I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching
Medium energy elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19910101
This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g2 value; measurement of the spindependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)
Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Studenikin, Alexander I.
20090101
Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun  Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electronproton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg  Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. OchoaRicoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Betabeams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Nonstandard neutrino physics probed by TokaitoKamiokaKorea twodetector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric
Master Equation for a Quantum Particle in a Gas
SciTech Connect
Hornberger, Klaus
20060811
The equation for the quantum motion of a Brownian particle in a gaseous environment is derived by means of Smatrix theory. This quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation accounts nonperturbatively for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics and describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. As a completely positive master equation it incorporates both the known equation for an infinitely massive Brownian particle and the classical linear Boltzmann equation as limiting cases.
Master equation for a quantum particle in a gas.
PubMed
Hornberger, Klaus
20060811
The equation for the quantum motion of a Brownian particle in a gaseous environment is derived by means of Smatrix theory. This quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation accounts nonperturbatively for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics and describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. As a completely positive master equation it incorporates both the known equation for an infinitely massive Brownian particle and the classical linear Boltzmann equation as limiting cases.
Unification of quantum theory and classical physics
SciTech Connect
Stapp, H.P.
19850701
A program is described for unifying quantum theory and classical physics on the basis of the Copenhageninterpretation idea of external reality and a recently discovered classical part of the electromagnetic field. The program effects an integration of the intuitions of Heisenberg, Bohr, and Einstein.
Quantum Inferential Leaps: The Rhetoric of Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McPhail, Mark Lawrence
19920101
Considers the epistemological implications of a changing understanding of reality, based on contemporary connections between rhetoric as epistemic (questioning underlying assumptions about modernist conceptualizations of science and language) and quantum physics (rejecting the notion of an objective reality existing independent of observers).…
Introduction to Statistical Issues in Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barlow, Roger
An account is given of the methods of working of Experimental High Energy Particle Physics, from the viewpoint of statisticians and others unfamiliar with the field. Current statistical problems, techniques, and hot topics are introduced and discussed.
Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettini, Alessandro
The Standard Model is the most comprehensive physical theory ever developed. This textbook conveys the basic elements of the Standard Model using elementary concepts, without the theoretical rigor found in most other texts on this subject. It contains examples of basic experiments, allowing readers to see how measurements and theory interplay in the development of physics. The author examines leptons, hadrons and quarks, before presenting the dynamics and the surprising properties of the charges of the different forces. The textbook concludes with a brief discussion on the recent discoveries of physics beyond the Standard Model, and its connections with cosmology. Quantitative examples are given, and the reader is guided through the necessary calculations. Each chapter ends in the exercises, and solutions to some problems are included in the book. Complete solutions are available to instructors at www.cambridge.org/9780521880213. This textbook is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students.

Physics on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
't Hooft, Gerard
20140401
Nature's laws in the domain where relativistic effects, gravitational effects and quantum effects are all comparatively strong are far from understood. This domain is called the Planck scale. Conceivably, a theory can be constructed where the quantum nature of phenomena at such scales can be attributed to something fundamentally simpler. However, arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there can't be physical laws that require "conspiracy". It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In the lecture we will show several such counterexamples. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. This theory is often portrayed as to underly the quantum field theory of the subatomic particles, including the "Standard Model". So now the question is asked: how can this model feature "conspiracy", and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations?

Quantum physics reimagined for the general public
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobroff, Julien
20150301
Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, nonintuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with webillustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, BoseEinstein condensation, decoherence, pumpprobe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stopmotion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined

Quantum backreaction through the Bohmian particle.
PubMed
Prezhdo, O V; Brooksby, C
20010401
A novel solution to the quantum backreaction problem in a mixed quantumclassical simulation is provided using the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. The Bohmian backreaction is unique, computationally simple, features reaction channel branching, and easily gives the full classical limit. The Bohmian quantumclassical method is illustrated by application to a model of O2 interacting with a Pt surface.

On the photoelectric quantum yield of small dust particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Hiroshi
20160701
Photoelectron emission is crucial to electric charging of dust particles around mainsequence stars and gas heating in various dusty environments. An estimate of the photoelectric processes contains an illdefined parameter called the photoelectric quantum yield, which is the total number of electrons ejected from a dust particle per absorbed photon. Here we revisit the socalled small particle effect of photoelectron emission and provide an analytical model to estimate photoelectric quantum yields of small dust particles in sizes down to nanometers. We show that the small particle effect elevates the photoelectric quantum yields of nanoparticles up to by a factor of 103 for carbon, water ice, and organics, and a factor of 102 for silicate, silicon carbide, and iron. We conclude the surface curvature of the particles is a quantity of great importance to the small particle effect, unless the particles are submicrometers in radius or larger.

Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics
PubMed Central
Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S.; Butler, James P.
20150101
The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin airblood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. Whereas the particlelung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeutic aerosolized drug. In either case, an accurate estimation of dose and sites of deposition in the respiratory tract is fundamental to understanding subsequent biological response, and the basic physics of particle motion and engineering knowledge needed to understand these subjects is the topic of this chapter. A large portion of this chapter deals with three fundamental areas necessary to the understanding of particle transport and deposition in the respiratory tract. These are: 1) the physical characteristics of particles, 2) particle behavior in gas flow, and 3) gas flow patterns in the respiratory tract. Other areas, such as particle transport in the developing lung and in the diseased lung are also considered. The chapter concludes with a summary and a brief discussion of areas of future research. PMID:24265235

Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics.
PubMed
Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S; Butler, James P
20131001
The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin airblood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. The particlelung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic. Conversely, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeutic aerosolized drugs. In either case, an accurate estimation of dose and sites of deposition in the respiratory tract is fundamental to understanding subsequent biological response, and the basic physics of particle motion and engineering knowledge needed to understand these subjects is the topic of this article. A large portion of this article deals with three fundamental areas necessary to the understanding of particle transport and deposition in the respiratory tract. These are: (i) the physical characteristics of particles, (ii) particle behavior in gas flow, and (iii) gasflow patterns in the respiratory tract. Other areas, such as particle transport in the developing lung and in the diseased lung are also considered. The article concludes with a summary and a brief discussion of areas of future research.

Theoretical particle physics, Task A
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19910701
This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating {Theta} Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice HiggsYukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z{degrees} Vector Boson; ParityOdd SpinDependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.

Theoretical particle physics, Task A
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
19910701
This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating (Theta) Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice HiggsYukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z(degrees) Vector Boson; ParityOdd SpinDependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.

Research on elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Holloway, L.E.; O'Halloran, T.A.
19920501
This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p{bar p} collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) The SLD experiment at SLAC and design studies for a {tau}charm factor. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development.

Research in Theoretical Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Ralston, John P.
20130728
This document is the final report on activity of the University of Kansas theory group supported under DOE Grant Number DEFG0204ER14308, ending April 30, 3013. The report covers the most recent three year period period May 1, 2010April 30, 2013. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (coI), Douglas McKay (emeritus) and John Ralston (PI). The group's research topics and accomplishments covered numerous different topics subsumed under the {\\it the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier}, and {\\it the Cosmic Frontier}. Many theoretical and experimental results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The group's research emphasis has been on challenging and confronting {\\it Anything that is Observable} about the physical Universe.

Small Particle May Answer Large Physics Questions
SciTech Connect
Hazi, A
20050920
In one of those interesting intersections of particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the University of Florida (UF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have joined together to try to pin down an elusive particle. This particle, called the axion, if it is found to exist and is not just a hypothesis, would be a longsought relic from the first fractional second of the birth of the universe and one of the most weakly interacting particles known. Experimental verification of the existence of the axion would not only help ''balance the budget'' for the missing mass of the universe but also clear up one of the thorniest issues in particle physics.

What is a Particle in Classical Physics? A Wave?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mickens, Ronald E.
20051101
The concepts of ``particle" and ``wave" play important roles in quantum mechanics in that a given microscopic system can, under the proper circumstances, display properties of each.ootnotetextA Messiah, Quantum Mechanics, Vols. I and II (Wiley, 1961). However, these categories have their genesis in classical mechanicsootnotetextH. Goldstein, Classical Mechanics (AddisonWesley, 1980, 2nd edition). and we must turn to this area to understand what they mean. In particular, it must be clearly understood that these concepts are idealistic representations of physical phenomena and, as a consequence, each may not correspond to any actual physical system. We discuss the definition of ``particle'' from the perspective of how it has been defined in standard textbooks and carry out a similar analysis for the notion of ``wave.'' We then define ``particle'' and ``wave'' within the context of classical mechanics by means of their respective equations of motion. The general (tentative) conclusion is that within the framework of classical mechanics the concepts of ``particle'' and ``wave'' systems may be unambiguously defined.

Visual Analysis of Quantum Physics Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hege, HansChristian; Koppitz, Michael; Marquardt, Falko; McDonald, Chris; Mielack, Christopher
During the past two decades data visualization has matured as an own subdiscipline in computer science. Its methods are successfully applied in almost all areas of science, engineering, and medicine, in order to depict and visually analyze data—both from experiment and simulation. The goal of data visualization is to achieve a better understanding of data by intuitive, perceptually efficient and interactively steerable depictions of the data. For this specific data analysis methods are combined with visualization techniques that utilize modern computer graphics. Quantum physics, however, so far remained largely omitted as application area, in particular due to the high dimensionality of the phenomena. However, the situation is not hopeless; on the contrary, there are many ways to visualize quantum mechanical phenomena. In this paper, this will be demonstrated by means of visualizations of simulation data from quantum chemistry and highharmonic generation.

Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beggi, Andrea; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo
20160901
In this work, we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in Wiseman and Vaccaro (Phys Rev Lett 91:097902, 2003. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.097902). This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise—such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that onsite interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.

Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beggi, Andrea; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo
20160601
In this work, we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in Wiseman and Vaccaro (Phys Rev Lett 91:097902, 2003. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.097902). This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise—such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that onsite interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.

Coherent States of Quantum Free Particle on the Spherical Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehdashti, Shahram; Roknizadeh, Rasoul; Mahdifar, Ali; Chen, Hongsheng
20160101
In this paper, we study the quantum free particle on the spherical space by applying da costa approach for quantum particle on the curved space. We obtain the discrete energy eigenvalues and associated normalized eigenfunctions of the free particle on the sphere. In addition, we introduce the GazeauKlauder coherent states of free particle on the sphere. Then, the Gaussian coherent states is defined, which is used to describe the localized particle on the spherical space. Finally, we study the relation between the fdeformed coherent states and GazeauKlauder ones for this system.

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19911201
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

Plato's TIMAIOσ (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machleidt, Ruprecht
20050401
It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIOσ (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

Quantum effects for particles channeling in a bent crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feranchuk, Ilya; San, Nguyen Quang
20160901
Quantum mechanical theory for channeling of the relativistic charged particles in the bent crystals is considered in the paper. Quantum effects of underbarrier tunneling are essential when the radius of the curvature is closed to its critical value. In this case the wave functions of the quasistationary states corresponding to the particles captured in a channel are presented in the analytical form. The efficiency of channeling of the particles and their angular distribution at the exit crystal surface are calculated. Characteristic experimental parameters for observation the quantum effects are estimated.

Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, Mark B.
20101001
The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For example, Halliday, Resnick, and Walker describe the origin of atomic quantum numbers as such: "The restrictions on the values of the quantum number for the hydrogen atom, as listed in Table 392, are not arbitrary but come out of the solution to Schrödinger's equation." They give no further justification, but do point out the values are in conflict with the predictions of the Bohr model.

Research in Theoretical Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Feldman, Hume A; Marfatia, Danny
20140924
This document is the final report on activity supported under DOE Grant Number DEFG0213ER42024. The report covers the period July 15, 2013 – March 31, 2014. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (1.0 FTE) and Hume Feldman (1% FTE). The grant partly supported University of Hawaii students, David Yaylali and Keita Fukushima, who are supervised by Jason Kumar. Both students are expected to graduate with Ph.D. degrees in 2014. Yaylali will be joining the University of Arizona theory group in Fall 2014 with a 3year postdoctoral appointment under Keith Dienes. The group’s research covered topics subsumed under the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Many theoretical results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The report contains brief project descriptions in Section 1. Sections 2 and 3 lists published and submitted work, respectively. Sections 4 and 5 summarize group activity including conferences, workshops and professional presentations.

Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Sultansoy, Saleh
20070423
The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the tquark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production crosssection at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without seesaw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan{beta} {approx_equal} mt/mb {approx_equal} 40 if there are three MSSM families; superpartner of the righthanded neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

Basics of particle therapy I: physics.
PubMed
Park, Seo Hyun; Kang, Jin Oh
20110901
With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest.

Basics of particle therapy I: physics
PubMed Central
Park, Seo Hyun
20110101
With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest. PMID:22984664

PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asorey, M.; ClementeGallardo, J.; Marmo, G.
20070701
This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his lifelong activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J ClementeGallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan International Advisory Committee A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA)  L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)  I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching

Synchronizing quantum and classical clocks made of quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flores, Philip Caesar M.; Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Galapon, Eric A.
20160901
We demonstrate that the quantum corrections to the classical arrival time for a quantum object in a potential free region of space, as computed in Phys. Rev. A 80, 030102(R) (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.80.030102, can be eliminated up to a given order of ℏ by choosing an appropriate positiondependent phase for the object's wave function. This then implies that we can make the quantum arrival time of the object as close as possible to its corresponding classical arrival time, allowing us to synchronize a classical and quantum clock, which tells time using the classical and quantum arrival time of the object, respectively. We provide an example for synchronizing such a clock by making use of a quantum object with a positiondependent phase imprinted on the object's initial wave function with the use of an impulsive potential.

Hausdorff dimension of a particle path in a quantum manifold
SciTech Connect
Nicolini, Piero; Niedner, Benjamin
20110115
After recalling the concept of the Hausdorff dimension, we study the fractal properties of a quantum particle path. As a novelty we consider the possibility for the space where the particle propagates to be endowed with a quantumgravityinduced minimal length. We show that the Hausdorff dimension accounts for both the quantum mechanics uncertainty and manifold fluctuations. In addition the presence of a minimal length breaks the selfsimilarity property of the erratic path of the quantum particle. Finally we establish a universal property of the Hausdorff dimension as well as the spectral dimension: They both depend on the amount of resolution loss which affects both the path and the manifold when quantum gravity fluctuations occur.

Vortex Physics in the Quantum Hall Bilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fertig, H. A.; Murthy, Ganpathy
20130601
There exists a strong analogy between the quantum Hall bilayer system at total filling factor ν = 1 and a thin film superfluid, in which the groundstate is described as a condensate of particlehole pairs. The analogy draws support from experiments which display near dissipationless transport properties at low temperatures. However dissipation is always present at any accessible temperature, suggesting that in a proper description, unpaired vortexlike excitations must be present. The mechanism by which this happens remains poorly understood. A key difference between the quantum Hall bilayer and simpler thinfilm superfluids is that the vortices, more properly called merons in the former context, are charged objects. We demonstrate that a model in which disorder induces merons in the groundstate, through coupling to this charge, can naturally explain many of the observed imperfect superfluid properties...

The CMS Masterclass and Particle Physics Outreach
SciTech Connect
Cecire, Kenneth; Bardeen, Marjorie; McCauley, Thomas
20140101
The CMS Masterclass enables high school students to analyse authentic CMS data. Students can draw conclusions on key ratios and particle masses by combining their analyses. In particular, they can use the ratio of W^+ to W^ candidates to probe the structure of the proton, they can find the mass of the Z boson, and they can identify additional particles including, tentatively, the Higgs boson. In the United States, masterclasses are part of QuarkNet, a longterm program that enables students and teachers to use cosmic ray and particle physics data for learning with an emphasis on data from CMS.

The CMS Masterclass and Particle Physics Outreach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecire, Kenneth; Bardeen, Marjorie; McCauley, Thomas
20140401
The CMS Masterclass enables high school students to analyse authentic CMS data. Students can draw conclusions on key ratios and particle masses by combining their analyses. In particular, they can use the ratio of W+ to W candidates to probe the structure of the proton, they can find the mass of the Z boson, and they can identify additional particles including, tentatively, the Higgs boson. In the United States, masterclasses are part of QuarkNet, a longterm program that enables students and teachers to use cosmic ray and particle physics data for learning with an emphasis on data from CMS.

Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review.
PubMed
Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald
20160901
Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to xrays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation crosssections, including those for the production of positronemitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and realtime data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues. PMID:27540827

Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald
20160901
Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to xrays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation crosssections, including those for the production of positronemitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and realtime data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review.
PubMed
Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald
20160901
Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to xrays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation crosssections, including those for the production of positronemitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and realtime data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

Particles, Waves, and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christoudouleas, N. D.
19750101
Presents an explanation, without mathematical equations, of the basic principles of quantum mechanics. Includes waveparticle duality, the probability character of the wavefunction, and the uncertainty relations. (MLH)

Classical and quantum particle dynamics in univariate background fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; King, B.
20160901
We investigate deviations from the plane wave model in the interaction of charged particles with strong electromagnetic fields. A general result is that integrability of the dynamics is lost when going from lightlike to timelike or spacelike field dependence. For a special scenario in the classical regime we show how the radiation spectrum in the spacelike (undulator) case becomes wellapproximated by the plane wave model in the highenergy limit, despite the two systems being Lorentz inequivalent. In the quantum problem, there is no analogue of the WKBexact Volkov solution. Nevertheless, WKB and uniformWKB approaches give good approximations in all cases considered. Other approaches that reduce the underlying differential equations from second to first order are found to miss the correct physics for situations corresponding to barrier transmission and wideangle scattering.

Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education
SciTech Connect
Bardeen, Marjorie G.; Johansson, K.Erik; Young, M.Jean
20111121
This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, highenergy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.

Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.
20050101
There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of threedimensional arrays of zerodimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary pin solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Twodimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of onedimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce IIIV, IIVI, and even chalcopyritebased nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.

Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, JeanLoup; Chabot, Hugues
20150101
One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction…

Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator.
PubMed
Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; DelRe, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio
20150101
More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n = 0 and n = 2 discrete states and Γ0 and Γ2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shockwaves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, whitelight and Xray generation.

Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator
PubMed Central
Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; DelRe, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio
20150101
More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n = 0 and n = 2 discrete states and Γ0 and Γ2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shockwaves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, whitelight and Xray generation. PMID:26522653

Is Particle Physics Ready for the LHC
ScienceCinema
Lykken, Joseph
20160712
The advent of the Large Hadron Collider in 2007 entails daunting challenges to particle physicists. The first set of challenges will arise from trying to separate new physics from old. The second set of challenges will come in trying to interpret the new discoveries. I will describe a few of the scariest examples.

Visions: The coming revolutions in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Chris Quigg
20020411
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop the understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.

Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S
20130401
This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)
SciTech Connect
Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.
19960901
This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLACSPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

Beyond the standard model of particle physics.
PubMed
Virdee, T S
20160828
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its experiments were conceived to tackle open questions in particle physics. The mechanism of the generation of mass of fundamental particles has been elucidated with the discovery of the Higgs boson. It is clear that the standard model is not the final theory. The open questions still awaiting clues or answers, from the LHC and other experiments, include: What is the composition of dark matter and of dark energy? Why is there more matter than antimatter? Are there more space dimensions than the familiar three? What is the path to the unification of all the fundamental forces? This talk will discuss the status of, and prospects for, the search for new particles, symmetries and forces in order to address the open questions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. PMID:27458261

Beyond the standard model of particle physics.
PubMed
Virdee, T S
20160828
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its experiments were conceived to tackle open questions in particle physics. The mechanism of the generation of mass of fundamental particles has been elucidated with the discovery of the Higgs boson. It is clear that the standard model is not the final theory. The open questions still awaiting clues or answers, from the LHC and other experiments, include: What is the composition of dark matter and of dark energy? Why is there more matter than antimatter? Are there more space dimensions than the familiar three? What is the path to the unification of all the fundamental forces? This talk will discuss the status of, and prospects for, the search for new particles, symmetries and forces in order to address the open questions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'.

Medical physics aspects of particle therapy.
PubMed
Jäkel, Oliver
20091101
Charged particle beams offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume when compared with photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of heavier ions exhibit a strong increase of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg peak when compared with the entrance region. These physical and biological properties make ion beams more favourable for radiation therapy of cancer than photon beams. As a consequence, particle therapy with protons and heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide. This contribution summarises the physical and biological principles of charged particle therapy with ion beams and highlights some of the developments in the field of beam delivery, the principles of treatment planning and the determination of absorbed dose in ion beams. The clinical experience gathered so far with carbon ion therapy is briefly reviewed.

Current experiments in elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.
19870301
This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixedtarget beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Cyclic Polyynes as Examples of the Quantum Mechanical Particle on a Ring
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Bruce D.
20120101
Many quantum mechanical models are discussed as part of the undergraduate physical chemistry course to help students understand the connection between eigenvalue expressions and spectroscopy. Typical examples covered include the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor, and the hydrogen atom. This article demonstrates that…

Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave  Particle Duality
SciTech Connect
Gibson, J. Murray
20031015
Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to nonscientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics'  that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

Particle scattering in loop quantum gravity.
PubMed
Modesto, Leonardo; Rovelli, Carlo
20051101
We devise a technique for defining and computing point functions in the context of a backgroundindependent gravitational quantum field theory. We construct a tentative implementation of this technique in a perturbatively finite model defined using spin foam techniques in the context of loop quantum gravity.

On the physical realizability of quantum stochastic walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taketani, Bruno; Govia, Luke; Schuhmacher, Peter; Wilhelm, Frank
Quantum walks are a promising framework that can be used to both understand and implement quantum information processing tasks. The recently developed quantum stochastic walk combines the concepts of a quantum walk and a classical random walk through open system evolution of a quantum system, and have been shown to have applications in as far reaching fields as artificial intelligence. However, nature puts significant constraints on the kind of open system evolutions that can be realized in a physical experiment. In this work, we discuss the restrictions on the allowed open system evolution, and the physical assumptions underpinning them. We then introduce a way to circumvent some of these restrictions, and simulate a more general quantum stochastic walk on a quantum computer, using a technique we call quantum trajectories on a quantum computer. We finally describe a circuit QED approach to implement discrete time quantum stochastic walks.

Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.
20050101
An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solidstate world.

Summation of power series in particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Jan
19990401
The largeorder behaviour of power series used in quantum theory (perturbation series and the operatorproduct expansion) is discussed and relevant summation methods are reviewed. It is emphasised that, in most physically interesting situations, the mere knowledge of the expansion coefficients is not sufficient for a unique determination of the function expanded, and the necessity of some additional, extraperturbative, input is pointed out. Several possible nonperturbative inputs are suggested. Applications to various problems of quantum chromodynamics are considered. This lecture was presented on the special Memorial Day dedicated to Professor Ryszard R˛czka at this Workshop. The last section is devoted to my personal recollections of this remarkable personality.

Wave theories of nonlaminar charged particle beams: from quantum to thermal regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; Jovanović, Dusan; de Nicola, Sergio; Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ronsivalle
20140401
The standard classical description of nonlaminar charged particle beams in paraxial approximation is extended to the context of two wave theories. The first theory that we discuss (Fedele R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045. Tanjia, F. et al. 2011 Proceedings of the 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Vol. 35G. Strasbourg, France: European Physical Society) is based on the Thermal Wave Model (TWM) (Fedele, R. and Miele, G. 1991 Nuovo Cim. D 13, 1527.) that interprets the paraxial thermal spreading of beam particles as the analog of quantum diffraction. The other theory is based on a recently developed model (Fedele, R. et al. 2012a Phys. Plasmas 19, 102106; Fedele, R. et al. 2012b AIP Conf. Proc. 1421, 212), hereafter called Quantum Wave Model (QWM), that takes into account the individual quantum nature of single beam particle (uncertainty principle and spin) and provides collective description of beam transport in the presence of quantum paraxial diffraction. Both in quantum and quantumlike regimes, the beam transport is governed by a 2D nonlocal Schrödinger equation, with selfinteraction coming from the nonlinear charge and currentdensities. An envelope equation of the ErmakovPinney type, which includes collective effects, is derived for both TWM and QWM regimes. In TWM, such description recovers the wellknown Sacherer's equation (Sacherer, F. J. 1971 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS18, 1105). Conversely, in the quantum regime and in Hartree's mean field approximation, one recovers the evolution equation for a singleparticle spot size, i.e. for a single quantum ray spot in the transverse plane (Compton regime). We demonstrate that such quantum evolution equation contains the same information as the evolution equation for the beam spot size that describes the beam as a whole. This is done heuristically by defining the lowest QWM state accessible by a system of nonoverlapping fermions. The latter are associated with temperature values that are

Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers
SciTech Connect
Tay, J.W.; Hsu, Magnus T. L.; Bowen, Warwick P.
20091215
Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity, and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper, we show that quadrant detection is nonoptimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacies of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that 1 order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

Group action in topos quantum physics
SciTech Connect
Flori, C.
20130315
Topos theory has been suggested first by Isham and Butterfield, and then by Isham and Doering, as an alternative mathematical structure within which to formulate physical theories. In particular, it has been used to reformulate standard quantum mechanics in such a way that a novel type of logic is used to represent propositions. In this paper, we extend this formulation to include the notion of a group and group transformation in such a way that we overcome the problem of twisted presheaves. In order to implement this we need to change the type of topos involved, so as to render the notion of continuity of the group action meaningful.

Quantum interface to charged particles in a vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamoto, Hiroshi
20151101
A superconducting qubit device suitable for interacting with a flying electron has recently been proposed [Okamoto and Nagatani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062604 (2014), 10.1063/1.4865244]. Either a clockwise or counterclockwise directed loop of half magnetic flux quantum encodes a qubit, which naturally interacts with any single charged particle with arbitrary kinetic energy. Here, the device's properties, sources of errors, and possible applications are studied in detail. In particular, applications include detection of a charged particle essentially without applying a classical force to it. Furthermore, quantum states can be transferred between an array of the proposed devices and the charged particle.

The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
20160101
Using the simplest possible quantum systemthe qubitthe fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous "TPT" article and in a…

BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logan, David
20040501
To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little onedimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of onedimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopicspin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of onedimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the nonspecialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in manybody theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly

Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics
SciTech Connect
Va'Vra, J.
20000127
This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in HighEnergy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.

Quantumclassical correspondence for a particle in a homogeneous field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Sumita; Suman, Smriti P.; Singh, Vijay A.
20161101
The correspondence principle provides a prescription to connect quantum physics to classical. It asserts that the physical quantities evaluated quantum mechanically approach their respective classical values for large quantum numbers. This has been shown for the pedagogically important cases of the particle in a box and a harmonic oscillator. However, a particle in a constant field has a wave function related to the Airy function and has at best been treated numerically. Employing energy eigenstates we obtain the expectation values of the position, the momentum and their moments upto fourth order, rigorously and without resorting to numerical or graphical techniques. We compare them with the corresponding classical values. We also examine the uncertainty product for the system.

Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.
20120101
This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a secondyear physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and selfstudy in unit blocks, carried out with small…

Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
20100101
The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of…

Teaching Quantum Interpretations: Revisiting the Goals and Practices of Introductory Quantum Physics Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
20150101
Most introductory quantum physics instructors would agree that transitioning students from classical to quantum thinking is an important learning goal, but may disagree on whether or how this can be accomplished. Although (and perhaps because) physicists have long debated the physical interpretation of quantum theory, many instructors choose to…

Advanced analysis methods in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab
20101001
Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous  more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuter, J.; Bach, F.; Chokoufé, B.; Kilian, W.; Ohl, T.; Sekulla, M.; Weiss, C.
20150501
We describe the multipurpose MonteCarlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of highenergy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely objectoriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higherorder corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

Recasting particle physics by entangling physics, history and philosophy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertozzi, Eugenio; Levrini, Olivia
20160501
1The paper presents the design process we followed to recast particle physics so as to make it conceptually relevant for secondary school students. In this design process, the concept of symmetry was assumed as coreidea because of its structural and foundational role in particle physics, its crosscutting character and its epistemological and philosophical value. The first draft of the materials was tested in a pilotstudy which involved 19 students of a regular class (grade 13) of an Italian school. The data analysis showed that the students were in their "regime of competence" for grasping subtle nuances of the materials and for providing important hints for revising them. In particular, students' reactions brought into light the need of clarifying the "foundational" character that symmetry attained in twentiethcentury physics. The delicate step of rethinking the materials required the researchers to articulate the complex relationship between researches on physics teaching, history and philosophy of physics. This analytic phase resulted in a version of the materials which implies the students to be guided to grasp the meaning of symmetry as normative principle in twentiethcentury physics, throughout the exploration of the different meanings assumed by symmetry over time. The whole process led also to the production of an essential, online version, of the materials targeted to a wider audience.

Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halpern, Paul
20120901
From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.

Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1993December 1993
SciTech Connect
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.
19930501
This report is the progress report for DOE funded support of particle physics work at the University of Texas, Austin. Support was divided between theoretical and experimental programs, and each is reviewed separately in the report. Theoretical effort was divided between three general areas: quantum gravity and mathematical physics; phenomenology; and quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Experimental effort was primarily directed toward AGS experiments at Brookhaven, to look for rare kaon decays. AGS experiments 791 and 871 are described, along with BNL experiment 888.

Particle physics: recent successes and future prospects
SciTech Connect
Wojcicki, S.
19841201
There is no doubt that as yet we do not have an ultimate theory of matter and forces in spite of the remarkable successes of the past decade. In this talk the author attempts to summarize briefly the historical background that led us to the present level of understanding, or more specifically to the standard model of particle physics. Subsequently the author describes several difficulties with this picture, continues with some possible indications of new physics, and finally ends with the discussion of the prospects for the future. 32 references.

Current experiments in elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. ); Oyanagi, Y. ); Dodder, D.C. ); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla
19890901
This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixedtarget beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised
SciTech Connect
Galic, H.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Olin, A.; Frosch, R.
19920601
This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS
SciTech Connect
Singer, Isadore M.
20080304
The effect on mathematics of collaborations between highenergy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and SeibergWitten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, Ktheory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and noncommutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics
SciTech Connect
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.
19921231
Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal readout for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision
SciTech Connect
Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.
19940801
This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Stephen D.
20160801
Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63

Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Richter, B.
20070216
"It was the best of times; it was the worst of times" is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.

Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Richter, Burton
20070220
''It was the best of times; it was the worst of times'' is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.

Persistent Currents and Quantum Critical Phenomena in Mesoscopic Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelyak, Oleksandr
In this thesis, we study persistent currents and quantum critical phenomena in the systems of mesoscopic physics. As an introduction in Chapter 1 we familiarize the reader with the area of mesoscopic physics. We explain how mesoscopic systems are different from quantum systems of single atoms and molecules and bulk systems with an Avogadro number of elements. We also describe some important mesoscopic phenomena. One of the mathematical tools that we extensively use in our studies is Random Matrix Theorty. This theory is not a part of standard physics courses and for educational purposes we provide the basics of Random Matrix Theory in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we study the persistent current of noninteracting electrons in quantum billiards. We consider simply connected chaotic RobnikBerry quantum billiard and its annular analog. The electrons move in the presence of a pointlike magnetic flux at the center of the billiard. For the simply connected billiard, we find a large diamagnetic contribution to the persistent current at small flux, which is independent of the flux and is proportional to the number of electrons (or equivalently the density since we keep the area fixed). The size of this diamagnetic contribution is much larger than the previously studied mesoscopic fluctuations in the persistent current in the simply connected billiard. This behavior of persistent current can ultimately be traced to the response of the angularmomentum l = 0 levels (neglected in semiclassical expansions) on the unit disk to a pointlike flux at its center. We observe the same behavior for the annular billiard when the inner radius is much smaller than the outer one. We also find that the usual fluctuating persistent current and Andersonlike localization due to boundary scattering are seen when the annulus tends to a onedimensional ring. We explore the conditions for the observability of this phenomenon. In Chapter 4 we study quantum critical phenomena in a system of two

Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, D. N.
19810101
Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the 43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quarkhadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

Current experiments in particle physics  particle data group
SciTech Connect
Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Kettle, P.R.
19960901
This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLACSPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Quantum optical implementation of quantum information processing and classical simulation of manybody physics from quantum information perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bin
This thesis is composed of two parts. In the first part we summarize our study on implementation of quantum information processing (QIP) in optical cavity QED systems, while in the second part we present our numerical investigations on strongly interacting Fermi systems using a powerful numerical algorithm developed from the perspective of quantum information theory. We explore various possible applications of cavity QED in the strong coupling regime to quantum information processing tasks theoretically, including efficient preparation of Schrodingercat states for traveling photon pulses, robust implementation of conditional quantum gates on neutral atoms, as well as implementation of a hybrid controlled SWAP gate. We analyze the feasibility and performance of our schemes by solving corresponding physical models either numerically or analytically. We implement a novel numerical algorithm called Time Evolving Block Decimation (TEBD), which was proposed by Vidal from the perspective of quantum information science. With this algorithm, we numerically study the ground state properties of strongly interacting fermions in an anisotropic optical lattice across a wide Feshbach resonance. The interactions in this system can be described by a general Hubbard model with particle assisted tunneling. For systems with equal spin population, we find that the LutherEmery phase, which has been known to exist only for attractive onsite interactions in the conventional Hubbard model, could also be found even in the case with repulsive onsite interactions in the general Hubbard model. Using the TEBD algorithm, we also study the effect of particle assisted tunneling in spinpolarized systems. Fermi systems with unequal spin population and attractive interaction could allow the existence of exotic superfluidity, such as the FuldeFerrellLarkinOvchinnikov (FFLO) state. In the general Hubbard model, such exotic FFLO pairing of fermions could be suppressed by high particle assisted

Discrete mathematical physics and particle modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenspan, D.
The theory and application of the arithmetic approach to the foundations of both Newtonian and special relativistic mechanics are explored. Using only arithmetic, a reformulation of the Newtonian approach is given for: gravity; particle modeling of solids, liquids, and gases; conservative modeling of laminar and turbulent fluid flow, heat conduction, and elastic vibration; and nonconservative modeling of heat convection, shockwave generation, the liquid drop problem, porous flow, the interface motion of a melting solid, soap films, string vibrations, and solitons. An arithmetic reformulation of special relativistic mechanics is given for theory in one space dimension, relativistic harmonic oscillation, and theory in three space dimensions. A speculative quantum mechanical model of vibrations in the water molecule is also discussed.

The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics
ScienceCinema
Quigg, Chris
20160712
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. We suspect that the detection of proton decay is only a few orders of magnitude away in sensitivity. Astronomical observations should help to tell us what kinds of matter and energy make up the universe. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electronpositron collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.

The Philosophy of Fields and Particles in Classical and Quantum Mechanics, Including the Problem of Renormalisation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huggett, Nick
19950101
This work first explicates the philosophy of classical and quantum fields and particles. I am interested in determining how science can have a metaphysical dimension, and then with the claim that the quantum revolution has an important metaphysical component. I argue that the metaphysical implications of a theory are properties of its models, as classical mechanics determines properties of atomic diversity and temporal continuity with its representations of distinct, continuous trajectories. It is often suggested that classical statistical physics requires that many particle states be represented so that permuting properties leads to distinct states; this implies that individuals can be reidentified across possible worlds in a nonqualitative way. I show there is no evidence for this conclusion, an important result, for it is claimed that quantum particles are not individuals. This claim is based on the misconception about classical statistics, but also on a conflation of notions of identity; I show that, while transworld identity is incompatible with quantum mechanics, other classical notions may be consistently ascribed. I also give a fieldparticle distinction that applies usefully in both quantum and classical domains. In the former the distinction helps defeat claims of underdetermined by data, in the latter it helps provide a minimal field metaphysics. Next I tackle renormalisation: I show how divergences occur in approximate, perturbative calculations, and demonstrate how finite, empirically verified, answers are obtained. These techniques seem to show that the predictions are not logical consequences of the exact theory. I use the techniques of the renormalisation group to establish that perturbative renormalised quantum field theory does indeed approximate the consequences of field theory. Finally, I discuss the idea (Cao and Schweber, 1994) that renormalisation proves that there can be no quantum theory of everything, only a patchwork of effective

Quantum corrections to the gravitational interaction of massless particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackburn, Thomas J., Jr.
Donoghue's effective field theory of quantum gravity is extended to include the interaction of massless particles. The collinear divergences which accompany massless particles are examined first in the context of QED and then in quantum gravity. A result of Weinberg is extended to show how these divergences vanish in the case of gravity. The scattering cross section for hypothetical massless scalar particles is computed first, because it is simpler, and the results are then extended to photons. Some terms in the cross section are shown to correspond to the AichelburgSexl metric surrounding a massless particle and to quantum corrections to that metric. The scattering cross section is also applied to calculate quantum corrections to the bending of starlight, and though small, the result obtained is qualitatively different than in the classical case. Since effective field theory includes the lowenergy degrees of freedom which generate collinear divergences, the results presented here will remain relevant in any future quantum theory of gravity.

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
DOE PAGESBeta
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.
20150909
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These abinitio calculations reproduce many lowlying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spinisospin, tensor, spinorbit,more » and threebody interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the lowlying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Lowenergy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
DOE PAGESBeta
Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.
20141019
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These abinitio calculations reproduce many lowlying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spinisospin, tensor, spinorbit, and threebodymore » interactions. We present a variety of results including the lowlying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe lowenergy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
SciTech Connect
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.
20150909
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These abinitio calculations reproduce many lowlying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spinisospin, tensor, spinorbit, and threebody interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the lowlying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Lowenergy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

The Gibbs paradox and the physical criteria for indistinguishability of identical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unnikrishnan, C. S.
20160801
Gibbs paradox in the context of statistical mechanics addresses the issue of additivity of entropy of mixing gases. The usual discussion attributes the paradoxical situation to classical distinguishability of identical particles and credits quantum theory for enabling indistinguishability of identical particles to solve the problem. We argue that indistinguishability of identical particles is already a feature in classical mechanics and this is clearly brought out when the problem is treated in the language of information and associated entropy. We pinpoint the physical criteria for indistinguishability that is crucial for the treatment of the Gibbs’ problem and the consistency of its solution with conventional thermodynamics. Quantum mechanics provides a quantitative criterion, not possible in the classical picture, for the degree of indistinguishability in terms of visibility of quantum interference, or overlap of the states as pointed out by von Neumann, thereby endowing the entropy expression with mathematical continuity and physical reasonableness.

Tests of the particle physicsphysical cosmology interface
SciTech Connect
Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )
19930101
Three interrelated interfaces of particle physics and physical cosmology are discussed: (1) inflation and other phase transitions; (2) Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (and also the quarkhadron transition); and (3) structure formation (including dark matter). Recent observations that affect each of these topics are discussed. Topic number 1 is shown to be consistent with the COBE observations but not proven and it may be having problems with some ageexpansion data. Topic number 2 has now been welltested and is an established pillar'' of the Big Bang. Topic number 3 is the prime arena of current physical cosmological activity. Experiments to resolve the current exciting, but still ambiguous, situation following the COBE results are discussed.

Tests of the particle physicsphysical cosmology interface
SciTech Connect
Schramm, D.N. 
19930101
Three interrelated interfaces of particle physics and physical cosmology are discussed: (1) inflation and other phase transitions; (2) Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (and also the quarkhadron transition); and (3) structure formation (including dark matter). Recent observations that affect each of these topics are discussed. Topic number 1 is shown to be consistent with the COBE observations but not proven and it may be having problems with some ageexpansion data. Topic number 2 has now been welltested and is an established ``pillar`` of the Big Bang. Topic number 3 is the prime arena of current physical cosmological activity. Experiments to resolve the current exciting, but still ambiguous, situation following the COBE results are discussed.

Cognitive Mapping of Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mashhadi, Azam; Woolnough, Brian
This paper presents findings from a study that investigated students' understanding of quantum phenomena and focused on how students incorporate the ideas of quantum physics into their overall cognitive framework. The heuristic metaphor of the map is used to construct graphic representations of students' understanding of quantum physics. The…

Exploring flocking via quantum manybody physics techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souslov, Anton; Loewe, Benjamin; Goldbart, Paul M.
20150301
Flocking refers to the spontaneous breaking of spatial isotropy and timereversal symmetries in collections of bodies such as birds, fish, locusts, bacteria, and artificial active systems. The transport of matter along biopolymers using molecular motors also involves the breaking of these symmetries, which in some cases are known to be broken explicitly. We study these classical nonequilibrium symmetrybreaking phenomena by means of models of many strongly interacting particles that hop on a periodic lattice. We employ a mapping between the classical and quantum dynamics of manybody systems, combined with tools from manybody theory. In particular, we examine the formation and properties of nematic and polar order in lowdimensional, stronglyinteracting active systems using techniques familiar from fermionic systems, such as selfconsistent field theory and bosonization. Thus, we find that classical active systems can exhibit analogs of quantum phenomena such as spinorbit coupling, magnetism, and superconductivity. The models we study connect the physics of asymmetric exclusion processes to the spontaneous emergence of transport and flow, and also provide a soluble cousin of Vicsek's model system of selfpropelled particles.

Quantum principles and free particles. [evaluation of partitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
19760101
The quantum principles that establish the energy levels and degeneracies needed to evaluate the partition functions are explored. The uncertainty principle is associated with the dual waveparticle nature of the model used to describe quantized gas particles. The Schroedinger wave equation is presented as a generalization of Maxwell's wave equation; the former applies to all particles while the Maxwell equation applies to the special case of photon particles. The size of the quantum cell in phase space and the representation of momentum as a space derivative operator follow from the uncertainty principle. A consequence of this is that steadystate problems that are spacetime dependent for the classical model become only space dependent for the quantum model and are often easier to solve. The partition function is derived for quantized free particles and, at normal conditions, the result is the same as that given by the classical phase integral. The quantum corrections that occur at very low temperatures or high densities are derived. These corrections for the EinsteinBose gas qualitatively describe the condensation effects that occur in liquid helium, but are unimportant for most practical purposes otherwise. However, the corrections for the FermiDirac gas are important because they quantitatively describe the behavior of highdensity conduction electron gases in metals and explain the zero point energy and low specific heat exhibited in this case.

Eulerian and Newtonian dynamics of quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashkovskiy, S. A.
20130601
We derive the classical equations of hydrodynamics (the Euler and continuity equations), from which the Schrödinger equation follows as a limit case. It is shown that the statistical ensemble corresponding to a quantum system and described by the Schrödinger equation can be considered an inviscid gas that obeys the ideal gas law with a quickly oscillating signalternating temperature. This statistical ensemble performs the complex movements consisting of smooth average movement and fast oscillations. It is shown that the average movements of the statistical ensemble are described by the Schrödinger equation. A model of quantum motion within the limits of classical mechanics that corresponds to the hydrodynamic system considered is suggested.

TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS
SciTech Connect
Sessler, A.M.
19840701
High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particlehandling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the antiproton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}neutrino, the Jparticle and time reversal noninvariance, on Spear was found the {psi}particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+}} were seen on the CERN SPS p{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and everdeveloping. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the

Summary of the particle physics and technology working group
SciTech Connect
Stephan Lammel et al.
20021210
Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leadingedge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large.

The Particle Physics Data Grid. Final Report
SciTech Connect
Livny, Miron
20020816
The main objective of the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) project has been to implement and evaluate distributed (Gridenabled) data access and management technology for current and future particle and nuclear physics experiments. The specific goals of PPDG have been to design, implement, and deploy a Gridbased software infrastructure capable of supporting the data generation, processing and analysis needs common to the physics experiments represented by the participants, and to adapt experimentspecific software to operate in the Grid environment and to exploit this infrastructure. To accomplish these goals, the PPDG focused on the implementation and deployment of several critical services: reliable and efficient file replication service, highspeed data transfer services, multisite file caching and staging service, and reliable and recoverable job management services. The focus of the activity was the job management services and the interplay between these services and distributed data access in a Grid environment. Software was developed to study the interaction between HENP applications and distributed data storage fabric. One key conclusion was the need for a reliable and recoverable tool for managing large collections of interdependent jobs. An attached document provides an overview of the current status of the Directed Acyclic Graph Manager (DAGMan) with its main features and capabilities.

Quantum Zeno effect for a freemoving particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel
20141201
Although the quantum Zeno effect takes its name from Zeno's arrow paradox, the effect of frequently observing the position of a freely moving particle on its motion has not been analyzed in detail in the frame of standard quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of a moving free particle while monitoring whether it lingers in a given region of space, and explain the dependence of the lingering probability on the frequency of the measurements and the initial momentum of the particle. Stopping the particle entails the emergence of Schrödinger cat states during the observed evolution, closely connected to the highorder diffraction modes in FabryPérot optical resonators.

Quantum efficiency of colloidal suspensions containing quantum dot/silica hybrid particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Hyungjoon; Yoon, Cheolsang; Lee, Sooho; Lee, Doh C.; Shin, Kyusoon; Lee, Kangtaek
20161001
We have investigated the fluorescence properties of colloidal suspensions conntaining quantum dot (QD)/silica hybrid particles. First, we synthesized QD/silica hybrid particles with silicaQDsilica (SQS) coreshellshell geometry, and monitored the quantum efficiencies of their suspensions at various particle concentrations. We found that the quantum efficiency (QE) of SQS particles in deionized (DI) water was much lower than that of the QDs even at low particle concentration, mainly due to the light scattering of emitted photons at the silica/water interface, followed by reabsorption by QDs. As the concentration of SQS particles was increased, both light scattering and reabsorption by QDs became more important, which further reduced the QE. Refractive indexmatched solvent, however, reduced light scattering, yielding greater QE than DI water. Next, we induced aggregation of SQS particles, and found that QE increased as particles aggregated in DI water because of reduced light scattering and reabsorption, whereas it remained almost constant in the refractive indexmatched solvent. Finally, we studied aggregation of highly concentrated silica particle suspensions containing a low concentration of SQS particles, and found that QE increased with aggregation because light scattering and reabsorption were reduced.

Quantum efficiency of colloidal suspensions containing quantum dot/silica hybrid particles.
PubMed
Jeon, Hyungjoon; Yoon, Cheolsang; Lee, Sooho; Lee, Doh C; Shin, Kyusoon; Lee, Kangtaek
20161028
We have investigated the fluorescence properties of colloidal suspensions conntaining quantum dot (QD)/silica hybrid particles. First, we synthesized QD/silica hybrid particles with silicaQDsilica (SQS) coreshellshell geometry, and monitored the quantum efficiencies of their suspensions at various particle concentrations. We found that the quantum efficiency (QE) of SQS particles in deionized (DI) water was much lower than that of the QDs even at low particle concentration, mainly due to the light scattering of emitted photons at the silica/water interface, followed by reabsorption by QDs. As the concentration of SQS particles was increased, both light scattering and reabsorption by QDs became more important, which further reduced the QE. Refractive indexmatched solvent, however, reduced light scattering, yielding greater QE than DI water. Next, we induced aggregation of SQS particles, and found that QE increased as particles aggregated in DI water because of reduced light scattering and reabsorption, whereas it remained almost constant in the refractive indexmatched solvent. Finally, we studied aggregation of highly concentrated silica particle suspensions containing a low concentration of SQS particles, and found that QE increased with aggregation because light scattering and reabsorption were reduced. PMID:27658534

Quantum efficiency of colloidal suspensions containing quantum dot/silica hybrid particles.
PubMed
Jeon, Hyungjoon; Yoon, Cheolsang; Lee, Sooho; Lee, Doh C; Shin, Kyusoon; Lee, Kangtaek
20161028
We have investigated the fluorescence properties of colloidal suspensions conntaining quantum dot (QD)/silica hybrid particles. First, we synthesized QD/silica hybrid particles with silicaQDsilica (SQS) coreshellshell geometry, and monitored the quantum efficiencies of their suspensions at various particle concentrations. We found that the quantum efficiency (QE) of SQS particles in deionized (DI) water was much lower than that of the QDs even at low particle concentration, mainly due to the light scattering of emitted photons at the silica/water interface, followed by reabsorption by QDs. As the concentration of SQS particles was increased, both light scattering and reabsorption by QDs became more important, which further reduced the QE. Refractive indexmatched solvent, however, reduced light scattering, yielding greater QE than DI water. Next, we induced aggregation of SQS particles, and found that QE increased as particles aggregated in DI water because of reduced light scattering and reabsorption, whereas it remained almost constant in the refractive indexmatched solvent. Finally, we studied aggregation of highly concentrated silica particle suspensions containing a low concentration of SQS particles, and found that QE increased with aggregation because light scattering and reabsorption were reduced.

Current Experiments in Particle Physics. 1996 Edition.
SciTech Connect
Galic, Hrvoje
20030627
This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLACSPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Particle Physics: A New Course for Schools and Colleges.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swinbank, Elizabeth
19920101
Considers questions relating to the introduction of particle physics into postGCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) courses. Describes a project that is producing teacher and student materials to support the teaching of particle physics at this level. Presents a proposed syllabus for a particle physics module. (KR)

Physics through the 1990s: Elementaryparticle physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
19860101
The volume begins with a nonmathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementaryparticle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in largescale experiments, and the decisionmaking process involved in highcost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementaryparticle physics program. A glossary is included.

Particle physics in the very early universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, D. N.
19810101
Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryonsymmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

(Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report
SciTech Connect
Nefkens, B.M.K.
19851001
Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: PionNucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases
SciTech Connect
Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.
20150515
An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Green’s function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by HuangYangLuttinger and LeeYang.

Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations
SciTech Connect
Feng, Jun; Zhang, YaoZhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, ChengYi; Yang, WenLi
20141215
We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular αvacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch–Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond singlemode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general αvacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of α. Moreover, an onetoone correspondence between convergent points H{sub c} of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved.  Highlights: • Quantum correlation and quantum channel in de Sitter space are studied. • Gibbons–Hawking effect causes entanglement degradation for static observer. • Planckian physics causes extra decrement on quantum correlation. • Convergent feature of negativity relies on the choice of alphavacua. • Link between negativity convergence and quantum channel capacity is given.

On the quantum physical theory of subjective antedating.
PubMed
Wolf, F A
19890101
This paper explores the question of mental events causing neural events through the actions of the quantum physical probability field. After showing how quantum mechanical descriptions pertain to the influence that mental events have upon neural events, the question of Libet's "delayandantedating" observation is examined in the light of quantum mechanical description, specifically in the action of the probability field. The probability field is the product of two quantum wave functions. According to the transactional interpretation (TI) of quantum physics these wave functions can be pictured as offer and echo wavesthe offer wave passing from an initial event to a future event and the echo wave passing from the future event back in time towards the initial event. I propose that two events so correlated are experienced as one and the same event; that is, any two quantum physically correlated events separated in time or space will constitute a single experiencean event in "consciousness." Using the TI then suggests a quantum physical resolution of the "delayandantedating" hypothesis/paradox put forward by Libet, B., Wright, E. W., Feinstein, B., & Pearl, D. K. (Brain, 1979, 102, 193). It also offers a first step towards the development of a quantum physical theory of subjective antedating based on the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics.

Quantum physics explains Newton's laws of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogborn, Jon; Taylor, Edwin F.
20050101
Newton was obliged to give his laws of motion as fundamental axioms. But today we know that the quantum world is fundamental, and Newton’s laws can be seen as consequences of fundamental quantum laws. This article traces this transition from fundamental quantum mechanics to derived classical mechanics.

Attention, Intention, and Will in Quantum Physics
SciTech Connect
Stapp, H.P.
19990501
How is mind related to matter? This ancient question inphilosophy is rapidly becoming a core problem in science, perhaps themost important of all because it probes the essential nature of manhimself. The origin of the problem is a conflict between the mechanicalconception of human beings that arises from the precepts of classicalphysical theory and the very different idea that arises from ourintuition: the former reduces each of us to an automaton, while thelatter allows our thoughts to guide our actions. The dominantcontemporary approaches to the problem attempt to resolve this conflictby clinging to the classical concepts, and trying to explain away ourmisleading intuition. But a detailed argument given here shows why, in ascientific approach to this problem, it is necessary to use the morebasic principles of quantum physics, which bring the observer into thedynamics, rather than to accept classical precepts that are profoundlyincorrect precisely at the crucial point of the role of humanconsciousness in the dynamics of human brains. Adherence to the quantumprinciples yields a dynamical theory of the mind/brain/body system thatis in close accord with our intuitive idea of what we are. In particular,the need for a selfobserving quantum system to pose certain questionscreates a causal opening that allowsmind/brain dynamics to have threedistinguishable but interlocked causal processes, one microlocal, onestochastic, and the third experiential. Passing to the classical limit inwhich the critical difference between zero and the finite actual value ofPlanck's constant is ignored not only eliminates the chemical processesthat are absolutely crucial to the functioning of actual brains, itsimultaneously blinds the resulting theoretical construct to the physicalfine structure wherein the effect of mind on matter lies: the use of thislimit in this context is totally unjustified from a physicsperspective.

Lindblad and nonLindbladtype dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle
SciTech Connect
Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Intravaia, F.; Petruccione, F.; Messina, A.
20040901
The dynamics of a typical open quantum system, namely a quantum Brownian particle in a harmonic potential, is studied focusing on its nonMarkovian regime. Both an analytic approach and a stochastic wavefunction approach are used to describe the exact time evolution of the system. The border between two very different dynamical regimes, the Lindblad and nonLindblad regimes, is identified and the relevant physical variables governing the passage from one regime to the other are singled out. The nonMarkovian shorttime dynamics is studied in detail by looking at the mean energy, the squeezing, the Mandel parameter, and the Wigner function of the system.

Quantum monadology: a consistent world model for consciousness and physics.
PubMed
Nakagomi, Teruaki
20030401
The NL world model presented in the previous paper is embodied by use of relativistic quantum mechanics, which reveals the significance of the reduction of quantum states and the relativity principle, and locates consciousness and the concept of flowing time consistently in physics. This model provides a consistent framework to solve apparent incompatibilities between consciousness (as our interior experience) and matter (as described by quantum mechanics and relativity theory). Does matter have an inside? What is the flowing time now? Does physics allow the indeterminism by volition? The problem of quantum measurement is also resolved in this model.

Alternatingcolor quantum dot nanocomposites for particle tracking.
PubMed
Ruan, Gang; Winter, Jessica O
20110301
Because of their extraordinary brightness and photostability, quantum dots (QDs) have tremendous potential for longterm, particle tracking in heterogeneous systems (e.g., living cells, microfluidic flow). However, one of their major limitations is blinking, an intermittent loss of fluorescence, characteristic of individual and small clusters of QDs, that interrupts particle tracking. Recently, several research groups have reported "nonblinking QDs". However, blinking is the primary method used to confirm nanoparticle aggregation status in situ, and single or small clusters of nanoparticles with continuous fluorescence emission are difficult to discern from large aggregates. Here, we describe a new class of quantum dotbased composite nanoparticles that solve these two seemingly irreconcilable problems by exhibiting nearcontinuous, alternatingcolor fluorescence, which permits aggregation status discrimination by observable color changes even during motion across the focal plane. These materials will greatly enhance particle tracking in cell biology, biophysics, and fluid mechanics.

Quantum Zeno effect and quantum Zeno paradox in atomic physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Block, Ellen; Berman, P. R.
19910801
Itano and coworkers [Wayne M. Itano, D. J. Heinzen, J. J. Bollinger, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2295 (1990)] have recently reported the experimental verification of the quantum Zeno effect, which is the inhibition of a quantum transition by frequent measurements. In this article, we offer an alternative interpretation of the quantum Zeno effect. We show that an analysis of the dynamics of the full threelevel system gives the same result. There is no need to assume explicitly that the wave function has collapsed, nor even to assume that an ideal measurement has been made. In addition, we differentiate between what has been referred to as the quantum Zeno effect and what has been termed the quantum Zeno paradox. The former is the inhibition of induced transitions, and the latter is the, as yet experimentally unobserved, inhibition of spontaneous decay. Our interpretation, which emphasizes the ``measurement''induced interruption of atomicstate coherences as the cause of inhibited quantum transitions, suggests a resolution to the quantum Zeno paradox. The theoretical limit of continuous observation is discussed.

Onedimensional chain of quantum molecule motors as a mathematical physics model for muscle fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, TieYan
20151201
A quantum chain model of multiple molecule motors is proposed as a mathematical physics theory for the microscopic modeling of classical forcevelocity relation and tension transients in muscle fibers. The proposed model was a quantum manyparticle Hamiltonian to predict the forcevelocity relation for the slow release of muscle fibers, which has not yet been empirically defined and was much more complicated than the hyperbolic relationships. Using the same Hamiltonian model, a mathematical forcevelocity relationship was proposed to explain the tension observed when the muscle was stimulated with an alternative electric current. The discrepancy between input electric frequency and the muscle oscillation frequency could be explained physically by the Doppler effect in this quantum chain model. Further more, quantum physics phenomena were applied to explore the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. Most of the experimental tension transient curves were found to correspond to the theoretical output of quantum two and threelevel models. Mathematical modeling electric stimulus as photons exciting a quantum threelevel particle reproduced most of the tension transient curves of water bug Lethocerus maximus. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Foundation for the Central Universities of China.

Energy related applications of elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Rafelski, J.
19910831
The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a smallscale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muoncatalyzed fusion (MuCF) in highdensity degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise.

Quantum tomography of arbitrary spin states of particles: root approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, Yu. I.
20060501
A method of quantum tomography of arbitrary spin particle states is developed on the basis of the root approach. It is shown that the set of mutually complementary distributions of angular momentum projections can be naturally described by a set of basis functions based on the Kravchuk polynomials. The set of Kravchuk basis functions leads to a multiparametric statistical distribution that generalizes the binomial distribution. In order to analyze a statistical inverse problem of quantum mechanics, we investigated the likelihood equation and the statistical properties of the obtained estimates. The conclusions of the analytical researches are approved by the results of numerical calculations.

Spacetime alternatives in the quantum mechanics of a relativistic particle
SciTech Connect
Whelan, J.T. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, CB3 0EH )
19941115
Hartle's generalized quantum mechanics formalism is used to examine spacetime coarse grainings, i.e., sets of alternatives defined with respect to a region extended in time as well as space, in the quantum mechanics of a free relativistic particle. For a simple coarse graining and suitable initial conditions, tractable formulas are found for branch wave functions. Despite the nonlocality of the positivedefinite version of the KleinGordon inner product, which means that nonoverlapping branches are not sufficient to imply decoherence, some initial conditions are found to give decoherence and allow the consistent assignment of probabilities.

Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Organtini, Giovanni
20110101
In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…

Particle physicsExperimental. Annual progress report
SciTech Connect
Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.
19910821
We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultrahigh cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloonborne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000  one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

The Second Law and Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Charles H.
20080801
In this talk, I discuss the mystery of the second law and its relation to quantum information. There are many explanations of the second law, mostly satisfactory and not mutually exclusive. Here, I advocate quantum mechanics and quantum information as something that, through entanglement, helps resolve the paradox or the puzzle of the origin of the second law. I will discuss the interpretation called quantum Darwinism and how it helps explain why our world seems so classical, and what it has to say about the permanence or transience of information. And I will discuss a simple model illustrating why systems away from thermal equilibrium tend to be more complicated.

Time and a physical Hamiltonian for quantum gravity.
PubMed
Husain, Viqar; Pawłowski, Tomasz
20120401
We present a nonperturbative quantization of general relativity coupled to dust and other matter fields. The dust provides a natural time variable, leading to a physical Hamiltonian with spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The surprising feature is that the Hamiltonian is not a square root. This property, together with the kinematical structure of loop quantum gravity, provides a complete theory of quantum gravity, and puts applications to cosmology, quantum gravitational collapse, and Hawking radiation within technical reach.

Simulating Zeno physics by a quantum quench with superconducting circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, QingJun; An, JunHong; Kwek, L. C.; Luo, HongGang; Oh, C. H.
20140601
Studying outofequilibrium physics in quantum systems under quantum quench is of vast experimental and theoretical interest. Using periodic quantum quenches, we present an experimentally accessible scheme to simulate the quantum Zeno and antiZeno effects in an open quantum system of a single superconducting qubit interacting with an array of transmission line resonators. The scheme is based on the following two observations: First, compared with conventional systems, the shorttime nonexponential decay in our superconducting circuit system is readily observed; and second, a quenchoff process mimics an ideal projective measurement when its time duration is sufficiently long. Our results show the active role of quantum quench in quantum simulation and control.

Are quantummechanicallike models possible, or necessary, outside quantum physics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plotnitsky, Arkady
20141201
This article examines some experimental conditions that invite and possibly require recourse to quantummechanicallike mathematical models (QMLMs), models based on the key mathematical features of quantum mechanics, in scientific fields outside physics, such as biology, cognitive psychology, or economics. In particular, I consider whether the following two correlative features of quantum phenomena that were decisive for establishing the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics play similarly important roles in QMLMs elsewhere. The first is the individuality and discreteness of quantum phenomena, and the second is the irreducibly probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning them, coupled to the particular character of the probabilities involved, as different from the character of probabilities found in classical physics. I also argue that these features could be interpreted in terms of a particular form of epistemology that suspends and even precludes a causal and, in the first place, realist description of quantum objects and processes. This epistemology limits the descriptive capacity of quantum theory to the description, classical in nature, of the observed quantum phenomena manifested in measuring instruments. Quantum mechanics itself only provides descriptions, probabilistic in nature, concerning numerical data pertaining to such phenomena, without offering a physical description of quantum objects and processes. While QMLMs share their use of the quantummechanical or analogous mathematical formalism, they may differ by the roles, if any, the two features in question play in them and by different ways of interpreting the phenomena they considered and this formalism itself. This article will address those differences as well.

Particle Physics in a Season of Change
SciTech Connect
Quigg, Chris
20120201
A digest of the authors opening remarks at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. I have chosen my title to reflect the transitions we are living through, in particle physics overall and in hadron collider physics in particular. Datataking has ended at the Tevatron, with {approx} 12 fb{sup 1} of {bar p}p interactions delivered to CDF and D0 at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The Large Hadron Collider has registered a spectacular first fullyear run, with ATLAS and CMS seeing > 5 fb{sup 1}, LHCb recording {approx} 1 fb{sup 1}, and ALICE logging nearly 5 pb{sup 1} of pp data at {radical}s = 7 TeV, plus a healthy dose of PbPb collisions. The transition to a new energy regime and new realms of instantaneous luminosity exceeding 3.5 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup 2} s{sup 1} has brought the advantage of enhanced physics reach and the challenge of pileup reaching {approx} 15 interactions per beam crossing. I am happy to record that what the experiments have (not) found so far has roused some of my theoretical colleagues from years of complacency and stimulated them to think anew about what the TeV scale might hold. We theorists have had plenty of time to explore many proposals for electroweak symmetry breaking and for new physics that might lie beyond established knowledge. With so many different theoretical inventions in circulation, it is in the nature of things that most will be wrong. Keep in mind that we learn from what experiment tells us is not there, even if it is uncommon to throw a party for ruling something out. Some nonobservations may be especially telling: the persistent absence of flavorchanging neutral currents, for example, seems to me more and more an important clue that we have not yet deciphered. It is natural that the search for the avatar of electroweak symmetry breaking preoccupies participants and spectators alike. But it is essential to conceive the physics opportunities before us in their full richness. I would advocate a threefold approach

Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
20100101
Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

Quantum physics: Photons paired with phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blencowe, Miles
20160201
The force exerted by light on an object has been used to pair photons with quantum units of mechanical vibration. This paves the way for mechanical oscillators to act as interfaces between photons and other quantum systems. See Letter p.313

Single particle in quantum gravity and BraunsteinGhoshSeverini entropy of a spin network
SciTech Connect
Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca
20100215
Passerini and Severini have recently shown that the BraunsteinGhoshSeverini (BGS) entropy S{sub {Gamma}}=Tr[{rho}{sub {Gamma}}log{rho}{sub {Gamma}}] of a certain density matrix {rho}{sub {Gamma}} naturally associated to a graph {Gamma}, is maximized, among all graphs with a fixed number of links and nodes, by regular graphs. We ask if this result can play a role in quantum gravity, and be related to the apparent regularity of the physical geometry of space. We show that in loop quantum gravity the matrix {rho}{sub {Gamma}} is precisely the Hamiltonian operator (suitably normalized) of a nonrelativistic quantum particle interacting with the quantum gravitational field, if we restrict elementary area and volume eigenvalues to a fixed value. This operator provides a spectral characterization of the physical geometry, and can be interpreted as a state describing the spectral information about the geometry available when geometry is measured by its physical interaction with matter. It is then tempting to interpret its BGS entropy S{sub {Gamma}} as a genuine physical entropy: we discuss the appeal and the difficulties of this interpretation.

Asymptotic neutron scattering laws for anomalously diffusing quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kneller, Gerald R.
20160701
The paper deals with a modelfree approach to the analysis of quasielastic neutron scattering intensities from anomalously diffusing quantum particles. All quantities are inferred from the asymptotic form of their timedependent mean square displacements which grow ∝tα, with 0 ≤ α < 2. Confined diffusion (α = 0) is here explicitly included. We discuss in particular the intermediate scattering function for long times and the Fourier spectrum of the velocity autocorrelation function for small frequencies. Quantum effects enter in both cases through the general symmetry properties of quantum time correlation functions. It is shown that the fractional diffusion constant can be expressed by a GreenKubo type relation involving the real part of the velocity autocorrelation function. The theory is exact in the diffusive regime and at moderate momentum transfers.

Asymptotic neutron scattering laws for anomalously diffusing quantum particles.
PubMed
Kneller, Gerald R
20160728
The paper deals with a modelfree approach to the analysis of quasielastic neutron scattering intensities from anomalously diffusing quantum particles. All quantities are inferred from the asymptotic form of their timedependent mean square displacements which grow ∝t(α), with 0 ≤ α < 2. Confined diffusion (α = 0) is here explicitly included. We discuss in particular the intermediate scattering function for long times and the Fourier spectrum of the velocity autocorrelation function for small frequencies. Quantum effects enter in both cases through the general symmetry properties of quantum time correlation functions. It is shown that the fractional diffusion constant can be expressed by a GreenKubo type relation involving the real part of the velocity autocorrelation function. The theory is exact in the diffusive regime and at moderate momentum transfers. PMID:27475344

QuantumCarnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P.; Belfaqih, Idrus H.; Prayitno, T. B.
20150901
Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system.

QuantumCarnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential
SciTech Connect
Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P. Belfaqih, Idrus H. Prayitno, T. B.
20150930
Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system.

Particle astronomy and particle physics from the moon  The particle observatory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Thomas L.
19900101
Promising experiments from the moon using particle detectors are discussed, noting the advantage of the large flux collecting power Pc offered by the remote, stable environment of a lunar base. An observatory class of particle experiments is presented, based upon proposals at NASA's recent Stanford workshop. They vary from neutrino astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic ray experiments to space physics and fundamental physics experiments such as proton decay and 'tabletop' arrays. This research is backgroundlimited on earth, and it is awkward and unrealistic in earth orbit, but is particularly suited for the moon where Pc can be quite large and the instrumentation is not subject to atmospheric erosion as it is (for large t) in low earth orbit.

Friction and particlehole pairs. [in dissipative quantum phenomena
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guinea, F.
19840101
The effect induced by dissipation on quantum phenomena has recently been considered, taking into account as a starting point a phenomenological Hamiltonian in which the environment is simulated by an appropriately chosen set of harmonic oscillators. It is found that this approach should be adequate to describe the lowenergy behavior of a wide class of environments. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the case in which the environment is a gas (or liquid) of fermions, and the relevant lowenergy excitations are particlehole pairs. A study is conducted regarding the extent to which the quantum results obtained for harmonic oscillators are also valid in the considered situation. Linearresponse theory is used to derive an effective action which describes the motion of an external particle coupled to a normal Fermi fluid.

Role of quantum statistics in multiparticle decay dynamics
SciTech Connect
Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er’el
20150415
The role of quantum statistics in the decay dynamics of a multiparticle state, which is suddenly released from a confining potential, is investigated. For an initially confined double particle state, the exact dynamics is presented for both bosons and fermions. The timeevolution of the probability to measure twoparticle is evaluated and some counterintuitive features are discussed. For instance, it is shown that although there is a higher chance of finding the two bosons (as oppose to fermions, and even distinguishable particles) at the initial trap region, there is a higher chance (higher than fermions) of finding them on two opposite sides of the trap as if the repulsion between bosons is higher than the repulsion between fermions. The results are demonstrated by numerical simulations and are calculated analytically in the shorttime approximation. Furthermore, experimental validation is suggested.

Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almasy, Andrea A.
20091201
The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from taudecay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the timelike experimental data with asymptotic spacelike results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, also two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A promising result is that one can qualitatively reconstruct the conductivity inside the crosssection of a human chest. Even though the human volunteer is neither twodimensional nor circular, such reconstructions can be useful in medical applications: monitoring for lung problems such as accumulating fluid or a collapsed lung and noninvasive monitoring of heart function and blood flow.

Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Whitaker, J.S.
19900105
This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Goronwy Tudor
19910101
Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)

J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics Lecture: Particle physics after the first LHC results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altarelli, Guido
20120301
The LHC results released so far have very much restricted the possible range for the Standard Model Higgs boson mass. Moreover some indications for a signal at a mass around 125 GeV have been found. At the same time, no clear evidence for new physics has emerged from the LHC data. We discuss the impact of these results on our understanding of particle physics. The presently allowed window for the Higgs mass and the negative results for exotic particles are compatible with both the Standard model and its Supersymmetric extensions but imply considerable restrictions and need a substantial amount of fine tuning in all cases. We discuss the options that remain open and the perspectives for the near future.

Particle physics: CP violation in hyperon decays
SciTech Connect
Longo, Michael J.
20001031
The primary research activities under this grant were in E871 (HyperCP) at Fermilab, a search for CP violation in hyperon decays which completed data taking in January, 2000. HyperCP is an experiment designed to perform a sensitive search for direct CP violation in the decays of cascade ({Xi}) and {Lambda} hyperons by looking for an asymmetry between particle and antiparticle decay parameters. The experiment is expected to achieve a sensitivity {approx}10{sup 4} in the decay parameters. Standard model predictions for this CPviolating asymmetry range from 0.3 to 5 x 10{sup 4}. A difference between the decay parameters for particle and antiparticle is direct evidence that CP symmetry is violated. A nonzero asymmetry would be the first evidence for CP violation outside of the K{sup o} system. Recent results from KTeV indicate a direct CP violation in K{sup o} decays, which suggests that CP violation will appear in other decays. In addition, we will look at a number of rare hyperon decays involving muons. These probe important new physics topics such as Majorana neutrinos and lepton number violating processes. The latter are of great current interest because new evidence for neutrino oscillations indicate lepton flavor violation does occur. Our data will lead to an improvement in the limits on branching ratios for these processes typically by three to four ordersofmagnitude. The muon detector construction and data resulting from it have been the responsibility of the Michigan group. We are now leading the analysis of the rare muonrelated decay modes, and were responsible for the muon system and beam monitor upgrades for the 1999 run.

Variance of the Quantum Dwell Time for a Nonrelativistic Particle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahne, Gerhard
20120101
Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a twoflux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a timeindependent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a twodimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in fourdimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, . . ., of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an Nfluxcorrelation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an Smatrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the Smatrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the outputminusinput flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle s time flux and others) is derived.

Families of Particles with Different Masses in PTSymmetric Quantum Field Theory
SciTech Connect
Bender, Carl M.; Klevansky, S. P.
20100716
An elementary fieldtheoretic mechanism is proposed that allows one Lagrangian to describe a family of particles having different masses but otherwise similar physical properties. The mechanism relies on the observation that the DysonSchwinger equations derived from a Lagrangian can have many different but equally valid solutions. Nonunique solutions to the DysonSchwinger equations arise when the functional integral for the Green's functions of the quantum field theory converges in different pairs of Stokes' wedges in complexfield space, and the solutions are physically viable if the pairs of Stokes' wedges are PT symmetric.

Families of particles with different masses in PTsymmetric quantum field theory.
PubMed
Bender, Carl M; Klevansky, S P
20100716
An elementary fieldtheoretic mechanism is proposed that allows one Lagrangian to describe a family of particles having different masses but otherwise similar physical properties. The mechanism relies on the observation that the DysonSchwinger equations derived from a Lagrangian can have many different but equally valid solutions. Nonunique solutions to the DysonSchwinger equations arise when the functional integral for the Green's functions of the quantum field theory converges in different pairs of Stokes' wedges in complexfield space, and the solutions are physically viable if the pairs of Stokes' wedges are PT symmetric.

Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits.
PubMed
You, J Q; Nori, Franco
20110629
Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence and can behave like artificial atoms. Recent technological advances have made it possible to implement atomicphysics and quantumoptics experiments on a chip using these artificial atoms. This Review presents a brief overview of the progress achieved so far in this rapidly advancing field. We not only discuss phenomena analogous to those in atomic physics and quantum optics with natural atoms, but also highlight those not occurring in natural atoms. In addition, we summarize several prospective directions in this emerging interdisciplinary field.

Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarov, Yuli V.
20160801
Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a longstanding theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58

Transnational Quantum: Quantum Physics in India through the Lens of Satyendranath Bose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Somaditya
20160801
This paper traces the social and cultural dimensions of quantum physics in colonial India where Satyendranath Bose worked. By focusing on Bose's approach towards the quantum and his collaboration with Albert Einstein, I argue that his physics displayed both the localities of doing science in early twentieth century India as well as a cosmopolitan dimension. He transformed the fundamental new concept of the light quantum developed by Einstein in 1905 within the social and political context of colonial India. This crosspollination of the local with the global is termed here as the locally rooted cosmopolitan nature of Bose's science. The production of new knowledge through quantum statistics by Bose show the coconstructed nature of physics and the transnational nature of the quantum.

Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, JeanLoup; Chabot, Hugues
20151001
One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction of quantum physics, we identify two epistemological positions with respect to this problem: The first one (close to the socalled Copenhagen school) is termed the conservative position and the second one (associated with the work of Bunge and LévyLeblond) the innovative position. We then analyze French textbooks used by teachers, in order to reveal the implicit positions adopted. We conclude with the idea that highlighting these epistemological choices can help teachers reflect upon the historical and epistemological roots of quantum physics. Such an analysis can contribute to developing and implementing appropriate teaching sequences for quantum physics. We explore the application of these epistemological positions to Young's paradigmatic experiment using the double slits.

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hobson, Art
20110101
In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because…

Quantum physics with nonHermitian operators Quantum physics with nonHermitian operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Carl; Fring, Andreas; Günther, Uwe; Jones, Hugh
20121101
The main motivation behind the call for this special issue was to gather recent results, developments and open problems in quantum physics with nonHermitian operators. There have been previous special issues in this journal [1, 2] and elsewhere on this subject. The intention of this issue is to reflect the current state of this rapidlydeveloping field. It has therefore been open to all contributions containing new results on nonHermitian theories that are explicitly PTsymmetric and/or pseudoHermitian or quasiHermitian. In the last decade these types of systems have proved to be viable selfconsistent physical theories with well defined unitary timeevolution and real spectra. As the large number of responses demonstrates, this is a rapidly evolving field of research. A consensus has been reached regarding most of the fundamental problems, and the general ideas and techniques are now readily being employed in many areas of physics. Nonetheless, this issue still contains some treatments of a more general nature regarding the spectral analysis of these models, in particular, the physics of the exceptional points, the breaking of the PTsymmetry, an interpretation of negative energies and the consistent implementation of the WKB analysis. This issue also contains a treatment of a scattering theory associated with these types of systems, weak measurements, coherent states, decoherence, unbounded metric operators and the inclusion of domain issues to obtain well defined selfadjoint theories. Contributions in the form of applications of the general ideas include: studies of classical shockwaves and tunnelling, supersymmetric models, spin chain models, models with ring structure, random matrix models, the Pauli equation, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, quasiexactly solvable models, integrable models such as the Calogero model, BoseEinstein condensates, thermodynamics, nonlinear oligomers, quantum catastrophes, the LandauZener problem and pseudo

Simulations of twoparticle interactions with 2D quantum walks in time
SciTech Connect
Schreiber, A.; Laiho, K.; Silberhorn, C.; Rohde, P. P.; Štefaňak, M.; Potoček, V.; Hamilton, C.; Jex, I.
20141204
We present the experimental implementation of a quantum walk on a twodimensional lattice and show how to employ the optical system to simulate the quantum propagation of two interacting particles. Our quantum walk in time transfers the spatial spread of a quantum walk into the time domain, which guarantees a high stability and scalability of the setup. We present with our device quantum walks over 12 steps on a 2D lattice. By changing the properties of the driving quantum coin, we investigate different kinds of twoparticle interactions and reveal their impact on the occurring quantum propagation.

Multiple particle production processes in the light'' of quantum optics
SciTech Connect
Friedlander, E.M.
19900901
Ever since the observation that highenergy nuclear active'' cosmicray particles create bunches of penetrating particles upon hitting targets, a controversy has raged about whether these secondaries are created in a single act'' or whether many hadrons are just the result of an intranuclear cascade, yielding one meson in every step. I cannot escape the impression that: the latter kind of model appeals naturally as a consequence of an innate biomorphism in our way of thinking and that in one guise or another it has tenaciously survived to this day, also for hadronhadron collisions, via multiperipheral models to the modern parton shower approach. Indeed, from the very beginning of theoretical consideration of multiparticle production, the possibility of many particles arising from a single hot'' system has been explored, with many fruitful results, not the least of which are the s{sup 1/4} dependence of the mean produced particle multiplicity and the thermal'' shape of the P{sub T} spectra. An important consequence of the thermodynamicalhydrodynamical models is that particle emission is treated in analogy to blackbody radiation, implying for the secondaries a set of specific QuantumStatistical properties, very similar to those observed in quantum optics. From here on I shall try to review a number of implications and applications of this QS analogy in the study of multiplicity distributions of the produced secondaries. I will touch only in passing another very important topic of this class, the BoseEinstein twoparticle correlations.

CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass
SciTech Connect
Jesus, J.F.; Pereira, S.H. Email: shpereira@gmail.com
20140701
In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation ε for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form t{sup 2/3+ε}. Based on recent H(z) data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the ε parameter have been found as m = 1.6× 10{sup 3} GeV, restricted to a 68.3% c.l. interval of 1.5 < m < 6.3× 10{sup 7}) GeV and ε = 0.250{sup +0.15}{sub 0.096} at 68.3% c.l. For these best fit values the model correctly recovers a transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion and admits a positive creation rate near the present era. Contrary to recent works in CCDM models where the creation rate was phenomenologically derived, here we have used a quantum mechanical result for the creation rate of real massive scalar particles, given a self consistent justification for the physical process. This method also indicates a possible solution to the so called ''dark degeneracy'', where one can not distinguish if it is the quantum vacuum contribution or quantum particle creation which accelerates the Universe expansion.

TwentyFive Centuries of Quantum Physics: From Pythagoras to Us, and from Subjectivism to Realism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunge, Mario
Three main theses are proposed. The first is that the idea of a quantum or minimal unit is not peculiar to quantum theory, since it already occurs in the classical theories of elasticity and electrolysis. Second, the peculiarities of the objects described by quantum theory are the following: their basic laws are probabilistic; some of their properties, such as position and energy, are blunt rather than sharp; two particles that were once together continue to be associated even after becoming spatially separated; and the vacuum has physical properties, so that it is a kind of matter. Third, the orthodox or Copenhagen interpretation of the theory is false, and may conveniently be replaced with a realist (though not classicist) interpretation. Heisenberg's inequality, Schrödinger's cat and Zeno's quantum paradox are discussed in the light of the two rival interpretations. It is also shown that the experiments that falsified Bell's inequality do not refute realism but the classicism inherent in hidden variables theories.

Macroscopic entanglement in manyparticle quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tichy, Malte C.; Park, ChaeYeun; Kang, Minsu; Jeong, Hyunseok; Mølmer, Klaus
20160401
We elucidate the relationship between Schrödingercatlike macroscopicity and geometric entanglement and argue that these quantities are not interchangeable. While both properties are lost due to decoherence, we show that macroscopicity is rare in uniform and in socalled random physical ensembles of pure quantum states, despite possibly large geometric entanglement. In contrast, permutationsymmetric pure states feature rather low geometric entanglement and strong and robust macroscopicity.

Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor
SciTech Connect
Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.
19981214
Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuteriumtritium (DT) run from 19931997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and waveparticle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical singleparticle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

Quantum dotcontaining polymer particles with thermosensitive fluorescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Generalova, Alla N.; Oleinikov, Vladimir A.; Sukhanova, Alyona; Artemyev, Mikhail V.; Zubov, Vitaly P.; Nabiev, Igor
20121001
In the past decades, increasing attention has been paid to the preparation of "smart" functionalized polymer particles reversibly responding to slight environmental changes, such as variations in temperature, pH, and ionic strength. The composite polymer particles consisting of a solid poly(acroleincostyrene) core and a poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) polymer shell doped with CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were prepared. The thermosensitive response of the composite particles was observed as a decrease in their hydrodynamic diameter upon heating above the lower critical solution temperature of the thermosensitive PVCL polymer used as a shell. Embedding QDs in the PVCL shell makes it possible to obtain particles whose fluorescence is sensitive to temperature changes. The temperaturedependent fluorescence of particles was determined by reversible variation of the distances between QDs in the PVCL shell as a result of temperaturedriven conformational changes in this polymer. In addition, these particles can be used as carriers of biomolecule (e.g., bovine serum albumin, BSA) characterized by reversibly temperaturedependent fluorescence, which can serve as the basis for optical detection methods in bioassays, such as the measurement of local temperature in nanovolumes, biosensing, etc.

PreService Physics Teachers' Comprehension of Quantum Mechanical Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Didis, Nilufer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoc, Sakir
20100101
When quantum theory caused a paradigm shift in physics, it introduced difficulties in both learning and teaching of physics. Because of its abstract, counterintuitive and mathematical structure, students have difficulty in learning this theory, and instructors have difficulty in teaching the concepts of the theory. This case study investigates…

Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dutt, Amit
20110101
This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…

Approximating the physical inner product of loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahr, Benjamin; Thiemann, Thomas
20070401
In this paper, we investigate the possibility of approximating the physical inner product of constrained quantum theories. In particular, we calculate the physical inner product of a simple cosmological model in two ways: firstly, we compute it analytically via a trick; secondly, we use the complexifier coherent states to approximate the physical inner product defined by the master constraint of the system. We find that the approximation is able to recover the analytic solution of the problem, which consolidates hopes that coherent states will help to approximate solutions of more complicated theories, like loop quantum gravity.

One hundred years of quantum physics.
PubMed
Kleppner, D; Jackiw, R
20000811
This year marks the 100th anniversary of Max Planck's creation of the quantum concept, an idea so revolutionary that it took nearly 30 years for scientists to develop it into the theory that has transformed the way scientists view reality. In this month's essay, Daniel Kleppner and Roman Jackiw recount how quantum theory, which they rate as "the most precisely tested and most successful theory in the history of science," came to be, how it changed the world, and how it might continue to evolve to make the dream of ultimate understanding of the universe come true.

Annihilation physics of exotic galactic dark matter particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stecker, F. W.
19900101
Various theoretical arguments make exotic heavy neutral weakly interacting fermions, particularly those predicted by supersymmetry theory, attractive candidates for making up the large amount of unseen gravitating mass in galactic halos. Such particles can annihilate with each other, producing secondary particles of cosmicray energies, among which are antiprotons, positrons, neutrinos, and gammarays. Spectra and fluxes of these annihilation products can be calculated, partly by making use of positron electron collider data and quantum chromodynamic models of particle production derived therefrom. These spectra may provide detectable signatures of exotic particle remnants of the big bang.

Designing learning environments to teach interactive Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; Swagten, Henk J. M.
20121001
This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a secondyear physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and selfstudy in unit blocks, carried out with small groups. Individual formative feedback was introduced as a rapid assessment tool to provide an overview on progress and identify gaps by means of questioning students at three levels: conceptual; prior knowledge; homework exercises. The setup of Quantum Physics has been developed as a result of several loops of adjustments and improvements from a traditionallike type of teaching to an interactive classroom. Results of this particular instructional arrangement indicate significant gains in students' achievements in comparison with the traditional structure of this course, after recent optimisation steps such as the implementation of an individual feedback system.

J.J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics: 40 Years of Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lepage, Peter
20160301
Lattice QCD was invented in 197374 by Ken Wilson, who passed away in 2013. This talk will describe the evolution of lattice QCD through the past 40 years with particular emphasis on its first years, and on the past decade, when lattice QCD simulations finally came of age. Thanks to theoretical breakthroughs in the late 1990s and early 2000s, lattice QCD simulations now produce the most accurate theoretical calculations in the history of stronginteraction physics. They play an essential role in highprecision experimental studies of physics within and beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The talk will include a nontechnical review of the conceptual ideas behind this revolutionary development in (highly) nonlinear quantum physics, together with a survey of its current impact on theoretical and experimental particle physics, and prospects for the future. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

Quantumbehaved particle swarm optimization: analysis of individual particle behavior and parameter selection.
PubMed
Sun, Jun; Fang, Wei; Wu, Xiaojun; Palade, Vasile; Xu, Wenbo
20120101
Quantumbehaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), motivated by concepts from quantum mechanics and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is a probabilistic optimization algorithm belonging to the barebones PSO family. Although it has been shown to perform well in finding the optimal solutions for many optimization problems, there has so far been little analysis on how it works in detail. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the QPSO algorithm. In the theoretical analysis, we analyze the behavior of a single particle in QPSO in terms of probability measure. Since the particle's behavior is influenced by the contractionexpansion (CE) coefficient, which is the most important parameter of the algorithm, the goal of the theoretical analysis is to find out the upper bound of the CE coefficient, within which the value of the CE coefficient selected can guarantee the convergence or boundedness of the particle's position. In the experimental analysis, the theoretical results are first validated by stochastic simulations for the particle's behavior. Then, based on the derived upper bound of the CE coefficient, we perform empirical studies on a suite of wellknown benchmark functions to show how to control and select the value of the CE coefficient, in order to obtain generally good algorithmic performance in real world applications. Finally, a further performance comparison between QPSO and other variants of PSO on the benchmarks is made to show the efficiency of the QPSO algorithm with the proposed parameter control and selection methods.

Quantum well structures in thin metal films: simple model physics in reality?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milun, M.; Pervan, P.; Woodruff, D. P.
20020201
The quantum wells formed by ultrathin metallic films on appropriate metallic substrates provide a real example of the simple undergraduate physics problem in quantum mechanics of the `particle in a box'. Photoemission provides a direct probe of the energy of the resulting quantized bound states. In this review the relationship of this simple model system to the real metallic quantum well (QW) is explored, including the way that the exact nature of the boundaries can be taken into account in a relative simple way through the `phase accumulation model'. More detailed aspects of the photoemission probe of QW states are also discussed, notably of the physical processes governing the photon energy dependence of the cross sections, of the influence of temperature, and the processes governing the observed peak widths. These aspects are illustrated with the results of experiments and theoretical studies, especially for the model systems Ag on Fe(100), Ag on V(100) and Cu on fcc Co(100).

Physical model for the generation of ideal resources in multipartite quantum networking
SciTech Connect
Ciccarello, F.; Zarcone, M.; Paternostro, M.; Bose, S.; Browne, D. E.; Palma, G. M.
20100915
We propose a physical model for generating multipartite entangled states of spins particles that have important applications in distributed quantum information processing. Our protocol is based on a process where mobile spins induce the interaction among remote scattering centers. As such, a major advantage lies in the management of stationary and wellseparated spins. Among the generable states, there is a class of Nqubit singlets allowing for optimal quantum telecloning in a scalable and controllable way. We also show how to prepare Aharonov, W, and GreenbergerHorneZeilinger states.

Path Sampling Methods for Enzymatic Quantum Particle Transfer Reactions.
PubMed
Dzierlenga, M W; Varga, M J; Schwartz, S D
20160101
The mechanisms of enzymatic reactions are studied via a host of computational techniques. While previous methods have been used successfully, many fail to incorporate the full dynamical properties of enzymatic systems. This can lead to misleading results in cases where enzyme motion plays a significant role in the reaction coordinate, which is especially relevant in particle transfer reactions where nuclear tunneling may occur. In this chapter, we outline previous methods, as well as discuss newly developed dynamical methods to interrogate mechanisms of enzymatic particle transfer reactions. These new methods allow for the calculation of free energy barriers and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) with the incorporation of quantum effects through centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and the full complement of enzyme dynamics through transition path sampling (TPS). Recent work, summarized in this chapter, applied the method for calculation of free energy barriers to reaction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). We found that tunneling plays an insignificant role in YADH but plays a more significant role in LDH, though not dominant over classical transfer. Additionally, we summarize the application of a TPS algorithm for the calculation of reaction rates in tandem with CMD to calculate the primary H/D KIE of YADH from first principles. We found that the computationally obtained KIE is within the margin of error of experimentally determined KIEs and corresponds to the KIE of particle transfer in the enzyme. These methods provide new ways to investigate enzyme mechanism with the inclusion of protein and quantum dynamics.

Quantum constraint dynamics for two spinless particles under vector interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crater, Horace W.; van Alstine, Peter
19841201
Using Dirac's constraint mechanics we derive twobody KleinGordon equations for two spinless particles under mutual vector interaction. We construct generalized massshell constraints which incorporate the gauge structure of this interaction for the constituent particles. The resultant directinteraction formalism does more than just dress static potentials with relativistic twobody kinematics. It includes dynamical recoil effects in the potential characteristic of those that appear in field theories. We demonstrate this classically by showing its canonical equivalence in the slowmotion, weakpotential domain (the semirelativistic approximation) to the Darwin Hamiltonian. We also show this quantum mechanically by demonstrating its equivalence (for weak potentials) to Todorov's homogeneous quasipotential equation (which in turn leads to the standard Breit results for perturbative QED). Not only is our onebody Schrödingertype equation local and covariant, but also it leads to forms of interaction that make nonperturbative quantummechanical sense at short distances. Thus this constraint approach is ideally suited for use in phenomenological applications where a perturbative treatment may be inadequate (with no need for extra smoothing parameters or finite particle size).

The Bondons: The Quantum Particles of the Chemical Bond
PubMed Central
Putz, Mihai V.
20100101
By employing the combined Bohmian quantum formalism with the U(1) and SU(2) gauge transformations of the nonrelativistic wavefunction and the relativistic spinor, within the Schrödinger and Dirac quantum pictures of electron motions, the existence of the chemical field is revealed along the associate bondon particle B̶ characterized by its mass (mB̶), velocity (vB̶), charge (eB̶), and lifetime (tB̶). This is quantized either in ground or excited states of the chemical bond in terms of reduced Planck constant ħ, the bond energy Ebond and length Xbond, respectively. The massvelocitychargetime quaternion properties of bondons’ particles were used in discussing various paradigmatic types of chemical bond towards assessing their covalent, multiple bonding, metallic and ionic features. The bondonic picture was completed by discussing the relativistic charge and lifetime (the actual zitterbewegung) problem, i.e., showing that the bondon equals the benchmark electronic charge through moving with almost light velocity. It carries negligible, although nonzero, mass in special bonding conditions and towards observable femtosecond lifetime as the bonding length increases in the nanosystems and bonding energy decreases according with the bonding lengthenergy relationship Ebond[kcal/mol]×Xbond[A0]=182019, providing this way the predictive framework in which the B̶ particle may be observed. Finally, its role in establishing the virtual states in Raman scattering was also established. PMID:21151435

Path Sampling Methods for Enzymatic Quantum Particle Transfer Reactions.
PubMed
Dzierlenga, M W; Varga, M J; Schwartz, S D
20160101
The mechanisms of enzymatic reactions are studied via a host of computational techniques. While previous methods have been used successfully, many fail to incorporate the full dynamical properties of enzymatic systems. This can lead to misleading results in cases where enzyme motion plays a significant role in the reaction coordinate, which is especially relevant in particle transfer reactions where nuclear tunneling may occur. In this chapter, we outline previous methods, as well as discuss newly developed dynamical methods to interrogate mechanisms of enzymatic particle transfer reactions. These new methods allow for the calculation of free energy barriers and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) with the incorporation of quantum effects through centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and the full complement of enzyme dynamics through transition path sampling (TPS). Recent work, summarized in this chapter, applied the method for calculation of free energy barriers to reaction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). We found that tunneling plays an insignificant role in YADH but plays a more significant role in LDH, though not dominant over classical transfer. Additionally, we summarize the application of a TPS algorithm for the calculation of reaction rates in tandem with CMD to calculate the primary H/D KIE of YADH from first principles. We found that the computationally obtained KIE is within the margin of error of experimentally determined KIEs and corresponds to the KIE of particle transfer in the enzyme. These methods provide new ways to investigate enzyme mechanism with the inclusion of protein and quantum dynamics. PMID:27497161

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics.
PubMed
Briggs, G A D; Butterfield, J N; Zeilinger, A
20130901
The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physicsrelativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment.

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics.
PubMed
Briggs, G A D; Butterfield, J N; Zeilinger, A
20130901
The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physicsrelativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

Weak cosmic censorship, superradiance, and quantum particle creation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semiz, Ibrahim; Düztaş, Koray
20151101
Starting in 2007, a string of papers argue about if the weak cosmic censorship conjecture (WCCC) can be violated by classically forbidden interactions between particles and slightly subextremal black holes, occurring via the quantum nature of the particles; and where backreaction and/or superradiance are pointed out as effects working in the direction of preserving the WCCC. We correct/modify a backreaction argument, point out that transmission/reflection coefficients for relativistic wave equations are not the respective probabilities, and conclude that superradiance does not prevent single particles from being captured by the black hole; even if this capture would lead to WCCC violation. Then we consider the spontaneous emission (which we call the Zel'dovichUnruh "ZU" effect) of particles by the black hole, and point out that it completely invalidates the mentioned single or fewparticle thought experiments. We find that at least for scalars, the ZU effect can be understood without second quantization; and reevaluate our previous work on scalar fields interacting with black holes in view of this new understanding, finding that it becomes inconclusive.

Particle Physics Masterclass as a Context for Learning about NOS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wadness, Michael
20110401
This research addresses the question: Do secondary school science students attending the U.S. Particle Physics Masterclass change their view of the nature of science (NOS)? The U.S. Particle Physics Masterclass is a national physics outreach program run by QuarkNet, in which high school physics students gather at a local research institution for one day to learn about particle physics and the scientific enterprise. Student activities include introductory lectures in particle physics, laboratory tours, analysis of actual data from CERN, and the discussion of their findings in a conferencelike atmosphere. Although there are a number of outreach programs involving scientists in K12 education, very few of them have been formally evaluated to determine if they provide adequate learning of NOS. Therefore, the significance of this study is that it investigates the claim that science outreach programs may be designed to address science literacy, specifically as a context for explicit NOS instruction.

Two decades of Mexican particle physics at Fermilab
SciTech Connect
Roy Rubinstein
20021203
This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories. Soon after becoming Fermilab director in 1979, Leon Lederman initiated a program to encourage experimental physics, especially experimental particle physics, in Latin America. At the time, Mexico had significant theoretical particle physics activity, but none in experiment. Following a visit by Lederman to UNAM in 1981, a conference ''Panamerican Symposium on Particle Physics and Technology'' was held in January 1982 at Cocoyoc, Mexico, with about 50 attendees from Europe, North America, and Latin America; these included Lederman, M. Moshinsky, J. Flores, S. Glashow, J. Bjorken, and G. Charpak. Among the conference outcomes were four subsequent similar symposia over the next decade, and a formal Fermilab program to aid Latin American physics (particularly particle physics); it also influenced a decision by Mexican physicist Clicerio Avilez to switch from theoretical to experimental particle physics. The first physics collaboration between Fermilab and Mexico was in particle theory. Postdocs Rodrigo Huerta and Jose Luis Lucio spent 12 years at Fermilab starting in 1981, and other theorists (including Augusto Garcia, Arnulfo Zepeda, Matias Moreno and Miguel Angel Perez) also spent time at the Laboratory in the 1980s.

PARTICLE PHYSICS: CERN Collider Glimpses SupersymmetryMaybe.
PubMed
Seife, C
20000714
Last week, particle physicists at the CERN laboratory in Switzerland announced that by smashing together matter and antimatter in four experiments, they detected an unexpected effect in the sprays of particles that ensued. The anomaly is subtle, and physicists caution that it might still be a statistical fluke. If confirmed, however, it could mark the longsought discovery of a whole zoo of new particlesand the end of a longstanding model of particle physics.

PARTICLE PHYSICS: CERN Collider Glimpses SupersymmetryMaybe.
PubMed
Seife, C
20000714
Last week, particle physicists at the CERN laboratory in Switzerland announced that by smashing together matter and antimatter in four experiments, they detected an unexpected effect in the sprays of particles that ensued. The anomaly is subtle, and physicists caution that it might still be a statistical fluke. If confirmed, however, it could mark the longsought discovery of a whole zoo of new particlesand the end of a longstanding model of particle physics. PMID:17750395

Classical and quantum physics of hydrogen clusters.
PubMed
Mezzacapo, Fabio; Boninsegni, Massimo
20090422
We present results of a comprehensive theoretical investigation of the low temperature (T) properties of clusters of parahydrogen (pH(2)), both pristine as well as doped with isotopic impurities (i.e., orthodeuterium, oD(2)). We study clusters comprising up to N = 40 molecules, by means of quantum simulations based on the continuousspace Worm algorithm. Pristine pH(2) clusters are liquidlike and superfluid in the [Formula: see text] limit. The superfluid signal is uniform throughout these clusters; it is underlain by long cycles of permutation of molecules. Clusters with more than 22 molecules display solidlike, essentially classical behavior at temperatures down to T∼1 K; some of them are seen to turn liquidlike at sufficiently low T (quantum melting).

Synthesis of quantum chromodynamics and nuclear physics
SciTech Connect
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
19800801
The asymptotic freedom behavior of quantum chromodynamics allows the rigorous calculation of hadronic and nuclear amplitudes at short distances by perturbative methods. The implications of QCD for largemomentumtransfer nuclear form factors and scattering processes, as well as for the structure of nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions at short distances, are discussed. The necessity for colorpolarized internal nuclear states is also discussed. 6 figures.

Nuclear spin physics in quantum dots: An optical investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urbaszek, Bernhard; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Maletinsky, Patrick; Högele, Alexander; Imamoglu, Atac
20130101
The mesoscopic spin system formed by the 104106 nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum dot offers a unique setting for the study of manybody spin physics in the condensed matter. The dynamics of this system and its coupling to electron spins is fundamentally different from its bulk counterpart or the case of individual atoms due to increased fluctuations that result from reduced dimensions. In recent years, the interest in studying quantumdot nuclear spin systems and their coupling to confined electron spins has been further fueled by its importance for possible quantum information processing applications. The fascinating nonlinear (quantum) dynamics of the coupled electronnuclear spin system is universal in quantum dot optics and transport. In this article, experimental work performed over the last decade in studying this mesoscopic, coupled electronnuclear spin system is reviewed. Here a special focus is on how optical addressing of electron spins can be exploited to manipulate and read out the quantumdot nuclei. Particularly exciting recent developments in applying optical techniques to efficiently establish nonzero mean nuclear spin polarizations and using them to reduce intrinsic nuclear spin fluctuations are discussed. Both results critically influence the preservation of electronspin coherence in quantum dots. This overall recently gained understanding of the quantumdot nuclear spin system could enable exciting new research avenues such as experimental observations of spontaneous spin ordering or nonclassical behavior of the nuclear spin bath.

Particle physics meets cosmology  The search for decaying neutrinos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henry, R. C.
19820101
The fundamental physical implications of the possible detection of massive neutrinos are discussed, with an emphasis on the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) of matter. The Newtonian and generalrelativistic pictures of the fundamental forces are compared, and the reduction of electromagnetic and weak forces to one force in the GUTs is explained. The cosmological consequences of the curvedspacetime gravitation concept are considered. Quarks, leptons, and neutrinos are characterized in a general treatment of elementary quantum mechanics. The universe is described in terms of quantized fields, the noninteractive 'particle' fields and the force fields, and cosmology becomes the study of the interaction of gravitation with the other fields, of the 'freezing out' of successive fields with the expansion and cooling of the universe. While the visible universe is the result of the clustering of the quark and electron fields, the distribution of the large number of quanta in neutrino field, like the mass of the neutrino, are unknown. Cosmological models which attribute anomalies in the observed motions of galaxies and stars to clusters or shells of massive neutrinos are shown to be consistent with a small but nonzero neutrino mass and a universe near the open/closed transition point, but direct detection of the presence of massive neutrinos by the UV emission of their decay is required to verify these hypotheses.

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobson, Art
20110301
In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because they respond to neither the EM force nor the strong force. For example, the mean free path (average penetration distance before it interacts) of a typical betadecay neutrino moving through solid lead is about 1.5 light years! Enrico Fermi argued that neutrinos indicated a new force was at work. During the 1930s, he quickly adapted ideas from the developing new theory of QED to this new force, dubbed the weak force. Fermi's theory was able to predict the halflives of betaemitting nuclei and the range of energies of the emitted beta particles.

Particle physics. Positrons ride the wave
DOE PAGESBeta
Piot, Philippe
20150826
Here, experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to highenergy electron–positron particle colliders.

Relativistic models in nuclear and particle physics
SciTech Connect
Coester, F.
19880101
A comparative overview is presented of different approaches to the construction of phenomenological dynamical models that respect basic principles of quantum theory and relativity. Wave functions defined as matrix elements of products of field operators on one hand and wave functions that are defined as representatives of state vectors in model Hilbert spaces are related differently to observables and dynamical models for these wave functions have each distinct advantages and disadvantages 34 refs.

The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
20160301
Using the simplest possible quantum system—the qubit—the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous TPT article and in a separate paper posted online, we introduced catchy visualizations of the qubit based on the Bloch sphere or just the unit circle (see also Refs. 38 for other approaches highlighting the importance of the qubit). These visualizations open the way to understand basic ideas of quantum physics even without knowledge of the underlying mathematical formalism. In addition, simple mathematics can be introduced to describe the qubit as an abstract object and basic unit of quantum information. This generalizes the digital bit as a basic unit of classical information. The proposed visualizations can be used even at the high school level, while the mathematical explanations are of importance when teaching quantum physics at the undergraduate university level. This approach provides a unified framework to introduce common features of all quantum systems, such as the stochastic behavior and state change of a superposition state under measurement.

Particle Physics Meets Cosmology  The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henry, Richard C.
19820101
Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)

Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schneider, Mark B.
20100101
The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For…

Decision theory and information propagation in quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forrester, Alan
In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule p k = ψ k  2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decisiontheoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 31293137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts circularity. Deutsch and Wallace assume that the many worlds theory is true and that decoherence gives rise to a preferred basis. However, decoherence arguments use the reduced density matrix, which relies upon the partial trace and hence upon the Born rule for its validity. Using the Heisenberg picture and quantum Darwinismthe notion that classical information is quantum information that can proliferate in the environment pioneered in Ollivier et al. [(2004). Objective properties from subjective quantum states: Environment as a witness. Physical Review Letters, 93, 220401 and (2005). Environment as a witness: Selective proliferation of information and emergence of objectivity in a quantum universe. Physical Review A, 72, 042113]I show that measurement interactions between two systems only create correlations between a specific set of commuting observables of system 1 and a specific set of commuting observables of system 2. This argument picks out a unique basis in which information flows in the correlations between those sets of commuting observables. I then derive the Born rule for both pure and mixed states and answer some other criticisms of the decision theoretic approach to quantum probability.

Local energy and power in manyparticle quantum systems driven by an external electrical field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albareda, Guillermo; Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Oriols, Xavier
20160501
We derive expressions for the expectation values of the local energy and the local power for a manyparticle system of (scalar) charged particles interacting with an external electrical field. In analogy with the definition of the (local) current probability density, we construct a local energy operator such that the timerate of change of its expectation value provides information on the spatial distribution of power. Results are presented as functions of an arbitrarily small volume Ω , and physical insights are discussed by means of the quantum hydrodynamical representation of the wavefunction, which is proven to allow for a clearcut separation into contributions with and without classical correspondence. Quantum features of the local power are mainly manifested through the presence of nonlocal sources/sinks of power and through the action of forces with no classical counterpart. Manyparticle classicallike effects arise in the form of currentforce correlations and through the inflow/outflow of energy across the boundaries of the volume Ω . Interestingly, all these intriguing features are only reflected in the expression of the local power when the volume Ω is finite. Otherwise, for closed systems with Ω \\to ∞ , we recover a classicallike singleparticle expression.

On Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship, Its Extension, and the Quantum Issue of WaveParticle Duality
PubMed Central
Putz, Mihai V.
20100101
Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR) is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wavetoparticle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particlewave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor 1n2, in terms of magnitude n∈[0,1]. of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact waveparticle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particletowave ratio as well as of the freeevolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function. PMID:21152325

On Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship, its extension, and the quantum issue of waveparticle duality.
PubMed
Putz, Mihai V
20100101
Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR) is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wavetoparticle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particlewave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor 1n2, in terms of magnitude n∈[0,1]. of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact waveparticle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particletowave ratio as well as of the freeevolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function.

Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudziak, Martin Joseph
Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of nonlinear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logicophysical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting nonlocality and other non classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as nonlocality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the processnetwork dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental actionevents within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higherscale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
SciTech Connect
Onasch, T.B.; Sedlacek, A.; Cross, E. S.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahern, A.; Lack, D. A.; Cappa, C. D.; Trimborn, A.; Freedman, A.; Olfert, J. S.; Jayne, J. T.; Massoli, P.; Williams, L. R.; Mazzoleni, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Thornhill, D. A.; Slowik, J. G.; Kok, G. L.; Brem, B. T.; Subramanian, R.; Spackman, J. R.; Freitag, S.; and Dubey, M. K.
20091214
Accurate measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosol particles containing black carbon are necessary to improve current estimates of the radiative forcing in the atmosphere. A collaborative research effort between Aerodyne Research, Inc. and Boston College has focused on conducting field and laboratory experiments on carbonaceous particles and the development and characterization of new particulate instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the chemical, physical, and optical properties of black carbon particles measured in the laboratory in order to understand the effects of atmospheric processing on black carbon particles. Results from a threeweek study during July 2008 of mass and opticalbased black carbon measurements will be presented. The project utilized the Boston College laboratory flame apparatus and aerosol conditioning and characterization equipment. A premixed flat flame burner operating at controlled fueltoair ratios produced stable and reproducible concentrations of soot particles with known sizes, morphologies, and chemical compositions. In addition, other black carbon particle types, including fullerene soot, glassy carbon spheres, oxidized flame soot, Regal black, and Aquadag, were also atomized, size selected, and sampled. The study covered an experimental matrix that systematically selected particle mobility size (30 to 300 nm) and black carbon particle mass, particle number concentration, particle shape (dynamic shape factor and fractal dimension), and particle chemistry and density (changed via coatings). Particles were coated with a measured thickness (few nm to {approx}150 nm) of sulfuric acid or bis (2ethylhexyl) sebacate and passed through a thermal denuder to remove the coatings. Highlights of the study to be presented include: (1) Characterization of the chemical and physical properties of various types of black carbon particles, (2) Mass specific absorption measurements as a function of fuel

Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia
20140401
Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve largescale, errorcorrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and faulttolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics
PubMed Central
Briggs, G. A. D.; Butterfield, J. N.; Zeilinger, A.
20130101
The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics—relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

Mapping of topological quantum circuits to physical hardware.
PubMed
Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia
20140101
Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve largescale, errorcorrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and faulttolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit. PMID:24722360

Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992December 1992
SciTech Connect
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.
19920701
This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.

Effective theories and thresholds in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Gaillard, M.K.
19910607
The role of effective theories in probing a more fundamental underlying theory and in indicating new physics thresholds is discussed, with examples from the standard model and more speculative applications to superstring theory. 38 refs.

Subbarrier Fusion Reactions and ManyParticle Quantum Tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagino, K.; Takigawa, N.
20121201
Lowenergy heavyion fusion reactions are governed by quantum tunneling through the Coulomb barrier formed by the strong cancellation of the repulsive Coulomb force with the attractive nuclear interaction between the colliding nuclei. Extensive experimental as well as theoretical studies have revealed that fusion reactions are strongly influenced by couplings of the relative motion of the colliding nuclei to several nuclear intrinsic motions. Heavyion subbarrier fusion reactions thus provide a good opportunity to address the general problem of quantum tunneling in the presence of couplings, which has been a popular subject in recent decades in many branches of physics and chemistry. Here, we review theoretical aspects of heavyion subbarrier fusion reactions from the viewpoint of quantum tunneling in systems with many degrees of freedom. Particular emphases are put on the coupledchannels approach to fusion reactions and the barrier distribution representation for multichannel penetrability. We also discuss an application of the barrier distribution method to elucidate the mechanism of the dissociative adsorption of H_2 molecules in surface science.

Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena
SciTech Connect
Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.
19920601
This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixedtarget kdecay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electronpositron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

American particle and nuclear physics planning
SciTech Connect
Montgomery, Hugh E.
20141001
In the United States the planning process relevant to future deep inelastic scattering involves both the high energy physics and nuclear physics funding and the two communities. In Canada there is no such split between the communities. Within the past two years there have been several planning initiatives and there may be more to come. We review the current status of both the planning and the plans.

Quantum hydrodynamics approach to the formation of waves in polarized twodimensional systems of charged and neutral particles
SciTech Connect
Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.; Trukhanova, M. I.
20111215
In this paper, we explicate a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of polarized particles. Although we focused primarily on the twodimensional (2D) physical systems, the method is valid for threedimensional (3D) and onedimensional (1D) systems too. The presented method is based upon the Schroedinger equation. Fundamental QHD equations for charged and neutral particles were derived from the manyparticle microscopic Schroedinger equation. The fact that particles possess the electric dipole moment (EDM) was taken into account. The explicated QHD approach was used to study dispersion characteristics of various physical systems. We analyzed dispersion of waves in a twodimensional ion and hole gas placed into an external electric field, which is orthogonal to the gas plane. Elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized particles were studied for 1D, 2D, and 3D cases. The polarization dynamics in systems of both neutral and charged particles is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves as well as changes in the dispersion characteristics of already known waves. We also analyzed wave dispersion in 2D exciton systems, in 2D electronion plasma, and in 2D electronhole plasma. Generation of waves in 3Dsystem neutral particles with EDM by means of the beam of electrons and neutral polarized particles is investigated.

Celebrating 40 years of research in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adcock, Colin D.; Martin, Alan D.; Schwenk, Achim
20150901
2015 marks the 40th anniversary of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. This editorial provides a brief history of the journal, and introduces a unique collection of invited articles from leading authors to celebrate the occasion.

The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Wells, James D.
20001214
Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

StateoftheArt Particle Physics Detector
NASA Video Gallery
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a stateoftheart particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 institutes from 16 countries and organized under United States...

Elementary particle physics and the superconducting super collider.
PubMed
Quigg, C; Schwitters, R F
19860328
The present status and future prospects of elementary particle physics are reviewed, and some of the scientific questions that motivate the construction of a major new accelerator complex in the United States are summarized.

A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DickPerez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas
20160101
A 14item, multiplechoice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

Quantum Physics and Mental Health Counseling: The Time Is...!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bennett, Matt
19990101
Introduces a new framework of mental health counseling based on quantum physics. The framework stresses systemic thinking and intervention, interdependence, and the importance of adopting a novel perspective about time, space, reality, and change. This framework has the potential of modifying mental health counseling practice and training. Offers…

Physics of compaction of fine cohesive particles.
PubMed
Castellanos, A; Valverde, J M; Quintanilla, M A S
20050225
Fluidized fractal clusters of fine particles display criticallike dynamics at the jamming transition, characterized by a power law relating consolidation stress with volume fraction increment [sigma(c) proportional, variant(Deltaphi)(beta)]. At a critical stress clusters are disrupted and there is a crossover to a logarithmic law (Deltaphi = nu logsigma(c)) resembling the phenomenology of soils. We measure lambda identical with partial differentialDelta(1/phi)/ partial log(sigma(c) proportional, variant Bo(0.2)(g), where Bo(g) is the ratio of interparticle attractive force (in the fluidlike regime) to particle weight. This law suggests that compaction is ruled by the internal packing structure of the jammed clusters at nearly zero consolidation.

The engineering needed for particle physics.
PubMed
Myers, Steve
20120828
Today's particle accelerators and detectors are among the most complicated and expensive scientific instruments ever built, and they exploit almost every aspect of today's cuttingedge engineering technologies. In many cases, accelerator needs have been the driving force behind these new technologies, necessity being the mother of invention. This paper gives an overview of some engineering requirements for the construction and operation of presentday accelerators and detectors.

Future particlephysics projects in the United States
SciTech Connect
Denisov, D. S.
20150715
Basic proposals of experiments aimed at precision measurements of Standard Model parameters and at searches for new particles, including darkmatter particles, are described along with future experimental projects considered by American Physical Society at the meeting in the summer of 2013 and intended for implementation within the next ten to twenty years.

Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farmelo, Graham
19920101
Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W…

Quarks, Leptons, and Bosons: A Particle Physics Primer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagoner, Robert; Goldsmith, Donald
19830101
Presented is a nontechnical introduction to particle physics. The material is adapted from chapter 3 of "Cosmic Horizons," (by Robert Wagoner and Don Goldsmith), a layperson's introduction to cosmology. Among the topics considered are elementary particles, forces and motion, and higher level structures. (JN)

Future particlephysics projects in the United States
SciTech Connect
Denisov, D. S.
20150825
Basic proposals of experiments aimed at precision measurements of Standard Model parameters and at searches for new particles, including darkmatter particles, are described along with future experimental projects considered by American Physical Society at the meeting in the summer of 2013 and intended for implementation within the next ten to twenty years.

Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient ParticleinaBox Laboratory Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.
20080101
Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantumdot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantumdot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)
SciTech Connect
Dittmann, J.R.
20120825
This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cuttingedge measurements from protonantiproton collisions at the energy frontier.

Spinvalley physics in realistic silicon quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruskov, Rusko; Tahan, Charles
20140301
Silicon quantum dots are leading approach for solidstate quantum bits. However, one must contend with new physics due to the multivalley nature of silicon. At a Si heterostructure interface the valley degeneracy is lifted and the different valley subspaces of the confined electron spin configurations do not interact. When, however, the valley states are brought at resonance in the presence of a nonideal interface, spinvalley mixing can occur via spinorbit coupling. Within the same theoretical framework, we can successfully describe the spin relaxation processes in nonideal quantum dots [e.g., relaxation ``hot spots'' in C. H. Yang, A. Rossi, R. Ruskov, N. S. Lai, F. A. Mohiyaddin, S. Lee, C. Tahan, G. Klimeck, A. Morello, and A. S. Dzurak, Nature Comm. 4, 2069, (2013)] and a new electron spin resonance (ESR) anticrossing splitting in a double quantum dot transport experiment [X. Hao, R. Ruskov, M. Xiao, C. Tahan, and H. W. Jiang, work in preparation]. Understanding the spinvalley physics of inelastic tunneling is critical to a proper understanding of the transport through double quantum dots, with or without an ESR drive field.

Research in theoretical and elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Mitselmakher, G.
19961201
In 1995 the University of Florida started a major expansion of the High Energy Experimental Physics group (HEE) with the goal of adding four new faculty level positions to the group in two years. This proposal covers the second year of operation of the new group and gives a projection of the planned research program for the next five years, when the group expects their activities to be broader and well defined. The expansion of the HEE group started in the Fall of 1995 when Guenakh Mitselmakher was hired from Fermilab as a Full Professor. A search was then performed for two junior faculty positions. The first being a Research Scientist/Scholar position which is supported for 9 months by the University on a faculty line at the same level as Assistant Professor but without the teaching duties. The second position is that of an Assistant Professor. The search has been successfully completed and Jacobo Konigsberg from Harvard University has accepted the position of Research Scientist and Andrey Korytov from MIT has accepted the position of Assistant Professor. They will join the group in August 1996. The physics program for the new group is focused on hadron collider physics. G. Mitselmakher has been leading the CMS endcap muon project since 1994. A Korytov is the coordinator of the endcap muon chamber effort for CMS and a member of the CDF collaboration and J. Konigsberg is a member of CDF where he has participated in various physics analyses and has been coordinator of the gas calorimetry group. The group at the U. of Florida has recently been accepted as an official collaborating institution on CDF. They have been assigned the responsibility of determining the collider beam luminosity at CDF and they will also be an active participant in the design and operation of the muon detectors for the intermediate rapidity region. In addition they expect to continue their strong participation in the present and future physics analysis of the CDF data.

Quark Confinement Physics in Quantum Chromodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koma, Y.; Suganuma, H.; Amemiya, K.; Fukushima, M.; Toki, H.
20000101
We study abelian dominance and monopole condensation for the quark confinement physics using the lattice QCD simulations in the MA gauge. These phenomena are closely related to the dual superconductor picture of the QCD vacuum, and enable us to construct the dual GinzburgLandau (DGL) theory as an useful effective theory of nonperturbative QCD. We then apply the DGL theory to the studies of the lowlying hadron structure and the scalar glueball properties.

Universality in uncertainty relations for a quantum particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kechrimparis, Spiros; Weigert, Stefan
20160901
A general theory of preparational uncertainty relations for a quantum particle in one spatial dimension is developed. We derive conditions which determine whether a given smooth function of the particle’s variances and its covariance is bounded from below. Whenever a global minimum exists, an uncertainty relation has been obtained. The squeezed number states of a harmonic oscillator are found to be universal: no other pure or mixed states will saturate any such relation. Geometrically, we identify a convex uncertainty region in the space of second moments which is bounded by the inequality derived by Robertson and Schrödinger. Our approach provides a unified perspective on existing uncertainty relations for a single continuous variable, and it leads to new inequalities for second moments which can be checked experimentally.

Pathintegral approach to 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics
SciTech Connect
Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen
20050515
We present a pathintegral formulation of 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics. The crucial ingredient of this formulation is Gozzi et al.'s supersymmetric path integral of classical mechanics. We quantize explicitly two simple classical systems: the planar mathematical pendulum and the Roessler dynamical system.

Understanding Probabilistic Interpretations of Physical Systems: A Prerequisite to Learning Quantum Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bao, Lei; Redish, Edward F.
20020101
Explains the critical role of probability in making sense of quantum physics and addresses the difficulties science and engineering undergraduates experience in helping students build a model of how to think about probability in physical systems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

Thermal pure quantum states of manyparticle systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyuga, Masahiko; Sugiura, Sho; Sakai, Kazumitsu; Shimizu, Akira
20140901
We generalize the thermal pure quantum (TPQ) formulation of statistical mechanics, in such a way that it is applicable to systems whose Hilbert space is infinite dimensional. Assuming particle systems, we construct the grandcanonical TPQ (gTPQ) state, which is the counterpart of the grandcanonical Gibbs state of the ensemble formulation. A single realization of the gTPQ state gives all quantities of statisticalmechanical interest, with exponentially small probability of error. This formulation not only sheds new light on quantum statistical mechanics but also is useful for practical computations. As an illustration, we apply it to the Hubbard model, on a onedimensional (1D) chain and on a twodimensional (2D) triangular lattice. For the 1D chain, our results agree well with the exact solutions over wide ranges of temperature, chemical potential, and the onsite interaction. For the 2D triangular lattice, for which exact results are unknown, we obtain reliable results over a wide range of temperature. We also find that finitesize effects are much smaller in the gTPQ state than in the canonical TPQ state. This also shows that in the ensemble formulation the grandcanonical Gibbs state of a finitesize system simulates an infinite system much better than the canonical Gibbs state.

String Theory, the Crisis in Particle Physics and the Ascent of Metaphoric Arguments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroer, Bert
This essay presents a critical evaluation of the concepts of string theory and its impact on particle physics. The point of departure is a historical review of four decades of string theory within the broader context of six decades of failed attempts at an autonomous S matrix approach to particle theory. The central message, contained in Secs. 5 and 6, is that string theory is not what its name suggests, namely a theory of objects in spacetime whose localization is stringinstead of pointlike. Contrary to popular opinion, the oscillators corresponding to the Fourier models of a quantummechanical string do not become embedded in spacetime and neither does the "range space" of a chiral conformal QFT acquire the interpretation of stringlikelocalized quantum matter. Rather, string theory represents a solution to a problem which enjoyed some popularity in the 1960s: find a principle which, similar to the SO(4,2) group in the case of the hydrogen spectrum, determines an infinite component wave function with a (realistic) mass/spin spectrum. Instead of the group theory used in the old failed attempts, it creates this mass/spin spectrum by combining an internal oscillator quantum mechanics with a pointlikelocalized quantumfieldtheoretic object, i.e. the mass/spin tower "sits" over one point and does not arise from a wiggling string in spacetime. The widespread acceptance of a theory whose interpretation has been based on metaphoric reasoning had a corroding influence on particle theory, a point which will be illustrated in the last section with some remarks of a more sociological nature. These remarks also lend additional support to observations on connections between the discourse in particle physics and the present Zeitgeist of the postCold War period that are made in the introduction.

Physical theories, eternal inflation, and the quantum universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Yasunori
20111101
Infinities in eternal inflation have long been plaguing cosmology, making any predictions highly sensitive to how they are regulated. The problem exists already at the level of semiclassical general relativity, and has a priori nothing to do with quantum gravity. On the other hand, we know that certain problems in semiclassical gravity, for example physics of black holes and their evaporation, have led to understanding of surprising, quantum natures of spacetime and gravity, such as the holographic principle and horizon complementarity. In this paper, we present a framework in which welldefined predictions are obtained in an eternally inflating multiverse, based on the principles of quantum mechanics. We propose that the entire multiverse is described purely from the viewpoint of a single "observer," who describes the world as a quantum state defined on his/her past light cones bounded by the (stretched) apparent horizons. We find that quantum mechanics plays an essential role in regulating infinities. The framework is "gauge invariant," i.e. predictions do not depend on how spacetime is parametrized, as it should be in a theory of quantum gravity. Our framework provides a fully unified treatment of quantum measurement processes and the multiverse. We conclude that the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics are the same. Other important implications include: global spacetime can be viewed as a derived concept; the multiverse is a transient phenomenon during the world relaxing into a supersymmetric Minkowski state. We also present a model of "initial conditions" for the multiverse. By extrapolating our framework to the extreme, we arrive at a picture that the entire multiverse is a fluctuation in the stationary, fractal "megamultiverse," in which an infinite sequence of multiverse productions occurs. The framework discussed here does not suffer from problems/paradoxes plaguing other measures proposed earlier, such as the youngness

Large numbers hypothesis. IV  The cosmological constant and quantum physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, P. J.
19830101
In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum spacetime. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum spacetime. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum spacetime with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a timedependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

Modified gravity in cosmology and fundamental particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, DeChang
20080801
The Standard Model of particle physics and General Relativity are very successful in describing present experimental results. Both of them, however, are assumed to be lowenergy approximations of a more complete theory. There are several candidate theories that are proposed to be part of a new conceptual structure beyond the Standard Model. To solve the Hierarchy problem, the energy threshold of the new theories is expected to be the TeV scale. One paradigm, low energy quantum gravity, combines the Standard Model with General Relativity and assumes the existence of extra dimensions. This paradigm predicts that TeV black holes can be produced in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this dissertation we describe a blackhole simulator, BlackMax, for coming accelerators. The generator is based on the Monte Carlo technique and predicts the signatures of blackhole production at the LHC. The remainder of the dissertation is an example of the violation of Birkhoff's law. Birkhoff's law is analogous to a famous result of Newtonian theory, that the gravitational acceleration due to a spherical shell vanishes inside the shell. Since the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scales, local gravitational phenomena can be treated as local events only; and one can always ignore the influence from the distant mass distribution. This law is violated in modified gravity theories. It is shown that a spherical shell can affect the geometry in the extra dimensions. The change of geometry in the extra dimensions also changes the geometry inside the shell. The gravitational acceleration inside a spherical shell does not vanish.

Edge physics of the quantum spin Hall insulator from a quantum dot excited by optical absorption.
PubMed
Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E
20140411
The gapless edge modes of the quantum spin Hall insulator form a helical liquid in which the direction of motion along the edge is determined by the spin orientation of the electrons. In order to probe the Luttinger liquid physics of these edge states and their interaction with a magnetic (Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot that is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a powerlaw singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the quantum spin Hall edge.

Quantum Information in Nonphysics Departments at Liberal Arts Colleges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westmoreland, Michael
20120201
Quantum information and quantum computing have changed our thinking about the basic concepts of quantum physics. These fields have also introduced exciting new applications of quantum mechanics such as quantum cryptography and noninteractive measurement. It is standard to teach such topics only to advanced physics majors who have completed coursework in quantum mechanics. Recent encounters with teaching quantum cryptography to nonmajors and a bout of textbookwriting suggest strategies for teaching this interesting material to those without the standard quantum mechanics background. This talk will share some of those strategies.

Particle Physics with the Pierre Auger Observatory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierog, T.
20140601
The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world largest extensive air shower detector. Based on two detection techniques, namely fluorescence telescopes for the observation of the longitudinal development and water Cherenkov detectors for particles at ground, this experiment can be used not only as a cosmic ray observatory, but also to study the basic properties of hadronic interactions leading the development of air showers initiated by these primary cosmic rays. We will show that by using careful data selection it is possible to extract the protonair inelastic crosssection at energies much higher than that accessible at manmade accelerators. Taking advantage of both detection techniques we will demonstrate that it is also possible to test hadronic interaction models using correlations between different air shower observables, like shower maximum and muons at ground, to reduce the uncertainty due to the unknown beam of cosmic rays.

Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)
SciTech Connect
Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.
19920101
Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed longterm plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning [tau] and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z[degrees], and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the [tau] the leptonic branching fraction of the J/[psi], and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of [alpha][sub s] at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of [alpha][sub s] by a factor of about three from m[sub r] to m[sub z]. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b[bar b] fraction of Z[degrees] decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z[degree] coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z[degrees] mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z[degrees] decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)
SciTech Connect
Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.
19921101
Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed longterm plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning {tau} and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z{degrees}, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the {tau} the leptonic branching fraction of the J/{psi}, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of {alpha}{sub s} at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of {alpha}{sub s} by a factor of about three from m{sub r} to m{sub z}. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b{bar b} fraction of Z{degrees} decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z{degree} coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z{degrees} mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z{degrees} decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO). Testing quantum and gravitational physics with massive mechanical resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Kiesel, Nikolai; RomeroIsart, Oriol; Schwab, Keith C.; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus
20121001
Quantum physics challenges our understanding of the nature of physical reality and of spacetime and suggests the necessity of radical revisions of their underlying concepts. Experimental tests of quantum phenomena involving massive macroscopic objects would provide novel insights into these fundamental questions. Making use of the unique environment provided by space, MAQRO aims at investigating this largely unexplored realm of macroscopic quantum physics. MAQRO has originally been proposed as a mediumsized fundamentalscience space mission for the 2010 call of Cosmic Vision. MAQRO unites two experiments: DECIDE (DECoherence In DoubleSlit Experiments) and CASE (Comparative Acceleration Sensing Experiment). The main scientific objective of MAQRO, which is addressed by the experiment DECIDE, is to test the predictions of quantum theory for quantum superpositions of macroscopic objects containing more than 108 atoms. Under these conditions, deviations due to various suggested alternative models to quantum theory would become visible. These models have been suggested to harmonize the paradoxical quantum phenomena both with the classical macroscopic world and with our notion of Minkowski spacetime. The second scientific objective of MAQRO, which is addressed by the experiment CASE, is to demonstrate the performance of a novel type of inertial sensor based on optically trapped microspheres. CASE is a technology demonstrator that shows how the modular design of DECIDE allows to easily incorporate it with other missions that have compatible requirements in terms of spacecraft and orbit. CASE can, at the same time, serve as a test bench for the weak equivalence principle, i.e., the universality of free fall with testmasses differing in their mass by 7 orders of magnitude.

Beyond quantum probability: another formalism shared by quantum physics and psychology.
PubMed
Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V
20130601
There is another meeting place for quantum physics and psychology, both within and outside of cognitive modeling. In physics it is known as the issue of classical (probabilistic) determinism, and in psychology it is known as the issue of selective influences. The formalisms independently developed in the two areas for dealing with these issues turn out to be identical, opening ways for mutually beneficial interactions.

A particlefield Hamiltonian in relativistic quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arai, Asao
20000701
We mathematically analyze a Hamiltonian Hτ(V,g) of a Dirac particle—a relativistic charged particle with spin 1/2—minimally coupled to the quantized radiation field, acting in the Hilbert space F≔[⊕4L2(R3)]⊗Frad, where Frad is the Fock space of the quantized radiation field in the Coulomb gauge, V is an external potential in which the Dirac particle moves, g is a photonmomentum cutoff function in the interaction between the Dirac particle and the quantized radiation field, and τ∈R is a deformation parameter connecting the Hamiltonian with the "dipole approximation" (τ=0) and the original Hamiltonian (τ=1). We first discuss the selfadjointness problem of Hτ(V,g). Then we consider Hτ≔Hτ(0,g), the Hamiltonian without the external potential. It is shown that, under a general condition on g, the closure of Hτ is unitarily equivalent to a direct integral ∫R3⊕Hτ(p)¯dp with a fiber Hamiltonian Hτ(p) acting in the four direct sum ⊕4Frad of Frad, physically the polaron Hamiltonian of the Dirac particle with total momentum p∈R3.

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19911201
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

Cosmic rays and the birth of particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedlander, Michael
20130201
Twenty years after the discovery of cosmic rays, the methods of research and resulting discoveries were dramatically changed by the introduction of experimental methods that made visible the passage of individual particles. Between 1932 and 1955, tracks of cosmic rays were found in cloud chambers and special photographic emulsions. From measurements of the ionization produced along these tracks, the mass, charge and energy of a single relativistic particle could be determined. The dynamics of decays and collisions could be analyzed. Positrons and then electronpositron pairs were discovered, followed by muons and pions and then the inhabitants of the 'particle zoo'. Fundamental concepts were challenged. From the mid 1950s, larger accelerators began to produce many of the 'new' particles, displacing cosmic rays from their prime role in particle studies. But without the initial discoveries in cosmic rays, there might well not be the modern industrialscale particle physics research.

Finiteparticlenumber approach to physics
SciTech Connect
Noyes, H.P.
19821001
Starting from a discrete, selfgenerating and selforganizing, recursive model and selfconsistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the EinsteindeBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a singletime momentumspace scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

Renormalization from Classical to Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kar, Arnab
The concept of renormalization was first introduced by Dirac to investigate the infinite self energy of an electron classically. This radical theory was probably the first time when an infinity occurring in a physical system was systematically investigated. This thesis presents a new perspective of renormalization by introducing methods from metric geometry to control divergences. We start by extending Dirac's work and analyzing how the radiation reaction due to the precision of the electron's magnetic moment affects its motion. This is followed by modeling scalar field theory on lattices of various kinds. Scale invariance, which plays a major role in the very few renormalizable theories in nature, is inbuilt in our formalism. We also use Wilson's ideas of effective theory and finite element methods to study continuum systems. Renormalization group transformations form the central theme in this picture. By incorporating finite element methods, an idea borrowed from mechanical engineering, we study scalar fields on triangular lattices in a hierarchal manner. In our case, the cotangent formula turns out to be a fixed point of the renormalization group transformations. We end our thesis by introducing a new metric for spacetime which emerges from the scalar field itself. The standard techniques used in the theory of renormalization so far attempt to redefine coupling constants of the theory to remove divergences at short distance scales. In our formalism, we deduce the distance scale itself. In our notion of distance, built from correlation functions of the fields, the divergences disappear.

Density expansion for particleparticle correlations in timedependent physical clusters
PubMed
Pugnaloni; Vericat
20000601
We present a theory for the particleparticle correlations in physical clusters for which bonding between particles is determined by a connectivity distance and a permanency time. A generalized Mayer density expansion for the cluster pair correlation function is found, as well as an OrnsteinZernike like relation. We can rely on this formalism to study clustering in realistic models by applying techniques of liquid state theory.

The Pendulum as a Vehicle for Transitioning from Classical to Quantum Physics: History, Quantum Concepts, and Educational Challenges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnes, Marianne B.; Garner, James; Reid, David
20040101
In this article we use the pendulum as the vehicle for discussing the transition from classical to quantum physics. Since student knowledge of the classical pendulum can be generalized to all harmonic oscillators, we propose that a quantum analysis of the pendulum can lead students into the unanticipated consequences of quantum phenomena at the…

Quantum algorithm for obtaining the eigenstates of a physical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hefeng
20160501
We propose a quantum algorithm for solving the following problem: given the Hamiltonian of a physical system and one of its eigenvalues, how do we obtain the corresponding eigenstate? The algorithm is based on the resonance phenomenon. For a probe qubit coupled to a quantum system, the system exhibits resonance dynamics when the frequency of the probe qubit matches a transition frequency in the system. Therefore the system can be guided to evolve to the eigenstate with a known eigenvalue by inducing the resonance between the probe qubit and a designed transition in the system. This algorithm can also be used to obtain the energy spectrum of a physical system and can achieve even quadratic speedup over the phase estimation algorithm.

Correlation between infectivity and physical virus particles in human cytomegalovirus.
PubMed
BenyeshMelnick, M; Probstmeyer, F; McCombs, R; Brunschwig, J P; Vonka, V
19661101
BenyeshMelnick, Matilda (Baylor University College of Medicine, Houston, Tex.), Fern Probstmeyer, Robert McCombs, Jean P. Brunschwig, and Vladimir Vonka. Correlation between infectivity and physical virus particles in human cytomegalovirus. J. Bacteriol. 92:15551561. 1966.Infectivity titers [measured as plaqueforming units (PFU)] and particle counts by the sedimentation pseudoreplication technique were determined for crude, unpurified, intracellular preparations of two different strains of human cytomegalovirus. Unlike the high particleinfectivity ratio of 10(6) to 10(8) previously reported for these viruses, the number of total particles per PFU ranged from 160 to 490 with strain AD169 and from 176 to 1,050 for strain C87. Interpretation of particlePFU ratios of intracellular cytomegalovirus in terms of particle morphology is not conclusive at this time. The number of enveloped forms found varied between 0 and 34% of the total particles counted. However, the true proportion is probably greater, because envelopes were found to be destroyed by the enzyme treatment used in preparing the specimens for examination in the electron microscope. The number of full particles found ranged between 4 and 31% of the total particles counted. The particle per PFU ratio of extracellular virus was found to be three to fivefold lower than that of intracellular virus.

Particle physics for primary schools—enthusing future physicists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlidou, M.; Lazzeroni, C.
20160901
In recent years, the realisation that children make decisions and choices about subjects they like in primary school, became widely understood. For this reason academic establishments focus some of their public engagement activities towards the younger ages. Taking advantage of Professor Lazzeroni’s longstanding experience in particle physics research, during the last academic year we designed and trialled a particle physics workshop for primary schools. The workshop allows young children (ages 8–11) to learn the world of fundamental particles, use creative design to make particle models. The workshop has already been trialled in many primary schools, receiving very positive evaluation. The initial resources were reviewed and improved, based on the feedback received from school teachers and communicators.

Beyond Standard Model Physics: At the Frontiers of Cosmology and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LopezSuarez, Alejandro O.
I begin to write this thesis at a time of great excitement in the field of cosmology and particle physics. The aim of this thesis is to study and search for beyond the standard model (BSM) physics in the cosmological and high energy particle fields. There are two main questions, which this thesis aims to address: 1) what can we learn about the inflationary epoch utilizing the pioneer gravitational wave detector Adv. LIGO?, and 2) what are the dark matter particle properties and interactions with the standard model particles?. This thesis will focus on advances in answering both questions.

Using optical clock to probe quantum manybody physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jun
20160501
The progress of optical lattice clock has benefited greatly from the understanding of atomic interactions. At the same time, the precision of clock spectroscopy has been applied to explore manybody spin interactions including SU(N) symmetry. Our recent work on this combined front of quantum metrology and manybody physics includes the probe of spinorbital physics in the lattice clock and the investigation of a Fermi degenerate gas of 105 87Sr atoms in a threedimensional magicwavelength optical lattice.

Overview of high energy physics with polarized particles
SciTech Connect
Soffer, J. . Centre de Physique Theorique Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )
19900801
The purpose of this talk is to review spin effects in various areas of particle physics at high energy and by selecting the most interesting topics, to show the relevance of dealing with polarized particles. We will see that it provides crucial tests for the Standard Model and can give us clear signatures to uncover new interactions. We will also discuss some striking experimental facts recently observed in hadronic collisions and their implications for current theoretical ideas. 43 refs., 10 figs.

Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review
SciTech Connect
Redondo, Antonio
20100101
The present document represents a summary selfassessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

Quantum probability and cognitive modeling: some cautions and a promising direction in modeling physics learning.
PubMed
Franceschetti, Donald R; Gire, Elizabeth
20130601
Quantum probability theory offers a viable alternative to classical probability, although there are some ambiguities inherent in transferring the quantum formalism to a less determined realm. A number of physicists are now looking at the applicability of quantum ideas to the assessment of physics learning, an area particularly suited to quantum probability ideas.

Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in timedependent fields.
PubMed
Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh
20150901
The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a timedependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics.

Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in timedependent fields
SciTech Connect
Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh
20150928
The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a timedependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Thus, special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics.

Stochastic vacuum of quantum chromodynamics as an environment for color particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuvshinov, V.; Bagashov, E.
20160501
The behavior of quarks is described within approaches used in quantum mechanics and related disciplines (quantum optics and quantum theory of information). The stochastic vacuum of quantum chromodynamics is treated as an environment (closed pool) for color particles (quarks). Their interaction results in a loss of information on the quark color state and consequently in the impossibility of observing it (the confinement of quarks). The processes are described using quantities of the quantum theory of information, such as von Neumann entropy, fidelity, and purity.

Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19901130
This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both nonaccelerator and acceleratorbased efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

On the fundamental role of dynamics in quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Holger F.
20160501
Quantum theory expresses the observable relations between physical properties in terms of probabilities that depend on the specific context described by the "state" of a system. However, the laws of physics that emerge at the macroscopic level are fully deterministic. Here, it is shown that the relation between quantum statistics and deterministic dynamics can be explained in terms of ergodic averages over complex valued probabilities, where the fundamental causality of motion is expressed by an action that appears as the phase of the complex probability multiplied with the fundamental constant ħ. Importantly, classical physics emerges as an approximation of this more fundamental theory of motion, indicating that the assumption of a classical reality described by differential geometry is merely an artefact of an extrapolation from the observation of macroscopic dynamics to a fictitious level of precision that does not exist within our actual experience of the world around us. It is therefore possible to completely replace the classical concepts of trajectories with the more fundamental concept of action phase probabilities as a universally valid description of the deterministic causality of motion that is observed in the physical world.

Magnetic particle motions within living cells. Physical theory and techniques.
PubMed Central
Valberg, P A; Butler, J P
19870101
Body tissues are not ferromagnetic, but ferromagnetic particles can be present as contaminants or as probes in the lungs and in other organs. The magnetic domains of these particles can be aligned by momentary application of an external magnetic field; the magnitude and time course of the resultant remanent field depend on the quantity of magnetic material and the degree of particle motion. The interpretation of magnetometric data requires an understanding of particle magnetization, agglomeration, random motion, and both rotation and translation in response to magnetic fields. We present physical principles relevant to magnetometry and suggest models for intracellular particle motion driven by thermal, elastic, or cellular forces. The design principles of instrumentation for magnetizing intracellular particles and for detecting weak remanent magnetic fields are described. Such magnetic measurements can be used for noninvasive studies of particle clearance from the body or of particle motion within body tissues and cells. Assumptions inherent to this experimental approach and possible sources of artifact are considered and evaluated. PMID:3676435

SpaceBased Research in Fundamental Physics and Quantum Technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turyshev, Slava G.; Israelsson, Ulf E.; Shao, Michael; Yu, Nan; Kusenko, Alexander; Wright, Edward L.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Kasevich, Mark; Lipa, John A.; Mester, John C.; Reasenberg, Robert D.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Ashby, Neil; Gould, Harvey; Paik, Ho Jung
Space offers unique experimental conditions and a wide range of opportunities to explore the foundations of modern physics with an accuracy far beyond that of groundbased experiments. Spacebased experiments today can uniquely address important questions related to the fundamental laws of Nature. In particular, highaccuracy physics experiments in space can test relativistic gravity and probe the physics beyond the Standard Model; they can perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for investigations in precision cosmology and astroparticle physics. In addition, atomic physics has recently shown substantial progress in the development of optical clocks and atom interferometers. If placed in space, these instruments could turn into powerful highresolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current status of spacebased research in fundamental physics, its discovery potential, and its importance for modern science. We offer a set of recommendations to be considered by the upcoming National Academy of Sciences' Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics. In our opinion, the Decadal Survey should include spacebased research in fundamental physics as one of its focus areas. We recommend establishing an Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee's interagency "Fundamental Physics Task Force" to assess the status of both ground and spacebased efforts in the field, to identify the most important objectives, and to suggest the best ways to organize the work of several federal agencies involved. We also recommend establishing a new NASAled interagency program in fundamental physics that will consolidate new technologies, prepare key instruments for future space missions, and build a strong scientific and engineering community. Our goal is to expand NASA's science objectives in space by including "laboratory research in fundamental physics" as an element in the agency's ongoing space research efforts.

Implications of cosmological observables for particle physics: an overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.
20160501
I review how precision data from observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and the largescale structure distribution can be used to probe particle physics. Some examples are the absolute neutrino mass scale, dark radiation, light sterile neutrinos, QCD axions, WIMP annihilation, and dark sector interactions.

My 50 years of research in particle physics.
PubMed
Sugawara, Hirotaka
20100101
Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible.

The heavy particle hazard, what physical data are needed?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curtis, S. B.; Wilkinson, M. C.
19720101
The physical data required to evaluate the radiation hazard from heavy galactic cosmic rays to astronauts on extended missions are discussed. The spectral characteristics, nuclear interaction parameters, and track structure of particles are emphasized. The data on the lower energy portion of the differential spectrum of the iron group and nuclear fragmentation in tissue and aluminum are tested, and results are shown.

My 50 years of research in particle physics
PubMed Central
Sugawara, Hirotaka
20100101
Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

Research in elementary particle physics. [Ohio State Univ. , Columbus
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19920101
Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study highenergy electronproton interactions at HERA, lightcone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electronpositron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.

Deep inelastic scaling in nuclear and particle physics
SciTech Connect
West, G.B.
19880101
These lectures are intended to be a pedagogical introduction to some of the ideas and concepts concerning scaling phenomena which arise in nuclear and particle physics. Topics discussed are: classical scaling and dimensional analysis; nonrelativistic treatment; dynamics and scaling; yscaling; and relativistic treatment (QCD). 22 refs., 16 figs. (LSP)

Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors
SciTech Connect
Schwarzschild, B.
19930101
This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

Parameter estimation of fractionalorder chaotic systems by using quantum parallel particle swarm optimization algorithm.
PubMed
Huang, Yu; Guo, Feng; Li, Yongling; Liu, Yufeng
20150101
Parameter estimation for fractionalorder chaotic systems is an important issue in fractionalorder chaotic control and synchronization and could be essentially formulated as a multidimensional optimization problem. A novel algorithm called quantum parallel particle swarm optimization (QPPSO) is proposed to solve the parameter estimation for fractionalorder chaotic systems. The parallel characteristic of quantum computing is used in QPPSO. This characteristic increases the calculation of each generation exponentially. The behavior of particles in quantum space is restrained by the quantum evolution equation, which consists of the current rotation angle, individual optimal quantum rotation angle, and global optimal quantum rotation angle. Numerical simulation based on several typical fractionalorder systems and comparisons with some typical existing algorithms show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25603158

Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matthaeus, W.
19920101
In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

Introduction to the Spin Physics of Relativistic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ternov, I. M.
19970801
Problems of Spin's theory of relativistic Particles, the Dynamics of Spin during its motion in an external electromagnetic field, the problem of the Spin's and Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the electron (AMM) measurement, as well as some polarization and spin effects in electroweak fermionic interactions, moving in an external electromagnetic field has been examined. Problems of Engineering Physics of the Spin were also put into discussion: Polarized beams creation and Polarization Guidance. A review of achievements of the High Energy Physics in the area of application of relativistic beams with oriented spin has been given. The book is designed for Postgraduate Students of Universities Physics Departments.

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 185
SciTech Connect
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.
19850101
This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixedtarget beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Dipolar Physics in an Erbium Quantum Gas Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebert, Anne; Krahn, Aaron; Phelps, Gregory; Dickerson, Susannah; Greiner, Markus; Erbium Lab Team
20160501
Erbium offers exciting possibilities for extending the singlesite imaging work of current quantum gas microscopes. With a magnetic dipole moment of 7μB, the dipoledipole interaction of erbium is 50 times that of alkali atoms. The longrange and anisotropic nature of the dipole interaction adds richness to the shortrange interactions that dominate the physics of the groundstate alkali atoms commonly used in ultracold experiments today. Erbium has several abundant isotopes, giving the added flexibility of studying both bosonic and fermionic systems. We present proposed avenues of research for the dipolar microscope being developed, including studies of magnetism, the Einsteinde Haas effect, and quantum phase transitions with fractional filling factors.

Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state
SciTech Connect
Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori
20100815
Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (KO) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the KO scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schroedinger's cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.

PREFACE: The 9th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horwitz, L. P.
20150501
The most recent meeting took place at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, on June 913, 2014. This meeting forms the basis for the Proceedings that are recorded in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Along with the work of some of the founding members of the Association, we were fortunate to have lecturers from application areas that provided strong challenges for further developments in quantum field theory, cosmological problems, and in the dynamics of systems subject to accelerations and the effects of general relativity. Topics treated in this issue include studies of the dark matter problem, rotation curves, and, in particular, for the (relatively accessible) Milky Way galaxy, compact stellar objects, a composite particle model, and the properties of a conformally invariant theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Stueckelberg theory is further investigated for its properties in producing bremsstrahlung and pair production and apparent superluminal effects, and, as mentioned above, the implications of low energy nuclear reactions for such offshell theories. Other "proper time" theories are investigated as well, and a study of the clock synchronization problem is presented. A mathematical study of to quantum groupo associated with the Toda lattice and its implications for quantum field theory, as well as a phenomenological discussion of supernova mechanics as well as a semiclassical discussion of electron spin and the question of the compatibility of special relativity and the quantum theory. A careful analysis of the covariant AharonovBohm effect is given as well. The quantization of massless fields and the relation to the Maxwell theory is also discussed. We wish to thank the participants who contributed very much through their lectures, personal discussions, and these papers, to the advancement of the subject and our understanding.

How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space
SciTech Connect
Morimae, Tomoyuki
20110415
In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportationlike method of uploading. This method also enables the GottesmanChuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtualreal hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.

A Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocol Based on FiveParticle Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, ShiBin; Yan, LiLi
20130901
To transmit a message safely, fiveparticle cluster state particles are used to construct a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol. Fiveparticle cluster state particles are used for both detecting eavesdroppers and transmitting secret messages. All of the fiveparticle cluster states' photons for detection are mixed to the sending sequence to detect eavesdroppers. The detection rate approaches 88% per qubit. The fiveparticle cluster states needed are only one fifth of the photons in the sending sequence. In this protocol, there is no photon carrying secret information transmitting in quantum channel, and the classical XOR operation which serves as a onetimepad is used to ensure the security of the protocol. Compared with three photons of each fiveparticle cluster state as detection photons, the five photons in this study will decrease the fiveparticle cluster states needed for detection greatly.

Integrating particle physical geometry into composting degradation kinetics.
PubMed
Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping
20160101
The study was carried out to integrate physical geometry of compost particle with degradation kinetics to model biological reactions, which revealing additional dynamic approaches. A sphere and its circumscribing cube were used to represent compost particles. An inner sphere, representing anaerobic zone, was introduced to describe variations of substrate volume without sufficient oxygen supply. Degradation of soluble substrates and hydrolysis of insoluble substrates were associated with the particle geometry. Transportation of soluble substrates produced from hydrolysis was expressed using Fick's law. Through the integration of degradation kinetics with geometry models, degradation models could describe varying volume of composting materials involving aerobic or anaerobic digestion and transportation of soluble substrates in a unit compost particle.

Particle radiosurgery: a new frontier of physics in medicine.
PubMed
Bert, Christoph; Durante, Marco
20140701
Radiosurgery was introduced over half a century ago for treatment of intracranial lesions. In more recent years, stereotactic radiotherapy has rapidly advanced and is now commonly used for treatments of both cranial and extracranial lesions with high doses delivered in a few, down to a single fraction. The results of a workshop on Particle radiosurgery: A new frontier of physics in medicine held at Obergurgl, Austria during August 2529 2013 are summarized in this issue with an overview presented in this paper. The focus was laid on particle radiosurgery but the content also includes current practice in xray radiosurgery and the overarching research in radiobiology and motion management for extracranial lesions. The results and discussions showed that especially research in radiobiology of highdose chargedparticles and motion management are necessary for the success of particle radiosurgery.

Particle Physics in High School: A Diagnose Study
PubMed Central
Solbes, Jordi
20160101
The science learning process improves when the contents are connected to students’ lives. Particle physics has had a great impact in our society in the last years and has changed the theoretical picture about matter fundamental dynamics. Thus, we think that academic contents about matter components and interactions should be updated. With this study we aim to characterize the level of knowledge of high school students about this topic. We built a test with questions about classical atomic models, particle physics, recent discoveries, social implications and students opinions about it. Contrary to our first suspicion, students’ answers show a high variability. They have new physics ideas and show a great interest towards modern concepts. We suggest including an updated view of this topic as part of the curriculum. PMID:27253377

An Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cottingham, W. Noel; Greenwood, Derek A.
19990101
This graduate textbook provides a concise, accessible introduction to the Standard Model of particle physics. Theoretical concepts are developed clearly and carefully throughout the bookfrom the electromagnetic and weak interactions of leptons and quarks to the strong interactions of quarks. Chapters developing the theory are interspersed with chapters describing some of the wealth of experimental data supporting the model. The book assumes only the standard mathematics taught in an undergraduate physics course; more sophisticated mathematical ideas are developed in the text and in appendices. For graduate students in particle physics and physicists working in other fields who are interested in the current understanding of the ultimate constituents of matter, this textbook provides a lucid and uptodate introduction.

Particle Physics in High School: A Diagnose Study.
PubMed
Tuzón, Paula; Solbes, Jordi
20160101
The science learning process improves when the contents are connected to students' lives. Particle physics has had a great impact in our society in the last years and has changed the theoretical picture about matter fundamental dynamics. Thus, we think that academic contents about matter components and interactions should be updated. With this study we aim to characterize the level of knowledge of high school students about this topic. We built a test with questions about classical atomic models, particle physics, recent discoveries, social implications and students opinions about it. Contrary to our first suspicion, students' answers show a high variability. They have new physics ideas and show a great interest towards modern concepts. We suggest including an updated view of this topic as part of the curriculum.

PREFACE: International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
20160201
The International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA2015) was held in Moscow, Russia, from October 5 to 10, 2015. The conference is organized by Center of Fundamental Research and Particle Physics of National Research Nuclear University ''MEPhI''. The aim of the Conference is to promote contacts between scientists and development of new ideas in fundamental research. We bring together experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical aspects of nuclear, particle, astroparticle physics and cosmology. The conference covers a wide range of topics such as accelerator physics, (astro) particle physics, cosmic rays, cosmology and methods of experimental physics  detectors and instruments. These directions are unified by development of the Standard Model (SM) which is evidently not complete. There are deviations from the Standard Model  neutrino oscillations, the dark matter existence. Together with strong interactions, they are main subjects of the Conference. New results from LHC collider as well as its future upgrade are discussed with the Higgs as the main point for discussion. Substantial development of experimental tools for astrophysical observations and new results from cosmic ray experiments is one of the main subjects of the conference. Various aspects of strong interaction are discussed. Among them: Charmonium and Bottomonium states, Flavor physics at Super B factories, Exotic Nuclei in Astrophysics. Another subject for discussion is the neutrino physics, promising and unique way to get new knowledge. In this content, several talks on BOREXINO experiment where new results in neutrino oscillations are presented. Special session is devoted to PAMELA experiment  9 years in orbit and to the future GAMMA400 gammaray telescope with following main scientific goals: indirect dark matter origin study by the gammaray astronomy methods, discrete astrophysical sources observations, diffuse background γemission analysis

Numerical simulation of quantum systems using the ParticleInCell method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dirkmann, Sven; Youssef, Ziad; Hemke, Torben; Mussenbrock, Thomas
20141001
The ParticleInCell (PIC) method is a very powerful method for studying the dynamics of plasmas. It has been primarily developed for tracking the charged particle trajectories subject to selfconsistent and external electromagnetic fields. Exploiting the power of modern computers, one is able to track the classical paths of tens of millions of particles at the same time. In the late 1980th, it was Dawson (and later Dauger) who had the idea to apply the PIC method to the classical part in the semiclassical approach to quantum systems via path integral methods. One could estimate that if a thousands of classical paths are sufficient to describe the dynamics of one quantum particle, then millions classical paths could describe the dynamics of a quantum particle system. A PIC code in the frame of a semiclassical approach would therefore enable the investigation of a number of quantum phenomena, e.g., optical properties, electrical properties, and, ultimately, chemical reactions. In this contribution we explain the use of the PIC code yapic (developed by the authors) in the frame of the path integral method and discuss the numerical results for simple quantum phenomena, i.e., the quantum harmonic oscillator and quantum tunneling. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation in the frame of FOR 2093.

Sein oder Nichtsein als Grundfrage der Quantenphysik / To he or not to be as basic question in quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bopp, Fritz
19840201
The question is often asked how to interprete quantum physics. That question does not arise in classical physics, since Newton's axioms are immediately connected with basic ideas and experiences. The same is possible in quantum physics, if we remember how elementary particle physicists describe their experiments. As Helmholtz has pointed out. the basic assumption of classical physics is that of geneidentity. That means: Bodies remain the same during their motion. Obviously, that is no longer true in quantum physics. Particles can be created and annihilated. Therefore creation and annihilation must be considered as basic processes. Motion only occurs, if a particle is annihilated in a certain point, if an equal one is created in an infinitesimally neighbouring point, and if this process is continuously going on during a certain time. Motions of that kind are compatible with the existence of some manifest creation and annihilation processes. If we accept this idea, quantum physics can be derived from first principles. As in classical physics, we know therefore what happens from the very beginning. Thus questions of interpretation become dispensable. A particular mathematical method is used to exhaust continua. The theory is formulated in a finite lattice, whose point density and extension equally go to infinity. All calculations are therefore performed in a finite dimensional Hilbert space. The results are however related to an infinite dimensional one. Earlier calculations may, therefore, be essentially correct, though they must be rejected in theories which are based on manifestly infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Here limiting processes do not occur in the state space. They are only admissible for numerical results.

Huygens' principle, the free Schrödinger particle and the quantum anticentrifugal force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirone, M. A.; Dahl, J. P.; Fedorov, M.; Greenberger, D.; Schleich, W. P.
20020101
Huygens' principle following from the d'Alembert wave equation is not valid in twodimensional space. A Schrödinger particle of vanishing angular momentum moving freely in two dimensions experiences an attractive force  the quantum anticentrifugal force  towards its centre. We connect these two phenomena by comparing and contrasting the radial propagators of the d'Alembert wave equation and of a free nonrelativistic quantum mechanical particle in two and three dimensions.

Searching for new physics at the frontiers with lattice quantum chromodynamics.
PubMed
Van de Water, Ruth S
20120701
Numerical latticequantum chromodynamics (QCD) simulations, when combined with experimental measurements, allow the determination of fundamental parameters of the particlephysics Standard Model and enable searches for physics beyondtheStandard Model. We present the current status of latticeQCD weak matrix element calculations needed to obtain the elements and phase of the CabibboKobayashiMaskawa (CKM) matrix and to test the Standard Model in the quarkflavor sector. We then discuss evidence that may hint at the presence of new physics beyond the Standard Model CKM framework. Finally, we discuss two opportunities where we expect lattice QCD to play a pivotal role in searching for, and possibly discovery of, new physics at upcoming highintensity experiments: rare decays and the muon anomalous magnetic moment. The next several years may witness the discovery of new elementary particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The interplay between lattice QCD, highenergy experiments at the LHC, and highintensity experiments will be needed to determine the underlying structure of whatever physics beyondtheStandard Model is realized in nature.

Topics in the standard model of particle physics extension and fourthorder gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochoa, Joseph R.
In this thesis I present two possible signatures of quantum gravitational phenomenology. The first part of this thesis relates to a Lorentz symmetry violating extension of the standard model of particle physics. Here I show that a ChernSimons type extension of the quantum electrodynamic (QED) sector of the standard model (SM) leads to the generation of circular polarization for photons. The polarization of scattered photons are analyzed using quantum field theoretic techniques and through the application of a generalized Boltzmann transport equation. In addition to the previously studied optical activity or birefringence effects induced by the particular interaction studied here, the Lorentz invariance violating interaction in question also leads to the generation of circular polarization. The possibility for observation of the effects in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is discussed, although the circular polarization effects are shown to be at a level which is always subdominate to the birefringence effects. The second part of this thesis relates to a fourthorder modification to the general theory of relativity (GR) which has appeared as quantum corrections in the effective spectral action of noncommutative geometry (NCG). A term which is proportional to the square of the Weyl curvature is added to the EinsteinHilbert action of GR and the the gravitational wave solutions of this modified theory are derived. The implications for the possibility of constraining the parameters of NCG through the analysis of data on the rate of orbit decay of binary pulsars is discussed.

A guide to experimental particle physics literature, 19911996
SciTech Connect
Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B.
19961001
We present an indexed guide to experimental particle physics literature for the years 1991  1996. Approximately 4200 papers are indexed by (1) Beam/Target/Momentum (2) Reaction/Momentum/DataDescriptor (including the final state) (3) Particle/Decay (4) Accelerator/Experiment/Detector. All indices are crossreferenced to the paper`s title and references in the ID/Reference/Title index. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularlyupdated DATAGUIDE database from the World Wide Web.

Problems of Quantum Theory may be Solved by an Emulation Theory of Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woesler, Richard
20050201
The emulation interpretation of quantum theory is described which may solve problems of the Copenhagen interpretation finally. According to Kolmogorov complexity theory it is conceivable that a bit string exists encoding our world which can be computed by an appropriate generalized Turing machine. In this case the computation would emulate the world, therefore this can be called an emulation theory of quantum physics, and the emulation interpretation of quantum theory. The probability of a string is dominated by the probabilities of its shortest programs which is known as the `coding theorem'. This leads to the suggestion that there may be a relatively short shortest program by which our world may be run. This suggestion appears to be in accordance with our world. The world exhibits a number of symmetries. It is plausible that the shortest algorithm for our special world is shorter than those for worlds where symmetries are broken more often than in our world, because each further deviation from a symmetry has to be encoded within the algorithm which would enlarge its length. Therefore, laws of physics may be identical rather globally in spacetime. Further, in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory it is defined, how to compute probabilities for, e.g., measurement results when conducting measurements on variables of quantum systems. In a completely satisfactory theory of everything this would not be sufficient, but such a theory should give a reason why the values of the probabilities seem, as far as it is known, to be identical also in all different regions of the observed world. The emulation interpretation suggests that all deviations from this symmetry of the probabilities would enlarge the shortest program of the world, and, therefore, we would probably not live in a world with such deviations. A second question arises from the attempt to combine the theory of black holes, thermodynamics and quantum theory. Bekenstein derives a holography principle

Tomonaga–Luttinger physics in electronic quantum circuits
PubMed Central
Jezouin, S.; Albert, M.; Parmentier, F. D.; Anthore, A.; Gennser, U.; Cavanna, A.; Safi, I.; Pierre, F.
20130101
In onedimensional conductors, interactions result in correlated electronic systems. At low energy, a hallmark signature of the socalled Tomonaga–Luttinger liquids is the universal conductance curve predicted in presence of an impurity. A seemingly different topic is the quantum laws of electricity, when distinct quantum conductors are assembled in a circuit. In particular, the conductances are suppressed at low energy, a phenomenon called dynamical Coulomb blockade. Here we investigate the conductance of mesoscopic circuits constituted by a short singlechannel quantum conductor in series with a resistance, and demonstrate a proposed link to Tomonaga–Luttinger physics. We reformulate and establish experimentally a recently derived phenomenological expression for the conductance using a wide range of circuits, including carbon nanotube data obtained elsewhere. By confronting both conductance data and phenomenological expression with the universal Tomonaga–Luttinger conductance curve, we demonstrate experimentally the predicted mapping between dynamical Coulomb blockade and the transport across a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid with an impurity. PMID:23653214

TomonagaLuttinger physics in electronic quantum circuits.
PubMed
Jezouin, S; Albert, M; Parmentier, F D; Anthore, A; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Safi, I; Pierre, F
20130101
In onedimensional conductors, interactions result in correlated electronic systems. At low energy, a hallmark signature of the socalled TomonagaLuttinger liquids is the universal conductance curve predicted in presence of an impurity. A seemingly different topic is the quantum laws of electricity, when distinct quantum conductors are assembled in a circuit. In particular, the conductances are suppressed at low energy, a phenomenon called dynamical Coulomb blockade. Here we investigate the conductance of mesoscopic circuits constituted by a short singlechannel quantum conductor in series with a resistance, and demonstrate a proposed link to TomonagaLuttinger physics. We reformulate and establish experimentally a recently derived phenomenological expression for the conductance using a wide range of circuits, including carbon nanotube data obtained elsewhere. By confronting both conductance data and phenomenological expression with the universal TomonagaLuttinger conductance curve, we demonstrate experimentally the predicted mapping between dynamical Coulomb blockade and the transport across a TomonagaLuttinger liquid with an impurity.

Quantum entanglement of identical particles by standard informationtheoretic notions.
PubMed
Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe
20160209
Quantum entanglement of identical particles is essential in quantum information theory. Yet, its correct determination remains an open issue hindering the general understanding and exploitation of manyparticle systems. Operatorbased methods have been developed that attempt to overcome the issue. Here we introduce a statebased method which, as second quantization, does not label identical particles and presents conceptual and technical advances compared to the previous ones. It establishes the quantitative role played by arbitrary wave function overlaps, local measurements and particle nature (bosons or fermions) in assessing entanglement by notions commonly used in quantum information theory for distinguishable particles, like partial trace. Our approach furthermore shows that bringing identical particles into the same spatial location functions as an entangling gate, providing fundamental theoretical support to recent experimental observations with ultracold atoms. These results pave the way to set and interpret experiments for utilizing quantum correlations in realistic scenarios where overlap of particles can count, as in BoseEinstein condensates, quantum dots and biological molecular aggregates.

Quantum entanglement of identical particles by standard informationtheoretic notions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe
20160201
Quantum entanglement of identical particles is essential in quantum information theory. Yet, its correct determination remains an open issue hindering the general understanding and exploitation of manyparticle systems. Operatorbased methods have been developed that attempt to overcome the issue. Here we introduce a statebased method which, as second quantization, does not label identical particles and presents conceptual and technical advances compared to the previous ones. It establishes the quantitative role played by arbitrary wave function overlaps, local measurements and particle nature (bosons or fermions) in assessing entanglement by notions commonly used in quantum information theory for distinguishable particles, like partial trace. Our approach furthermore shows that bringing identical particles into the same spatial location functions as an entangling gate, providing fundamental theoretical support to recent experimental observations with ultracold atoms. These results pave the way to set and interpret experiments for utilizing quantum correlations in realistic scenarios where overlap of particles can count, as in BoseEinstein condensates, quantum dots and biological molecular aggregates.

Quantum entanglement of identical particles by standard informationtheoretic notions
PubMed Central
Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe
20160101
Quantum entanglement of identical particles is essential in quantum information theory. Yet, its correct determination remains an open issue hindering the general understanding and exploitation of manyparticle systems. Operatorbased methods have been developed that attempt to overcome the issue. Here we introduce a statebased method which, as second quantization, does not label identical particles and presents conceptual and technical advances compared to the previous ones. It establishes the quantitative role played by arbitrary wave function overlaps, local measurements and particle nature (bosons or fermions) in assessing entanglement by notions commonly used in quantum information theory for distinguishable particles, like partial trace. Our approach furthermore shows that bringing identical particles into the same spatial location functions as an entangling gate, providing fundamental theoretical support to recent experimental observations with ultracold atoms. These results pave the way to set and interpret experiments for utilizing quantum correlations in realistic scenarios where overlap of particles can count, as in BoseEinstein condensates, quantum dots and biological molecular aggregates. PMID:26857475

A Novel Quantum Blind Signature Scheme with Fourparticle GHZ States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Ling; Zhang, KeJia; Qin, SuJuan; Guo, FenZhuo
20160201
In an arbitrated quantum signature scheme, the signer signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the assistance of the arbitrator. We present an arbitrated quantum blind signature scheme by using fourparticle entangled GreenbergerHorneZeilinger (GHZ) states. By using the special relationship of fourparticle GHZ states, we cannot only support the security of quantum signature, but also guarantee the anonymity of the message owner. It has a wide application to Epayment system, Egovernment, Ebusiness, and etc.

A Novel Quantum Blind Signature Scheme with FourParticle Cluster States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Ling
20160301
In an arbitrated quantum signature scheme, the signer signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the assistance of the arbitrator. We present an arbitrated quantum blind signature scheme by measuring fourparticle cluster states and coding. By using the special relationship of fourparticle cluster states, we cannot only support the security of quantum signature, but also guarantee the anonymity of the message owner. It has a wide application to Epayment system, Egovernment, Ebusiness, and etc.

Twoparticle quantum interference in tunnelcoupled optical tweezers.
PubMed
Kaufman, A M; Lester, B J; Reynolds, C M; Wall, M L; FossFeig, M; Hazzard, K R A; Rey, A M; Regal, C A
20140718
The quantum statistics of atoms is typically observed in the behavior of an ensemble via macroscopic observables. However, quantum statistics modifies the behavior of even two particles. Here, we demonstrate nearcomplete control over all the internal and external degrees of freedom of two lasercooled (87)Rb atoms trapped in two optical tweezers. This controllability allows us to observe signatures of indistinguishability via twoparticle interference. Our work establishes lasercooled atoms in optical tweezers as a promising route to bottomup engineering of scalable, lowentropy quantum systems.

A Novel Particle Detector: Quantum Dot Doped Liquid Scintillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winslow, Lindley; Conrad, Janet; Jerry, Ruel
20100201
Quantum dots are semiconducting nanocrystals. When excited by light shorter then their characteristic wavelength, they reemit in a narrow band around this wavelength. The size of the quantum is proportional to the characteristic wavelength so they can be tuned for many applications. CdS quantum dots are made in wavelengths from 360nm to 460nm, a perfect range for the sensitivity of photomultiplier tubes. The synthesis of quantum dots automatically leaves them in toluene, a good organic scintillator and Cd is a particularly interesting material as it has one of the highest thermal neutron cross sections and has several neutrinoless double beta decay and double electron capture isotopes. The performance of quantum dot loaded scintillator compared to standard scintillators is measured and some unique properties presented. )

Pharmaceutical microparticles give amorphous sucrose higher physical stability.
PubMed
Hellrup, Joel; Mahlin, Denny
20110516
The aim of this study was to explore how pharmaceutical microsized filler particles affect the amorphous stability of sucrose in sucrose/filler particle composites produced by freezedrying. Focus was put on the filler particles' properties crystallinity, hygroscopicity, hydrophobicity, and surface area, and their influence on physical stability of the amorphous phase. The microsized filler particles were examined with Blaine permeametry, gas adsorption, pycnometry, gravimetric vapour sorption, Xray diffraction, and light microscopy before composites of sucrose and microsized filler particles were prepared by freezedrying. The stability of the composites was examined with Xray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and microcalorimetry. All composites were amorphous and showed higher stability compared to pure amorphous sucrose, which was evident from a delay in heat and moistureinduced crystallization. However, calcium carbonate and oxazepam microsized filler particles lost their ability to stabilize the amorphous sucrose when exposed to humidity. The dry glass transition temperature (T(g)) was higher for the composites, indicating the stabilization was mediated by a reduced molecular mobility of the amorphous phase. PMID:21356288

A Medical Application of Nuclear Physics: Particle Radiotherapy with Protons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farr, Jonathan B.
20061001
Since the discovery of radiation, applications have been made to medicine. The advent of higher energy particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century enabled modern teletherapy using relatively high energy xrays and particles. Today megavoltage (MV) xrays are the most common modality of delivering high doses of potentially life saving radiation to a wide variety of disease, mostly malignant cancers. However, the maximum radiation dose that can be delivered is always limited by the effects to critical surrounding biologic structures. In many cases, due to their physical properties, ``heavy'' particle radiotherapy with protons and light ions may provide an advantage in this respect over MV xrays allowing either a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the volume or, for the same dose, reducing the concomitant damage to critical structures. This motivation, together with recent advances in particle therapy systems that are making the technology more readily available, is serving to grow the field of particle therapy. In particular, treatment with fast protons is becoming more widespread with over 20 facilities operating worldwide and more under construction. This presentation will provide an introduction to heavy particle therapy and additional details specifically on proton therapy.

Quantum Correlations of Two Relativistic Spin{1}/{2} Particles Under Noisy Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahdian, M.; Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.; Makaremi, T.
20160201
We study the quantum correlation dynamics of bipartite spin{1}/{2} density matrices for two particles under Wigner rotations induced by Lorentz transformations which is transmitted through noisy channels. We compare quantum entanglement, geometric discord(GD), and quantum discord (QD) for bipartite relativistic spin{1}/{2} states under noisy channels. We find out QD and GD tend to death asymptotically but a sudden change in the decay rate of the entanglement occurs under noisy channels. Also, bipartite relativistic spin density matrices are considered as a quantum channel for teleportation onequbit state under the influence of depolarizing noise and compare fidelity for various velocities of observers.

Third quantization: modeling the universe as a 'particle' in a quantum field theory of the minisuperspace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robles Pérez, S. J.
20130201
The third quantization formalism of quantum cosmology adds simplicity and conceptual insight into the quantum description of the multiverse. Within such a formalism, the existence of squeezed and entangled states raises the question of whether the complementary principle of quantum mechanics has to be extended to the quantum description of the whole spacetime manifold. If so, the particle description entails the consideration of a multiverse scenario and the wave description induces us to consider as well correlations and interactions among the universes of the multiverse.

Twoparty quantum key agreement based on fourparticle GHZ states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, YeFeng; Ma, WenPing
20160401
Based on fourparticle GHZ states, the double CNOT operation and the delayed measurement technique, a twoparty quantum key agreement (QKA) protocols is proposed. The double CNOT operation makes each fourparticle GHZ state collapse into two independent quantum states without any entanglement. Furthermore, one party can directly know the two quantum states and the other party can be aware of the two quantum states by using the corresponding measurement. According to the initial states of the two quantum states, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. Then the protocol achieves the fair establishment of a shared key. The security analysis shows that the new protocol can resist against participant attacks, the Trojan horse attacks and other outsider attacks. Furthermore, the new protocol also has no information leakage problem and has high qubit efficiency.

GridPP: the UK grid for particle physics.
PubMed
Britton, D; Cass, A J; Clarke, P E L; Coles, J; Colling, D J; Doyle, A T; Geddes, N I; Gordon, J C; Jones, R W L; Kelsey, D P; Lloyd, S L; Middleton, R P; Patrick, G N; Sansum, R A; Pearce, S E
20090628
The startup of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, presents a huge challenge in processing and analysing the vast amounts of scientific data that will be produced. The architecture of the worldwide grid that will handle 15 PB of particle physics data annually from this machine is based on a hierarchical tiered structure. We describe the development of the UK component (GridPP) of this grid from a prototype system to a full exploitation grid for real data analysis. This includes the physical infrastructure, the deployment of middleware, operational experience and the initial exploitation by the major LHC experiments. PMID:19451101

GridPP: the UK grid for particle physics.
PubMed
Britton, D; Cass, A J; Clarke, P E L; Coles, J; Colling, D J; Doyle, A T; Geddes, N I; Gordon, J C; Jones, R W L; Kelsey, D P; Lloyd, S L; Middleton, R P; Patrick, G N; Sansum, R A; Pearce, S E
20090628
The startup of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, presents a huge challenge in processing and analysing the vast amounts of scientific data that will be produced. The architecture of the worldwide grid that will handle 15 PB of particle physics data annually from this machine is based on a hierarchical tiered structure. We describe the development of the UK component (GridPP) of this grid from a prototype system to a full exploitation grid for real data analysis. This includes the physical infrastructure, the deployment of middleware, operational experience and the initial exploitation by the major LHC experiments.

Twoparty quantum key agreement protocol with fourparticle entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yefeng; Ma, Wenping
20160901
Based on fourparticle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique, a twoparty quantum key agreement protocol is proposed in this paper. In the protocol, two participants can deduce the measurement results of each other’s initial quantum states in terms of the measurement correlation property of fourparticle entangled states. According to the corresponding initial quantum states deduced by themselves, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. This guarantees the fair establishment of a shared key. Since each particle in quantum channel is transmitted only once, the protocol is congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. The security analysis shows that the protocol not only can resist against both participant and outsider attacks but also has no information leakage problem. Moreover, it has high qubit efficiency.

Quantum fields and poisson processes: Interaction of a cutoff boson field with a quantum particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertrand, Jacqueline; Gaveau, Bernard; Rideau, Guy
19850101
The solution of the Schrödinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the bosonoccupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cutoff is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

Physical sputtering of metallic systems by chargedparticle impact
SciTech Connect
Lam, N.Q.
19891201
The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by chargedparticle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knockon collisions. Fundamental aspects of ionsolid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiationinduced and enhanced phenomena that modify the nearsurface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputteredatom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.

UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report
SciTech Connect
Nefkens, B.M.K.
19831101
The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

Fundamental Constants as Monitors of Particle Physics and Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Rodger
20160301
This contribution considers the constraints on particle physics and dark energy parameter space imposed by the astronomical observational constraints on the variation of the proton to electron mass ratio μ and the fine structure constant α. These constraints impose limits on the temporal variation of these parameters on a time scale greater than half the age of the universe, a time scale inaccessible by laboratory facilities such as the Large Hadron Collider. The limits on the variance of μ and α constrain combinations of the QCD Scale, the Higgs VEV and the Yukawa coupling on the particle physics side and a combination of the temporal variation of rolling scalar field and its coupling to the constants on the dark energy side.

MAJOR DETECOTRS IN ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS  May 1985 Suppl.
SciTech Connect
Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.
19850501
This report is the second edition of a looseleaf compendium of the properties and performance characteristics of the major detectors of elementary particle physics. This introduces the second edition of the LBL91 Supplement 'Major Detectors in Elementary Particle Physics.' For some detectors the update merely documents minor modifications or provides additional references. Others have undergone major rebuilding or have been augmented with new subsystems. The new LEP, SLC, TRISTAN, BEPC, and FNAL detectors have had their designs fixed and are now under construction. Some detectors have completed their programs since the last edition and so are omitted. The use of colored looseleaf paper should allow users to maintain a historical record of each detector. We again thank those physicists working with each detector who took the time to summarize its properties and supply us with the appropriate drawings.

A Masterclass in Particle Physics for High School Students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecire, Kenneth; Entwistle, T.
20061201
The European Particle Physics Outreach Group (EPPOG) developed the Masterclass in 2004 to bring particle physics to high school classrooms in Europe. They put real data on a website (http://wyp.teilchenphysik.org/mc.htm) from the Large ElectronPositron (LEP) collider at CERN. Students analyze this data and draw conclusions at their schools. They then compare their results with those found at other schools in Masterclass live video conferences hosted by CERN over the internet. In March 2004, six students at Ward Melville High School on Long Island were sponsored by QuarkNet and Brookhaven National Laboratory to become the first U.S. team to participate in the EPPOG Masterclass. The Ward Melville group was positive about the experience and their results tracked well with those of their colleagues in the video conference from high schools in Greece, Slovakia, and Poland.

Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.
PubMed
Pospelov, Maxim
20070601
We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweakscale particles (X) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of longlived X particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX/s less, approximately <3x10(17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date.

Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.
PubMed
Pospelov, Maxim
20070601
We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweakscale particles (X) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of longlived X particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX/s less, approximately <3x10(17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date. PMID:17677895

Current experiments in elementaryparticle physics  March 1983
SciTech Connect
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.
19830301
Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beamtargetmomentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

Quantum tunneling of massive spin1 particles from nonstationary metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakalli, I.; Övgün, A.
20160101
We focus on the HR of massive vector (spin1) particles tunneling from Schwarzschild BH expressed in the KruskalSzekeres and dynamic Lemaitre coordinates. Using the Proca equation together with the HamiltonJacobi and the WKB methods, we show that the tunneling rate, and its consequence Hawking temperature are well recovered by the quantum tunneling of the massive vector particles.

The 5th Generation model of Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lach, Theodore
20090501
The Standard model of Particle Physics is able to account for all known HEP phenomenon, yet it is not able to predict the masses of the quarks or leptons nor can it explain why they have their respective values. The Checker Board Model (CBM) predicts that there are 5 generation of quarks and leptons and shows a pattern to those masses, namely each three quarks or leptons (within adjacent generations or within a generation) are related to each other by a geometric mean relationship. A 2D structure of the nucleus can be imaged as 2D plate spinning on its axis, it would for all practical circumstances appear to be a 3D object. The masses of the hypothesized ``up'' and ``dn'' quarks determined by the CBM are 237.31 MeV and 42.392 MeV respectively. These new quarks in addition to a lepton of 7.4 MeV make up one of the missing generations. The details of this new particle physics model can be found at the web site: checkerboard.dnsalias.net. The only areas were this theory conflicts with existing dogma is in the value of the mass of the Top quark. The particle found at Fermi Lab must be some sort of composite particle containing Top quarks.

Emergent Devil's Staircase without ParticleHole Symmetry in Rydberg Quantum Gases with Competing Attractive and Repulsive Interactions.
PubMed
Lan, Zhihao; Minář, Jiří; Levi, Emanuele; Li, Weibin; Lesanovsky, Igor
20151113
The devil's staircase is a fractal structure that characterizes the ground state of onedimensional classical lattice gases with longrange repulsive convex interactions. Its plateaus mark regions of stability for specific filling fractions which are controlled by a chemical potential. Typically, such a staircase has an explicit particlehole symmetry; i.e., the staircase at more than half filling can be trivially extracted from the one at less than half filling by exchanging the roles of holes and particles. Here, we introduce a quantum spin chain with competing shortrange attractive and longrange repulsive interactions, i.e., a nonconvex potential. In the classical limit the ground state features generalized Wigner crystals thatdepending on the filling fractionare composed of either dimer particles or dimer holes, which results in an emergent complete devil's staircase without explicit particlehole symmetry of the underlying microscopic model. In our system the particlehole symmetry is lifted due to the fact that the staircase is controlled through a twobody interaction rather than a onebody chemical potential. The introduction of quantum fluctuations through a transverse field melts the staircase and ultimately makes the system enter a paramagnetic phase. For intermediate transverse field strengths, however, we identify a region where the densitydensity correlations suggest the emergence of quasilongrange order. We discuss how this physics can be explored with Rydbergdressed atoms held in a lattice. PMID:26613435

Emergent Devil's Staircase without ParticleHole Symmetry in Rydberg Quantum Gases with Competing Attractive and Repulsive Interactions.
PubMed
Lan, Zhihao; Minář, Jiří; Levi, Emanuele; Li, Weibin; Lesanovsky, Igor
20151113
The devil's staircase is a fractal structure that characterizes the ground state of onedimensional classical lattice gases with longrange repulsive convex interactions. Its plateaus mark regions of stability for specific filling fractions which are controlled by a chemical potential. Typically, such a staircase has an explicit particlehole symmetry; i.e., the staircase at more than half filling can be trivially extracted from the one at less than half filling by exchanging the roles of holes and particles. Here, we introduce a quantum spin chain with competing shortrange attractive and longrange repulsive interactions, i.e., a nonconvex potential. In the classical limit the ground state features generalized Wigner crystals thatdepending on the filling fractionare composed of either dimer particles or dimer holes, which results in an emergent complete devil's staircase without explicit particlehole symmetry of the underlying microscopic model. In our system the particlehole symmetry is lifted due to the fact that the staircase is controlled through a twobody interaction rather than a onebody chemical potential. The introduction of quantum fluctuations through a transverse field melts the staircase and ultimately makes the system enter a paramagnetic phase. For intermediate transverse field strengths, however, we identify a region where the densitydensity correlations suggest the emergence of quasilongrange order. We discuss how this physics can be explored with Rydbergdressed atoms held in a lattice.

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Physics
SciTech Connect
Evans, Harold G; Kostelecky, V Alan; Musser, James A
20130729
The elementary particle physics research program at Indiana University spans a broad range of the most interesting topics in this fundamental field, including important contributions to each of the frontiers identified in the recent report of HEPAP's Particle Physics Prioritization Panel: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Experimentally, we contribute to knowledge at the Energy Frontier through our work on the D0 and ATLAS collaborations. We work at the Intensity Frontier on the MINOS and NOvA experiments and participate in R&D for LBNE. We are also very active on the theoretical side of each of these areas with internationally recognized efforts in phenomenology both in and beyond the Standard Model and in lattice QCD. Finally, although not part of this grant, members of the Indiana University particle physics group have strong involvement in several astrophysics projects at the Cosmic Frontier. Our research efforts are divided into three task areas. The Task A group works on D0 and ATLAS; Task B is our theory group; and Task C contains our MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE (LArTPC) research. Each task includes contributions from faculty, senior scientists, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel. This work was supported by DOE Grant DEFG0291ER40661. In the following, we describe progress made in the research of each task during the final period of the grant, from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013.

Observation of quantum particles on a large spacetime scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landau, L. J.
19941001
A quantum particle observed on a sufficiently large spacetime scale can be described by means of classical particle trajectories. The joint distribution for largescale multipletime position and momentum measurements on a nonrelativistic quantum particle moving freely in R v is given by straightline trajectories with probabilities determined by the initial momentumspace wavefunction. For largescale toroidal and rectangular regions the trajectories are geodesics. In a uniform gravitational field the trajectories are parabolas. A quantum counting process on free particles is also considered and shown to converge in the largespacetime limit to a classical counting process for particles with straightline trajectories. If the quantum particle interacts weakly with its environment, the classical particle trajectories may undergo random jumps. In the random potential model considered here, the quantum particle evolves according to a reversible unitary oneparameter group describing elastic scattering off static randomly distributed impurities (a quantum Lorentz gas). In the largespacetime weakcoupling limit a classical stochastic process is obtained with probability one and describes a classical particle moving with constant speed in straight lines between random jumps in direction. The process depends only on the ensemble value of the covariance of the random field and not on the sample field. The probability density in phase space associated with the classical stochastic process satisfies the linear Boltzmann equation for the classical Lorentz gas, which, in the limit h→0, goes over to the linear Landau equation. Our study of the quantum Lorentz gas is based on a perturbative expansion and, as in other studies of this system, the series can be controlled only for small values of the rescaled time and for Gaussian random fields. The discussion of classical particle trajectories for nonrelativistic particles on a macroscopic spacetime scale applies also to

Research in particle physics. Progress report, June 1, 1992January 31, 1993
SciTech Connect
Not Available
19920901
Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron{endash}positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the ``electrostatic muon kicker``; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new fieldtheoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

The XXth International Workshop High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The Workshop continues a series of workshops started by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in 1985 and conceived with the purpose of presenting topics of current interest and providing a stimulating environment for scientific discussion on new developments in theoretical and experimental high energy physics and physical programs for future colliders. Traditionally the list of workshop attendees includes a great number of active young scientists and students from Russia and other countries. This year Workshop is organized jointly by the SINP MSU and the Southern Federal University (SFedU) and will take place in the holiday hotel "Luchezarniy" (Effulgent) situated on the Black Sea shore in a picturesque natural park in the suburb of the largest Russian resort city Sochi  the host city of the XXII Olympic Winter Games to be held in 2014. The main topics to be covered are: Experimental results from the LHC. Tevatron summary: the status of the Standard Model and the boundaries on BSM physics. Future physics at Linear Colliders and super Bfactories. Extensions of the Standard Model and their phenomenological consequences at the LHC and Linear Colliders: SUSY extensions of the Standard Model; particle interactions in spacetime with extra dimensions; strings, quantum groups and new ideas from modern algebra and geometry. Higher order corrections and resummations for collider phenomenology. Automatic calculations of Feynman diagrams and Monte Carlo simulations. LHC/LC and astroparticle/cosmology connections. Modern nuclear physics and relativistic nucleousnucleous collisions.

EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aprile, Elena; Profumo, Stefano
20091001
The quest for the nature of dark matter has reached a historical point in time, with several different and complementary experiments on the verge of conclusively exploring large portions of the parameter space of the most theoretically compelling particle dark matter models. This focus issue on dark matter and particle physics brings together a broad selection of invited articles from the leading experimental and theoretical groups in the field. The leitmotif of the collection is the need for a multifaceted search strategy that includes complementary experimental and theoretical techniques with the common goal of a sound understanding of the fundamental particle physical nature of dark matter. These include theoretical modelling, highenergy colliders and direct and indirect searches. We are confident that the works collected here present the state of the art of this rapidly changing field and will be of interest to both experts in the topic of dark matter as well as to those new to this exciting field. Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics Contents DARK MATTER AND ASTROPHYSICS Scintillatorbased detectors for dark matter searches I S K Kim, H J Kim and Y D Kim Cosmology: smallscale issues Joel R Primack Big Bang nucleosynthesis and particle dark matter Karsten Jedamzik and Maxim Pospelov Particle models and the smallscale structure of dark matter Torsten Bringmann DARK MATTER AND COLLIDERS Dark matter in the MSSM R C Cotta, J S Gainer, J L Hewett and T G Rizzo The role of an e+e linear collider in the study of cosmic dark matter M Battaglia Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter Howard Baer, EunKyung Park and Xerxes Tata INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS PAMELA and indirect dark matter searches M Boezio et al An indirect search for dark matter using antideuterons: the GAPS experiment C J Hailey Perspectives for indirect dark matter search with AMS2 using cosmicray electrons and positrons B Beischer, P von

The behavioral changes that can be realized when leaders are exposed to the theories and metaphors found in quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godfrey, David Wayne
Many are beginning to see the promise that the quantum world has offered those who manage and lead organizations (Wheatley, 1992; Zohar, 1997). The Newtonian world is one in which all "things" are reduced to their smallest parts, separated, divided, and analyzed with predictability, with complete control being the ultimate goal. The quantum world is one of infinite possibilities, infinite fields of influence, and infinite relationships. The hallmark characteristics found in a manager who has been schooled in the quantum sciences are flexibility, responsiveness, synchronicity, serendipity, creativity, innovation, participation, and motivation. In a quantum organization there is the constant awareness of the whole system, but there is also diversity (wave or particle), which allows for selforganization that is based on the environment and its requirements. In the quantum world many paths lead from A to Z, and depending on the path chosen, numerous realities wait to unfold. It was the goal of this research to explore the changing of leader behaviors through exposure to the models and theories found in quantum physics. From a quantum perspective this behavior change is possible; the only question is the readiness, willingness, and ability of the leaders to allow their behaviors to be surfaced and challenged. These are indeed the greatest challenges for all people as they proceed through life and workreadiness for change, willingness to change, and ability to surface key areas where change is needed.

Doubleslit experiment with single wavedriven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T.; Bohr, Tomas
20150701
In a thoughtprovoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.154101] describe a version of the famous doubleslit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the singleparticle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the singleparticle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the singleparticle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the doubleslit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own doubleslit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wavedriven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particlewave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particlewave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the singleparticle statistics for our model in a doubleslit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

Doubleslit experiment with single wavedriven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics.
PubMed
Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T; Bohr, Tomas
20150701
In a thoughtprovoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006)] describe a version of the famous doubleslit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the singleparticle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the singleparticle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the singleparticle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the doubleslit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own doubleslit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wavedriven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particlewave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particlewave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the singleparticle statistics for our model in a doubleslit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

Life at the interface of particle physics and string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schellekens, A. N.
20131001
If the results of the first LHC run are not betraying us, many decades of particle physics are culminating in a complete and consistent theory for all nongravitational physics: the standard model. But despite this monumental achievement there is a clear sense of disappointment: many questions remain unanswered. Remarkably, most unanswered questions could just be environmental, and disturbingly to some the existence of life may depend on that environment. Meanwhile there has been increasing evidence that the seemingly ideal candidate for answering these questions, string theory, gives an answer few people initially expected: a large “landscape” of possibilities that can be realized in a multiverse and populated by eternal inflation. At the interface of “bottomup” and “topdown” physics, a discussion of anthropic arguments becomes unavoidable. Developments in this area are reviewed, focusing especially on the last decade.

Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multiGeV hadron beam facilities
SciTech Connect
Geesaman, D.F.
19931101
This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

Emergence of stringlike physics from Lorentz invariance in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
20141101
We consider a quantum field theory on a spherically symmetric quantum spacetime described by loop quantum gravity. The spin network description of spacetime in such a theory leads to equations for the quantum field that are discrete. We show that to avoid significant violations of Lorentz invariance, one needs to consider specific nonlocal interactions in the quantum field theory similar to those that appear in string theory. This is the first sign that loop quantum gravity places restrictions on the type of matter considered, and points to a connection with string theory physics.

Computational method for the long time propagation of quantum channeled particles in crystals and carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ćosić, M.; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.
20140701
This work reports on the computational method for the long time propagation of the quantum channeled particles in infinite and finite harmonic interaction wells and in a realistic carbon nanotube interaction potential well. This method is based on the Chebyshev global propagation method for solving of the corresponding time dependent Schrödinger equation. For comparison, the computational method based on the CrankNicolson propagation method is also presented. In the case of quantum particle motion in infinite harmonic potential well, when the analytical solution of the corresponding timedependent Schrödinger equation exists, we show that the obtained propagation method is efficient, very accurate and numerically stable. It is superior with respect to the method based on the CrankNicolson propagation method. A detailed study of the long time quantum particle motion in the finite harmonic interaction potential well shows that the obtained computational method based on the Chebyshev global propagation method can be successfully applied for following of the channeled quantum particle in crystals and carbon nanotubes. This is demonstrated in the case of quantum particle motion in a realistic carbon nanotube interaction potential well.

Particle Physics and Cosmology: First Tropical Workshop; High Energy Physics: Second Latin American Symposium. Proceedings
SciTech Connect
Nieves, J.F.
19981001
These proceedings represent papers presented at the First Tropical Workshop on Particle Physics and Cosmology and the Second Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics held in Puerto Rico in April 1998. Topics covered included neutrino physics, dark matter, and cosmology; flavor physics and CP violation, supersymmetry, w physics and standard model tests, and QCD and tau physics. The Workshop was sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Arecibo Observatory. The combined conference brought together leading experimentalists from the D0 and CDF groups at Fermilab as well as the various LEP collaborations. There are 49 papers included in these proceedings, out of these 25 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimae, Tomoyuki
20110401
In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.220503 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.050503 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportationlike method of uploading. This method also enables the GottesmanChuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtualreal hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.050503 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.

Quantum Hall physics with cold atoms in cylindrical optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Łåcki, Mateusz; Pichler, Hannes; Sterdyniak, Antoine; Lyras, Andreas; Lembessis, Vassilis E.; AlDossary, Omar; Budich, Jan Carl; Zoller, Peter
20160101
We propose and study various realizations of a HofstadterHubbard model on a cylinder geometry with fermionic cold atoms in optical lattices. The cylindrical optical lattice is created by copropagating LaguerreGauss beams, i.e., light beams carrying orbital angular momentum. By strong focusing of the light beams we create a realspace optical lattice in the form of rings, which are offset in energy. A second set of LaguerreGauss beams then induces a Ramanhopping between these rings, imprinting phases corresponding to a synthetic magnetic field (artificial gauge field). In addition, by rotating the lattice potential, we achieve a slowly varying flux through the hole of the cylinder, which allows us to probe the Hall response of the system as a realization of Laughlin's thought experiment. We study how in the presence of interactions fractional quantum Hall physics could be observed in this setup.

Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato
20160601
We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHRDR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

Hydrodynamics of the Physical Vacuum: I. Scalar Quantum Sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sbitnev, Valeriy I.
20160501
Physical vacuum is a special superfluid medium. Its motion is described by the NavierStokes equation having two slightly modified terms that relate to internal forces. They are the pressure gradient and the dissipation force because of viscosity. The modifications are as follows: (a) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the pressure multiplied by the entropy gradient; (b) timeaveraged viscosity is zero, but its variance is not zero. Owing to these modifications, the NavierStokes equation can be reduced to the Schrödinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum, which looks like a superfluid medium populated by enormous amount of virtual particleantiparticle pairs.

The relation between the quantum discord and quantum teleportation: The physical interpretation of the transition point between different quantum discord decay regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roszak, K.; Cywiński, Ł.
20151001
We study quantum teleportation via Belldiagonal mixed states of two qubits in the context of the intrinsic properties of the quantum discord. We show that when the quantumcorrelated state of the two qubits is used for quantum teleportation, the character of the teleportation efficiency changes substantially depending on the Belldiagonalstate parameters, which can be seen when the worstcasescenario or bestcasescenario fidelity is studied. Depending on the parameter range, one of two types of singlequbit states is hardest/easiest to teleport. The transition between these two parameter ranges coincides exactly with the transition between the range of classical correlation decay and quantum correlation decay characteristic for the evolution of the quantum discord. The correspondence provides a physical interpretation for the prominent feature of the decay of the quantum discord.

Major detectors in elementaryparticle physics. [Portfolio
SciTech Connect
Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.
19830301
With the 1983 issue of LBL91 we introduce a supplement  a folio of descriptions of the world's major elementary particle physics detectors. Modern high energy physics usually involves the use of massive, costly, carefully engineered, large solid angle detectors. These detectors require a long lead time for construction, are often integrated with an accelerator, accumulate data over many years, and are in reality a combination of numerous subsystems. As was the case with bubble chambers, many experiments are performed with the same data, or with data taken after relatively minor changes or additions to the detector configuration. These experiments are often reported in journals whose space limitations make repeated full descriptions of the detector impossible. The detailed properties and performance of the detector are usually described in a fragmented series of papers in more specialized, technologically oriented journals. New additions are often not well documented. Several detectors often make similar measurements and physicists want to make quick comparisons of their respective capabilities. Designers of new large detectors and even of smaller experiments need to know what already exists and what performance has been achieved. To aid the physics community, the Particle Data Group has produced this brief folio of the world's major large detectors. This first edition has some notable omissions: in particular, the bubble chambers and any associated spectrometers, and the still somewhat tentative LEP, SLC, and TRISTAN detectors.

Physics of leptoquarks in precision experiments and at particle colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doršner, I.; Fajfer, S.; Greljo, A.; Kamenik, J. F.; Košnik, N.
20160601
We present a comprehensive review of physics effects generated by leptoquarks (LQs), i.e., hypothetical particles that can turn quarks into leptons and vice versa, of either scalar or vector nature. These considerations include discussion of possible completions of the Standard Model that contain LQ fields. The main focus of the review is on those LQ scenarios that are not problematic with regard to proton stability. We accordingly concentrate on the phenomenology of light leptoquarks that is relevant for precision experiments and particle colliders. Important constraints on LQ interactions with matter are derived from precision lowenergy observables such as electric dipole moments, (g  2) of charged leptons, atomic parity violation, neutral meson mixing, Kaon, B, and D meson decays, etc. We provide a general analysis of indirect constraints on the strength of LQ interactions with the quarks and leptons to make statements that are as model independent as possible. We address complementary constraints that originate from electroweak precision measurements, top, and Higgs physics. The Higgs physics analysis we present covers not only the most recent but also expected results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We finally discuss direct LQ searches. Current experimental situation is summarized and selfconsistency of assumptions that go into existing acceleratorbased searches is discussed. A progress in making nexttoleading order predictions for both pair and single LQ productions at colliders is also outlined.

Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics
SciTech Connect
Aprile, E.; Doke, T.
20100715
This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

Electronhole quantum physics in ZnO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Versteegh, M. A. M.
20110901
This dissertation describes several new aspects of the quantum physics of electrons and holes in zinc oxide (ZnO), including a few possible applications. Zinc oxide is a IIVI semiconductor with a direct band gap in the ultraviolet. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed, both on bulk ZnO and on ZnO nanowires. Chapter 2 presents a new technique for an ultrafast alloptical shutter, based on twophoton absorption in a ZnO crystal. This shutter can be used for luminescence experiments requiring extremely high timeresolution. Chapter 3 describes a timeresolved study on the electronhole manybody effects in highly excited ZnO at room temperature, in particular bandfilling, bandgap renormalization, and the disappearance of the exciton resonance due to screening. In Chapter 4, the quantum manybody theory developed and experimentally verified in Chapter 3, is used to explain laser action in ZnO nanowires, and compared with experimental results. In contrast to current opinion, the results indicate that excitons are not involved in the laser action. The measured emission wavelength, the laser threshold, and the spectral distance between the laser modes are shown to be excellently explained by our quantum manybody theory. Multiple scattering of light in a forest of nanowires can be employed to enhance light absorption in solar cells. Optimization of this technique requires better understanding of light diffusion in such a nanowire forest. In Chapter 5 we demonstrate a method, based on twophoton absorption, to directly measure the residence time of light in a nanowire forest, and we show that scanning electron microscope (SEM) images can be used to predict the photon mean free path. In Chapter 6 we present a new ultrafast alloptical transistor, consisting of a forest of ZnO nanowires. After excitation, laser action in this forest causes rapid recombination of the majority of the electrons and holes, limiting the amplification to 1.2 picoseconds only

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report
SciTech Connect
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.
19951201
This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a largescale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s highresolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s threeyear proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s highenergy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.

A Particle Model Explaining Mass and Relativity in a Physical Way
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giese, Albrecht
Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is up to present days dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics alone to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentzbased interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity and the quantum mechanical concept of Louis de Broglie, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism. It is based on the finiteness of the speed of light and provides classical results for particle properties which are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sime, Ruth Lewin
20130301
During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (18941970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging highenergy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars"  the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations  in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

PARTICLE PHYSICS: The Final Tally Leaves LEP a Probable Loser.
PubMed
Morton, O
20001117
Physicists at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory near Geneva, are making a lastditch appeal to postpone demolition of the lab's Large ElectronPositron (LEP) collider. Scheduled to be scrapped in September to make room for a new device, the Large Hadron Collider, LEP was granted a 1month stay of execution so physicists could continue experiments hinting at evidence for the Higgs bosona theoretical particle that physicists have coveted for decades. On 8 November, CERN's directorgeneral turned down a further extension, but the executive committee of the lab's staff association blasted the decision, saying that the case against LEP had not been made clearly enough. PMID:17787224

Threeparticle hyperentanglement: teleportation and quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu; Abdul Rahim, Aadhi; Salla, Gangi Reddy; Prabhakar, Shashi; Samanta, Goutam Kumar; Paul, Goutam; Singh, Ravindra Pratap
20151001
We present a scheme to generate threeparticle hyperentanglement utilizing polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons. We show that the generated state can be used to teleport a twoqubit state described by the polarization and the OAM. The proposed quantum system has also been used to describe a new efficient quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol. We give a sketch of the experimental arrangement to realize the proposed teleportation and the QKD.

QPSOMD: A Quantum Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization for Consensus Pattern Identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meshoul, Souham; AlOwaisheq, Tasneem
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been successfully applied to a wide range of fields. The recent introduction of quantum mechanics principles into PSO has given rise to a Quantum behaviour PSO (QPSO) algorithm. This paper investigates its application into motif discovery, a challenging task in bioinformatics and molecular biology. Given a set of input DNA sequences, the proposed framework acts as a search process where a population of particles is depicted by a quantum behavior. Each particle represents a set of regulatory patterns from which a consensus pattern or motif model is derived. The corresponding fitness function is related to the total number of pairwise matches between nucleotides in the input sequences. Experiment results on synthetic and real data are very promising and prove the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

Flight of a heavy particle nonlinearly coupled to a quantum bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Krüger, Matthias; Kardar, Mehran
20160101
Fluctuation and dissipation are byproducts of coupling to the "environment." The CaldeiraLeggett model, a successful paradigm of quantum Brownian motion, views the environment as a collection of harmonic oscillators linearly coupled to the system. However, symmetry considerations may forbid a linear coupling, e.g., for a neutral particle in quantum electrodynamics. We argue that the absence of linear couplings can lead to a fundamentally different behavior. Specifically, we consider a heavy particle quadratically coupled to quantum fluctuations of the bath. In one dimension the particle undergoes anomalous diffusion, unfolding as a powerlaw distribution in space, reminiscent of Lévy flights. We suggest condensed matter analogs where similar effects may arise.

Efficiency of quantum energy teleportation within spin1/2 particle pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Michael R.
20160301
A protocol for quantum energy teleportation (QET) is known for a socalled minimal spin1/2 particle pair model. We extend this protocol to explicitly admit quantum weak measurements at its first stage. The extended protocol is applied beyond the minimal model to spin1/2 particle pairs whose Hamiltonians are of a general class characterized by orthogonal pairs of entangled eigenstates. The energy transfer efficiency of the extended QET protocol is derived for this setting, and we show that weaker measurement yields greater efficiency. In the minimal particle pair model, for example, the efficiency can be doubled by this means. We also show that the QET protocol's transfer efficiency never exceeds 100 %, supporting the understanding that quantum energy teleportation is, indeed, an energy transfer protocol, rather than a protocol for remotely catalyzing local extraction of system energy already present.

A Summer Research Experience in Particle Physics Using Skype
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, Curran; Alexander, Steven; Mahmood, A. K.
20121001
This last summer I did research in particle physics as part of a ``remote REU.'' This poster will describe that experience and the results of my project which was to experimentally verify the mass ranges of the Z' boson. Data from the LHC's Atlas detector was filtered by computers to select for likely Z boson decays; my work was in noting all instances of Z or Z' boson decays in one thousand events and their masses, separating the Z from Z' bosons, and generating histograms of the masses.

A guide to data in elementary particle physics
SciTech Connect
Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.; Armstrong, B.; Ferguson, M. Jr.; Levine, B.S.; Simpson, K.H.; Trippe, T.G.; Visser, M.J.; Wagman, G.S.; Wohl, C.G.
19860901
We present an indexed guide to experimental high energy physics literature for the years 1977 through 1985. While no actual data are included, approximately 9000 papers are indexed by Beam/Target/Momentum, Reaction/Momentum (including the final state), Particle, and Accelerator/Detector. All indices are crossreferenced via an ID to the paper's title and references in the ID/Reference/Title Index. Black marks (bleeder tabs) at the side of the page enable each section to be located quickly, using the Table of Contents on the back cover. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularly updated SLACSPIRES database called DATAGUIDE.

Creation of particles in a cyclic universe driven by loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavakoli, Yaser; Fabris, Júlio C.
20150501
We consider an isotropic and homogeneous universe in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We assume that the matter content of the universe is dominated by dust matter in early time and a phantom matter at late time which constitutes the dark energy component. The quantum gravity modifications to the Friedmann equation in this model indicate that the classical big bang singularity and the future big rip singularity are resolved and are replaced by quantum bounce. It turns out that the big bounce and recollapse in the herein model contribute to a cyclic scenario for the universe. We then study the quantum theory of a massive, nonminimally coupled scalar field undergoing cosmological evolution from primordial bounce towards the late time bounce. In particular, we solve the KleinGordon equation for the scalar field in the primordial and late time regions, in order to investigate particle production phenomena at late time. By computing the energy density of created particles at late time, we show that this density is negligible in comparison to the quantum background density at Planck era. This indicates that the effects of quantum particle production do not influence the future bounce.

Applications of gaseous particle detectors in physics and medicine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauli, Fabio
19950801
The multiwire proportional chamber, introduced in 1967 by Georges Charpak (recipient of the 1992 Nobel prize for physics) allows to achieve highrate, fully electronics detection and localization of ionizing radiation. The myriad of devices inspired by this initial work generated a revolution in the conception of detectors for elementary particle physics experiments; examples are the time projection chamber, the drift chamber, the microstrip gas chamber. After a brief introduction on the basic operating principles of the device, I will describe several examples of application of advanced gas detectors in medicine and biology and analyze the operating characteristics that make the new devices attractive when confronted with classic detectors.

Model of cosmology and particle physics at an intermediate scale
SciTech Connect
BasteroGil, M.; Di Clemente, V.; King, S. F.
20050515
We propose a model of cosmology and particle physics in which all relevant scales arise in a natural way from an intermediate string scale. We are led to assign the string scale to the intermediate scale M{sub *}{approx}10{sup 13} GeV by four independent pieces of physics: electroweak symmetry breaking; the {mu} parameter; the axion scale; and the neutrino mass scale. The model involves hybrid inflation with the waterfall field N being responsible for generating the {mu} term, the righthanded neutrino mass scale, and the PecceiQuinn symmetry breaking scale. The large scale structure of the Universe is generated by the lightest righthanded sneutrino playing the role of a coupled curvaton. We show that the correct curvature perturbations may be successfully generated providing the lightest righthanded neutrino is weakly coupled in the seesaw mechanism, consistent with sequential dominance.

PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on PseudoHermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fring, Andreas; Jones, Hugh; Znojil, Miloslav
20080601
Attempts to understand the quantum mechanics of nonHermitian Hamiltonian systems can be traced back to the early days, one example being Heisenberg's endeavour to formulate a consistent model involving an indefinite metric. Over the years nonHermitian Hamiltonians whose spectra were believed to be real have appeared from time to time in the literature, for instance in the study of strong interactions at high energies via Regge models, in condensed matter physics in the context of the XXZspin chain, in interacting boson models in nuclear physics, in integrable quantum field theories as Toda field theories with complex coupling constants, and also very recently in a field theoretical scenario in the quantization procedure of strings on an AdS5 x S5 background. Concrete experimental realizations of these types of systems in the form of optical lattices have been proposed in 2007. In the area of mathematical physics similar nonsystematic results appeared sporadically over the years. However, intensive and more systematic investigation of these types of non Hermitian Hamiltonians with real eigenvalue spectra only began about ten years ago, when the surprising discovery was made that a large class of oneparticle systems perturbed by a simple nonHermitian potential term possesses a real energy spectrum. Since then regular international workshops devoted to this theme have taken place. This special issue is centred around the 6th International Workshop on PseudoHermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics held in July 2007 at City University London. All the contributions contain significant new results or alternatively provide a survey of the state of the art of the subject or a critical assessment of the present understanding of the topic and a discussion of open problems. Original contributions from nonparticipants were also invited. Meanwhile many interesting results have been obtained and consensus has been reached on various central conceptual issues in the

Semiclassical modeling of quantummechanical multiparticle systems using parallel particleincell methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauger, Dean Edward
20010801
We are successful in building a code that models many particle dynamic quantum systems by combining a semiclassical approximation of Feynman path integrals with parallel computing techniques (particleincell) and numerical methods developed for simulating plasmas, establishing this approach as a viable technique for multiparticle timedependent quantum mechanics. Run on highperformance parallel computers, this code applies semiclassical methods to simulate the time evolution of wavefunctions of many particles. We describe the analytical derivation and computational implementation of these techniques in detail. We present a study to thoroughly demonstrate the code's fidelity to quantum mechanics, resulting in innovative visualization and analysis techniques. We introduce and exhibit a method to address fermion particle statistics. We present studies of two quantummechanical problems: a twoelectron, one dimensional atom, resulting in highquality extractions of one and twoelectron eigenstates, and electrostatic quasimodes due to quantum effects in a hot electron plasma, relevant for predictions about stellar evolution. We supply discussions of alternative derivations, alternative implementations of the derivations, and an exploration of their consequences. Source code is shown throughout this dissertation. Finally, we present an extensive discussion of applications and extrapolations of this work, with suggestions for future direction.

``Who Thinks Abstractly?'': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plotnitsky, Arkady
20110301
Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, visàvis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantummechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of "physical fact" and of the concept of "physical concept," in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features—1) their multicomponent multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

'Who Thinks Abstractly?': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts
SciTech Connect
Plotnitsky, Arkady
20110328
Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, visavis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantummechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of ''physical fact'' and of the concept of 'physical concept', in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features  1) their multicomponent multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

PREFACE: IARD 2010: The 7th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horwitz, Lawrence; Hu, BeiLok; Lee, DaShin; Gill, Tepper; Land, Martin
20111201
properties of spacetime structure. The scope of this series of conferences is, however, much wider. There have been recent develpments in the understanding of the quantum properties of spacetime, the application of quantum field theory and statistical quantum field theory to problems in relativistic dynamics, as well as new techniques in general relativity; some of these topics have been discussed in the IARD 2010 conference, and which will be reported in these Proceedings. It was for this purpose, to bring together researchers from a wide variety of fields, such as particle physics, astrophysics, cosmology, heavy ion collisions, plasma research, and mathematical physics, with a common interest in relativistic dynamics, that this Association was founded. The International Association for Relativistic Dynamics was organized at its first meeting as an informal session of seminars among researchers with common interest in February 1998 in Houston, Texas, with John R Fanchi as president. The second meeting took place, in 2000, at Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel, the third, in 2002, at Howard University in Washington, DC, and the fourth, on 1219 June 2004, in Saas Fee, Switzerland. In 2006, the meeting took place at the University of Connecticut campus in Storrs, Connecticut, and the sixth meeting, in Thessaloniki, Greece. The seventh meeting, took place at the National Dong Hwa University in Hulien, Taiwan from 30 May to 1 June 2010. This meeting forms the basis for the Proceedings that are recorded in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Along with the work of some of the founding members of the Association, we were fortunate to have lecturers from application areas that provided strong challenges for further developments in quantum field theory, statistical quantum field theory and its potential applications to relativistic quantum information theory, cosmological problems, and in the dynamics of systems described in the framework of general

LandauLevel Mixing and ParticleHole Symmetry Breaking for Spin Transitions in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect.
PubMed
Zhang, Yuhe; Wójs, A; Jain, J K
20160901
The spin transitions in the fractional quantum Hall effect provide a direct measure of the tiny energy differences between differently spinpolarized states and thereby serve as an extremely sensitive test of the quantitative accuracy of the theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect, and, in particular, of the role of Landaulevel mixing in lifting the particlehole symmetry. We report on an accurate quantitative study of this physics, evaluating the effect of Landaulevel mixing in a nonperturbative manner using a fixedphase diffusion Monte Carlo method. We find excellent agreement between our calculated critical Zeeman energies and the experimentally measured values. In particular, we find, as also do experiments, that the critical Zeeman energies for fractional quantum Hall states at filling factors ν=2n/(2n±1) are significantly higher than those for ν=n/(2n±1), a quantitative signature of the lifting of particlehole symmetry due to Landaulevel mixing. PMID:27661711
 