marker for Sydenham's chorea. Tremor, usually caused by drugs or essential tremor, is regarded as rather uncommon in children. Arguably, most pediatric patients with tremor do not seek medical attention because of the lack of disability. Stereotypies are relatively uncommon but their recognition is clinically relevant since they are usually associated with severe conditions such as autism and Rett syndrome. Parkinsonism is quite rare in children and either results from encephalitis or is a side effect of medications. Wilson's disease must be ruled out in all children with movement disorders.

  18. 75 FR 61121 - Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... significant impact relative to a request to allow the interstate movement of municipal solid waste ] from... municipal solid waste to three existing ports on the Columbia River via barge and the transfer and transportation of the waste via truck or rail to the landfill. \\1\\ To view the environmental assessment,...

  19. Particle astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Cronin, James; Aprile, Elena; Barish, Barry C.; Beier, Eugene W.; Brandenberger, Robert; Cabrera, Blas; Caldwell, David; Cassiday, George; Cline, David B.

    1991-01-01

    The following scientific areas are reviewed: (1) cosmology and particle physics (particle physics and the early universe, dark matter, and other relics); (2) stellar physics and particles (solar neutrinos, supernovae, and unconventional particle physics); (3) high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy; (4) cosmic rays (space and ground observations). Highest scientific priorities for the next decade include implementation of the current program, new initiatives, and longer-term programs. Essential technological developments, such as cryogenic detectors of particles, new solar neutrino techniques, and new extensive air shower detectors, are discussed. Also a certain number of institutional issues (the funding of particle astrophysics, recommended funding mechanisms, recommended facilities, international collaborations, and education and technology) which will become critical in the coming decade are presented.

  20. Particle astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Cronin, James; Aprile, Elena; Barish, Barry C.; Beier, Eugene W.; Brandenberger, Robert; Cabrera, Blas; Caldwell, David; Cassiday, George; Cline, David B.

    The following scientific areas are reviewed: (1) cosmology and particle physics (particle physics and the early universe, dark matter, and other relics); (2) stellar physics and particles (solar neutrinos, supernovae, and unconventional particle physics); (3) high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy; (4) cosmic rays (space and ground observations). Highest scientific priorities for the next decade include implementation of the current program, new initiatives, and longer-term programs. Essential technological developments, such as cryogenic detectors of particles, new solar neutrino techniques, and new extensive air shower detectors, are discussed. Also a certain number of institutional issues (the funding of particle astrophysics, recommended funding mechanisms, recommended facilities, international collaborations, and education and technology) which will become critical in the coming decade are presented.