I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching
Cold Atoms, Statistical Physics and Quantum Simulations
DTIC Science & Technology
20100722
to be the development of robust theoretical techniques for the simulations of ultracold Bose gases and other quantum phenomena, such theoretical...finitetemperature effects in atomchip interferometry of Bose Einstein condensates, R. G. Scott, et al., Physical Review A, 063624 (2009). A copy of...March 2009. Mr Hodder was supported through a University of Otago Scholarship. He initially developed a simple singlesite Hubbard model, which can be
Microfluidic generation of multifunctional quantum dot barcode particles.
PubMed
Zhao, Yuanjin; Shum, Ho Cheung; Chen, Haosheng; Adams, Laura L A; Gu, Zhongze; Weitz, David A
20110615
We develop a new strategy to prepare quantum dot (QD) barcode particles by polymerizing doubleemulsion droplets prepared in capillary microfluidic devices. The resultant barcode particles are composed of stable QDtagged core particles surrounded by hydrogel shells. These particles exhibit uniform spectral characteristics and excellent coding capability, as confirmed by photoluminescence analyses. By using doubleemulsion droplets with two inner droplets of distinct phases as templates, we have also fabricated anisotropic magnetic barcode particles with two separate cores or with a Janus core. These particles enable optical encoding and magnetic separation, thus making them excellent functional barcode particles in biomedical applications.
Modeling quantum physics with machine learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LopezBezanilla, Alejandro; Arsenault, LouisFrancois; Millis, Andrew; Littlewood, Peter; von Lilienfeld, Anatole
20140301
Machine Learning (ML) is a systematic way of inferring new results from sparse information. It directly allows for the resolution of computationally expensive sets of equations by making sense of accumulated knowledge and it is therefore an attractive method for providing computationally inexpensive 'solvers' for some of the important systems of condensed matter physics. In this talk a nonlinear regression statistical model is introduced to demonstrate the utility of ML methods in solving quantum physics related problem, and is applied to the calculation of electronic transport in 1D channels. DOE contract number DEAC0206CH11357.
Particles, Waves, and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christoudouleas, N. D.
19750101
Presents an explanation, without mathematical equations, of the basic principles of quantum mechanics. Includes waveparticle duality, the probability character of the wavefunction, and the uncertainty relations. (MLH)
Classical and quantum particle dynamics in univariate background fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; King, B.
20160901
We investigate deviations from the plane wave model in the interaction of charged particles with strong electromagnetic fields. A general result is that integrability of the dynamics is lost when going from lightlike to timelike or spacelike field dependence. For a special scenario in the classical regime we show how the radiation spectrum in the spacelike (undulator) case becomes wellapproximated by the plane wave model in the highenergy limit, despite the two systems being Lorentz inequivalent. In the quantum problem, there is no analogue of the WKBexact Volkov solution. Nevertheless, WKB and uniformWKB approaches give good approximations in all cases considered. Other approaches that reduce the underlying differential equations from second to first order are found to miss the correct physics for situations corresponding to barrier transmission and wideangle scattering.
Is Particle Physics Ready for the LHC
ScienceCinema
Lykken, Joseph
20160712
The advent of the Large Hadron Collider in 2007 entails daunting challenges to particle physicists. The first set of challenges will arise from trying to separate new physics from old. The second set of challenges will come in trying to interpret the new discoveries. I will describe a few of the scariest examples.
Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S
20130401
This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.
Visions: The coming revolutions in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Chris Quigg
20020411
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop the understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.
A Vision of Nuclear and Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Montgomery, Hugh E.
20160801
This paper will consist of a selected, personal view of some of the issues associated with the intersections of nuclear and particle physics. As well as touching on the recent developments we will attempt to look at how those aspects of the subject might evolve over the next few years.
Size and temperature dependent plasmons of quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Mufei; Rakov, Nikifor
20150801
This work reports on the influences of temperature changes on plasmons of metallic particles that are so small that electric carriers in the conduction band are forced to be at discrete subbands due to quantum confinement. In the framework of the electroninabox model and with an everyelectroncount computational scheme, the spatial electric distribution inside the particle is calculated. In the calculations, the intrasubband fluctuations are taken into account. The numerical results have shown that the smallparticle plasmon frequency shifts with the temperature. The findings suggest that it would be possible to control the plasmons of quantum particles externally.
Medical physics aspects of particle therapy.
PubMed
Jäkel, Oliver
20091101
Charged particle beams offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume when compared with photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of heavier ions exhibit a strong increase of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg peak when compared with the entrance region. These physical and biological properties make ion beams more favourable for radiation therapy of cancer than photon beams. As a consequence, particle therapy with protons and heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide. This contribution summarises the physical and biological principles of charged particle therapy with ion beams and highlights some of the developments in the field of beam delivery, the principles of treatment planning and the determination of absorbed dose in ion beams. The clinical experience gathered so far with carbon ion therapy is briefly reviewed.
Beyond the standard model of particle physics.
PubMed
Virdee, T S
20160828
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its experiments were conceived to tackle open questions in particle physics. The mechanism of the generation of mass of fundamental particles has been elucidated with the discovery of the Higgs boson. It is clear that the standard model is not the final theory. The open questions still awaiting clues or answers, from the LHC and other experiments, include: What is the composition of dark matter and of dark energy? Why is there more matter than antimatter? Are there more space dimensions than the familiar three? What is the path to the unification of all the fundamental forces? This talk will discuss the status of, and prospects for, the search for new particles, symmetries and forces in order to address the open questions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'.
Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)
SciTech Connect
Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.
19960901
This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLACSPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.
19870301
This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixedtarget beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.
Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave  Particle Duality
SciTech Connect
Gibson, J. Murray
20031015
Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to nonscientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics'  that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.
Energetic particle physics issues for ITER
SciTech Connect
Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Fu, G.Y.
19961231
This paper summarizes our present understanding of the following energetic/alpha particle physics issues for the 21 MA, 20 TF coil ITER Interim Design configuration and operational scenarios: (a) toroidal field ripple effects on alpha particle confinement, (b) energetic particle interaction with low frequency MHD modes, (c) energetic particle excitation of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes, and (d) energetic particle transport due to MHD modes. TF ripple effects on alpha loss in ITER under a number of different operating conditions are found to be small with a maximum loss of 1%. With careful plasma control in ITER reversedshear operation, TF ripple induced alpha loss can be reduced to below the nominal ITER design limit of 5%. Fishbone modes are expected to be unstable for {beta}{sub {alpha}} > 1%, and sawtooth stabilization is lost if the ideal kink growth rate exceeds 10% of the deeply trapped alpha precessional drift frequency evaluated at the q = 1 surface. However, it is expected that the fishbone modes will lead only to a local flattening of the alpha profile due to small banana size. MHD modes observed during slow decrease of stored energy after fast partial electron temperature collapse in JT60U reversedshear experiments may be resonant type instabilities; they may have implications on the energetic particle confinement in ITER reversedshear operation. From the results of various TAE stability code calculations, ITER equilibria appear to lie close to TAE linear stability thresholds. However, the prognosis depends strongly on q profile and profiles of alpha and other high energy particles species. If TAE modes are unstable in ITER, the stochastic diffusion is the main loss mechanism, which scales with ({delta}B{sub r}/B){sup 2}, because of the relatively small alpha particle banana orbit size. For isolated TAE modes the particle loss is very small, and TAE modes saturate via the resonant waveparticle trapping process at very small amplitude.
Summation of power series in particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Jan
19990401
The largeorder behaviour of power series used in quantum theory (perturbation series and the operatorproduct expansion) is discussed and relevant summation methods are reviewed. It is emphasised that, in most physically interesting situations, the mere knowledge of the expansion coefficients is not sufficient for a unique determination of the function expanded, and the necessity of some additional, extraperturbative, input is pointed out. Several possible nonperturbative inputs are suggested. Applications to various problems of quantum chromodynamics are considered. This lecture was presented on the special Memorial Day dedicated to Professor Ryszard R˛czka at this Workshop. The last section is devoted to my personal recollections of this remarkable personality.

Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.
20050101
There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of threedimensional arrays of zerodimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary pin solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Twodimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of onedimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce IIIV, IIVI, and even chalcopyritebased nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.

Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, JeanLoup; Chabot, Hugues
20150101
One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction…

Cyclic Polyynes as Examples of the Quantum Mechanical Particle on a Ring
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Bruce D.
20120101
Many quantum mechanical models are discussed as part of the undergraduate physical chemistry course to help students understand the connection between eigenvalue expressions and spectroscopy. Typical examples covered include the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor, and the hydrogen atom. This article demonstrates that…

Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator.
PubMed
Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; DelRe, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio
20151102
More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n = 0 and n = 2 discrete states and Γ0 and Γ2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shockwaves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, whitelight and Xray generation.

Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; Delre, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio
20151101
More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n = 0 and n = 2 discrete states and Γ0 and Γ2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shockwaves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, whitelight and Xray generation.

Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator
PubMed Central
Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; DelRe, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio
20150101
More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n = 0 and n = 2 discrete states and Γ0 and Γ2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shockwaves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, whitelight and Xray generation. PMID:26522653

Particle scattering in loop quantum gravity.
PubMed
Modesto, Leonardo; Rovelli, Carlo
20051104
We devise a technique for defining and computing point functions in the context of a backgroundindependent gravitational quantum field theory. We construct a tentative implementation of this technique in a perturbatively finite model defined using spin foam techniques in the context of loop quantum gravity.

Perspectives in quantum physics: Epistemological, ontological and pedagogical An investigation into student and expert perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, with implications for modern physics instruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baily, Charles Raymond
A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the socalled measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandora's Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) may positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and waveparticle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.

Wave theories of nonlaminar charged particle beams: from quantum to thermal regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; Jovanović, Dusan; de Nicola, Sergio; Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ronsivalle
20140401
The standard classical description of nonlaminar charged particle beams in paraxial approximation is extended to the context of two wave theories. The first theory that we discuss (Fedele R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045. Tanjia, F. et al. 2011 Proceedings of the 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Vol. 35G. Strasbourg, France: European Physical Society) is based on the Thermal Wave Model (TWM) (Fedele, R. and Miele, G. 1991 Nuovo Cim. D 13, 1527.) that interprets the paraxial thermal spreading of beam particles as the analog of quantum diffraction. The other theory is based on a recently developed model (Fedele, R. et al. 2012a Phys. Plasmas 19, 102106; Fedele, R. et al. 2012b AIP Conf. Proc. 1421, 212), hereafter called Quantum Wave Model (QWM), that takes into account the individual quantum nature of single beam particle (uncertainty principle and spin) and provides collective description of beam transport in the presence of quantum paraxial diffraction. Both in quantum and quantumlike regimes, the beam transport is governed by a 2D nonlocal Schrödinger equation, with selfinteraction coming from the nonlinear charge and currentdensities. An envelope equation of the ErmakovPinney type, which includes collective effects, is derived for both TWM and QWM regimes. In TWM, such description recovers the wellknown Sacherer's equation (Sacherer, F. J. 1971 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS18, 1105). Conversely, in the quantum regime and in Hartree's mean field approximation, one recovers the evolution equation for a singleparticle spot size, i.e. for a single quantum ray spot in the transverse plane (Compton regime). We demonstrate that such quantum evolution equation contains the same information as the evolution equation for the beam spot size that describes the beam as a whole. This is done heuristically by defining the lowest QWM state accessible by a system of nonoverlapping fermions. The latter are associated with temperature values that are

Authenticated multiuser quantum key distribution with single particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Song; Wang, Hui; Guo, GongDe; Ye, GuoHua; Du, HongZhen; Liu, XiaoFen
20160301
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been growing rapidly in recent years and becomes one of the hottest issues in quantum information science. During the implementation of QKD on a network, identity authentication has been one main problem. In this paper, an efficient authenticated multiuser quantum key distribution (MQKD) protocol with single particles is proposed. In this protocol, any two users on a quantum network can perform mutual authentication and share a secure session key with the assistance of a semihonest center. Meanwhile, the particles, which are used as quantum information carriers, are not required to be stored, therefore the proposed protocol is feasible with current technology. Finally, security analysis shows that this protocol is secure in theory.

On the physical realizability of quantum stochastic walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taketani, Bruno; Govia, Luke; Schuhmacher, Peter; Wilhelm, Frank
Quantum walks are a promising framework that can be used to both understand and implement quantum information processing tasks. The recently developed quantum stochastic walk combines the concepts of a quantum walk and a classical random walk through open system evolution of a quantum system, and have been shown to have applications in as far reaching fields as artificial intelligence. However, nature puts significant constraints on the kind of open system evolutions that can be realized in a physical experiment. In this work, we discuss the restrictions on the allowed open system evolution, and the physical assumptions underpinning them. We then introduce a way to circumvent some of these restrictions, and simulate a more general quantum stochastic walk on a quantum computer, using a technique we call quantum trajectories on a quantum computer. We finally describe a circuit QED approach to implement discrete time quantum stochastic walks.

Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.
20050101
An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solidstate world.

Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuter, J.; Bach, F.; Chokoufé, B.; Kilian, W.; Ohl, T.; Sekulla, M.; Weiss, C.
20150501
We describe the multipurpose MonteCarlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of highenergy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely objectoriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higherorder corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

Advanced analysis methods in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab
20101001
Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous  more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers
SciTech Connect
Tay, J.W.; Hsu, Magnus T. L.; Bowen, Warwick P.
20091215
Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity, and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper, we show that quadrant detection is nonoptimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacies of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that 1 order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

Recasting particle physics by entangling physics, history and philosophy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertozzi, Eugenio; Levrini, Olivia
20160501
1The paper presents the design process we followed to recast particle physics so as to make it conceptually relevant for secondary school students. In this design process, the concept of symmetry was assumed as coreidea because of its structural and foundational role in particle physics, its crosscutting character and its epistemological and philosophical value. The first draft of the materials was tested in a pilotstudy which involved 19 students of a regular class (grade 13) of an Italian school. The data analysis showed that the students were in their "regime of competence" for grasping subtle nuances of the materials and for providing important hints for revising them. In particular, students' reactions brought into light the need of clarifying the "foundational" character that symmetry attained in twentiethcentury physics. The delicate step of rethinking the materials required the researchers to articulate the complex relationship between researches on physics teaching, history and philosophy of physics. This analytic phase resulted in a version of the materials which implies the students to be guided to grasp the meaning of symmetry as normative principle in twentiethcentury physics, throughout the exploration of the different meanings assumed by symmetry over time. The whole process led also to the production of an essential, online version, of the materials targeted to a wider audience.

Measurement theory in local quantum physics
SciTech Connect
Okamura, Kazuya Ozawa, Masanao
20160115
In this paper, we aim to establish foundations of measurement theory in local quantum physics. For this purpose, we discuss a representation theory of completely positive (CP) instruments on arbitrary von Neumann algebras. We introduce a condition called the normal extension property (NEP) and establish a onetoone correspondence between CP instruments with the NEP and statistical equivalence classes of measuring processes. We show that every CP instrument on an atomic von Neumann algebra has the NEP, extending the wellknown result for type I factors. Moreover, we show that every CP instrument on an injective von Neumann algebra is approximated by CP instruments with the NEP. The concept of posterior states is also discussed to show that the NEP is equivalent to the existence of a strongly measurable family of posterior states for every normal state. Two examples of CP instruments without the NEP are obtained from this result. It is thus concluded that in local quantum physics not every CP instrument represents a measuring process, but in most of physically relevant cases every CP instrument can be realized by a measuring process within arbitrary error limits, as every approximately finite dimensional von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is injective. To conclude the paper, the concept of local measurement in algebraic quantum field theory is examined in our framework. In the setting of the DoplicherHaagRoberts and DoplicherRoberts theory describing local excitations, we show that an instrument on a local algebra can be extended to a local instrument on the global algebra if and only if it is a CP instrument with the NEP, provided that the split property holds for the net of local algebras.

Current experiments in elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. ); Oyanagi, Y. ); Dodder, D.C. ); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla
19890901
This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixedtarget beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised
SciTech Connect
Galic, H.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Olin, A.; Frosch, R.
19920601
This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Particle physics: recent successes and future prospects
SciTech Connect
Wojcicki, S.
19841201
There is no doubt that as yet we do not have an ultimate theory of matter and forces in spite of the remarkable successes of the past decade. In this talk the author attempts to summarize briefly the historical background that led us to the present level of understanding, or more specifically to the standard model of particle physics. Subsequently the author describes several difficulties with this picture, continues with some possible indications of new physics, and finally ends with the discussion of the prospects for the future. 32 references.

Quantum interface to charged particles in a vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamoto, Hiroshi
20151101
A superconducting qubit device suitable for interacting with a flying electron has recently been proposed [Okamoto and Nagatani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062604 (2014), 10.1063/1.4865244]. Either a clockwise or counterclockwise directed loop of half magnetic flux quantum encodes a qubit, which naturally interacts with any single charged particle with arbitrary kinetic energy. Here, the device's properties, sources of errors, and possible applications are studied in detail. In particular, applications include detection of a charged particle essentially without applying a classical force to it. Furthermore, quantum states can be transferred between an array of the proposed devices and the charged particle.

Particle Physics from AlmostCommutative Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Dungen, Koen; van Suijlekom, Walter D.
20121001
Our aim in this review paper is to present the applications of Connes' noncommutative geometry to elementary particle physics. Whereas the existing literature is mostly focused on a mathematical audience, in this paper we introduce the ideas and concepts from noncommutative geometry using physicists' terminology, gearing towards the predictions that can be derived from the noncommutative description. Focusing on a light package of noncommutative geometry (socalled "almostcommutative manifolds"), we shall introduce in steps: electrodynamics, the electroweak model, culminating in the full Standard Model. We hope that our approach helps in understanding the role noncommutative geometry could play in describing particle physics models, eventually unifying them with Einstein's (geometrical) theory of gravity.

Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics
SciTech Connect
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.
19921231
Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal readout for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

Group action in topos quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flori, C.
20130301
Topos theory has been suggested first by Isham and Butterfield, and then by Isham and Döring, as an alternative mathematical structure within which to formulate physical theories. In particular, it has been used to reformulate standard quantum mechanics in such a way that a novel type of logic is used to represent propositions. In this paper, we extend this formulation to include the notion of a group and group transformation in such a way that we overcome the problem of twisted presheaves. In order to implement this we need to change the type of topos involved, so as to render the notion of continuity of the group action meaningful.

Group action in topos quantum physics
SciTech Connect
Flori, C.
20130315
Topos theory has been suggested first by Isham and Butterfield, and then by Isham and Doering, as an alternative mathematical structure within which to formulate physical theories. In particular, it has been used to reformulate standard quantum mechanics in such a way that a novel type of logic is used to represent propositions. In this paper, we extend this formulation to include the notion of a group and group transformation in such a way that we overcome the problem of twisted presheaves. In order to implement this we need to change the type of topos involved, so as to render the notion of continuity of the group action meaningful.

FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS
SciTech Connect
Singer, Isadore M.
20080304
The effect on mathematics of collaborations between highenergy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and SeibergWitten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, Ktheory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and noncommutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

Scale Hierarchies in Particle Physics and Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoniadis, I.
20161101
We discuss possible connections between several scales in particle physics andcosmology, such the the electroweak, inflation, dark energy and Planck scales. We thendescribe the phenomenology of a model of supersymmetry breaking in the presence ofa tiny (tunable) positive cosmological constant. The model is coupled to the MSSM, leading to calculable soft supersymmetry breaking masses and a distinct low energy phenomenologythat allows to differentiate it from other models of supersymmetry breakingand mediation mechanisms.

Current experiments in elementaryparticle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.
19830301
Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (ENL); CERN; DESY; Fermilab. (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMP. Also, summries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beamtargetmomentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated.

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision
SciTech Connect
Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.
19940801
This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
20160101
Using the simplest possible quantum systemthe qubitthe fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous "TPT" article and in a…

Quantumclassical correspondence for a particle in a homogeneous field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Sumita; Suman, Smriti P.; Singh, Vijay A.
20161101
The correspondence principle provides a prescription to connect quantum physics to classical. It asserts that the physical quantities evaluated quantum mechanically approach their respective classical values for large quantum numbers. This has been shown for the pedagogically important cases of the particle in a box and a harmonic oscillator. However, a particle in a constant field has a wave function related to the Airy function and has at best been treated numerically. Employing energy eigenstates we obtain the expectation values of the position, the momentum and their moments upto fourth order, rigorously and without resorting to numerical or graphical techniques. We compare them with the corresponding classical values. We also examine the uncertainty product for the system.

Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1993December 1993
SciTech Connect
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.
19930501
This report is the progress report for DOE funded support of particle physics work at the University of Texas, Austin. Support was divided between theoretical and experimental programs, and each is reviewed separately in the report. Theoretical effort was divided between three general areas: quantum gravity and mathematical physics; phenomenology; and quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Experimental effort was primarily directed toward AGS experiments at Brookhaven, to look for rare kaon decays. AGS experiments 791 and 871 are described, along with BNL experiment 888.

Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Richter, B.
20070216
"It was the best of times; it was the worst of times" is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.

Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Richter, Burton
20070220
''It was the best of times; it was the worst of times'' is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.

Exactly solvable interacting twoparticle quantum graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolte, Jens; Garforth, George
20170301
We construct models of exactly solvable twoparticle quantum graphs with certain nonlocal twoparticle interactions, establishing appropriate boundary conditions via suitable selfadjoint realisations of the twoparticle Laplacian. Showing compatibility with the Bethe ansatz method, we calculate quantisation conditions in the form of secular equations from which the spectra can be deduced. We compare spectral statistics of some examples to well known results in random matrix theory, analysing the chaotic properties of their classical counterparts.

BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logan, David
20040501
To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little onedimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of onedimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopicspin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of onedimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the nonspecialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in manybody theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly

Current experiments in particle physics  particle data group
SciTech Connect
Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Kettle, P.R.
19960901
This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLACSPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Quantum statistical imaging of particles without restriction of the diffraction limit.
PubMed
Cui, JinMing; Sun, FangWen; Chen, XiangDong; Gong, ZhaoJun; Guo, GuangCan
20130412
A quantum measurement method based on the quantum nature of antibunching photon emission has been developed to detect single particles without the restriction of the diffraction limit. By simultaneously counting the singlephoton and twophoton signals with fluorescence microscopy, the images of nearby nitrogenvacancy centers in diamond at a distance of 8.5±2.4 nm have been successfully reconstructed. Also their axes information was optically obtained. This quantum statistical imaging technique, with a simple experimental setup, can also be easily generalized in the measuring and distinguishing of other physical properties with any overlapping, which shows high potential in future image and study of coupled quantum systems for quantum information techniques.

Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, D. N.
19810101
Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the 43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quarkhadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.
20120101
This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a secondyear physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and selfstudy in unit blocks, carried out with small…

Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
20100101
The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of…

Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halpern, Paul
20120901
From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.

Quantum Walks with Neutral Atoms: Quantum Interference Effects of One and Two Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robens, Carsten; Brakhane, Stefan; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, A.
We report on the state of the art of quantum walk experiments with neutral atoms in statedependent optical lattices. We demonstrate a novel statedependent transport technique enabling the control of two spinselective sublattices in a fully independent fashion. This transport technique allowed us to carry out a test of singleparticle quantum interference based on the violation of the LeggettGarg inequality and, more recently, to probe twoparticle quantum interference effects with neutral atoms cooled into the motional ground state. These experiments lay the groundwork for the study of discretetime quantum walks of strongly interacting, indistinguishable particles to demonstrate quantum cellular automata of neutral atoms.

Teaching Quantum Interpretations: Revisiting the Goals and Practices of Introductory Quantum Physics Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
20150101
Most introductory quantum physics instructors would agree that transitioning students from classical to quantum thinking is an important learning goal, but may disagree on whether or how this can be accomplished. Although (and perhaps because) physicists have long debated the physical interpretation of quantum theory, many instructors choose to…

The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics
ScienceCinema
Quigg, Chris
20160712
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. We suspect that the detection of proton decay is only a few orders of magnitude away in sensitivity. Astronomical observations should help to tell us what kinds of matter and energy make up the universe. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electronpositron collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.

On the physical Hilbert space of loop quantum cosmology
SciTech Connect
Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro; Vandersloot, Kevin
20050215
In this paper we present a model of Riemannian loop quantum cosmology with a selfadjoint quantum scalar constraint. The physical Hilbert space is constructed using refined algebraic quantization. When matter is included in the form of a cosmological constant, the model is exactly solvable and we show explicitly that the physical Hilbert space is separable, consisting of a single physical state. We extend the model to the Lorentzian sector and discuss important implications for standard loop quantum cosmology.

Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Stephen D.
20160801
Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63

Quantum particle probe of the Kerr naked singularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurtug, O.; Halilsoy, M.
20170101
We investigate Kerr's timelike naked singularity within the framework of quantum mechanics. A quantum particle in the form of a massive boson is sent in the plane θ = π/2 to the naked ring singularity of Kerr which develops for the overspinning case (a>M) to test it from a quantum picture. This singularity is analysed in two different coordinate systems. We show that the spatial operator of the KleinGordon equation both in BoyerLindquist and in the dragging coordinate systems has a unique selfadjoint extension. As a result, the classical Kerr's ring singularity becomes quantum regular, if it is probed with massive bosonic particles obeying the KleinGordon equation.

Tests of the particle physicsphysical cosmology interface
SciTech Connect
Schramm, D.N. 
19930101
Three interrelated interfaces of particle physics and physical cosmology are discussed: (1) inflation and other phase transitions; (2) Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (and also the quarkhadron transition); and (3) structure formation (including dark matter). Recent observations that affect each of these topics are discussed. Topic number 1 is shown to be consistent with the COBE observations but not proven and it may be having problems with some ageexpansion data. Topic number 2 has now been welltested and is an established ``pillar`` of the Big Bang. Topic number 3 is the prime arena of current physical cosmological activity. Experiments to resolve the current exciting, but still ambiguous, situation following the COBE results are discussed.

Tests of the particle physicsphysical cosmology interface
SciTech Connect
Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )
19930101
Three interrelated interfaces of particle physics and physical cosmology are discussed: (1) inflation and other phase transitions; (2) Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (and also the quarkhadron transition); and (3) structure formation (including dark matter). Recent observations that affect each of these topics are discussed. Topic number 1 is shown to be consistent with the COBE observations but not proven and it may be having problems with some ageexpansion data. Topic number 2 has now been welltested and is an established pillar'' of the Big Bang. Topic number 3 is the prime arena of current physical cosmological activity. Experiments to resolve the current exciting, but still ambiguous, situation following the COBE results are discussed.

Summary of the particle physics and technology working group
SciTech Connect
Stephan Lammel et al.
20021210
Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leadingedge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large.

The Gibbs paradox and the physical criteria for indistinguishability of identical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unnikrishnan, C. S.
20160801
Gibbs paradox in the context of statistical mechanics addresses the issue of additivity of entropy of mixing gases. The usual discussion attributes the paradoxical situation to classical distinguishability of identical particles and credits quantum theory for enabling indistinguishability of identical particles to solve the problem. We argue that indistinguishability of identical particles is already a feature in classical mechanics and this is clearly brought out when the problem is treated in the language of information and associated entropy. We pinpoint the physical criteria for indistinguishability that is crucial for the treatment of the Gibbs’ problem and the consistency of its solution with conventional thermodynamics. Quantum mechanics provides a quantitative criterion, not possible in the classical picture, for the degree of indistinguishability in terms of visibility of quantum interference, or overlap of the states as pointed out by von Neumann, thereby endowing the entropy expression with mathematical continuity and physical reasonableness.

TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS
SciTech Connect
Sessler, A.M.
19840701
High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particlehandling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the antiproton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}neutrino, the Jparticle and time reversal noninvariance, on Spear was found the {psi}particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+}} were seen on the CERN SPS p{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and everdeveloping. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the

Quantum optical implementation of quantum information processing and classical simulation of manybody physics from quantum information perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bin
This thesis is composed of two parts. In the first part we summarize our study on implementation of quantum information processing (QIP) in optical cavity QED systems, while in the second part we present our numerical investigations on strongly interacting Fermi systems using a powerful numerical algorithm developed from the perspective of quantum information theory. We explore various possible applications of cavity QED in the strong coupling regime to quantum information processing tasks theoretically, including efficient preparation of Schrodingercat states for traveling photon pulses, robust implementation of conditional quantum gates on neutral atoms, as well as implementation of a hybrid controlled SWAP gate. We analyze the feasibility and performance of our schemes by solving corresponding physical models either numerically or analytically. We implement a novel numerical algorithm called Time Evolving Block Decimation (TEBD), which was proposed by Vidal from the perspective of quantum information science. With this algorithm, we numerically study the ground state properties of strongly interacting fermions in an anisotropic optical lattice across a wide Feshbach resonance. The interactions in this system can be described by a general Hubbard model with particle assisted tunneling. For systems with equal spin population, we find that the LutherEmery phase, which has been known to exist only for attractive onsite interactions in the conventional Hubbard model, could also be found even in the case with repulsive onsite interactions in the general Hubbard model. Using the TEBD algorithm, we also study the effect of particle assisted tunneling in spinpolarized systems. Fermi systems with unequal spin population and attractive interaction could allow the existence of exotic superfluidity, such as the FuldeFerrellLarkinOvchinnikov (FFLO) state. In the general Hubbard model, such exotic FFLO pairing of fermions could be suppressed by high particle assisted

The Underlying Physics in Wetted Particle Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donahue, Carly; Hrenya, Christine; Davis, Robert
20081101
Wetted granular particles are relevant in many industries including the pharmaceutical and chemical industries and has applications to granulation, filtration, coagulation, spray coating, drying and pneumatic transport. In our current focus, we investigate the dynamics of a threebody normal wetted particle collision. In order to conduct collisions we use an apparatus called a ``Stokes Cradle,'' similar to the Newton's Cradle (desktop toy) except that the target particles are covered with oil. Here, we are able to vary the oil thickness, oil viscosity, and material properties. With a three particle collision there are four possible outcomes: fully agglomerated (FA); Newton's Cradle (NC), the striker and the first target ball are agglomerated and the last target ball is separated; Reverse Newton's Cradle (RNC), the striker is separated and the two targets are agglomerated; and fully separated (FS). Varying the properties of the collisions, we have observed all four outcomes. We use elastohydrodynamics as a theoretical basis for modeling the system. We also have considered the glass transition of the oil as the pressure increases upon impact and the cavitation of the oil as the pressure drops below the vapor pressure upon rebound. A toy model has been developed where the collision is modeled as a series of twobody collisions. A qualitative agreement between the toy model and experiments gives insight into the underlying physics.

The Particle Physics Data Grid. Final Report
SciTech Connect
Livny, Miron
20020816
The main objective of the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) project has been to implement and evaluate distributed (Gridenabled) data access and management technology for current and future particle and nuclear physics experiments. The specific goals of PPDG have been to design, implement, and deploy a Gridbased software infrastructure capable of supporting the data generation, processing and analysis needs common to the physics experiments represented by the participants, and to adapt experimentspecific software to operate in the Grid environment and to exploit this infrastructure. To accomplish these goals, the PPDG focused on the implementation and deployment of several critical services: reliable and efficient file replication service, highspeed data transfer services, multisite file caching and staging service, and reliable and recoverable job management services. The focus of the activity was the job management services and the interplay between these services and distributed data access in a Grid environment. Software was developed to study the interaction between HENP applications and distributed data storage fabric. One key conclusion was the need for a reliable and recoverable tool for managing large collections of interdependent jobs. An attached document provides an overview of the current status of the Directed Acyclic Graph Manager (DAGMan) with its main features and capabilities.

Strange Particles and Heavy Ion Physics
SciTech Connect
Bassalleck, Bernd; Fields, Douglas
20160428
This very longrunning grant has supported many experiments in nuclear and particle physics by a group from the University of New Mexico. The gamut of these experiments runs from many aspects of Strangeness Nuclear Physics, to rare Kaon decays, to searches for exotic Hadrons such as Pentaquark or HDibaryon, and finally to Spin Physics within the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC. These experiments were performed at a number of laboratories worldwide: first and foremost at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), but also at CERN, KEK, and most recently at JPARC. In this Final Technical Report we summarize progress and achievements for this award since our last Progress Report, i.e. for the period of fall 2013 until the award’s termination on November 30, 2015. The report consists of two parts, representing our two most recent experimental efforts, participation in the Nucleon Spin Physics program of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL – Task 1, led by Douglas Fields; and participation in several Strangeness Nuclear Physics experiments at JPARC, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Center in Tokaimura, Japan – Task 2, led by Bernd Bassalleck.

Performances and robustness of quantum teleportation with identical particles
PubMed Central
Marzolino, Ugo; Buchleitner, Andreas
20160101
When quantum teleportation is performed with truly identical massive particles, indistinguishability allows us to teleport addressable degrees of freedom which do not identify particles, but, for example, orthogonal modes. The key resource of the protocol is a state of entangled modes, but the conservation of the total number of particles does not allow for perfect deterministic teleportation unless the number of particles in the resource state goes to infinity. Here, we study the convergence of teleportation performances in the above limit and provide sufficient conditions for asymptotic perfect teleportation. We also apply these conditions to the case of resource states affected by noise. PMID:26997896

Performances and robustness of quantum teleportation with identical particles.
PubMed
Marzolino, Ugo; Buchleitner, Andreas
20160101
When quantum teleportation is performed with truly identical massive particles, indistinguishability allows us to teleport addressable degrees of freedom which do not identify particles, but, for example, orthogonal modes. The key resource of the protocol is a state of entangled modes, but the conservation of the total number of particles does not allow for perfect deterministic teleportation unless the number of particles in the resource state goes to infinity. Here, we study the convergence of teleportation performances in the above limit and provide sufficient conditions for asymptotic perfect teleportation. We also apply these conditions to the case of resource states affected by noise.

Quantum Gravity Explanation of the WaveParticle Duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winterberg, Friedwardt
20160301
A quantum gravity explanation of the quantummechanical waveparticle duality is given by the wattless emission of gravitational waves from a particle described by the Dirac equation. This explanation is possible through the existence of negative energy, and hence negative mass solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations. They permit to understand the Dirac equation as the equation for a gravitationally bound positivenegative mass (poledipole particle) twobody configuration, with the mass of the Dirac particle equal to the positive mass of the gravitational field binding the positive with the negative mass particle, and with the positive and negative mass particles making a luminal ``Zitterbewegung'' (quivering motion), emitting a wattless oscillating positivenegative space curvature wave. Is it shown that this thusly produced ``Zitterbewegung'' reproduces the quantum potential of the Madelungtransformed Schrödinger equation. The wattless gravitational wave emitted by the quivering particles is conjectured to be the de Broglie pilot wave.

PreService Physics Teachers' Opinions about the Difficulties in Understanding Introductory Quantum Physics Topics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin; Yavas, Pervin Ünlü
20170101
The aim of this study is to identify the opinions of preservice physics teachers about the difficulties in introductory quantum physics topics. In this study conducted with twentyfive preservice physics teachers, the case study method was used. The participants were interviewed about introductory quantum physics topics. The interviews were…

Particle Physics: A New Course for Schools and Colleges.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swinbank, Elizabeth
19920101
Considers questions relating to the introduction of particle physics into postGCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) courses. Describes a project that is producing teacher and student materials to support the teaching of particle physics at this level. Presents a proposed syllabus for a particle physics module. (KR)

(Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report
SciTech Connect
Nefkens, B.M.K.
19851001
Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: PionNucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

Particle physics in the very early universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, D. N.
19810101
Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryonsymmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

Physics through the 1990s: Elementaryparticle physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
19860101
The volume begins with a nonmathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementaryparticle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in largescale experiments, and the decisionmaking process involved in highcost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementaryparticle physics program. A glossary is included.

Quantum spectra of Raman photon pairs from a mesoscopic particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Loh, W. M. Edmund; Kam, C. H.
20150601
Quantum Langevin formalism with noise operators is used to provide quantum descriptions of photon pairs (the Stokes and antiStokes fields) emitted by a mesoscopic spherical particle composed of quantum particles in a double Raman configuration. The spectra of the fields obtained are sensitive to the dimension of the microsphere and can be controlled by pump and control laser fields. Spectral peaks due to quantum coherence are Stark shifted by the laser fields experiencing autofocusing inside the spherical particle, causing broadening of peaks as the size of the microsphere increases. The antinormalorder spectrum is found to be identical to the normalorder spectrum. The antiStokes spectrum is identical to the Stokes spectrum when the linear dispersion is neglected. Frequencydependent dielectric functions of the Stokes and antiStokes spectra corresponding to the linear dispersions of the particle yield narrow morphologydependent resonance gain peaks at certain frequencies of the Stokes and antiStokes spectra that depend not only on the particle size but also on the angle of observation.

Quantum principles and free particles. [evaluation of partitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
19760101
The quantum principles that establish the energy levels and degeneracies needed to evaluate the partition functions are explored. The uncertainty principle is associated with the dual waveparticle nature of the model used to describe quantized gas particles. The Schroedinger wave equation is presented as a generalization of Maxwell's wave equation; the former applies to all particles while the Maxwell equation applies to the special case of photon particles. The size of the quantum cell in phase space and the representation of momentum as a space derivative operator follow from the uncertainty principle. A consequence of this is that steadystate problems that are spacetime dependent for the classical model become only space dependent for the quantum model and are often easier to solve. The partition function is derived for quantized free particles and, at normal conditions, the result is the same as that given by the classical phase integral. The quantum corrections that occur at very low temperatures or high densities are derived. These corrections for the EinsteinBose gas qualitatively describe the condensation effects that occur in liquid helium, but are unimportant for most practical purposes otherwise. However, the corrections for the FermiDirac gas are important because they quantitatively describe the behavior of highdensity conduction electron gases in metals and explain the zero point energy and low specific heat exhibited in this case.

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
SciTech Connect
Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.
20141019
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These abinitio calculations reproduce many lowlying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spinisospin, tensor, spinorbit, and threebody interactions. We present a variety of results including the lowlying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe lowenergy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
DOE PAGES
Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; ...
20141019
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These abinitio calculations reproduce many lowlying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spinisospin, tensor, spinorbit, and threebodymore » interactions. We present a variety of results including the lowlying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe lowenergy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
DOE PAGES
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; ...
20150909
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These abinitio calculations reproduce many lowlying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spinisospin, tensor, spinorbit,more » and threebody interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the lowlying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Lowenergy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
SciTech Connect
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.
20150909
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These abinitio calculations reproduce many lowlying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spinisospin, tensor, spinorbit, and threebody interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the lowlying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Lowenergy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.
20150701
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab initio calculations reproduce many lowlying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spinisospin, tensor, spinorbit, and threebody interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the lowlying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Lowenergy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

Exploring flocking via quantum manybody physics techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souslov, Anton; Loewe, Benjamin; Goldbart, Paul M.
20150301
Flocking refers to the spontaneous breaking of spatial isotropy and timereversal symmetries in collections of bodies such as birds, fish, locusts, bacteria, and artificial active systems. The transport of matter along biopolymers using molecular motors also involves the breaking of these symmetries, which in some cases are known to be broken explicitly. We study these classical nonequilibrium symmetrybreaking phenomena by means of models of many strongly interacting particles that hop on a periodic lattice. We employ a mapping between the classical and quantum dynamics of manybody systems, combined with tools from manybody theory. In particular, we examine the formation and properties of nematic and polar order in lowdimensional, stronglyinteracting active systems using techniques familiar from fermionic systems, such as selfconsistent field theory and bosonization. Thus, we find that classical active systems can exhibit analogs of quantum phenomena such as spinorbit coupling, magnetism, and superconductivity. The models we study connect the physics of asymmetric exclusion processes to the spontaneous emergence of transport and flow, and also provide a soluble cousin of Vicsek's model system of selfpropelled particles.

An extended relativistic quantum oscillator for ? particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nedjadi, Y.; AitTahar, S.; Barrett, R. C.
19980401
We introduce the extended DuffinKemmerPetiau (DKP) oscillator obtained by combining two relativistic quantum oscillator models. In a study analogous to Kukulin, Loyola and Moshinsky's work on extended Dirac oscillators, we investigate whether this extended version has oscillator shells controllably independent from the spinorbit coupling. This extended DKP oscillator is found to be exactly solvable for natural parity states. We calculate and discuss both the natural and unnaturalparity eigenspectra of its spin1 representation.

Experimental particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Drexel Univ
SciTech Connect
Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.
19920901
The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics beyond the standard model and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a largearea underground detector to search fore grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low and highenergy neutrinos; the Chooz experiment to search for reactor neutrino oscillations at a distance of 1 km from the source; a new proposal (the Perry experiment) to construct a onekiloton liquid scintillator in the Fairport, Ohio underground facility IMB to study neutrino oscillations with a 13 km baseline; and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for verylowbackground materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments.

Single particle sources and quantum heat fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, F.
20141001
The miniaturisation of electronic devices has been a wellknown trend in engineering over almost 50 years. The technological advancement in the field can now provide an astonishing control of charge transport in mesoscopic structures. Single particle pumping, namely the control in time and space of the flow of an arbitrarily small number of electrons or holes, has been realised in various kind of structure with, in some cases, very high accuracies. The first half of the manuscript provides a brief overview of different experimental realisations of single particle sources. Though these devices allow to minimise charge fluctuations in the charge current, because of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the emitted particles are characterised by energy fluctuations. The consequences of it are of great relevance and presented in the second part of the paper.

Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases
SciTech Connect
Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.
20150515
An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Green’s function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by HuangYangLuttinger and LeeYang.

Hermann Weyl's Phenomenological Contribution to Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mastrobisi, Giorgio J.
On examining carefully Weyl's writings one realizes that the great mathematician from Göttingen in his researches follows the programmatic scheme of the binomial of "wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis" (scientific Knowledge) and "philosophische Besinnung" (philosophical Reflection). In 1954 in a retrospective writing he affirmed: «The formulation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Laws of Gravitation, valid in this context and corroborated by experimental proofs turning to experience, constitute a method which combines "Wesenanalyse" with "mathematische Konstruktion" of convincing and excellent exemplarity». This conviction has conducted him to a close collaboration with A. Einstein (documented by punctual correspondence) for the decisive formulation of the "General Theory of Relativity", but also of the Theory of unified Field of Gravitation and Electromagnetism and therefore the following formulation of some fundamental principles of Quantum Physics. So Weyl's theoretical formation was marked by the devotion toward a mathematical formalization ("mathematische Konstruktion") of physical phenomena, reporting each of them to the causal structure of the "mathematical thinking" and geometry, contemporarely to a strong inclination toward the phenomenological "Analysis of essence". He brings really a notable quantity of considerations in that 1954 essay by the point of view of the decisive role that the "pure Phenomenology" of Edmund Husserl developed in the determination of his scientific activity.

Quantum heat fluctuations of singleparticle sources.
PubMed
Battista, F; Moskalets, M; Albert, M; Samuelsson, P
20130322
Optimal single electron sources emit regular streams of particles, displaying no lowfrequency charge current noise. Because of the wave packet nature of the emitted particles, the energy is, however, fluctuating, giving rise to heat current noise. We investigate theoretically this quantum source of heat noise for an emitter coupled to an electronic probe in the hotelectron regime. The distribution of temperature and potential fluctuations induced in the probe is shown to provide direct information on the singleparticle wave function properties and display strong nonclassical features.

Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations
SciTech Connect
Feng, Jun; Zhang, YaoZhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, ChengYi; Yang, WenLi
20141215
We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular αvacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch–Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond singlemode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general αvacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of α. Moreover, an onetoone correspondence between convergent points H{sub c} of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved.  Highlights: • Quantum correlation and quantum channel in de Sitter space are studied. • Gibbons–Hawking effect causes entanglement degradation for static observer. • Planckian physics causes extra decrement on quantum correlation. • Convergent feature of negativity relies on the choice of alphavacua. • Link between negativity convergence and quantum channel capacity is given.

Attention, Intention, and Will in Quantum Physics
SciTech Connect
Stapp, H.P.
19990501
How is mind related to matter? This ancient question inphilosophy is rapidly becoming a core problem in science, perhaps themost important of all because it probes the essential nature of manhimself. The origin of the problem is a conflict between the mechanicalconception of human beings that arises from the precepts of classicalphysical theory and the very different idea that arises from ourintuition: the former reduces each of us to an automaton, while thelatter allows our thoughts to guide our actions. The dominantcontemporary approaches to the problem attempt to resolve this conflictby clinging to the classical concepts, and trying to explain away ourmisleading intuition. But a detailed argument given here shows why, in ascientific approach to this problem, it is necessary to use the morebasic principles of quantum physics, which bring the observer into thedynamics, rather than to accept classical precepts that are profoundlyincorrect precisely at the crucial point of the role of humanconsciousness in the dynamics of human brains. Adherence to the quantumprinciples yields a dynamical theory of the mind/brain/body system thatis in close accord with our intuitive idea of what we are. In particular,the need for a selfobserving quantum system to pose certain questionscreates a causal opening that allowsmind/brain dynamics to have threedistinguishable but interlocked causal processes, one microlocal, onestochastic, and the third experiential. Passing to the classical limit inwhich the critical difference between zero and the finite actual value ofPlanck's constant is ignored not only eliminates the chemical processesthat are absolutely crucial to the functioning of actual brains, itsimultaneously blinds the resulting theoretical construct to the physicalfine structure wherein the effect of mind on matter lies: the use of thislimit in this context is totally unjustified from a physicsperspective.

Quantum physics explains Newton's laws of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogborn, Jon; Taylor, Edwin F.
20050101
Newton was obliged to give his laws of motion as fundamental axioms. But today we know that the quantum world is fundamental, and Newton’s laws can be seen as consequences of fundamental quantum laws. This article traces this transition from fundamental quantum mechanics to derived classical mechanics.

A cellular automaton for the signed particle formulation of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellier, J. M.; Kapanova, K. G.; Dimov, I.
20170201
Recently, a new formulation of quantum mechanics, based on the concept of signed particles, has been suggested. In this paper, we introduce a cellular automaton which mimics the dynamics of quantum objects in the phasespace in a timedependent fashion. This is twofold: it provides a simplified and accessible language to nonphysicists who wants to simulate quantum mechanical systems, at the same time it enables a different way to explore the laws of Physics. Moreover, it opens the way towards hybrid simulations of quantum systems by combining full quantum models with cellular automata when the former fail. In order to show the validity of the suggested cellular automaton and its combination with the signed particle formalism, several numerical experiments are performed, showing very promising results. Being this article a preliminary study on quantum simulations in phasespace by means of cellular automata, some conclusions are drawn about the encouraging results obtained so far and the possible future developments.

Quantum Field Theory in Condensed Matter Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsvelik, Alexei M.
20070101
Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introduction to Methods: 1. QFT: language and goals; 2. Connection between quantum and classical: path integrals; 3. Definitions of correlation functions: Wick's theorem; 4. Free bosonic field in an external field; 5. Perturbation theory: Feynman diagrams; 6. Calculation methods for diagram series: divergences and their elimination; 7. Renormalization group procedures; 8. O(N)symmetric vector model below the transition point; 9. Nonlinear sigma models in two dimensions: renormalization group and 1/Nexpansion; 10. O(3) nonlinear sigma model in the strong coupling limit; Part II. Fermions: 11. Path integral and Wick's theorem for fermions; 12. Interaction electrons: the Fermi liquid; 13. Electrodynamics in metals; 14. Relativistic fermions: aspects of quantum electrodynamics; 15. AharonovBohm effect and transmutation of statistics; Part III. Strongly Fluctuating Spin Systems: Introduction; 16. SchwingerWigner quantization procedure: nonlinear sigma models; 17. O(3) nonlinear sigma model in (2+1) dimensions: the phase diagram; 18. Order from disorder; 19. JordanWigner transformations for spin S=1/2 models in D=1, 2, 3; 20. Majorana representation for spin S=1/2 magnets: relationship to Z2 lattice gauge theories; 21. Path integral representations for a doped antiferromagnet; Part IV. Physics in the World of One Spatial Dimension: Introduction; 22. Model of the free bosonic massless scalar field; 23. Relevant and irrelevant fields; 24. KosterlitzThouless transition; 25. Conformal symmetry; 26. Virasoro algebra; 27. Differential equations for the correlation functions; 28. Ising model; 29. Onedimensional spinless fermions: TomonagaLuttinger liquid; 30. Onedimensional fermions with spin: spincharge separation; 31. KacMoody algebras: WessZuminoNovikovWitten model; 32. WessZuminoNovikovWitten model in the Lagrangian form: nonAbelian bosonization; 33. Semiclassical approach to WessZuminoNovikovWitten models; 34

Physical optimization of quantum error correction circuits with spatially separated quantum dot spins.
PubMed
Wang, HongFu; Zhu, AiDong; Zhang, Shou
20130520
We propose an efficient protocol for optimizing the physical implementation of threequbit quantum error correction with spatially separated quantum dot spins via virtualphotoninduced process. In the protocol, each quantum dot is trapped in an individual cavity and each two cavities are connected by an optical fiber. We propose the optimal quantum circuits and describe the physical implementation for correcting both the bit flip and phase flip errors by applying a series of onebit unitary rotation gates and twobit quantum iSWAP gates that are produced by the longrange interaction between two distributed quantum dot spins mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity. The protocol opens promising perspectives for long distance quantum communication and distributed quantum computation networks.

Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Organtini, Giovanni
20110101
In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…

A problem in particle physics and its Bayesian analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landon, Joshua
An up and coming field in contemporary nuclear and particle physics is "Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics", henceforth Lattice QCD. Indeed the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics went to the developers of equations that describe QCD. In this dissertation, following a layperson's introduction to the structure of matter, we outline the statistical aspects of a problem in Lattice QCD faced by particle physicists, and point out the difficulties encountered by them in trying to address the problem. The difficulties stem from the fact that one is required to estimate a large  conceptually infinite  number of parameters based on a finite number of nonlinear equations, each of which is a sum of exponential functions. We then present a plausible approach for solving the problem. Our approach is Bayesian and is driven by a computationally intensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo based solution. However, in order to invoke our approach we first look at the underlying anatomy of the problem and synthesize its essentials. These essentials reveal a pattern that can be harnessed via some assumptions, and this in turn enables us to outline a pathway towards a solution. We demonstrate the viability of our approach via simulated data, followed by its validation against real data provided to us by our physicist colleagues. Our approach yields results that in the past were not obtainable via alternate approaches. The contribution of this dissertation is twofold. The first is a use of computationally intensive statistical technology to produce results in physics that could not be obtained using physics based techniques. Since the statistical architecture of the problem considered here can arise in other contexts as well, the second contribution of this dissertation is to indicate a plausible approach for addressing a generic class of problems wherein the number of parameters to be estimated exceeds the number of constraints, each constraint being a nonlinear equation that is the sum of

Recovering the quantum formalism from physically realist axioms.
PubMed
Auffèves, Alexia; Grangier, Philippe
20170303
We present a heuristic derivation of Born's rule and unitary transforms in Quantum Mechanics, from a simple set of axioms built upon a physical phenomenology of quantization. This approach naturally leads to the usual quantum formalism, within a new realistic conceptual framework that is discussed in details. Physically, the structure of Quantum Mechanics appears as a result of the interplay between the quantized number of "modalities" accessible to a quantum system, and the continuum of "contexts" that are required to define these modalities. Mathematically, the Hilbert space structure appears as a consequence of a specific "extracontextuality" of modalities, closely related to the hypothesis of Gleason's theorem, and consistent with its conclusions.

Particle physicsExperimental. Annual progress report
SciTech Connect
Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.
19910821
We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultrahigh cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloonborne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000  one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

Onedimensional chain of quantum molecule motors as a mathematical physics model for muscle fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, TieYan
20151201
A quantum chain model of multiple molecule motors is proposed as a mathematical physics theory for the microscopic modeling of classical forcevelocity relation and tension transients in muscle fibers. The proposed model was a quantum manyparticle Hamiltonian to predict the forcevelocity relation for the slow release of muscle fibers, which has not yet been empirically defined and was much more complicated than the hyperbolic relationships. Using the same Hamiltonian model, a mathematical forcevelocity relationship was proposed to explain the tension observed when the muscle was stimulated with an alternative electric current. The discrepancy between input electric frequency and the muscle oscillation frequency could be explained physically by the Doppler effect in this quantum chain model. Further more, quantum physics phenomena were applied to explore the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. Most of the experimental tension transient curves were found to correspond to the theoretical output of quantum two and threelevel models. Mathematical modeling electric stimulus as photons exciting a quantum threelevel particle reproduced most of the tension transient curves of water bug Lethocerus maximus. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Foundation for the Central Universities of China.

Particle Physics in a Season of Change
SciTech Connect
Quigg, Chris
20120201
A digest of the authors opening remarks at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. I have chosen my title to reflect the transitions we are living through, in particle physics overall and in hadron collider physics in particular. Datataking has ended at the Tevatron, with {approx} 12 fb{sup 1} of {bar p}p interactions delivered to CDF and D0 at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The Large Hadron Collider has registered a spectacular first fullyear run, with ATLAS and CMS seeing > 5 fb{sup 1}, LHCb recording {approx} 1 fb{sup 1}, and ALICE logging nearly 5 pb{sup 1} of pp data at {radical}s = 7 TeV, plus a healthy dose of PbPb collisions. The transition to a new energy regime and new realms of instantaneous luminosity exceeding 3.5 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup 2} s{sup 1} has brought the advantage of enhanced physics reach and the challenge of pileup reaching {approx} 15 interactions per beam crossing. I am happy to record that what the experiments have (not) found so far has roused some of my theoretical colleagues from years of complacency and stimulated them to think anew about what the TeV scale might hold. We theorists have had plenty of time to explore many proposals for electroweak symmetry breaking and for new physics that might lie beyond established knowledge. With so many different theoretical inventions in circulation, it is in the nature of things that most will be wrong. Keep in mind that we learn from what experiment tells us is not there, even if it is uncommon to throw a party for ruling something out. Some nonobservations may be especially telling: the persistent absence of flavorchanging neutral currents, for example, seems to me more and more an important clue that we have not yet deciphered. It is natural that the search for the avatar of electroweak symmetry breaking preoccupies participants and spectators alike. But it is essential to conceive the physics opportunities before us in their full richness. I would advocate a threefold approach

Spacetime alternatives in the quantum mechanics of a relativistic particle
SciTech Connect
Whelan, J.T. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, CB3 0EH )
19941115
Hartle's generalized quantum mechanics formalism is used to examine spacetime coarse grainings, i.e., sets of alternatives defined with respect to a region extended in time as well as space, in the quantum mechanics of a free relativistic particle. For a simple coarse graining and suitable initial conditions, tractable formulas are found for branch wave functions. Despite the nonlocality of the positivedefinite version of the KleinGordon inner product, which means that nonoverlapping branches are not sufficient to imply decoherence, some initial conditions are found to give decoherence and allow the consistent assignment of probabilities.

Particle astronomy and particle physics from the moon  The particle observatory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Thomas L.
19900101
Promising experiments from the moon using particle detectors are discussed, noting the advantage of the large flux collecting power Pc offered by the remote, stable environment of a lunar base. An observatory class of particle experiments is presented, based upon proposals at NASA's recent Stanford workshop. They vary from neutrino astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic ray experiments to space physics and fundamental physics experiments such as proton decay and 'tabletop' arrays. This research is backgroundlimited on earth, and it is awkward and unrealistic in earth orbit, but is particularly suited for the moon where Pc can be quite large and the instrumentation is not subject to atmospheric erosion as it is (for large t) in low earth orbit.

Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Whitaker, J.S.
19900105
This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Goronwy Tudor
19910101
Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)

Design of Quantum Algorithms Using Physics Tools
DTIC Science & Technology
20140602
They asked how entangled the ground state of a FF quantum spins chain with nearest  neighbor interactions can be for small values of s. While FF spin1...investigated chains of ’d’ dimensional quantum spins (qudits) on a line with generic nearest neighbor interactions without translational invariance. They...worked on a wide range of topics with some common themes related by the study of quantum Hamiltonians. Ground state properties of Hamiltonians and the

Time and a physical Hamiltonian for quantum gravity.
PubMed
Husain, Viqar; Pawłowski, Tomasz
20120406
We present a nonperturbative quantization of general relativity coupled to dust and other matter fields. The dust provides a natural time variable, leading to a physical Hamiltonian with spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The surprising feature is that the Hamiltonian is not a square root. This property, together with the kinematical structure of loop quantum gravity, provides a complete theory of quantum gravity, and puts applications to cosmology, quantum gravitational collapse, and Hawking radiation within technical reach.

The Second Law and Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Charles H.
20080801
In this talk, I discuss the mystery of the second law and its relation to quantum information. There are many explanations of the second law, mostly satisfactory and not mutually exclusive. Here, I advocate quantum mechanics and quantum information as something that, through entanglement, helps resolve the paradox or the puzzle of the origin of the second law. I will discuss the interpretation called quantum Darwinism and how it helps explain why our world seems so classical, and what it has to say about the permanence or transience of information. And I will discuss a simple model illustrating why systems away from thermal equilibrium tend to be more complicated.

Are quantummechanicallike models possible, or necessary, outside quantum physics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plotnitsky, Arkady
20141201
This article examines some experimental conditions that invite and possibly require recourse to quantummechanicallike mathematical models (QMLMs), models based on the key mathematical features of quantum mechanics, in scientific fields outside physics, such as biology, cognitive psychology, or economics. In particular, I consider whether the following two correlative features of quantum phenomena that were decisive for establishing the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics play similarly important roles in QMLMs elsewhere. The first is the individuality and discreteness of quantum phenomena, and the second is the irreducibly probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning them, coupled to the particular character of the probabilities involved, as different from the character of probabilities found in classical physics. I also argue that these features could be interpreted in terms of a particular form of epistemology that suspends and even precludes a causal and, in the first place, realist description of quantum objects and processes. This epistemology limits the descriptive capacity of quantum theory to the description, classical in nature, of the observed quantum phenomena manifested in measuring instruments. Quantum mechanics itself only provides descriptions, probabilistic in nature, concerning numerical data pertaining to such phenomena, without offering a physical description of quantum objects and processes. While QMLMs share their use of the quantummechanical or analogous mathematical formalism, they may differ by the roles, if any, the two features in question play in them and by different ways of interpreting the phenomena they considered and this formalism itself. This article will address those differences as well.

Particle physics: CP violation in hyperon decays
SciTech Connect
Longo, Michael J.
20001031
The primary research activities under this grant were in E871 (HyperCP) at Fermilab, a search for CP violation in hyperon decays which completed data taking in January, 2000. HyperCP is an experiment designed to perform a sensitive search for direct CP violation in the decays of cascade ({Xi}) and {Lambda} hyperons by looking for an asymmetry between particle and antiparticle decay parameters. The experiment is expected to achieve a sensitivity {approx}10{sup 4} in the decay parameters. Standard model predictions for this CPviolating asymmetry range from 0.3 to 5 x 10{sup 4}. A difference between the decay parameters for particle and antiparticle is direct evidence that CP symmetry is violated. A nonzero asymmetry would be the first evidence for CP violation outside of the K{sup o} system. Recent results from KTeV indicate a direct CP violation in K{sup o} decays, which suggests that CP violation will appear in other decays. In addition, we will look at a number of rare hyperon decays involving muons. These probe important new physics topics such as Majorana neutrinos and lepton number violating processes. The latter are of great current interest because new evidence for neutrino oscillations indicate lepton flavor violation does occur. Our data will lead to an improvement in the limits on branching ratios for these processes typically by three to four ordersofmagnitude. The muon detector construction and data resulting from it have been the responsibility of the Michigan group. We are now leading the analysis of the rare muonrelated decay modes, and were responsible for the muon system and beam monitor upgrades for the 1999 run.

Methods of Quantum Field Theory in Condensed Matter Physics New Perspectives, Extensions and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umezawa, H.
Throughout the course of its development in the past four decades quantum field theory has gradually acquired a very rich structure (much richer in fact than it was originally intended) and now provides us with an effective method in the analysis of many diverse areas of physics; condensed matter physics, high energy particle physics general relativity and cosmology are among the more notable examples. Since condensed matter physics deals with those phenomena in which a system of quanta exist together with a variety of macroscopic objects at finite temperature, it may be said to manifest the fundamental properties of quantum field theory in its widest sense. Thus condensed matter physics has served as a powerful motivating force throughout the growth and development of quantum field theory. This process was indeed initiated by the celebrated Matsubara formalism of finite temperature Green's function method. This process is by no means complete since recent developments in many areas of physics demand a more sophisticated understanding with regard to the fundamental nature of quantum field theory. A brief description of this maturing process of quantum field theory in the past, present and prospects for the future will be the main content of this article.

Single particle in quantum gravity and BraunsteinGhoshSeverini entropy of a spin network
SciTech Connect
Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca
20100215
Passerini and Severini have recently shown that the BraunsteinGhoshSeverini (BGS) entropy S{sub {Gamma}}=Tr[{rho}{sub {Gamma}}log{rho}{sub {Gamma}}] of a certain density matrix {rho}{sub {Gamma}} naturally associated to a graph {Gamma}, is maximized, among all graphs with a fixed number of links and nodes, by regular graphs. We ask if this result can play a role in quantum gravity, and be related to the apparent regularity of the physical geometry of space. We show that in loop quantum gravity the matrix {rho}{sub {Gamma}} is precisely the Hamiltonian operator (suitably normalized) of a nonrelativistic quantum particle interacting with the quantum gravitational field, if we restrict elementary area and volume eigenvalues to a fixed value. This operator provides a spectral characterization of the physical geometry, and can be interpreted as a state describing the spectral information about the geometry available when geometry is measured by its physical interaction with matter. It is then tempting to interpret its BGS entropy S{sub {Gamma}} as a genuine physical entropy: we discuss the appeal and the difficulties of this interpretation.

Two Decades of Mexican Particle Physics at Fermilab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubinstein, R.
20030601
This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories.

QuantumCarnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential
SciTech Connect
Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P. Belfaqih, Idrus H. Prayitno, T. B.
20150930
Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system.

QuantumCarnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P.; Belfaqih, Idrus H.; Prayitno, T. B.
20150901
Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system.

Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
20100101
Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

Role of quantum statistics in multiparticle decay dynamics
SciTech Connect
Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er’el
20150415
The role of quantum statistics in the decay dynamics of a multiparticle state, which is suddenly released from a confining potential, is investigated. For an initially confined double particle state, the exact dynamics is presented for both bosons and fermions. The timeevolution of the probability to measure twoparticle is evaluated and some counterintuitive features are discussed. For instance, it is shown that although there is a higher chance of finding the two bosons (as oppose to fermions, and even distinguishable particles) at the initial trap region, there is a higher chance (higher than fermions) of finding them on two opposite sides of the trap as if the repulsion between bosons is higher than the repulsion between fermions. The results are demonstrated by numerical simulations and are calculated analytically in the shorttime approximation. Furthermore, experimental validation is suggested.

Friction and particlehole pairs. [in dissipative quantum phenomena
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guinea, F.
19840101
The effect induced by dissipation on quantum phenomena has recently been considered, taking into account as a starting point a phenomenological Hamiltonian in which the environment is simulated by an appropriately chosen set of harmonic oscillators. It is found that this approach should be adequate to describe the lowenergy behavior of a wide class of environments. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the case in which the environment is a gas (or liquid) of fermions, and the relevant lowenergy excitations are particlehole pairs. A study is conducted regarding the extent to which the quantum results obtained for harmonic oscillators are also valid in the considered situation. Linearresponse theory is used to derive an effective action which describes the motion of an external particle coupled to a normal Fermi fluid.

From Dualism to Unity in Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landé, Alfred
20160201
Preface; Introduction; 1. Causality, chance, continuity; 2. States, observables, probabilities; 3. The metric law of probabilities; 4. Quantum dynamics; 5. Quantum fact and fiction; Retrospect. From dualism to unity, from positivism to realism; Appendix 1. Survey of elementary postulates; Appendix 2. Two problems of uniqueness; References; Index.

Finitetime measurement of quantum particle's mean position
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y.; Sokolovski, D.
20010101
We analyze nonrelativistic quantum measurement of the time average of the particle's coordinate, X≡t 1∫t0x(t')dt'. The measurement amplitude is constructed by restricting the Feynman path integral to paths with the required value of X. The resulting decomposition of the Schrödinger wave function determines the type of meter needed to measure X. We show that such meter can be realized as a magnetic moment traveling with the particle in a magnetic field whose magnitude linearly changes with x. Weak and strong measurement regimes are discussed.

Ring particles  Collisional interactions and physical nature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weidenschilling, S. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.
19840101
Attention is given to the properties of, and dynamical processes affecting individual particles of Saturn's rings. Because particles tend to be gravitationally bound when located on the surfaces of larger particles, and since net tidal stresses within the particles are small, particle collisions should produce accretion in Saturn's rings. Rapid accretionary processes within the rings are counterbalanced by tidal disruption of the larger accreted aggregates, which are presently designated 'dynamic ephemeral bodies'. The coefficient of restitution is probably very low, implying that the large particles containing most of the rings' mass are in a monolayer, although the small particles responsible for most of the rings' visible cross section form a layer many particles thick. Kinematic viscosity and interparticle erosive process models should incorporate these properties.

Variance of the Quantum Dwell Time for a Nonrelativistic Particle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahne, Gerhard
20120101
Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a twoflux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a timeindependent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a twodimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in fourdimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, . . ., of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an Nfluxcorrelation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an Smatrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the Smatrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the outputminusinput flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle s time flux and others) is derived.

Families of particles with different masses in PTsymmetric quantum field theory.
PubMed
Bender, Carl M; Klevansky, S P
20100716
An elementary fieldtheoretic mechanism is proposed that allows one Lagrangian to describe a family of particles having different masses but otherwise similar physical properties. The mechanism relies on the observation that the DysonSchwinger equations derived from a Lagrangian can have many different but equally valid solutions. Nonunique solutions to the DysonSchwinger equations arise when the functional integral for the Green's functions of the quantum field theory converges in different pairs of Stokes' wedges in complexfield space, and the solutions are physically viable if the pairs of Stokes' wedges are PT symmetric.

Waveparticle duality and uncertainty principle: Phenomenographic categories of description of tertiary physics students' depictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie
20111201
Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students’ depictions of the uncertainty principle and waveparticle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an understanding of quantum mechanics. A phenomenographic study was carried out to categorize a picture of students’ descriptions of these key quantum concepts. Data for this study were obtained from a semistructured indepth interview conducted with undergraduate physics students (N=25) from Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The phenomenographic data analysis revealed that it is possible to construct three qualitatively different categories to map students’ depictions of the concept waveparticle duality, namely, (1) classical description, (2) mixed classicalquantum description, and (3) quasiquantum description. Similarly, it is proposed that students’ depictions of the concept uncertainty can be described with four different categories of description, which are (1) uncertainty as an extrinsic property of measurement, (2) uncertainty principle as measurement error or uncertainty, (3) uncertainty as measurement disturbance, and (4) uncertainty as a quantum mechanics uncertainty principle. Overall, we found students are more likely to prefer a classical picture of interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, few students in the quasiquantum category applied typical wave phenomena such as interference and diffraction that cannot be explained within the framework classical physics for depicting the wavelike properties of quantum entities. Despite inhospitable conceptions of the uncertainty principle and wave and particlelike properties of quantum entities in our investigation, the findings presented in this paper are highly consistent with those reported in previous studies. New findings and some implications for instruction and the

The International Particle Physics Outreach Group (ippog):. Aims and Activities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barney, David
20120801
The International Particle Physics Outreach Group, IPPOG, is a network of particle physics communication and education experts. IPPOG's principle aim is to maximize the impact of education and outreach efforts related to particle physics through information exchange and the sharing of expertise. IPPOG has initiated several major European and Worldwide activities, such as the "International Particle Physics Masterclasses" where each year thousands of high school students in more than 20 countries come to one of about 120 nearby universities or research centres for a day in order to unravel the mysteries of particle physics. IPPOG has also initiated a global database of education and outreach materials, aimed at supporting other particle physicists and education professionals. The aims and activities of IPPOG will be described, as well as plans to include more countries & laboratories in the network.

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hobson, Art
20110101
In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because…

Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits.
PubMed
You, J Q; Nori, Franco
20110629
Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence and can behave like artificial atoms. Recent technological advances have made it possible to implement atomicphysics and quantumoptics experiments on a chip using these artificial atoms. This Review presents a brief overview of the progress achieved so far in this rapidly advancing field. We not only discuss phenomena analogous to those in atomic physics and quantum optics with natural atoms, but also highlight those not occurring in natural atoms. In addition, we summarize several prospective directions in this emerging interdisciplinary field.

Lagrangian Description for Particle Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: SingleParticle Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutherland, Roderick I.
20151101
A Lagrangian description is presented which can be used in conjunction with particle interpretations of quantum mechanics. A special example of such an interpretation is the wellknown Bohm model. The Lagrangian density introduced here also contains a potential for guiding the particle. The advantages of this description are that the field equations and the particle equations of motion can both be deduced from a single Lagrangian density expression and that conservation of energy and momentum are assured. After being developed in a general form, this Lagrangian formulation is then applied to the special case of the Bohm model as an example. It is thereby demonstrated that such a Lagrangian description is compatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics.

Quantumlike Probabilistic Models Outside Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
We present a quantumlike (QL) model in that contexts (complexes of e.g. mental, social, biological, economic or even political conditions) are represented by complex probability amplitudes. This approach gives the possibility to apply the mathematical quantum formalism to probabilities induced in any domain of science. In our model quantum randomness appears not as irreducible randomness (as it is commonly accepted in conventional quantum mechanics, e.g. by von Neumann and Dirac), but as a consequence of obtaining incomplete information about a system. We pay main attention to the QL description of processing of incomplete information. Our QL model can be useful in cognitive, social and political sciences as well as economics and artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider in a more detail one special application — QL modeling of brain's functioning. The brain is modeled as a QLcomputer.

Test on the Effectiveness of the Sum over Paths Approach in Favoring the Construction of an Integrated Knowledge of Quantum Physics in High School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna
20170101
In this paper we present the results of a researchbased teachinglearning sequence on introductory quantum physics based on Feynman's sum over paths approach in the Italian high school. Our study focuses on students' understanding of two founding ideas of quantum physics, wave particle duality and the uncertainty principle. In view of recent…

Transnational Quantum: Quantum Physics in India through the Lens of Satyendranath Bose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Somaditya
20160801
This paper traces the social and cultural dimensions of quantum physics in colonial India where Satyendranath Bose worked. By focusing on Bose's approach towards the quantum and his collaboration with Albert Einstein, I argue that his physics displayed both the localities of doing science in early twentieth century India as well as a cosmopolitan dimension. He transformed the fundamental new concept of the light quantum developed by Einstein in 1905 within the social and political context of colonial India. This crosspollination of the local with the global is termed here as the locally rooted cosmopolitan nature of Bose's science. The production of new knowledge through quantum statistics by Bose show the coconstructed nature of physics and the transnational nature of the quantum.

Annihilation physics of exotic galactic dark matter particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stecker, F. W.
19900101
Various theoretical arguments make exotic heavy neutral weakly interacting fermions, particularly those predicted by supersymmetry theory, attractive candidates for making up the large amount of unseen gravitating mass in galactic halos. Such particles can annihilate with each other, producing secondary particles of cosmicray energies, among which are antiprotons, positrons, neutrinos, and gammarays. Spectra and fluxes of these annihilation products can be calculated, partly by making use of positron electron collider data and quantum chromodynamic models of particle production derived therefrom. These spectra may provide detectable signatures of exotic particle remnants of the big bang.

Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, JeanLoup; Chabot, Hugues
20151001
One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction of quantum physics, we identify two epistemological positions with respect to this problem: The first one (close to the socalled Copenhagen school) is termed the conservative position and the second one (associated with the work of Bunge and LévyLeblond) the innovative position. We then analyze French textbooks used by teachers, in order to reveal the implicit positions adopted. We conclude with the idea that highlighting these epistemological choices can help teachers reflect upon the historical and epistemological roots of quantum physics. Such an analysis can contribute to developing and implementing appropriate teaching sequences for quantum physics. We explore the application of these epistemological positions to Young's paradigmatic experiment using the double slits.

Noisy quantum walks of two indistinguishable interacting particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siloi, Ilaria; Benedetti, Claudia; Piccinini, Enrico; Piilo, Jyrki; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Bordone, Paolo
20170201
We investigate the dynamics of continuoustime twoparticle quantum walks on a onedimensional noisy lattice. Depending on the initial condition, we show how the interplay between particle indistinguishability and interaction determines distinct propagation regimes. A realistic model for the environment is considered by introducing nonGaussian noise as timedependent fluctuations of the tunneling amplitudes between adjacent sites. We observe that the combined effect of particle interaction and fast noise (weak coupling with the environment) provides a faster propagation compared to the noiseless case. This effect can be understood in terms of the band structure of the Hubbard model, and a detailed analysis as a function of both noise and system parameters is presented.

NOON states via a quantum walk of bound particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compagno, Enrico; Banchi, Leonardo; Gross, Christian; Bose, Sougato
20170101
Tightbinding lattice models allow the creation of bound composite objects which, in the stronginteracting regime, are protected against dissociation. We show that a local impurity in the lattice potential can generate a coherent split of an incoming bound particle wave packet which consequently produces a NOON state between the endpoints. This is nontrivial because, when finite lattices are involved, edgelocalization effects render challenging their use for nonclassical state generation and information transfer. We derive an effective model to describe the propagation of bound particles in a BoseHubbard chain. We introduce local impurities in the lattice potential to inhibit localization effects and to split the propagating bound particle, thus enabling the generation of distant NOON states. We analyze how minimal engineering transfer schemes improve the transfer fidelity and we quantify the robustness to typical decoherence effects in optical lattice implementations. Our scheme potentially has an impact on quantumenhanced atomic interferometry in a lattice.

New concepts in particle physics from the solution of an old problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroer, Bert
20000701
Recent ideas on modular localization in local quantum physics are used to clarify the relation between on and offshell quantities in particle physics; in particular, the relation between onshell crossing symmetry and offshell Einstein causality. Among the collateral results of this new nonperturbative approach are profound relations between crossing symmetry of particle physics and HawkingUnruhlike thermal aspects (KMS property, entropy attached to horizons) of quantum matter behind causal horizons, aspects which hitherto were exclusively related to Killing horizons in curved spacetime rather than with localization aspects in Minkowski space particle physics. The scope of this modular framework is amazingly wide and ranges from providing a conceptual basis for the d = 1 + 1 bootstrapformfactor programme for factorizable d = 1 + 1 models to a decomposition theory of quantum field theories in terms of a finite collection of unitarily equivalent chiral conformal theories placed a specified relative position within a common Hilbert space (in d = 1 + 1 a holographic relation and in higher dimensions more like a scanning). The new framework gives a spacetime interpretation to the Zamolodchikov algebra and explains its thermal aspects.

J.J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics: 40 Years of Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lepage, Peter
20160301
Lattice QCD was invented in 197374 by Ken Wilson, who passed away in 2013. This talk will describe the evolution of lattice QCD through the past 40 years with particular emphasis on its first years, and on the past decade, when lattice QCD simulations finally came of age. Thanks to theoretical breakthroughs in the late 1990s and early 2000s, lattice QCD simulations now produce the most accurate theoretical calculations in the history of stronginteraction physics. They play an essential role in highprecision experimental studies of physics within and beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The talk will include a nontechnical review of the conceptual ideas behind this revolutionary development in (highly) nonlinear quantum physics, together with a survey of its current impact on theoretical and experimental particle physics, and prospects for the future. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

Simulations of twoparticle interactions with 2D quantum walks in time
SciTech Connect
Schreiber, A.; Laiho, K.; Silberhorn, C.; Rohde, P. P.; Štefaňak, M.; Potoček, V.; Hamilton, C.; Jex, I.
20141204
We present the experimental implementation of a quantum walk on a twodimensional lattice and show how to employ the optical system to simulate the quantum propagation of two interacting particles. Our quantum walk in time transfers the spatial spread of a quantum walk into the time domain, which guarantees a high stability and scalability of the setup. We present with our device quantum walks over 12 steps on a 2D lattice. By changing the properties of the driving quantum coin, we investigate different kinds of twoparticle interactions and reveal their impact on the occurring quantum propagation.

Multiple particle production processes in the light'' of quantum optics
SciTech Connect
Friedlander, E.M.
19900901
Ever since the observation that highenergy nuclear active'' cosmicray particles create bunches of penetrating particles upon hitting targets, a controversy has raged about whether these secondaries are created in a single act'' or whether many hadrons are just the result of an intranuclear cascade, yielding one meson in every step. I cannot escape the impression that: the latter kind of model appeals naturally as a consequence of an innate biomorphism in our way of thinking and that in one guise or another it has tenaciously survived to this day, also for hadronhadron collisions, via multiperipheral models to the modern parton shower approach. Indeed, from the very beginning of theoretical consideration of multiparticle production, the possibility of many particles arising from a single hot'' system has been explored, with many fruitful results, not the least of which are the s{sup 1/4} dependence of the mean produced particle multiplicity and the thermal'' shape of the P{sub T} spectra. An important consequence of the thermodynamicalhydrodynamical models is that particle emission is treated in analogy to blackbody radiation, implying for the secondaries a set of specific QuantumStatistical properties, very similar to those observed in quantum optics. From here on I shall try to review a number of implications and applications of this QS analogy in the study of multiplicity distributions of the produced secondaries. I will touch only in passing another very important topic of this class, the BoseEinstein twoparticle correlations.

CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass
SciTech Connect
Jesus, J.F.; Pereira, S.H. Email: shpereira@gmail.com
20140701
In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation ε for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form t{sup 2/3+ε}. Based on recent H(z) data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the ε parameter have been found as m = 1.6× 10{sup 3} GeV, restricted to a 68.3% c.l. interval of 1.5 < m < 6.3× 10{sup 7}) GeV and ε = 0.250{sup +0.15}{sub 0.096} at 68.3% c.l. For these best fit values the model correctly recovers a transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion and admits a positive creation rate near the present era. Contrary to recent works in CCDM models where the creation rate was phenomenologically derived, here we have used a quantum mechanical result for the creation rate of real massive scalar particles, given a self consistent justification for the physical process. This method also indicates a possible solution to the so called ''dark degeneracy'', where one can not distinguish if it is the quantum vacuum contribution or quantum particle creation which accelerates the Universe expansion.

Quantum dotcontaining polymer particles with thermosensitive fluorescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Generalova, Alla N.; Oleinikov, Vladimir A.; Sukhanova, Alyona; Artemyev, Mikhail V.; Zubov, Vitaly P.; Nabiev, Igor
20121001
In the past decades, increasing attention has been paid to the preparation of "smart" functionalized polymer particles reversibly responding to slight environmental changes, such as variations in temperature, pH, and ionic strength. The composite polymer particles consisting of a solid poly(acroleincostyrene) core and a poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) polymer shell doped with CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were prepared. The thermosensitive response of the composite particles was observed as a decrease in their hydrodynamic diameter upon heating above the lower critical solution temperature of the thermosensitive PVCL polymer used as a shell. Embedding QDs in the PVCL shell makes it possible to obtain particles whose fluorescence is sensitive to temperature changes. The temperaturedependent fluorescence of particles was determined by reversible variation of the distances between QDs in the PVCL shell as a result of temperaturedriven conformational changes in this polymer. In addition, these particles can be used as carriers of biomolecule (e.g., bovine serum albumin, BSA) characterized by reversibly temperaturedependent fluorescence, which can serve as the basis for optical detection methods in bioassays, such as the measurement of local temperature in nanovolumes, biosensing, etc.

Quantumbehaved particle swarm optimization: analysis of individual particle behavior and parameter selection.
PubMed
Sun, Jun; Fang, Wei; Wu, Xiaojun; Palade, Vasile; Xu, Wenbo
20120101
Quantumbehaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), motivated by concepts from quantum mechanics and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is a probabilistic optimization algorithm belonging to the barebones PSO family. Although it has been shown to perform well in finding the optimal solutions for many optimization problems, there has so far been little analysis on how it works in detail. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the QPSO algorithm. In the theoretical analysis, we analyze the behavior of a single particle in QPSO in terms of probability measure. Since the particle's behavior is influenced by the contractionexpansion (CE) coefficient, which is the most important parameter of the algorithm, the goal of the theoretical analysis is to find out the upper bound of the CE coefficient, within which the value of the CE coefficient selected can guarantee the convergence or boundedness of the particle's position. In the experimental analysis, the theoretical results are first validated by stochastic simulations for the particle's behavior. Then, based on the derived upper bound of the CE coefficient, we perform empirical studies on a suite of wellknown benchmark functions to show how to control and select the value of the CE coefficient, in order to obtain generally good algorithmic performance in real world applications. Finally, a further performance comparison between QPSO and other variants of PSO on the benchmarks is made to show the efficiency of the QPSO algorithm with the proposed parameter control and selection methods.

Two decades of Mexican particle physics at Fermilab
SciTech Connect
Roy Rubinstein
20021203
This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories. Soon after becoming Fermilab director in 1979, Leon Lederman initiated a program to encourage experimental physics, especially experimental particle physics, in Latin America. At the time, Mexico had significant theoretical particle physics activity, but none in experiment. Following a visit by Lederman to UNAM in 1981, a conference ''Panamerican Symposium on Particle Physics and Technology'' was held in January 1982 at Cocoyoc, Mexico, with about 50 attendees from Europe, North America, and Latin America; these included Lederman, M. Moshinsky, J. Flores, S. Glashow, J. Bjorken, and G. Charpak. Among the conference outcomes were four subsequent similar symposia over the next decade, and a formal Fermilab program to aid Latin American physics (particularly particle physics); it also influenced a decision by Mexican physicist Clicerio Avilez to switch from theoretical to experimental particle physics. The first physics collaboration between Fermilab and Mexico was in particle theory. Postdocs Rodrigo Huerta and Jose Luis Lucio spent 12 years at Fermilab starting in 1981, and other theorists (including Augusto Garcia, Arnulfo Zepeda, Matias Moreno and Miguel Angel Perez) also spent time at the Laboratory in the 1980s.

PreService Physics Teachers' Comprehension of Quantum Mechanical Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Didis, Nilufer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoc, Sakir
20100101
When quantum theory caused a paradigm shift in physics, it introduced difficulties in both learning and teaching of physics. Because of its abstract, counterintuitive and mathematical structure, students have difficulty in learning this theory, and instructors have difficulty in teaching the concepts of the theory. This case study investigates…

Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dutt, Amit
20110101
This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…

Designing learning environments to teach interactive Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; Swagten, Henk J. M.
20121001
This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a secondyear physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and selfstudy in unit blocks, carried out with small groups. Individual formative feedback was introduced as a rapid assessment tool to provide an overview on progress and identify gaps by means of questioning students at three levels: conceptual; prior knowledge; homework exercises. The setup of Quantum Physics has been developed as a result of several loops of adjustments and improvements from a traditionallike type of teaching to an interactive classroom. Results of this particular instructional arrangement indicate significant gains in students' achievements in comparison with the traditional structure of this course, after recent optimisation steps such as the implementation of an individual feedback system.

PARTICLE PHYSICS: CERN Collider Glimpses SupersymmetryMaybe.
PubMed
Seife, C
20000714
Last week, particle physicists at the CERN laboratory in Switzerland announced that by smashing together matter and antimatter in four experiments, they detected an unexpected effect in the sprays of particles that ensued. The anomaly is subtle, and physicists caution that it might still be a statistical fluke. If confirmed, however, it could mark the longsought discovery of a whole zoo of new particlesand the end of a longstanding model of particle physics.

The Bondons: The Quantum Particles of the Chemical Bond
PubMed Central
Putz, Mihai V.
20100101
By employing the combined Bohmian quantum formalism with the U(1) and SU(2) gauge transformations of the nonrelativistic wavefunction and the relativistic spinor, within the Schrödinger and Dirac quantum pictures of electron motions, the existence of the chemical field is revealed along the associate bondon particle B̶ characterized by its mass (mB̶), velocity (vB̶), charge (eB̶), and lifetime (tB̶). This is quantized either in ground or excited states of the chemical bond in terms of reduced Planck constant ħ, the bond energy Ebond and length Xbond, respectively. The massvelocitychargetime quaternion properties of bondons’ particles were used in discussing various paradigmatic types of chemical bond towards assessing their covalent, multiple bonding, metallic and ionic features. The bondonic picture was completed by discussing the relativistic charge and lifetime (the actual zitterbewegung) problem, i.e., showing that the bondon equals the benchmark electronic charge through moving with almost light velocity. It carries negligible, although nonzero, mass in special bonding conditions and towards observable femtosecond lifetime as the bonding length increases in the nanosystems and bonding energy decreases according with the bonding lengthenergy relationship Ebond[kcal/mol]×Xbond[A0]=182019, providing this way the predictive framework in which the B̶ particle may be observed. Finally, its role in establishing the virtual states in Raman scattering was also established. PMID:21151435

Path Sampling Methods for Enzymatic Quantum Particle Transfer Reactions.
PubMed
Dzierlenga, M W; Varga, M J; Schwartz, S D
20160101
The mechanisms of enzymatic reactions are studied via a host of computational techniques. While previous methods have been used successfully, many fail to incorporate the full dynamical properties of enzymatic systems. This can lead to misleading results in cases where enzyme motion plays a significant role in the reaction coordinate, which is especially relevant in particle transfer reactions where nuclear tunneling may occur. In this chapter, we outline previous methods, as well as discuss newly developed dynamical methods to interrogate mechanisms of enzymatic particle transfer reactions. These new methods allow for the calculation of free energy barriers and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) with the incorporation of quantum effects through centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and the full complement of enzyme dynamics through transition path sampling (TPS). Recent work, summarized in this chapter, applied the method for calculation of free energy barriers to reaction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). We found that tunneling plays an insignificant role in YADH but plays a more significant role in LDH, though not dominant over classical transfer. Additionally, we summarize the application of a TPS algorithm for the calculation of reaction rates in tandem with CMD to calculate the primary H/D KIE of YADH from first principles. We found that the computationally obtained KIE is within the margin of error of experimentally determined KIEs and corresponds to the KIE of particle transfer in the enzyme. These methods provide new ways to investigate enzyme mechanism with the inclusion of protein and quantum dynamics.

Quantum physics of simple optical instruments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonhardt, Ulf
20030701
Simple optical instruments are linear optical networks where the incident light modes are turned into equal numbers of outgoing modes by linear transformations. For example, such instruments are beam splitters, multiports, interferometers, fibre couplers, polarizers, gravitational lenses, parametric amplifiers, phaseconjugating mirrors and also black holes. The paper develops the quantum theory of simple optical instruments and applies the theory to a few characteristic situations, to the splitting and interference of photons and to the manifestation of EinsteinPodolskyRosen correlations in parametric downconversion. How to model irreversible devices such as absorbers and amplifiers is also shown. Finally, the paper develops the theory of Hawking radiation for a simple optical black hole. The paper is intended as a primer, as a nearly selfconsistent tutorial. The reader should be familiar with basic quantum mechanics and statistics, and perhaps with optics and some elementary field theory. The quantum theory of light in dielectrics serves as the starting point and, in the concluding section, as a guide to understand quantum black holes.

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobson, Art
20110301
In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because they respond to neither the EM force nor the strong force. For example, the mean free path (average penetration distance before it interacts) of a typical betadecay neutrino moving through solid lead is about 1.5 light years! Enrico Fermi argued that neutrinos indicated a new force was at work. During the 1930s, he quickly adapted ideas from the developing new theory of QED to this new force, dubbed the weak force. Fermi's theory was able to predict the halflives of betaemitting nuclei and the range of energies of the emitted beta particles.

Particle physics. Positrons ride the wave
SciTech Connect
Piot, Philippe
20150826
Here, experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to highenergy electron–positron particle colliders.

Variance of the quantum dwell time for a nonrelativistic particle
SciTech Connect
Hahne, G. E.
20130115
Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a twoflux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a timeindependent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a twodimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in fourdimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular, those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N= 1, 2, 3, HorizontalEllipsis , of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an Nfluxcorrelation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N= 1 formula reduces to an Smatrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N= 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the Smatrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the outputminusinput flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle's time flux and others) is derived.

Particle physics meets cosmology  The search for decaying neutrinos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henry, R. C.
19820101
The fundamental physical implications of the possible detection of massive neutrinos are discussed, with an emphasis on the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) of matter. The Newtonian and generalrelativistic pictures of the fundamental forces are compared, and the reduction of electromagnetic and weak forces to one force in the GUTs is explained. The cosmological consequences of the curvedspacetime gravitation concept are considered. Quarks, leptons, and neutrinos are characterized in a general treatment of elementary quantum mechanics. The universe is described in terms of quantized fields, the noninteractive 'particle' fields and the force fields, and cosmology becomes the study of the interaction of gravitation with the other fields, of the 'freezing out' of successive fields with the expansion and cooling of the universe. While the visible universe is the result of the clustering of the quark and electron fields, the distribution of the large number of quanta in neutrino field, like the mass of the neutrino, are unknown. Cosmological models which attribute anomalies in the observed motions of galaxies and stars to clusters or shells of massive neutrinos are shown to be consistent with a small but nonzero neutrino mass and a universe near the open/closed transition point, but direct detection of the presence of massive neutrinos by the UV emission of their decay is required to verify these hypotheses.

A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge
20140401
We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The highperformance field programmable gate array could complete highprecision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a GM tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

Recovering the quantum formalism from physically realist axioms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auffèves, Alexia; Grangier, Philippe
20170301
We present a heuristic derivation of Born’s rule and unitary transforms in Quantum Mechanics, from a simple set of axioms built upon a physical phenomenology of quantization. This approach naturally leads to the usual quantum formalism, within a new realistic conceptual framework that is discussed in details. Physically, the structure of Quantum Mechanics appears as a result of the interplay between the quantized number of “modalities” accessible to a quantum system, and the continuum of “contexts” that are required to define these modalities. Mathematically, the Hilbert space structure appears as a consequence of a specific “extracontextuality” of modalities, closely related to the hypothesis of Gleason’s theorem, and consistent with its conclusions.

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics.
PubMed
Briggs, G A D; Butterfield, J N; Zeilinger, A
20130908
The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physicsrelativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment.

Recovering the quantum formalism from physically realist axioms
PubMed Central
Auffèves, Alexia; Grangier, Philippe
20170101
We present a heuristic derivation of Born’s rule and unitary transforms in Quantum Mechanics, from a simple set of axioms built upon a physical phenomenology of quantization. This approach naturally leads to the usual quantum formalism, within a new realistic conceptual framework that is discussed in details. Physically, the structure of Quantum Mechanics appears as a result of the interplay between the quantized number of “modalities” accessible to a quantum system, and the continuum of “contexts” that are required to define these modalities. Mathematically, the Hilbert space structure appears as a consequence of a specific “extracontextuality” of modalities, closely related to the hypothesis of Gleason’s theorem, and consistent with its conclusions. PMID:28256539

Time evolution of decay of two identical quantum particles
SciTech Connect
GarciaCalderon, Gaston; MendozaLuna, Luis Guillermo
20110915
An analytical solution for the time evolution of decay of two identical noninteracting quantum particles seated initially within a potential of finite range is derived using the formalism of resonant states. It is shown that the wave function, and hence also the survival and nonescape probabilities, for factorized symmetric and entangled symmetric or antisymmetric initial states evolve in a distinctive form along the exponentially decaying and nonexponential regimes. Our findings show the influence of the Pauli exclusion principle on decay. We exemplify our results by solving exactly the swave {delta} shell potential model.

Time fluctuations in isolated quantum systems of interacting particles.
PubMed
Zangara, Pablo R; Dente, Axel D; TorresHerrera, E J; Pastawski, Horacio M; Iucci, Aníbal; Santos, Lea F
20130901
Numerically, we study the time fluctuations of fewbody observables after relaxation in isolated dynamical quantum systems of interacting particles. Our results suggest that they decay exponentially with system size in both regimes, integrable and chaotic. The integrable systems considered are solvable with the Bethe ansatz and have a highly nondegenerate spectrum. This is in contrast with integrable Hamiltonians mappable to noninteracting ones. We show that the coefficient of the exponential decay depends on the level of delocalization of the initial state with respect to the energy shell.

Particle Physics Meets Cosmology  The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henry, Richard C.
19820101
Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)

Particle Size, Surface Coating, and PEGylation Influence the Biodistribution of Quantum Dots in Living Mice
PubMed Central
Schipper, Meike L.; Iyer, Gopal; Koh, Ai Leen; Cheng, Zhen; Ebenstein, Yuval; Aharoni, Assaf; Keren, Shay; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Li, Jianquing; Rao, Jianghong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Banin, Uri; Wu, Anna M.; Sinclair, Robert; Weiss, Shimon
20110101
This study evaluates the influence of particle size, PEGylation, and surface coating on the quantitative biodistribution of nearinfraredemitting quantum dots (QDs) in mice. Polymer or peptidecoated 64Culabeled QDs 2 or 12 nm in diameter, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 2000, are studied by serial micropositron emission tomography imaging and regionofinterest analysis, as well as transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. PEGylation and peptide coating slow QD uptake into the organs of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), liver and spleen, by a factor of 6–9 and 2–3, respectively. Small particles are in part renally excreted. Peptidecoated particles are cleared from liver faster than physical decay alone would suggest. Renal excretion of small QDs and slowing of RES clearance by PEGylation or peptide surface coating are encouraging steps toward the use of modified QDs for imaging living subjects. PMID:19051182

The physical principles of quantum mechanics. A critical review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strocchi, F.
20120101
The standard presentation of the principles of quantum mechanics is critically reviewed both from the experimental/operational point and with respect to the request of mathematical consistency and logical economy. A simpler and more physically motivated formulation is discussed. The existence of non commuting observables, which characterizes quantum mechanics with respect to classical mechanics, is related to operationally testable complementarity relations, rather than to uncertainty relations. The drawbacks of Dirac argument for canonical quantization are avoided by a more geometrical approach.

Precision measurement for particle physics and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, Peter
20170101
Axions and other light particles are strongly motivated. For example, the axion is the crucial element in the recently proposed solution to the hierarchy problem using dynamical relaxation in the early universe. However, such particles are challenging to search for experimentally. Precision measurement technologies such as atom interferometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, high precision magnetometry, and torsion balances allow novel, highly sensitive experiments for direct detection of such light dark matter and of gravitational waves. Thus precision measurement technologies open new avenues for probing the origin and composition of the universe.

MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
SciTech Connect
Onasch, T.B.; Sedlacek, A.; Cross, E. S.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahern, A.; Lack, D. A.; Cappa, C. D.; Trimborn, A.; Freedman, A.; Olfert, J. S.; Jayne, J. T.; Massoli, P.; Williams, L. R.; Mazzoleni, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Thornhill, D. A.; Slowik, J. G.; Kok, G. L.; Brem, B. T.; Subramanian, R.; Spackman, J. R.; Freitag, S.; and Dubey, M. K.
20091214
Accurate measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosol particles containing black carbon are necessary to improve current estimates of the radiative forcing in the atmosphere. A collaborative research effort between Aerodyne Research, Inc. and Boston College has focused on conducting field and laboratory experiments on carbonaceous particles and the development and characterization of new particulate instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the chemical, physical, and optical properties of black carbon particles measured in the laboratory in order to understand the effects of atmospheric processing on black carbon particles. Results from a threeweek study during July 2008 of mass and opticalbased black carbon measurements will be presented. The project utilized the Boston College laboratory flame apparatus and aerosol conditioning and characterization equipment. A premixed flat flame burner operating at controlled fueltoair ratios produced stable and reproducible concentrations of soot particles with known sizes, morphologies, and chemical compositions. In addition, other black carbon particle types, including fullerene soot, glassy carbon spheres, oxidized flame soot, Regal black, and Aquadag, were also atomized, size selected, and sampled. The study covered an experimental matrix that systematically selected particle mobility size (30 to 300 nm) and black carbon particle mass, particle number concentration, particle shape (dynamic shape factor and fractal dimension), and particle chemistry and density (changed via coatings). Particles were coated with a measured thickness (few nm to {approx}150 nm) of sulfuric acid or bis (2ethylhexyl) sebacate and passed through a thermal denuder to remove the coatings. Highlights of the study to be presented include: (1) Characterization of the chemical and physical properties of various types of black carbon particles, (2) Mass specific absorption measurements as a function of fuel

Quantum, cyclic, and particleexchange heat engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humphrey, T. E.; Linke, H.
20051001
Differences between the thermodynamic behavior of the threelevel amplifier (a quantum heat engine based on a thermally pumped laser) and the classical Carnot cycle are usually attributed to the essentially quantum or discrete nature of the former. Here we provide examples of a number of classical and semiclassical heat engines, such as thermionic, thermoelectric and photovoltaic devices, which all utilize the same thermodynamic mechanism for achieving reversibility as the threelevel amplifier, namely isentropic (but nonisothermal) particle transfer between hot and cold reservoirs. This mechanism is distinct from the isothermal heat transfer required to achieve reversibility in cyclic engines such as the Carnot, Otto or Brayton cycles. We point out that some of the qualitative differences previously uncovered between the threelevel amplifier and the Carnot cycle may be attributed to the fact that they are not the same ‘type’ of heat engine, rather than to the quantum nature of the threelevel amplifier per se.

Spectral statistics for the evolution operator of a quantum particle showing chaotic diffusion of the coordinate
SciTech Connect
Kolovsky, A.R.
19970801
We study the spectral properties of the evolution operator of a quantum particle subject to a spaceperiodic timedependent potential. Two qualitatively different regimes of the system dynamics are compared: case (i), when the spreading of the wave packet is asymptotically ballistic; and case (ii), when the wave packet spreads diffusively. As time increases, the spectrum is shown to approach Poisson statistics in case (i) and circular unitary ensemble statistics in case (ii). A scaling relation for the velocity and curvature distributions of the spectral bands are found. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
20160301
Using the simplest possible quantum system—the qubit—the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous TPT article and in a separate paper posted online, we introduced catchy visualizations of the qubit based on the Bloch sphere or just the unit circle (see also Refs. 38 for other approaches highlighting the importance of the qubit). These visualizations open the way to understand basic ideas of quantum physics even without knowledge of the underlying mathematical formalism. In addition, simple mathematics can be introduced to describe the qubit as an abstract object and basic unit of quantum information. This generalizes the digital bit as a basic unit of classical information. The proposed visualizations can be used even at the high school level, while the mathematical explanations are of importance when teaching quantum physics at the undergraduate university level. This approach provides a unified framework to introduce common features of all quantum systems, such as the stochastic behavior and state change of a superposition state under measurement.

Uses of particle identification for supercollider physics
SciTech Connect
Quigg, C.
19890501
I summarize the basic characteristics of the Superconducting Super Collider and describe the experimental environment of its high luminosity interaction regions. I then review some of the discovery possibilities opened by the SSC, with special attention to the advantages conferred by particle identification. 16 refs., 8 figs.

Local energy and power in manyparticle quantum systems driven by an external electrical field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albareda, Guillermo; Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Oriols, Xavier
20160501
We derive expressions for the expectation values of the local energy and the local power for a manyparticle system of (scalar) charged particles interacting with an external electrical field. In analogy with the definition of the (local) current probability density, we construct a local energy operator such that the timerate of change of its expectation value provides information on the spatial distribution of power. Results are presented as functions of an arbitrarily small volume Ω , and physical insights are discussed by means of the quantum hydrodynamical representation of the wavefunction, which is proven to allow for a clearcut separation into contributions with and without classical correspondence. Quantum features of the local power are mainly manifested through the presence of nonlocal sources/sinks of power and through the action of forces with no classical counterpart. Manyparticle classicallike effects arise in the form of currentforce correlations and through the inflow/outflow of energy across the boundaries of the volume Ω . Interestingly, all these intriguing features are only reflected in the expression of the local power when the volume Ω is finite. Otherwise, for closed systems with Ω \\to ∞ , we recover a classicallike singleparticle expression.

Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schneider, Mark B.
20100101
The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For…

Effective theories and thresholds in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Gaillard, M.K.
19910607
The role of effective theories in probing a more fundamental underlying theory and in indicating new physics thresholds is discussed, with examples from the standard model and more speculative applications to superstring theory. 38 refs.

American particle and nuclear physics planning
SciTech Connect
Montgomery, Hugh E.
20141001
In the United States the planning process relevant to future deep inelastic scattering involves both the high energy physics and nuclear physics funding and the two communities. In Canada there is no such split between the communities. Within the past two years there have been several planning initiatives and there may be more to come. We review the current status of both the planning and the plans.

Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena
SciTech Connect
Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.
19920601
This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixedtarget kdecay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electronpositron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

Decision theory and information propagation in quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forrester, Alan
In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule p k = ψ k  2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decisiontheoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 31293137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts circularity. Deutsch and Wallace assume that the many worlds theory is true and that decoherence gives rise to a preferred basis. However, decoherence arguments use the reduced density matrix, which relies upon the partial trace and hence upon the Born rule for its validity. Using the Heisenberg picture and quantum Darwinismthe notion that classical information is quantum information that can proliferate in the environment pioneered in Ollivier et al. [(2004). Objective properties from subjective quantum states: Environment as a witness. Physical Review Letters, 93, 220401 and (2005). Environment as a witness: Selective proliferation of information and emergence of objectivity in a quantum universe. Physical Review A, 72, 042113]I show that measurement interactions between two systems only create correlations between a specific set of commuting observables of system 1 and a specific set of commuting observables of system 2. This argument picks out a unique basis in which information flows in the correlations between those sets of commuting observables. I then derive the Born rule for both pure and mixed states and answer some other criticisms of the decision theoretic approach to quantum probability.

The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Wells, James D.
20001214
Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

StateoftheArt Particle Physics Detector
NASA Video Gallery
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a stateoftheart particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 institutes from 16 countries and organized under United States...

Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992December 1992
SciTech Connect
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.
19920701
This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.

Artificial Quantum Solids: Physics, Fabrication and Applications
DTIC Science & Technology
20071102
M. Chandrasekhar, unpublished, 1995; S. Bandyopadhyay, A. E. Miller, and M. Chandrasekhar, in Proc. of SPIE, Photonics West, San Jose , CA, (PAGE...quantum dot arrays synthesized by a novel electrochemical technique," in Proc. SP1E, Photonics West , San Jose /CA, Feb. 1995, vol. 2397, pp. 11...i+i)iti) + lUi j^J)* V2V Jh\\+Ap) V2V Jh\\+4p) /l(i=L=)lU>  /ifi + ^ä^),! V2V y/hA+4pJ V 2V Jh\\+4J*J In the basis of

On Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship, Its Extension, and the Quantum Issue of WaveParticle Duality
PubMed Central
Putz, Mihai V.
20100101
Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR) is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wavetoparticle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particlewave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor 1n2, in terms of magnitude n∈[0,1]. of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact waveparticle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particletowave ratio as well as of the freeevolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function. PMID:21152325

Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas
SciTech Connect
Cheng, C.Z.
19970501
Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex waveparticle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and longtime behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kineticMHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kineticMHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kineticMHD stability code, the NOVAK code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kineticMHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooningmirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and fieldaligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma.

Physics of compaction of fine cohesive particles.
PubMed
Castellanos, A; Valverde, J M; Quintanilla, M A S
20050225
Fluidized fractal clusters of fine particles display criticallike dynamics at the jamming transition, characterized by a power law relating consolidation stress with volume fraction increment [sigma(c) proportional, variant(Deltaphi)(beta)]. At a critical stress clusters are disrupted and there is a crossover to a logarithmic law (Deltaphi = nu logsigma(c)) resembling the phenomenology of soils. We measure lambda identical with partial differentialDelta(1/phi)/ partial log(sigma(c) proportional, variant Bo(0.2)(g), where Bo(g) is the ratio of interparticle attractive force (in the fluidlike regime) to particle weight. This law suggests that compaction is ruled by the internal packing structure of the jammed clusters at nearly zero consolidation.

Quarks, Leptons, and Bosons: A Particle Physics Primer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagoner, Robert; Goldsmith, Donald
19830101
Presented is a nontechnical introduction to particle physics. The material is adapted from chapter 3 of "Cosmic Horizons," (by Robert Wagoner and Don Goldsmith), a layperson's introduction to cosmology. Among the topics considered are elementary particles, forces and motion, and higher level structures. (JN)

Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farmelo, Graham
19920101
Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W…

Future particlephysics projects in the United States
SciTech Connect
Denisov, D. S.
20150825
Basic proposals of experiments aimed at precision measurements of Standard Model parameters and at searches for new particles, including darkmatter particles, are described along with future experimental projects considered by American Physical Society at the meeting in the summer of 2013 and intended for implementation within the next ten to twenty years.

The engineering needed for particle physics.
PubMed
Myers, Steve
20120828
Today's particle accelerators and detectors are among the most complicated and expensive scientific instruments ever built, and they exploit almost every aspect of today's cuttingedge engineering technologies. In many cases, accelerator needs have been the driving force behind these new technologies, necessity being the mother of invention. This paper gives an overview of some engineering requirements for the construction and operation of presentday accelerators and detectors.

Lagrangian Description for Particle Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: Entangled ManyParticle Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutherland, Roderick I.
20170201
A Lagrangian formulation is constructed for particle interpretations of quantum mechanics, a wellknown example of such an interpretation being the Bohm model. The advantages of such a description are that the equations for particle motion, field evolution and conservation laws can all be deduced from a single Lagrangian density expression. The formalism presented is Lorentz invariant. This paper follows on from a previous one which was limited to the singleparticle case. The present paper treats the more general case of many particles in an entangled state. It is found that describing more than one particle while maintaining a relativistic description requires the specification of final boundary conditions as well as the usual initial ones, with the experimenter's controllable choice of the final conditions thereby exerting a backwardsintime influence. This retrocausality then allows an important theoretical step forward to be made, namely that it becomes possible to dispense with the usual, manydimensional description in configuration space and instead revert to a description in spacetime using separate, singleparticle wavefunctions.

Teaching quantum interpretations: Revisiting the goals and practices of introductory quantum physics courses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
20151201
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Most introductory quantum physics instructors would agree that transitioning students from classical to quantum thinking is an important learning goal, but may disagree on whether or how this can be accomplished. Although (and perhaps because) physicists have long debated the physical interpretation of quantum theory, many instructors choose to avoid emphasizing interpretive themes; or they discuss the views of scientists in their classrooms, but do not adequately attend to student interpretations. In this synthesis and extension of prior work, we demonstrate the following: (i) instructors vary in their approaches to teaching interpretive themes; (ii) different instructional approaches have differential impacts on student thinking; and (iii) when student interpretations go unattended, they often develop their own (sometimes scientifically undesirable) views. We introduce here a new modern physics curriculum that explicitly attends to student interpretations, and provide evidencebased arguments that doing so helps them to develop more consistent interpretations of quantum phenomena, more sophisticated views of uncertainty, and greater interest in quantum physics.

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics
PubMed Central
Briggs, G. A. D.; Butterfield, J. N.; Zeilinger, A.
20130101
The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics—relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

Mapping of topological quantum circuits to physical hardware.
PubMed
Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia
20140411
Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve largescale, errorcorrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and faulttolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)
SciTech Connect
Dittmann, J.R.
20120825
This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cuttingedge measurements from protonantiproton collisions at the energy frontier.

Research in theoretical and elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Mitselmakher, G.
19961201
In 1995 the University of Florida started a major expansion of the High Energy Experimental Physics group (HEE) with the goal of adding four new faculty level positions to the group in two years. This proposal covers the second year of operation of the new group and gives a projection of the planned research program for the next five years, when the group expects their activities to be broader and well defined. The expansion of the HEE group started in the Fall of 1995 when Guenakh Mitselmakher was hired from Fermilab as a Full Professor. A search was then performed for two junior faculty positions. The first being a Research Scientist/Scholar position which is supported for 9 months by the University on a faculty line at the same level as Assistant Professor but without the teaching duties. The second position is that of an Assistant Professor. The search has been successfully completed and Jacobo Konigsberg from Harvard University has accepted the position of Research Scientist and Andrey Korytov from MIT has accepted the position of Assistant Professor. They will join the group in August 1996. The physics program for the new group is focused on hadron collider physics. G. Mitselmakher has been leading the CMS endcap muon project since 1994. A Korytov is the coordinator of the endcap muon chamber effort for CMS and a member of the CDF collaboration and J. Konigsberg is a member of CDF where he has participated in various physics analyses and has been coordinator of the gas calorimetry group. The group at the U. of Florida has recently been accepted as an official collaborating institution on CDF. They have been assigned the responsibility of determining the collider beam luminosity at CDF and they will also be an active participant in the design and operation of the muon detectors for the intermediate rapidity region. In addition they expect to continue their strong participation in the present and future physics analysis of the CDF data.

From Particle Physics to Astroparticle Physics: Proton Decay and the Rise of Nonaccelerator Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Hinrich
The search for proton decay was motivated by simple questions about the content of the observable universe. Why is matter so stable and why do we not see antimatter of primordial origin? The symmetry of the standard model of particle physics would have required that matter and antimatter annihilated in the early universe. In 1968, Sacharov showed that the matterantimatter asymmetry could have formed in a state of thermal nonequilibrium of the universe, as given in big bang cosmology, together with the wellconfirmed C and CP violations, and proton decay. The latter phenomenon could be only investigated in large noneaccelerator experiments. The SU(5) extension of the standard model implied a proton lifetime of about 1029 years. With detectors consisting of 1 000 tons of matter and located deep under the Earth surface, such as the FrenchGerman Fréjus ironcalorimeter, in the mid 1980s one expected to detect several proton decays per year. Here, we report on the way leading from accelerator laboratories to underground physics, which paradoxically enough turned out to studying cosmic rays. There has not been any evidence for the instability of protons, and lifetime limits of more than 1034 years have been obtained. However, great progress in particle physics and in the physics of cosmic rays could be achieved with neutrinos.

Time Symmetric Quantum Mechanics and Causal Classical Physics ?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bopp, Fritz W.
20170201
A two boundary quantum mechanics without time ordered causal structure is advocated as consistent theory. The apparent causal structure of usual "near future" macroscopic phenomena is attributed to a cosmological asymmetry and to rules governing the transition between microscopic to macroscopic observations. Our interest is a heuristic understanding of the resulting macroscopic physics.

A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DickPerez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas
20160101
A 14item, multiplechoice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

THE CENTENARY OF NIELS BOHR: Niels Bohr and quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Migdal, A. B.
19851001
The way of thinking and scientific style of Niels Bohr are discussed in connection with developments of his emotional and spiritual life. Analysis of the papers of Bohr, his predecessors, and his contemporaries reveals that he was a philosopher of physics who had an incomparable influence upon the creation and development of quantum mechanics. His struggle against nuclear weapons is mentioned.

Chapter 1: Physics with Trapped Charged Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knoop, Martina; Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C.
20140101
Ion traps, which were first introduced in the late 1950s and early 1960s, have established themselves as indispensable tools in many areas of physics, chemistry and technology. This chapter gives a brief survey of the operating principles and development of ion traps, together with a short description of how ions are loaded and detected. This is followed by a brief account of some of the current applications of ion traps.

Theoretical particle physics. Progress report, FY 1992
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19920930
This report discusses the following topics: heavy quark physics; Chiral Perturbation theory; Skyrmions; quarkonia and nuclear matter; parity violating nuclear matrix elements; how precisely can one determine M{sub U}/M{sub D}; weak scale baryogenesis; constraints of baryogenesis form neutrino masses; majorons, double beta decay, supernova 1987A; rare decays; chiral lattice fermions; PauliVillars regulator and the Higgs mass bound; and Higgs and Yukawa interactions.

Equivalence between free quantum particles and those in harmonic potentials and its application to instantaneous changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steuernagel, Ole
20140601
In quantum physics the free particle and the harmonically trapped particle are arguably the most important systems a physicist needs to know about. It is little known that, mathematically, they are one and the same. This knowledge helps us to understand either from the viewpoint of the other. Here we show that all general timedependent solutions of the freeparticle Schrödinger equation can be mapped to solutions of the Schrödinger equation for harmonic potentials, both the trapping oscillator and the inverted "oscillator". This map is fully invertible and therefore induces an isomorphism between both types of system, they are equivalent. A composition of the map and its inverse allows us to map from one harmonic oscillator to another with a different spring constant and different center position. The map is independent of the state of the system, consisting only of a coordinate transformation and multiplication by a form factor, and can be chosen such that the state is identical in both systems at one point in time. This transition point in time can be chosen freely, the wave function of the particle evolving in time in one system before the transition point can therefore be linked up smoothly with the wave function for the other system and its future evolution after the transition point. Such a cutandpaste procedure allows us to describe the instantaneous changes of the environment a particle finds itself in. Transitions from free to trapped systems, between harmonic traps of different spring constants or center positions, or, from harmonic binding to repulsive harmonic potentials are straightforwardly modelled. This includes some timedependent harmonic potentials. The mappings introduced here are computationally more efficient than either stateprojection or harmonic oscillator propagator techniques conventionally employed when describing instantaneous (nonadiabatic) changes of a quantum particle's environment.

Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient ParticleinaBox Laboratory Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.
20080101
Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantumdot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantumdot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

Black hole bombs and explosions: from astrophysics to particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Vitor
20131101
Black holes are the elementary particles of gravity, the final state of sufficiently massive stars and of energetic collisions. With a 40year long history, black hole physics is a fullyblossomed field which promises to embrace several branches of theoretical physics. Here I review the main developments in highly dynamical black holes with an emphasis on high energy black hole collisions and probes of particle physics via superradiance. This writeup, rather than being a collection of well known results, is intended to highlight open issues and the most intriguing results.

Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demarteau, M.; Lipton, R.; Nicholson, H.; Shipsey, I.
20161001
Subatomic physics shares with other basic sciences the need to innovate, invent, and develop tools, techniques, and technologies to carry out its mission to explore the nature of matter, energy, space, and time. In some cases, entire detectors or technologies developed specifically for particle physics research have been adopted by other fields of research or in commercial applications. In most cases, however, the development of new devices and technologies by particle physics for its own research has added value to other fields of research or to applications beneficial to society by integrating them in the existing technologies. Thus, detector research and development has not only advanced the current state of technology for particle physics, but has often advanced research in other fields of science and has underpinned progress in numerous applications in medicine and national security. At the same time particle physics has profited immensely from developments in industry and applied them to great benefit for the use of particle physics detectors. This symbiotic relationship has seen strong mutual benefits with sometimes unexpected far reach.

Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections
DOE PAGES
Demarteau, Marcel; Lipton, Ron; Nicholson, Howard; ...
20161220
Subatomic physics shares with other basic sciences the need to innovate, invent, and develop tools, techniques, and technologies to carry out its mission to explore the nature of matter, energy, space, and time. In some cases, entire detectors or technologies developed specifically for particle physics research have been adopted by other fields of research or in commercial applications. In most cases, however, the development of new devices and technologies by particle physics for its own research has added value to other fields of research or to applications beneficial to society by integrating them in the existing technologies. Thus, detector researchmore » and development has not only advanced the current state of technology for particle physics, but has often advanced research in other fields of science and has underpinned progress in numerous applications in medicine and national security. At the same time particle physics has profited immensely from developments in industry and applied them to great benefit for the use of particle physics detectors. Finally, this symbiotic relationship has seen strong mutual benefits with sometimes unexpected far reach.« less

Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections
SciTech Connect
Demarteau, Marcel; Lipton, Ron; Nicholson, Howard; Shipsey, Ian
20161220
Subatomic physics shares with other basic sciences the need to innovate, invent, and develop tools, techniques, and technologies to carry out its mission to explore the nature of matter, energy, space, and time. In some cases, entire detectors or technologies developed specifically for particle physics research have been adopted by other fields of research or in commercial applications. In most cases, however, the development of new devices and technologies by particle physics for its own research has added value to other fields of research or to applications beneficial to society by integrating them in the existing technologies. Thus, detector research and development has not only advanced the current state of technology for particle physics, but has often advanced research in other fields of science and has underpinned progress in numerous applications in medicine and national security. At the same time particle physics has profited immensely from developments in industry and applied them to great benefit for the use of particle physics detectors. Finally, this symbiotic relationship has seen strong mutual benefits with sometimes unexpected far reach.

Mean particle diameters. From statistical definition to physical understanding.
PubMed
Alderliesten, Maarten
20050101
Mean particle diameters may be used to describe and to model physical, chemical, or physiological properties of products or materials containing dispersed phases. There are different notation systems for these mean diameters, which may cause much confusion. This equally applies to their nomenclature. This article introduces the MomentRatio definition system and evaluates briefly the ISO definition system. The ISO system appears to have serious drawbacks. Mean particle diameters can be estimated from histograms of size distributions by Summation (MR system) and by Integration (ISO system) over the histogram intervals. Summation tends to be more accurate than Integration and is less sensitive to low values of the lower limit of size distributions. The Summation method equations are straightforward and generally applicable. The mathematical formulas of the Integration method are difficult to apply in daily practice, and their complexity may easily hide the physical background of a mean particle diameter. A coherent nomenclature system for denoting mean particle diameters is recommended. This nomenclature system does not contain any ambiguities and clearly conveys the physical meanings of mean particle diameters. This article deals also with an empirical method to select the proper type of mean diameter to describe a physical, chemical, or physiological property of a product or material containing dispersed phases. After calculation of the mean diameters from experimental data, the relationships between the product property and these mean diameters are investigated statistically. The selection method has been illustrated by two examples. The dataset of each example consists of a set of particle size distributions and the corresponding physical product properties that are influenced by the particle sizes. Hypotheses are formulated to explain the types of selected mean diameters. Sharing results from all over the world of applications of the developed selection method

Universality in uncertainty relations for a quantum particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kechrimparis, Spiros; Weigert, Stefan
20160901
A general theory of preparational uncertainty relations for a quantum particle in one spatial dimension is developed. We derive conditions which determine whether a given smooth function of the particle’s variances and its covariance is bounded from below. Whenever a global minimum exists, an uncertainty relation has been obtained. The squeezed number states of a harmonic oscillator are found to be universal: no other pure or mixed states will saturate any such relation. Geometrically, we identify a convex uncertainty region in the space of second moments which is bounded by the inequality derived by Robertson and Schrödinger. Our approach provides a unified perspective on existing uncertainty relations for a single continuous variable, and it leads to new inequalities for second moments which can be checked experimentally.

Nonextensive quantum statistics with particlehole symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biró, T. S.; Shen, K. M.; Zhang, B. W.
20150601
Based on Tsallis entropy (1988) and the corresponding deformed exponential function, generalized distribution functions for bosons and fermions have been used since a while Teweldeberhan et al. (2003) and Silva et al. (2010). However, aiming at a nonextensive quantum statistics further requirements arise from the symmetric handling of particles and holes (excitations above and below the Fermi level). Naive replacements of the exponential function or "cut and paste" solutions fail to satisfy this symmetry and to be smooth at the Fermi level at the same time. We solve this problem by a general ansatz dividing the deformed exponential to odd and even terms and demonstrate that how earlier suggestions, like the κ and qexponential behave in this respect.

A semiclassical hybrid approach to many particle quantum dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossmann, Frank
20060701
We analytically derive a correlated approach for a mixed semiclassical many particle dynamics, treating a fraction of the degrees of freedom by the multitrajectory semiclassical initial value method of Herman and Kluk [Chem. Phys. 91, 27 (1984)] while approximately treating the dynamics of the remaining degrees of freedom with fixed initial phase space variables, analogously to the thawed Gaussian wave packet dynamics of Heller [J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1544 (1975)]. A first application of this hybrid approach to the well studied SecrestJohnson [J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4556 (1966)] model of atomdiatomic collisions is promising. Results close to the quantum ones for correlation functions as well as scattering probabilities could be gained with considerably reduced numerical effort as compared to the full semiclassical HermanKluk approach. Furthermore, the harmonic nature of the different degrees of freedom can be determined a posteriori by comparing results with and without the additional approximation.

A semiclassical hybrid approach to many particle quantum dynamics.
PubMed
Grossmann, Frank
20060707
We analytically derive a correlated approach for a mixed semiclassical many particle dynamics, treating a fraction of the degrees of freedom by the multitrajectory semiclassical initial value method of Herman and Kluk [Chem. Phys. 91, 27 (1984)] while approximately treating the dynamics of the remaining degrees of freedom with fixed initial phase space variables, analogously to the thawed Gaussian wave packet dynamics of Heller [J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1544 (1975)]. A first application of this hybrid approach to the well studied SecrestJohnson [J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4556 (1966)] model of atomdiatomic collisions is promising. Results close to the quantum ones for correlation functions as well as scattering probabilities could be gained with considerably reduced numerical effort as compared to the full semiclassical HermanKluk approach. Furthermore, the harmonic nature of the different degrees of freedom can be determined a posteriori by comparing results with and without the additional approximation.

Particle physics and condensed matter: the saga continues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilczek, Frank
20161201
Ideas from quantum field theory and topology have proved remarkably fertile in suggesting new phenomena in the quantum physics of condensed matter. Here I will supply some broad, unifying context, both conceptual and historical, for the abundance of results reported at the Nobel Symposium on ‘New Forms of Matter, Topological Insulators and Superconductors’. Since they distill some most basic ideas in their simplest forms, these concluding remarks might also serve, for nonspecialists, as an introduction. Invited presentation of concluding remarks at Nobel Symposium 156 on New Forms of Matter, Topological Insulators and Superconductors, 1315 June 2014, Högberga Gård, Stockholm.

Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)
SciTech Connect
Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.
19921101
Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed longterm plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning {tau} and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z{degrees}, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the {tau} the leptonic branching fraction of the J/{psi}, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of {alpha}{sub s} at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of {alpha}{sub s} by a factor of about three from m{sub r} to m{sub z}. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b{bar b} fraction of Z{degrees} decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z{degree} coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z{degrees} mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z{degrees} decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)
SciTech Connect
Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.
19920101
Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed longterm plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning [tau] and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z[degrees], and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the [tau] the leptonic branching fraction of the J/[psi], and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of [alpha][sub s] at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of [alpha][sub s] by a factor of about three from m[sub r] to m[sub z]. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b[bar b] fraction of Z[degrees] decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z[degree] coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z[degrees] mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z[degrees] decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

Pathintegral approach to 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics
SciTech Connect
Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen
20050515
We present a pathintegral formulation of 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics. The crucial ingredient of this formulation is Gozzi et al.'s supersymmetric path integral of classical mechanics. We quantize explicitly two simple classical systems: the planar mathematical pendulum and the Roessler dynamical system.

Understanding Probabilistic Interpretations of Physical Systems: A Prerequisite to Learning Quantum Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bao, Lei; Redish, Edward F.
20020101
Explains the critical role of probability in making sense of quantum physics and addresses the difficulties science and engineering undergraduates experience in helping students build a model of how to think about probability in physical systems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

Quantum physics inspired optical effects in evanescently coupled waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Clinton Edward
The tightbinding model that has been used for many years in condensed matter physics, due to its analytic and numerical tractability, has recently been used to describe light propagating through an array of evanescently coupled waveguides. This dissertation presents analytic and numerical simulation results of light propagating in a waveguide array. The first result presented is that photonic transport can be achieved in an array where the propagation constant is linearly increasing across the array. For an input at the center waveguide, the breathing modes of the system are observed, while for a phase displaced, asymmetric input, phasecontrolled photonic transport is predicted. For an array with a waveguidedependent, paritysymmetric coupling constant, the wave packet dynamics are predicted to be tunable. In addition to modifying the propagation constant, the coupling between waveguides can also be modified, and the quantum correlations are sensitive to the form of the tunneling function. In addition to modifying the waveguide array parameters in a structured manner, they can be randomized as to mimic the insertion of impurities during the fabrication process. When the refractive indices are randomized and real, the amount of light that localizes to the initial waveguide is found to be dependent on the initial waveguide when the waveguide coupling is nonuniform. In addition, when the variance of the refractive indices is small, light localizes in the initial waveguide as well as the paritysymmetric waveguide. In addition to real valued disorder, complex valued disorder can be introduced into the array through the imaginary component of the refractive index. It is shown that the twoparticle correlation function is qualitatively similar to the case when the waveguide coupling is real and random, as both cases preserve the symmetry of the eigenvalues. Lastly, different input fields have been used to investigate the quantum statistical aspects of Anderson

A derivation of quantum theory from physical requirements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P.
20110601
Quantum theory (QT) is usually formulated in terms of abstract mathematical postulates involving Hilbert spaces, state vectors and unitary operators. In this paper, we show that the full formalism of QT can instead be derived from five simple physical requirements, based on elementary assumptions regarding preparations, transformations and measurements. This is very similar to the usual formulation of special relativity, where two simple physical requirements—the principles of relativity and light speed invariance—are used to derive the mathematical structure of Minkowski spacetime. Our derivation provides insights into the physical origin of the structure of quantum state spaces (including a grouptheoretic explanation of the Bloch ball and its three dimensionality) and suggests several natural possibilities to construct consistent modifications of QT.

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19911201
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

Quantum field theory results for neutrino oscillations and new physics
SciTech Connect
Delepine, D.; Gonzalez Macias, Vannia; Khalil, Shaaban; Lopez Castro, G.
20090501
The CP asymmetry in neutrino oscillations, assuming new physics at production and/or detection processes, is analyzed. We compute this CP asymmetry using the standard quantum field theory within a general new physics scenario that may generate new sources of CP and flavor violation. Wellknown results for the CP asymmetry are reproduced in the case of VA operators, and additional contributions from new physics operators are derived. We apply this formalism to SUSY extensions of the standard model where the contributions from new operators could produce a CP asymmetry observable in the next generation of neutrino experiments.

Large numbers hypothesis. IV  The cosmological constant and quantum physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, P. J.
19830101
In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum spacetime. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum spacetime. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum spacetime with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a timedependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

Photon physics: from wave mechanics to quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Ole
20090501
When rewritten in an appropriate manner, the microscopic MaxwellLorentz equations appear as a wavemechanical theory for photons, and their quantum physical interaction with matter. A natural extension leads from photon wave mechanics to quantum electrodynamics (QED). In its modern formulation photon wave mechanics has given us valuable new insight in subjects such as spatial photon localization, nearfield photon dynamics, transverse photon mass, photon eikonal theory, photon tunneling, and rimzone electrodynamics. The present review is based on my plenary lecture at the SPIEEurope 2009 Optics and Optoelectronics International Symposium in Prague.

Physical theories, eternal inflation, and the quantum universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Yasunori
20111101
Infinities in eternal inflation have long been plaguing cosmology, making any predictions highly sensitive to how they are regulated. The problem exists already at the level of semiclassical general relativity, and has a priori nothing to do with quantum gravity. On the other hand, we know that certain problems in semiclassical gravity, for example physics of black holes and their evaporation, have led to understanding of surprising, quantum natures of spacetime and gravity, such as the holographic principle and horizon complementarity. In this paper, we present a framework in which welldefined predictions are obtained in an eternally inflating multiverse, based on the principles of quantum mechanics. We propose that the entire multiverse is described purely from the viewpoint of a single "observer," who describes the world as a quantum state defined on his/her past light cones bounded by the (stretched) apparent horizons. We find that quantum mechanics plays an essential role in regulating infinities. The framework is "gauge invariant," i.e. predictions do not depend on how spacetime is parametrized, as it should be in a theory of quantum gravity. Our framework provides a fully unified treatment of quantum measurement processes and the multiverse. We conclude that the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics are the same. Other important implications include: global spacetime can be viewed as a derived concept; the multiverse is a transient phenomenon during the world relaxing into a supersymmetric Minkowski state. We also present a model of "initial conditions" for the multiverse. By extrapolating our framework to the extreme, we arrive at a picture that the entire multiverse is a fluctuation in the stationary, fractal "megamultiverse," in which an infinite sequence of multiverse productions occurs. The framework discussed here does not suffer from problems/paradoxes plaguing other measures proposed earlier, such as the youngness

Finiteparticlenumber approach to physics
SciTech Connect
Noyes, H.P.
19821001
Starting from a discrete, selfgenerating and selforganizing, recursive model and selfconsistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the EinsteindeBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a singletime momentumspace scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

Particlephysics constraints on multifractal spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Nardelli, Giuseppe; RodríguezFernández, David
20160101
We study electroweak interactions in the multiscale theory with q derivatives, a framework where spacetime has the typical features of a multifractal. In the simplest case with only one characteristic time, length, and energy scale t* , ℓ* , and E* , we consider (i) the muon decay rate and (ii) the Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom, and constrain the corrections to the ordinary results. We obtain the independent absolute upper bounds (i) t*<1 013 s and (ii) E*>35 MeV . Under some mild theoretical assumptions, the Lamb shift alone yields the even tighter ranges t*<1 027 s , ℓ*<1 019 m , and E*>450 GeV . To date, these are the first robust constraints on the scales at which the multifractal features of the geometry can become important in a physical process.

Spinorial spacetime and the origin of Quantum Mechanics. The dynamical role of the physical vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
GonzalezMestres, Luis
20161101
Is Quantum Mechanics really and ultimate principle of Physics described by a set of intrinsic exact laws? Are standard particles the ultimate constituents of matter? The two questions appear to be closely related, as a preonic structure of the physical vacuum would have an influence on the properties of quantum particles. Although the first preon models were just « quarklike » and assumed preons to be direct constituents of the conventional « elementary » particles, we suggested in 1995 that preons could instead be constituents of the physical vacuum (the superbradyon hypothesis). Standard particles would then be excitations of the preonic vacuum and have substantially different properties from those of preons themselves (critical speed…). The standard laws of Particle Physics would be approximate expressions generated from basic preon dynamics. In parallel, the mathematical properties of spacetime structures such as the spinoral spacetime (SST) we introduced in 199697 can have strong implications for Quantum Mechanics and even be its real origin. We complete here our recent discussion of the subject by pointing out that: i) Quantum Mechanics corresponds to a natural set of properties of vacuum excitations in the presence of a SST geometry ; ii) the recently observed entanglement at long distances would be a logical property if preons are superluminal (superbradyons), so that superluminal signals and correlations can propagate in vacuum ; iii) in a specific description, the function of spacetime associated to the extended internal structure of a spin1/2 particle at very small distances may be incompatible with a continuous motion at space and time scales where the internal structure of vacuum can be felt. In the dynamics associated to iii), and using the SST approach to spacetime, a contradiction can appear between macroscopic and microscopic spacetimes due to an overlap in the time variable directly related to the fact that a spinorial function takes

Edge physics of the quantum spin Hall insulator from a quantum dot excited by optical absorption.
PubMed
Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E
20140411
The gapless edge modes of the quantum spin Hall insulator form a helical liquid in which the direction of motion along the edge is determined by the spin orientation of the electrons. In order to probe the Luttinger liquid physics of these edge states and their interaction with a magnetic (Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot that is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a powerlaw singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the quantum spin Hall edge.

Particle physics for primary schools—enthusing future physicists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlidou, M.; Lazzeroni, C.
20160901
In recent years, the realisation that children make decisions and choices about subjects they like in primary school, became widely understood. For this reason academic establishments focus some of their public engagement activities towards the younger ages. Taking advantage of Professor Lazzeroni’s longstanding experience in particle physics research, during the last academic year we designed and trialled a particle physics workshop for primary schools. The workshop allows young children (ages 811) to learn the world of fundamental particles, use creative design to make particle models. The workshop has already been trialled in many primary schools, receiving very positive evaluation. The initial resources were reviewed and improved, based on the feedback received from school teachers and communicators.

Young's doubleslit interference for quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozer, Zehra Nur; Chaluvadi, Hari; Ulu, Melike; Dogan, Mevlut; Aktas, Bekir; Madison, Don
20130401
For the last 50 years, there has been considerable interest in the possibility of observing the equivalence of a Young's doubleslit wave interference at the quantum level for diatomic molecules. For electronimpact ionization of diatomic molecules, indirect evidence for this type of interference has been found by changing the energy (wavelength) of the ejected electron while keeping the incident projectile scattering angle fixed. The present work represents an experimental and theoretical collaboration to better understand the physics of this type of interference. In addition to examining the effect of changing the ejected electron energy for a fixed scattered projectile angle, we have also examined the effect of keeping the ejected electron energy fixed while varying the projectile scattering angle. Model calculations are performed for three different types of possible twocenter interference effects, and it is found that the most important one is diffraction of the projectile off two scattering centers.

Physical and chemical characterization of tirerelated particles: comparison of particles generated using different methodologies.
PubMed
Kreider, Marisa L; Panko, Julie M; McAtee, Britt L; Sweet, Leonard I; Finley, Brent L
20100101
The purpose of this study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of particles generated from the interaction of tires and road surfaces. Morphology, size distribution, and chemical composition were compared between particles generated using different methods, including onroad collection, laboratory generation under simulated driving conditions, and cryogenic breaking of tread rubber. Both onroad collected and laboratory generated particles exhibited the elongated shape typical of tire wear particles, whereas tread particles were more angular. Despite similar morphology for the onroad collected and the laboratory generated particles, the former were smaller on average. It is not clear at this stage if the difference is significant to the physical and chemical behavior of the particles. The chemical composition of the particles differed, with onroad generated particles containing chemical contributions from sources other than tires, such as pavement or particulates generated from other trafficrelated sources. Understanding the differences between these particles is essential in apportioning contaminant contributions to the environment between tires, roadways, and other sources, and evaluating the representativeness of toxicity studies using different types of particulate generated.

Beyond quantum probability: another formalism shared by quantum physics and psychology.
PubMed
Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V
20130601
There is another meeting place for quantum physics and psychology, both within and outside of cognitive modeling. In physics it is known as the issue of classical (probabilistic) determinism, and in psychology it is known as the issue of selective influences. The formalisms independently developed in the two areas for dealing with these issues turn out to be identical, opening ways for mutually beneficial interactions.

Beyond Standard Model Physics: At the Frontiers of Cosmology and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LopezSuarez, Alejandro O.
I begin to write this thesis at a time of great excitement in the field of cosmology and particle physics. The aim of this thesis is to study and search for beyond the standard model (BSM) physics in the cosmological and high energy particle fields. There are two main questions, which this thesis aims to address: 1) what can we learn about the inflationary epoch utilizing the pioneer gravitational wave detector Adv. LIGO?, and 2) what are the dark matter particle properties and interactions with the standard model particles?. This thesis will focus on advances in answering both questions.

Particle Physics: Will Britain Kill its Own Creation?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salam, Abdus
There is no question but that particle physics is a British invention. Of the four building blocks of matter that nuclear physics and cosmology deal with — electrons, neutrons, protons and neutrinos — two were discovered at Cambridge and one at Manchester. This was before the Second World War, but after the war the tradition continued. Cecil Powell's group at Bristol found the pion, which had been predicted by Hideki Yukawa; and the first of the socalled "strange" particles was discovered by Patrick Blackett, George Rochester and Clifford Butler working at Manchester…

Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review
SciTech Connect
Redondo, Antonio
20100101
The present document represents a summary selfassessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

The Pendulum as a Vehicle for Transitioning from Classical to Quantum Physics: History, Quantum Concepts, and Educational Challenges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnes, Marianne B.; Garner, James; Reid, David
20040101
In this article we use the pendulum as the vehicle for discussing the transition from classical to quantum physics. Since student knowledge of the classical pendulum can be generalized to all harmonic oscillators, we propose that a quantum analysis of the pendulum can lead students into the unanticipated consequences of quantum phenomena at the…

TEACHING PHYSICS: The quantum understanding of preuniversity physics students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireson, Gren
20000101
Students in England and Wales wishing to read for a physicsbased degree will, in all but the more exceptional situations, be required to follow the twoyear GCE Advancedlevel physics course. This course includes, in its mandatory core, material that addresses the topic of `quantum phenomena'. Over the years journals such as this have published teaching strategies, for example Lawrence (1996), but few studies addressing what students understand of quantum phenomena can be found. This paper aims to address just this problem.

Quantum information processing, operational quantum logic, convexity, and the foundations of physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnum, Howard
Quantum information science is a source of taskrelated axioms whose consequences can be explored in general settings encompassing quantum mechanics, classical theory, and more. Quantum states are compendia of probabilities for the outcomes of possible operations we may perform on a system: "operational states." I discuss general frameworks for "operational theories" (sets of possible operational states of a system), in which convexity plays key role. The main technical content of the paper is in a theorem that any such theory naturally gives rise to a "weak effect algebra" when outcomes having the same probability in all states are identified and in the introduction of a notion of "operation algebra" that also takes account of sequential and conditional operations. Such frameworks are appropriate for investigating what things look like from an "inside view," i.e., for describing perspectival information that one subsystem of the world can have about another. Understanding how such views can combine, and whether an overall "geometric" picture ("outside view") coordinating them all can be had, even if this picture is very different in structure from the perspectives within it, is the key to whether we may be able to achieve a unified, "objective" physical view in which quantum mechanics is the appropriate description for certain perspectives, or whether quantum mechanics is truly telling us we must go beyond this "geometric" conception of physics.

Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19901130
This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both nonaccelerator and acceleratorbased efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

Using optical clock to probe quantum manybody physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jun
20160501
The progress of optical lattice clock has benefited greatly from the understanding of atomic interactions. At the same time, the precision of clock spectroscopy has been applied to explore manybody spin interactions including SU(N) symmetry. Our recent work on this combined front of quantum metrology and manybody physics includes the probe of spinorbital physics in the lattice clock and the investigation of a Fermi degenerate gas of 105 87Sr atoms in a threedimensional magicwavelength optical lattice.

Multiparty quantum summation without a trusted third party based on single particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cai; Situ, Haozhen; Huang, Qiong; Yang, Pingle
We propose multiparty quantum summation protocols based on single particles, in which participants are allowed to compute the summation of their inputs without the help of a trusted third party and preserve the privacy of their inputs. Only one participant who generates the source particles needs to perform unitary operations and only single particles are needed in the beginning of the protocols.

Magnetic particle motions within living cells. Physical theory and techniques.
PubMed Central
Valberg, P A; Butler, J P
19870101
Body tissues are not ferromagnetic, but ferromagnetic particles can be present as contaminants or as probes in the lungs and in other organs. The magnetic domains of these particles can be aligned by momentary application of an external magnetic field; the magnitude and time course of the resultant remanent field depend on the quantity of magnetic material and the degree of particle motion. The interpretation of magnetometric data requires an understanding of particle magnetization, agglomeration, random motion, and both rotation and translation in response to magnetic fields. We present physical principles relevant to magnetometry and suggest models for intracellular particle motion driven by thermal, elastic, or cellular forces. The design principles of instrumentation for magnetizing intracellular particles and for detecting weak remanent magnetic fields are described. Such magnetic measurements can be used for noninvasive studies of particle clearance from the body or of particle motion within body tissues and cells. Assumptions inherent to this experimental approach and possible sources of artifact are considered and evaluated. PMID:3676435

Research in elementary particle physics. [Ohio State Univ. , Columbus
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19920101
Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study highenergy electronproton interactions at HERA, lightcone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electronpositron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.

My 50 years of research in particle physics.
PubMed
Sugawara, Hirotaka
20100101
Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible.

Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors
SciTech Connect
Schwarzschild, B.
19930101
This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

My 50 years of research in particle physics
PubMed Central
Sugawara, Hirotaka
20100101
Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in timedependent fields
DOE PAGES
Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh
20150928
The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a timedependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Thus, special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics.

Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in timedependent fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh
20150901
The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a timedependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics.

Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matthaeus, W.
19920101
In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 185
SciTech Connect
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.
19850101
This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixedtarget beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Quantum probability and cognitive modeling: some cautions and a promising direction in modeling physics learning.
PubMed
Franceschetti, Donald R; Gire, Elizabeth
20130601
Quantum probability theory offers a viable alternative to classical probability, although there are some ambiguities inherent in transferring the quantum formalism to a less determined realm. A number of physicists are now looking at the applicability of quantum ideas to the assessment of physics learning, an area particularly suited to quantum probability ideas.

Particle radiosurgery: a new frontier of physics in medicine.
PubMed
Bert, Christoph; Durante, Marco
20140701
Radiosurgery was introduced over half a century ago for treatment of intracranial lesions. In more recent years, stereotactic radiotherapy has rapidly advanced and is now commonly used for treatments of both cranial and extracranial lesions with high doses delivered in a few, down to a single fraction. The results of a workshop on Particle radiosurgery: A new frontier of physics in medicine held at Obergurgl, Austria during August 2529 2013 are summarized in this issue with an overview presented in this paper. The focus was laid on particle radiosurgery but the content also includes current practice in xray radiosurgery and the overarching research in radiobiology and motion management for extracranial lesions. The results and discussions showed that especially research in radiobiology of highdose chargedparticles and motion management are necessary for the success of particle radiosurgery.

Integrating particle physical geometry into composting degradation kinetics.
PubMed
Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping
20160101
The study was carried out to integrate physical geometry of compost particle with degradation kinetics to model biological reactions, which revealing additional dynamic approaches. A sphere and its circumscribing cube were used to represent compost particles. An inner sphere, representing anaerobic zone, was introduced to describe variations of substrate volume without sufficient oxygen supply. Degradation of soluble substrates and hydrolysis of insoluble substrates were associated with the particle geometry. Transportation of soluble substrates produced from hydrolysis was expressed using Fick's law. Through the integration of degradation kinetics with geometry models, degradation models could describe varying volume of composting materials involving aerobic or anaerobic digestion and transportation of soluble substrates in a unit compost particle.

Particle Physics in High School: A Diagnose Study.
PubMed
Tuzón, Paula; Solbes, Jordi
20160101
The science learning process improves when the contents are connected to students' lives. Particle physics has had a great impact in our society in the last years and has changed the theoretical picture about matter fundamental dynamics. Thus, we think that academic contents about matter components and interactions should be updated. With this study we aim to characterize the level of knowledge of high school students about this topic. We built a test with questions about classical atomic models, particle physics, recent discoveries, social implications and students opinions about it. Contrary to our first suspicion, students' answers show a high variability. They have new physics ideas and show a great interest towards modern concepts. We suggest including an updated view of this topic as part of the curriculum.

Particle Physics in High School: A Diagnose Study
PubMed Central
Solbes, Jordi
20160101
The science learning process improves when the contents are connected to students’ lives. Particle physics has had a great impact in our society in the last years and has changed the theoretical picture about matter fundamental dynamics. Thus, we think that academic contents about matter components and interactions should be updated. With this study we aim to characterize the level of knowledge of high school students about this topic. We built a test with questions about classical atomic models, particle physics, recent discoveries, social implications and students opinions about it. Contrary to our first suspicion, students’ answers show a high variability. They have new physics ideas and show a great interest towards modern concepts. We suggest including an updated view of this topic as part of the curriculum. PMID:27253377

PREFACE: International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
20160201
The International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA2015) was held in Moscow, Russia, from October 5 to 10, 2015. The conference is organized by Center of Fundamental Research and Particle Physics of National Research Nuclear University ''MEPhI''. The aim of the Conference is to promote contacts between scientists and development of new ideas in fundamental research. We bring together experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical aspects of nuclear, particle, astroparticle physics and cosmology. The conference covers a wide range of topics such as accelerator physics, (astro) particle physics, cosmic rays, cosmology and methods of experimental physics  detectors and instruments. These directions are unified by development of the Standard Model (SM) which is evidently not complete. There are deviations from the Standard Model  neutrino oscillations, the dark matter existence. Together with strong interactions, they are main subjects of the Conference. New results from LHC collider as well as its future upgrade are discussed with the Higgs as the main point for discussion. Substantial development of experimental tools for astrophysical observations and new results from cosmic ray experiments is one of the main subjects of the conference. Various aspects of strong interaction are discussed. Among them: Charmonium and Bottomonium states, Flavor physics at Super B factories, Exotic Nuclei in Astrophysics. Another subject for discussion is the neutrino physics, promising and unique way to get new knowledge. In this content, several talks on BOREXINO experiment where new results in neutrino oscillations are presented. Special session is devoted to PAMELA experiment  9 years in orbit and to the future GAMMA400 gammaray telescope with following main scientific goals: indirect dark matter origin study by the gammaray astronomy methods, discrete astrophysical sources observations, diffuse background γemission analysis

On the fundamental role of dynamics in quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Holger F.
20160501
Quantum theory expresses the observable relations between physical properties in terms of probabilities that depend on the specific context described by the "state" of a system. However, the laws of physics that emerge at the macroscopic level are fully deterministic. Here, it is shown that the relation between quantum statistics and deterministic dynamics can be explained in terms of ergodic averages over complex valued probabilities, where the fundamental causality of motion is expressed by an action that appears as the phase of the complex probability multiplied with the fundamental constant ħ. Importantly, classical physics emerges as an approximation of this more fundamental theory of motion, indicating that the assumption of a classical reality described by differential geometry is merely an artefact of an extrapolation from the observation of macroscopic dynamics to a fictitious level of precision that does not exist within our actual experience of the world around us. It is therefore possible to completely replace the classical concepts of trajectories with the more fundamental concept of action phase probabilities as a universally valid description of the deterministic causality of motion that is observed in the physical world.

Parameter estimation of fractionalorder chaotic systems by using quantum parallel particle swarm optimization algorithm.
PubMed
Huang, Yu; Guo, Feng; Li, Yongling; Liu, Yufeng
20150101
Parameter estimation for fractionalorder chaotic systems is an important issue in fractionalorder chaotic control and synchronization and could be essentially formulated as a multidimensional optimization problem. A novel algorithm called quantum parallel particle swarm optimization (QPPSO) is proposed to solve the parameter estimation for fractionalorder chaotic systems. The parallel characteristic of quantum computing is used in QPPSO. This characteristic increases the calculation of each generation exponentially. The behavior of particles in quantum space is restrained by the quantum evolution equation, which consists of the current rotation angle, individual optimal quantum rotation angle, and global optimal quantum rotation angle. Numerical simulation based on several typical fractionalorder systems and comparisons with some typical existing algorithms show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

SpaceBased Research in Fundamental Physics and Quantum Technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turyshev, Slava G.; Israelsson, Ulf E.; Shao, Michael; Yu, Nan; Kusenko, Alexander; Wright, Edward L.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Kasevich, Mark; Lipa, John A.; Mester, John C.; Reasenberg, Robert D.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Ashby, Neil; Gould, Harvey; Paik, Ho Jung
Space offers unique experimental conditions and a wide range of opportunities to explore the foundations of modern physics with an accuracy far beyond that of groundbased experiments. Spacebased experiments today can uniquely address important questions related to the fundamental laws of Nature. In particular, highaccuracy physics experiments in space can test relativistic gravity and probe the physics beyond the Standard Model; they can perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for investigations in precision cosmology and astroparticle physics. In addition, atomic physics has recently shown substantial progress in the development of optical clocks and atom interferometers. If placed in space, these instruments could turn into powerful highresolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current status of spacebased research in fundamental physics, its discovery potential, and its importance for modern science. We offer a set of recommendations to be considered by the upcoming National Academy of Sciences' Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics. In our opinion, the Decadal Survey should include spacebased research in fundamental physics as one of its focus areas. We recommend establishing an Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee's interagency "Fundamental Physics Task Force" to assess the status of both ground and spacebased efforts in the field, to identify the most important objectives, and to suggest the best ways to organize the work of several federal agencies involved. We also recommend establishing a new NASAled interagency program in fundamental physics that will consolidate new technologies, prepare key instruments for future space missions, and build a strong scientific and engineering community. Our goal is to expand NASA's science objectives in space by including "laboratory research in fundamental physics" as an element in the agency's ongoing space research efforts.

PREFACE: The 9th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horwitz, L. P.
20150501
The most recent meeting took place at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, on June 913, 2014. This meeting forms the basis for the Proceedings that are recorded in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Along with the work of some of the founding members of the Association, we were fortunate to have lecturers from application areas that provided strong challenges for further developments in quantum field theory, cosmological problems, and in the dynamics of systems subject to accelerations and the effects of general relativity. Topics treated in this issue include studies of the dark matter problem, rotation curves, and, in particular, for the (relatively accessible) Milky Way galaxy, compact stellar objects, a composite particle model, and the properties of a conformally invariant theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Stueckelberg theory is further investigated for its properties in producing bremsstrahlung and pair production and apparent superluminal effects, and, as mentioned above, the implications of low energy nuclear reactions for such offshell theories. Other "proper time" theories are investigated as well, and a study of the clock synchronization problem is presented. A mathematical study of to quantum groupo associated with the Toda lattice and its implications for quantum field theory, as well as a phenomenological discussion of supernova mechanics as well as a semiclassical discussion of electron spin and the question of the compatibility of special relativity and the quantum theory. A careful analysis of the covariant AharonovBohm effect is given as well. The quantization of massless fields and the relation to the Maxwell theory is also discussed. We wish to thank the participants who contributed very much through their lectures, personal discussions, and these papers, to the advancement of the subject and our understanding.

Ensembles of physical states and random quantum circuits on graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamma, Alioscia; Santra, Siddhartha; Zanardi, Paolo
20121101
In this paper we continue and extend the investigations of the ensembles of random physical states introduced in Hamma [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.040502 109, 040502 (2012)]. These ensembles are constructed by finitelength random quantum circuits (RQC) acting on the (hyper)edges of an underlying (hyper)graph structure. The latter encodes for the locality structure associated with finitetime quantum evolutions generated by physical, i.e., local, Hamiltonians. Our goal is to analyze physical properties of typical states in these ensembles; in particular here we focus on proxies of quantum entanglement as purity and αRenyi entropies. The problem is formulated in terms of matrix elements of superoperators which depend on the graph structure, choice of probability measure over the local unitaries, and circuit length. In the α=2 case these superoperators act on a restricted multiqubit space generated by permutation operators associated to the subsets of vertices of the graph. For permutationally invariant interactions the dynamics can be further restricted to an exponentially smaller subspace. We consider different families of RQCs and study their typical entanglement properties for finite time as well as their asymptotic behavior. We find that area law holds in average and that the volume law is a typical property (that is, it holds in average and the fluctuations around the average are vanishing for the large system) of physical states. The area law arises when the evolution time is O(1) with respect to the size L of the system, while the volume law arises as is typical when the evolution time scales like O(L).

How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space
SciTech Connect
Morimae, Tomoyuki
20110415
In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportationlike method of uploading. This method also enables the GottesmanChuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtualreal hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.

Hidden symmetries of dynamics in classical and quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cariglia, Marco
20141001
This article reviews the role of hidden symmetries of dynamics in the study of physical systems, from the basic concepts of symmetries in phase space to the forefront of current research. Such symmetries emerge naturally in the description of physical systems as varied as nonrelativistic, relativistic, with or without gravity, classical or quantum, and are related to the existence of conserved quantities of the dynamics and integrability. In recent years their study has grown intensively, due to the discovery of nontrivial examples that apply to different types of theories and different numbers of dimensions. Applications encompass the study of integrable systems such as spinning tops, the Calogero model, systems described by the Lax equation, the physics of higherdimensional black holes, the Dirac equation, and supergravity with and without fluxes, providing a tool to probe the dynamics of nonlinear systems.

Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state
SciTech Connect
Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori
20100815
Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (KO) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the KO scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schroedinger's cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.

Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori
20100801
Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (KO) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics0219025710.1142/S021902570700283X 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the KO scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schrödinger’s cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.

A brief survey of the mathematics of quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohm, Arno; Uncu, Haydar; Komy, S.
20090801
The mathematics of quantum physics started from matrices and from differential operators. It inspired the theory of linear operators in Hilbert space and of unitary representation for symmetry groups and spectrum generating groups. The Dirac braket formalism led first to Schwartz's theory of distributions and then to its generalization, the Rigged Hilbert Space (RHS) or Gelfand triplet. This SchwartzRHS provided the mathematical justification for Dirac's continuous basis vector expansion and for the algebra of continuous observables of quantum theory. To obtain also a mathematical theory of scattering, resonance and decay phenomena one needed to make a mathematical distinction between prepared instates and detected observables ("outstates"). This leads to a pair of Hardy RHS's and using the PaleyWiener theorem, to solutions of the dynamical equations (Schrödinger or Heisenberg) given by timeasymmetric semigroups, expressing Einstein causality.

Physical facets of ultrasonic cavitational synthesis of zinc ferrite particles.
PubMed
Reddy, Bhaskar Rao; Sivasankar, Thirugnanasambandam; Sivakumar, Manickam; Moholkar, Vijayanand S
20100201
This paper addresses the physical features of the ultrasonic cavitational synthesis of zinc ferrite particles and tries to establish the relationship between cavitation physics and sonochemistry of the zinc ferrite synthesis. A dual approach of coupling experimental results with simulations of radial motion of cavitation bubbles has been adopted. The precursors for the zinc ferrite, viz. ZnO and Fe(3)O(4) are produced in situ by the hydrolysis of Zn and Fe(II) acetates stimulated by (*)OH radicals produced from the transient collapse of the cavitation bubbles. Experiments performed under different conditions create significant variation in the production of (*)OH radicals, and hence, the rate of acetate hydrolysis. Correlation of the results of experiments and simulations sheds light on the important facets of the physical mechanism of ultrasonic cavitational zinc ferrite synthesis. It is revealed that too much or too little rate of acetate hydrolysis results in smaller particle size of zinc ferrite. The first effect of a higher rate of hydrolysis leads to excessively large growth of particles, due to which they become susceptible to the disruptive action of cavitation bubbles. Whereas, the second effect of too small rate of hydrolysis of Zn and Fe(II) acetates restricts the growth of particles. It has been observed that the initial reactant concentration does not influence the mean particle size or the size distribution of zinc ferrite particles. The present investigation clearly confirms that the ratecontrolling step of zinc ferrite synthesis through ultrasonic cavitational route is the rate of formation of (*)OH radicals from cavitation bubbles.

Quantum electrodynamics analysis of optical binding in counterpropagating beams and effect of particle size.
PubMed
Rodriguez, Justo
20081001
A general expression for optical binding energy between particles of any size, in counterpropagating beams with and without interference, is derived using quantum electrodynamics. The effect of particle size on the optically induced interparticle energy surface, which has been the subject of recent research, is explored. Significant changes in this surface when particle size approaches the wavelength of the optical field are revealed. Finally, optically induced particle arrays that may be fabricated with these potentials are briefly discussed.

BOOK REVIEW: The Quantum Mechanics Solver: How to Apply Quantum Theory to Modern Physics, 2nd edition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robbin, J. M.
20070701
he hallmark of a good book of problems is that it allows you to become acquainted with an unfamiliar topic quickly and efficiently. The Quantum Mechanics Solver fits this description admirably. The book contains 27 problems based mainly on recent experimental developments, including neutrino oscillations, tests of Bell's inequality, Bose Einstein condensates, and laser cooling and trapping of atoms, to name a few. Unlike many collections, in which problems are designed around a particular mathematical method, here each problem is devoted to a small group of phenomena or experiments. Most problems contain experimental data from the literature, and readers are asked to estimate parameters from the data, or compare theory to experiment, or both. Standard techniques (e.g., degenerate perturbation theory, addition of angular momentum, asymptotics of special functions) are introduced only as they are needed. The style is closer to a nonspecialist seminar rather than an undergraduate lecture. The physical models are kept simple; the emphasis is on cultivating conceptual and qualitative understanding (although in many of the problems, the simple models fit the data quite well). Some less familiar theoretical techniques are introduced, e.g. a variational method for lower (not upper) bounds on groundstate energies for manybody systems with twobody interactions, which is then used to derive a surprisingly accurate relation between baryon and meson masses. The exposition is succinct but clear; the solutions can be read as worked examples if you don't want to do the problems yourself. Many problems have additional discussion on limitations and extensions of the theory, or further applications outside physics (e.g., the accuracy of GPS positioning in connection with atomic clocks; proton and ion tumor therapies in connection with the Bethe Bloch formula for charged particles in solids). The problems use mainly nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and are organised into three

Numerical simulation of quantum systems using the ParticleInCell method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dirkmann, Sven; Youssef, Ziad; Hemke, Torben; Mussenbrock, Thomas
20141001
The ParticleInCell (PIC) method is a very powerful method for studying the dynamics of plasmas. It has been primarily developed for tracking the charged particle trajectories subject to selfconsistent and external electromagnetic fields. Exploiting the power of modern computers, one is able to track the classical paths of tens of millions of particles at the same time. In the late 1980th, it was Dawson (and later Dauger) who had the idea to apply the PIC method to the classical part in the semiclassical approach to quantum systems via path integral methods. One could estimate that if a thousands of classical paths are sufficient to describe the dynamics of one quantum particle, then millions classical paths could describe the dynamics of a quantum particle system. A PIC code in the frame of a semiclassical approach would therefore enable the investigation of a number of quantum phenomena, e.g., optical properties, electrical properties, and, ultimately, chemical reactions. In this contribution we explain the use of the PIC code yapic (developed by the authors) in the frame of the path integral method and discuss the numerical results for simple quantum phenomena, i.e., the quantum harmonic oscillator and quantum tunneling. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation in the frame of FOR 2093.

A guide to experimental particle physics literature, 19911996
SciTech Connect
Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B.
19961001
We present an indexed guide to experimental particle physics literature for the years 1991  1996. Approximately 4200 papers are indexed by (1) Beam/Target/Momentum (2) Reaction/Momentum/DataDescriptor (including the final state) (3) Particle/Decay (4) Accelerator/Experiment/Detector. All indices are crossreferenced to the paper`s title and references in the ID/Reference/Title index. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularlyupdated DATAGUIDE database from the World Wide Web.

Linear stochastic electrodynamics: Looking for the physics behind quantum theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Peña, Luis; Cetto, Ana María
19990301
In this chapter, which covers part of the course given at ELAF, a straightforward procedure is presented that leads from the basic postulates of stochastic electrodynamics to the usual formalism of quantum theory. The theory thus developed is called linear stochastic electrodynamics, to underline that one of its basic features is the (asymptotic) linear response of atomic systems to the background field. The chapter starts with a brief discussion of some open questions in quantum theory and of the possibility to find an answer to them by resorting to the zeropoint radiation field as the source of the quantum behavior of matter. The basic properties of this field are discussed, and a brief enumeration is made of some of the positive results and vital shortcomings of standard stochastic electrodynamics. After identifying the source of these shortcomings in the assumption that the background field is not altered by its interaction with matter, linear stochastic electrodynamics is developed and shown to lead, under certain approximations, to a consistent picture of both matter and field quantization. In the concluding part, it is shown that also the electron spin can be considered to be generated by the interaction of the particle with the zeropoint field; in particular, the twovaluedness of the spin projection is associated with the existence of just two independent states of polarization of the field.

The physical underpinning of security proofs for quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boileau, Jean Christian
The dawn of quantum technology unveils a plethora of new possibilities and challenges in the world of information technology, one of which is the quest for secure information transmission. A breakthrough in classical algorithm or the development of a quantum computer could threaten the security of messages encoded using public key cryptosystems based on oneway function such as RSA. Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers an unconditionally secure alternative to such schemes, even in the advent of a quantum computer, as it does not rely on mathematical or technological assumptions, but rather on the universality of the laws of quantum mechanics. Physical concepts associated with quantum mechanics, like the uncertainty principle or entanglement, paved the way to the first successful security proof for QKD. Ever since, further development in security proofs for QKD has been remarkable. But the connection between entanglement distillation and the uncertainty principle has remained hidden under a pile of mathematical burden. Our main goal is to dig the physics out of the new advances in security proofs for QKD. By introducing an alternative definition of private state, which elaborates the ideas of Mayers and Koashi, we explain how the security of all QKD protocols follows from an entropic uncertainty principle. We show explicitly how privacy amplification protocol can be reduced to a private state distillation protocol constructed from our observations about the uncertainty principle. We also derive a generic security proof for oneway permutationinvariant QKD protocols. Considering collective attack, we achieve the same secret key generation rate as the DevetakWinter's bound. Generalizing an observation from Kraus, Branciard and Renner, we have provided an improved version of the secret key generation rates by considering a different symmetrization. In certain situations, we argue that Azuma's inequality can simplify the security proof considerably, and we explain

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Hadron clusters and halfdressed particles in quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feĭnberg, E. L.
19801001
Accelerator experiments show that multiple production of hadrons in highenergy collisions of particles involves the formation of unstable intermediate entities, which subsequently decay into the final hadrons. These entities are apparently not only the comparatively light resonances with which we are already familiar but also heavy nonresonant clusters (with a mass above 25 GeV). The cluster concept was introduced previously in cosmicray physics, under the name "fireballs". To determine what these clusters are from the standpoint of quantum field theory, a detailed and thorough analysis is made of some analogous processes in quantum electrodynamics which are amenable to calculation. The QED analogs of the nonresonant clusters are "halfdressed" electrons and heavy photons. The halfdressed electrons decay into photons and electrons and are completely observable entities, whose interaction properties distinguish them from dressed electrons. In other words, the nonresonant particles are generally offshell particles (the excursion from the mass shell is in the timelike direction). The assumption that hadron clusters are only resonances would be equivalent to a very specialized assumption regarding the nature of the spectral function of the hadron propagator; it would be different from that in electrodynamics, where the spectral function can be calculated. Nonresonant hadron clusters thus fit naturally into hadron field theory and are nonequilibrium hadrons far from the mass shell in the timelike direction. (In certain cases, their structural distortion is of the same nature as that of a halfdressed electron, so that this term can be conventionally applied to them as well.

The Relation between Fundamental Constants and Particle Physics Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Rodger
20170101
The observed constraints on the variability of the proton to electron mass ratio $\\mu$ and the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ are used to establish constraints on the variability of the Quantum Chromodynamic Scale and a combination of the Higgs Vacuum Expectation Value and the Yukawa couplings. Further model dependent assumptions provide constraints on the Higgs VEV and the Yukawa couplings separately. A primary conclusion is that limits on the variability of dimensionless fundamental constants such as $\\mu$ and $\\alpha$ provide important constraints on the parameter space of new physics and cosmologies.

Searching for new physics at the frontiers with lattice quantum chromodynamics.
PubMed
Van de Water, Ruth S
20120701
Numerical latticequantum chromodynamics (QCD) simulations, when combined with experimental measurements, allow the determination of fundamental parameters of the particlephysics Standard Model and enable searches for physics beyondtheStandard Model. We present the current status of latticeQCD weak matrix element calculations needed to obtain the elements and phase of the CabibboKobayashiMaskawa (CKM) matrix and to test the Standard Model in the quarkflavor sector. We then discuss evidence that may hint at the presence of new physics beyond the Standard Model CKM framework. Finally, we discuss two opportunities where we expect lattice QCD to play a pivotal role in searching for, and possibly discovery of, new physics at upcoming highintensity experiments: rare decays and the muon anomalous magnetic moment. The next several years may witness the discovery of new elementary particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The interplay between lattice QCD, highenergy experiments at the LHC, and highintensity experiments will be needed to determine the underlying structure of whatever physics beyondtheStandard Model is realized in nature.

MAJOR DETECOTRS IN ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS  May 1985 Suppl.
SciTech Connect
Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.
19850501
This report is the second edition of a looseleaf compendium of the properties and performance characteristics of the major detectors of elementary particle physics. This introduces the second edition of the LBL91 Supplement 'Major Detectors in Elementary Particle Physics.' For some detectors the update merely documents minor modifications or provides additional references. Others have undergone major rebuilding or have been augmented with new subsystems. The new LEP, SLC, TRISTAN, BEPC, and FNAL detectors have had their designs fixed and are now under construction. Some detectors have completed their programs since the last edition and so are omitted. The use of colored looseleaf paper should allow users to maintain a historical record of each detector. We again thank those physicists working with each detector who took the time to summarize its properties and supply us with the appropriate drawings.

UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report
SciTech Connect
Nefkens, B.M.K.
19831101
The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken
20130401
Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of researchbased instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these activeengagement techniques to upperdivision courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSFTUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate activeengagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warmup questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and smallgroup case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.

Physical sputtering of metallic systems by chargedparticle impact
SciTech Connect
Lam, N.Q.
19891201
The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by chargedparticle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knockon collisions. Fundamental aspects of ionsolid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiationinduced and enhanced phenomena that modify the nearsurface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputteredatom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.

The quantum charged particle selfinteraction problem within the Fock many temporal and Feynman proper time paradigms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prykarpatski, A. K.; Bogolubov, N. N.
20170101
A quantum fermionic massless charged particle selfintercating with its own selfgenerated bosonic electromagnetic field is reanalyzed in the framework of the Fock manytemporal and Feynman proper time approaches. The selfinteraction phenomenon structure is discussed within the renormalized quantum Fock space. The quantum electromagnetic charged particle mass origin is suggested.

Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.
PubMed
Pospelov, Maxim
20070608
We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweakscale particles (X) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of longlived X particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX/s less, approximately <3x10(17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date.

A convergence: special relativity, zitterbewegung, and new models for the subcomponent structure of quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mobley, Michael J.
20150901
Hestenes has presented an integration of Schrödinger's zitterbewegung with the spin matrices of the Dirac equation, suggesting the electron can be modeled by a rapidly rotating dipole moment and a frequency related to the de Broglie frequency. He presents an elegant spacetime algebra that provides a reformulation of the Dirac equation that incorporates these real spin characteristics. A similar heuristic model for quantum particles has been derived by this author from a different, quasiclassical premise: That the most fundamental subcomponents of quantum particles all travel at a constant speed of light. Time is equated with the spatial displacement of these subcomponents  the speed of light is the speed of time. This approach suggests a means of integrating special relativity and quantum mechanics with the same concept of time. The relativistic transformation of spinning quantum particles create the appearance of additional, compactified spatial dimensions that can be correlated with the complex phase of the spin matrices as in the Dirac formalism. This paper further examines the convergence on such new models for quantum particles built on this rapid motion of particle subcomponents. The modeling leverages a stringlike heuristic for particle subcomponents and a revised description for the wavelike properties of particles. This examination provides useful insights to the real spatial geometries and interactions of electrons and photons.

The use of minimal spanning trees in particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovelace Rainbolt, J.; Schmitt, M.
20170201
Minimal spanning trees (MSTs) have been used in cosmology and astronomy to distinguish distributions of points in a multidimensional space. They are essentially unknown in particle physics, however. We briefly define MSTs and illustrate their properties through a series of examples. We show how they might be applied to study a typical event sample from a collider experiment and conclude that MSTs may prove useful in distinguishing different classes of events.

Current experiments in elementaryparticle physics  March 1983
SciTech Connect
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.
19830301
Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beamtargetmomentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

A Novel Quantum Blind Signature Scheme with FourParticle Cluster States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Ling
20160301
In an arbitrated quantum signature scheme, the signer signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the assistance of the arbitrator. We present an arbitrated quantum blind signature scheme by measuring fourparticle cluster states and coding. By using the special relationship of fourparticle cluster states, we cannot only support the security of quantum signature, but also guarantee the anonymity of the message owner. It has a wide application to Epayment system, Egovernment, Ebusiness, and etc.

A Novel Quantum Blind Signature Scheme with Fourparticle GHZ States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Ling; Zhang, KeJia; Qin, SuJuan; Guo, FenZhuo
20160201
In an arbitrated quantum signature scheme, the signer signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the assistance of the arbitrator. We present an arbitrated quantum blind signature scheme by using fourparticle entangled GreenbergerHorneZeilinger (GHZ) states. By using the special relationship of fourparticle GHZ states, we cannot only support the security of quantum signature, but also guarantee the anonymity of the message owner. It has a wide application to Epayment system, Egovernment, Ebusiness, and etc.

Twoparticle quantum interference in tunnelcoupled optical tweezers.
PubMed
Kaufman, A M; Lester, B J; Reynolds, C M; Wall, M L; FossFeig, M; Hazzard, K R A; Rey, A M; Regal, C A
20140718
The quantum statistics of atoms is typically observed in the behavior of an ensemble via macroscopic observables. However, quantum statistics modifies the behavior of even two particles. Here, we demonstrate nearcomplete control over all the internal and external degrees of freedom of two lasercooled (87)Rb atoms trapped in two optical tweezers. This controllability allows us to observe signatures of indistinguishability via twoparticle interference. Our work establishes lasercooled atoms in optical tweezers as a promising route to bottomup engineering of scalable, lowentropy quantum systems.

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Evans, Harold G; Kostelecky, V Alan; Musser, James A
20130729
The elementary particle physics research program at Indiana University spans a broad range of the most interesting topics in this fundamental field, including important contributions to each of the frontiers identified in the recent report of HEPAP's Particle Physics Prioritization Panel: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Experimentally, we contribute to knowledge at the Energy Frontier through our work on the D0 and ATLAS collaborations. We work at the Intensity Frontier on the MINOS and NOvA experiments and participate in R&D for LBNE. We are also very active on the theoretical side of each of these areas with internationally recognized efforts in phenomenology both in and beyond the Standard Model and in lattice QCD. Finally, although not part of this grant, members of the Indiana University particle physics group have strong involvement in several astrophysics projects at the Cosmic Frontier. Our research efforts are divided into three task areas. The Task A group works on D0 and ATLAS; Task B is our theory group; and Task C contains our MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE (LArTPC) research. Each task includes contributions from faculty, senior scientists, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel. This work was supported by DOE Grant DEFG0291ER40661. In the following, we describe progress made in the research of each task during the final period of the grant, from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013.

Cherenkov light imaging in astroparticle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzoyan, Razmik
20141201
Cherenkov light emission plays a key role in contemporary science; it is widely used in high energy, nuclear, and numerous astroparticle physics experiments. Most astroparticle physics experiments are based on the detection of light, and a vast majority of them on the measurement of Cherenkov light. Cherenkov light emission is measured in gases (used in airCherenkov technique), in water (for example, neutrino experiments BAIKAL, SuperKamiokande, NESTOR, ANTARES, future KM3NeT; cosmic and γray experiments Milagro, HAWC, AUGER) and in ice (IceCube). In this report our goal is not limited to simply listing the multitude of experiments that are based on using Cherenkov emission, but we will clarify the reasons making this emission so important and so frequently used. For completeness we will first give a short historical overview on the discovery and evolution of Cherenkov emission and then we will dwell on its main features and numerous applications in astroparticle physics experiments.

TomonagaLuttinger physics in electronic quantum circuits.
PubMed
Jezouin, S; Albert, M; Parmentier, F D; Anthore, A; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Safi, I; Pierre, F
20130101
In onedimensional conductors, interactions result in correlated electronic systems. At low energy, a hallmark signature of the socalled TomonagaLuttinger liquids is the universal conductance curve predicted in presence of an impurity. A seemingly different topic is the quantum laws of electricity, when distinct quantum conductors are assembled in a circuit. In particular, the conductances are suppressed at low energy, a phenomenon called dynamical Coulomb blockade. Here we investigate the conductance of mesoscopic circuits constituted by a short singlechannel quantum conductor in series with a resistance, and demonstrate a proposed link to TomonagaLuttinger physics. We reformulate and establish experimentally a recently derived phenomenological expression for the conductance using a wide range of circuits, including carbon nanotube data obtained elsewhere. By confronting both conductance data and phenomenological expression with the universal TomonagaLuttinger conductance curve, we demonstrate experimentally the predicted mapping between dynamical Coulomb blockade and the transport across a TomonagaLuttinger liquid with an impurity.

The neutron and its role in cosmology and particle physics
SciTech Connect
Dubbers, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael G.
20111001
Experiments with cold and ultracold neutrons have reached a level of precision such that problems far beyond the scale of the present standard model of particle physics become accessible to experimental investigation. Because of the close links between particle physics and cosmology, these studies also permit a deep look into the very first instances of our Universe. First addressed in this article, in both theory and experiment, is the problem of baryogenesis, the mechanism behind the evident dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The question of how baryogenesis could have happened is open to experimental tests, and it turns out that this problem can be curbed by the very stringent limits on an electric dipole moment of the neutron, a quantity that also has deep implications for particle physics. Then the recent spectacular observation of neutron quantization in the Earth's gravitational field and of resonance transitions between such gravitational energy states is discussed. These measurements, together with new evaluations of neutron scattering data, set new constraints on deviations from Newton's gravitational law at the picometer scale. Such deviations are predicted in modern theories with extra dimensions that propose unification of the Planck scale with the scale of the standard model. These experiments start closing the remaining ''axion window'' on new spindependent forces in the submillimeter range. Another main topic is the weakinteraction parameters in various fields of physics and astrophysics that must all be derived from measured neutrondecay data. Up until now, about 10 different neutrondecay observables have been measured, much more than needed in the electroweak standard model. This allows various precise tests for new physics beyond the standard model, competing with or surpassing similar tests at high energy. The review ends with a discussion of neutron and nuclear data required in the synthesis of the elements during the

Research in particle physics. Progress report, June 1, 1992January 31, 1993
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19920901
Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron{endash}positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the ``electrostatic muon kicker``; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new fieldtheoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

Twoparty quantum key agreement based on fourparticle GHZ states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, YeFeng; Ma, WenPing
20160401
Based on fourparticle GHZ states, the double CNOT operation and the delayed measurement technique, a twoparty quantum key agreement (QKA) protocols is proposed. The double CNOT operation makes each fourparticle GHZ state collapse into two independent quantum states without any entanglement. Furthermore, one party can directly know the two quantum states and the other party can be aware of the two quantum states by using the corresponding measurement. According to the initial states of the two quantum states, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. Then the protocol achieves the fair establishment of a shared key. The security analysis shows that the new protocol can resist against participant attacks, the Trojan horse attacks and other outsider attacks. Furthermore, the new protocol also has no information leakage problem and has high qubit efficiency.

Twoparty quantum key agreement protocol with fourparticle entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yefeng; Ma, Wenping
20160901
Based on fourparticle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique, a twoparty quantum key agreement protocol is proposed in this paper. In the protocol, two participants can deduce the measurement results of each other’s initial quantum states in terms of the measurement correlation property of fourparticle entangled states. According to the corresponding initial quantum states deduced by themselves, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. This guarantees the fair establishment of a shared key. Since each particle in quantum channel is transmitted only once, the protocol is congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. The security analysis shows that the protocol not only can resist against both participant and outsider attacks but also has no information leakage problem. Moreover, it has high qubit efficiency.

EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aprile, Elena; Profumo, Stefano
20091001
The quest for the nature of dark matter has reached a historical point in time, with several different and complementary experiments on the verge of conclusively exploring large portions of the parameter space of the most theoretically compelling particle dark matter models. This focus issue on dark matter and particle physics brings together a broad selection of invited articles from the leading experimental and theoretical groups in the field. The leitmotif of the collection is the need for a multifaceted search strategy that includes complementary experimental and theoretical techniques with the common goal of a sound understanding of the fundamental particle physical nature of dark matter. These include theoretical modelling, highenergy colliders and direct and indirect searches. We are confident that the works collected here present the state of the art of this rapidly changing field and will be of interest to both experts in the topic of dark matter as well as to those new to this exciting field. Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics Contents DARK MATTER AND ASTROPHYSICS Scintillatorbased detectors for dark matter searches I S K Kim, H J Kim and Y D Kim Cosmology: smallscale issues Joel R Primack Big Bang nucleosynthesis and particle dark matter Karsten Jedamzik and Maxim Pospelov Particle models and the smallscale structure of dark matter Torsten Bringmann DARK MATTER AND COLLIDERS Dark matter in the MSSM R C Cotta, J S Gainer, J L Hewett and T G Rizzo The role of an e+e linear collider in the study of cosmic dark matter M Battaglia Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter Howard Baer, EunKyung Park and Xerxes Tata INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS PAMELA and indirect dark matter searches M Boezio et al An indirect search for dark matter using antideuterons: the GAPS experiment C J Hailey Perspectives for indirect dark matter search with AMS2 using cosmicray electrons and positrons B Beischer, P von

Controllable, Hubbardlike Correlated Electron Physics in Oxide Quantum Structures
DTIC Science & Technology
20141101
Report: Controllable, Hubbardlike Correlated Electron Physics in Oxide Quantum Structures This final report summarizes the results obtained in the...project "Controllable, Hubbardlike Correlated Electron Physics in Oxide Quantum Structures ’. Results are reported from experiments and theory of oxide...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 277092211 Oxide Quantum Structures , Correlated Electron Physics REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR

Emergent Devil's Staircase without ParticleHole Symmetry in Rydberg Quantum Gases with Competing Attractive and Repulsive Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Zhihao; Minář, Jiří; Levi, Emanuele; Li, Weibin; Lesanovsky, Igor
20151101
The devil's staircase is a fractal structure that characterizes the ground state of onedimensional classical lattice gases with longrange repulsive convex interactions. Its plateaus mark regions of stability for specific filling fractions which are controlled by a chemical potential. Typically, such a staircase has an explicit particlehole symmetry; i.e., the staircase at more than half filling can be trivially extracted from the one at less than half filling by exchanging the roles of holes and particles. Here, we introduce a quantum spin chain with competing shortrange attractive and longrange repulsive interactions, i.e., a nonconvex potential. In the classical limit the ground state features generalized Wigner crystals that—depending on the filling fraction—are composed of either dimer particles or dimer holes, which results in an emergent complete devil's staircase without explicit particlehole symmetry of the underlying microscopic model. In our system the particlehole symmetry is lifted due to the fact that the staircase is controlled through a twobody interaction rather than a onebody chemical potential. The introduction of quantum fluctuations through a transverse field melts the staircase and ultimately makes the system enter a paramagnetic phase. For intermediate transverse field strengths, however, we identify a region where the densitydensity correlations suggest the emergence of quasilongrange order. We discuss how this physics can be explored with Rydbergdressed atoms held in a lattice.

Emergent Devil's Staircase without ParticleHole Symmetry in Rydberg Quantum Gases with Competing Attractive and Repulsive Interactions.
PubMed
Lan, Zhihao; Minář, Jiří; Levi, Emanuele; Li, Weibin; Lesanovsky, Igor
20151113
The devil's staircase is a fractal structure that characterizes the ground state of onedimensional classical lattice gases with longrange repulsive convex interactions. Its plateaus mark regions of stability for specific filling fractions which are controlled by a chemical potential. Typically, such a staircase has an explicit particlehole symmetry; i.e., the staircase at more than half filling can be trivially extracted from the one at less than half filling by exchanging the roles of holes and particles. Here, we introduce a quantum spin chain with competing shortrange attractive and longrange repulsive interactions, i.e., a nonconvex potential. In the classical limit the ground state features generalized Wigner crystals thatdepending on the filling fractionare composed of either dimer particles or dimer holes, which results in an emergent complete devil's staircase without explicit particlehole symmetry of the underlying microscopic model. In our system the particlehole symmetry is lifted due to the fact that the staircase is controlled through a twobody interaction rather than a onebody chemical potential. The introduction of quantum fluctuations through a transverse field melts the staircase and ultimately makes the system enter a paramagnetic phase. For intermediate transverse field strengths, however, we identify a region where the densitydensity correlations suggest the emergence of quasilongrange order. We discuss how this physics can be explored with Rydbergdressed atoms held in a lattice.

Observation of quantum particles on a large spacetime scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landau, L. J.
19941001
A quantum particle observed on a sufficiently large spacetime scale can be described by means of classical particle trajectories. The joint distribution for largescale multipletime position and momentum measurements on a nonrelativistic quantum particle moving freely in R v is given by straightline trajectories with probabilities determined by the initial momentumspace wavefunction. For largescale toroidal and rectangular regions the trajectories are geodesics. In a uniform gravitational field the trajectories are parabolas. A quantum counting process on free particles is also considered and shown to converge in the largespacetime limit to a classical counting process for particles with straightline trajectories. If the quantum particle interacts weakly with its environment, the classical particle trajectories may undergo random jumps. In the random potential model considered here, the quantum particle evolves according to a reversible unitary oneparameter group describing elastic scattering off static randomly distributed impurities (a quantum Lorentz gas). In the largespacetime weakcoupling limit a classical stochastic process is obtained with probability one and describes a classical particle moving with constant speed in straight lines between random jumps in direction. The process depends only on the ensemble value of the covariance of the random field and not on the sample field. The probability density in phase space associated with the classical stochastic process satisfies the linear Boltzmann equation for the classical Lorentz gas, which, in the limit h→0, goes over to the linear Landau equation. Our study of the quantum Lorentz gas is based on a perturbative expansion and, as in other studies of this system, the series can be controlled only for small values of the rescaled time and for Gaussian random fields. The discussion of classical particle trajectories for nonrelativistic particles on a macroscopic spacetime scale applies also to

Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multiGeV hadron beam facilities
SciTech Connect
Geesaman, D.F.
19931101
This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

Falling of a quantum particle in an inverse square attractive potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasyuta, Vasyl M.; Tkachuk, Volodymyr M.
20161201
Evolution of a quantum particle in an inverse square potential is studied by analysis of the equation of motion for . In such a way we identify the conditions of falling of a particle into the center. We demonstrate the existence of a purely quantum limit of falling, namely, a particle does not fall, when the coupling constant is smaller than a certain critical value. Also the time of falling of a particle into the center is estimated. Although there are no stationary energy levels for this potential, we show that there are quasistationary states which evolve with being constant in time. Our results are compared with measurements of neutral atoms falling in the electric field of a charged wire. Modifications of the experiment, which may help in observing quantum limit of falling, are proposed.

Quantum secret sharing protocol based on fourdimensional threeparticle entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Yi; Mo, Zhi Wen
20160101
In this paper, we proposed a threeparty quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme using fourdimensional threeparticle entangled states. In this QSS scheme, each agent can obtain a shadow of the secret key by performing singleparticle measurements. Compared with the existing QSS protocol, this scheme has high efficiency and can resist the eavesdropping attack and entanglemeasuring attack, which using threeparticle entangled states are based on fourdimensional Hilbert space.

Doubleslit experiment with single wavedriven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics.
PubMed
Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T; Bohr, Tomas
20150701
In a thoughtprovoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006)] describe a version of the famous doubleslit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the singleparticle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the singleparticle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the singleparticle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the doubleslit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own doubleslit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wavedriven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particlewave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particlewave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the singleparticle statistics for our model in a doubleslit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

22nd SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics: Particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, J.; Deporcel, L.
The sevenday school portion of the Institute revolved around the question of dark matter: where is it and what is it? Reviews were given of microlensing searches for baryonic dark matter, of dark matter candidates in the form of neutrinos and exotic particles, and of lownoise detection techniques used to search for the latter. The history of the universe, from the Big Bang to the role of dark matter in the formation of largescale structure, was also covered. Other lecture series described the astrophysics that might be done with xray timing experiments and through the detection of gravitational radiation. As in past years, the lectures each morning were followed by stimulating afternoon discussion sessions, in which students could pursue with the lecturers the topics that most interested them. The Institute concluded with a threeday topical conference covering recent developments in theory and experiment. Highlights from the astrophysical and cosmological arenas included observations of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, and of the mysterious gammaray bursters. From terrestrial accelerators came tantalizing hints of the top quark and marked improvements in precision electroweak measurements, among many other results. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

A physicsmotivated Centroidal Voronoi Particle domain decomposition method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Lin; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.
20170401
In this paper, we propose a novel domain decomposition method for largescale simulations in continuum mechanics by merging the concepts of Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) and Voronoi Particle dynamics (VP). The CVT is introduced to achieve a highlevel compactness of the partitioning subdomains by the Lloyd algorithm which monotonically decreases the CVT energy. The number of computational elements between neighboring partitioning subdomains, which scales the communication effort for parallel simulations, is optimized implicitly as the generated partitioning subdomains are convex and simply connected with small aspectratios. Moreover, Voronoi Particle dynamics employing physical analogy with a tailored equation of state is developed, which relaxes the particle system towards the target partition with good load balance. Since the equilibrium is computed by an iterative approach, the partitioning subdomains exhibit locality and the incremental property. Numerical experiments reveal that the proposed Centroidal Voronoi Particle (CVP) based algorithm produces highquality partitioning with high efficiency, independently of computationalelement types. Thus it can be used for a wide range of applications in computational science and engineering.

Research in Neutrino Physics and Particle Astrophysics: Final Technical Report
SciTech Connect
Kearns, Edward
20160630
The Boston University Neutrino Physics and Particle Astrophysics Group investigates the fundamental laws of particle physics using natural and manmade neutrinos and rare processes such as proton decay. The primary instrument for this research is the massive SuperKamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector, operating since 1996 at the Kamioka Neutrino Observatory, one kilometer underground in a mine in Japan. We study atmospheric neutrinos from cosmic rays, which were first used to discover that neutrinos have mass, as recognized by the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. Our latest measurements with atmospheric neutrinos are giving valuable information, complementary to longbaseline experiments, on the ordering of massive neutrino states and as to whether neutrinos violate CP symmetry. We have studied a variety of proton decay modes, including the most frequently predicted modes such as p → e^{+}π^{0} and p → ν K^{+}, as well as more exotic baryon number violating processes such as dinucleon decay and neutronantineutron oscillation. We search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation or decay in the universe. Our group has made significant contributions to detector operation, particularly in the area of electronics. Most recently, we have contributed to planning for an upgrade to the SK detector by the addition of gadolinium to the water, which will enable efficient neutron capture detection.

A system for designing and simulating particle physics experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Żelazny, Roman; Strzałkowski, Piotr
19870101
In view of the rapid development of experimental facilities and their costs, the systematic design and preparation of particle physics experiments have become crucial. A software system is proposed as an aid for the experimental designer, mainly for experimental geometry analysis and experimental simulation. The following model is adopted: the description of an experiment is formulated in a language (here called XL) and put by its processor in a data base. The language is based on the entityrelationshipattribute approach. The information contained in the data base can be reported and analysed by an analyser (called XA) and modifications can be made at any time. In particular, the Monte Carlo methods can be used in experiment simulation for both physical phenomena in experimental setup and detection analysis. The general idea of the system is based on the design concept of ISDOS project information systems. The characteristics of the simulation module are similar to those of the CERN Geant system, but some extensions are proposed. The system could be treated as a component of a greater, integrated software environment for the design of particle physics experiments, their monitoring and data processing.

Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics
SciTech Connect
Aprile, E.; Doke, T.
20100715
This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report
SciTech Connect
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.
19951201
This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a largescale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s highresolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s threeyear proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s highenergy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.

Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sime, Ruth Lewin
20130301
During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (18941970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging highenergy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars"  the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations  in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

Wavelike variables of a classical particle and their connections to quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chen
20170101
In many texts, the transition from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics is achieved by substituting the action for the phase angle. The paper presents a different approach to show some connections between classical and quantum mechanics for a single particle for an audience at graduate and postgraduate levels. Firstly, it is shown that a wave equation of action can be derived under the free particle condition and the Legendre transform. The wavelike solutions of the action, Hamiltonian and momentum of the free particle are presented. Using the discrete approximation, the equation of motion of a single particle, in scalar potential field, is obtained in a similar form to Schrödinger’s equation. The rest of the paper discusses the propagation, superposition of the wavelike dynamic variables and their connections to quantum mechanics. The superposition of the variables of a particle is generally distinct from the superposition of classical waves (e.g. acoustics). The quantum superposition provides a selfconsistent interpretation of the wavelike solutions of the variables. Connections between the classical and quantum relations for corresponding variables are observed from the onetoone comparisons.

A Particle Model Explaining Mass and Relativity in a Physical Way
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giese, Albrecht
Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is up to present days dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics alone to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentzbased interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity and the quantum mechanical concept of Louis de Broglie, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism. It is based on the finiteness of the speed of light and provides classical results for particle properties which are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

Computational particle physics for event generators and data analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
PerretGallix, Denis
20130801
Highenergy physics data analysis relies heavily on the comparison between experimental and simulated data as stressed lately by the Higgs search at LHC and the recent identification of a Higgslike new boson. The first link in the full simulation chain is the event generation both for background and for expected signals. Nowadays event generators are based on the automatic computation of matrix element or amplitude for each process of interest. Moreover, recent analysis techniques based on the matrix element likelihood method assign probabilities for every event to belong to any of a given set of possible processes. This method originally used for the top mass measurement, although computing intensive, has shown its efficiency at LHC to extract the new boson signal from the background. Serving both needs, the automatic calculation of matrix element is therefore more than ever of prime importance for particle physics. Initiated in the 80's, the techniques have matured for the lowest order calculations (treelevel), but become complex and CPU time consuming when higher order calculations involving loop diagrams are necessary like for QCD processes at LHC. New calculation techniques for nexttoleading order (NLO) have surfaced making possible the generation of processes with many final state particles (up to 6). If NLO calculations are in many cases under control, although not yet fully automatic, even higher precision calculations involving processes at 2loops or more remain a big challenge. After a short introduction to particle physics and to the related theoretical framework, we will review some of the computing techniques that have been developed to make these calculations automatic. The main available packages and some of the most important applications for simulation and data analysis, in particular at LHC will also be summarized (see CCP2012 slides [1]).

A Summer Research Experience in Particle Physics Using Skype
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, Curran; Alexander, Steven; Mahmood, A. K.
20121001
This last summer I did research in particle physics as part of a ``remote REU.'' This poster will describe that experience and the results of my project which was to experimentally verify the mass ranges of the Z' boson. Data from the LHC's Atlas detector was filtered by computers to select for likely Z boson decays; my work was in noting all instances of Z or Z' boson decays in one thousand events and their masses, separating the Z from Z' bosons, and generating histograms of the masses.

Quantum simulations and manybody physics with light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noh, Changsuk; Angelakis, Dimitris G.
20170101
In this review we discuss the works in the area of quantum simulation and manybody physics with light, from the early proposals on equilibrium models to the more recent works in driven dissipative platforms. We start by describing the founding works on JaynesCummingsHubbard model and the corresponding photonblockade induced Mott transitions and continue by discussing the proposals to simulate effective spin models and fractional quantum Hall states in coupled resonator arrays (CRAs). We also analyse the recent efforts to study outofequilibrium manybody effects using driven CRAs, including the predictions for photon fermionisation and crystallisation in driven rings of CRAs as well as other dynamical and transient phenomena. We try to summarise some of the relatively recent results predicting exotic phases such as supersolidity and Majorana like modes and then shift our attention to developments involving 1D nonlinear slow light setups. There the simulation of strongly correlated phases characterising TonksGirardeau gases, Luttinger liquids, and interacting relativistic fermionic models is described. We review the major theory results and also briefly outline recent developments in ongoing experimental efforts involving different platforms in circuit QED, photonic crystals and nanophotonic fibres interfaced with cold atoms.

Quantum simulations and manybody physics with light.
PubMed
Noh, Changsuk; Angelakis, Dimitris G
20170101
In this review we discuss the works in the area of quantum simulation and manybody physics with light, from the early proposals on equilibrium models to the more recent works in driven dissipative platforms. We start by describing the founding works on JaynesCummingsHubbard model and the corresponding photonblockade induced Mott transitions and continue by discussing the proposals to simulate effective spin models and fractional quantum Hall states in coupled resonator arrays (CRAs). We also analyse the recent efforts to study outofequilibrium manybody effects using driven CRAs, including the predictions for photon fermionisation and crystallisation in driven rings of CRAs as well as other dynamical and transient phenomena. We try to summarise some of the relatively recent results predicting exotic phases such as supersolidity and Majorana like modes and then shift our attention to developments involving 1D nonlinear slow light setups. There the simulation of strongly correlated phases characterising TonksGirardeau gases, Luttinger liquids, and interacting relativistic fermionic models is described. We review the major theory results and also briefly outline recent developments in ongoing experimental efforts involving different platforms in circuit QED, photonic crystals and nanophotonic fibres interfaced with cold atoms.

Applications of gaseous particle detectors in physics and medicine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauli, Fabio
19950801
The multiwire proportional chamber, introduced in 1967 by Georges Charpak (recipient of the 1992 Nobel prize for physics) allows to achieve highrate, fully electronics detection and localization of ionizing radiation. The myriad of devices inspired by this initial work generated a revolution in the conception of detectors for elementary particle physics experiments; examples are the time projection chamber, the drift chamber, the microstrip gas chamber. After a brief introduction on the basic operating principles of the device, I will describe several examples of application of advanced gas detectors in medicine and biology and analyze the operating characteristics that make the new devices attractive when confronted with classic detectors.

Evolution of quantum field, particle content, and classicality in the three stage universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Suprit; Modak, Sujoy Kumar; Padmanabhan, T.
20131201
We study the evolution of a quantum scalar field in a toy universe which has three stages of evolution, viz., (i) an early (inflationary) de Sitter phase (ii) radiationdominated phase and (iii) latetime (cosmological constant dominated) de Sitter phase. Using the Schrödinger picture, the scalar field equations are solved separately for the three stages and matched at the transition points. The boundary conditions are chosen so that field modes in the early de Sitter evolves from the BunchDavies vacuum state. We determine the (timedependent) particle content of this quantum state for the entire evolution of the universe and describe the various features both numerically and analytically. We also describe the quantum to classical transition in terms of a classicality parameter which tracks the particle creation and its effect on phase space correlation of the quantum field.

Transit time of a freely falling quantum particle in a background gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, P. C. W.
20041201
Using a model quantum clock, I evaluate an expression for the time of a nonrelativistic quantum particle to transit a piecewise geodesic path in a background gravitational field with small spacetime curvature (gravity gradient), in the case in which the apparatus is in free fall. This calculation complements and extends an earlier one (Davies 2004) in which the apparatus is fixed to the surface of the Earth. The result confirms that, for particle velocities not too low, the quantum and classical transit times coincide, in conformity with the principle of equivalence. I also calculate the quantum corrections to the transit time when the de Broglie wavelengths are long enough to probe the spacetime curvature. The results are compared with the calculation of Chiao and Speliotopoulos (2003), who propose an experiment to measure the foregoing effects.

Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato
20160601
We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHRDR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

Electronhole quantum physics in ZnO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Versteegh, M. A. M.
20110901
This dissertation describes several new aspects of the quantum physics of electrons and holes in zinc oxide (ZnO), including a few possible applications. Zinc oxide is a IIVI semiconductor with a direct band gap in the ultraviolet. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed, both on bulk ZnO and on ZnO nanowires. Chapter 2 presents a new technique for an ultrafast alloptical shutter, based on twophoton absorption in a ZnO crystal. This shutter can be used for luminescence experiments requiring extremely high timeresolution. Chapter 3 describes a timeresolved study on the electronhole manybody effects in highly excited ZnO at room temperature, in particular bandfilling, bandgap renormalization, and the disappearance of the exciton resonance due to screening. In Chapter 4, the quantum manybody theory developed and experimentally verified in Chapter 3, is used to explain laser action in ZnO nanowires, and compared with experimental results. In contrast to current opinion, the results indicate that excitons are not involved in the laser action. The measured emission wavelength, the laser threshold, and the spectral distance between the laser modes are shown to be excellently explained by our quantum manybody theory. Multiple scattering of light in a forest of nanowires can be employed to enhance light absorption in solar cells. Optimization of this technique requires better understanding of light diffusion in such a nanowire forest. In Chapter 5 we demonstrate a method, based on twophoton absorption, to directly measure the residence time of light in a nanowire forest, and we show that scanning electron microscope (SEM) images can be used to predict the photon mean free path. In Chapter 6 we present a new ultrafast alloptical transistor, consisting of a forest of ZnO nanowires. After excitation, laser action in this forest causes rapid recombination of the majority of the electrons and holes, limiting the amplification to 1.2 picoseconds only

Quantum Phase Coherence in Mesoscopic Transport Devices with TwoParticle Interaction
PubMed Central
Wang, Zhimei; Guo, Xiaofang; Xue, Haibin; Xue, Naitao; Liang, J.Q.
20150101
In this paper we demonstrate a new type of quantum phase coherence (QPC), which is generated by the twobody interaction. This conclusion is based on quantum master equation analysis for the full counting statistics of electron transport through two parallel quantumdots with antiparallel magnetic fluxes in order to eliminate the AharonovBohm interference of either singleparticle or noninteracting twoparticle wave functions. The interacting twoparticle QPC is realized by the fluxdependent oscillation of the zerofrequency cumulants including the shot noise and skewness with a characteristic period. The accurately quantized peaks of cumulant spectrum may have technical applications to probe the twobody Coulomb interaction. PMID:26255858

Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in timedependent fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh
The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a timedependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics. SD acknowledges financial support by the U.S. Department of Energy through a LANL Director's Funded Fellowship.

[Investigations in dynamics of gauge theories in theoretical particle physics
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19930201
The major theme of the theoretical physics research conducted under DOE support over the past several years has been within the rubric of the standard model, and concerned the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. The research was thus carried out mostly in the context of gauge field theories, and usually in the presence of chiral fermions. Dynamical symmetry breaking was examined both from the point of view of perturbation theory, as well as from nonperturbative techniques associated with certain characteristic features of specific theories. Among the topics of research were: the implications of abelian and nonabelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in any theory, topological and conformal properties of quantum fields in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vectorlike gauge theories such as QCD, the phenomenological implications of a strongly interacting Higgs sector in the standard model, and the application of soliton ideas to the physics to be explored at the SSC.

Semiclassical modeling of quantummechanical multiparticle systems using parallel particleincell methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauger, Dean Edward
20010801
We are successful in building a code that models many particle dynamic quantum systems by combining a semiclassical approximation of Feynman path integrals with parallel computing techniques (particleincell) and numerical methods developed for simulating plasmas, establishing this approach as a viable technique for multiparticle timedependent quantum mechanics. Run on highperformance parallel computers, this code applies semiclassical methods to simulate the time evolution of wavefunctions of many particles. We describe the analytical derivation and computational implementation of these techniques in detail. We present a study to thoroughly demonstrate the code's fidelity to quantum mechanics, resulting in innovative visualization and analysis techniques. We introduce and exhibit a method to address fermion particle statistics. We present studies of two quantummechanical problems: a twoelectron, one dimensional atom, resulting in highquality extractions of one and twoelectron eigenstates, and electrostatic quasimodes due to quantum effects in a hot electron plasma, relevant for predictions about stellar evolution. We supply discussions of alternative derivations, alternative implementations of the derivations, and an exploration of their consequences. Source code is shown throughout this dissertation. Finally, we present an extensive discussion of applications and extrapolations of this work, with suggestions for future direction.

PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on PseudoHermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fring, Andreas; Jones, Hugh; Znojil, Miloslav
20080601
Attempts to understand the quantum mechanics of nonHermitian Hamiltonian systems can be traced back to the early days, one example being Heisenberg's endeavour to formulate a consistent model involving an indefinite metric. Over the years nonHermitian Hamiltonians whose spectra were believed to be real have appeared from time to time in the literature, for instance in the study of strong interactions at high energies via Regge models, in condensed matter physics in the context of the XXZspin chain, in interacting boson models in nuclear physics, in integrable quantum field theories as Toda field theories with complex coupling constants, and also very recently in a field theoretical scenario in the quantization procedure of strings on an AdS5 x S5 background. Concrete experimental realizations of these types of systems in the form of optical lattices have been proposed in 2007. In the area of mathematical physics similar nonsystematic results appeared sporadically over the years. However, intensive and more systematic investigation of these types of non Hermitian Hamiltonians with real eigenvalue spectra only began about ten years ago, when the surprising discovery was made that a large class of oneparticle systems perturbed by a simple nonHermitian potential term possesses a real energy spectrum. Since then regular international workshops devoted to this theme have taken place. This special issue is centred around the 6th International Workshop on PseudoHermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics held in July 2007 at City University London. All the contributions contain significant new results or alternatively provide a survey of the state of the art of the subject or a critical assessment of the present understanding of the topic and a discussion of open problems. Original contributions from nonparticipants were also invited. Meanwhile many interesting results have been obtained and consensus has been reached on various central conceptual issues in the

LandauLevel Mixing and ParticleHole Symmetry Breaking for Spin Transitions in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect.
PubMed
Zhang, Yuhe; Wójs, A; Jain, J K
20160909
The spin transitions in the fractional quantum Hall effect provide a direct measure of the tiny energy differences between differently spinpolarized states and thereby serve as an extremely sensitive test of the quantitative accuracy of the theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect, and, in particular, of the role of Landaulevel mixing in lifting the particlehole symmetry. We report on an accurate quantitative study of this physics, evaluating the effect of Landaulevel mixing in a nonperturbative manner using a fixedphase diffusion Monte Carlo method. We find excellent agreement between our calculated critical Zeeman energies and the experimentally measured values. In particular, we find, as also do experiments, that the critical Zeeman energies for fractional quantum Hall states at filling factors ν=2n/(2n±1) are significantly higher than those for ν=n/(2n±1), a quantitative signature of the lifting of particlehole symmetry due to Landaulevel mixing.

LandauLevel Mixing and ParticleHole Symmetry Breaking for Spin Transitions in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuhe; Wójs, A.; Jain, J. K.
20160901
The spin transitions in the fractional quantum Hall effect provide a direct measure of the tiny energy differences between differently spinpolarized states and thereby serve as an extremely sensitive test of the quantitative accuracy of the theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect, and, in particular, of the role of Landaulevel mixing in lifting the particlehole symmetry. We report on an accurate quantitative study of this physics, evaluating the effect of Landaulevel mixing in a nonperturbative manner using a fixedphase diffusion Monte Carlo method. We find excellent agreement between our calculated critical Zeeman energies and the experimentally measured values. In particular, we find, as also do experiments, that the critical Zeeman energies for fractional quantum Hall states at filling factors ν =2 n /(2 n ±1 ) are significantly higher than those for ν =n /(2 n ±1 ), a quantitative signature of the lifting of particlehole symmetry due to Landaulevel mixing.

Modelling Systems of Classical/Quantum Identical Particles by Focusing on Algorithms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guastella, Ivan; Fazio, Claudio; SperandeoMineo, Rosa Maria
20120101
A procedure modelling ideal classical and quantum gases is discussed. The proposed approach is mainly based on the idea that modelling and algorithm analysis can provide a deeper understanding of particularly complex physical systems. Appropriate representations and physical models able to mimic possible pseudomechanisms of functioning and having…

'Who Thinks Abstractly?': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts
SciTech Connect
Plotnitsky, Arkady
20110328
Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, visavis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantummechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of ''physical fact'' and of the concept of 'physical concept', in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features  1) their multicomponent multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

``Who Thinks Abstractly?'': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plotnitsky, Arkady
20110301
Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, visàvis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantummechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of "physical fact" and of the concept of "physical concept," in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features—1) their multicomponent multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

WaveParticle Duality and Uncertainty Principle: Phenomenographic Categories of Description of Tertiary Physics Students' Depictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie
20110101
Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students' depictions of the uncertainty principle and waveparticle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an…

Trends in integrated circuit design for particle physics experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atkin, E. V.
20170101
Integrated circuits are one of the key complex units available to designers of multichannel detector setups. A whole number of factors makes Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) valuable for Particle Physics and Astrophysics experiments. Among them the most important ones are: integration scale, low power dissipation, radiation tolerance. In order to make possible future experiments in the intensity, cosmic, and energy frontiers today ASICs should provide new level of functionality at a new set of constraints and tradeoffs, like lownoise highdynamic range amplification and pulse shaping, highspeed waveform sampling, low power digitization, fast digital data processing, serialization and data transmission. All integrated circuits, necessary for physical instrumentation, should be radiation tolerant at an earlier not reached level (hundreds of Mrad) of total ionizing dose and allow minute almost 3D assemblies. The paper is based on literary source analysis and presents an overview of the state of the art and trends in nowadays chip design, using partially own ASIC lab experience. That shows a next stage of ising micro and nanoelectronics in physical instrumentation.

Chemical physics: Quantum control of lightinduced reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandler, David W.
20160701
An investigation of how ultracold molecules are broken apart by light reveals surprising, previously unobserved quantum effects. The work opens up avenues of research in quantum optics. See Letter p.122

Condensedmatter physics: Quantum mechanics in a spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balents, Leon
20161201
Quantum spin liquids are exotic states of matter first predicted more than 40 years ago. An inorganic material has properties consistent with these predictions, revealing details about the nature of quantum matter. See Letter p.559

Observing quantum nonlocality in the entanglement between modes of massive particles
SciTech Connect
Ashhab, S.; Maruyama, Koji
20070215
We consider the question of whether it is possible to use the entanglement between spatially separated modes of massive particles to observe nonlocal quantum correlations. Mode entanglement can be obtained using a single particle, indicating that it requires careful consideration before concluding whether experimental observatione.g., violation of Bell inequalitiesis possible or not. In the simplest setups analogous to optics experiments, that observation is prohibited by fundamental conservation laws. However, we show that using auxiliary particles, mode entanglement can be converted into forms that allow the observation of quantum nonlocality. The probability of successful conversion depends on the nature and number of auxiliary particles used. In particular, we find that an auxiliary BoseEinstein condensate allows the conversion arbitrarily many times with a small error that depends only on the initial state of the condensate.

FourDimensional Spatial Nanometry of Single Particles in Living Cells Using Polarized Quantum Rods
PubMed Central
Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Fujii, Fumihiko; Jin, Takashi; Umemoto, Eiji; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Fujita, Hideaki; Yanagida, Toshio
20130101
Single particle tracking is widely used to study protein movement with high spatiotemporal resolution both in vitro and in cells. Quantum dots, which are semiconductor nanoparticles, have recently been employed in single particle tracking because of their intense and stable fluorescence. Although single particles inside cells have been tracked in three spatial dimensions (X, Y, Z), measurement of the angular orientation of a molecule being tracked would significantly enhance our understanding of the molecule’s function. In this study, we synthesized highly polarized, rodshaped quantum dots (Qrods) and developed a coating method that optimizes the Qrods for biological imaging. We describe a Qrodbased single particle tracking technique that blends optical nanometry with nanomaterial science to simultaneously measure the threedimensional and angular movements of molecules. Using Qrods, we spatially tracked a membrane receptor in living cells in four dimensions with precision close to the singledigit range in nanometers and degrees. PMID:23931303

Particle physics and cosmology, Task C. Progress report, January 1992April 1993
SciTech Connect
Turner, M.S.
19930501
The research has spanned many topics at the boundary of particle physics and cosmology. The major focus has been in the general areas of inflationary cosmology, cosmological phase transitions, astrophysical constraints to particle physics theories, and dark matter/structure formation as it relates to particle physics. Some attention is given to axion physics. Narrative summaries of the research of the individual group members are given, followed by a list of publications.

[Research in theoretical and experimental elementary particle physics. Final report
SciTech Connect
19981101
This report gives summaries of particle physics research conducted by different group members for Task A. A summary of work on the CLEO experiment and detector is included for Task B along with a list of CLEO publications. During the present grant period for Task C, the authors had responsibility for the design, assembly, and programming of the highresolution spectrometer which looks for narrow peaks in the output of the cavity in the LLNL experiment. They successfully carried out this task. Velocity peaks are expected in the spectrum of dark matter axions on Earth. The computing proposal (Task S) is submitted in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and the Theory tasks.

Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; D`Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Catalano, A.; Monfardini, A.
20160701
Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mmwave astronomy and to particle physics.

A Complete Physical GermaniumonSilicon Quantum Dot SelfAssembly Process
PubMed Central
Alkhatib, Amro; Nayfeh, Ammar
20130101
Achieving quantum dot selfassembly at precise predefined locations is of vital interest. In this work, a novel physical method for producing germanium quantum dots on silicon using nanoindentation to predefine nucleation sites is described. Selfassembly of ordered ~10 nm height germanium quantum dot arrays on silicon substrates is achieved. Due to the inherent simplicity and elegance of the proposed method, the results describe an attractive technique to manufacture semiconductor quantum dot structures for future quantum electronic and photonic applications. PMID:23807261

FOREWORD: Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Fanourakis, George; Kehagias, Alexandros; SavoyNavarro, Aurore; Wess, Julius; Zoupanos, George
20061201
These are the Proceedings of the Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005) (http://corfu2005.physics.uoi.gr), which took place in Corfu, Greece from 4  26 September 2005. The Corfu Summer Institute has a very long, interesting and successful history, some elements of which can be found in http://www.corfusummerinstitute.gr. In short, the Corfu Meeting started as a Summer School on Elementary Particle Physics (EPP) mostly for Greek graduate students in 1982 and has developed into a leading international Summer Institute in the field of EPP, both experimental and theoretical, providing in addition a very rich outreach programme to teachers and school students. The CORFU2005 Summer Institute on EPP, although based on the general format that has been developed and established in the Corfu Meetings during previous years, is characterized by the fact that it was a full realization of a new idea, which started experimentally in the previous two Corfu Meetings. The successful new ingredient was that three European Marie Curie Research Training Networks decided to hold their Workshops in Corfu during September 2005 and they managed to coordinate the educational part of their meetings to a huge Summer School called `The 8th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics' (4  11 September). The European Networks which joined forces to materialize this project and the corresponding dates of their own Workshops are:  The Third Generation as a Probe for New Physics: Experimental and Technological Approach (4  11 September)
 The Quest for Unification Theory Confronts Experiment (11  18 September)
 Constituents Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe (20  26 September)
To these Workshops has been added a Satellite one called `Noncommutative Geometry in Field and String Theory', and some extra speakers have been invited to complement the full programme of CORFU2005, some of whom have integrated into the Workshop

Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.
PubMed
Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; VelázquezAhumada, María C; FernándezPrieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán
20160624
A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along metersize transmissionline circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed.

PREFACE: High Energy Particle Physics Workshop (HEPPW2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornell, Alan S.; Mellado, B.
20151001
The motivation for this workshop began with the discovery of the Higgs boson three years ago, and the realisation that many problems remain in particle physics, such as why there is more matter than antimatter, better determining the still poorly measured parameters of the strong force, explaining possible sources for dark matter, naturalness etc. While the newly discovered Higgs boson seems to be compatible with the Standard Model, current experimental accuracy is far from providing a definitive statement with regards to the nature of this new particle. There is a lot of room for physics beyond the Standard Model to emerge in the exploration of the Higgs boson. Recent measurements in highenergy heavy ion collisions at the LHC have shed light on the complex dynamics that govern highdensity quarkgluon interactions. An array of results from the ALICE collaboration have been highlighted in a recent issue of CERN courier. The physics program of highenergy heavy ion collisions promises to further unveil the intricacies of highdensity quarkgluon plasma physics. The great topicality of high energy physics research has also seen a rapid increase in the number of researchers in South Africa pursuing such studies, both experimentally through the ATLAS and ALICE colliders at CERN, and theoretically. Young researchers and graduate students largely populate these research groups, with little experience in presenting their work, and few support structures (to their knowledge) to share experiences with. Whilst many schools and workshops have sought to educate these students on the theories and tools they will need to pursue their research, few have provided them with a platform to present their work. As such, this workshop discussed the various projects being pursued by graduate students and young researchers in South Africa, enabling them to develop networks for future collaboration and discussion. The workshop took place at the iThemba Laboratories  North facility, in

Quantumbehaved particle swarm optimization with collaborative attractors for nonlinear numerical problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tianyu; Jiao, Licheng; Ma, Wenping; Shang, Ronghua
20170301
In this paper, an improved quantumbehaved particle swarm optimization (CLQPSO), which adopts a new collaborative learning strategy to generate local attractors for particles, is proposed to solve nonlinear numerical problems. Local attractors, which directly determine the convergence behavior of particles, play an important role in quantumbehaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO). In order to get a promising and efficient local attractor for each particle, a collaborative learning strategy is introduced to generate local attractors in the proposed algorithm. Collaborative learning strategy consists of two operators, namely orthogonal operator and comparison operator. For each particle, orthogonal operator is used to discover the useful information that lies in its personal and global best positions, while comparison operator is used to enhance the particle's ability of jumping out of local optima. By using a probability parameter, the two operators cooperate with each other to generate local attractors for particles. A comprehensive comparison of CLQPSO with some stateoftheart evolutionary algorithms on nonlinear numeric optimization functions demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Simple OneDimensional QuantumMechanical Model for a Particle Attached to a Surface
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez, Francisco M.
20100101
We present a simple onedimensional quantummechanical model for a particle attached to a surface. It leads to the Schrodinger equation for a harmonic oscillator bounded on one side that we solve in terms of Weber functions and discuss the behaviour of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. We derive the virial theorem and other exact relationships…

Absolutely continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aizenman, Michael; Warzel, Simone
20120901
We discuss the dynamical implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph absolutely continuous (ac) spectrum occurs nonperturbatively through rare fluctuationenabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.

Absolutely continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs
SciTech Connect
Aizenman, Michael; Warzel, Simone
20120915
We discuss the dynamical implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph absolutely continuous (ac) spectrum occurs nonperturbatively through rare fluctuationenabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.

European Particle Physics Masterclasses Make Students into Scientists for a Day
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johansson, K. E.; Kobel, M.; Hillebrandt, D.; Engeln, K.; Euler, M.
20070101
In 2005 the European particle physics masterclasses attracted 3000 students from 18 European countries to visit one of 58 universities and education centres. The participants worked with data from real high energy particle collisions, learned about particle physics, and experienced research and education environments at European universities. In…

[High energy particle physics at Purdue, 19901991]. [Dept. of Physics, Purdue Univ. , West Lafayette, Indiana
SciTech Connect
Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.
19910501
Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included.

Review of lattice results concerning lowenergy particle physics
SciTech Connect
Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Bernard, C.; Blum, T.; Colangelo, G.; Della Morte, M.; Dürr, S.; ElKhadra, A. X.; Fukaya, H.; Horsley, R.; Jüttner, A.; Kaneko, T.; Laiho, J.; Lellouch, L.; Leutwyler, H.; Lubicz, V.; Lunghi, E.; Necco, S.; Onogi, T.; Pena, C.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sharpe, S. R.; Simula, S.; Sommer, R.; Van de Water, R. S.; Vladikas, A.; Wenger, U.; Wittig, H.
20140901
We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D and Bmeson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the lightquark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in semileptonic K > pi transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio fK/fpi of decay constants and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements Vus and Vud. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the lowenergy constants of SU(2)LxSU(2)R and SU(3)LxSU(3)R Chiral Perturbation Theory and review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavyquark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, for this review, we focus on D and Bmeson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters, since these are most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitaritytriangle fit. In addition we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant alpha_s.

Review of lattice results concerning lowenergy particle physics
DOE PAGES
Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Bernard, C.; ...
20140901
We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D and Bmeson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the lightquark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in semileptonic K > pi transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio fK/fpi of decay constants and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements Vus and Vud. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the lowenergy constants of SU(2)LxSU(2)R and SU(3)LxSU(3)R Chiral Perturbation Theory and review the determination ofmore » the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavyquark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, for this review, we focus on D and Bmeson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters, since these are most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitaritytriangle fit. In addition we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant alpha_s.« less
