Science.gov

Sample records for particle x-ray spectrometer

  1. The Rosetta Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhöfer, G.; Brückner, J.; D'Uston, C.; Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.

    2007-02-01

    The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a small instrument to determine the elemental composition of a given sample. For the ESA Rosetta mission, the periodical comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was selected as the target comet, where the lander PHILAE (after landing) will carry out in-situ observations. One of the instruments onboard is the APXS to make measurements on the landing site. The APXS science goal is to provide basic compositional data of the comet surface. As comets consist of a mixture of ice and dust, the dust component can be characterized and compared with known meteoritic compositions. Various element ratios can be used to evaluate whether chemical fractionations occurred in cometary material by comparing them with known chondritic material. To enable observations of the local environment, APXS measurements of several spots on the surface and one spot as function of temperature can be made. Repetitive measurements as function of heliocentric distance can elucidate thermal processes at work. By measuring samples that were obtained by drilling subsurface material can be analyzed. The accumulated APXS data can be used to shed light on state, evolution, and origin of 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko.

  2. Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) on-board Chandrayaan-2 rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, M.; Murty, S. V. S.; Acharya, Y. B.; Goyal, S. K.; Patel, Arpit R.; Shah, Bhumi; Hait, A. K.; Patinge, Aditya; Subrahmanyam, D.

    2014-11-01

    Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) payload configuration for Chandrayaan-2 rover has been completed recently and fabrication of mechanical assembly, PCB layout design and fabrication are in progress. Here we present the design and performance evaluation of various subsystems developed for APXS payload. The low energy threshold of <1 keV and the energy resolution of ∼150 eV at 5.9 keV, for the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), as measured from the developed APXS electronics is comparable to the standard spectrometers available off-the-shelf. We have also carried out experiments for measuring fluorescent X-ray spectrum from various standard samples from the USGS catalog irradiated by the laboratory X-ray source 241Am with 1 mCi activity. It is shown that intensities of various characteristic X-ray lines are well correlated with the respective elemental concentrations.

  3. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  4. Results of the Alpha-Particle-X-Ray Spectrometer on Board of the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, R.; Zipfel, J.; Brueckner, J.; Dreibus, G.; Lugmair, G.; Rieder, R.; Waenke, H.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity landed at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is part of the instrument suite on both rovers. It is equipped with six 244Cm sources which provide x-ray excitation with alpha-particles (PIXE) and x-ray radiation (XRF). This combination allows x-ray spectroscopy of elements from Na to Br in the energy range of 0.9 to 16 keV. X-ray detectors with a high energy resolution of 160 eV at Fe K allow us to separate even closely spaced energy peaks, such as Na, Mg, Al and Si. The APXS is attached to the rover s arm and provides in-situ measurements of the chemical composition of soils, surfaces of rocks and outcrops and their abraded surfaces. This abstract gives an overview of APXS results obtained during the first year of operation on both landing sites.

  5. Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrett, G. M.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; King, P. L.; Maxwell, J. A.; Andrushenko, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    We have used a suite of over 60 geochemical reference standards for the calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). For the elements P, S, Cl and Br we have supplemented this suite by adding various amounts of relevant chemical compounds to a powdered basalt standard. Special attention has been paid to include phyllosilicates, sulphates and a broad selection of igneous basalts as these are predicted key deposits at the MSL landing site, Gale Crater. The calibration is performed from first principles using x-ray excitation cross sections for the alpha particle and x-ray radiation source and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix. Remaining deviations indicate significant influences of mineral phases especially for light elements in basalts, ultra-mafic rocks and trachytes. Supporting x-ray diffraction work has helped to derive empirical, iterative corrections for distinct rock types, based on the first APXS analysis, assuming a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as x-ray diffraction data from ChemMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

  6. Chemistry of Rocks and Soils in Gusev Crater from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.; Anderson, R. C.; Brueckner, J.; Clark, B. C.; Dreibus, G.; Economou, T.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Lugmair, G. W.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    The alpha particle x-ray spectrometer on the Spirit rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Gusev crater in order to unravel the crustal evolution of planet Mars. The composition of soils is similar to those at previous landing sites, as a result of global mixing and distribution by dust storms. Rocks (fresh surfaces exposed by the rock abrasion tool) resemble volcanic rocks of primitive basaltic composition with low intrinsic potassium contents. High abundance of bromine (up to 170 parts per million) in rocks may indicate the alteration of surfaces formed during a past period of aqueous activity in Gusev crater.

  7. Mapping alpha-Particle X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (Map-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bristow, T.

    2014-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes (like physical and chemical weathering, water activity, diagenesis, low-temperature or impact metamorphism, and biogenic activity) leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of micron. The Mapping alpha-particle X-ray Spectrometer ("Map-X") is intended to provide chemical imaging at 2 orders of magnitude higher spatial resolution than previously flown instruments, yielding elemental chemistry at or below the scale length where many relict physical, chemical, and biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks.

  8. CHANG'E-3 Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer: ground verification test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dongya; Peng, Wenxi; Cui, XingZhu; Wang, Huanyu

    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang’E-3 rover Yutu, with which the major elemental composition of lunar soils and rocks can be measured on site. In order to assess the instrument performance and the accuracy of determination, ground verification test was carried out with two blind samples(basaltic rock, powder). Details of the experiments and data analysis method are discussed. The results show that the accuracy of quantitative analysis for major elements(Mg,Al,Si,K,Ca,Ti,Fe) is better than 15%.

  9. The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

  10. Chemistry of rocks and soils in Gusev Crater from the alpha particle x-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gellert, R; Rieder, R; Anderson, R C; Brückner, J; Clark, B C; Dreibus, G; Economou, T; Klingelhöfer, G; Lugmair, G W; Ming, D W; Squyres, S W; D'Uston, C; Wänke, H; Yen, A; Zipfel, J

    2004-08-06

    The alpha particle x-ray spectrometer on the Spirit rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Gusev crater in order to unravel the crustal evolution of planet Mars. The composition of soils is similar to those at previous landing sites, as a result of global mixing and distribution by dust storms. Rocks (fresh surfaces exposed by the rock abrasion tool) resemble volcanic rocks of primitive basaltic composition with low intrinsic potassium contents. High abundance of bromine (up to 170 parts per million) in rocks may indicate the alteration of surfaces formed during a past period of aqueous activity in Gusev crater.

  11. Chemistry of rocks and soils at Meridiani Planum from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Rieder, R; Gellert, R; Anderson, R C; Brückner, J; Clark, B C; Dreibus, G; Economou, T; Klingelhöfer, G; Lugmair, G W; Ming, D W; Squyres, S W; d'Uston, C; Wänke, H; Yen, A; Zipfel, J

    2004-12-03

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on the Opportunity rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Meridiani Planum. Chemical compositions differentiate between basaltic rocks, evaporite-rich rocks, basaltic soils, and hematite-rich soils. Although soils are compositionally similar to those at previous landing sites, differences in iron and some minor element concentrations signify the addition of local components. Rocky outcrops are rich in sulfur and variably enriched in bromine relative to chlorine. The interaction with water in the past is indicated by the chemical features in rocks and soils at this site.

  12. CHANG'E-3 Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer: The synthesis design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, XingZhu; Peng, Wenxi; Wang, Huanyu; Liang, XiaoHua

    the Active Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) was designed to deduce the elemental abundances of samples on the moon. Similar to the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers onboard MSL and MER , the APXS was also an instrument took the advantage of X-ray fluorescence mechanism to determine elemental abundances, it determines the chemical compositions of both soil and rocks along the traverse of the rover. To provide a sound instrument working on the lunar surface,Four components were integrated in the APXS, the performances of the components were described in this paper.

  13. [Temperature effect correction for Chang'E-3 alpha particle X-ray spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ye; Wang, Huan-Yu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Yang, Jia-Wei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Liu, Ya-Qing; Dong, Yi-Fan; Wu, Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang'E-3 lunar rover of China's Lunar Exploration Project. The present paper introduces briefly the components of APXS, how it works and its working environment on the lunar surface. The environmental temperature effect has been studied with simulations and experiments, and the results show that the temperature of the APXS sensor will be varying during the measuring on the lunar surface. And another experiment reveals that the energy resolution becomes worse if the sensor's temperature is varying. In this paper, a correction method based on Pearson's chi-squared test is presented. The method can improve the energy resolution when the sensor's temperature is varying. We have tested the method with the spectra acquired by APXS in the temperature varying period of Temperature Cycling Test, and the results show that the method is efficient and reliable.

  14. [Near infrared distance sensing method for Chang'e-3 alpha particle X-ray spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Ming-Ye; Wang, Huan-Yu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Jia-Wei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Gao, Min; Liu, Ya-Qing; Zhang, Fei; Dong, Yi-Fan; Guo, Dong-Ya

    2013-05-01

    Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang'E-3 lunar rover, the scientific objective of which is in-situ observation and off-line analysis of lunar regolith and rock. Distance measurement is one of the important functions for APXS to perform effective detection on the moon. The present paper will first give a brief introduction to APXS, and then analyze the specific requirements and constraints to realize distance measurement, at last present a new near infrared distance sensing algorithm by using the inflection point of response curve. The theoretical analysis and the experiment results verify the feasibility of this algorithm. Although the theoretical analysis shows that this method is not sensitive to the operating temperature and reflectance of the lunar surface, the solar infrared radiant intensity may make photosensor saturation. The solutions are reducing the gain of device and avoiding direct exposure to sun light.

  15. The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS): Results from Gusev Crater and Calibration Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.; Brueckner, J.; Clark, B.; Dreibus, G.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Lugmair, G.; Ming, D.; Waenke, H.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.; Squyres, S.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of rocks and soils on Mars analyzed during the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mission was determined by X-ray analyses with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS). Details of the data analysis method and the instrument calibration are presented. Measurements performed on Mars to address geometry effects and background contributions are shown. Cross calibration measurements among several instrument sensors and sources are discussed. An unintentional swap of the two flight instruments is evaluated. New concentration data acquired during the first 470 sols of rover Spirit in Gusev Crater are presented. There are two geological regions, the Gusev plains and the Columbia Hills. The plains contain soils that are very similar to previous landing sites on Mars. A meteoritic component in the soil is identified. Rocks in the plains revealed thin weathering rinds. The underlying abraded rock was classified as primitive basalt. One of these rocks contained significant Br that is probably associated with vein-filling material of different composition. One of the trenches showed large subsurface enrichments of Mg, S, and Br. Disturbed soils and rocks in the Columbia Hills revealed different elemental compositions. These rocks are significantly weathered and enriched in mobile elements, such as P, S, Cl, or Br. Even abraded rock surfaces have high Br concentrations. Thus, in contrast to the rocks and soils in the Gusev Plains, the Columbia Hills material shows more significant evidence of ancient aqueous alteration.

  16. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  17. Automated Grouping of Opportunity Rover Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer Compositional Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanBommel, S. J.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schroder, C.; Yen, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) conducts high-precision in situ measurements of rocks and soils on both active NASA Mars rovers. Since 2004 the rover Opportunity has acquired around 440 unique APXS measurements, including a wide variety of compositions, during its 42+ kilometers traverse across several geological formations. Here we discuss an analytical comparison algorithm providing a means to cluster samples due to compositional similarity and the resulting automated classification scheme. Due to the inherent variance of elements in the APXS data set, each element has an associated weight that is inversely proportional to the variance. Thus, the more consistent the abundance of an element in the data set, the more it contributes to the classification. All 16 elements standard to the APXS data set are considered. Careful attention is also given to the errors associated with the composition measured by the APXS - larger uncertainties reduce the weighting of the element accordingly. The comparison of two targets, i and j, generates a similarity score, S(sub ij). This score is immediately comparable to an average ratio across all elements if one assumes standard weighted uncertainty. The algorithm facilitates the classification of APXS targets by chemistry alone - independent of target appearance and geological context which can be added later as a consistency check. For the N targets considered, a N by N hollow matrix, S, is generated where S = S(sup T). The average relation score, S(sub av), for target N(sub i) is simply the average of column i of S. A large S(sub av) is indicative of a unique sample. In such an instance any targets with a low comparison score can be classified alike. The threshold between classes requires careful consideration. Applying the algorithm to recent Marathon Valley targets indicates similarities with Burns formation and average-Mars-like rocks encountered earlier at Endeavour Crater as well as a new class of felsic rocks.

  18. Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

  19. Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

  20. A global Mars dust composition refined by the Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer in Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Jeff A.; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Gellert, Ralf; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Ming, Douglas W.; Clark, Benton C.; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott J. V.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Thompson, Lucy M.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Elliott, Beverley E.; Desouza, Elstan

    2016-01-01

    Modern Martian dust is similar in composition to the global soil unit and bulk basaltic Mars crust, but it is enriched in S and Cl. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover analyzed air fall dust on the science observation tray (o-tray) in Gale Crater to determine dust oxide compositions. The o-tray dust has the highest concentrations of SO3 and Cl measured in Mars dust (SO3 8.3%; Cl 1.1 wt %). The molar S/Cl in the dust (3.35 ± 0.34) is consistent with previous studies of Martian dust and soils (S/Cl = 3.7 ± 0.7). Fe is also elevated ~25% over average Mars soils and the bulk crust. These enrichments link air fall dust with the S-, Cl-, and Fe-rich X-ray amorphous component of Gale Crater soil. Dust and soil have the same S/Cl, constraining the surface concentrations of S and Cl on a global scale.

  1. Laboratory verification of the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Chang'e-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-Liang; Li, Chun-Lai; Fu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Li-Yan; Ban, Cao; Li, Han; Zou, Yong-Liao; Peng, Wen-Xi; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2015-11-01

    In the Chang'e-3 mission, the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Yutu rover is used to analyze the chemical composition of lunar soil and rock samples. APXS data are only valid are only if the sensor head gets close to the target and integration time lasts long enough. Therefore, working distance and integration time are the dominant factors that affect APXS results. This study confirms the ability of APXS to detect elements and investigates the effects of distance and time on the measurements. We make use of a backup APXS instrument to determine the chemical composition of both powder and bulk samples under the conditions of different working distances and integration times. The results indicate that APXS can detect seven major elements, including Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe under the condition that the working distance is less than 30 mm and having an integration time of 30 min. The statistical deviation is smaller than 15%. This demonstrates the instrument's ability to detect major elements in the sample. Our measurements also indicate the increase of integration time could reduce the measurement error of peak area, which is useful for detecting the elements Mg, Al and Si. However, an increase in working distance can result in larger errors in measurement, which significantly affects the detection of the element Mg.

  2. CHANG'E-3 Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer: first detection near the landing site and preliminary analysis result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wenxi; Cui, XingZhu; Wang, Huanyu; Guo, Dongya

    Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) onboard CHANG'E-3 Yutu rover was the first high energy resolution instrument of X-ray spectrometry sent to the lunar surface. The scientific objective of APXS is to investigate the elemental compositions along the route of the lunar rover on the Moon.Here, the first lunar soil detection near the landing site made by APXS is presented. The initial analysis indicate that the lunar regolith in this area is rich in both TiO2 and FeO, which is consistent with the remote sensing results.

  3. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  4. Major Elements Abundances in Chang'E-3 Landing Site from Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Xie, Minggang; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Dong, Wudong; Tang, Zesheng; Xu, Aoao

    2015-04-01

    Chang'E-3, China's first Moon lander and rover mission, was launched at 17:30 on 1st December 2013 (UTC) and successfully landed on Moon surface at 13:11 on 14th December 2013 (UTC). About 8 hours later after the soft landing, the rover, named "Yutu' after a mythological rabbit that lives on the Moon as a pet of the Moon goddess, was successfully separated from the lander and started its adventure on the Moon. The success of this mission marks the first soft-landing on the Moon since 1976. The landing site is in northern Mare Imbrium (N44.12, W19.51), close to the boundary of two different geologic units and sits on 'young' Eratoshenian lava flows which spread several hundreds to thousands of kilometers. The mare basalts in the landing site are believed to be formed from the lava flows ~2.5 billion years ago, which are significantly younger than all of the returned lunar samples, dating from 3.1 to 3.8 billion years ago. This makes the landing site a very interesting place for exploring geochemical characteristics of the young lava flows and lunar evolution in a later stage. Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is the only payload on the robotic arm of Yutu rover. It was designed to measure the intensities of characteristic fluorescent X-rays produced by interactions of lunar sample with incident X-rays. Major elements abundances of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe on the lunar surface were expected to be detected after the exploration. On December 24th (UTC), 2013 and January 14th (UTC), 2014, APXS performed 4 successful measurements on lunar soils along Yutu's track. Characteristic peaks of Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Sr and Zr could be clearly seen from the measured spectra. A global fit based on minimum chi-square method has been performed to disentangle different components in the measured spectra. These components include Kα and/or Kβ peaks of each element, escape peaks, exponential and shelf tail of major peaks and electronic noises, etc

  5. Elemental Analysis of the Surface of Comet 67p/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer APXS on the Rosetta Lander Philae: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Schmanke, D.; Girones-Lopez, J.; Brueckner, J.; d'Uston, C.; Economou, T.; Gellert, R.; Markovski, C.

    2014-12-01

    After a 10 years cruise the Rosetta probe has reached its final target, the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The main objectives of the mission are to gain more knowledge of the composition, the origin and formation of comets and the solar system. After extensive remote exploration of the comet the lander Philae will be separated to land on the comet surface, starting immediately examining its landing site with its scientific payload. Part of this payload is the APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer). It will measure in situ the chemical composition of the comet's surface and it's changes during the journey of the comet towards the sun. APXS is a combination of two spectrometers in one single instrument. It will irradiate the comet surface using Curium 244 sources, which are emitting alpha-particle and X-rays. In the alpha-mode the instrument uses alpha backscattering spectroscopy to detect lower Z elements like C, N and O and groups of elements with higher Z. In the X-ray mode alpha particle / X-ray induced X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) will allow the detection of most of the higher Z elements from Na up to Ni and above. Both modes will be always run in parallel allowing to determine lower and higher Z elements simultaneously. For 3 years the solar powered Rosetta probe had to pass a hibernation phase because of a long passage far away to the sun. After wakeup in January 2014 an extensive test phase of all instruments and subsystems has been performed, including the APXS. After landing on the comet an intense initial measurement phase of all instruments is planned, the First Science Sequence (FSS). It will be followed by a long term science phase (LTS). As long as possible APXS and the other instruments will continue to measure and monitor the changes and increasing activity of the comet during its journey towards the inner region of the solar system.The project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under contracts 50 QP 0404 and 50 QP 0902. References: G

  6. Data processing for the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer and initial scientific results from Chang'e-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Chun-Lai; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Zou, Yong-Liao; Liu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Xin; Tan, Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Zuo, Wei; Wen, Wei-Bin; Peng, Wen-Xi; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is an important payload mounted on the Yutu rover, which is part of the Chang'e-3 mission. The scientific objective of APXS is to perform in-situ analysis of the chemical composition of lunar soil and rock samples. The radioactive sources, 55Fe and 109Cd, decay and produce α-particles and X-rays. When X-rays and α-particles interact with atoms in the surface material, they knock electrons out of their orbits, which release energy by emitting X-rays that can be measured by a silicon drift detector (SDD). The elements and their concentrations can be determined by analyzing their peak energies and intensities. APXS has analyzed both the calibration target and lunar soil once during the first lunar day and again during the second lunar day. The total detection time lasted about 266 min and more than 2000 frames of data records have been acquired. APXS has three operating modes: calibration mode, distance sensing mode and detection mode. In detection mode, work distance can be calculated from the X-ray counting rate collected by SDD. Correction for the effect of temperature has been performed to convert the channel number for each spectrum to X-ray energy. Dead time correction is used to eliminate the systematic error in quantifying the activity of an X-ray pulse in a sample and derive the real count rate. We report APXS data and initial results during the first and second lunar days for the Yutu rover. In this study, we analyze the data from the calibration target and lunar soil on the first lunar day. Seven major elements, including Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe, have been identified. Comparing the peak areas and ratios of calibration basalt and lunar soil the landing site was found to be depleted in K, and have lower Mg and Al but higher Ca, Ti, and Fe. In the future, we will obtain the elemental concentrations of lunar soil at the Chang'e-3 landing site using APXS data.

  7. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  8. The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer APXS on the Rosetta lander Philae to explore the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girones-Lopez, Jordi; Schmanke, Dirk; Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Maul, Jasmine; Brueckner, Johannes; Duston, Claude; Gellert, Ralf; Klingelhöfer, Göstar

    The Rosetta Mission was launched in 2004 with the main objectives to gain a better under-standing of the origin and formation of comets and the solar system. After 10 years of cruise the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko will be reached in 2014 and the lander Philae will be deployed on the surface. As a part of the lander payload the APXS will measure in situ the chemical composition of the comet's surface and it's changes during the journey of the comet towards the sun. APXS combines an alpha mode for alpha backscattering spectroscopy and an x-ray mode for alpha particle/x-ray induced x-ray spectroscopy (XRF) in one single instrument, being low in mass and power consumption. The comet surface will be irradiated by a Curium 244 source exciting characteristic x-rays of the elements present in the surface material. The alpha mode will allow detection of elements like C and O and groups of elements with higher Z. The x-ray-SD-detector will allow the detection of most of the elements from Na up to Ni and above. During the long duration travel to the comet checkouts and software updates of the Rosetta probe and its payload are performed at regular intervals. These are used to opti-mise and improve the quality of the x-ray and alpha-spectra of the APXS. Soon the Rosetta probe will go into a 3 year long hibernation mode. It will awake when approaching it's target, providing us with new exiting data that will shed light on state, evolution and origin of comets and the solar system. Acknowledgements: This project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under contracts 50 QP 0404 and 50 QP 0902. References: G. Klingelhüfer, J. Brückner, C. d'Uston, R. Gellert, and R. Rieder, The Rosetta Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), Space Science Reviews, Vol.128 (2007) 383-396; doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9137-3

  9. Refinement of the Compton-Rayleigh scatter ratio method for use on the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer: II - Extraction of invisible element content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; King, Penelope L.; Nield, Emily; O'Meara, Joanne M.; Pradler, Irina

    2016-02-01

    The intensity ratio C/R between Compton and Rayleigh scatter peaks of the exciting Pu L X-rays in the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is strongly affected by the presence of very light elements such as oxygen which cannot be detected directly by the APXS. C/R values are determined along with element concentrations by fitting APXS spectra of geochemical reference materials (GRMs) with the GUAPX code. A quantity K is defined as the ratio between the C/R value determined by Monte Carlo simulation based on the measured element concentrations and the fitted C/R value from the spectrum. To ensure optimally accurate K values, the choice of appropriate GRMs is explored in detail, with attention paid to Rb and Sr, whose characteristic Kα X-ray peaks overlap the Pu Lα scatter peaks. The resulting relationship between the ratio K and the overall oxygen fraction is linear. This provides a calibration from which the concentration of additional light invisible constituents (ALICs) such as water may be estimated in unknown rock and conglomerate samples. Several GRMs are used as 'unknowns' in order to evaluate the accuracy of ALIC concentrations derived in this manner.

  10. Two Years of Chemical Sampling on Meridiani Planum by the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer Onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, J.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B.C.; Dreibus, G.; Rieder, R.; Wanke, H.; d'Uston, C.; Economou, T.; Klingelhofer, G.; Lugmair, G.; Ming, D.W.; Squyres, S.W.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.

    2006-01-01

    For over two terrestrial years, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring the martian surface at Meridiani Planum using the Athena instrument payload [1], including the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS). The APXS has a small sensor head that is mounted on the robotic arm of the rover. The chemistry, mineralogy and morphology of selected samples were investigated by the APXS along with the Moessbauer Spectrometer (MB) and the Microscopic Imager (MI). The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) provided the possibility to dust and/or abrade rock surfaces down to several millimeters to expose fresh material for analysis. We report here on APXS data gathered along the nearly 6-kilometers long traverse in craters and plains of Meridiani.

  11. Elementary Analysis of a Cometary Surface - the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer APXS on the Rosetta Mission to Comet 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmanke, Dirk; Economou, Thanasis; Brueckner, Johannes; Gellert, Ralf; Rodionov, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Girones Lopez, Jordi; Uston, Lionel D.

    After a 10 years cruise the Rosetta probe will reach its final target in the middle of this year, the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The main objectives of the mission are to gain more knowledge of the composition, the origin and formation of comets and the solar system. After extensive remote examination of the comet the lander Philae will be separated to land on the comet surface. It will start immediately examining the landing site with its scientific payload. A part of this payload is the APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer), it will measure in situ the chemical composition of the comet's surface and its changes during the journey of the comet towards the sun. APXS is a combination of two spectrometers in one single instrument, being low in mass and power consumption. It will irradiate the cometary surface with Curium 244 sources, which are emitting alpha-particle and X-rays. In the alpha-mode the instrument uses alpha backscattering spectroscopy to detect lower Z elements like C, N and O and groups of elements with higher Z. In the X-ray mode alpha particle/X-ray induced X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) will allow the detection of most of the higher Z elements from Na up to Ni and above. Both modes will be always run in parallel allowing to determine lower and higher Z elements simultaneously. During the long duration travel to the comet checkouts and software updates of the Rosetta probe and its payload were performed at regular intervals. In recent 3 years the solar powered Rosetta probe had to pass a hibernation phase because of a long passage far away from the sun. After the successful wakeup in January 2014 an extensive test phase of all instruments and subsystems has to be performed, including the APXS. After the landing on the comet an intense long measurement phase of all instruments is planned, the First Science Sequence (FSS). It will be followed by a long term science phase (LTS), determined by periodical changes between measurements and forced breaks

  12. Non-linearity issues and multiple ionization satellites in the PIXE portion of spectra from the Mars alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John L.; Heirwegh, Christopher M.; Ganly, Brianna

    2016-09-01

    Spectra from the laboratory and flight versions of the Curiosity rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer were fitted with an in-house version of GUPIX, revealing departures from linear behavior of the energy-channel relationships in the low X-ray energy region where alpha particle PIXE is the dominant excitation mechanism. The apparent energy shifts for the lightest elements present were attributed in part to multiple ionization satellites and in part to issues within the detector and/or the pulse processing chain. No specific issue was identified, but the second of these options was considered to be the more probable. Approximate corrections were derived and then applied within the GUAPX code which is designed specifically for quantitative evaluation of APXS spectra. The quality of fit was significantly improved. The peak areas of the light elements Na, Mg, Al and Si were changed by only a few percent in most spectra. The changes for elements with higher atomic number were generally smaller, with a few exceptions. Overall, the percentage peak area changes are much smaller than the overall uncertainties in derived concentrations, which are largely attributable to the effects of rock heterogeneity. The magnitude of the satellite contributions suggests the need to incorporate these routinely in accelerator-based PIXE using helium beams.

  13. Development of mercuric iodide uncooled x ray detectors and spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    1990-01-01

    The results obtained in the development of miniature, lowpower, light weight mercuric iodide, HgI2, x ray spectrometers for future space missions are summarized. It was demonstrated that HgI2 detectors can be employed in a high resolution x ray spectrometer, operating in a scanning electron microscope. Also, the development of HgI2 x ray detectors to augment alpha backscattering spectrometers is discussed. These combination instruments allow for the identification of all chemical elements, with the possible exception of hydrogen, and their respective concentrations. Additionally, further investigations of questions regarding radiation damage effects in the HgI2 x ray detectors are reported.

  14. The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer APXS on the Rosetta lander Philae to explore the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Girones Lopez, Jordi; Schmanke, Dirk; Markovski, Cristina; Brückner, Johannes; d'Uston, Claude; Economu, Tom; Gellert, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta Mission was launched in 2004 with the main objectives to gain a better understanding of the origin and formation of comets and the solar system. After 10 years of cruise Rosetta rendevouded with the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 to study the nucleus of the comet and its environment. Rosetta consists of an orbiter and a lander (Philae) with 11 and 9 scientific experiments respectively. It did what has never been attempted before, orbiting and landing on a comet. After orbit insertion in August 2014, the main spacecraft will follow the comet for several months to investigate its surface. Subsequently, Philae has been deployed for a safe landing. As part of the lander payload the APXS will measure in situ the chemical composition of the comet's surface and it's changes during the journey of the comet around the sun. The data obtained with the APXS will be used to characterize the surface of the comet, to determine the chemical composition of the dust component, and to compare the dust with known meteorite types. APXS combines an alpha mode for alpha backscattering spectroscopy and an x-ray mode for alpha particle/x-ray induced x-ray spectroscopy (XRF) in one single instrument, being low in mass (640g) and power consumption (1.5 W in operating mode) [4]. The comet surface will be irradiated by a Curium 244 source exciting characteristic x-rays of the elements present in the surface material. The alpha mode will allow detection of elements like C and O and groups of elements with a higher Z. The x-ray-SD-detector will allow the detection of most of the elements from Na up to Ni and above. The design of the Rosetta APX spectrometer is based on the experience gained with the APXS built for Russian and American Mars missions: Mars 96 spacecraft and Mars Pathfinder, MPF [1]. Two APXS were also built for the Mars Exploration Rovers mission of the NASA, MER [2-3]. Acknowledgements This project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under contracts 50

  15. Computer-controlled Cauchois-type x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, J. M.; Kefi, M.; Avila, A.; Couillaux, P.; Bonnelle, C.

    1987-03-01

    A laboratory x-ray spectrometer designed for routine analysis in the 15-60-keV spectral range is described. It consists of a 40-cm bent-crystal transmission spectrometer in the Cauchois geometry, controlled by a microcomputer. The choice of the crystal analyzer and of the detection system is discussed. The instrument is well suited for large spectral range x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy (XAS, XES) and x-ray source diagnostics.

  16. Pigment particles analysis with a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer: study of influence of instrumental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccato, Alessia; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Moens, Luc; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is an excellent tool to determine major, minor and trace elements in minuscule amounts of samples, making this technique very suitable for pigment analysis. Collecting minuscule amounts of pigment material from precious works of art by means of a cotton swab is a well-accepted sampling method, but poses specific challenges when TXRF is to be used for the characterization of the unknown material.

  17. X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX and particle spectrometer STEP-F of the satellite experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. Preliminary results of the joint data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Plocieniak, S.; Bakala, J.

    2012-04-01

    A joint analysis is carried out of data obtained with the help of the solar X-ray SphinX spectrophotometer and the electron and proton satellite telescope STEP-F in May 2009 in the course of the scientific space experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. In order to determine the energies and particle types, in the analysis of spectrophotometer records data are used on the intensities of electrons, protons, and secondary γ-radiation, obtained by the STEP-F telescope, which was located in close proximity to the SphinX spectrophotometer. The identical reaction of both instruments is noted at the intersection of regions of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly and the Earth's radiation belts. It is shown that large area photodiodes, serving as sensors of the X-ray spectrometer, reliably record electron fluxes of low and intermediate energies, as well as fluxes of the secondary gamma radiation from construction materials of detector modules, the TESIS instrument complex, and the spacecraft itself. The dynamics of electron fluxes, recorded by the SphinX spectrophotometer in the vicinity of a weak geomagnetic storm, supplements the information about the processes of radial diffusion of electrons, which was studied using the STEP-F telescope.

  18. Refinement of the Compton-Rayleigh scatter ratio method for use on the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Perrett, G. M.; Maxwell, J. A.; Nield, E.; Gellert, R.; King, P. L.; Lee, M.; O'Meara, J. M.; Pradler, I.

    2013-05-01

    Spectra from the Mars rover alpha particle X-ray spectrometers contain the elastic and inelastic scatter peaks of the plutonium L X-rays emitted by the instrument's 244Cm source. Various spectrum fitting approaches are tested using the terrestrial twin of the APXS instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, in order to provide accurate extraction of the Lα and Lβ Compton/Rayleigh intensity ratios, which can provide information about light "invisible" constituents such as water in geological samples. A well-defined dependence of C/R ratios upon mean sample atomic number is established using a large and varied set of geochemical reference materials, and the accuracy of this calibration is examined. Detailed attention is paid to the influence of the rubidium and strontium peaks which overlap the Lα scatter peaks. Our Monte Carlo simulation code for prediction of C/R ratios from element concentrations is updated. The ratio between measured and simulated C/R ratios provides a second means of calibration.

  19. [The X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Based on Pyroelectric Effect].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi-fan; Fan, Rui-rui; Guo, Dong-ya; Zhang, Chun-lei; Gao, Min; Wang, Jin-zhou; Liu, Ya-qing; Zhou, Da-wei; Wang, Huan-yu

    2016-02-01

    Pyroelectric X-ray generator is implemented, and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is accomplished by combining the pyroelectric X-ray generator with a high energy resolution silicon drift detector. Firstly, the parameters of the X-ray generator are decided by analyzing and calculating the influence of the thickness of the pyroelectriccrystal and the thickness of the target on emitted X-ray. Secondly, the emitted X-ray is measured. The energy of emitted X-ray is from 1 to 27 keV, containing the characteristic X-ray of Cu and Ta, and the max counting rate is more than 3 000 per second. The measurement also proves that the detector of the spectrometer has a high energy resolution which the FWMH is 210 eV at 8. 05 keV. Lastly, samples of Fe, Ti, Cr and high-Ti basalt are analyzed using the spectrometer, and the results are agreed with the elements of the samples. It shows that the spectrometer consisting of a pyroelectric X-ray generator and a silicon drift detector is effective for element analysis. Additionally, because each part of the spectrometer has a small volume, it can be easily modified to a portable one which is suitable for non-destructive, on-site and quick element analysis.

  20. Low intensity X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low intensity X-ray and gamma ray spectrometer for imaging, counting, and energy resolving of single invisible radiation particles is described. The spectrometer includes a converting device for converting single invisible radiation particles to visible light photons. Another converting device converts the visible light photons to photoelectrons. A fiber optics coupling device couples together the two converting devices. An intensifying device intensifies the photoelectrons by an average gain factor of between 10 to the 4th power and 10 to the 7th power. The tensifying device is an anti-ion feedback microchannel plate amplifier which is operated substantially below saturation. A displaying device displays the intensified photoelectrons. The displaying device 32 indicates the spatial position, number, and energy of the incoming single invisible radiation particles.

  1. EXACT - The Solar X-Ray Spectrometer CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Trevor; Glesener, Lindsay; Gebre-Egziabher, Demoz; Vogt, Ryan; Denis, Charles; Weiher, Hannah; Runnels, Joel; Vievering, Juliana

    2016-05-01

    The Experiment for X-ray Characterization and Timing (EXACT) mission will be a CubeSat based hard X-ray spectrometer used for viewing solar flares with high time precision. Solar flares and the related coronal mass ejections affect space weather and the near-Earth environment. EXACT can study the hard X-rays generated by the Sun in the declining phase of Solar Cycle 24 in order to probe electron acceleration in solar eruptive events while also serving as a precursor to future hard X-ray spectrometers that could monitor the Sun continuously.

  2. Atmospheric electron-induced x-ray spectrometer development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.; Urgiles, Eduardo; Toda, Risaku; Crisp, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper extends the work reported at the IEEE Aerospace conference in 2001 and 2003 where the concept and progress in the development of the so called atmospheric Electron X-ray Spectrometer (AEXS) has been described.

  3. Method of fabricating an imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, G. E. (Inventor); Burgess, A. S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A process for fabricating an X-ray spectrometer having imaging and energy resolution of X-ray sources is discussed. The spectrometer has an array of adjoinging rectangularly shaped detector cells formed in a silicon body. The walls of the cells are created by laser drilling holes completely through the silicon body and diffusing n(+) phosphorous doping material therethrough. A thermally migrated aluminum electrode is formed centrally through each of the cells.

  4. Thermal detectors as X-ray spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J. C.; Mccammon, D.

    1984-01-01

    Sensitive thermal detectors should be useful for measuring very small energy pulses, such as those produced by the absorption of X-ray photons. The measurement uncertainty can be very small, making the technique promising for high resolution nondispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The limits to the energy resolution of such thermal detectors are derived and used to find the resolution to be expected for a detector suitable for X-ray spectroscopy in the 100 eV to 10,000 eV range. If there is no noise in the thermalization of the X-ray, resolution better than 1 eV full width at half maximum is possible for detectors operating at 0.1 K. Energy loss in the conversion of the photon energy to heat is a potential problem. The loss mechanisms may include emission of photons or electrons, or the trapping of energy in long lived metastable states. Fluctuations in the phonon spectrum could also limit the resolution if phonon relaxation times are very long. Conceptual solutions are given for each of these possible problems.

  5. Overview of Mars surface geochemical diversity through Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer data multidimensional analysis: First attempt at modeling rock alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tréguier, Erwan; d'Uston, Claude; Pinet, Patrick C.; Berger, Gilles; Toplis, Michael J.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Gellert, Ralf; Brückner, Johannes

    2008-11-01

    Principal component analysis and a hierarchical clustering method have been employed to describe and quantify the compositional variability of Martian rocks and soils measured by the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometers onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. A robust classification of samples emerges which defines distinct rock classes and sheds light on the petrogenetic relationships between rocks. This is particularly useful in the case of rocks from Gusev Crater, where significant chemical diversity is observed. This approach also highlights that compositional variability of rocks at Meridiani is dominated by variations in sulfur content; the relative proportions of other elements remaining approximately constant. For soils, variations in Fe concentration dominate because of the presence of hematite-rich ``berry''-bearing samples. On the basis of this observation, a simple geochemical model of acid fog alteration of Martian basalts has been tested, assuming either equivalent alteration of all phases or preferential alteration of certain phases (thus taking into account kinetic considerations). The results show that for certain ranges of SO3/basalt, many of the compositional and mineralogical features measured at both sites may be explained. The secondary mineralogy and bulk rock compositions predicted by the model are broadly consistent with rock and soil compositions from Gusev and Meridiani, especially if the role of brine circulation and evaporation are considered. Although agreement is not perfect, comparison of observations and models argues in favor of variable interaction of the Martian surface with sour gas, explaining the high local abundance of sulfates, for example.

  6. Geochemical properties of rocks and soils in Gusev Crater, Mars: Results of the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer from Cumberland Ridge to Home Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Morris, R. V.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brückner, J.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; d'Uston, C.; Economou, T.; Fleischer, I.; Klingelhöfer, G.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M. E.; Schröder, C.; Squyres, S. W.; Tréguier, E.; Yen, A. S.; Zipfel, J.

    2008-12-01

    Geochemical diversity of rocks and soils has been discovered by the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) during Spirit's journey over Husband Hill and down into the Inner Basin from sol 470 to 1368. The APXS continues to operate nominally with no changes in calibration or spectral degradation over the course of the mission. Germanium has been added to the Spirit APXS data set with the confirmation that it occurs at elevated levels in many rocks and soils around Home Plate. Twelve new rock classes and two new soil classes have been identified at the Spirit landing site since sol 470 on the basis of the diversity in APXS geochemistry. The new rock classes are Irvine (alkaline basalt), Independence (low Fe outcrop), Descartes (outcrop similar to Independence with higher Fe and Mn), Algonquin (mafic-ultramafic igneous sequence), Barnhill (volcaniclastic sediments enriched in Zn, Cl, and Ge), Fuzzy Smith (high Si and Ti rock), Elizabeth Mahon (high Si, Ni, and Zn outcrop and rock), Halley (hematite-rich outcrop and rock), Montalva (high K, hematite-rich rock), Everett (high Mg, magnetite-rich rock), Good Question (high Si, low Mn rock), and Torquas (high K, Zn, and Ni magnetite-rich rock). New soil classes are Gertrude Weise (very high Si soil) and Eileen Dean (high Mg, magnetite-rich soil). Aqueous processes have played a major role in the formation and alteration of rocks and soils on Husband Hill and in the Inner Basin.

  7. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOEpatents

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraenkel, Ben; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, A. Lane; Stodiek, Wolfgang; von Goeler, Schweickhard E.

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  8. A short working distance multiple crystal x-ray spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, B.; Seidler, G.T.; Webb, Z.W.; Bradley, J.A.; Nagle, K.P.; Heald, S.M.; Gordon, R.A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2008-01-01

    For x-ray spot sizes of a few tens of microns or smaller, a millimeter-sized flat analyzer crystal placed ???1 cm from the sample will exhibit high energy resolution while subtending a collection solid angle comparable to that of a typical spherically bent crystal analyzer (SBCA) at much larger working distances. Based on this observation and a nonfocusing geometry for the analyzer optic, we have constructed and tested a short working distance (SWD) multicrystal x-ray spectrometer. This prototype instrument has a maximum effective collection solid angle of 0.14 sr, comparable to that of 17 SBCA at 1 m working distance. We find good agreement with prior work for measurements of the Mn K?? x-ray emission and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for MnO, and also for measurements of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure for Dy metal using L??2 partial-fluorescence yield detection. We discuss future applications at third- and fourth-generation light sources. For concentrated samples, the extremely large collection angle of SWD spectrometers will permit collection of high-resolution x-ray emission spectra with a single pulse of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The range of applications of SWD spectrometers and traditional multi-SBCA instruments has some overlap, but also is significantly complementary. ?? 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  9. A short working distance multiple crystal x-ray spectrometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, B.; Seidler, G. T.; Webb, Z. W.; Bradley, J. A.; Nagle, K. P.; Heald, S. M.; Gordon, R. A.; Chou, I. M.; Univ. of Washington; Simon Fraser Univ.; U. S. Geological Survey

    2008-12-01

    For x-ray spot sizes of a few tens of microns or smaller, a millimeter-sized flat analyzer crystal placed {approx}1 cm from the sample will exhibit high energy resolution while subtending a collection solid angle comparable to that of a typical spherically bent crystal analyzer (SBCA) at much larger working distances. Based on this observation and a nonfocusing geometry for the analyzer optic, we have constructed and tested a short working distance (SWD) multicrystal x-ray spectrometer. This prototype instrument has a maximum effective collection solid angle of 0.14 sr, comparable to that of 17 SBCA at 1 m working distance. We find good agreement with prior work for measurements of the Mn K{beta} x-ray emission and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for MnO, and also for measurements of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure for Dy metal using L{sub {alpha}{sub 2}} partial-fluorescence yield detection. We discuss future applications at third- and fourth-generation light sources. For concentrated samples, the extremely large collection angle of SWD spectrometers will permit collection of high-resolution x-ray emission spectra with a single pulse of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The range of applications of SWD spectrometers and traditional multi-SBCA instruments has some overlap, but also is significantly complementary.

  10. Large Solid Angle Spectrometer for Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gelebart, F.; Morand, M.; Dermigny, Q.; Giura, P.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.-P.

    2007-01-19

    We have designed a large solid angle spectrometer mostly devoted to inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) studies of materials under extreme conditions (high pressure / temperature) in the hard x-ray range. The new IXS spectrometer is designed to optimize the photon throughput while preserving an excellent resolving power of {approx}10000 in the considered energy range. The spectrometer consists of an array of up to 4 spherically bent 0.5 m radius analyzer crystals and a solid-state detector positioned on the Rowland circle. The four analyzers can cover a solid angle more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional spectrometers. The spectrometer is to be installed on the GALAXIES beamline at SOLEIL in the near future.

  11. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega.

    PubMed

    Pérez, F; Kemp, G E; Regan, S P; Barrios, M A; Pino, J; Scott, H; Ayers, S; Chen, H; Emig, J; Colvin, J D; Bedzyk, M; Shoup, M J; Agliata, A; Yaakobi, B; Marshall, F J; Hamilton, R A; Jaquez, J; Farrell, M; Nikroo, A; Fournier, K B

    2014-11-01

    The calibration campaign of the National Ignition Facility X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) was carried out at the Omega laser facility. Spherically symmetric, laser-driven, millimeter-scale x-ray sources of K-shell and L-shell emission from various mid-Z elements were designed for the 2-18 keV energy range of the NXS. The absolute spectral brightness was measured by two calibrated spectrometers. We compare the measured performance of the target design to radiation hydrodynamics simulations.

  12. Single Particle X-ray Diffractive Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, M J; Benner, W H; Boutet, S; Rohner, U; Frank, M; Seibert, M; Maia, F; Barty, A; Bajt, S; Riot, V; Woods, B; Marchesini, S; Hau-Riege, S P; Svenda, M; Marklund, E; Spiller, E; Hajdu, J; Chapman, H N

    2007-10-01

    In nanotechnology, strategies for the creation and manipulation of nanoparticles in the gas phase are critically important for surface modification and substrate-free characterization. Recent coherent diffractive imaging with intense femtosecond X-ray pulses has verified the capability of single-shot imaging of nanoscale objects at sub-optical resolutions beyond the radiation-induced damage threshold. By intercepting electrospray-generated particles with a single 15 femtosecond soft-X-ray pulse, we demonstrate diffractive imaging of a nanoscale specimen in free flight for the first time, an important step toward imaging uncrystallized biomolecules.

  13. Two crystal x-ray spectrometers for OMEGA experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, C.; Casner, A.; Girard, F.; Lecherbourg, L.; Loupias, B.; Tassin, V.; Philippe, F.

    2016-11-01

    Two x-ray spectrometers have been built for x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas on OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) by Commissariat a ̀ l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA). The accessible photon energy range is from 1.5 to 20 keV. The first spectrometer, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer with a Charge-Injection Device (XCCS-CID), records three spectra with three crystals coupled to a time integrated CID camera. The second one, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer (XCCS) with a framing camera, is time resolved and records four spectra with two crystals on the four frames of a framing camera. Cylindrical crystals are used in Johan geometry. Each spectrometer is positioned with a ten-inch manipulator inside the OMEGA target chamber. In each experiment, after choosing a spectral window, a specific configuration is designed and concave crystals are precisely positioned on a board with angled wedges and spacers. Slits on snouts enable 1D spatial resolution to distinguish spectra emitted from different parts of the target.

  14. The Bragg solar x-ray spectrometer SolpeX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ścisłowski, D.; Sylwester, J.; Steślicki, M.; Płocieniak, S.; Bąkała, J.; Szaforz, Ż.; Kowaliński, M.; Podgórski, P.; Trzebiński, W.; Hernandez, J.; Barylak, J.; Barylak, A.; Kuzin, Sergey

    2015-09-01

    Detection of polarization and spectra measurement of X-ray solar flare emission are indispensable in improving our understanding of the processes releasing energy of these most energetic phenomena in the solar system. We shall present some details of the construction of SolpeX - an innovative Bragg soft X-ray flare polarimeter and spectrometer. The instrument is a part of KORTES - Russian instrument complex to be mounted aboard the science module to be attached to the International Space Station (2017/2018). The SolpeX will be composed of three individual measuring units: the soft X-ray polarimeter with 1-2% linear polarization detection threshold, a fast-rotating flat crystal X-ray spectrometer with a very high time resolution (0.1 s) and a simple pinhole soft X-ray imager-spectrometer with a moderate spatial (~20 arcsec), spectral (0.5 keV) and high time resolution (0.1 s). Having a fast rotating unit to be served with power, telemetry and "intelligence" poses a challenge for the designer. Some of the solutions to this will be provided and described.

  15. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Sadaoki Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Kato, Ryukou

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons’ energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  16. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryukou; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons' energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  17. The Astro-E High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Audley, Michael D.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Breon, Susan R.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Gendreau, Keith C.; Holt, Stephen S.; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; McCammon, Dan; Mihara, Tatehiro

    1999-01-01

    The Astro-E High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) was developed jointly by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in Japan. The instrument is based on a new approach to spectroscopy, the X-ray microcalorimeter. This device senses the energies of individual X-ray photons as heat with extreme precision. A 32 channel array of microcalorimeters is being employed, each with an energy resolution of about 12 eV at 6 keV (the Fe-K region). This will provide spectral resolving power 10 times higher than any other non-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The instrument incorporates a three stage cooling system capable of operating the array at 60 mK for about two years in orbit. The array sits at the focus of a grazing incidence conical mirror. The quantum efficiency of the microcalorimeters and the reflectivity of the X-ray mirror system combine to give high throughput over the 0.3-12 keV energy band. This new capability will enable the study of a wide range of high-energy astrophysical sources with unprecedented spectral sensitivity. This paper presents the basic design requirements and implementation of the XRS, and also describes the instrument parameters and performance.

  18. Millimeter-Scale Chemistry of Observable Endmembers with the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer and Mars Hand Lens Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanBommel, Scott; Gellert, Ralf; Thompson, Lucy; Berger, Jeff; Campbell, Iain; Edgett, Ken; McBride, Marie; Minitti, Michelle; Desouza, Elstan; Boyd, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a bulk chemistry instrument conducting high-precision in-situ measurements of Martian rocks and soils onboard both active NASA rovers [1]. Mounted at the end of the Curiosity rover arm, the APXS can conduct multi-spot (raster) investigations in a single morning or evening. Combining APXS raster spectra and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) images, a modeled terrain is developed in which the positions of APXS field of views (FOV) can be localized, thereby mitigating arm placement uncertainty. An acquired APXS spectrum is the result of the weighted sum of the signals from within the FOV. The spatial sensitivity of the APXS consists of an off-nadir contribution in addition to a vertical separation (standoff with respect to the APXS detector) contribution [2, 3]. MAHLI images and focus merge (MFM) products facilitate a 3D surface model of the target [4] compensating for the effects of sample relief in an APXS spectrum. Employing a MFM relief map, APXS placement is modeled in three-dimensions, permitting variable APXS docking (standoff, deployment angle). Through minimization, we arrive at millimeter-scale chemistry of veins, diagenetic features and dust-free rock endmembers of Martian targets. Several rasters have been conducted with Curiosity's APXS on Mars including a study of the Garden City outcrop. The area is characterized by its contrasting light and dark veins of cm-scale surface relief. Three-dimensional localization and minimization indicated calcium sulfate as the major component of the light vein while the dark vein is enriched in CaO (without accompanying SO3), MnO, Ni and Zn, with respect to average Mars composition. References: [1] Gellert et al. (2014), LPSC XLV, #1876. [2] VanBommel et al. (2015), LPSC XLVI, #2049. [3] VanBommel et al. (2016), XRS #2681. [4] Edgett et al. (2015), MAHLI Tech Rept 0001. Acknowledgements: The MSL APXS is financed and managed by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) with Mac

  19. Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bitter, M.; Moon, M. K.; Nam, U. W.; Jin, K. C.; Kong, K. N.; Seon, K. I.

    2003-03-01

    Two x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers are presently designed for the KSTAR tokamak. The instruments will provide temporally and spatially resolved spectra of heliumlike argon (or krypton) from a large cross section of the plasma. The spectral data will be used for profile measurements—both within and perpendicular to the horizontal midplane of KSTAR—of the ion and electron temperatures, the rotation velocity, and the ionization equilibrium. Each spectrometer will consist of a spherically bent quartz crystal and large area two-dimensional position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The article presents the design for the KSTAR x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers, and the fabrication and initial test results from the large area two-dimensional multiwire proportional counter.

  20. Development of X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; Nam, U. W.; Kim, Y. J.; Moon, M. K.

    2003-10-01

    The engineering design for two high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometers, which will be part of the basic diagnostics for the KSTAR tokamak, has been finalized. Each of the spectrometers will consists of a spherically bent crystal and a 10 cm x 30 cm large 2D position-sensitive multi-wire proportional counter. The instruments will provide spatially and temporally resolved spectra of the resonance line of helium-like argon (or krypton) and the associated satellites from multiple lines of sight parallel and perpendicular to the horizontal mid-plane for measurements of the profiles of the ion and electron temperatures, plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. A 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been fabricated and calibrated with an X-ray source. The engineering design of the spectrometers and the calibration results of the 2D detector will be presented.

  1. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  2. Time-Resolved Hard X-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Moya; Ian McKennaa; Thomas Keenana; Michael Cuneob

    2007-03-01

    Wired array studies are being conducted at the SNL Z accelerator to maximize the x-ray generation for inertial confinement fusion targets and high energy density physics experiments. An integral component of these studies is the characterization of the time-resolved spectral content of the x-rays. Due to potential spatial anisotropy in the emitted radiation, it is also critical to diagnose the time-evolved spectral content in a space-resolved manner. To accomplish these two measurement goals, we developed an x-ray spectrometer using a set of high-speed detectors (silicon PIN diodes) with a collimated field-of-view that converged on a 1-cm-diameter spot at the pinch axis. Spectral discrimination is achieved by placing high Z absorbers in front of these detectors. We built two spectrometers to permit simultaneous different angular views of the emitted radiation. Spectral data have been acquired from recent Z shots for the radial and polar views. UNSPEC1 has been adapted to analyze and unfold the measured data to reconstruct the x-ray spectrum. The unfold operator code, UFO2, is being adapted for a more comprehensive spectral unfolding treatment.

  3. Time-resolved hard x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Kenneth; Cuneo, Michael; McKenna, Ian; Keenan, Thomas; Sanford, Thomas; Mock, Ray

    2006-08-01

    Wired array studies are being conducted at the SNL Z accelerator to maximize the x-ray generation for inertial confinement fusion targets and high energy density physics experiments. An integral component of these studies is the characterization of the time-resolved spectral content of the x-rays. Due to potential spatial anisotropy in the emitted radiation, it is also critical to diagnose the time-evolved spectral content in a space-resolved manner. To accomplish these two measurement goals, we developed an x-ray spectrometer using a set of high-speed detectors (silicon PIN diodes) with a collimated field-of-view that converged on a 1-cm-diameter spot at the pinch axis. Spectral discrimination is achieved by placing high Z absorbers in front of these detectors. We built two spectrometers to permit simultaneous different angular views of the emitted radiation. Spectral data have been acquired from recent Z shots for the radial and axial (polar) views. UNSPEC 1 has been adapted to analyze and unfold the measured data to reconstruct the x-ray spectrum. The unfold operator code, UFO2, is being adapted for a more comprehensive spectral unfolding treatment.

  4. Elemental analysis using a handheld X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groover, Krishangi D.; Izbicki, John

    2016-06-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting geologic samples from local stream channels, aquifer materials, and rock outcrops for studies of trace elements in the Mojave Desert, southern California. These samples are collected because geologic materials can release a variety of elements to the environment when exposed to water. The samples are to be analyzed with a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer to determine the concentrations of up to 27 elements, including chromium.

  5. A hybrid X-ray imaging spectrometer for NeXT and the next generation X-ray satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, T. G.; Tanimori, T.; Bamba, A.; Imanishi, K.; Koyama, K.; Kubo, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Miuchi, K.; Nagayoshi, M.; Orito, R.; Takada, A.; Takagi, S.; Tsujimoto, M.; Ueno, M.; Tsunemi, H.; Hayashida, K.; Miyata, E.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new type of wide band X-ray imaging spectrometer as a focal plane detector of the super mirror onboard on future X-ray missions including post Astro-E2. This camera is realized by the hybrid of back illumination CCDs and a back supportless CCD for 0.05-10 keV band, and a Micro Pixel Gas Chamber detecting X-rays at 10-80 keV.

  6. The Mapping X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MAPX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David; Sarrazin, Philippe; Bristow, Thomas; Downs, Robert; Gailhanou, Marc; Marchis, Franck; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Sole, Vincente Armando; Thompson, Kathleen; Walter, Philippe; Wilson, Michael; Yen, Albert; Webb, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    MapX will provide elemental imaging at =100 micron spatial resolution over 2.5 X 2.5 centimeter areas, yielding elemental chemistry at or below the scale length where many relict physical, chemical, and biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks. MapX is a full-frame spectroscopic imager positioned on soil or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample surface with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Fluoresced X-rays pass through an X-ray lens (X-ray µ-Pore Optic, "MPO") that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto a CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the positions and energies of individual photons are retained. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are stored and processed. A MapX experiment provides elemental maps having a spatial resolution of =100 micron and quantitative XRF spectra from Regions of Interest (ROI) 2 centimers = x = 100 micron. ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. The MapX geometry is being refined with ray-tracing simulations and with synchrotron experiments at SLAC. Source requirements are being determined through Monte Carlo modeling and experiment using XMIMSIM [1], GEANT4 [2] and PyMca [3] and a dedicated XRF test fixture. A flow-down of requirements for both tube and radioisotope sources is being developed from these experiments. In addition to Mars lander and rover missions, MapX could be used for landed science on other airless bodies (Phobos/Deimos, Comet nucleus, asteroids, the Earth's moon, and the icy satellites of the outer planets, including Europa.

  7. The X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer for the International X-Ray Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R. L.; Bandler, S. R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Shirron, P.; Smith, S. J.; Whitehouse, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Sato, K.; Gottardi, L.; Hartog, R. den; Herder, J.-W. den; Hoevers, H.; Korte, P. de; Kuur, J. van der

    2009-12-16

    The International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) is under formulation by NASA, ESA and JAXA for deployment in 2022. IXO emerged over the last 18 months as the NASA Constellation-X and ESA/JAXA X-Ray Evolving Universe Spectrometer (XEUS) missions were combined. The driving performance requirements for the X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) are a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV over the central 2'x2' in the 0.3-7.0 keV band, and 10 eV to the edge of the 5'x5' field of view (FOV). The XMS is now based on a microcalorimeter array of Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) thermometers with Au/Bi absorbers and a SQUID MUX readout. One of the concepts studied as part of the mission formulation has a core 40x40 array corresponding to a 2'x2' FOV with 3'' pixels surrounded by an outer, annular 52x52 array of 6'' pixels that extends the field of view to 5.4'x5.4' with better than 10 eV resolution. There are several options for implementing the readout and cooling system of the XMS under study in the US, Europe and Japan. The ADR system will have from two to five stages depending on the performance of the cryocooler. Mechanical coolers with sufficient cooling power at 4K are available now, and {approx}2K coolers are under development. In this paper we give an overview of the XMS instrument, and some of the tradeoffs to be addressed for this observatory instrument.

  8. Estimation of lunar major elemental abundances in Chang'E-3 landing site based on Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianmin

    2015-09-01

    Elemental abundance provides an effective vehicle to understand lunar petrologic characteristics and evolutional history. The APXS mounted on the Yutu rover provides a valuable opportunity to determine the major elemental abundances in lunar soil within a short distance. In this study, we processed the APXS spectra including energy calibration, dead time correction and nonlinear least-squares fitting, and determined the abundances of the lunar major elements using the fundamental parameter method. In the calculation of X-ray fluorescence yield, a finite element method (FEM) was employed to improve the accuracy. The major elemental abundances derived from Chang'E-3 (CE-3) APXS possess a good consistency with the result of LP-GRS (Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer) data in the landing region. Compared with the chemical composition of the returned lunar rock samples, we draw the conclusion that the lunar soils in CE-3 landing site are fragments of mare basalts. Our conclusion is supported by the geological map of Mare Imbrium.

  9. Micro-X X-ray Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, David

    2014-06-01

    Micro-X is a NASA funded, rocket borne X-ray imaging spectrometer utilizing Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) to perform high resolution microcalorimetry in the soft X-ray band on astronomical sources. The TESs utilize the 50 mK stage of an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) as a heat sink - one of the biggest challenges in payload design and calibration is to maintain the temperature of the detectors. To achieve the best thermal environment and therefore the best possible resolution of the detectors, we combine software modeling of heat flow within the instrument with data from laboratory tests of thermal connections between the Front End Assembly and ADR. We present a brief overview of the instrument design, recent lab results and modeling, and an update of ongoing progress with the preparations for launch.

  10. Detecting X-ray Emission from Cometary Atmospheres Using the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Bodewits, D; Porter, F S; Ezoe, Y; Hamaguchi, K; Hanya, M; Itoh, M; Kilbourne, C A; Kohmura, T; Maeda, Y; Negoro, H; Tsuboi, Y; Tsunemi, H; Urata, Y

    2009-11-16

    The Suzaku X-ray imaging spectrometer has been used to observe the X-ray emission from comets 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C and 8P/Tuttle. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C was observed during May and June of 2006, while it was near perihelion and passed within 0.1 AU of the Earth. Comet 8P/Tuttle was observed during January of 2008 when it was at its closest approach to the Earth at 0.25 AU, and again near perihelion at a distance of 0.5 Au from Earth. In the case of comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3C, the XIS spectra show line emission from highly charged oxygen and carbon ions as well as emission from what is most likely L-shell transitions from Mg, Si, and S ions. This line emission is caused by charge exchange recombination between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals, and can be used as a diagnostic of the solar wind. Here we present some of the results of the observation of the comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C.

  11. Portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for environmental monitoring of inorganic pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Michael G. (Inventor); Clark, III, Benton C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a portable sensor unit containing a battery, a high voltage power supply, an x-ray tube which produces a beam x-ray radiation directed toward a target sample, and a detector for fluorescent x-rays produced by the sample. If a silicon-lithium detector is used, the sensor unit also contains either a thermoelectric or thermochemical cooler, or a small dewar flask containing liquid nitrogen to cool the detector. A pulse height analyzer (PHA) generates a spectrum of data for each sample consisting of the number of fluorescent x-rays detected as a function of their energy level. The PHA can also store spectrum data for a number of samples in the field. A processing unit can be attached to the pulse height analyzer to upload and analyze the stored spectrum data for each sample. The processing unit provides a graphic display of the spectrum data for each sample, and provides qualitative and/or quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of the sample by comparing the peaks in the sample spectrum against known x-ray energies for various chemical elements. An optional filtration enclosure can be used to filter particles from a sample suspension, either in the form of a natural suspension or a chemically created precipitate. The sensor unit is then temporarily attached to the filtration unit to analyze the particles collected by the filter medium.

  12. An Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer for Mars-96 and Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, R.; Wanke, H.; Economou, T.

    1996-09-01

    Mars Pathfinder and the Russian Mars-96 will carry an Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) for the determination of the chemical composition of Martian rocks and soil. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and many minor elements, including C,N and O, at levels above typically 1%. The method employed consist of bombarding a sample of 50 mm diameter with alpha particles from a radioactive source (50 mCi of Cm-244) and measuring: (i) backscattered alpha particles (alpha mode) (ii) protons from (a,p) reactions with some light elements (proton mode) (iii) characteristic X-rays emitted from the sample (X-ray mode). The APXS has a long standing space heritage, going back to Surveyor V,VI and VII (1967/68) and the Soviet Phobos (1988) missions. The present design is the result of an endeavour to reduce mass and power consumption to 600g/ 300mW. It consist of a sensor head containing the alpha sources, a telescope of a silicon detectors for the detection of the alpha particles and protons and a separate X-ray detector with its preamplifier, and an electronics box (80x70x60 mm) containing a microcontroller based multichannel spectrometer. The paper will describe the APXS flight hardware and present results obtained with the flight instrument that will show the instrument capabili- ties and the expected results to be obtained during surface operations on Mars.

  13. Evidence for beamed electrons in a limb X-ray flare observed by Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, Eberhard; Elwert, Gerhard

    1986-01-01

    The limb flare of November 18, 1980, 14:51 UT, was investigated on the basis of X-ray images taken by the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) and of X-ray spectra from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) aboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The impulsive burst was also recorded at microwave frequencies between 2 and 20 GHz whereas no optical flare and no radio event at frequencies below 1 GHz were reported. The flare occurred directly at the SW limb of the solar disk. Taking advantage of the spatial resolution of HXIS images, the time evolution of the X-radiation originating from relatively small source regions can be studied. Using Monte Carlo computations of the energy distribution of energetic electrons traversing the solar plasma, the bremsstrahlung spectra produced by the electrons were derived.

  14. The X-Ray Spectrometer for Mercury MESSENGER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, R. D.; Ho, G. C.; Schlemm, C.; Gold, R. E.; Goldsten, J. O.; Boynton, W. V.; Trombka, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and because it is so close, it is difficult to study from Earth-based observatories. Its proximity to the Sun has also limited the number of spacecraft to visit this tiny planet to just one, Mariner 10, which flew by Mercury twice in 1974 and once in 1975. Mariner 10 provided a wealth of new information about Mercury, yet much still remains unknown about Mercury's geologic history and the processes that led to its formation. The origin of Mercury's metal-rich composition is just one area of investigation awaiting more and improved data to sort between competing hypotheses. Mercury plays an important role in comparative planetology, and many of the processes that were important during its formation are relevant to the Earth's early history. MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) is a Discovery mission that has been designed to fly by and orbit Mercury. It will launch in March 2004, flyby Mercury in 2007 and 2008 and enter an elliptical orbit in April 2009. During the one-year orbital phase, a suite of instruments on board the MESSENGER spacecraft will study the exosphere, magnetosphere, surface, and interior of Mercury. One of these instruments will be an X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) that will measure surface elemental abundances. Remote X-ray spectroscopy has been accomplished before on the Apollo 15 and 16 missions, and more recently on NEAR Shoemaker. The MESSENGER XRS will measure characteristic X-ray emissions induced in the surface of Mercury by the incident solar flux. The Ka lines for the elements Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Ti, and Fe will be detected with spatial resolution on the order of 40 km when counting statistics are not a limiting factor. These measurements can be used to obtain quantitative information on elemental composition.

  15. Escape of Pluto's Atmosphere: In Situ Measurements from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument on New Horizons and Remote Observations from the Chandra X-ray observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Hill, Matthew E.; Lisse, Carey M.; Kollmann, Peter; Bagenal, Fran; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McComas, David J.; Elliott, Heather A.; Wolk, Scott J.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Zhu, Xun; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.; Ennico, K.; Olkin, C. B.

    2015-11-01

    The escape rate of Pluto's atmosphere is of significant scientific interest. The Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) is a compact, energy by time-of-flight (TOF) instrument developed to help address this science goal. Pluto is known to have an atmosphere, and pre-encounter models have postulated a majority N2 composition with free escape of up to ~1028 molecules/sec. The expected major ionization product near Pluto is singly ionized N2 molecules with pickup energies sufficient to be measured with PEPSSI. In the process of measuring the local energetic particle environment, such measurements can also provide constraints on the local density of Pluto's extended atmosphere, which, along with plasma measurements from the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument, also on New Horizons, could allow the inference of the strengh and extent of mass-loading of the solar wind due to Pluto's atmosphere. Pluto's neutral atmosphere also provides a source population for charge exchange of highly ionized, minor ions in the solar wind, such as O, C, and N. This process allows these ions to capture one electron and be left in an excited state. That state, in turn decays with the emission of a low-energy (100 eV to 1 keV) X-ray. Observations of such solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays have been made in the past of the Earth's geocorona and Mars's extended atmosphere. The award of almost 40 hours of Director's Discretionary Time (DDT) for observing Pluto with the Chandra X-ray observatory near the period of closest approach of New Horizons to Pluto potentially enabled a remote determination of Pluto's global outgassing rate using the local solar wind flux as measured by the SWAP instrument. Preliminary anaysis of data returned from these observations reveal a definite interaction of Pluto with the solar wind, but at a lower strength than had been predicted. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  16. Atmospheric Electron-Induced X-Ray Spectrometer (AEXS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.; Urgiles, Eduardo; Toda, Risaku; George, Thomas; Douglas, Susanne; Crisp, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the progress in the development of the so-called Atmospheric Electron X-ray Spectrometer (AEXS) instrument in our laboratory at JPL. The AEXS is a novel miniature instrument concept based on the excitation of characteristic X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and luminescence spectra using a focused electron beam, for non-destructive evaluation of surfaces of samples in situ, in planetary ambient atmosphere. In situ operation is obtained through the use of a thin electron transmissive membrane to isolate the vacuum within the AEXS electron source from the outside ambient atmosphere. By using a focused electron beam, the impinging electrons on samples in the external atmosphere excite XRF spectra from the irradiated spots with high-to-medium spatial resolution. The XRF spectra are analyzed using an energy-dispersive detector to determine surface elemental composition. The use of high- intensity electron beam results in rapid spectrum acquisition (several minutes), and consequently low energy consumption (several tens of Joules) per acquired XRF spectrum in comparison to similar portable instruments.

  17. Developing small vacuum spark as an x-ray source for calibration of an x-ray focusing crystal spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Karami, Mohammad; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2012-10-01

    A new technique of x-ray focusing crystal spectrometers' calibration is the desired result. For this purpose the spectrometer is designed to register radiated copper Kα and Kβ lines by using a flat α-quartz crystal. This experiment uses pre-breakdown x-ray emissions in low vacuum of about 2.5-3 mbar. At this pressure the pinch will not form so the plasma will not radiate. The anode material is copper and the capacity of the capacitor bank is 22.6 nF. This experiment designed and mounted a repetitive triggering system to save the operator time making hundreds of shots. This emission amount is good for calibration and geometrical adjustment of an optical crystal x-ray focusing spectrometer.

  18. High resolution, high rate X-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, Frederick S.; Landis, Donald A.

    1987-01-01

    A pulse processing system (10) for use in an X-ray spectrometer in which a ain channel pulse shaper (12) and a fast channel pulse shaper (13) each produce a substantially symmetrical triangular pulse (f, p) for each event detected by the spectrometer, with the pulse width of the pulses being substantially independent of the magnitude of the detected event and with the pulse width of the fast pulses (p) being substantially shorter than the pulse width of the main channel pulses (f). A pile-up rejector circuit (19) allows output pulses to be generated, with amplitudes linearly related to the magnitude of the detected events, whenever the peak of a main channel pulse (f) is not affected by a preceding or succeeding main channel pulse, while inhibiting output pulses wherein peak magnitudes of main channel pulses are affected by adjacent pulses. The substantially symmetrical triangular main channel pulses (f) are generated by the weighted addition (27-31) of successive RC integrations (24, 25, 26) of an RC differentiated step wave (23). The substantially symmetrical triangular fast channel pulses (p) are generated by the RC integration ( 43) of a bipolar pulse (o) in which the amplitude of the second half is 1/e that of the first half, with the RC time constant of integration being equal to one-half the width of the bipolar pulse.

  19. Conical focusing crystal spectrometers for cosmic x-ray astronomy.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, B E; Lowinger, T; Schneider, M

    1973-11-01

    A crystal spectrometer for rocket and satellite experiments is described. Parallel x rays from a stellar object are reflected at constant angle by Bragg crystals arranged around the sector of a cone so that a single wavelength is brought to a focus onto the axis of the cone. The aberrations produced when this array is tilted to change the wavelength are considered. It is shown that these are minimized by moving cone and detector in a nearly theta-2theta motion and by using a small-angle sector. In a specific design for a satellite instrument using LiF crystal to observe a spectral region including the iron lines at 1.9 A a spectral resolution of 3 mA over a spectral range of 1.6-2.1 A can be obtained, with the cosmic-ray background rate, and hence the time to detect a weak line decreased by a factor 80 compared to a flat crystal spectrometer. Examples of performance for a low energy rocket experiment are also given.

  20. Improvement of X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Gon; Bitter, M.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.

    2005-10-01

    The X-ray imaging crystal spectrometers for the KSTAR tokamak will provide spatially and temporally resolved spectra of the resonance line of helium-like argon (or krypton) and the associated satellites from multiple lines of sight parallel and perpendicular to the horizontal mid-plane for measurements of the profiles of the ion and electron temperatures, plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The spectrometers are consisted of a spherically bent quartz crystal and a 10 cm x 30 cm large 2D position-sensitive multi-wire proportional counter. A 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been fabricated and tested on the NSTX tokamak at PPPL. Position resolution and count rate capability of the 2D detector are still need to be improved to meet the requirements. Hence, a segmented version of the 2D detector is under development to satisfy the requirements. The experimental results from the improved 2D detector will be presented.

  1. Current status of X-ray spectrometer development in SELENE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Okada, T.; Shiraishi, H.; Shirai, K.; Arai, T.; Ogawa, K.; Hosono, K.; Arakawa, M.; Kato, M.

    X-ray spectroscopy for lunar surface will be performed in SELENE project The main architecture of the X-ray spectrometer onboard SELENE spacecraft SELENE XRS is based on HAYABUSA X-ray spectrometer that used X-ray CCDs as X-ray detector and observed X-rays from both an asteroid and the standard sample on HAYABUSA for comparative analysis SELENE XRS is composed of three sensors XRF-A SOL-B and SOL-C XRF-A is main sensor with 16 X-ray CCDs to the X-ray detection from the lunar surface The total detection area of XRF-A is about 100 cm 2 and field of view is 12 degree Be foil of 5 mu m in thickness is attached to avoid from visible light detection SOL-B is solar X-ray monitor and the sensor is not X-ray CCD but PIN photo-diode SOL-B observes X-rays from the Sun directory and does not require the wide effective area as X-ray CCD SOL-C observes X-rays from the standard sample on SELENE The elemental composition of the standard sample is determined to perform comparative X-ray fluorescence analysis SELENE XRS has been developed and examined for several years and the development is in final stage ready for the launch on 2007 We will report the current status of each component of SELENE XRS

  2. ASIC for SDD-Based X-ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Rehak, P.; Ackley, K.; Carini, G.; Chen, W.; Keister, J.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Pinelli, D.A.; Siddons, D.P.; Vernon, E.; Gaskin, J.A.; Ramsey, B.D.; Tyson, T.A.

    2010-06-16

    We present an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for high-resolution x-ray spectrometers (XRS). The ASIC reads out signals from pixelated silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The pixel does not have an integrated field effect transistor (FET); rather, readout is accomplished by wire-bonding the anodes to the inputs of the ASIC. The ASIC dissipates 32 mW, and offers 16 channels of low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with baseline stabilization, discrimination, a novel pile-up rejector, and peak detection with an analog memory. The readout is sparse and based on custom low-power tristatable low-voltage differential signaling (LPT-LVDS). A unit of 64 SDD pixels, read out by four ASICs, covers an area of 12.8 cm{sup 2} and dissipates with the sensor biased about 15 mW/cm{sup 2}. As a tile-based system, the 64-pixel units cover a large detection area. Our preliminary measurements at -44 C show a FWHM of 145 eV at the 5.9 keV peak of a {sup 55}Fe source, and less than 80 eV on a test-pulse line at 200 eV.

  3. ASIC for SDD-Based X-Ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    G De Geronimo; P Rehak; K Ackley; G Carini; W Chen; J Fried; J Keister; S Li; Z Li; et al.

    2011-12-31

    We present an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for high-resolution x-ray spectrometers (XRS). The ASIC reads out signals from pixelated silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The pixel does not have an integrated field effect transistor (FET); rather, readout is accomplished by wire-bonding the anodes to the inputs of the ASIC. The ASIC dissipates 32 mW, and offers 16 channels of low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with baseline stabilization, discrimination, a novel pile-up rejector, and peak detection with an analog memory. The readout is sparse and based on custom low-power tristatable low-voltage differential signaling (LPT-LVDS). A unit of 64 SDD pixels, read out by four ASICs, covers an area of 12.8 cm{sup 2} and dissipates with the sensor biased about 15 mW/cm{sup 2}. As a tile-based system, the 64-pixel units cover a large detection area. Our preliminary measurements at -44 C show a FWHM of 145 eV at the 5.9 keV peak of a {sup 55}Fe source, and less than 80 eV on a test-pulse line at 200 eV.

  4. New Solar Soft X-ray Observations from the X123 Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; McTiernan, J. M.; Warren, H. P.; Woods, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Amptek X123 is a new soft X-ray photon-counting spectrometer, based on a silicon drift detector with integrated thermoelectric cooler, vacuum housing, and multi-channel analyzer (including pulse pile-up rejection), capable of measuring solar line and continuum emission from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution. It was flown on two recent SDO/EVE sounding rocket calibration underflights, is the primary science instrument on the upcoming Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) NASA CubeSat, and is part of the proposed instrument payload for the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS) mission concept. With the best resolution yet obtained from a broadband X-ray spectrometer, the X123 will enable new studies of plasma heating and particle acceleration, during flares and quiescent periods, and help to fill a crucial observational gap from ~0.2 to ~1.2 keV, not currently measured by existing instruments but critical for understanding solar-driven dynamics in Earth's upper atmosphere (ionosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere). We present results from a new analysis of X123 data obtained from the SDO/EVE rocket flights. In preparation for future MinXSS and CubIXSS data, we adapt a recently-developed technique combining EUV and X-ray spectra from SDO/EVE and RHESSI, respectively, to obtain a self-consistent differential emission measure (DEM) over the full range of coronal temperatures, ~2-50 MK. Including the X123 rocket X-ray spectra, we apply the adapted technique to examine both the coronal DEM and composition during quiescent (non-flaring) times with varying activity levels, obtaining constraints on the high-temperature extent of the quiescent DEM, the elemental abundances, and any potential non-thermal emission, and use the observations to extrapolate the spectrum to the poorly-observed ~0.2-1.2 keV band. We compare these results with those from a parallel technique using SDO/AIA imaging data. We discuss the implications for coronal plasma

  5. Soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer for X-ray Surveyor and smaller missions with high resolving power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander; Schattenburg, Mark; Kolodziejczak, jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    A number of high priority subjects in astrophysics are addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, e.g. the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the WHIM and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (A > 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology, even for telescopes with angular resolution of 5-10 arcsec. Significantly higher performance could be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission (A > 4,000 cm2, R > 5,000). CAT gratings combine advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher orders) with those of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth silicon grating bar sidewalls. Silicon is well matched to the soft x-ray band, and 30% absolute diffraction efficiency has been acheived with clear paths for further improvement. CAT gratings with sidewalls made of high-Z elements allow extension of blazing to higher energies and larger dispersion angles, enabling higher resolving power at shorter wavelengths. X-ray data from CAT gratings coated with a thin layer of platinum using atomic layer deposition demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and much larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. Measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing optic from GSFC and CAT gratings, taken at the MSFC Stray Light Facility, have demonstrated resolving power > 10,000. Thus currently fabricated CAT gratings are compatible

  6. Bolometers as particle spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroke, H. H.; Artzner, G.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Hansen, P. G.

    1986-02-01

    A spectrometer based on low-temperature calorimetry has been under development since 1983. The present detector, capable of recording individual alpha and beta particles and X-ray photons, is based on a composite diamond-germanium bolometer. The advantage of a composite bolometer is that it separates the absorption and detection functions. Diamond, as an absorber, is of particular advantage because of its low heat capacity and high thermal diffusivity. The goal is a theoretical energy resolution of a few eV at 0.1 K. Initial experiments at 1.3 K and 0.9 K, which give resolutions in the keV range, are still noise-limited. High-resolution applications, such as in X-ray astronomy and nuclear physics (in particular, neutron mass measurements) are foreseen.

  7. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10(13) photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO2 converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  8. The hard X-ray burst spectrometer event listing 1980, 1981 and 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Kiplinger, A.; Dennis, H. E.; Gibson, B. R.; Kennard, G. S.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive reference for the hard X-ray bursts detected with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission for the time of launch on February 14, 1980 to March 1983 is provided. Over 6300 X-ray events were detected in the energy range from 30 to approx 500 keV with the vast majority being solar flares. The listing includes the start time, peak time, duration and peak rate of each event.

  9. The hard X-ray burst spectrometer event listing, 1980 - 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Gibson, B. R.; Kennard, G. S.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    This event listing is a comprehensive reference for the hard X-ray bursts detected with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission from the time of launch on February 14, 1980 to September 1985. Over 8000 X-ray events were detected in the energy range from 30 to approx. 500 keV with the vast majority being solar flares. The listing includes the start time, peak time, duration and peak rate of each event.

  10. The hard X-ray burst spectrometer event listing 1980-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Schwartz, R. A.; Gibson, B. R.; Kennard, G. S.; Tolbert, A. K.; Biesecker, D. A.; Labow, G. J.; Shaver, A.

    1988-01-01

    This event listing is a comprehensive reference for the Hard X-ray bursts detected with the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission from the time of launch 14 February 1980 to December 1987. Over 8600 X-ray events were detected in the energy range from 30 to approx. 600 keV with the vast majority being solar flares. The listing includes the start time, peak time, duration and peak rate of each event.

  11. Development of x-ray microcalorimeter imaging spectrometers for the X-ray Surveyor mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Adams, Joseph S.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Miniussi, Antoine R.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wakeham, Nicholas A.; Wassell, Edward J.; Yoon, Wonsik; Becker, Dan; Bennett, Douglas; Doriese, William B.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gard, Johnathan D.; Hilton, Gene C.; Mates, Benjamin; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Swetz, Daniel; Ullom, Joel N.; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Irwin, Kent D.; Lee, Sang-Jun; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Four astrophysics missions are currently being studied by NASA as candidate large missions to be chosen in the 2020 astrophysics decadal survey.1 One of these missions is the "X-Ray Surveyor" (XRS), and possible configurations of this mission are currently under study by a science and technology definition team (STDT). One of the key instruments under study is an X-ray microcalorimeter, and the requirements for such an instrument are currently under discussion. In this paper we review some different detector options that exist for this instrument, and discuss what array formats might be possible. We have developed one design option that utilizes either transition-edge sensor (TES) or magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) in pixel array-sizes approaching 100 kilo-pixels. To reduce the number of sensors read out to a plausible scale, we have assumed detector geometries in which a thermal sensor such a TES or MCC can read out a sub-array of 20-25 individual 1" pixels. In this paper we describe the development status of these detectors, and also discuss the different options that exist for reading out the very large number of pixels.

  12. Current status of X-ray spectrometer development in the SELENE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Okada, T.; Shiraishi, H.; Shirai, K.; Arai, T.; Ogawa, K.; Hosono, K.; Arakawa, M.; Kato, M.

    2008-07-01

    The X-ray spectrometer (XRS) on the SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer) spacecraft, XRS, will observe fluorescent X-rays from the lunar surface. The energy of the fluorescent X-ray depends on the elements of which the lunar soil consists, therefore we can determine elemental composition of the upper most lunar surface. The XRS consists of three components: XRF-A, SOL-B, and SOL-C. XRF-A is the main sensor to observe X-rays from the lunar surface. SOL-B is direct monitor of Solar X-ray using Si-PIN photodiode. SOL-C is another Solar X-ray monitor but observes the X-rays from the standard sample attached on the base plate. This enables us to analyze by a comparative method similar to typical laboratory XRF methods. XRF-A and SOL-C adopt charge coupled device as an X-ray detector which depletion layer is deep enough to detect X-rays. The X-ray spectra were obtained by the flight model of XRS components, and all components has been worked well to analyze fluorescent X-rays. Currently, development of the hardware and software of the XRS has been finished and we are preparing for system integration test for the launch.

  13. X-ray luminescence based spectrometer for investigation of scintillation properties

    SciTech Connect

    Varney, C. R.; Khamehchi, M. A.; Ji, Jianfeng; Selim, F. A.

    2012-10-15

    A new x-ray luminescence based spectrometer was developed and installed to examine the scintillation properties of materials while revealing the origins of luminescence and investigating trapping defects. Measurements were performed on a number of undoped and Ce doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystals and various luminescence centers were characterized. The measured x-ray luminescence spectra provide information about the spectral range and the scintillation efficiency and linearity. The efficiency of charge-carriers production due to x ray, their energy transfer to the luminescence centers, and the efficiency of luminescence are all reflected in the efficiency of x-ray luminescence.

  14. Soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) of actinide particles.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Hans J; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wilson, Richard E; Werme, Lars; Shuh, David K

    2005-09-01

    A descriptive account is given of our most recent research on the actinide dioxides with the Advanced Light Source Molecular Environmental Science (ALS-MES) Beamline 11.0.2 soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The ALS-MES STXM permits near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and imaging with 30-nm spatial resolution. The first STXM spectromicroscopy NEXAFS spectra at the actinide 4d5/2 edges of the imaged transuranic particles, NpO2 and PuO2, have been obtained. Radiation damage induced by the STXM was observed in the investigation of a mixed oxidation state particle (Np(V,VI)) and was minimized during collection of the actual spectra at the 4d5/2 edge of the Np(V,VI) solid. A plutonium elemental map was obtained from an irregular PuO2 particle with the dimensions of 650 x 650 nm. The Pu 4d5/2 NEXAFS spectra were collected at several different locations from the PuO2 particle and were identical. A representative oxygen K-edge spectrum from UO2 was collected and resembles the oxygen K-edge from the bulk material. The unique and current performance of the ALS-MES STXM at extremely low energies (ca. 100 eV) that may permit the successful measurement of the actinide 5d edge is documented. Finally, the potential of STXM as a tool for actinide investigations is briefly discussed.

  15. Calibration of a high resolution grating soft x-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Magee, E W; Dunn, J; Brown, G V; Cone, K V; Park, J; Porter, F S; Kilbourne, C A; Kelley, R L; Beiersdorfer, P

    2010-10-01

    The calibration of the soft x-ray spectral response of a large radius of curvature, high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with a back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector is reported. The instrument is cross-calibrated for the 10-50 Å waveband at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (EBIT) x-ray source with the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer. The HRGS instrument is designed for laser-produced plasma experiments and is important for making high dynamic range measurements of line intensities, line shapes, and x-ray sources.

  16. A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer for the OMEGA EP Laser (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.; Ehrne, F.; Mileham, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Jungquist, R. K.; Taylor, C.; Stillman, C. R.; Ivancic, S. T.; Boni, R.; Hassett, J.; Lonobile, D. J.; Kidder, R. W.; Shoup, M. J.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Froula, D. H.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer has been developed for the OMEGA EP Laser System based on a spherically bent Si [220] crystal with a radius of curvature of 330 mm and a Spectral Instruments (SI) 800 Series charge-coupled device. The instrument measures time-integrated x-ray emission spectra in the 7.97- to 8.11-keV range, centered on the Cu Kα1 line. To demonstrate the performance of the spectrometer under high-power conditions, Kα1,2 emission spectra were measured from Cu foils irradiated by the OMEGA EP laser with 100-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities above 1018 W/cm2. The ultimate goal is to couple the spectrometer to a picosecond x-ray streak camera and measure temperature-equilibration dynamics inside rapidly heated materials. The plan for these ultrafast streaked x-ray spectroscopy studies is discussed.

  17. A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer for the OMEGA EP Laser (invited).

    PubMed

    Nilson, P M; Ehrne, F; Mileham, C; Mastrosimone, D; Jungquist, R K; Taylor, C; Stillman, C R; Ivancic, S T; Boni, R; Hassett, J; Lonobile, D J; Kidder, R W; Shoup, M J; Solodov, A A; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Froula, D H; Hill, K W; Gao, L; Bitter, M; Efthimion, P; Meyerhofer, D D

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer has been developed for the OMEGA EP Laser System based on a spherically bent Si [220] crystal with a radius of curvature of 330 mm and a Spectral Instruments (SI) 800 Series charge-coupled device. The instrument measures time-integrated x-ray emission spectra in the 7.97- to 8.11-keV range, centered on the Cu Kα1 line. To demonstrate the performance of the spectrometer under high-power conditions, Kα1,2 emission spectra were measured from Cu foils irradiated by the OMEGA EP laser with 100-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities above 10(18) W/cm(2). The ultimate goal is to couple the spectrometer to a picosecond x-ray streak camera and measure temperature-equilibration dynamics inside rapidly heated materials. The plan for these ultrafast streaked x-ray spectroscopy studies is discussed.

  18. High-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer (HEXIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, James L.; Gruber, Duane E.; Heindl, William A.; Pelling, Michael R.; Peterson, Laurence E.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Skelton, Robert E.; Hink, Paul L.; Slavis, Kimberly R.; Binns, W. Robert

    1998-11-01

    HEXIS is a MIDEX-class mission concept for x-ray astronomy. Its objectives are to improve our knowledge of the high energy x-ray sky by increasing the number of sources above 20 keV to > 2,000, discovering transient sources such as x-ray novae and gamma-ray bursts, and making spectral and temporal studies of the sources. With mission life > 3 years, a 1-year all-sky survey sensitivity of approximately 0.3 mCrab, and continuous monitoring of the entire visible sky, HEXIS will provide unprecedented capabilities. Source positions will be determined to accuracies of a few arcmin or better. Spectra will be determined with an energy resolution of a few keV and source variability will be studied on time scales from < 1 sec to years. In addition, 10 times more sensitive studies of limited fields will be performed at the same time. Gamma-ray bursts will be detected about 4 times/week at about the same sensitivity as BATSE and the sensitivity to nova-like x-ray transients will be approximately 6 mCrab in one day. HEXIS contains a set of coded mask imagers that use position-sensitive CZT detectors operating from approximately 5 keV to 200 keV. Detector planes are built with 41 cm(superscript 2) CZT detector modules which employ crossed-strip readout to obtain a pixel size of 0.5 mm. Nine modules are grouped in a 369 cm(superscript 2) array for each imager. In the past 2 years significant progress has been made on techniques requires for HEXIS: position-sensitive CZT detectors and ASIC readout, coded mask imaging, and background properties at balloon altitudes. Scientific and technical details of HEXIS are presented together with result form tests of detectors and a coded mask imager.

  19. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Y; Błachucki, W; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Neff, M; Romano, V

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers.

  20. An X-ray Raman spectrometer for EXAFS studies on minerals: bent Laue spectrometer with 20 keV X-rays.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, N; Fukui, H; Tanida, H; Toyokawa, H; Cai, Y Q; Tsuei, K D

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray Raman spectrometer for studies of local structures in minerals is discussed. Contrary to widely adopted back-scattering spectrometers using ≤10 keV X-rays, a spectrometer utilizing ~20 keV X-rays and a bent Laue analyzer is proposed. The 20 keV photons penetrate mineral samples much more deeply than 10 keV photons, so that high intensity is obtained owing to an enhancement of the scattering volume. Furthermore, a bent Laue analyzer provides a wide band-pass and a high reflectivity, leading to a much enhanced integrated intensity. A prototype spectrometer has been constructed and performance tests carried out. The oxygen K-edge in SiO(2) glass and crystal (α-quartz) has been measured with energy resolutions of 4 eV (EXAFS mode) and 1.3 eV (XANES mode). Unlike methods previously adopted, it is proposed to determine the pre-edge curve based on a theoretical Compton profile and a Monte Carlo multiple-scattering simulation before extracting EXAFS features. It is shown that the obtained EXAFS features are reproduced fairly well by a cluster model with a minimal set of fitting parameters. The spectrometer and the data processing proposed here are readily applicable to high-pressure studies.

  1. Arcus: the x-ray grating spectrometer explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. K.; Abraham, M. H.; Allured, R.; Bautz, M.; Bookbinder, J.; Bregman, J. N.; Brenneman, L.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Burrows, D. N.; Burwitz, V.; Carvalho, R.; Cheimets, P. N.; Costantini, E.; Dawson, S.; DeRoo, C.; Falcone, A.; Foster, A. R.; Grant, C. E.; Heilmann, R. K.; Hertz, E.; Hine, B.; Huenemoerder, D.; Kaastra, J. S.; Madsen, K. K.; McEntaffer, R. L.; Miller, E. D.; Miller, J.; Morse, E.; Mushotzky, R.; Nandra, K.; Nowak, M.; Paerels, F.; Petre, R.; Plice, L.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Ptak, A.; Reid, P.; Sanders, J.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Schulz, N.; Smale, A.; Temi, P.; Valencic, L.; Walker, S.; Willingale, R.; Wilms, J.; Wolk, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    Arcus will be proposed to the NASA Explorer program as a free-flying satellite mission that will enable high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (8-50) with unprecedented sensitivity - effective areas of >500 sq cm and spectral resolution >2500. The Arcus key science goals are (1) to determine how baryons cycle in and out of galaxies by measuring the effects of structure formation imprinted upon the hot gas that is predicted to lie in extended halos around galaxies, groups, and clusters, (2) to determine how black holes influence their surroundings by tracing the propagation of out-flowing mass, energy and momentum from the vicinity of the black hole out to large scales and (3) to understand how accretion forms and evolves stars and circumstellar disks by observing hot infalling and outflowing gas in these systems. Arcus relies upon grazing-incidence silicon pore X-ray optics with the same 12m focal length (achieved using an extendable optical bench) that will be used for the ESA Athena mission. The focused X-rays from these optics will then be diffracted by high-efficiency off-plane reflection gratings that have already been demonstrated on sub-orbital rocket flights, imaging the results with flight-proven CCD detectors and electronics. The power and telemetry requirements on the spacecraft are modest. The majority of mission operations will not be complex, as most observations will be long ( 100 ksec), uninterrupted, and pre-planned, although there will be limited capabilities to observe targets of opportunity, such as tidal disruption events or supernovae with a 3-5 day turnaround. After the end of prime science, we plan to allow guest observations to maximize the science return of Arcus to the community.

  2. X-MIME: An Imaging X-ray Spectrometer for Detailed Study of Jupiter's Icy Moons and the Planet's X-ray Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from these moons is certainly due to bombardment of their surfaces of highly energetic protons, oxygen and sulfur ions from the region near the Torus exciting atoms in their surfaces and leading to fluorescent x-ray emission lines. Although the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around these moons, operating at 200 eV and above with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping (down to 40 m spatial resolution) of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Such maps would provide important constraints on formation and evolution scenarios for the surfaces of these moons. Here we describe the characteristics of X-MIME, an imaging x-ray spectrometer under going a feasibility study for the JIMO mission, with the ultimate goal of providing unprecedented x-ray studies of the elemental composition of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as of Jupiter's auroral x-ray emission.

  3. Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Paul, S; Ince-Cushmann, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, C; Eikenberry, E F

    2007-11-07

    This tutorial gives a brief introduction into passive spectroscopy and describes the working principles of bolometers, a high-resolution grating spectrometer, and a novel X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, which is of particular interest for profile measurements of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity on ITER and future burning plasma experiments.

  4. Laser induced x-ray `RADAR' particle physics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, D.; Deas, R.; Moss, R.; Wilson, L. A.; Rusby, D.; Neely, D.

    2016-05-01

    The technique of high-power laser-induced plasma acceleration can be used to generate a variety of diverse effects including the emission of X-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons and radio-frequency radiation. A compact variable source of this nature could support a wide range of potential applications including single-sided through-barrier imaging, cargo and vehicle screening, infrastructure inspection, oncology and structural failure analysis. This paper presents a verified particle physics simulation which replicates recent results from experiments conducted at the Central Laser Facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, UK. The RAL experiment demonstrated the generation of backscattered X-rays from test objects via the bremsstrahlung of an incident electron beam, the electron beam itself being produced by Laser Wakefield Acceleration. A key initial objective of the computer simulation was to inform the experimental planning phase on the predicted magnitude of the backscattered X-rays likely from the test objects. This objective was achieved and the computer simulation was used to show the viability of the proposed concept (Laser-induced X-ray `RADAR'). At the more advanced stages of the experimental planning phase, the simulation was used to gain critical knowledge of where it would be technically feasible to locate key diagnostic equipment within the experiment. The experiment successfully demonstrated the concept of X-ray `RADAR' imaging, achieved by using the accurate timing information of the backscattered X-rays relative to the ultra-short laser pulse used to generate the electron beam. By using fast response X-ray detectors it was possible to derive range information for the test objects being scanned. An X-ray radar `image' (equivalent to a RADAR B-scan slice) was produced by combining individual X-ray temporal profiles collected at different points along a horizontal distance line scan. The same image formation process was used to generate

  5. Development of a Time-resolved Soft X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

    2010-05-12

    A 2400 line/mm variable spaced grating spectrometer (VSG) has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 {angstrom}) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x-rays emitted from the back of mylar and copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx} 120 at 19 {angstrom} with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolution of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

  6. Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Cone, K. V.; Brown, G. V.; Schneider, M. B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; May, M. J.; Baldis, H. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.

    2010-10-15

    We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range of {approx}6-60 A. The calibration results presented here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from the hydrogenlike and heliumlike ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x-ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  7. Calibration of a Flat Field Soft X-ray Grating Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Brown, G V; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Beiersdorfer, P; Cone, K V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E; May, M J; Porter, F S

    2010-05-12

    We have calibrated the x ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL, and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range from {approx} 6 to 60 {angstrom}. The calibration results present here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  8. Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmasa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Brown, G. V.; Schneider, M. B.; Baldis, H. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Cone, K. V.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Magee, E. W.; May, M. J.; Porter, F. S.

    2010-10-01

    We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range of ˜6-60 Å. The calibration results presented here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from the hydrogenlike and heliumlike ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x-ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  9. High Gain, Fast Scan, Broad Spectrum, Parallel Beam Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer for SEM

    SciTech Connect

    David OHara; Dr. Eric Lochmer

    2003-09-12

    Parallax Research, Inc. proposes to produce a new type of x-ray spectrometer for use with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that would have the energy resolution of WDS and the ease of use of EDS with sufficient gain for lower energies that it can be used at low beam currents as is EDS. Parallax proposes to do this by development of new multiple reflection x-ray collimation optics, new diffractor technology, new detector technology and new scan algorithms.

  10. A versatile, highly-efficient, high-resolution von Hamos Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vane, C.R.; Smith, M.S.; Raman, S.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient, high-resolution, vertical-focusing, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been specifically designed and constructed for use in measurements of x rays produced in collisions of energetic heavy ions. In this report the design and resulting operational characteristics of the final instrument are fully described. A wide variety of sample data is also included to illustrate the utility of this device in several areas of research. 14 refs., 38 figs.

  11. The complete Hard X Ray Burst Spectrometer event list, 1980-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.; Kennard, G. S.; Labow, G. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Shaver, A. R.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    This event list is a comprehensive reference for all Hard X ray bursts detected with the Hard X Ray Burst Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission from the time of launch on Feb. 14, 1980 to the end of the mission in Dec. 1989. Some 12,776 events were detected in the energy range 30 to 600 keV with the vast majority being solar flares. This list includes the start time, peak time, duration, and peak rate of each event.

  12. Volume 1. Preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers. Volume 2. Revised preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide a preliminary design concept for a Flux Monitor Spectrometer (FMS) for use at the X Ray Astrophysics Facility (XRAF) during High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) testing that met the requirements of SAO-AXAF-88-025 dated July 31, 1991. The calibration test team determined that the spectral resolution of the FMS had to be greater than or equal to twice that of all the AXAF spectrometers throughout the 0.1 to 10 KeV range of x-ray energies. Since this effectively doubled the resolution required by SAO-AXAF-88-025, a change order was approved by the Marshall Space Flight Center and given to Radiation Sciences to revise their study.

  13. High gain, Fast Scan, Broad Spectrum Parallel Beam Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer for SEM

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, David

    2009-05-08

    During contract # DE-FG02-ER83545, Parallax Research, Inc. developed a High gain, Fast Scan Broad Spectrum Parallel beam Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer for use on Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM). This new spectrometer allows very fast high resolution elemental analysis of samples in an electron microscope. By comparison to previous WDS spectrometers, it can change from one energy position to another very quickly and has an extended range compared to some similar products.

  14. Time-resolved near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy on photo-induced phase transitions using a tabletop soft-x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, P.; Rajkovic, I.; Moré, R.; Norpoth, J.; Techert, S.; Jooss, C.; Mann, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    We present a table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer for the wavelength range λ = 1-5 nm based on a stable laser-driven x-ray source, making use of a gas-puff target. With this setup, optical light-pump/soft-x-ray probe near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) experiments with a temporal resolution of about 230 ps are feasible. Pump-probe NEXAFS measurements were carried out in the "water-window" region (2.28 nm-4.36 nm) on the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, investigating diminutive changes of the oxygen K edge that derive from an optically induced phase transition. The results show the practicability of the table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer on demanding investigations so far exclusively conducted at synchrotron radiation sources.

  15. Spectrometer for hard X-ray free-electron laser based on diffraction focusing.

    PubMed

    Kohn, V G; Gorobtsov, O Y; Vartanyants, I A

    2013-03-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) generate sequences of ultra-short spatially coherent pulses of X-ray radiation. A diffraction focusing spectrometer (DFS), which is able to measure the whole energy spectrum of the radiation of a single XFEL pulse with an energy resolution of ΔE/E 2 × 10(-6), is proposed. This is much better than for most modern X-ray spectrometers. Such resolution allows one to resolve the fine spectral structure of the XFEL pulse. The effect of diffraction focusing occurs in a single-crystal plate due to dynamical scattering, and is similar to focusing in a Pendry lens made from a metamaterial with a negative refraction index. Such a spectrometer is easier to operate than those based on bent crystals. It is shown that the DFS can be used in a wide energy range from 5 keV to 20 keV.

  16. Portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This report describes the application of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to characterize materials related to deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of contaminated facilities. Two portable XRF instruments manufactured by TN Spectrace were used in a technology evaluation as part of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) held at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The LSDP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Are (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate innovative technologies or technology applications potentially beneficial to the D and D of contaminated facilities. The portable XRF technology offers several potential benefits for rapid characterization of facility components and contaminants, including significant cost reduction, fast turnaround time,a nd virtually no secondary waste. Field work for the demonstration of the portable XRF technology was performed from August 28--September 3, 1996 and October 30--December 13, 1996.

  17. TFTR horizontal high-resolution Bragg x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; Tavernier, M.; Diesso, M.; von Goeler, S.; Johnson, G.; Johnson, L.C.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Schechtman, N.; Sesnic, S.; Tenney, F.; Young, K.M.

    1984-11-01

    A bent quartz crystal spectrometer of the Johann type with a spectral resolution of lambda/..delta..lambda = 10,000 to 25,000 is used on TFTR to determine central plasma parameters from the spectra of heliumlike and lithiumlike metal impurity ions (Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni). The spectra are observed along a central radial chord and are recorded by a position sensitive multiwire proportional counter with a spatial resolution of 250. Standard delay-line time-difference readout is employed. The data are histogrammed and stored in 64k of memory providing 128 time groups of 512-channel spectra. The central ion temperature and the toroidal plasma rotation are inferred from the Doppler broadening and Doppler shift of the K lines. The central electron temperature, the distribution of ionization states, and dielectronic recombination rates are obtained from satellite-to-resonance line ratios. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measurements of the Ti XXI K radiation.

  18. Convex crystal x-ray spectrometer for laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.; Heeter, R.; Emig, J.

    2004-10-01

    Measuring time and space-resolved spectra is important for understanding Hohlraum and Halfraum plasmas. Experiments at the OMEGA laser have used the Nova TSPEC which was not optimized for the OMEGA diagnostic space envelope or for the needed spectroscopic coverage and resolution. An improved multipurpose spectrometer snout, the MSPEC, has been constructed and fielded on OMEGA. The MSPEC provides the maximal internal volume for mounting crystals without any beam interferences at either 2x or 3x magnification. The RAP crystal is in a convex mounting geometry bent to a 20 cm radius of curvature. The spectral resolution, E/dE, is about 200 at 2.5 keV. The spectral coverage is 2 to 4.5 keV. The MSPEC can record four separate spectra on the framing camera at time intervals of up to several ns. The spectrometer design and initial field-test performance will be presented and compared to that of the TSPEC.

  19. Ground calibration of the Astro-H (Hitomi) soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Chiao, M. P.; Fujimoto, R.; Haas, D.; den Herder, J. W.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.; Porter, F. S.; Sato, K.; Sawada, M.; Seta, H.; Sneiderman, G. A.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Takei, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Tsujimoto, M.; de Vries, C. P.; Watanabe, T.; Yamada, S.; Yamasaki, N. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The Astro-H (Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was a pioneering imaging x-ray spectrometer with 5 eV energy resolution at 6 keV. The instrument used a microcalorimeter array at the focus of a high-throughput soft x-ray telescope to enable high-resolution non-dispersive spectroscopy in the soft x-ray waveband (0:3-12 keV). We present the suite of ground calibration measurements acquired from 2012-2015, including characterization of the detector system, anti-coincidence detector, optical blocking filters, and filter-wheel filters. The calibration of the 36-pixel silicon thermistor microcalorimeter array includes parameterizations of the energy gain scale and line spread function for each event grade over a range of instrument operating conditions, as well as quantum efficiency measurements. The x-ray transmission of the set of five Al/polyimide thin-film optical blocking filters mounted inside the SXS dewar has been modeled based on measurements at synchrotron beamlines, including with high spectral resolution at the C, N, O, and Al K-edges. In addition, we present the x-ray transmission of the dewar gate valve and of the filters mounted on the SXS filter wheel (external to the dewar), including beryllium, polyimide, and neutral density filters.

  20. A table-top femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Stephen; Loh, Zhi-Heng; Khalil, Munira; Correa, Raoul E.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-05-21

    A laser-based, table-top instrument is constructed to perform femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Ultrashort soft x-ray pulses produced via high-order harmonic generation of the amplified output of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system are used to probe atomic core-level transient absorptions in atoms and molecules. The results provide chemically specific, time-resolved dynamics with sub-50-fs time resolution. In this setup, high-order harmonics generated in a Ne-filled capillary waveguide are refocused by a gold-coated toroidal mirror into the sample gas cell, where the soft x-ray light intersects with an optical pump pulse. The transmitted high-order harmonics are spectrally dispersed with a home-built soft x-ray spectrometer, which consists of a gold-coated toroidal mirror, a uniform-line spaced plane grating, and a soft x-ray CCD camera. The optical layout of the instrument, design of the soft x-ray spectrometer, and spatial and temporal characterization of the high-order harmonics are described. Examples of static and time-resolved photoabsorption spectra collected on this apparatus are presented.

  1. Rest-wavelength Fiducials for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Graf, A. T.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Porter, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute wavelength references are needed to derive the plasma velocities from the Doppler shift of a given line emitted by a moving plasma. We show that such reference standards exist for the strongest x-ray line in neonlike W64+, which has become the line of choice for the ITER (Latin the way) core imaging x-ray spectrometer. Close-by standards are the Hf L3 line and the Ir L2 line, which bracket the W64+ line by 30 eV; other standards are given by the Ir L1 and L2 lines and the Hf L1 and L2 lines, which bracket the W64+ line by 40 and 160 eV, respectively. The reference standards can be produced by an x-ray tube built into the ITER spectrometer. We present spectra of the reference lines obtained with an x-ray microcalorimeter and compare them to spectra of the W64+ line obtained both with an x-ray microcalorimeter and a crystal spectrometer

  2. Convex Crystal X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    May, M; Heeter, R; Emig, J

    2004-04-15

    Measuring time and space-resolved spectra is important for understanding Hohlraum and Halfraum plasmas. Experiments at the OMEGA laser have used the Nova TSPEC which was not optimized for the OMEGA diagnostic space envelope or for the needed spectroscopic coverage and resolution. An improved multipurpose spectrometer snout, the MSPEC, has been constructed and fielded on OMEGA. The MSPEC provides the maximal internal volume for mounting crystals without any beam interferences at either 2x or 3x magnification. The RAP crystal is in a convex mounting geometry bent to a 20 cm radius of curvature. The spectral resolution, E/dE, is about 200 at 2.5 keV. The spectral coverage is 2 to 4.5 keV. The MSPEC can record four separate spectra on the framing camera at time intervals of up to several ns. The spectrometer design and initial field-test performance will be presented and compared to that of the TSPEC. Work supported by U. S. DoE/UC LLNL contract W-7405-ENG-48

  3. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L. Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (˜1 μ m) and detector pixels (˜5 μ m) with high line density gratings (˜3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  4. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (∼1μm) and detector pixels (∼5μm) with high line density gratings (∼3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  5. High Resolution, Non-Dispersive X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers on EBITs and Orbiting Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is the primary tool for performing atomic physics with Electron beam ion trap (EBITs). X-ray instruments have generally fallen into two general categories, 1) dispersive instruments with very high spectral resolving powers but limited spectral range, limited count rates, and require an entrance slit, generally, for EBITs, defined by the electron beam itself, and 2) non-dispersive solid-state detectors with much lower spectral resolving powers but that have a broad dynamic range, high count rate ability and do not require a slit. Both of these approaches have compromises that limit the type and efficiency of measurements that can be performed. In 1984 NASA initiated a program to produce a non-dispersive instrument with high spectral resolving power for x-ray astrophysics based on the cryogenic x-ray calorimeter. This program produced the XRS non-dispersive spectrometers on the Astro-E, Astro-E2 (Suzaku) orbiting observatories, the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory, and the planned XMS instrument on the International X-ray Observatory. Complimenting these spaceflight programs, a permanent high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer, the XRS/EBIT, was installed on the LLNL EBIT in 2000. This unique instrument was upgraded to a spectral resolving power of 1000 at 6 keV in 2003 and replaced by a nearly autonomous production-class spectrometer, the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), in 2007. The ECS spectrometer has a simultaneous bandpass from 0.07 to over 100 keV with a spectral resolving power of 1300 at 6 keV with unit quantum efficiency, and 1900 at 60 keV with a quantum efficiency of 30%. X-ray calorimeters are event based, single photon spectrometers with event time tagging to better than 10 us. We are currently developing a follow-on instrument based on a newer generation of x-ray calorimeters with a spectral resolving power of 3000 at 6 keV, and improved timing and measurement cadence. The unique capabilities of the x-ray

  6. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  7. Cooling system for the soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko; Takei, Yoh; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoichi; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ohashi, Takaya; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Murakami, Masahide; Kitamoto, Shunji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Tamagawa, Toru; Kawaharada, Madoka; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Sato, Kosuke; Hoshino, Akio; Kanao, Kenichi; Yoshida, Seiji; Miyaoka, Mikio; Dipirro, Michael; Shirron, Peter; Sneiderman, Gary; Kelley, Richard L.; Porter, F. Scott; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Crow, John; Mattern, Andrea; Kashani, Ali; McCammon, Dan

    2010-07-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is a cryogenic high resolution X-ray spectrometer onboard the X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H. The detector array is cooled down to 50 mK using a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The cooling chain from room temperature to the ADR heat-sink is composed of superfluid liquid He, a 4He Joule-Thomson cryocooler, and 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers. It is designed to keep 30 L of liquid He for more than 3 years in the nominal case. It is also designed with redundant subsystems throughout from room temperature to the ADR heat-sink, to alleviate failure of a single cryocooler or loss of liquid He.

  8. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-31

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8m and capable of 10{sup 5} resolving power.

  9. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-06-23

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8 m and capable of 10{sup 5} resolving power.

  10. Preliminary testing of a prototype portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, L. L.; Anderson, N. B.; Stevenson, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    A portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for use as an analyzer in mineral resource investigative work was built and tested. The prototype battery powered spectrometer, measuring 11 by 12 by 5 inches and weighing only about 15 pounds, was designed specifically for field use. The spectrometer has two gas proportional counters and two radioactive sources, Cd (10a) and Fe (55). Preliminary field and laboratory tests on rock specimens and rock pulps have demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer to detect 33 elements to date. Characteristics of the system present some limitations, however, and further improvements are recommended.

  11. Triple-path collector optics for grazing incident x-ray emission spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tokushima, T; Horikawa, Y; Shin, S

    2011-07-01

    A new type of collector optics was developed for grazing incident x-ray emission spectrometer. The collector optics used two cylindrical mirrors to add two extra light paths while keeping the center light path that directly illuminates the grating. The design and properties of the spectrometer using the triple-path collector optics were evaluated using ray-tracing simulations, and validity of this design in terms of throughput and energy resolution was confirmed by the experimentally obtained spectra.

  12. Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Biedermann, C; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparicio, L F; Graf, A; Gu, M F; Hill, K W; Barnsley, R

    2012-06-15

    The parameters of the ITER core plasmas will be measured using the Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (CIXS), a high-resolution crystal spectrometer focusing on the L-shell spectra of highly ionized tungsten atoms. In order to correctly infer the plasma properties accurate atomic data are required. Here, some aspects of the underlying physics are discussed using experimental data and theoretical predictions from modeling.

  13. Apollo lunar orbital sciences program alpha and X-ray spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of the alpha and X-ray spectrometers which were used on the Apollo 15 and 16 flights is discussed. Specific subjects presented are: (1) lunar program management, (2) scientific and technical approach, (3) major test programs, (4) reliability, quality assurance, and safety, and (5) subcontract management.

  14. A spaceworthy ADR - Recent developments. [Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator for X ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlemitsos, Aristides T.; Warner, Brent A.; Sansebastian, Marcelino; Kunes, Evan

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments concerning the performance and reliability of a spaceworthy adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) for the AXAF X-ray spectrometer are considered. They include a procedure for growing the salt pill around a harness made up of 6080 gold-plated copper wires, a totally modular gas gap heat switch, and a suspension system utilizing Kevlar fibers.

  15. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats: spectrometer characterization techniques, spectrometer capabilities, and solar science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Mason, James P.

    2016-07-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) are twin 3U CubeSats. The first of the twin CubeSats (MinXSS-1) launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in mid-2016. Both MinXSS CubeSats utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 to 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV, and a LASP-developed X-ray broadband photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The majority of previous solar soft X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broadband) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements with moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and the effects of solar soft X-ray emission on Earth's ionosphere. This paper focuses on the X-ray spectrometer instrument characterization techniques involving radioactive X-ray sources and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). Spectrometer spectral response, spectral resolution, response linearity are discussed as well as future solar science objectives.

  16. Cruise Science with the Compact X-ray Spectrometer (D-CIXS) of SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhu, O.; Muhli, P.; Huovelin, J.; Hakala, P.; Hannikainen, D. C.; Grande, M.; Kellett, B.

    2000-10-01

    The primary objective of the SMART-1 (ESA) mission is to test solar electric propulsion and to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months. The science payload includes e.g. the Demonstration of a Compact Imaging X-ray Spectrometer D-CIXS (pronounced Dee-Kicks!). Its main goal is to observe fluorescence X-rays with high spectral and spatial resolution from the Moon's surface. During the escape phase leaving Earth (15 - 17 months), D-CIXS can observe X-ray sources. Solar flares will also be monitored with the X-ray Solar Monitor (XSM). We present a potential cruise science program for selected X-ray binaries and microquasars. The long journey to the Moon provides us with an unique opportunity to study long-term variability of XRBs on a regular basis using X-ray spectroscopy. The accumulated data can be used to probe the geometry and physical properties of accretion disks of about a dozen persistently bright XRBs, and, in particular, to search for and verify the presence and stability of superorbital periods (tilted and warped disks). Further, we present simulations with D-CIXS on the long time scale behaviour of the disk-corona structure in a selected microquasar. This work is supported by the Finnish Technology Development Agency TEKES, Academy of Finland and PPARC of UK.

  17. A von Hamos x-ray spectrometer based on a segmented-type diffraction crystal for single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy and time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies.

    PubMed

    Szlachetko, J; Nachtegaal, M; de Boni, E; Willimann, M; Safonova, O; Sa, J; Smolentsev, G; Szlachetko, M; van Bokhoven, J A; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Kayser, Y; Jagodzinski, P; Bergamaschi, A; Schmitt, B; David, C; Lücke, A

    2012-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of a wavelength-dispersive type spectrometer based on the von Hamos geometry. The spectrometer is equipped with a segmented-type crystal for x-ray diffraction and provides an energy resolution in the order of 0.25 eV and 1 eV over an energy range of 8000 eV-9600 eV. The use of a segmented crystal results in a simple and straightforward crystal preparation that allows to preserve the spectrometer resolution and spectrometer efficiency. Application of the spectrometer for time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy is demonstrated.

  18. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Chen, Z Y; Jin, W; Huang, D W; Ding, Y H; Li, J C; Zhang, X Q; Lee, S G; Shi, Y J; Zhuang, G

    2014-11-01

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase.

  19. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y. Jin, W.; Huang, D. W.; Ding, Y. H.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Zhuang, G.; Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J.

    2014-11-15

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase.

  20. Current research activities and installation status of the X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.

    2008-11-01

    An X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR utilizing a four-segmented position-sensitive two dimensional (2D) multi-wire proportional counter and time-to-digital converter (TDC) based delay-line readout data acquisition system has been fabricated. The XICS provides spatially and temporally resolved measurements of the ion and electron temperatures, toroidal rotation velocity, impurity charge-state distributions, and ionization equilibrium. The four-segmented 2D detector with supporting electronics successfully demonstrated to improve the photon count-rate capability of the XICS system and a position resolution of the detector showed about 0.35 mm. A spectral resolution of the fabricated spectrometer has been measured using an X-ray tube before installation in the KSTAR tokamak. The current research activities and installation status of the spectrometer will be presented.

  1. X-ray crystal spectrometer upgrade for ITER-like wall experiments at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Shumack, A. E.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Karpinski, L.; Jakubowska, K.; Scholz, M.; Byszuk, A.; Cieszewski, R.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W.; Dominik, W.; Conway, N. J.; Dalley, S.; Tyrrell, S.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Figueiredo, J. [EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB; Associação EURATOM and others

    2014-11-15

    The high resolution X-Ray crystal spectrometer at the JET tokamak has been upgraded with the main goal of measuring the tungsten impurity concentration. This is important for understanding impurity accumulation in the plasma after installation of the JET ITER-like wall (main chamber: Be, divertor: W). This contribution provides details of the upgraded spectrometer with a focus on the aspects important for spectral analysis and plasma parameter calculation. In particular, we describe the determination of the spectrometer sensitivity: important for impurity concentration determination.

  2. Development of Standard Samples for on-board Calibration of a New Planetary X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreißigacker, Anne; Köhler, Eberhard; Fabel, Oliver; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    At the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing research group at Freie Universität Berlin an SCD-based X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer is being developed to be employed on planetary orbiters to conduct direct, passive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence measurements of planetary surfaces through measuring the emitted X-Ray fluorescence induced by solar x-rays and high energy particles. Because the Sun is a highly variable radiation source, the intensity of solar X-Ray radiation has to be monitored constantly to allow for comparison and signal calibration of X-Ray radiation from lunar surface materials. Measurements are obtained by indirectly monitoring incident solar x-rays emitted from a calibration sample. This has the additional advantage of minimizing the risk of detector overload and damage during extreme solar events such as high-energy solar flares and particle storms as only the sample targets receive the higher radiation load directly (while the monitor is never directly pointing towards the Sun). Quantitative data are being obtained and can be subsequently analysed through synchronous measurement of fluorescence of the Moon's surface by the XRF-S main instrument and the emitted x-ray fluorescence of calibration samples by the XRF-S-ISM (Indirect Solar Monitor). We are currently developing requirements for 3 sample tiles for onboard correction and calibration of XRF-S, each with an area of 3-9 cm2 and a maximum weight of 45 g. This includes development of design concepts, determination of techniques for sample manufacturing, manufacturing and testing of prototypes and statistical analysis of measurement characteristics and quantification of error sources for the advanced prototypes and final samples. Apart from using natural rock samples as calibration sample, we are currently investigating techniques for sample manufacturing including laser sintering of rock-glass on metals, SiO2-stabilized mineral-powders, or artificial volcanic glass. High precision

  3. A multi-cone x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, Lan; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Apariccio, L.; Lazerson, S.; Pablant, N.

    2016-11-01

    This article describes a new x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer, which—in combination with a streak camera or a gated strip detector—can be used for time-resolved measurements of x-ray line spectra at the National Ignition Facility and other high power laser facilities. The main advantage of this instrument is that it produces perfect images of a point source for each wavelength in a selectable spectral range and that the detector plane can be perpendicular to the crystal surface or inclined by an arbitrary angle with respect to the crystal surface. These unique imaging properties are obtained by bending the x-ray diffracting crystal into a certain shape, which is generated by arranging multiple cones with different aperture angles on a common nodal line.

  4. A multi-cone x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, Lan; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Apariccio, L.; Lazerson, S.; Pablant, N.

    2016-08-26

    This article describes a new x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer, which—in combination with a streak camera or a gated strip detector—can be used for time-resolved measurements of x-ray line spectra at the National Ignition Facility and other high power laser facilities. The main advantage of this instrument is that it produces perfect images of a point source for each wavelength in a selectable spectral range and that the detector plane can be perpendicular to the crystal surface or inclined by an arbitrary angle with respect to the crystal surface. Furthermore, these unique imaging properties are obtained by bending the x-ray diffracting crystal into a certain shape, which is generated by arranging multiple cones with different aperture angles on a common nodal line.

  5. Intercalibration of the hard X-ray spectrometers on the PVO and ICE (ISEE-3) spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, S. R.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    The energetic photon spectrometers aboard the ICE and PVO (Pioneer Venus Orbiter) are described briefly, and the procedure for their in-flight calibrations is discussed. Successful intercalibration of these two instruments led to stereoscopic observations of 100 keV-2 MeV photon sources in solar flares and the study of the directivity and height structure of these sources. The impulsive hard X-ray source is found to extend from the chromosphere to the corona, the brightness of the source decreasing rapidly with increase in height above the chromosphere. The analysis so far indicates no systematic directivity for the hard X-ray source. The observations are consistent with energetic electrons accelerated in the corona propagating downward toward the chromosphere. However, when avaraged over the duration of an impulsive hard X-ray flare, the 'beaming' of electrons is found to be small in most flares.

  6. Scanning Transmission X-ray microscopy Imaging of Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, M. K.; Kilcoyne, A.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D. K.; Fakra, S.; Robinson, M.; Chase, K.

    2003-12-01

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopes (STXM) are used to image a diversity of carbon and metal containing items such as biofilms in soils, magnetic materials, polymers and meteorites. Studies on particles collected on SiO2 filters from biomass burns in Flagstaff, Arizona and individual aerosols collected in South Africa on TEM grids are underway at beamlines 5.3.2 and 11.0.2 at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Sub micron particles are imaged in the transmission mode over the energy range of 280 - 1900 eV. Spectromicroscopic studies on individual particles using near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) probe multiple species within or on the same particle. In (STXM) an X-ray beam is focused with a zone plate onto a sample and the transmitted radiation is detected. Since the signal is obtained in the transmission mode, optically thin samples are required. Hence, atmospheric aerosols with submicron thickness and diameter are well suited for this method. Near edge spectra of various elements were scanned in step sizes from 0.1-0.5 eV around characteristic absorption edges, creating 2 dimensional images at each energy. While STXM images are taken with a lower spatial resolution (currently 40 nm) than microscopies such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, detailed chemical information with spatial distributions, and oxidation states is obtained. A particular focus of this work is to obtain more detailed information on the type of carbons, multiply, or singly bonded and whether or not carbon is bonded to oxygen. The ultimate goal is discrimination between organic and black carbon within individual aerosol particles and determining if organic carbon, black carbon, and metal species are distributed homogeneously throughout aerosol particles. Initial scans of the samples from Flagstaff show spectral evidence of aromatic carbon, without distinct C=O signatures. NEXAFS

  7. Designing the X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer for Optimal Science Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptak, Andrew; Bandler, Simon R.; Bookbinder, Jay; Kelley, Richard L.; Petre, Robert; Smith, Randall K.; Smith, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in X-ray microcalorimeters enable a wide range of possible focal plane designs for the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) instrument on the future Advanced X-ray Spectroscopic Imaging Observatory (AXSIO) or X-ray Astrophysics Probe (XAP). Small pixel designs (75 microns) oversample a 5-10" PSF by a factor of 3-6 for a 10 m focal length, enabling observations at both high count rates and high energy resolution. Pixel designs utilizing multiple absorbers attached to single transition-edge sensors can extend the focal plane to cover a significantly larger field of view, albeit at a cost in maximum count rate and energy resolution. Optimizing the science return for a given cost and/or complexity is therefore a non-trivial calculation that includes consideration of issues such as the mission science drivers, likely targets, mirror size, and observing efficiency. We present a range of possible designs taking these factors into account and their impacts on the science return of future large effective-area X-ray spectroscopic missions.

  8. Wavelength dispersing devices for soft and ultrasoft x-ray spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Tomoya; Ryon, R.W.; Shoji, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Monochromatization combining total reflection by a selected mirror and an appropriate filter offered an alternative approach in order to increase measurable intensity with reasonable spectral resolution. Recently, the use of synthetic multilayers, which are prepared by sputter/evaporation techniques, has been introduced for the detection of soft and ultrasoft x-rays. Studies on the use of these new wavelength dispersing devices have been conducted and it has been found that the reflectivity of these devices is very high compared with single crystals and soap multilayers and that their resolving power is fairly good. This report makes comparisons regarding efficiency of reflection, resolving power and x-ray analytical problems for practical applications among long spacing single crystals, soap multilayers, total reflection combined with a selected mirror and filtering and synthetic multilayers. The x-ray analytical capablities are shown based upon a standard x-ray fluorescence spectrometer equipped with a sealed-off x-ray tube and a gas flow proportional counter with thin film detector window.

  9. LabVIEW control software for scanning micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Pawel; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Furman, Leszek; Kolasinski, Krzysztof; Lankosz, Marek; Mrenca, Alina; Samek, Lucyna; Wegrzynek, Dariusz

    2012-05-15

    Confocal micro-beam X-ray fluorescence microscope was constructed. The system was assembled from commercially available components - a low power X-ray tube source, polycapillary X-ray optics and silicon drift detector - controlled by an in-house developed LabVIEW software. A video camera coupled to optical microscope was utilized to display the area excited by X-ray beam. The camera image calibration and scan area definition software were also based entirely on LabVIEW code. Presently, the main area of application of the newly constructed spectrometer is 2-dimensional mapping of element distribution in environmental, biological and geological samples with micrometer spatial resolution. The hardware and the developed software can already handle volumetric 3-D confocal scans. In this work, a front panel graphical user interface as well as communication protocols between hardware components were described. Two applications of the spectrometer, to homogeneity testing of titanium layers and to imaging of various types of grains in air particulate matter collected on membrane filters, were presented.

  10. Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Brown, G V; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Beiersdorfer, P; Cone, K V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E W; May, M J; Porter, F S

    2010-10-01

    We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range of ∼6-60 Å. The calibration results presented here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from the hydrogenlike and heliumlike ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x-ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  11. Recent Progress of the J-TEXT X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wei; Chen, Zhongyong; Huang, Duwei; Ding, Yonghua; Wang, Zhijiang; Zhuang, Ge; Lee, Sang Gon; Shi, Yuejiang

    2012-10-01

    An X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) equipped with a multi-wire proportional counter has been developed aiming to measure the electron temperature, ion temperature and toroidal rotation velocity in the J-TEXT Ohmic discharges with a count rate of 350 kHz and a temporal resolution of 0.1 s. It records spectra of helium-like argon from a number of viewing chords with tangential radii from -10 cm to 10 cm vertically. Here the maximum count rate is mainly determined by the electron density and amount of argon particles injected by either PEV-1 valve or supersonic molecular beam injection. For a typical J-TEXT Ohmic plasma, the core electron temperature of about 700 eV can be deduced from the ratio of resonant line (W line) intensity and its satellites (n = 3) of the spectra, while the ion temperature of about 400 eV is obtained by evaluating the Doppler broaden of resonant line. In addition, the evolution of the relative toroidal rotation velocity can also be given. It is worth to note that in the low density discharges the intensity of satellites (q and r lines) increases to the same level of resonant line. More experimental results and explanations will be presented in the meeting.

  12. X-ray rocking curve measurements of bent crystals. [used in High Resolution Spectrometer in Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakim, M. B.; Muney, W. S.; Fowler, W. B.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    A three-crystal laboratory X-ray spectrometer is used to measure the Bragg reflection from concave cylindrically curved crystals to be used in the high-resolution X-ray spectrometer of the NASA Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The first two crystals, in the dispersive (1.1) arrangement, select a narrow collimated monochromatic beam in the Cu K-alpha(1) line at 1.5 A (8.1 keV), which illuminates the test crystal. The angular centroids of rocking curves measured along the surface provide a measure of the conformity of the crystal to the desired radius of curvature. Individual and combined rocking-curve widths and areas provide a measure of the resolution and efficiency at 1.54 A. The crystals analyzed included LiF(200), PET, and acid phthalates such as TAP.

  13. Use of mercuric iodide x-ray detectors with alpha backscattering spectrometers for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Wang, Y.J.; Dorri, N.; Dabrowski, A.J. ); Economou, T.E.; Turkevich, A.L. . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1991-04-01

    This paper presents x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra of different extraterrestrial samples taken with a mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) spectrometer inserted into an Alpha Backscattering Instrument identical to that used in the Soviet Phobos Mission. The results obtained with the HgI{sub 2} ambient temperature detector are compared with those obtained using a Si(Li) cryogenically cooled detector. The authors' efforts to design an optimized instrument for space application are described.

  14. Particle Spectrometers for FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amthor, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    FRIB promises to dramatically expand the variety of nuclear systems available for direct experimental study by providing rates of many rare isotopes orders of magnitude higher than those currently available. A new generation of experimental systems, including new particle spectrometers will be critical to our ability to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by FRIB. The High-Rigidity Spectrometer (HRS) will allow for experiments with the most neutron-rich and short-lived isotopes produced by in-flight fragmentation at FRIB. The bending capability of the HRS (8 Tm) matches to the rigidity for which rare isotopes are produced at the highest intensity in the FRIB fragment separator. The experimental program will be focused on nuclear structure and astrophysics, and allow for the use of other cutting-edge detection systems for gamma, neutron, and charged-particle detection. Stopped and reaccelerated beam studies will be an important compliment to in-flight techniques at FRIB, providing world-unique, high quality, intense rare isotope beams at low energies up to and beyond the Coulomb barrier--with the completion of ReA12--and serving many of the science goals of the broader facility, from nuclear structure and astrophysics to applications. Two specialized recoil spectrometers are being developed for studies with reaccelerated beams. SECAR, the Separator for Capture Reactions, will be built following ReA3, coupled to a windowless gas jet target, JENSA, and will focus on radiative capture reactions for astrophysics, particularly those needed to improve our understanding of novae and X-ray bursts. A recoil separator following ReA12 is proposed to address a variety of physics cases based on fusion-evaporation, Coulomb excitation, transfer, and deep-inelastic reactions by providing a large angular, momentum and charge state acceptance; a high mass resolving power; and the flexibility to couple to a variety of auxiliary detector systems. Two designs

  15. Laboratory studies on a spherically curved Bragg spectrometer for cosmic X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantin, M.; Koch-Miramond, L.; Mougin, B.; Rocchia, R.

    1981-01-01

    A spherical array of twenty LiF 200 crystals was built to test the performances of a freestanding, self-focussing spherical crystal cosmic X-ray spectrometer. Measurements presently available show that the size of the image for a point source at infinite distance would be 3 mm (FWHM) along the focalisation axis and 2.1 mm (FWHM) along the dispersion axis. The mosaic spread on individual crystals is less than 0.1 degree. A slightly systematic deviation from the ideal bending (0.1 degree) is observed at the edges of most crystals and this appears to be the major limitation to spectrometer performance.

  16. Precision mechanical structure of an ultra-high-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering instrument

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Goetze, Kurt A.; Roberts, Timothy

    2015-04-14

    A method and an ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer including a precision mechanical structure for positioning inelastic X-ray scattering optics are provided. The spectrometer includes an X-ray monochromator and an X-ray analyzer, each including X-ray optics of a collimating (C) crystal, a pair of dispersing (D) element crystals, anomalous transmission filter (F) and a wavelength (W) selector crystal. A respective precision mechanical structure is provided with the X-ray monochromator and the X-ray analyzer. The precision mechanical structure includes a base plate, such as an aluminum base plate; positioning stages for D-crystal alignment; positioning stages with an incline sensor for C/F/W-crystal alignment, and the positioning stages including flexure-based high-stiffness structure.

  17. Future Development Trajectories for Imaging X-rays Spectrometers Based on Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Bandler, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Future development trajectories for imaging x-ray spectrometers based on microcalorimeters. Since their invention 30 years ago, the capability of X-ray microcalorimeters has increased steadily, with continual improvements in energy resolution, speed, and array size. Arrays of up to 1024 pixels have been produced, and resolution better than 1 eV at 1.5 keV has been achieved. These detectors can be optimized for the highest priority science, such as designing for the highest resolving power at low energies at the expense of dynamic range, or the greatest focal-plane coverage at the expense of speed. Three types of X-ray microcalorimeters presently dominate the field, each characterized by the thermometer technology. The first two types use temperature-sensitive resistors: semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a magnetically coupled thermometer, and is at an earlier stage of development than the other two. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2015, will use an array of silicon thermistors with HgTe X-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays. Kilopixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are being produced, and much larger arrays may require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetically coupled thermometers. I will project the development trajectories of these detectors and their read-out technologies and assess what their capabilities and limitations will be 10 - 20 years from now.

  18. Preliminary testing of a prototype portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Information circular

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, L.L.; Anderson, N.B.; Stevenson, J.J.

    1982-08-01

    The Federal Bureau of Mines participated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Martin Marietta Aerospace in developing, building, and testing a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for use as an analyzer in mineral-resource investigative work. The prototype battery-powered spectrometer, measuring 11 by 12 by 5 inches and weighing only about 15 pounds, was designed specifically for field use. The spectrometer has two gas-proportional counters and two radioactive sources, (109)Cd and (55)Fe. Preliminary field and laboratory tests on rock specimens and rock pulps have demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer to detect 33 elements, to date. Characteristics of the system present some limitations, however, and further improvements are recommended.

  19. Advancing the Technology of Monolithic CMOS detectors for their use as X-ray Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) proposes a two year program to further advance the scientific capabilities of monolithic CMOS detectors for use as x-ray imaging spectrometers. This proposal will build upon the progress achieved with funding from a previous APRA proposal that ended in 2013. As part of that previous proposal, x- ray optimized, highly versatile, monolithic CMOS imaging detectors and technology were developed and tested. The performance and capabilities of these devices were then demonstrated, with an emphasis on the performance advantages these devices have over CCDs and other technologies. The developed SAO/SRI-Sarnoff CMOS devices incorporate: Low noise, high sensitivity ("gain") pixels; Highly parallel on-chip signal chains; Standard and very high resistivity (30,000Ohm-cm) Si; Back-Side thinning and passivation. SAO demonstrated the performance benefits of each of these features in these devices. This new proposal high-lights the performance of this previous generation of devices, and segues into new technology and capability. The high sensitivity ( 135uV/e) 6 Transistor (6T) Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) pixels provided a large charge to voltage conversion gain to the detect and resolve even small numbers of photo electrons produced by x-rays. The on-chip, parallel signal chain processed an entire row of pixels in the same time that a CCD requires to processes a single pixel. The resulting high speed operation ( 1000 times faster than CCD) provide temporal resolution while mitigating dark current and allowed room temperature operation. The high resistivity Si provided full (over) depletion for thicker devices which increased QE for higher energy x-rays. In this proposal, SAO will investigate existing NMOS and existing PMOS devices as xray imaging spectrometers. Conventional CMOS imagers are NMOS. NMOS devices collect and measure photo-electrons. In contrast, PMOS devices collect and measure photo-holes. PMOS devices have various

  20. Modeling the expected performance of the REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Niraj K.; Binzel, Richard P.; Hong, Jae Sub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-09-01

    OSIRIS-REx is the third spacecraft in the NASA New Frontiers Program and is planned for launch in 2016. OSIRIS-REx will orbit the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, characterize it, and return a sample of the asteroid's regolith back to Earth. The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is an instrument on OSIRIS-REx designed and built by students at MIT and Harvard. The purpose of REXIS is to collect and image sun-induced fluorescent X-rays emitted by Bennu, thereby providing spectroscopic information related to the elemental makeup of the asteroid regolith and the distribution of features over its surface. Telescopic reflectance spectra suggest a CI or CM chondrite analog meteorite class for Bennu, where this primitive nature strongly motivates its study. A number of factors, however, will influence the generation, measurement, and interpretation of the X-ray spectra measured by REXIS. These include: the compositional nature and heterogeneity of Bennu, the time-variable solar state, X-ray detector characteristics, and geometric parameters for the observations. In this paper, we will explore how these variables influence the precision to which REXIS can measure Bennu's surface composition. By modeling the aforementioned factors, we place bounds on the expected performance of REXIS and its ability to ultimately place Bennu in an analog meteorite class.

  1. The High-Resolution X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer, SXS, on Astro-H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kelley, Richard L.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Costantini, Elisa; DiPirro, Michael J.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Gendreau, Keith C.; denHerder, Jan-Willem; Hoshino, Akio; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kitamoto, Shunji; McCammon, Dan; Murakami, Masahide; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Mina; Ohashi, Takaya; Okamoto, Atsushi; Paltani, Stephane; Pohl, Martin; Porter, F. Scott; Sato, Yoichi; Shinozaki, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The science and an overview of the Soft X-ray Spectrometer onboard the STRO-H mission are presented. The SXS consists of X-ray focusing mirrors and a microcalorimeter array and is developed by international collaboration lead by JAXA and NASA with European participation. The detector is a 6 x 6 format microcalorimeter array operated at a cryogenic temperature of 50 mK and covers a 3' x 3' field of view of the X-ray telescope of 5.6 m focal length. We expect an energy resolution better than 7 eV (FWHM, requirement) with a goal of 4 eV. The effective area of the instrument will be 225 square centimeters at 7 keV; by a factor of about two larger than that of the X-ray microcalorimeter on board Suzaku. One of the main scientific objectives of the SXS is to investigate turbulent and/or macroscopic motions of hot gas in clusters of galaxies.

  2. Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers: Radiation Exposure Risks of Matrix-Specific Measurement Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Marek; Kristensen, Louise J; Gore, Damian B

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates X-ray intensity and dispersion around handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments during the measurement of a range of sample matrices to establish radiation exposure risk during operation. Four handheld XRF instruments representing three manufacturers were used on four smooth, flat-lying materials of contrasting matrix composition. Dose rates were measured at 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm intervals every 30° around the instrument at 0 and 45° from the horizontal, as well as vertically from the instrument screen. The analysis of polyethylene recorded dose rates 156 times higher (on average) than steel measurements and 34 times higher than both quartz sand and quartz sandstone. A worst-case exposure scenario was assumed where a user analyses a polyethylene material at arms reach for 1 h each working day for one year. This scenario resulted in an effective body dose of 73.5 μSv, equivalent to three to four chest X-rays (20 μSv) a year, 20 times lower than the average annual background radiation exposure in Australia and well below the annual exposure limit of 1 mSv for non-radiation workers. This study finds the advantages of using handheld XRF spectrometers far outweighs the risk of low radiation exposure linked to X-ray scattering from samples.

  3. Future lunar mission Active X-ray Spectrometer development: Surface roughness and geometry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, M.; Hasebe, N.; Kusano, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Kuwako, M.; Oyama, Y.; Shibamura, E.; Amano, Y.; Ohta, T.; Kim, K. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Active X-ray Spectrometer (AXS) is considered as one of the scientific payload candidates for a future Japanese mission, SELENE-2. The AXS consists of pyroelectric X-ray generators and a Silicon Drift Detector to conduct X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the Moon to measure major elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe; minor elements: Na, K, P, S, Cr and Mn; and the trace element Ni depending on their concentration. Some factors such as roughness, grain size and porosity of sample, and the geometry of X-ray incidence, emission and energy will affect the XRF measurements precision. Basic studies on the XRF are required to develop the AXS. In this study, fused samples were used to make homogeneous samples free from the effect of grain size and porosity. Experimental and numerical studies on the XRF were conducted to evaluate the effects from incidence and emission angles and surface roughness. Angle geometry and surface roughness will be optimized for the design of the AXS on future missions from the results of the experiment and the numerical simulation.

  4. A Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Spectrometer without Liquid Cryogens

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Hertrich, T; Drury, O B; Cherepy, N J; Hohne, J

    2008-06-15

    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are being developed as X-ray detectors because they combine the high energy resolution of cryogenic detector technologies with the high count rate capabilities of athermal devices. We have built STJ spectrometers for chemical analysis of dilute samples by high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy at the synchrotron. The instruments use 36 pixels of 200 {micro}m x 200 {micro}m Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb STJs with 165 nm thick Nb absorber films. They have achieved an energy resolution of {approx}10-20 eV FWHM for X-ray energies below 1 keV, and can be operated at a total count rate of {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a liquid-cryogen-free refrigerator based on a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler in combination with a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization stage. It holds the STJ detector at the end of a 40-cm-long cold finger, and attains the required operating temperature of {approx}0.3 K at the push of a button. We describe the instrument performance and present speciation measurements on Eu dopant activators in the novel scintillator material SrI{sub 2} to illustrate the potential for STJ spectrometers at the synchrotron.

  5. Soft x-ray blazed transmission grating spectrometer with high resolving power and extended bandpass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert; Schattenburg, Mark

    2016-04-01

    A number of high priority questions in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, such as the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, as well as stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R = λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology. Still significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using advanced anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth grating bar sidewalls. The reflection properties of silicon are well matched to the soft x-ray band. Nevertheless, CAT gratings with sidewalls made of higher atomic number elements allow extension of the CAT grating principle to higher energies and larger dispersion angles. We show x-ray data from metal-coated CAT gratings and demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. We also report on measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing mirror pair from Goddard Space Flight Center and CAT gratings, to be

  6. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  7. Use of mercuric iodide X-ray detectors with alpha backscattering spectrometers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, J. S.; Wang, Y. J.; Dorri, N.; Dabrowski, A. J.; Economou, T. E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra of different extraterrestrial samples taken with a mercuric iodide (HgI2) spectrometer inserted into an alpha backscattering instrument identical to that used in the Soviet Phobos mission. The results obtained with the HgI2 ambient temperature detector are compared with those obtained using an Si(Li) cryogenically cooled detector. Efforts to design an optimized instrument for space application are also described. The results presented indicate that the energy resolution and sensitivity of HgI2 detectors are adequate to meet the performance needs of a number of proposed space applications, particularly those in which cooled silicon X-ray detectors are impractical or even not usable, such as for the target science programs on geoscience opportunities for lunar surface, Mars surface, and other comet and planetary missions being planned by NASA and ESA.

  8. A multi-cone x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, Lan; ...

    2016-08-26

    This article describes a new x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer, which—in combination with a streak camera or a gated strip detector—can be used for time-resolved measurements of x-ray line spectra at the National Ignition Facility and other high power laser facilities. The main advantage of this instrument is that it produces perfect images of a point source for each wavelength in a selectable spectral range and that the detector plane can be perpendicular to the crystal surface or inclined by an arbitrary angle with respect to the crystal surface. Furthermore, these unique imaging properties are obtained by bending the x-raymore » diffracting crystal into a certain shape, which is generated by arranging multiple cones with different aperture angles on a common nodal line.« less

  9. Hard X-ray and low-energy gamma-ray spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Crannell, C. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Forrest, D. J.; Lin, R. P.; Starr, R.

    1988-01-01

    Basic principles of operation and characteristics of scintillation and semi-conductor detectors used for solar hard X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers are presented. Scintillation materials such as NaI offer high stopping power for incident gamma rays, modest energy resolution, and relatively simple operation. They are, to date, the most often used detector in solar gamma-ray spectroscopy. The scintillator BGO has higher stopping power than NaI, but poorer energy resolution. The primary advantage of semi-conductor materials such as Ge is their high-energy resolution. Monte-Carlo simulations of the response of NaI and Ge detectors to model solar flare inputs show the benefit of high resoluton for studying spectral lines. No semi-conductor material besides Ge is currently available with adequate combined size and purity to make general-use hard X-ray and gamma-ray detectors for solar studies.

  10. The hard X-ray burst spectrometer on the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwig, L. E.; Frost, K. J.; Dennis, B. R.

    1979-01-01

    The primary scientific objective of the spectrometer is to provide a greater understanding of the role of energetic electrons in solar flares. This will be achieved by observations of high energy X-rays in the energy range from 20 to 200 keV with time resolution of 0.128s on a continuous basis and as short as 1 ms for limited intervals. The X-ray detector is an actively shielded CsI(Na) crystal with a thickness of 0.635 cm and a sensitive area of 71 sq cm. In the first year after launch, it is expected that approximately 1000 flares above the sensitivity threshold of 0.2 photons/(sq cm s) lasting for one second, will be detected.

  11. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A. S.; Guymer, T. M.; Morton, J.; Bentley, C.; Stevenson, M.; Kline, J. L.; Taccetti, M.; Lanier, N. E.; Workman, J.; Peterson, B.; Mussack, K.; Cowan, J.; Prasad, R.; Richardson, M.; Burns, S.; Kalantar, D. H.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Hsing, W.

    2012-10-15

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors it records 16 time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000 eV with 100 ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300 eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and vacuum ultraviolet beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source, evidence a <100 {mu}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10 eV at photon energies of 300 eV.

  12. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A. S.; Guymer, T. M.; Kline, J. L.; Morton, J.; Taccetti, M.; Lanier, N. E.; Bentley, C.; Workman, J.; Peterson, B.; Mussack, K.; Cowan, J.; Prasad, R.; Richardson, M.; Burns, S.; Kalantar, D. H.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Hsing, W.; Stevenson, M.

    2012-10-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors it records 16 time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000 eV with 100 ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300 eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and vacuum ultraviolet beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source, evidence a <100 μm spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10 eV at photon energies of 300 eV.

  13. A Comparison of DEF X-Ray Film and a Photodiode Array (Reticon) as Detectors for an X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Goodman, D A; Eason, R W; Shiwai, B; Allinson, N; Magorrian, B; Grande, M; Ridgley, A

    1989-01-01

    A crystal spectrometer with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was tested for a range of x-ray energies between 1 and 2 keV. A laser-produced plasma has been used as an x-ray source and was generated by the high-power (Vulcan) glass laser system at the SERC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. The performance of the array was directly compared with the response of Kodak DEF x-ray film. In order to compare quantitatively the performances of the PDA and the film, detective quantum efficiency (DQE) considerations are presented for both devices. It is demonstrated that the PDA has a useful dynamic range which is approximately seven times greater than that of film, a peak DQE of approximately six times that of film, and a greatly superior low-signal performance. The operational characteristics of the PDA are discussed.

  14. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometers for multielement analysis: status of equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala Jiménez, Rony E.

    2001-11-01

    Multielement analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has evolved during two decades. At present commercial equipment is available for chemical analysis of all types of biological and mineral samples. The electronic industry has also benefited from scientific and technological developments in this field due to new instrumentation to determine contamination on the surface of silicon wafers (the equipment will not be covered in this paper). The basic components of the spectrometers can be summarized as follows: (a) excitation source; (b) geometric arrangement (optics) for collimation and monochromatization of the primary radiation; (c) X-ray detector; and (d) software for operation of the instrument, data acquisition and spectral deconvolution to determine the concentrations of the elements (quantitative analysis). As an optional feature one manufacturer offers a conventional 45° geometry for direct excitation. Personal communications of the author and commercial brochures available have allowed us to list the components used in TXRF for multielement analysis. Excitation source: high-power sealed X-ray tubes, output from 1300 to 3000 W, different mixed alloy anodes Mo/W are used but molybdenum, tungsten and copper are common; single anode metal ceramic low power X-ray tubes, output up to 40 W. Excitation systems can be customized according to the requirements of the laboratory. Detector: silicon-lithium drifted semiconductor detector liquid nitrogen cooled; or silicon solid state thermoelectrically cooled detector (silicon drift detector SDD and silicon-PIN diode detector). Optics: multilayer monochromator of silicon-tungsten, nickel-carbon or double multilayer monochromator. Electronics: spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter adapted to a PC compatible computer with software in a Windows environment for the whole operation of the spectrometer and for qualitative/quantitative analysis of samples are standard features in the

  15. New Solar Irradiance Measurements from the Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Richard; Mason, James Paul; Moore, Christopher S.; Palo, Scott; Rouleau, Colden; Solomon, Stanley C.; Machol, Janet; Viereck, Rodney

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat is to explore the energy distribution of soft X-ray (SXR) emissions from the quiescent Sun, active regions, and during solar flares and to model the impact on Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. The energy emitted in the SXR range (0.1–10 keV) can vary by more than a factor of 100, yet we have limited spectral measurements in the SXRs to accurately quantify the spectral dependence of this variability. The MinXSS primary science instrument is an Amptek, Inc. X123 X-ray spectrometer that has an energy range of 0.5–30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV energy resolution. Two flight models have been built. The first, MinXSS-1, has been making science observations since 2016 June 9 and has observed numerous flares, including more than 40 C-class and 7 M-class flares. These SXR spectral measurements have advantages over broadband SXR observations, such as providing the capability to derive multiple-temperature components and elemental abundances of coronal plasma, improved irradiance accuracy, and higher resolution spectral irradiance as input to planetary ionosphere simulations. MinXSS spectra obtained during the M5.0 flare on 2016 July 23 highlight these advantages and indicate how the elemental abundance appears to change from primarily coronal to more photospheric during the flare. MinXSS-1 observations are compared to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) X-ray Sensor (XRS) measurements of SXR irradiance and estimated corona temperature. Additionally, a suggested improvement to the calibration of the GOES XRS data is presented.

  16. Analysis and implementation of a space resolving spherical crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.

    PubMed

    Harding, E C; Ao, T; Bailey, J E; Loisel, G; Sinars, D B; Geissel, M; Rochau, G A; Smith, I C

    2015-04-01

    The application of a space-resolving spectrometer to X-ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) experiments has the potential to advance the study of warm dense matter. This has motivated the design of a spherical crystal spectrometer, which is a doubly focusing geometry with an overall high sensitivity and the capability of providing high-resolution, space-resolved spectra. A detailed analysis of the image fluence and crystal throughput in this geometry is carried out and analytical estimates of these quantities are presented. This analysis informed the design of a new spectrometer intended for future XRTS experiments on the Z-machine. The new spectrometer collects 6 keV x-rays with a spherically bent Ge (422) crystal and focuses the collected x-rays onto the Rowland circle. The spectrometer was built and then tested with a foam target. The resulting high-quality spectra prove that a spherical spectrometer is a viable diagnostic for XRTS experiments.

  17. Upgrades of the high resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, B.; Wang, F.; Fu, J.; Li, Y.; Wan, B.; Shi, Y.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Lee, S. G.

    2012-10-15

    Two imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers, the so-called 'poloidal' and 'tangential' spectrometers, were recently implemented on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to provide spatially and temporally resolved impurity ion temperature (T{sub i}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and rotation velocity profiles. They are derived from Doppler width of W line for Ti, the intensity ratio of Li-like satellites to W line for Te, and Doppler shift of W line for rotation. Each spectrometer originally consisted of a spherically curved crystal and a two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) detector. Both spectrometers have now been upgraded. The layout of the tangential spectrometer was modified, since it had to be moved to a different port, and the spectrometer was equipped with two high count rate Pilatus detectors (Model 100 K) to overcome the count rate limitation of the MWPC and to improve its time resolution. The poloidal spectrometer was equipped with two spherically bent crystals to record the spectra of He-like and H-like argon simultaneously and side by side on the original MWPC. These upgrades are described, and new results from the latest EAST experimental campaign are presented.

  18. Development of a combined portable x-ray fluorescence and Raman spectrometer for in situ analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerra, M; Longelin, S; Pessanha, S; Manso, M; Carvalho, M L

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we have built a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer in a planar configuration coupled to a Raman head and a digital optical microscope, for in situ analysis. Several geometries for the XRF apparatus and digital microscope are possible in order to overcome spatial constraints and provide better measurement conditions. With this combined spectrometer, we are now able to perform XRF and Raman measurements in the same point without the need for sample collection, which can be crucial when dealing with cultural heritage objects, as well as forensic analysis. We show the capabilities of the spectrometer by measuring several standard reference materials, as well as other samples usually encountered in cultural heritage, geological, as well as biomedical studies.

  19. Development of a combined portable x-ray fluorescence and Raman spectrometer for in situ analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M.; Longelin, S.; Pessanha, S.; Manso, M.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we have built a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer in a planar configuration coupled to a Raman head and a digital optical microscope, for in situ analysis. Several geometries for the XRF apparatus and digital microscope are possible in order to overcome spatial constraints and provide better measurement conditions. With this combined spectrometer, we are now able to perform XRF and Raman measurements in the same point without the need for sample collection, which can be crucial when dealing with cultural heritage objects, as well as forensic analysis. We show the capabilities of the spectrometer by measuring several standard reference materials, as well as other samples usually encountered in cultural heritage, geological, as well as biomedical studies.

  20. CUBIC - A non-dispersive Diffuse X-ray Background spectrometer. [Cosmic Unresolved X-ray Background Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, David N.; Skinner, Mark A.; Antunes, Alexander J. D.; Catalano, Mark A.; Cocklin, Eric J.; Engel, Leland G.; Entingh, Timothy J.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Green, Roland; Kelly, Douglas A.

    1992-01-01

    The Cosmic Unresolved X-ray Background Instrument using CCDs (CUBIC) is designed to obtain spectral observations of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB) with moderate spectral resolution over the energy range 0.2-10 keV, using mechanically-collimated CCDs. At this time, it is the only planned satellite payload devoted to the study of the spectrum of the DXRB. Over the anticipated 3 year lifetime of the satellite, CUBIC will be able to study up to 50 percent of the sky with 5 x 5 deg spatial resolution for the subkilovolt Galactic diffuse background, and with 10 x 10 deg spatial resolution for the extragalactic diffuse background above 2 keV. CUBIC will obtain high quality nondispersive spectra of soft X-ray emission from the interstellar medium, supernova remnants, and some bright sources, and will make a sensitive seach for line emission or other features in the extragalactic cosmic X-ray background from 2-10 keV.

  1. Characterization of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for high-resolution spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering measurements in shock-compressed experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Lee, H. J.; Zastrau, U.

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed, designed and built a dual-channel x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for spectrally- and spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) measurements in the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This spectrometer employs two spherically-bent germanium (Ge) 220 crystals, which are combined to form a large aperture dispersive element with a spectral bandwidth of 300 eV that enables both the elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering peaks to be simultaneously measured. The apparatus and its characterization are described. A resolving power of 1900 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of 12 μm was achieved in calibration tests. For XRTS measurements, a narrow-bandwidth (ΔE/E<0.003) LCLS x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) beam at 5.07 keV was used to probe a dense carbon plasma produced in shock-compressed samples of different forms of carbon. Preliminary results of the scattering experiments from Pyrolytic Graphite samples that illustrate the utility of the instrument are presented.

  2. Combined backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer/x ray fluorescence analyzer (BaMS/XRF) for extraterrestrial surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelfer, T. D.; Wills, E. L.; Agresti, D. G.; Pimperl, M. M.; Shen, M. H.; Morris, R. V.; Nguyen, T.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and tested a prototype combined backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer and x-ray fluorescence analyzer (BaMS/XRF). A space qualified instrument based on this design would be suitable for in-situ use on planetary missions to the surfaces of the Moon (Artemis and lunar outpost), Mars (MESUR), asteroids, or other solid solar system objects. The BaMS/XRF instrument is designed to be capable of concurrent sample analyses for the mineralogy of iron-bearing phases and elemental composition without the need for sample preparation.

  3. A multi-cone x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, Manfred; Hill, K. W.; Gao, Lan; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Lazerson, S.; Pablant, N.

    2016-10-01

    In a recent article, see, we described a new x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer, which - in combination with a streak camera or a gated strip detector - can be used for time-resolved measurements of x-ray line spectra at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and other high power laser facilities. The main advantage of this instrument is that it produces perfect images of a point source for each wavelength in a selectable spectral range and that the detector plane can be inclined by an arbitrary angle with respect to the crystal surface. These unique imaging properties are obtained by bending the x-ray diffracting crystal into a certain shape, which is generated by arranging multiple cones with different aperture angles on a common nodal line. In this paper, we present results from optical tests of these multi-cone structures and numerical results on the deteriorations of the spectral and spatial resolutions that may be caused by potential misalignments of the source, crystal, and detector. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  4. Spatial resolution of a spherical x-ray crystal spectrometer at various magnifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lan; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Baronova, E. O.; Pereira, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    A high spatial resolution of a few μm is often required for probing small-scale high-energy-density plasmas using high resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy. This resolution can be achieved by adjusting system magnification to overcome the inherent limitation of the detector pixel size. Laboratory experiments on investigating the relation between spatial resolution and system magnification for a spherical crystal spectrometer are presented. Tungsten Lβ2 rays from a tungsten-target micro-focus x-ray tube were diffracted by a Ge 440 crystal, which was spherically bent to a radius of 223 mm, and imaged onto an x-ray CCD with 13-μm pixel size. The source-to-crystal (p) and crystal-to-detector (q) distances were varied to produce spatial magnifications (M = q/p) ranging from 2 to 10. The inferred instrumental spatial width reduces with increasing system magnification M. However, the experimental measurement at each M is larger than the theoretical value of pixel size divided by M. Future work will focus on investigating possible broadening mechanisms that limit the spatial resolution.

  5. Dual x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and method for fluid analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Bary W.; Shepard, Chester L.

    2005-02-22

    Disclosed are an X-ray fluorescence (SRF) spectrometer and method for on-site and in-line determination of contaminant elements in lubricating oils and in fuel oils on board a marine vessel. An XRF source block 13 contains two radionuclide sources 16, 17 (e.g. Cd 109 and Fe 55), each oriented 180 degrees from the other to excite separate targets. The Cd 109 source 16 excites sample lube oil flowing through a low molecular weight sample line 18. The Fe 55 source 17 excites fuel oil manually presented to the source beam inside a low molecular weight vial 26 or other container. Two separate detectors A and B are arranged to detect the fluorescent x-rays from the targets, photons from the analyte atoms in the lube oil for example, and sulfur identifying x-rays from bunker fuel oil for example. The system allows both automated in-line and manual on-site analysis using one set of signal processing and multi-channel analyzer electronics 34, 37 as well as one computer 39 and user interface 43.

  6. A novel portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with triaxial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, S.; Alves, M.; Sampaio, J. M.; Santos, J. P.; Carvalho, M. L.; Guerra, M.

    2017-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence technique is a powerful analytical tool with a broad range of applications such as quality control, environmental contamination by heavy metals, cultural heritage, among others. For the first time, a portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was assembled, with orthogonal triaxial geometry between the X-ray tube, the secondary target, the sample and the detector. This geometry reduces the background of the measured spectra by reducing significantly the Bremsstrahlung produced in the tube through polarization in the secondary target and in the sample. Consequently, a practically monochromatic excitation energy is obtained. In this way, a better peak-background ratio is obtained compared to similar devices, improving the detection limits and leading to superior sensitivity. The performance of this setup is compared with the one of a benchtop setup with triaxial geometry and a portable setup with planar geometry. Two case studies are presented concerning the analysis of a 18th century paper document, and the bone remains of an individual buried in the early 19th century.

  7. Progress report on the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2016-04-01

    We describe the initial in-orbit operations and performance of the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS). Astro-H, JAXA's sixth X-ray observatory, is scheduled for launch on February 12, 2016, from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan abord an H-IIA rocket. The instrument is based on a 36-pixel array of microcalorimeters designed for high resolution over the 0.3-12 keV energy band at the focus of a high throughput, grazing-incidence x-ray mirror. The instrument is the result of a joint collaboration between the JAXA Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and many partners in Japan, and the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and collaborators in the US. The principal components of the spectrometer are the microcalorimeter detector system, a low-temperature anticoincidence detector, a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to maintain 50 mK operation under both cryogen and cryogen-free operation, a hybrid liquid helium/cryogen-free dewar with both Stirling and Joule-Thomson coolers, electronics for reading out the array, processing the x-ray data for spectroscopy, and operating the ADR and cryocoolers. The dewar is closed out by an aperture system with five thin-film filters designed to provide high x-ray transmission with low heat loads to the dewar and detector system, and prevent contamination from condensing on the filters. The instrument was designed to have better than 7 eV energy resolution, and was demonstrated to achieve 4-5 eV resolution across the array at the full spacecraft level of integration during extensive ground testing prior to launch. The overall cooling chain has been designed to provide a lifetime of at least 3 years in orbit, and continue to operate without liquid helium to provide redundancy and the longest operational lifetime for the instrument. In this presentation, we will describe the early phases of the SXS instrument in orbit and provide a sense of the astronomical results that can be expected. This presentation is

  8. Venus Measurements by the MESSENGER Gamma-Ray and X-Ray Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. A.; Starr, R. D.; Goldsten, J. O.; Schlemm, C. E.; Boynton, W. V.

    2007-12-01

    The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS), which is a part of the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer Instrument, and the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft made calibration measurements during the Venus flyby on June 5, 2007. The purpose of these instruments is to determine elemental abundances on the surface of Mercury. The GRS measures gamma-rays emitted from element interactions with cosmic rays impinging on the surface, while the XRS measures X-ray emissions induced on the surface by the incident solar flux. The GRS sensor is a high-resolution high-purity Ge detector cooled by a Stirling cryocooler, surrounded by a borated-plastic anticoincidence shield. The GRS is sensitive to gamma-rays up to ~10 MeV and can identify most major elements, sampling down to depths of about ten centimeters. Only the shield was powered on for this flyby in order to conserve cooler lifetime. Gamma-rays were observed coming from Venus as well as from the spacecraft. Although the Venus gamma-rays originate from its thick atmosphere rather than its surface, the GRS data from this encounter will provide useful calibration data from a source of known composition. In particular, the data will be useful for determining GRS sensitivity and pointing options for the Mercury flybys, the first of which will be in January 2008. The X-ray spectrum of a planetary surface is dominated by a combination of the fluorescence and scattered solar X-rays. The most prominent fluorescent lines are the Kα lines from the major elements Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Ti, and Fe (1-10 keV). The sampling depth is less than 100 u m. The XRS is similar in design to experiments flown on Apollo 15 and 16 and the NEAR-Shoemaker mission. Three large-area gas-proportional counters view the planet, and a small Si-PIN detector mounted on the spacecraft sunshade monitors the Sun. The energy resolution of the gas proportional counters (~850 eV at 5.9 keV) is sufficient to resolve the X-ray lines above 2 keV, but Al and Mg

  9. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champey, P. R.; Winebarger, A. R.; Kobayashi, K.; Savage, S. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Cheimets, P.; Hertz, E.; Golub, L.; Ramsey, B.; McCracken, J.; Heilmann, R.; Schattenburg, M.; Bruccoleri, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA soundingrocket instrument designed to observe soft X-ray emissions at 0.5 - 2.0 keV energies in thesolar atmosphere. The primary science goal is to differentiate steady, low-frequency heatingevents from sporadic, high-frequency heating events in the active region core For the first time, high-temperature, low-emission plasma will be observed directly with 5 arcsec spatialand 22 mÅ spectral resolution. The novel optical design consists of a Wolter I telescope anda 3-optic grazing-incidence spectrograph. The X-ray spectrograph utilizes a finite conjugatemirror pair and a planar, nanoprinted-silicon varied line space grating, which is being devel-oped by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The telescope and spectrographmirrors will be nickel replicated and coated with iridium. Mandrel fabrication and nickelreplication will be done at MSFC as part of its replicated X-ray optics program. Mounting,alignment, and integration of the ight optics will be performed at the Harvard-SmithsonianCenter for Astrophysics (SAO). The MaGIXS science camera is being developed at MSFCand is based on CLASP heritage, which obtained read noise performance of 5.5 e?- RMS. Thecamera will include a e2v Technologies 2kx2k frame transfer CCD with 4-channel readout(500 kpixel/s/channel). We will present an overview of the MaGIXS optical system andfabrication of the telescope and spectrograph mirrors.

  10. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a Particle Radiation Monitor II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, C. E.; Ford, P. G.; Bautz, M. W.; ODell, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer is an instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. CCDs are vulnerable to radiation damage, particularly by soft protons in the radiation belts and solar storms. The Chandra team has implemented procedures to protect ACIS during high-radiation events including autonomous protection triggered by an on-board radiation monitor. Elevated temperatures have reduced the effectiveness of the on-board monitor. The ACIS team has developed an algorithm which uses data from the CCDs themselves to detect periods of high radiation and a flight software patch to apply this algorithm is currently active on-board the instrument. In this paper, we explore the ACIS response to particle radiation through comparisons to a number of external measures of the radiation environment. We hope to better understand the efficiency of the algorithm as a function of the flux and spectrum of the particles and the time-profile of the radiation event.

  11. Thermal design and performance of the REgolith x-ray imaging spectrometer (REXIS) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Kevin D.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument is a student collaboration instrument on the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission scheduled for launch in September 2016. The REXIS science mission is to characterize the elemental abundances of the asteroid Bennu on a global scale and to search for regions of enhanced elemental abundance. The thermal design of the REXIS instrument is challenging due to both the science requirements and the thermal environment in which it will operate. The REXIS instrument consists of two assemblies: the spectrometer and the solar X-ray monitor (SXM). The spectrometer houses a 2x2 array of back illuminated CCDs that are protected from the radiation environment by a one-time deployable cover and a collimator assembly with coded aperture mask. Cooling the CCDs during operation is the driving thermal design challenge on the spectrometer. The CCDs operate in the vicinity of the electronics box, but a 130 °C thermal gradient is required between the two components to cool the CCDs to -60 °C in order to reduce noise and obtain science data. This large thermal gradient is achieved passively through the use of a copper thermal strap, a large radiator facing deep space, and a two-stage thermal isolation layer between the electronics box and the DAM. The SXM is mechanically mounted to the sun-facing side of the spacecraft separately from the spectrometer and characterizes the highly variable solar X-ray spectrum to properly interpret the data from the asteroid. The driving thermal design challenge on the SXM is cooling the silicon drift detector (SDD) to below -30 °C when operating. A two-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is located directly beneath the detector to provide active cooling, and spacecraft MLI blankets cover all of the SXM except the detector aperture to radiatively decouple the SXM from the flight thermal environment. This paper describes the REXIS thermal system requirements, thermal design, and analyses, with

  12. Calculation of the Johann error for spherically bent x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Podpaly, Y.

    2010-10-15

    New x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers, currently operating on Alcator C-Mod, NSTX, EAST, and KSTAR, record spectral lines of highly charged ions, such as Ar{sup 16+}, from multiple sightlines to obtain profiles of ion temperature and of toroidal plasma rotation velocity from Doppler measurements. In the present work, we describe a new data analysis routine, which accounts for the specific geometry of the sightlines of a curved-crystal spectrometer and includes corrections for the Johann error to facilitate the tomographic inversion. Such corrections are important to distinguish velocity induced Doppler shifts from instrumental line shifts caused by the Johann error. The importance of this correction is demonstrated using data from Alcator C-Mod.

  13. Spectrometer for X-ray emission experiments at FERMI free-electron-laser

    SciTech Connect

    Poletto, L. Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P.; Di Cicco, A.; Iesari, F.; Finetti, P.; Grazioli, C.; Kivimäki, A.; Stagira, S.; Coreno, M.

    2014-10-15

    A portable and compact photon spectrometer to be used for photon in-photon out experiments, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy, is presented. The instrument operates in the 25–800 eV energy range to cover the full emissions of the FEL1 and FEL2 stages of FERMI. The optical design consists of two interchangeable spherical varied-lined-spaced gratings and a CCD detector. Different input sections can be accommodated, with/without an entrance slit and with/without an additional relay mirror, that allow to mount the spectrometer in different end-stations and at variable distances from the target area both at synchrotron and at free-electron-laser beamlines. The characterization on the Gas Phase beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron (Italy) is presented.

  14. [Establishment and Improvement of Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Detection Model Based on Wavelet Transform].

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Wang, Ji-hua; Lu, An-xiang; Han, Ping

    2015-04-01

    The concentration of Cr, Cu, Zn, As and Pb in soil was tested by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Each sample was tested for 3 times, then after using wavelet threshold noise filtering method for denoising and smoothing the spectra, a standard curve for each heavy metal was established according to the standard values of heavy metals in soil and the corresponding counts which was the average of the 3 processed spectra. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), mean square error (MSE) and information entropy (H) were taken to assess the effects of denoising when using wavelet threshold noise filtering method for determining the best wavelet basis and wavelet decomposition level. Some samples with different concentrations and H3 B03 (blank) were chosen to retest this instrument to verify its stability. The results show that: the best denoising result was obtained with the coif3 wavelet basis at the decomposition level of 3 when using the wavelet transform method. The determination coefficient (R2) range of the instrument is 0.990-0.996, indicating that a high degree of linearity was found between the contents of heavy metals in soil and each X-ray fluorescence spectral characteristic peak intensity with the instrument measurement within the range (0-1,500 mg · kg(-1)). After retesting and calculating, the results indicate that all the detection limits of the instrument are below the soil standards at national level. The accuracy of the model has been effectively improved, and the instrument also shows good precision with the practical application of wavelet transform to the establishment and improvement of X-ray fluorescence spectrometer detection model. Thus the instrument can be applied in on-site rapid screening of heavy metal in contaminated soil.

  15. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ellis, R.; Gao, L.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, S.; Kauffman, R. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bettencourt, R.; Ma, T.; Nora, R. C.; Scott, H. A.; Thorn, D. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nelson, D.; Shoup, M.; Maron, Y.

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s2-1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s2-1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal will focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.

  16. A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for a kaon mass measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Kevin; Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann; Tortorella, Daniele; Bühler, Matthias; Hertrich, Theo

    2017-02-01

    The ASPECT consortium (Adaptable Spectrometer Enabled by Cryogenic Technology) is currently constructing a generalised cryogenic platform for cryogenic detector work which will be able to accommodate a wide range of sensors. The cryogenics system is based on a small mechanical cooler with a further adiabatic demagnetisation stage and will work with cryogenic detectors at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The commercial aim of the consortium is to produce a compact, user-friendly device with an emphasis on reliability and portability which can easily be transported for specialised on-site work, such as beam-lines or telescope facilities. The cryogenic detector platform will accommodate a specially developed cryogenic sensor, either a metallic magnetic calorimeter or a magnetic penetration-depth thermometer. The detectors will be designed to work in various temperatures regions with an emphasis on optimising the various detector resolutions for specific temperatures. One resolution target is of about 10 eV at the energies range typically created in kaonic atoms experiments (soft x-ray energies). A following step will see the introduction of continuous, high-power, sub-Kelvin cooling which will bring the cryogenic basis for a high resolution spectrometer system to the market. The scientific goal of the project will produce an experimental set-up optimised for kaon-mass measurements performing high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on a beam-line provided foreseeably by the J-PARC (Tokai, Japan) or DAΦNE (Frascati, Italy) facilities.

  17. Temperature gradient analyzers for compact high-resolution X-ray spectrometers

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, D.; Baron, A. Q. R.

    2010-01-01

    Compact high-resolution X-ray spectrometers with a one-dimensional temperature gradient at the analyzer crystal are considered. This gradient, combined with the use of a position-sensitive detector, makes it possible to relax the usual Rowland-circle condition, allowing increased space at the sample position for a given energy resolution or arm radius. Thus, for example, it is estimated that ∼meV resolution is possible with a 3 m analyzer arm and 200 mm clearance between the sample and detector. Simple analytic formulae are provided, supported by excellent agreement with ray-tracing simulations. One variation of this method also allows the detector position sensitivity to be used to determine momentum transfer, effectively improving momentum resolution without reducing (slitting down) the analyzer size. Application to medium-resolution (∼10–100 meV) inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometers with large angular acceptance is discussed, where this method also allows increased space at the sample. In some cases the application of a temperature gradient can improve the energy resolution even with a single-element detector. PMID:20029107

  18. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; ...

    2016-09-28

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s2-1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s2-1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal willmore » focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Furthermore, details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.« less

  19. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

    PubMed

    Hill, K W; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Efthimion, P C; Ellis, R; Gao, L; Maddox, J; Pablant, N A; Schneider, M B; Chen, H; Ayers, S; Kauffman, R L; MacPhee, A G; Beiersdorfer, P; Bettencourt, R; Ma, T; Nora, R C; Scott, H A; Thorn, D B; Kilkenny, J D; Nelson, D; Shoup, M; Maron, Y

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s(2)-1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s(2)-1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal will focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.

  20. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chiuzbăian, Sorin G. Hague, Coryn F.; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Mariot, Jean-Michel; Jaouen, Nicolas; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2014-04-15

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm{sup 2} focal spot source with full polarization control.

  1. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuzbǎian, Sorin G.; Hague, Coryn F.; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Jaouen, Nicolas; Sacchi, Maurizio; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Mariot, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 - 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm2 focal spot source with full polarization control.

  2. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ellis, R.; Gao, L.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, S.; Kauffman, R. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bettencourt, R.; Ma, T.; Nora, R. C.; Scott, H. A.; Thorn, D. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nelson, D.; Shoup, III, M.; Maron, Y.

    2016-09-28

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s2-1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s2-1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal will focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Furthermore, details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.

  3. The High Resolution Microcalorimeter Soft X-ray Spectrometer for the Astro-H Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Mitsuda, K.; International SXS Team

    2013-04-01

    We are developing the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) for the JAXA Astro-H mission. The instrument is based on a 36-pixel array of semiconductor micro calorimeters that provides high spectral resolution over the 0.3-12 keV energy band at the focus of a high throughput, grazing-incidence x-ray mirror, giving a 3 x 3 arcmin field of view and more than 200 cm2 of collecting area at 6 keV. The instrument is a collaboration between the JAXA Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and their partners in Japan, the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, the University of Wisconsin, the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands, and Geneva University. The principal components of the spectrometer are the microcalorimeter detector system, low-temperature anticoincidence detector, 3-stage ADR and dewar. The dewar is a long-life, hybrid design with a superfluid helium cryostat, Joule-Thomson cooler, and Stirling coolers. The instrument is capable of achieving 4-5 eV resolution across the array and is designed to operate for at least three years in orbit, and can operate either without liquid helium or the cooling power of the Joule-Thomson cooler. In this presentation we describe the design and status of the Astro-H/SXS instrument.

  4. Horizontal Ampoule Growth and Characterization of Mercuric Iodide at Controlled Gas Pressures for X-Ray and Gamma Ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Ariesanti, Elsa; Corcoran, Bridget

    2004-04-30

    The project developed a new method for producing high quality mercuric iodide crystals of x-ray and gamma spectrometers. Included are characterization of mercuric iodide crystal properties as a function of growth environment and fabrication and demonstration of room-temperature-operated high-resolution mercuric iodide spectrometers.

  5. Fast Monitoring Soil Environmental Qualities of Heavy Metal by Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Yu, Jian-xin; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wen-you; Chang, Qing

    2015-06-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer as a new type of equipment for quick test has a prominent prospect, but there are also shortcomings of detection range and limition, therefore this paper studied the suitability of PXRF spectrometer in monitoring soil environmental qualities of heavy metals included Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As and Hg, the aim of this paper is to screen elements which can be detected by this kind of instrument and evaluate the accuracy of test results. The research method is to test heavy metals contaminated soil samples by PXRF spectrometer, evaluate the accuracy of test results of PXRF compared with inductively coupled plasma mass(ICP-MS), then establish linear regression relationship between analysis results of PXRF and ICP-MS method. The results show that, (1) When measuring the soil environmental quality, PXRF spectrometer is appropriate to measure the content of Pb, Zn, Cr and Cu, except Ni, Cd, As and Hg. (2) Compared with the test value of ICP-MS, the test value of Pb and Zn is lower, the test value of Cu is higher, the test value of Cr is too high, all the results of PXRF spectrometer should be linear corrected according to standard analysis method. In conclusion, PXRF spectrometer is suitable for monitoring environmental quality of soil which is polluted by heavy metal such as Pb, Zn, Cr and Cu, it is an analysis means with characteristics of simple and rapid, accurate and reliable. The innovation of this article is that reasonable avoiding the shortcomings of PXRF spectrometer as using the instrument to monitor soil environmental quality, at last improved the application value of test results.

  6. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of the effect of the

  7. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  8. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  9. High-resolution Bent-crystal Spectrometer for the Ultra-soft X-ray Region

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Walling, R. S.

    1988-10-01

    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 angstrom. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (lambda/..delta..lambda approx. 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is ..delta..lambda/lambda{sub 0} = 8 angstrom. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic.

  10. A new compact soft x-ray spectrometer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies at PETRA III

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Z. E-mail: simone.techert@desy.de; Peters, H. B.; Hahn, U.; Viefhaus, J.; Agåker, M.; Nordgren, J.; Hage, A.; Reininger, R.; Siewert, F.; Techert, S. E-mail: simone.techert@desy.de

    2015-09-15

    We present a newly designed compact grating spectrometer for the energy range from 210 eV to 1250 eV, which would include the Kα{sub 1,2} emission lines of vital elements like C, N, and O. The spectrometer is based on a grazing incidence spherical varied line spacing grating with 2400 l/mm at its center and a radius of curvature of 58 542 mm. First, results show a resolving power of around 1000 at an energy of 550 eV and a working spectrometer for high vacuum (10{sup −4} mbar) environment without losing photon intensity.

  11. Comparison of hard X-ray spectra obtained by spectrometers on Hinotori and SMM and detection of 'superhot' component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Nariaki

    1988-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectra in solar flares obtained by the broadband spectrometers aboard Hinotori and SMM are compared. Within the uncertainty brought about by assuming the typical energy of the background X-rays, spectra by the Hinotori spectrometer are usually consistent with those by the SMM spectrometer for flares in 1981. On the contrary, flares in 1982 persistently show 20-50-percent higher flux by Hinotori than by SMM. If this discrepancy is entirely attributable to errors in the calibration of energy ranges, the errors would be about 10 percent. Despite such a discrepancy in absolute flux, in the the decay phase of one flare, spectra revealed a hard X-ray component (probably a 'superhot' component) that could be explained neither by emission from a plasma at about 2 x 10 to the 7th K nor by a nonthermal power-law component. Imaging observations during this period show hard X-ray emission nearly cospatial with soft X-ray emission, in contrast with earlier times at which hard and soft X-rays come from different places.

  12. X-ray calibration of the time resolved crystal spectrometer SXDHR-1t of the Ligne d'Integration Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Reverdin, C.; Morlens, A.S.; Angelier, B.; Bourgade, J.L.; Boutin, J.Y.; Briat, M.; Charles, G.; Duval, A.; Estadieu, A.; Cholet, C.; Gontier, D.; Husson, D.; Jacquet, H.P.; LeBreton, J. P.; Lidove, G.; Marchet, B.; Marmoret, R.; Maroni, R.; Millier, P.; Raimbourg, J.

    2004-10-01

    The time resolved crystal x-ray spectrometers called SXDHR-lt of the Ligne d'Integration laser is presented. It is necessary to calibrate all x-ray sensitive elements of diagnostics before using them in laser matter interaction experiments. In particular, crystals need to be calibrated. Measurements of the integrated coefficient of reflection of a beryl cylindrical crystal used in this spectrometer were performed with synchrotron radiation and with an x-ray tube and are presented. A test of the homogeneity of the reflection of the crystal was also performed. Aging or accidental pollution of x-ray diagnostics installed around target chambers is always possible. This happened to the DMX broadband spectrometer installed on the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) and this changed the spectral sensitivity of its channels. The evolution over time of the x-ray sensitivity needs to be critically assessed and if necessary x-ray sensitive elements will need to be recalibrated.

  13. X-Ray Emission Spectrometer Design with Single-Shot Pump-Probe and Resonant Excitation Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Spoth, Katherine; /SUNY, Buffalo /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    Core-level spectroscopy in the soft X-ray regime is a powerful tool for the study of chemical bonding processes. The ultrafast, ultrabright X-ray pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) allow these reactions to be studied in greater detail than ever before. In this study, we investigated a conceptual design of a spectrometer for the LCLS with imaging in the non-dispersive direction. This would allow single-shot collection of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements with varying laser pump X-ray probe delay or a variation of incoming X-ray energy over the illuminated area of the sample. Ray-tracing simulations were used to demonstrate how the components of the spectrometer affect its performance, allowing a determination of the optimal final design. These simulations showed that the spectrometer's non-dispersive focusing is extremely sensitive to the size of the sample footprint; the spectrometer is not able to image a footprint width larger than one millimeter with the required resolution. This is compatible with a single shot scheme that maps out the laser pump X-ray probe delay in the non-dispersive direction as well as resonant XES applications at normal incidence. However, the current capabilities of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) beamline at the LCLS do not produce the required energy range in a small enough sample footprint, hindering the single shot resonant XES application at SXR for chemical dynamics studies at surfaces. If an upgraded or future beamline at LCLS is developed with lower monochromator energy dispersion the width can be made small enough at the required energy range to be imaged by this spectrometer design.

  14. A wide-acceptance Compton spectrometer for spectral characterization of a medical x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Michelle A.; Gehring, A.; Belian, A.; Haines, T.; Hunter, J.; James, M.; Klasky, M.; Mendez, J.; Moir, D.; Sedillo, R.; Shurter, R.; Stearns, J.; Van Syoc, K.; Volegov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of the x-ray spectra used in medical treatment and radiography is important for dose calculations and material decomposition analysis. Indirect measurements via transmission through materials are possible. However, such spectra are challenging to measure directly due to the high photon fluxes. One method of direct measurement is via a Compton spectrometer (CS) method. In this approach, the x-rays are converted to a much lower flux of electrons via Compton scattering on a converter foil (typically beryllium or aluminum). The electrons are then momentum selected by bending in a magnetic field. With tight angular acceptance of electrons into the magnet of ~ 1 deg, there is a linear correlation between incident photon energy and electron position recorded on an image plate. Here we present measurements of Bremsstrahlung spectrum from a medical therapy machine, a Scanditronix M22 Microtron. Spectra with energy endpoints from 6 to 20 MeV are directly measured, using a CS with a wide energy range from 0.5 to 20 MeV. We discuss the sensitivity of the device and the effects of converter material and collimation on the accuracy of the reconstructed spectra. Approaches toward improving the sensitivity, including the use of coded apertures, and potential future applications to characterization of spectra are also discussed.

  15. Plane-grating flat-field soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, C. F.; Underwood, J. H.; Avila, A.; Delaunay, R.; Ringuenet, H.; Marsi, M.; Sacchi, M.

    2005-02-01

    We describe a soft x-ray spectrometer covering the 120-800 eV range. It is intended for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments performed at third generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities and has been developed with SOLEIL, the future French national SR source in mind. The Hettrick-Underwood principle is at the heart of the design using a combination of varied line-spacing plane grating and spherical-mirror to provide a flat-field image. It is slitless for optimum acceptance. This means the source size determines the resolving power. A spot size of ⩽5μm is planned at SOLEIL which, according to simulations, should ensure a resolving power ⩾1000 over the whole energy range. A 1024×1024 pixel charge-coupled device (CCD) with a 13μm×13μm pixel size is used. This is an improvement on the use of microchannel-plate detectors, both as concerns efficiency and spatial resolution. Additionally spectral line curvature is avoided by the use of a horizontal focusing mirror concentrating the beam in the nondispersing direction. It allows for readout using a binning mode to reduce the intrinsically large CCD readout noise. Preliminary results taken at beamlines at Elettra (Trieste) and at BESSY (Berlin) are presented.

  16. Design and performance of the solar maximum mission Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, L. G.; Wolfgang, J. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer acquires data on the temporal and energy distribution of solar X-rays in the energy region from 25 to 385 keV. The detector system is a CsI(Na) central detector, and an anti-coincidence shield with photomultiplier tubes optically coupled to the central and shield crystals. Additional detectors are included for calibration and South Atlantic Anomaly monitoring. A 15 channel pulse height analysis is performed over the energy range every 128 milliseconds. This instrument is capable of handling event rates up to 500 kHz and provides high rate data up to 100 kHz with low spectral distortion. Nine accumulated rates are telemetered every 8.192 seconds. A unique feature of the instrument is the ability to sample rates from the central detector or shield with a one millisecond minimum time resolution. Such samples are stored in a 32768 sample memory with a 40 percent pretrigger event history and a 60 percent posttrigger history.

  17. Cryogen-free operation of the Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneiderman, Gary A.; Shirron, Peter J.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Bialas, Thomas G.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Eckart, Megan E.; Hartz, Leslie; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Masters, Candace; McCammon, Dan; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hirofumi; Porter, Frederick S.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Yoshida, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is the first space-based instrument to implement redundancy in the operation of a sub-Kelvin refrigerator. The SXS cryogenic system consists of a superfluid helium tank and a combination of Stirling and Joule-Thompson (JT) cryocoolers that support the operation of a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). When liquid helium is present, the x-ray microcalorimeter detectors are cooled to their 50 mK operating temperature by two ADR stages, which reject their heat directly to the liquid at 1.1 K. When the helium is depleted, all three ADR stages are used to accomplish detector cooling while rejecting heat to the JT cooler operating at 4.5 K. Compared to the simpler helium mode operation, the cryogen-free mode achieves the same instrument performance by controlling the active cooling devices within the cooling system differently. These include the three ADR stages and four active heat switches, provided by NASA, and five cryocoolers, provided by JAXA. Development and verification details of this capability are presented within this paper and offer valuable insights into the challenges, successes, and lessons that can benefit other missions, particularly those employing cryogen-free cooling systems.

  18. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10(-5) or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  19. A focussing iron line crystal spectrometer for Spacelab. [cosmic X-ray detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Culhane, J. L.; Rapley, C. G.; Gabriel, A. H.; Walker, A. B. C., Jr.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1977-01-01

    A crystal spectrometer system is described which employs conical focusing of 12 curved LiF crystal panels to minimize the detector size and reduce the background counting rate. The wavelength range from 1.70 to 1.98 A is covered, including the resonance lines of Fe XXV and Fe XXVI as well as the Fe I K-alpha line and absorption edge. Operation of the spectrometer is discussed, noting that diffracted X-rays are registered in one-dimensional position-sensitive detectors and that the arrival position of a photon in a detector is related to its wavelength due to the fixed curvature of the crystal panels in the dispersion plane. Some characteristics of the multianode position-sensitive detectors are reviewed along with the crystal arrangement and mounting. The instrument sensitivity is evaluated in relation to the strengths of 6.7-keV emission features detected by the Ariel 5 and OSO 8 proportional-counter spectrometers.

  20. A Dual Channel X-ray Spectrometer for Fast Ignition Research

    SciTech Connect

    Akli, K U; Patel, P K; Van Maren, R; Stephens, R B; Key, M H; Higginson, D P; Westover, B; Chen, C D; Mackinnon, A J; Bartal, T; Beg, F N; Chawla, S; Fedosejevs, R; Freeman, R R; Hey, D S; Kemp, G E; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; McLean, H S; Ping, Y; Tsui, Y Y; Van Woerkom, L D; Wei, M S; Yabuuchi, T

    2010-04-19

    A new Dual Channel Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (DC-HOPG) x-ray spectrometer was developed to study laser-generated electron beam transport. The instrument uses a pair of graphite crystals and has the advantage of simultaneously detecting self emission from low-Z materials in first diffraction order and high-Z materials in second order. The emissions from the target are detected using a pair of parallel imaging plates positioned in a such way that the noise from background is minimized and the mosaic focusing is achieved. Initial tests of the diagnostic on Titan laser (I {approx} 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}, {tau} = 0.7 ps) show excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) > 1000 for the low energy channel and SNR > 400 for the high energy channel.

  1. Design and Test of a Deployable Radiation Cover for the REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carte, David B.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Jones, Michael P.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument contains a one-time deployable radiation cover that is opened using a shape memory alloy actuator (a "Frangibolt") from TiNi Aerospace and two torsion springs. The door will be held closed by the bolt for several years in cold storage during travel to the target asteroid, Bennu, and it is imperative to gain confidence that the door will open at predicted operational temperatures. This paper briefly covers the main design features of the radiation cover and measures taken to mitigate risks to cover deployment. As the chosen FD04 model Frangibolt actuator has minimal flight heritage, the main focus of this paper is the testing, results and conclusions with the FD04 while discussing key lessons learned with respect to the use of the FD04 actuator in this application.

  2. Data Acquisition, Control, Communication and Computation System of Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Amish B.; Vadher, N. M.; Jain, Rajma; Dave, Hemant; Shah, Vishal; Manian, K. S. B.; Kayasth, Satish; Patel, Vinod; Ubale, Girish; Shah, Kirit; Solanki, Chirag; Deshpande, M. R.; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Umapathy, C. N.; Viswanath, N.; Kulkarni, Ravi; Kumar, P. S.

    2006-09-01

    The Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission onboardGSAT- 2 Indian Spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 using GSLV-D2 rocket by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). SOXS aims to study solar flares, which are the most violent and energetic phenomena in the solar system, in the energy range of 4-56 keV with high spectral and temporal resolution. SOXS employs state-of-the-art semiconductor devices, viz., Si-Pin and CZT detectors to achieve sub-keV energy resolution requirements. In this paper, we present an overview of data acquisition, control,communication and computation of low energy payload of the SOXS mission.

  3. Compact soft x-ray spectrometer for plasma diagnostics at the Heidelberg Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, A.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Baumann, T. M.; Epp, S. W.; Gonchar, A.; González Martínez, A. J.; Liang, G.; Rohr, A.; Soria Orts, R.; Simon, M. C.; Tawara, H.; Versteegen, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2007-12-01

    A compact flat-field soft x-ray grazing-incidence grating spectrometer equipped with a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device camera was built and implemented at the Heidelberg Electron Beam Ion Trap. The instrument spans the spectral region from 1to37nm using two different gratings. In slitless operation mode, it directly images a radiation source, in this case ions confined in an electron beam ion trap, with high efficiency and reaching hereby a resolving power of λ /Δλ≅130 at 2nm and of λ /Δλ≅600 at 28nm. Capable of automatized operation, its low noise and excellent stability make it an ideal instrument not only for spectroscopic diagnostics requiring wide spectral coverage but also for precision wavelength measurements.

  4. Performance of a Borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; Willard-Schmoe, Ella

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program [1]. It can be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary requirements and performance metrics for the instrument are to obtain parts-per-million (ppm) lower limits of detection over a wide range of elements in the periodic table (Magnesium to Lead). Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight ppm for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  5. Characterization of the Basalt of Broken Tank, NM for the 'in situ' Calibration Target for the Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Upcoming Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkemper, L.; King, P. L.; Gellert, R.; Spilde, M. N.; Chamberlin, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    The MSL rover mission will launch in Fall 2009. It is equipped with an APXS for analyzing the bulk chemistry of rocks and soils. To monitor the APXS performance in situ on the martian surface over the extended mission, a calibration target will be included on the MSL rover. Engineering constraints led to a 4.2 cm diameter, 3 mm thick, homogeneous rock disc that would survive vibrations during launch. The basalt from Broken Tank, NM was chosen for the flight disc from ~200 volcanic rocks. The basalt is relatively homogeneous, fine- and even-grained, vesicle-free, and extremely dense and hard due to its ophitic texture. Other volcanic rocks - even well characterized samples of BCR - were ruled out due to vesicles, or high contents of glass, phenocrysts, secondary minerals, or fractures. The flight disc was prepared by hand- polishing to a 0.05 micron finish. We obtained scanning electron microscope back-scattered electron maps and X-ray maps (Al, Mg, Ca, Fe, Ti, Na, and K) on the polished, uncoated surface of the target. One pit (~0.03 mm2) and three tiny surface imperfections (<0.04 mm2) were observed on the surface. Electron microprobe analyses on two C-coated thin sections give the following compositions: olivine cores Fa23Fo77 and rims Fa40Fo60; plagioclase cores Ab42An56Or2 and discrete rims Ab62An7Or31; oxides Ilm67Hm33 and also trace chromite, apatite, chlorite, clays and devitrified glass. The NIH software Scion Image was used to determine the modal abundance of each phase in the basalt disk and in two thin sections. Bulk composition was established with multiple XRF laboratory analyses. There is no significant heterogeneity on the scale of the APXS analysis (~1.5 cm). Sulfides were not observed and XRF verified low Ni (<90 ppm) and S (70 ppm), making these elements ideal to monitor any Martian dust build-up during the surface operation. The rock slab is glued into a Ni frame, mounted vertically and accessible with a brush tool. The K- and L- X-ray lines of

  6. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  7. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, M; Regan, S P; Bahr, R E; Romanofsky, M; Sorce, C

    2012-10-01

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO∕QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  8. Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission in the Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Jorge A.; Borunda, Mario F.; Morales, Jaime

    2003-08-26

    We report on an experimental demonstration in an introductory modern physics course to elucidate the X-ray line spectra, and how they arise from transitions of electrons to inner shells. We seek to determine the effect of limited use of an interactive component as a supplement to a traditional lecture, and how it would improve the student achievement. In this preliminary study the students were exposed to traditional lectures on X-ray production and Bohr's model, they then were given a homework on the abc of X-ray spectra, after which they were given a pre-test on the materials, followed by an in-class demonstration, and a final post-exam. The gain, as measured from pre- to post-exams appears to remark the differences in how students approached the subject before and after the use of the demonstration. This initial study shows the validity of in-class demonstrations as teaching tools and opens a wide new area of research in modern physics teaching.

  9. The X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS): A Reference Cryogenic Instrument Design for Constellation-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehouse, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    Constellation-X, a mission now belonging to the Beyond Einstein initiative, is being planned to inherit the x-ray sky from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Astro-E. The first two of four observatories in the constellation will be launched together in 2013 and followed a year later by the launch of the remaining two. The four will independently orbit the Sun-Earth Lagrange point L2. An instrument compliment resides in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) of each observatory 10 m from the Optics Module and consists of three Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) detectors, a Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) focal plane CCD camera and an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS). Instrument awards are scheduled for early 2006. The reference detector for XMS is a 32 x 32 array of microcalorimetric superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES). Each pixel casts a variable resistance in a SQUID based multiplexed readout circuit which is coupled to series SQUID arrays for amplification and finally read out by external electronics. A multi-stage continuous ADR will provide the stable 50 mK desired for the TES array and a stable 1 K for the series SQUID arrays while also lifting thermal parasitic and inefficiency loads to a 6 K cryocooler interface. The 6 K cryocooler is expected to emerge from the joint-project Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) in which Constellation-X is an active participant. Project Pre-Formulation activities are marked by extensive technology development necessitating early, but realistic, thermal and cooling load requirements for ADR and ACTDP-cryocooler design points. Such requirements are driven by the encompassing XMS cryostat and ultimately by the thermal environment imposed by the FPM. It is further desired that the XMS instrument be able to operate on its side in the laboratory, with a warm vacuum shell, during an extensive calibration regime. It is that reference system design of the XMS instrument (microcalorimeter, ADR, cryocooler and

  10. Non-destructive in situ study of "Mad Meg" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder using mobile X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Voorde, Lien; Van Pevenage, Jolien; De Langhe, Kaat; De Wolf, Robin; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Vandenabeele, Peter; Martens, Maximiliaan P. J.

    2014-07-01

    "Mad Meg", a figure of Flemish folklore, is the subject of a famous oil-on-panel painting by the Flemish renaissance artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder, exhibited in the Museum Mayer van den Bergh (Antwerp, Belgium). This article reports on the in situ chemical characterization of this masterpiece by using currently available state-of-the-art portable analytical instruments. The applied non-destructive analytical approach involved the use of a) handheld X-ray fluorescence instrumentation for retrieving elemental information and b) portable X-ray fluorescence/X-ray diffraction instrumentation and laser-based Raman spectrometers for obtaining structural/molecular information. Next to material characterization of the used pigments and of the different preparation layers of the painting, also the verification of two important historical iconographic hypotheses is performed concerning the economic way of painting by Brueghel, and whether or not he used blue smalt pigment for painting the boat that appears towards the top of the painting. The pigments identified are smalt pigment (65% SiO2 + 15% K2O + 10% CoO + 5% Al2O3) for the blue color present in all blue areas of the painting, probably copper resinate for the green colors, vermillion (HgS) as red pigment and lead white is used to form different colors. The comparison of blue pigments used on different areas of the painting gives no differences in the elemental fingerprint which confirms the existing hypothesis concerning the economic painting method by Bruegel.

  11. Data reduction and analysis for the graphite crystal X-ray spectrometer and polarimeter experiment flown aboard OSO-8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, R.

    1980-01-01

    The documentation and software programs developed for the reception, initial processing (quickbook), and production analysis of data obtained by solar X-ray spectroscopy, stellar spectroscopy, and X-ray polarimetry experiments on OSO-8 are listed. The effectiveness and sensitivity of the Bragg crystal scattering instruments used are assessed. The polarization data polarimetric data obtained shows that some X-ray sources are polarized and that a larger polarimeter of this type is required to perform the measurements necessary to fully understand the physics of X-ray sources. The scanning Bragg crystal spectrometer was ideally suited for studying rapidly changing solar conditions. Observations of the Crab Nebula and pulsar, Cyg X-1, Cyg X-2, Cyg X-3, Sco X-1, Cen X-3, and Her X-1 are discussed as well as of 4U1656-53 and 4U1820-30. Evidence was obtained for iron line emission from Cyg X-3.

  12. Gallium Arsenide detectors for X-ray and electron (beta particle) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Results characterizing GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes with a 10 μm i layer for their spectral response under illumination of X-rays and beta particles are presented. A total of 22 devices, having diameters of 200 μm and 400 μm, were electrically characterized at room temperature. All devices showed comparable characteristics with a measured leakage current ranging from 4 nA/cm2 to 67 nA/cm2 at an internal electric field of 50 kV/cm. Their unintentionally doped i layers were found to be almost fully depleted at 0 V due to their low doping density. 55Fe X-ray spectra were obtained using one 200 μm diameter device and one 400 μm diameter device. The best energy resolution (FWHM at 5.9 keV) achieved was 625 eV using the 200 μm and 740 eV using the 400 μm diameter device, respectively. Noise analysis showed that the limiting factor for the energy resolution of the system was the dielectric noise; if this noise was eliminated by better design of the front end of the readout electronics, the achievable resolution would be 250 eV. 63Ni beta particle spectra obtained using the 200 μm diameter device showed the potential utility of these detectors for electron and beta particle detection. The development of semiconductor electron spectrometers is important particularly for space plasma physics; such devices may find use in future space missions to study the plasma environment of Jupiter and Europa and the predicted electron impact excitation of water vapor plumes from Europa hypothesized as a result of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV observations.

  13. Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Roquemore, A.L.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Kahn, S.M.; Elliott, S.R.; Fraenkel, B.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers is described for implementation on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on the ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion-charge state distributions, and impurity transport. These data are derived from observations of the satellite spectra of heliumlike argon, ArthinspXVII, which is the dominant charge state for electron temperatures in the range from 0.4 to 3.0 keV and which is accessible to NSTX. Experiments at the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR) demonstrate that a throughput of 2{times}10{sup 5}thinspphotons/s (corresponding to the count-rate limit of the present detectors) can easily be obtained with small, nonperturbing argon gas puffs of less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}3}thinspTorrthinspscr(l)/s, so that it is possible to record spectra with a small statistical error and a good time resolution (typically 50 and 1 ms in some cases). Employing a novel design, which is based on the imaging properties of spherically bent crystals, the spectrometers will provide spectrally and spatially resolved images of the plasma for all experimental conditions, which include ohmically heated discharges as well as plasmas with rf and neutral-beam heating. The conceptual design, experimental results on the focusing properties, and relevant spectral data from TEXTOR are presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Development of a mercuric iodide solid state spectrometer for X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J.

    1983-01-01

    Mercuric iodide detectors, experimental development for astronomical use, X ray observations of the 1980 Cygnus X-1 High State, astronomical had X ray detectors in current use, detector development, balloon flight of large area (1500 sq cm) Phoswich detectors, had X ray telescope design, shielded mercuric iodide background measurement, Monte Carlo analysis, measurements with a shielded mercuric iodide detector are discussed.

  15. A doubly curved elliptical crystal spectrometer for the study of localized x-ray absorption in hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, Adam D. Hoyt, Cad L.; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David A.

    2014-10-15

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emitted by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here the foundational work in the design and development of this spectrometer along with initial results obtained with an aluminum x-pinch as the object plasma.

  16. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer with 25meV resolution at the Cu K -edge

    DOE PAGES

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Harder, Manuel; Klementiev, Konstantin; ...

    2015-06-27

    An unparalleled resolution is reported with an inelastic X-ray scattering instrument at the CuK-edge. Based on a segmented concave analyzer, featuring single-crystal quartz (SiO2) pixels, the spectrometer delivers a resolution near 25meV (FWHM) at 8981eV. Besides the quartz analyzer, the performance of the spectrometer relies on a four-bounce Si(553) high-resolution monochromator and focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez optics. The measured resolution agrees with the ray-tracing simulation of an ideal spectrometer. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by reproducing the phonon dispersion curve of a beryllium single-crystal.

  17. Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jacco

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and γ-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification. The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations. Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

  18. Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Vink, Jacco

    2009-05-11

    I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and {gamma}-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification.The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations.Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

  19. Novel handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for routine testing for the presence of lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Squillante, Michael R.

    2011-06-01

    RMD is developing a safe, inexpensive, and easy to operate lead detector for retailers and consumers that can reliably detect dangerous levels of lead in toys and other household products. Lead and its compounds have been rated as top chemicals that pose a great threat to human health. However, widespread testing for environmental lead is rarely undertaken until lead poisoning has already been diagnosed. The problem is not due to the accuracy or sensitivity of existing lead detection technology, but rather to the high expense, safety and licensing barriers of available test equipment. An inexpensive and easy to use lead detector would enable the identification of highly contaminated objects and areas and allow for timely and cost effective remediation. The military has similar needs for testing for lead and other heavy elements such as mercury, primarily in the decontamination of former military properties prior to their return to civilian use. RMD's research and development efforts are abased on advanced solid-state detectors combined with recently patented lead detection techniques to develop a consumer oriented lead detector that will be widely available and easy and inexpensive to use. These efforts will result in an instrument that offers: (1) high sensitivity, to identify objects containing dangerous amounts of lead, (2) low cost to encourage widespread testing by consumers and other end users and (3) convenient operation requiring no training or licensing. In contrast, current handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometers either use a radioactive source requiring licensing and operating training, or use an electronic x-ray source that limits their sensitivity to surface lead.

  20. Performance Verification of the Astro-E2 X-ray spectrometer in the flight configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, N; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Cottam, J; Fujimoto, R; Furusho, T; Ishisaki, Y; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; McCammon, D; Mitsuda, K; Morita, U; Porter, F S; Takei, Y; Yamamoto, M

    2005-09-12

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) is a high resolution, non-dispersive cryogenic detector on board the X-ray satellite, Astro-E2 (Suzaku), which was successfully launched on July 10, 2005. The XRS achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV (FWHM) and covers a broad energy range of {approx} 0.07-10 keV. The XRS will enable powerful plasma diagnostics of a variety of astrophysical objects such as the dynamics of gas in clusters of galaxies. The XRS was integrated to the spacecraft in September 2004, and took a series of spacecraft tests until April 2005. We describe results of the XRS performance verification in the spacecraft configuration. First, the noise level was extremely low on the spacecraft, and most of the pixels achieved an energy resolution of 5-6 eV at 5.9 keV. Microphonics from the mechanical cooler was one of the concerns, but they did not interfere with the detector, when the dewar was integrated to the spacecraft and filled with solid neon. To attain the best energy resolution, however, correction of gain drift is mandatory. The XRS has a dedicated calibration pixel for that purpose, and drift correction using the calibration pixel is very effective when the gain variation is due to changes in the {approx} 60-mK heat sink temperature. On the other hand, the calibration pixel and the other pixels do not respond in the same way to variations of the helium and neon bath temperatures, and this effect requires further study.

  1. Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C.; Vis, R.D.; Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W.; Bowen, D.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

  2. Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C. ); Vis, R.D. ); Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L. ); Jones, K.W. ); Bowen, D.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

  3. Soft x-ray spectrometer for in situ monitoring of thin-film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skytt, Per; Englund, Carl J.; Wassdahl, Nial; Mancini, Derrick C.; Nordgren, Joseph

    1994-11-01

    We have designed and constructed a compact spectrometer dedicated to in-situ characterization of thin films during deposition, using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. It consists of a Rowland-circle mounted spherical grating and entrance slit, or slit array to enhance throughput. A 2D position-sensitive detector (microchannel plate stack and resistive anode) is mounted tangent to the image of the slit(s) on the Rowland circle. The instrument covers an energy range of 240 - 700 eV using a 300 1/mm grating in the first order. Thus, the spectrometer simultaneously records K emission for low-Z elements C through F, while L emission for 3D metals can be recorded in first or higher orders. The resolution is approximately 300, allowing chemical analysis. Both detector and grating are housed in a vacuum chamber that is turbomolecularly pumped to a pressure below 10(superscript -6) Torr. The instrument can be attached to any process chamber using a standard UHV flange. The slit extends into the process chamber separated from the housing by a valve. This valve can be closed, or in one of two open positions where thin foils serve as vacuum windows to protect the detector and grating, and as filters to reduce background counts from UV light. The spectrometer has successfully monitored a variety of processes in situ, including growth of optical TiN films by reactive magnetron sputter deposition, synchrotron radiation induced CVD of metallic films, and hot-filament CVD growth of diamond.

  4. Particle size and X-ray analysis of Feldspar, Calvert, Ball, and Jordan soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Pipette analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to characterize the particle size distribution and clay mineral content of the feldspar, calvert, ball, and jordan soils. In general, the ball, calvert, and jordan soils were primarily clay size particles composed of kaolinite and illite whereas the feldspar soil was primarily silt-size particles composed of quartz and feldspar minerals.

  5. Properties of the Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays (CEMAs) for the SOLEX solar X-ray Spectrometer/Spectroheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, W., Jr.; Landecker, P. B.

    1981-06-01

    A Channel Electron Multiplier Array (CEMA) detector was launched on 24 February 1979 as part of the SOLEX Solar X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectroheliograph experiment aboard the U.S. Air Force Space Test Program P78-1 satellite. Since launch, this detector has successfully recorded X-rays in the 3-25 A wavelength range. This report describes the comprehensive laboratory testing program of the flight and flight spare CEMA detectors. Quantum efficiencies, energy resolution and gain are given as a function of different incident photon wavelengths, voltage configurations, incident angles and lifetime exposures. Our results are compared to other published values.

  6. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  7. Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jarrige, Ignace; Bisogni, Valentina; Coburn, Scott; Leonhardt, William

    2016-11-01

    We present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction for the outgoing beam. The spectrometer can cancel defocus and coma aberrations at all energies, has an erect focal plane, and minimizes mechanical motions of the detector. When the beamline resolution is accounted for, the net spectral resolution will be 14 meV at 1000 eV. This will open up many low energy excitations to study and will expand greatly the power of soft X-ray RIXS.

  8. Wide-band, high-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer for the Electron Beam Ion Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed two wide-band, high-resolution vacuum flat crystal spectrometers and implemented them on the Electron Beam Ion Trap located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Working in unison, these spectrometers can measure an x-ray bandwidth {le}9 {Angstrom} in the soft x-ray region below 21 {Angstrom}. In order to achieve this large bandwidth each spectrometer houses either two 125 mm {times} 13 mm {times} 2 mm RAP (rubidium acid phthalate, 2d=26.121 {Angstrom}), two 114 mm {times} 13 mm {times} 2 mm TlAP (thallium acid phthalate, 2d=25.75 {Angstrom}) crystals, or some combination thereof, for dispersion and two position sensitive proportional counters for detection of x rays. The spectrometers are used to measure wavelengths and relative intensities of the L-shell line emission from FethinspXVII{endash}XXIV for comparison with spectra obtained from astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. The wide wavelength coverage attainable by these spectrometers makes it possible to measure all the L-shell emission from a given iron ion species simultaneously. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jarrige, Ignace; Bisogni, Valentina; ...

    2016-11-10

    Here we present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction formore » the outgoing beam. The spectrometer can cancel defocus and coma aberrations at all energies, has an erect focal plane, and minimizes mechanical motions of the detector. When the beamline resolution is accounted for, the net spectral resolution will be 14 meV at 1000 eV. Lastly, this will open up many low energy excitations to study and will expand greatly the power of soft X-ray RIXS.« less

  10. Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jarrige, Ignace; Bisogni, Valentina; Coburn, Scott; Leonhardt, William

    2016-11-10

    Here we present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction for the outgoing beam. The spectrometer can cancel defocus and coma aberrations at all energies, has an erect focal plane, and minimizes mechanical motions of the detector. When the beamline resolution is accounted for, the net spectral resolution will be 14 meV at 1000 eV. Lastly, this will open up many low energy excitations to study and will expand greatly the power of soft X-ray RIXS.

  11. Five-element Johann-type x-ray emission spectrometer with a single-photon-counting pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Kleymenov, Evgeny; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; David, Christian; Glatzel, Pieter; Janousch, Markus; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Studer, Marco; Willimann, Markus; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2011-06-01

    A Johann-type spectrometer with five spherically bent crystals and a pixel detector was constructed for a range of hard x-ray photon-in photon-out synchrotron techniques, covering a Bragg-angle range of 60°-88°. The spectrometer provides a sub emission line width energy resolution from sub-eV to a few eV and precise energy calibration, better than 1.5 eV for the full range of Bragg angles. The use of a pixel detector allows fast and easy optimization of the signal-to-background ratio. A concentration detection limit below 0.4 wt% was reached at the Cu Kα(1) line. The spectrometer is designed as a modular mobile device for easy integration in a multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamline, such as the SuperXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source.

  12. Five-element Johann-type x-ray emission spectrometer with a single-photon-counting pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kleymenov, Evgeny; Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van; David, Christian; Janousch, Markus; Studer, Marco; Willimann, Markus; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Glatzel, Pieter; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2011-06-15

    A Johann-type spectrometer with five spherically bent crystals and a pixel detector was constructed for a range of hard x-ray photon-in photon-out synchrotron techniques, covering a Bragg-angle range of 60 deg. - 88 deg. The spectrometer provides a sub emission line width energy resolution from sub-eV to a few eV and precise energy calibration, better than 1.5 eV for the full range of Bragg angles. The use of a pixel detector allows fast and easy optimization of the signal-to-background ratio. A concentration detection limit below 0.4 wt% was reached at the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} line. The spectrometer is designed as a modular mobile device for easy integration in a multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamline, such as the SuperXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source.

  13. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, O; Weinhardt, L; Blum, M; Weigand, M; Umbach, E; Bär, M; Heske, C; Denlinger, J; Chuang, Y-D; McKinney, W; Hussain, Z; Gullikson, E; Jones, M; Batson, P; Nelles, B; Follath, R

    2009-06-01

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft x-rays that covers the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite its slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved for a source spot as large as (30 x 3000) microm2, which is important for keeping beam damage effects in radiation-sensitive samples low. The high spectrometer efficiency allows recording of comprehensive two-dimensional resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) maps with good statistics within several minutes. This is exemplarily demonstrated for a RIXS map of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which was taken within 10 min.

  14. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Whole Single Catalyst Particle Using Element Specific X-ray Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T.; Kalirai, Sam; Liu, Yijin; Andrews, Joy C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-02

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to combine multiple fields of view, computed tomography was performed to visualize the macropore structure of the catalyst and its availability for mass transport. We mapped the relative spatial distributions of Ni and Fe using multiple-energy tomography at the respective X-ray absorption K-edges and correlated these distributions with porosity and permeability of an equilibrated catalyst (E-cat) particle. Both metals were found to accumulate in outer layers of the particle, effectively decreasing porosity by clogging of pores and eventually restricting access into the FCC particle.

  15. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Whole Single Catalyst Particle Using Element Specific X-ray Nanotomography

    DOE PAGES

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T.; Kalirai, Sam; ...

    2015-01-02

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to combine multiple fields of view, computed tomography was performed to visualize the macropore structure of the catalyst and its availability for mass transport. We mapped the relative spatial distributions of Ni and Fe using multiple-energy tomography at the respective X-ray absorption K-edges and correlated these distributions with porosity and permeability of an equilibrated catalyst (E-cat) particle.more » Both metals were found to accumulate in outer layers of the particle, effectively decreasing porosity by clogging of pores and eventually restricting access into the FCC particle.« less

  16. Chemical Heterogeneity on Mercury's Surface Revealed by the MESSENGER X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weider, Shoshana Z.; Nittler, Larry R.; Starr, Richard D.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R.; Byrne, Paul K.; Denevi, Brett W.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the analysis of 205 spatially resolved measurements of the surfacecomposition of Mercury from MESSENGERs X-Ray Spectrometer. The surfacefootprints of these measurements are categorized according to geological terrain. Northernsmooth plains deposits and the plains interior to the Caloris basin differ compositionallyfrom older terrain on Mercury. The older terrain generally has higher MgSi, SSi, andCaSi ratios, and a lower AlSi ratio than the smooth plains. Mercurys surface mineralogyis likely dominated by high-Mg mafic minerals (e.g., enstatite), plagioclase feldspar, andlesser amounts of Ca, Mg, andor Fe sulfides (e.g., oldhamite). The compositionaldifference between the volcanic smooth plains and the older terrain reflects differentabundances of these minerals and points to the crystallization of the smooth plains from amore chemically evolved magma source. High-degree partial melts of enstatite chondritematerial provide a generally good compositional and mineralogical match for much ofthe surface of Mercury. An exception is Fe, for which the low surface abundance onMercury is still higher than that of melts from enstatite chondrites and may indicate anexogenous contribution from meteoroid impacts.

  17. Tangential x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on J-TEXT tokamak.

    PubMed

    Jin, W; Chen, Z Y; Cen, Y S; Lee, S G; Shi, Y J; Ding, Y H; Yang, Z J; Wang, Z J; Zhuang, G

    2012-10-01

    A tangential x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) has been developed for the J-TEXT tokamak to measure the ion temperature and the plasma toroidal rotation velocity. The resonance spectral line and its satellites of Ar XVII in the ranges of 3.94 Å-4.0 Å are detected. A spherically bent quartz crystal with 2d = 4.913 Å is used in this system. The crystal has a dimension of 9 cm high and 3 cm wide and the radius of curvature 3823 mm. The XICS is designed to receive emission of Ar XVII from -10 cm to +10 cm region with a spatial resolution of 3.1 cm in the vertical direction considering the parameters of the J-TEXT plasma. The XICS has a tangential angle of 27° with respect to toroidal direction in the magnetic axis. A two-dimensional 100 mm by 300 mm multi-wire proportional counter is applied to detect the spectra.

  18. Tangential x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on J-TEXT tokamaka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Cen, Y. S.; Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J.; Ding, Y. H.; Yang, Z. J.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.

    2012-10-01

    A tangential x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) has been developed for the J-TEXT tokamak to measure the ion temperature and the plasma toroidal rotation velocity. The resonance spectral line and its satellites of Ar XVII in the ranges of 3.94 Å-4.0 Å are detected. A spherically bent quartz crystal with 2d = 4.913 Å is used in this system. The crystal has a dimension of 9 cm high and 3 cm wide and the radius of curvature 3823 mm. The XICS is designed to receive emission of Ar XVII from -10 cm to +10 cm region with a spatial resolution of 3.1 cm in the vertical direction considering the parameters of the J-TEXT plasma. The XICS has a tangential angle of 27° with respect to toroidal direction in the magnetic axis. A two-dimensional 100 mm by 300 mm multi-wire proportional counter is applied to detect the spectra.

  19. PC-based Data Acquisition System for X-ray Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, U. W.; Kong, K. N.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.; Lee, C. H.

    2003-10-01

    A PC-based data acquisition system for an X-ray crystal spectrometer has been developed in order to measure the ion and electron temperature profile measurements on tokamak plasmas. The system can detect a 2D image of the plasma from a gas-filled delay line readout position-sensitive 2D detector and spherically-bent crystal in connection with N110 time to digital converter developed in European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The N110 interface module with TMS320VC33 digital signal processor, and 16 Mbytes static memory and its supporting Windows OS image software are used for the PC-based data acquisition system. An USB (Universal Serial Bus) interface of the PC was used to get image data from the system with higher than 10 Mbytes/s throughput rate because of its simplicity and high-speed communication capability. The system has two acquisition modes - a static and dynamic modes - which can build 256 x 256, 512 x 512, 1024 x 1024 and 2048 x2048 image frames. The dynamic mode is designed to obtain and store the position and time information of each photon events simultaneously with the maximum count-rate capability up to 500 kHz. An overview and demonstration of the PC-based data acquisition system will be presented.

  20. [Technology Development for X-Ray Reflection for the Constellation-X Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    This Grant covers MIT support for the technology development of x-ray reflection gratings for the Constellation-X Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS). Since the start of the Grant MIT has extended its previously-developed patterning and super-smooth, blazed grating fabrication technology to ten-times smaller grating periods and ten-times larger blaze angles to demonstrate feasibility and performance in the off-plane grating geometry. In the past year we successfully developed several nanoimprint grating replication methods that achieved very high fidelity replication of master silicon gratings. Grating geometry on the nano and macro scales were faithfully replicated, demonstrating the viability of the process for manufacturing the thousands of gratings required for the RGS. We also successfully developed an improved metrology truss for holding test grating substrates during metrology. The flatness goal of grating substrates is under 500 nm. In the past, grating holders would cause non-repeatable distortion of >> 500 nm to the substrates due to friction and gravity sag. The new holder has a repeatability of under 50 nm which is adequate for the proposed RGS grating substrates.

  1. FRONT-END ASIC FOR HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROMETERS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; CHEN, W.; FRIED, J.; LI, Z.; PINELLI, D.A.; REHAK, P.; VERNON, E.; GASKIN, J.A.; RAMSEY, B.D.; ANELLI, G.

    2007-10-27

    We present an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for high-resolution x-ray spectrometers. The ASIC is designed to read out signals from a pixelated silicon drift detector (SDD). Each hexagonal pixel has an area of 15 mmz and an anode capacitance of less than 100 fF. There is no integrated Field Effect transistor (FET) in the pixel, rather, the readout is done by wirebonding the anodes to the inputs of the ASIC. The ASIC provides 14 channels of low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with baseline stabilization, and peak detection with analog memory. The readout is sparse and based on low voltage differential signaling. An interposer provides all the interconnections required to bias and operate the system. The channel dissipates 1.6 mW. The complete 14-pixel unit covers an area of 210 mm{sup 2}, dissipates 12 mW cm{sup -2}, and can be tiled to cover an arbitrarily large detection area. We measured a preliminary resolution of 172 eV at -35 C on the 6 keV peak of a {sup 55}Fe source.

  2. Microcalorimeter-type energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Keiichi; Maehata, Keisuke; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y; Ohsaki, Mitsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuaki; Yu, Xiuzhen; Ito, Takuji; Yamanaka, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    A new energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) with a microcalorimeter detector equipped with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been developed for high- accuracy compositional analysis in the nanoscale. A superconducting transition-edge-sensor-type microcalorimeter is applied as the detector. A cryogen-free cooling system, which consists of a mechanical and a dilution refrigerator, is selected to achieve long-term temperature stability. In order to mount these detector and refrigerators on a TEM, the cooling system is specially designed such that these two refrigerators are separated. Also, the detector position and arrangement are carefully designed to avoid adverse affects between the superconductor detector and the TEM lens system. Using the developed EDS system, at present, an energy resolution of 21.92 eV full-width-at-half maximum has been achieved at the Cr K alpha line. This value is about seven times better than that of the current typical commercial Si(Li) detector, which is usually around 140 eV. The developed microcalorimeter EDS system can measure a wide energy range, 1-20 keV, at one time with this high energy resolution that can resolve peaks from most of the elements. Although several further developments will be needed to enable practical use, highly accurate compositional analysis with high energy resolution will be realized by this microcalorimeter EDS system.

  3. On the alignment and focusing of the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champey, Patrick; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Cheimets, Peter; Hertz, Edward; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; McCracken, Jeff; Marquez, Vanessa; Allured, Ryan; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark; Bruccoleri, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument that is designed to observe soft X-ray emissions from 24 - 6.0 Å (0.5 - 2.0 keV energies) in the solar atmosphere. For the first time, high-temperature, low-emission plasma will be observed directly with 5 arcsecond spatial resolution and 22 mÅ spectral resolution. The unique optical design consists of a Wolter - I telescope and a 3-optic grazing- incidence spectrometer. The spectrometer utilizes a finite conjugate mirror pair and a blazed planar, varied line spaced grating, which is directly printed on a silicon substrate using e-beam lithography. The grating design is being finalized and the grating will be fabricated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Izentis LLC. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is producing the nickel replicated telescope and spectrometer mirrors using the same facilities and techniques as those developed for the ART-XC and FOXSI mirrors. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) will mount and align the optical sub-assemblies based on previous experience with similar instruments, such as the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The telescope and spectrometer assembly will be aligned in visible light through the implementation of a theodolite and reference mirrors, in addition to the centroid detector assembly (CDA) - a device designed to align the AXAF-I nested mirrors. Focusing of the telescope and spectrometer will be achieved using the X-ray source in the Stray Light Facility (SLF) at MSFC. We present results from an alignment sensitivity analysis performed on the on the system and we also discuss the method for aligning and focusing MaGIXS.

  4. On the Alignment and Focusing of the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champey, Patrick; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Cheimets, Peter; Hertz, Edward; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; McCracken, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument that is designed to observe soft X-ray emissions from 24 - 6.0 A (0.5 - 2.0 keV energies) in the solar atmosphere. For the rst time, high-temperature, low-emission plasma will be observed directly with 5 arcsecond spatial resolution and 22 mA spectral resolution. The unique optical design consists of a Wolter - I telescope and a 3-optic grazing- incidence spectrometer. The spectrometer utilizes a nite conjugate mirror pair and a blazed planar, varied line spaced grating, which is directly printed on a silicon substrate using e-beam lithography. The grating design is being nalized and the grating will be fabricated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Izentis LLC. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is producing the nickel replicated telescope and spectrometer mirrors using the same facilities and techniques as those developed for the ART-XC and FOXSI mirrors. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) will mount and align the optical sub-assemblies based on previous experience with similar instruments, such as the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The telescope and spectrometer assembly will be aligned in visible light through the implementation of a theodolite and reference mirrors, in addition to the centroid detector assembly (CDA) { a device designed to align the AXAF-I nested mirrors. Focusing of the telescope and spectrometer will be achieved using the X-ray source in the Stray Light Facility (SLF) at MSFC. We present results from an alignment sensitivity analysis performed on the on the system and we also discuss the method for aligning and focusing MaGIXS.

  5. Mission Overview of the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick; Li, Xinlin; Mason, James; Moore, Christopher; Palo, Scott; Rouleau, Colden; Solomon, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat to study the energy distribution of solar flare soft X-ray (SXR) emissions of the quiet Sun, active regions, and during flares and to model the solar SXR impact in Earth’s ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere (ITM) using these MinXSS solar measurements. The energy variability in the SXR range can vary by more than a factor of 100, yet we have limited spectral measurements in the SXR to accurately quantify the spectral dependence of this variability. Energy from SXR radiation is deposited mostly in the ionospheric E-region, from ~80 to ~150 km, but the precise altitude is strongly dependent on the SXR spectrum because of the steep slope and structure of the photoionization cross sections of atmospheric gases in this wavelength range. The new MinXSS solar SXR spectra measurements and associated modeling of the solar spectra and Earth’s ITM response will address these outstanding issues. MinXSS includes an Amptek X123 X-ray spectrometer to measure solar irradiance spectra from 0.5 - 30 keV [2.5- 0.04 nm] with a nominal 0.15 keV energy resolution [spectral resolution of 0.7 nm at 2.5 nm and 0.0002 nm at 0.04 nm] and a SXR photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. Both of these SXR instruments had pre-flight calibrations with an accuracy of about 5% at the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). This presentation will include an overview of the MinXSS CubeSat design and development that involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The MinXSS CubeSat was launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station (ISS) and awaits deployment from the ISS in April-May 2016. Assuming MinXSS has been deployed before June, we also intend to present first light observations from MinXSS to highlight solar SXR spectra and SXR variability

  6. The spectral archive of cosmic X-ray sources observed by the Einstein Observatory Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Canizares, Claude R.; Clark, George W.; Coyne, Joan M.; Markert, Thomas H.; Saez, Pablo J.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Winkler, P. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) used the technique of Bragg spectroscopy to study cosmic X-ray sources in the 0.2-3 keV energy range. The high spectral resolving power (E/Delta-E is approximately equal to 100-1000) of this instrument allowed it to resolve closely spaced lines and study the structure of individual features in the spectra of 41 cosmic X-ray sources. An archival summary of the results is presented as a concise record the FPCS observations and a source of information for future analysis by the general astrophysics community. For each observation, the instrument configuration, background rate, X-ray flux or upper limit within the energy band observed, and spectral histograms are given. Examples of the contributions the FPCS observations have made to the understanding of the objects observed are discussed.

  7. A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Spectrometer for Astrobiology Research at the Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O B; Hertrich, T; Hoehne, J

    2008-06-15

    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are being developed as energy-dispersive soft X-ray detectors, because they combine the high energy resolution of low-temperature detectors with the comparably high count rates of non-thermal devices. We have built a 36-pixel spectrometer based on 200 {micro}m x 200 {micro}m Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb STJs. It offers an energy resolution of {approx}10 to 20 eV FWHM in the soft X-ray band below 1 keV, a solid angle coverage {Omega}/4{pi} {approx} 10{sup -3}, and can be operated at total rates up to {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s. For STJ operation by non-expert users, we have built a liquid-cryogen-free spectrometer with a mechanical pulse-tube cryocooler and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. It is fully automated for cooldown to a base temperature of <30 mK in 15 hours, and has a hold time of >3 days between demagnetization cycles for STJ operation at 0.3 K. The STJ spectrometers are used for speciation measurements on dilute samples by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and can achieve sensitivities below 100 ppm. We discuss the spectrometer performance in representative applications on metals in meteorites in the context of geological signatures of biological activity.

  8. A large-solid-angle X-ray Raman scattering spectrometer at ID20 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

    PubMed

    Huotari, S; Sahle, Ch J; Henriquet, Ch; Al-Zein, A; Martel, K; Simonelli, L; Verbeni, R; Gonzalez, H; Lagier, M C; Ponchut, C; Moretti Sala, M; Krisch, M; Monaco, G

    2017-03-01

    An end-station for X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at beamline ID20 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is described. This end-station is dedicated to the study of shallow core electronic excitations using non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. The spectrometer has 72 spherically bent analyzer crystals arranged in six modular groups of 12 analyzer crystals each for a combined maximum flexibility and large solid angle of detection. Each of the six analyzer modules houses one pixelated area detector allowing for X-ray Raman scattering based imaging and efficient separation of the desired signal from the sample and spurious scattering from the often used complicated sample environments. This new end-station provides an unprecedented instrument for X-ray Raman scattering, which is a spectroscopic tool of great interest for the study of low-energy X-ray absorption spectra in materials under in situ conditions, such as in operando batteries and fuel cells, in situ catalytic reactions, and extreme pressure and temperature conditions.

  9. Soft X-Ray (1-7 nm) Solar Spectrometer based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; Wieman, S. R.; Chao, W.

    2015-12-01

    A new soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer combines proven detector technology demonstrated on the SOHO Solar EUV Monitor (SOHO/SEM) and SDO EUV SpectroPhotometer (SDO/EVE/ESP) instruments with novel technology for X-ray optics nanofabrication developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The new spectrometer will provide solar SXR measurements of absolute irradiance in the 1.0 to 7.0 nm range spectrally resolved into bands narrower than 1 nm - measurements that are not available from existing solar-observing instruments but are important for studying and modeling coronal dynamics and the Sun-Earth's connection, e.g. the Earth's Ionosphere. For the proposed SXR spectrometer we will introduce a transmission grating based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication technology developed at the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CXRO technology has been used in the fabrication of X-ray zone plates with feature sizes as small as 25 nm in optical elements with overall sizes on the order of 1 cm. The CXRO technology has significant flexibility in terms of pattern geometry, and is thus capable of producing linear transmission gratings with aperture sizes similar to SEM and ESP but with four times the dispersion. With such dispersion, reasonable spectral resolution (< 1nm) can be obtained using commercial off-the shelf (COTS) X-ray sensitive AXUV type silicon photodiodes from the Optodiode Corp. in an instrument with overall size and mass similar to that of SEM or ESP.

  10. Model-independent particle species disentanglement by X-ray cross-correlation scattering

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, B.; Menzel, A.; Guzenko, V. A.; David, C.; Abela, R.; Gutt, C.

    2017-01-01

    Mixtures of different particle species are often investigated using the angular averages of the scattered X-ray intensity. The number of species is deduced by singular value decomposition methods. The full disentanglement of the data into per-species contributions requires additional knowledge about the system under investigation. We propose to exploit higher-order angular X-ray intensity correlations with a new computational protocol, which we apply to synchrotron data from two-species mixtures of two-dimensional static test nanoparticles. Without any other information besides the correlations, we demonstrate the assessment of particle species concentrations in the measured data sets, as well as the full ab initio reconstruction of both particle structures. The concept extends straightforwardly to more species and to the three-dimensional case, whereby the practical application will require the measurements to be performed at an X-ray free electron laser. PMID:28374754

  11. Critical-angle x-ray transmission grating spectrometer with extended bandpass and resolving power > 10,000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica A.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Bhatia, Ritwik; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2016-07-01

    A number of high priority subjects in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, such as the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and the missing baryon problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, as well as stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, largearea (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R =λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology, even for telescopes with angular resolution of 5-10 arcsec. Still, significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray- Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (lowmass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimalmission resource requirements. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using advanced anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth grating bar sidewalls. The reflection properties of silicon are well matched to the soft x-ray band, and existing silicon CAT gratings can exceed 30% absolute diffraction efficiency, with clear paths for further improvement. Nevertheless, CAT gratings with sidewalls made of higher atomic number elements allow extension of the CAT grating principle to higher energies and larger dispersion angles, thus enabling higher resolving power at shorter wavelengths. We show x-ray data from CAT gratings coated with a thin layer of platinum using atomic layer deposition, and demonstrate efficient

  12. High-pressure duo-multichannel soft x-ray spectrometer for tokamak plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Schwob, J.L.; Wouters, A.W.; Suckewer, S.

    1987-03-01

    A high-resolution, time-resolving soft X-ray multichannel spectrometer (SOXMOS) that permits the simultaneous measurement of emission in two different spectral ranges has been developed and tested extensively for tokamak plasma diagnostics. The basic instrument is a high-resolution, interferometrically adjusted, extreme grazing incidence Schwob-Fraenkel duochromator. The instrument is equipped with two multichannel detectors that are adjusted interferometrically and scan along the Rowland circle. Each consists of an MgF/sub 2/ coated, funneled microchannel plate, associated with a phosphor screen image intensifier that is coupled to a 1024-element photodiode array by a flexible fibrer optic conduit. The total wavelength coverage of the instrument is 5 to 340/sup 0/ A with a measured resolution (FWHM) of about 0.2 A when equipped with a 600 g/mm grating, and 5 to 85 A with a resolution of about 0.06 A using a 2400 g/mm grating. The simultaneous spectral coverage of each detector varies from 15 A at the short wavelength limit to 70 A at the long wavelength limit with the lower dispersion grating. The minimum read-out time for a full spectral portion is 17 ms, but several individual lines can be measured with 1 ms time resolution by selected pixel readout. Higher time resolution can be achieved by replacing one multichannel detector with a single channel electron multiplier detector. Examples of data from the PLT and TFTR tokamaks are presented to illustrate the instrument's versatility, high spectral resolution, and high signal-to-noise ratio even in the 10 A region. 44 refs., 20 figs.

  13. Repair and Utilization of the Kratos XSAM 800 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives for this summer faculty fellowship were first to repair the Kratos XSAM 800 X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) and then to utilize the instrument to participate in ongoing research projects at KSC and in the researcher's own laboratory at UCF. The first 6 weeks were used in repairing the instrument. Working both alone and with the Kratos service engineer, a number of hardware problems, largely associated with the sample stage control system, were corrected. Defective parts were identified and fixed in the computer driver boards, the stage power supply, and the driver interface. The power supply was completely replaced. After four weeks of work, the instrument was functional. This occurred on a Wednesday. The following Friday the instrument had to be completely shut down because the power to the O & C Building was to be turned off. The instrument was properly secured. On Monday, the instrument was powered up and the original problems returned. After another 2 weeks of work, a software problem was identified. This problem caused the computer to use a defective port for the sample stage control. It was circumvented by rewriting the startup routine. The final 3 weeks of the fellowship were spent using the XPS to analyze samples being studied in the Langley materials project (Martha Williams) and a catalyst project (Dr. Orlando Melendez). During this time, several sample analysis requests from other groups at KSC also came in and those samples were run as well. The summer faculty fellowship also allowed many contacts to be made. After meeting with the sensors group, two projects were identified for collaboration and white papers are being prepared. One project aims to develop small, very sensitive hydrogen detectors and the other to develop a broad area, easily monitored, zero power consumption hydrogen detector. In addition to the work mentioned above, the XPS was utilized in a study underway in Dr. Hampton's laboratory at UCF.

  14. A new grating X-ray spectrometer for 2-4 keV enabling a separate observation of In-Lβ and Sn-Lα emissions of indium tin oxide.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Masami; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Handa, Nobuo; Murano, Takanori; Koike, Masato; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Imazono, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Koeda, Masaru; Nagano, Tetsuya; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Oue, Yuki; Yonezawa, Zeno; Kuramoto, Satoshi

    2013-06-01

    A new multilayer-coated varied line-spaced grating, JS4000, was fabricated and tested for extending the upper limit of a grating X-ray spectrometer for electron microscopy. This grating was designed for 2-3.8 keV at a grazing incidence angle of 1.35°. It was revealed that this new multilayer structure enables us to take soft-X-ray emission spectra continuously from 1.5 to 4.3 keV at the same optical setting. The full-width at half maximum of Te-L(α1,2) (3.8 keV) emission peak was 27 eV. This spectrometer was applied to indium tin oxide particles and clearly resolved Sn-L(α) (3444 eV) and In-L(β1) (3487 eV) peaks, which could not be resolved by a widely used energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer.

  15. Search for improved surface treatment procedures in fabrication of HgI/sub 2/ x-ray spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, A.; Burger, A.; Nissenbaum, J.; Schieber, M.; Burshtein, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of various fabrication parameters on the surface quality of HgI/sub 2/ x-ray spectrometers was studied in detail. Exposure of etched HgI/sub 2/ to ambient atmosphere for approx. 24 hours may reduce the electron surface recombination velocity by almost an order of magnitude. Reduction of the etching solution temperature (KI in water) to about 0/sup 0/C and an increase of the KI concentration to approx. 20 wt % are also important.

  16. Upgrades of imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for high-resolution and high-temperature plasma diagnostics on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, B. Wang, F. D.; Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y.; Pan, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Wan, B. N.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Pablant, N.; Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J.; Ye, M. Y.

    2014-11-15

    Upgrade of the imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers continues in order to fulfill the high-performance diagnostics requirements on EAST. For the tangential spectrometer, a new large pixelated two-dimensional detector was deployed on tokamaks for time-resolved X-ray imaging. This vacuum-compatible detector has an area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm{sup 2}, a framing rate over 150 Hz, and water-cooling capability for long-pulse discharges. To effectively extend the temperature limit, a double-crystal assembly was designed to replace the previous single crystals for He-like argon line measurement. The tangential spectrometer employed two crystal slices attached to a common substrate and part of He- and H-like Ar spectra could be recorded on the same detector when crystals were chosen to have similar Bragg angles. This setup cannot only extend the measurable Te up to 10 keV in the core region, but also extend the spatial coverage since He-like argon ions will be present in the outer plasma region. Similarly, crystal slices for He-like iron and argon spectra were adopted on the poloidal spectrometer. Wavelength calibration for absolute rotation velocity measurement will be studied using cadmium characteristic L-shell X-ray lines excited by plasma radiation. A Cd foil is placed before the crystal and can be inserted and retracted for in situ wavelength calibration. The Geant4 code was used to estimate X-ray fluorescence yield and optimize the thickness of the foil.

  17. System design and implementation of the detector assembly for the Astro-H soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao, M. P.; Adams, J.; Goodwin, P.; Hobson, C. W.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; McGuinness, D. S.; Moseley, S. J.; Porter, F. S.; Shuman, S.; Watanabe, T.

    2016-07-01

    The soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) onboard Astro-H presents to the science community unprecedented capability (> 7 eV at 6 keV) for high-resolution spectral measurements in the range of 0.5 - 12 keV to study extended celestial sources. At the heart of this SXS is the x-ray calorimeter spectrometer (XCS) where detectors (calorimeter array and anticoincidence detector) operate at 50 mK, the bias circuit operates at nominal 1.3 K, and the first stage amplifiers operate at 130 K, all within a nominal 20 cm envelope. The design of the detector assembly in this XCS originates from the Astro-E x-ray spectrometer (XRS) and lessons learned from Astro-E and Suzaku. After the production of our engineering model, additional changes were made in order to improve our flight assembly process for better reliability and overall performance. In this poster, we present the final design and implementation of the flight detector assembly, show comparison of parameters and performance to Suzaku's XRS, and list susceptibilities to other subsystems as well as our lessons learned.

  18. Effects of thermal expansion of the crystal lattice on x-ray crystal spectrometers used for fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bitter, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J.; Burke, W.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bell, R.; Feder, R.; Gao, C.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.; Lee, S. G.; Marmar, E.; Pablant, N.; Reinke, M. L.; Scott, S.; Wilson, R.

    2013-12-01

    X-ray imaging crystal spectrometers with high spectral and spatial resolution are currently being used on magnetically confined fusion devices to infer the time history profiles of ion and electron temperatures as well as plasma flow velocities. The absolute measurement of flow velocities is important for optimizing various discharge scenarios and evaluating the radial electric field in tokamak and stellarator plasmas. Recent studies indicate that the crystal temperature must be kept constant to within a fraction of a degree to avoid changes of the interplanar 2d-spacing by thermal expansion that cause changes in the Bragg angle, which could be misinterpreted as Doppler shifts. For the instrumental parameters of the x-ray crystal spectrometer on Alcator C-Mod, where those thermal effects were investigated, a change of the crystal temperature by 1 °C causes a change of the lattice spacing of the order of Δd = 1 × 10-5 Å introducing a fictitious velocity drift of the order of ˜3 km s-1. This effect must be considered for x-ray imaging crystals spectrometers installed on LHD, KSTAR, EAST, J-TEXT, NSTX and, in the future, W7-X and ITER.

  19. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Gates, D; Monticello, D; Neilson, H; Reiman, A; Roquemore, A L; Morita, S; Goto, M; Yamada, H

    2010-07-29

    A high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose concept was tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is being designed for LHD. This instrument will record spatially resolved spectra of helium-like Ar16+ and provide ion temperature profiles with spatial and temporal resolutions of < 2 cm and ≥ 10 ms. The stellarator equilibrium reconstruction codes, STELLOPT and PIES, will be used for the tomographic inversion of the spectral data. The spectrometer layout and instrumental features are largely determined by the magnetic field structure of LHD.

  20. Results of one year of observations of Solar Flares made by "Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)" Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, R.; Dave, H.; Kumar, S.; Deshpande, M. R.

    The first space borne solar astronomy experiment of India namely ``Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission has completed one year of its successful operation in geostationary orbit. The SOXS mission onboard GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft was launched successfully by GSLV-D2 rocket on 08 May 2003 to study the energy release and particle acceleration in solar flares. We briefly present the scientific objectives and instrumentation of the SOXS mission. The SOXS is composed of two independent payloads viz. SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload, and SOXS High Energy Detector (SHD) payload. We restrict our presentation to SLD payload that designed, developed and fabricated by Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in collaboration with Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad and ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The SLD payload employs the state-of-the-art solid state detectors viz. Si PIN and Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) devices that operate at near room temperature (-20 ^0 C). The dynamic energy range of Si PIN and CZT detectors are 4-25 and 4-56 keV. The Si PIN provides sub-keV energy resolution while CZT reveals ˜ 2 keV energy resolution throughout the dynamic range. The instrument has onboard flare triggering logic software and 5 MB-memory bank. The data is transmitted to Master Control Facility (MCF), Hasan with 8 kbps telemetry rate. The observations are made in fixed energy windows (temporal) mode and in spectral mode with 100ms cadence during the flare. The SLD has observed more than 140 flares of C and M class since its commissioning in the orbit. We present the preliminary results and the X-ray emission characteristics of these flares, and a detailed study of a few typical solar flares, which are impulsive but associated with CMEs, in view of energy release and particle emission by them. The high sensitivity of the SLD and sub-keV energy resolution of Si PIN detector allows the intensity and mean energy of the Fe

  1. Quantitative Electron Probe Microanalysis Using a Scanning Electron Microscope and an X-Ray Energy Spectrometer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    necessary to solve the ZAF cor- rections in an iterative manner similar to that used by J . Colby 13in the Magic IV programme . In that programme the...Combined with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Analyzer for Quantitative Analysis", X-ray Spectrometry, 2, 1973. 10. Green, L.: Journ. of Phys. E. Scient ... Instrum ., 2, (3), 1973. 11. Wodke, Norbert F. and Schamber, Frederick, MS 885 Super ML Operation and Programme Description Version 1, Unpublished, Tracor

  2. Excitation of XPS spectra from nanoscaled particles by local generation of x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Mallinson, Christopher F.; Castle, James E.

    2015-09-15

    In preliminary work, the authors have shown that use of an aluminum substrate to support a distribution of copper particles enables their characteristic photoelectrons to be observed within the Auger electron spectrum generated by an incident electron beam. This observation raises the possibility of the use of chemical shifts and the corresponding Auger parameter to identify the chemical states present on the surface of individual submicrometer particles within a mixture. In this context, the technique has an advantage in that, unlike conventional Auger electron spectroscopy, the electron beam does not dwell on the particle but on the substrate adjacent to it. Given the importance, for both medical and toxicological reasons, of the surface composition of such particles, the authors have continued to explore the potential of this development. In this contribution, the authors show that proximal excitation of x-rays is equally successful with magnesium substrates. In some regions of the x-ray photoelectron spectrum, the much larger Auger peaks generated by the electron beam can cause inconvenient clustering of Auger and photoelectron peaks. As in conventional x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the ability to switch between Al and Mg sources is useful in such situations. In this context, the authors have extended the studies to iron particles where the authors show that use of Al or Mg substrates, as necessary, can make a contribution to clear identification of individual components in the Fe 2p peaks. For this development in electron spectroscopy to achieve its full potential, it is necessary to optimize the beam conditions used to generate the local x-ray to give good selectivity of a given particle. Measurements made in support of this will be given. Of greater concern is a possible problem of local heating associated with x-ray generation. The authors continue to explore this problem and report some progress in minimizing heating of the particle while maintaining

  3. Hard X-ray and Particle Beams Research on 1.7 MA Z-pinch and Laser Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Ishor; Kantsyrev, Victor; Safronova, Alla; Esaulov, Andrey; Nishio, Mineyuki; Shlyaptseva, Veronica; Keim, Steven; Weller, Michael; Stafford, Austin; Petkov, Emil; Schultz, Kimberly; Cooper, Matthew; PPDL Team

    2013-10-01

    Studies of hard x-ray (HXR) emission, electron and ion beam generation in z-pinch and laser plasmas are important for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and development of HXR sources from K-shell and L-shell radiation. The characteristics of HXR and particle beams produced by implosions of planar wire arrays, nested and single cylindrical wire arrays, and X-pinches were analyzed on 100 ns UNR Zebra generator with current up to 1.7 MA. In addition, the comparison of characteristics of HXR and electron beams on Zebra and 350 fs UNR Leopard laser experiments with foils has been performed. The diagnostics include Faraday cups, HXR diodes, different x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems, and ion mass spectrometer using the technique of Thomson parabola. Future work on HXRs and particle beams in HED plasmas is discussed. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA Cooperative agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. This work was also supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033, to University of Nevada, Reno.

  4. Imaging crystal spectrometer for high-resolution x-ray measurements on electron beam ion traps and tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Hell, N.; Brown, G. V.

    2016-11-01

    We describe a crystal spectrometer implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps that employ two spherically bent quartz crystals and a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector to measure x rays with a nominal resolving power of λ/Δλ ≥ 10 000. Its focusing properties allow us to record x rays either with the plane of dispersion perpendicular or parallel to the electron beam and, thus, to preferentially select one of the two linear x-ray polarization components. Moreover, by choice of dispersion plane and focussing conditions, we use the instrument either to image the distribution of the ions within the 2 cm long trap region, or to concentrate x rays of a given energy to a point on the detector, which optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio. We demonstrate the operation and utility of the new instrument by presenting spectra of Mo34+, which prepares the instrument for use as a core impurity diagnostic on the NSTX-U spherical torus and other magnetic fusion devices that employ molybdenum as plasma facing components.

  5. Temperature study of Al0.52In0.48P detector photon counting X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, S.; Gohil, T.; Lioliou, G.; Krysa, A. B.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    A prototype 200 μm diameter Al0.52In0.48P p+-i-n+ mesa photodiode (2 μm i-layer) was characterised at temperatures from 100 °C to -20 °C for the development of a temperature tolerant photon counting X-ray spectrometer. At each temperature, X-ray spectra were accumulated with the AlInP detector reverse biased at 0 V, 5 V, 10 V, and 15 V and using different shaping times. The detector was illuminated by an 55Fe radioisotope X-ray source. The best energy resolution, as quantified by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 5.9 keV, was observed at 15 V for all the temperatures studied; at 100 °C, a FWHM of 1.57 keV was achieved, and this value improved to 770 eV FWHM at -20 °C. System noise analysis was also carried out, and the different noise contributions were computed as functions of temperature. The results are the first demonstration of AlInP's suitability for photon counting X-ray spectroscopy at temperatures other than ≈20 °C.

  6. Imaging crystal spectrometer for high-resolution x-ray measurements on electron beam ion traps and tokamaks.

    PubMed

    Beiersdorfer, P; Magee, E W; Hell, N; Brown, G V

    2016-11-01

    We describe a crystal spectrometer implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps that employ two spherically bent quartz crystals and a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector to measure x rays with a nominal resolving power of λ/Δλ ≥ 10 000. Its focusing properties allow us to record x rays either with the plane of dispersion perpendicular or parallel to the electron beam and, thus, to preferentially select one of the two linear x-ray polarization components. Moreover, by choice of dispersion plane and focussing conditions, we use the instrument either to image the distribution of the ions within the 2 cm long trap region, or to concentrate x rays of a given energy to a point on the detector, which optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio. We demonstrate the operation and utility of the new instrument by presenting spectra of Mo(34+), which prepares the instrument for use as a core impurity diagnostic on the NSTX-U spherical torus and other magnetic fusion devices that employ molybdenum as plasma facing components.

  7. Hard X-ray polarimetry with Caliste, a high performance CdTe based imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antier, S.; Ferrando, P.; Limousin, O.; Caroli, E.; Curado da Silva, R. M.; Blondel, C.; Chipaux, R.; Honkimaki, V.; Horeau, B.; Laurent, P.; Maia, J. M.; Meuris, A.; Del Sordo, S.; Stephen, J. B.

    2015-06-01

    Since the initial exploration of the X- and soft γ-ray sky in the 60's, high-energy celestial sources have been mainly characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Despite tremendous progress in the field, the radiation mechanisms at work in sources such as neutrons stars, black holes, and Active Galactic Nuclei are still unclear. The polarization state of the radiation is an observational parameter which brings key additional information about the physical processes in these high energy sources, allowing the discrimination between competing models which may otherwise all be consistent with other types of measurement. This is why most of the projects for the next generation of space missions covering the few tens of keV to the MeV region require a polarization measurement capability. A key element enabling this capability, in this energy range, is a detector system allowing the identification and characterization of Compton interactions as they are the main process at play. The compact hard X-ray imaging spectrometer module, developed in CEA with the generic name of "Caliste" module, is such a detector. In this paper, we present experimental results for two types of Caliste-256 modules, one based on a CdTe crystal, the other one on a CdZnTe crystal, which have been exposed to linearly polarized beams at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). These results, obtained at 200 and 300 keV, demonstrate the capability of these modules to detect Compton events and to give an accurate determination of the polarization parameters (polarization angle and fraction) of the incoming beam. For example, applying an optimized selection to our data set, equivalent to select 90° Compton scattered interactions in the detector plane, we find a modulation factor Q of 0.78 ± 0.06 in the 200-300 keV range. The polarization angle and fraction are derived with accuracies of approximately 1° and 5 % respectively for both CdZnTe and CdTe crystals. The

  8. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.

  9. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  10. 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyłowicz, Wojciech Józef; Pineda-Vargas, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015") that was held in Somerset West (South Africa) from 25th February to 3rd March 2015.

  11. Improved x-ray detection and particle identification with avalanche photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Diepold, Marc Franke, Beatrice; Götzfried, Johannes; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Krauth, Julian J.; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Pohl, Randolf; Fernandes, Luis M. P.; Amaro, Fernando D.; Gouvea, Andrea L.; Monteiro, Cristina M. B.; Santos, Joaquim M. F. dos; Machado, Jorge; Amaro, Pedro; Santos, José Paulo; and others

    2015-05-15

    Avalanche photodiodes are commonly used as detectors for low energy x-rays. In this work, we report on a fitting technique used to account for different detector responses resulting from photoabsorption in the various avalanche photodiode layers. The use of this technique results in an improvement of the energy resolution at 8.2 keV by up to a factor of 2 and corrects the timing information by up to 25 ns to account for space dependent electron drift time. In addition, this waveform analysis is used for particle identification, e.g., to distinguish between x-rays and MeV electrons in our experiment.

  12. First Results from the D-CIXS X-ray Spectrometer on the ESA SMART-1 Lunar Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.

    2004-05-01

    The DCIXS (Demonstrator Compact Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) on the recently launched ESA technology demonstration mission SMART-1 consists of a high throughput spectrometer, which will perform spatially localised X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and a solar monitor to provide the calibration of the illumination necessary to produce a global map of absolute lunar elemental abundance. The objective is to provide high quality spectroscopic mapping of the Moon, while at the same time demonstrating a radically novel approach to instrument building. D-CIXS will provide the first global coverage of the lunar surface in X-rays, providing measurements of Fe, Mg, Al and Si under normal solar conditions and several others during solar flare events. The combination of DCIXS data with information obtained from other instruments on SMART-1 and from previous missions, will allow a more detailed look at some of the fundamental questions that remain regarding the origin and evolution of the Moon and will help us to map Lunar resources more effectively. DCIXS will also carry out cruise science. We will present first results.

  13. New reference and test materials for the characterization of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers at scanning electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Rackwitz, Vanessa; Krumrey, Michael; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan

    2015-04-01

    Checking the performance of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers as well as validation of the results obtained with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) involve the use of (certified) reference and dedicated test materials. This paper gives an overview on the test materials mostly employed by SEM/EDX users and accredited laboratories as well as on those recommended in international standards. The new BAM reference material EDS-CRM, which is currently in the process of certification, is specifically designed for the characterization of EDS systems at a SEM through calibration of the spectrometer efficiency in analytical laboratories in a simple manner. The certification of the spectra by means of a reference EDS is described. The focus is on the traceability of EDS efficiency which is ensured by measurements of the absolute detection efficiency of silicon drift detectors (SDD) and Si(Li) detectors at the laboratory of the PTB using the electron storage ring BESSY II as a primary X-ray source standard. A new test material in development at BAM for testing the performance of an EDS in the energy range below 1 keV is also briefly presented.

  14. Development of mechanical cryocoolers for the cooling system of the Soft X-ray Spectrometer onboard Astro-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoichi; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh; Nakagawa, Takao; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Murakami, Masahide; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Otsuka, Kiyomi; Yoshida, Seiji; Kanao, Kenichi; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; ASTRO-H Sxs Team

    2012-04-01

    Astro-H is the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite planned for launch in 2014. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard Astro-H, is a high energy resolution spectrometer utilizing an X-ray micro-calorimeter array, which is operated at 50 mK by the ADR with the 30-L superfluid liquid helium (LHe). The mechanical cryocoolers, 4 K-class Joule Thomson (JT) cooler and 20 K-class double-staged Stirling (2ST) cooler are key components to achieve a LHe lifetime for over 3 years in orbit (5 years as a goal). Based on the existing cryocoolers onboard Akari (2006) and JEM/SMILES (2009), modifications for higher cooling power and reliability had been investigated. In the present development phase, the Engineering Models (EMs) of these upgraded cryocoolers are fabricated to carry out verification tests for cooling performance, mechanical performance and lifetime. Nominal cooling power of 200 mW at 20 K for the 2ST cooler and 40 mW at 4.5 K for the JT cooler were demonstrated with temperature and power margin. Mechanical performance test for the 2ST cooler units proves tolerability for pyro shock and vibration environment of the Astro-H criteria. Continuous running of the 4 K-class JT cooler combined with the 2ST precooler for lifetime test has achieved over 5000 h without any degradation of cooling performance.

  15. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, William K.; Hubbard, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system.

  17. Locating Stardust-like Particles in Aerogel Using X-Ray Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Jones, S. M.; Tsapin, A.; Mih, D. T.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Graham, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    Silica aerogel is the material that the spacecraft STARDUST is using to collect interstellar and cometary silicates. Anticipating the return of the samples to earth in January of 2006, MANY individual investigators and, especially, the investigators in NASA's SRLIDAP program are studying means of both in situ analysis of particles, as well as particle extraction. To help individual PI's with extraction of particles from aerogel in their own laboratories, we are exploring the use of standard laboratory x-ray equipment and commercial techniques for precisely locating specific particles in aerogel. We approached the evaluation of commercial x-ray techniques as follows. First, we determined the most appropriate detector for use with aerogel and particulates. Then, we compared and contrasted techniques useful for university laboratories.

  18. Improving a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döppner, T.; Kraus, D.; Neumayer, P.; Bachmann, B.; Emig, J.; Falcone, R. W.; Fletcher, L. B.; Hardy, M.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Saunders, A. M.; Wood, R. D.

    2016-11-01

    We are developing x-ray Thomson scattering for applications in implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In particular we have designed and fielded MACS, a high-efficiency, gated x-ray spectrometer at 7.5-10 keV [T. Döppner et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D617 (2014)]. Here we report on two new Bragg crystals based on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG), a flat crystal and a dual-section cylindrically curved crystal. We have performed in situ calibration measurements using a brass foil target, and we used the flat HOPG crystal to measure Mo K-shell emission at 18 keV in 2nd order diffraction. Such high photon energy line emission will be required to penetrate and probe ultra-high-density plasmas or plasmas of mid-Z elements.

  19. Low energy X-ray spectra measured with a mercuric iodide energy dispersive spectrometer in a scanning electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, J. S.; Dabrowski, A. J.; Huth, G. C.; Bradley, J. G.; Conley, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A mercuric iodide energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, with Peltier cooling provided for the detector and input field effect transistor, has been developed and tested in a scanning electron microscope. X-ray spectra were obtained with the 15 keV electron beam. An energy resolution of 225 eV (FWHM) for Mn-K(alpha) at 5.9 keV and 195 eV (FWHM) for the Mg-K line at 1.25 keV has been measured. Overall system noise level was 175 eV (FWHM). The detector system characterization with a carbon target demonstrated good energy sensitivity at low energies and lack of significant spectral artifacts at higher energies.

  20. X-ray emitting hot plasma in solar active regions observed by the SphinX spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, M.; Reale, F.; Gburek, S.; Terzo, S.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Podgorski, P.; Gryciuk, M.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The detection of very hot plasma in the quiescent corona is important for diagnosing heating mechanisms. The presence and the amount of such hot plasma is currently debated. The SphinX instrument on-board the CORONAS-PHOTON mission is sensitive to X-ray emission of energies well above 1 keV and provides the opportunity to detect the hot plasma component. Methods: We analysed the X-ray spectra of the solar corona collected by the SphinX spectrometer in May 2009 (when two active regions were present). We modelled the spectrum extracted from the whole Sun over a time window of 17 days in the 1.34-7 keV energy band by adopting the latest release of the APED database. Results: The SphinX broadband spectrum cannot be modelled by a single isothermal component of optically thin plasma and two components are necessary. In particular, the high statistical significance of the count rates and the accurate calibration of the spectrometer allowed us to detect a very hot component at ~7 million K with an emission measure of ~2.7 × 1044 cm-3. The X-ray emission from the hot plasma dominates the solar X-ray spectrum above 4 keV. We checked that this hot component is invariably present in both the high and low emission regimes, i.e. even excluding resolvable microflares. We also present and discuss the possibility of a non-thermal origin (which would be compatible with a weak contribution from thick-target bremsstrahlung) for this hard emission component. Conclusions: Our results support the nanoflare scenario and might confirm that a minor flaring activity is ever-present in the quiescent corona, as also inferred for the coronae of other stars.

  1. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Svenda, Martin; Andreasson, Jakob; Jönsson, Olof; Odić, Duško; Iwan, Bianca; Rocker, Andrea; Westphal, Daniel; Hantke, Max; DePonte, Daniel P.; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Coppola, Nicola; Aquila, Andrew; Liang, Mengning; White, Thomas A.; Martin, Andrew; Caleman, Carl; Stern, Stephan; Abergel, Chantal; Seltzer, Virginie; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Boutet, Sébastien; Miahnahri, A. Alan; Messerschmidt, Marc; Krzywinski, Jacek; Williams, Garth; Hodgson, Keith O.; Bogan, Michael J.; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Starodub, Dmitri; Andersson, Inger; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Kirian, Richard; Hunter, Mark; Doak, R. Bruce; Marchesini, Stefano; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Frank, Matthias; Shoeman, Robert L.; Lomb, Lukas; Epp, Sascha W.; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Schmidt, Carlo; Foucar, Lutz; Kimmel, Nils; Holl, Peter; Rudek, Benedikt; Erk, Benjamin; Hömke, André; Reich, Christian; Pietschner, Daniel; Weidenspointner, Georg; Strüder, Lothar; Hauser, Günter; Gorke, Hubert; Ullrich, Joachim; Schlichting, Ilme; Herrmann, Sven; Schaller, Gerhard; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Andritschke, Robert; Schröter, Claus-Dieter; Krasniqi, Faton; Bott, Mario; Schorb, Sebastian; Rupp, Daniela; Adolph, Marcus; Gorkhover, Tais; Hirsemann, Helmut; Potdevin, Guillaume; Graafsma, Heinz; Nilsson, Björn; Chapman, Henry N.; Hajdu, Janos

    2014-01-01

    X-ray lasers offer new capabilities in understanding the structure of biological systems, complex materials and matter under extreme conditions1–4. Very short and extremely bright, coherent X-ray pulses can be used to outrun key damage processes and obtain a single diffraction pattern from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into plasma1. The continuous diffraction pattern of non-crystalline objects permits oversampling and direct phase retrieval2. Here we show that high-quality diffraction data can be obtained with a single X-ray pulse from a non-crystalline biological sample, a single mimivirus particle, which was injected into the pulsed beam of a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source5. Calculations indicate that the energy deposited into the virus by the pulse heated the particle to over 100,000 K after the pulse had left the sample. The reconstructed exit wavefront (image) yielded 32-nm full-period resolution in a single exposure and showed no measurable damage. The reconstruction indicates inhomogeneous arrangement of dense material inside the virion. We expect that significantly higher resolutions will be achieved in such experiments with shorter and brighter photon pulses focused to a smaller area. The resolution in such experiments can be further extended for samples available in multiple identical copies. PMID:21293374

  2. Fabricating sub-collimating grids for an x-ray solar imaging spectrometer using LIGA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Brennen, R.A.; Hecht, M.H.; Wiberg, D.V.

    1997-04-01

    The HESSI mission proposes to perform high resolution imaging and spectroscopy observations in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray regimes, with finer angular resolution (nearly 2 arcseconds) and finer energy resolution (approximately 1 keV) than has been previously possible. This combination of imaging and spectroscopy is achieved with a set of Rotating Modulation Collimators placed in front of an array of cooled germanium and silicon detectors. A set of 12 bi-grid collimators, each of which consists of a pair of identically pitched, widely-separated grids, is used to provide the imaging. Each grid consists of a planar array of equally-spaced, parallel, X-ray opaque slats separated by X-ray transparent slits. If the slits of each grid are parallel to each other and the pitch is identical for the two grids, then the transmission through the grid pair depends on the direction of incidence of the incoming X-rays. For slits and slats of equal width, the transmission varies between zero and 50% depending on whether the shadows of the slats in the top grid fall on the slits or slats of the lower grid. A complete transmission cycle from zero to 50% and back to zero corresponds to a change in source direction that is given by p/L, where L is the separation between the grids. The authors describe a deep etch lithography technique developed to fabricate the grids which have pitches below 100 {micro}m. They use a free standing sheet of PMMA as a base for the process, and use the ALS facility to perform the exposures of the PMMA.

  3. A computer controlled television detector for light, X-rays and particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalata, K.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile, high resolution, software configurable, two-dimensional intensified vidicon quantum detector system has been developed for multiple research applications. A thin phosphor convertor allows the detection of X-rays below 20 keV and non-relativistic particles in addition to visible light, and a thicker scintillator can be used to detect X-rays up to 100 keV and relativistic particles. Faceplates may be changed to allow any active area from 1 to 40 mm square, and active areas up to 200 mm square are possible. The image is integrated in a digital memory on any software specified array size up to 4000 x 4000. The array size is selected to match the spatial resolution, which ranges from 10 to 100 microns depending on the operating mode, the active area, and the photon or particle energy. All scan and data acquisition parameters are under software control to allow optimal data collection for each application.

  4. Spatially Resolved Spectra from a new X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurements of Ion and Electron Temperature Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Stratton, B; Roquemore, A; Mastrovito, D; Lee, S; Bak, J; Moon, M; Nam, U; Smith, G; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Fraenkel, B

    2004-08-10

    A new type of high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is being developed to measure ion and electron temperature profiles in tokamak plasmas. The instrument is particularly valuable for diagnosing plasmas with purely Ohmic heating and rf heating, since it does not require the injection of a neutral beam - although it can also be used for the diagnosis of neutral-beam heated plasmas. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal and a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector. It records spectra of helium-like argon (or krypton) from multiple sightlines through the plasma and projects a de-magnified image of a large plasma cross-section onto the detector. The spatial resolution in the plasma is solely determined by the height of the crystal, its radius of curvature, and the Bragg angle. This new X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer may also be of interest for the diagnosis of ion temperature profiles in future large tokamaks, such as KSTAR and ITER, where the application of the presently used charge-exchange spectroscopy will be difficult, if the neutral beams do not penetrate to the plasma center. The paper presents the results from proof-of-principle experiments performed with a prototype instrument at Alcator C-Mod.

  5. Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zastrau, Ulf; Fletcher, Luke B.; Galtier, Eric Ch.; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Heimann, Philipp; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Lee, Hae Ja; Förster, Eckhart; Marschner, Heike; Wehrhan, Ortrud

    2014-09-15

    We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution ΔE/E = 1.1 × 10{sup −4} and wave-number resolution of Δk/k = 3 × 10{sup −3}, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to 5.2/Å in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418 eV/13.5 μm agrees with predictions within 1.3%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic highly annealed pyrolytic graphite spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1 eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

  6. Electronic structure of individual hybrid colloid particles studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in the X-ray microscope.

    PubMed

    Henzler, Katja; Guttmann, Peter; Lu, Yan; Polzer, Frank; Schneider, Gerd; Ballauff, Matthias

    2013-02-13

    The electronic structure of individual hybrid particles was studied by nanoscale near-edge X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy. The colloidal particles consist of a solid polystyrene core and a cross-linked poly-N-(isopropylacrylamide) shell with embedded crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles (d = 6 ± 3 nm). The TiO(2) particles are generated in the carrier network by a sol-gel process at room temperature. The hybrid particles were imaged with photon energy steps of 0.1 eV in their hydrated environment with a cryo transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Ti L(2,3)-edge. By analyzing the image stacks, the obtained near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of our individual hybrid particles show clearly that our synthesis generates TiO(2) in the anastase phase. Additionally, our spectromicroscopy method permits the determination of the density distribution of TiO(2) in single carrier particles. Therefore, NEXAFS spectroscopy combined with TXM presents a unique method to get in-depth insight into the electronic structure of hybrid materials.

  7. A portable micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with polycapillary optics and vacuum chamber for archaeometric and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzanich, G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Markowicz, A.; Wegrzynek, D.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Bamford, S.

    2007-11-01

    A portable focused-beam XRF spectrometer was designed, constructed, and manufactured. The spectrometer allows to detect and perform analysis of chemical elements from Na upwards. The system is equipped with a compact vacuum chamber to reduce absorption of both the excitation and the fluorescence radiation in air. A low power Pd-anode tube operated up to 50 kV and 1 mA with a point focus of 400 μm is used as excitation source. A polycapillary lens with a spot size of about 160 μm, or a collimator with a 1 mm inner diameter can be used alternatively for either focusing or collimating the primary beam. The fluorescence radiation is collected by an Si drift detector with an active area of 10 mm 2 and equipped with an 8 μm Be entrance window. A compact vacuum chamber was designed to house the X-ray beam optics and the detector snout. The chamber is attached to the X-ray tube and can be pumped down to 0.1 mbar. A Kapton™ window of 7.5 μm thickness allows to locate the investigated spot at about 1-2 mm distance outside of the chamber, thus minimizing absorption losses in the excitation and X-ray fluorescence radiation paths. Two lasers pointers are mounted inside the chamber. The laser beams cross at a point outside the chamber in front of the entrance window and coincide with the focal spot of the polycapillary. This paper reports some preliminary results obtained from an in situ analysis of bronze samples as well as a comparison of these data with those given by other laboratory spectrometers and the reference values provided by the Italian bronze foundry Venturi Arte Bologna, Italy.

  8. Particle tracking during Ostwald ripening using time-resolved laboratory X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Werz, T.; Baumann, M.; Wolfram, U.; Krill, C.E.

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory X-ray microtomography is investigated as a method for obtaining time-resolved images of microstructural coarsening of the semisolid state of Al–5 wt.% Cu samples during Ostwald ripening. Owing to the 3D imaging capability of tomography, this technique uniquely provides access to the growth rates of individual particles, thereby not only allowing a statistical characterization of coarsening—as has long been possible by conventional metallography—but also enabling quantification of the influence of local environment on particle boundary migration. The latter information is crucial to understanding growth kinetics during Ostwald ripening at high volume fractions of the coarsening phase. Automated image processing and segmentation routines were developed to close gaps in the network of particle boundaries and to track individual particles from one annealing step to the next. The particle tracking success rate places an upper bound of only a few percent on the likelihood of segmentation errors for any given particle. The accuracy of particle size trajectories extracted from the time-resolved tomographic reconstructions is correspondingly high. Statistically averaged coarsening data and individual particle growth rates are in excellent agreement with the results of prior experimental studies and with computer simulations of Ostwald ripening. - Highlights: • Ostwald ripening in Al–5 wt.% Cu measured by laboratory X-ray microtomography • Time-resolved measurement of individual particle growth • Automated segmentation routines developed to close gaps in particle boundary network • Particle growth/shrinkage rates deviate from LSW model prediction.

  9. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.

    2007-06-15

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  10. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  11. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR.

    PubMed

    Lee, S G; Bak, J G; Nam, U W; Moon, M K; Cheon, J K

    2007-06-01

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  12. Measurement of the electron and ion temperatures by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on joint Texas experimental tokamak.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Chen, Z Y; Jin, W; Lee, S G; Shi, Y J; Huang, D W; Tong, R H; Wang, S Y; Wei, Y N; Ma, T K; Zhuang, G

    2016-11-01

    An x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been developed on joint Texas experimental tokamak for the measurement of electron and ion temperatures from the Kα spectra of helium-like argon and its satellite lines. A two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter has been applied to detect the spectra. The electron and ion temperatures have been obtained from the Voigt fitting with the spectra of helium-like argon ions. The profiles of electron and ion temperatures show the dependence on electron density in ohmic plasmas.

  13. The Einstein objective grating spectrometer survey of galactic binary X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, S. D.; Mcclintock, J. E.; Seward, F. D.; Kahn, S. M.; Wargelin, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of observations of 22 bright Galactic X-ray point sources are presented, and the most reliable measurements to date of X-ray column densities to these sources are derived. The results are consistent with the idea that some of the objects have a component of column density intrinsic to the source in addition to an interstellar component. The K-edge absorption due to oxygen is clearly detected in 10 of the sources and the Fe L and Ne K edges are detected in a few. The spectra probably reflect emission originating in a collisionally excited region combined with emission from a photoionized region excited directly by the central source.

  14. A lab-based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectrometer with exchangeable analysis chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, John T. Arble, Chris; Goodwin, Chris; Khalifa, Yehia; Broderick, Alicia; Åhlund, John

    2015-08-15

    Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) is a powerful spectroscopy tool that is inherently surface sensitive, elemental, and chemical specific, with the ability to probe sample surfaces under Torr level pressures. Herein, we describe the design of a new lab-based APXPS system with the ability to swap small volume analysis chambers. Ag 3d(5/2) analyses of a silver foil were carried out at room temperature to determine the optimal sample-to-aperture distance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis spot size, relative peak intensities, and peak full width at half maximum of three different electrostatic lens modes: acceleration, transmission, and angular. Ag 3d(5/2) peak areas, differential pumping pressures, and pump performance were assessed under varying N{sub 2}(g) analysis chamber pressures up to 20 Torr. The commissioning of this instrument allows for the investigation of molecular level interfacial processes under ambient vapor conditions in energy and environmental research.

  15. A lab-based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectrometer with exchangeable analysis chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberg, John T.; Åhlund, John; Arble, Chris; Goodwin, Chris; Khalifa, Yehia; Broderick, Alicia

    2015-08-01

    Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) is a powerful spectroscopy tool that is inherently surface sensitive, elemental, and chemical specific, with the ability to probe sample surfaces under Torr level pressures. Herein, we describe the design of a new lab-based APXPS system with the ability to swap small volume analysis chambers. Ag 3d(5/2) analyses of a silver foil were carried out at room temperature to determine the optimal sample-to-aperture distance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis spot size, relative peak intensities, and peak full width at half maximum of three different electrostatic lens modes: acceleration, transmission, and angular. Ag 3d(5/2) peak areas, differential pumping pressures, and pump performance were assessed under varying N2(g) analysis chamber pressures up to 20 Torr. The commissioning of this instrument allows for the investigation of molecular level interfacial processes under ambient vapor conditions in energy and environmental research.

  16. A lab-based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectrometer with exchangeable analysis chambers.

    PubMed

    Newberg, John T; Åhlund, John; Arble, Chris; Goodwin, Chris; Khalifa, Yehia; Broderick, Alicia

    2015-08-01

    Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) is a powerful spectroscopy tool that is inherently surface sensitive, elemental, and chemical specific, with the ability to probe sample surfaces under Torr level pressures. Herein, we describe the design of a new lab-based APXPS system with the ability to swap small volume analysis chambers. Ag 3d(5/2) analyses of a silver foil were carried out at room temperature to determine the optimal sample-to-aperture distance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis spot size, relative peak intensities, and peak full width at half maximum of three different electrostatic lens modes: acceleration, transmission, and angular. Ag 3d(5/2) peak areas, differential pumping pressures, and pump performance were assessed under varying N2(g) analysis chamber pressures up to 20 Torr. The commissioning of this instrument allows for the investigation of molecular level interfacial processes under ambient vapor conditions in energy and environmental research.

  17. Method and apparatus for digitally based high speed x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, William K.; Hubbard, Bradley

    1997-01-01

    A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system which accepts input data from a detector-preamplifier and produces a spectral analysis of the x-rays illuminating the detector. The system achieves high throughputs at low cost by dividing the required digital processing steps between a "hardwired" processor implemented in combinatorial digital logic, which detects the presence of the x-ray signals in the digitized data stream and extracts filtered estimates of their amplitudes, and a programmable digital signal processing computer, which refines the filtered amplitude estimates and bins them to produce the desired spectral analysis. One set of algorithms allow this hybrid system to match the resolution of analog systems while operating at much higher data rates. A second set of algorithms implemented in the processor allow the system to be self calibrating as well. The same processor also handles the interface to an external control computer.

  18. Method and apparatus for digitally based high speed x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1997-11-04

    A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system which accepts input data from a detector-preamplifier and produces a spectral analysis of the x-rays illuminating the detector. The system achieves high throughputs at low cost by dividing the required digital processing steps between a ``hardwired`` processor implemented in combinatorial digital logic, which detects the presence of the x-ray signals in the digitized data stream and extracts filtered estimates of their amplitudes, and a programmable digital signal processing computer, which refines the filtered amplitude estimates and bins them to produce the desired spectral analysis. One set of algorithms allow this hybrid system to match the resolution of analog systems while operating at much higher data rates. A second set of algorithms implemented in the processor allow the system to be self calibrating as well. The same processor also handles the interface to an external control computer. 19 figs.

  19. Status of the micro-X sounding rocket x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, D. C.; Adams, J. S.; Baker, R.; Bandler, S. R.; Danowski, M. E.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Hilton, G. C.; Hubbard, A. J. F.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; Okajima, T.; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Serlemitsos, P.; Smith, S. J.; Heine, S. N. T.; Wikus, P.

    2016-07-01

    Micro-X is a sounding rocket borne X-ray telescope that utilizes transition edge sensors to perform imaging spectroscopy with a high level of energy resolution. Its 2.1m focal length X-ray optic has an effective area of 300 cm2, a field of view of 11.8 arcmin, and a bandpass of 0.1-2.5 keV. The detector array has 128 pixels and an intrinsic energy resolution of 4.5 eV FWHM. The integration of the system has progressed with functional tests of the detectors and electronics complete, and performance characterization of the detectors is underway. We present an update of ongoing progress in preparation for the upcoming launch of the instrument.

  20. High-efficiency high-energy-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Q.; Tyson, T. A.; Caliebe, W. A.; Kao, C.-C.

    2005-12-01

    A nine-element analyzer system for inelastic X-ray scattering has been designed and constructed. Each individual analyzer crystal is carefully aligned with an inverse joystick goniometer. For the analyzers silicon wafers with 100 mm diameter are spherically bent to 1 or 0.85 m radius, respectively. Additionally, an analyzer with an extra small radius of 0.182 m and diameter of 100 mm was constructed for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in fluorescence mode. All analyzer crystals with large radius have highly uniform focusing property. The total energy resolution is approximately 0.5 eV at backscattering for the 1 m radius Si(440) analyzer array and approximately 4 eV for the 0.182 m radius Si(440) analyzer at 6493 eV.

  1. Design of Time-Resolved Shifted Dual Transmission Grating Spectrometer for the X-Ray Spectrum Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoqing; Yi, Tao; Wang, Chuanke; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Tingshuai; Li, Jin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-07-01

    A new time-resolved shifted dual transmission grating spectrometer (SDTGS) is designed and fabricated in this work. This SDTGS uses a new shifted dual transmission grating (SDTG) as its dispersive component, which has two sub transmission gratings with different line densities, of 2000 lines/mm and 5000 lines/mm. The axes of the two sub transmission gratings in SDTG are horizontally and vertically shifted a certain distance to measure a broad range of 0.1-5 keV time-resolved X-ray spectra. The SDTG has been calibrated with a soft X-ray beam of the synchrotron radiation facility and its diffraction efficiency is also measured. The designed SDTGS can take full use of the space on a record panel and improve the precision for measuring spatial and temporal spectrum simultaneously. It will be a promising application for accurate diagnosis of the soft X-ray spectrum in inertial confinement fusion. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405158 and 11435011) and Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Nos. 2014B0102011 and 2014B0102012)

  2. The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) for OSIRIS-REx: identifying regional elemental enrichment on asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Hong, Jaesub; Binzel, Richard P.; Masterson, Rebecca; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew W.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Kissel, Steven E.; Villasenor, Joel; Oprescu, Miruna; Induni, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    The OSIRIS-REx Mission was selected under the NASA New Frontiers program and is scheduled for launch in September of 2016 for a rendezvous with, and collection of a sample from the surface of asteroid Bennu in 2019. 101955 Bennu (previously 1999 RQ36) is an Apollo (near-Earth) asteroid originally discovered by the LINEAR project in 1999 which has since been classified as a potentially hazardous near-Earth object. The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) was proposed jointly by MIT and Harvard and was subsequently accepted as a student led instrument for the determination of the elemental composition of the asteroid's surface as well as the surface distribution of select elements through solar induced X-ray fluorescence. REXIS consists of a detector plane that contains 4 X-ray CCDs integrated into a wide field coded aperture telescope with a focal length of 20 em for the detection of regions with enhanced abundance in key elements at 50 m scales. Elemental surface distributions of approximately 50-200 m scales can be detected using the instrument as a simple collimator. An overview of the observation strategy of the REXIS instrument and expected performance are presented here.

  3. Flight model performance test results of a helium dewar for the soft X-ray spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Seiji; Miyaoka, Mikio; Kanao, Ken'ichi; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Otsuka, Kiyomi; Hoshika, Shunji; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko; Takei, Yoh; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Yoichi; DiPirro, Mike; Shirron, Peter

    2016-03-01

    ASTRO-H is a Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite, scheduled to be launched in fiscal year 2015. The mission includes a soft X-ray spectrometer instrument (SXS), which contains an X-ray micro calorimeter operating at 50 mK by using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The heat sink of the ADR is superfluid liquid helium below 1.3 K. The required lifetime of the superfluid helium is 3 years or more. In order to realize this lifetime, we have improved the thermal performance from the engineering model (EM) while maintaining the mechanical performance. Then, we have performed a thermal test of the flight model (FM). The results were that the heat load to the helium tank was reduced to below 0.8 mW in the FM from 1.2 mW in the EM. Therefore, the lifetime of the superfluid helium is more than 3 years with 30 L of liquid helium. In this paper, the thermal design and thermal test results are described.

  4. Photonuclear reaction based high-energy x-ray spectrometer to cover from 2 MeV to 20 MeVa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Kojima, S.; Ikenouchi, T.; Nagai, T.; Abe, Y.; Inoue, H.; Morace, A.; Utsugi, M.; Kato, R.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H.

    2014-11-01

    A photonuclear-reaction-based hard x-ray spectrometer is developed to measure the number and energy spectrum of fast electrons generated by interactions between plasma and intense laser light. In this spectrometer, x-rays are converted to neutrons through photonuclear reactions, and the neutrons are counted with a bubble detector that is insensitive to x-rays. The spectrometer consists of a bundle of hard x-ray detectors that respond to different photon-energy ranges. Proof-of-principle experiment was performed on a linear accelerator facility. A quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch (Ne = 1.0 × 10-6 C, Ee = 16 ± 0.32 MeV) was injected into a 5-mm-thick lead plate. Bremsstrahlung x-rays, which emanate from the lead plate, were measured with the spectrometer. The measured spectral shape and intensity agree fairly well with those computed with a Monte Carlo simulation code. The result shows that high-energy x-rays can be measured absolutely with a photon-counting accuracy of 50%-70% in the energy range from 2 MeV to 20 MeV with a spectral resolution (Δhν/hν) of about 15%. Quantum efficiency of this spectrometer was designed to be 10-7, 10-4, 10-5, respectively, for 2-10, 11-15, and 15-25 MeV of photon energy ranges.

  5. Imaging soft x-ray spectrometers based on superconducting tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeve, P.; Martin, D. D. E.; Venn, R.

    2010-07-01

    X-ray detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) have demonstrated good energy resolution in the soft X-ray energy range 0.1-6 keV. In particular DROIDS (Distributed Read Out Imaging Devices), consisting of a superconducting absorber strip with superconducting tunnel junctions as read-out devices on either end, could combine this high resolving power with a large sensitive area and good soft X-ray detection efficiency. In this paper we present results on the spectroscopic performance of Al and Ta/Al DROIDs with different absorber materials (Ta, Re) and with variations in absorber configurations: our standard absorber integrated with the read-out structure is compared with absorbers deposited after definition of the read-out structure. The latter allows maximising the detection efficiency through thicker layers and different absorber materials. Also, absorbers which are electrically coupled to the readout structure are compared to insulated absorbers which couple to the readout structure by phonon exchange across a thin dielectric layer. New process routes have been designed for all new configurations. Whilst not all these structures have been fabricated successfully yet, our integrated absorber sofar exhibits the best performance, with 2.45 eV FWHM at 400 eV and 16.6 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV.

  6. Novel applications of diagnostic x-rays in activating photo-agents through x-ray induced visible luminescence from rare-earth particles: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abliz, Erkinay; Collins, Joshua E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Kumar, Ajith; Bell, Howard; Waynant, Ronald W.; Tata, Darrell B.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic agents such as Photofrin II (Photo II) utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT) possess a remarkable property to become preferentially retained within the tumor's micro-environment. Upon the photo-agent's activation through visible light photon absorption, the agents exert their cellular cytotoxicity through type II and type I mechanistic pathways through extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS): singlet oxygen 1O2, superoxide anion O2 -, and hydrogen peroxide H2O2, within the intratumoral environment. Unfortunately, due to shallow visible light penetration depth (~2mm to 5mm) in tissues, the PDT strategy currently has largely been restricted to the treatments of surface tumors, such as the melanomas. Additional invasive strategies through optical fibers are currently utilized in getting the visible light into the intended deep seated targets within the body for PDT. In this communication, we report on a novel strategy in utilizing "soft" energy diagnostic X-rays to indirectly activate Photo II through X-ray induced luminescence from Gadolinium oxysulfide (20 micron dimension) particles doped with Terbium: Gd2O2S:Tb. X-ray induced visible luminescence from Gd2O2S:Tb particles was spectroscopically characterized and the ROS production levels from clinically relevant concentration (10 μg/ml) of Photo II was quantified through changes in the Vitamin C absorbance. ROS kinetics through X-ray induced luminescence was found to be similar to the ROS kinetics from red He-Ne laser exposures used in the clinics. Taken together, in-vitro findings herein provide the basis for future studies in determining the safety and efficacy of this non-invasive X-ray induced luminescence strategy in activating photo-agent in deep seated tumors.

  7. In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Audard, Marc; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haas, Daniel; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Koyama, Shu; Kurashima, Sho; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Markevitch, Maxim; McCammon, Dan; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mori, Hideyuki; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Okajima, Takashi; Paltani, Stéphane; Petre, Robert; Porter, F. Scott; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Toshiki; Sawada, Makoto; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Seta, Hiromi; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; de Vries, Cor P.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamada, Shinya; Yamasaki, Noriko

    2016-07-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-12 keV band. Extensive pre- flight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse-height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse-height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source, and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsars to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency, and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab pulsar to refine the pixel-to-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.

  8. Production of X-rays by cosmic-ray muons in heavily shielded gamma-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikit, I.; Mrda, D.; Anicin, I.; Veskovic, M.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Todorovic, N.; Forkapic, S.

    2009-07-01

    Cosmic-ray (CR) muons both directly and indirectly contribute to the spectra of heavily shielded High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, even in deep underground laboratories. Heavy elements are frequently used as the detector components or are occasionally placed close to the detector endcap, and their characteristic X-rays induced by cosmic-ray muons contribute to the low-energy region of the HPGe detector spectra. We study the production of X-rays in tungsten, gold and lead by cosmic-ray muons on the ground level, by means of a coincidence system consisting of a plastic scintillation detector and an extended range HPGe detector placed inside a 12-cm-thick lead shield. In this typical low-background arrangement, the shield with total mass of 725 kg acts as a source of secondary particles induced by CR muons. X-rays that originate from direct interactions of muons with the target material, the yield of which may be reliably estimated by Monte Carlo simulations, are excluded by this experimental setup, and only X-rays of W, Pb and Au samples produced by all secondaries from muon interactions with the lead shield are present in the HPGe spectra. The production rate of Kα X-rays per unit mass of all the elements studied (74

  9. The UCSD high energy X-ray timing experiment cosmic ray particle anticoincidence detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hink, P. L.; Rothschild, R. E.; Pelling, M. R.; Macdonald, D. R.; Gruber, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The HEXTE, part of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), is designed to make high sensitivity temporal and spectral measurements of X-rays with energies between 15 and 250 keV using NaI/CsI phoswich scintillation counters. To achieve the required sensitivity it is necessary to provide anticoincidence of charged cosmic ray particles incident upon the instrument, some of which interact to produce background X-rays. The proposed cosmic ray particle anticoincidence shield detector for HEXTE uses a novel design based on plastic scintillators and wavelength-shifter bars. It consists of five segments, each with a 7 mm thick plastic scintillator, roughly 50 cm x 50 cm in size, coupled to two wavelength-shifter bars viewed by 1/2 inch photomultiplier tubes. These segments are configured into a five-sided, box-like structure around the main detector system. Results of laboratory testing of a model segment, and calculations of the expected performance of the flight segments and particle anticoincidence detector system are presented to demonstrate that the above anticoincidence detector system satisfies its scientific requirements.

  10. Flight production of Caliste-SO: the hard x-ray spectrometers for solar orbiter/STIX instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limousin, Olivier; Meuris, Aline; Gevin, Olivier; Blondel, Claire; Donati, Modeste; Dumaye, Luc; Le Mer, Isabelle; Martignac, Jérôme; Tourrette, Thierry; Vassal, Marie-Cécile; Blain, Dominique; Boussadia, Mohamed; Fiant, Nicolas; Soufflet, Fabrice; Bednarzik, Martin; Birrer, Guy; Stutz, Stefan; Wild, Christopher; Billot, Marc; Fratter, Isabelle; Grimm, Oliver; Krucker, Säm.

    2016-07-01

    Caliste-SO are CdTe hybrid detectors that will be used as spectrometer units in the Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission. Each unit is placed below one collimator of this Fourier telescope to measure one visibility of the image in the 4-150 keV energy range, with a spectral resolution of 1 keV FWHM at 6 keV. The paper presents the scientific requirements, the design, the fabrication and the tests of the Caliste- SO devices before mounting them onto printed circuits boards. Spectral response was characterized on the 98 spacegrade units for various operating parameters. The devices will equip the different instrument validation models, including 32 units for the final instrument flight model to be launched in 2018.

  11. Vibration isolation system for cryocoolers of Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Yoh; Yasuda, Susumu; Ishimura, Kosei; Iwata, Naoko; Okamoto, Atsushi; Sato, Yoichi; Ogawa, Mina; Sawada, Makoto; Kawano, Taro; Obara, Shingo; Natsukari, Chikara; Wada, Atsushi; Yamada, Shinya; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Kokubun, Motohide; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Minesugi, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasuo; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Yoshida, Seiji; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Kanao, Kenichi; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Otsuka, Kiyomi; Kelley, Richard L.; Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Pontius, James T.; McCammon, Dan; Wilke, Paul; Basile, John

    2016-07-01

    Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H (named Hitomi after launch) is a microcalorimeter-type spectrometer, installed in a dewar to be cooled at 50 mK. The energy resolution of the SXS engineering model suffered from micro-vibration from cryocoolers mounted on the dewar. This is mitigated for the flight model by introducing vibration isolation systems between the cryocoolers and the dewar. The detector performance of the flight model was verified before launch of the spacecraft in both ambient condition and thermal-vac condition, showing no detectable degradation in energy resolution. The in-orbit performance was also consistent with that on ground, indicating that the cryocoolers were not damaged by launch environment. The design and performance of the vibration isolation system along with the mechanism of how the micro-vibration could degrade the cryogenic detector is shown.

  12. Instrumentation and key elements of the dispersive x-ray absorption spectrometer for accurate measurements (invited) (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, A.; Baudelet, F.; Dartyge, E.; Dubuisson, J. M.; Giorgetti, C.; Pizzini, Stefania; Andrault, D.; Farges, F.; Fiquet, G.; Itié, J. P.; Polian, A.; Miguel, A. San; Tolentino, H.

    1995-02-01

    Measurement of very small differences of the total cross section is the current demand for the spectrometers dedicated to time-dependent experiments carried out under various time-ramped parameters. The dispersive optics and more precisely the full x-ray-absorption spectrometer is mechanically movement-free during data collection which can last over 12 h at LURE-DCI to be sensitive to relative change of the absorption of the order of 10-5. In this range, artefacts due to the drift of silicon lattice spacing under temperature change of the crystal, and drifts of the detector position because of liquid-nitrogen evaporation contained in the cryostat, are sources of errors which have been identified and cured or ... by-passed. The accuracy in difference measurements is now of the order of 10-5 for a total cross section measured equal to 1. In term of optics stability a difference signal of 10-4 out of 1 can be generated by an absorption edge shift caused by a 0.05 K drift of the temperature of the silicon crystal at 7 keV. These performances are essential for the measurement of XMCD in the hard-x-ray range. Water cooling of the dynamically bent crystal reduces dramatically the change of the Si temperature. Adequate geometry makes the spatial drift of the position of the photodiode array much less concerning. The focusing efficiency is also a key parameter to push high-pressure x-ray-absorption spectroscopy (55 GPa), and high-temperature XAS (2000 K), and the combination (15 GPa, 800 K). Simple devices, taking advantage of the focusing geometry, have been successfully tested these last two years.

  13. Development status of the mechanical cryocoolers for the Soft X-ray Spectrometer on board Astro-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoichi; Sawada, Kenichiro; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Nishibori, Toshiyuki; Sato, Ryota; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh; Goto, Ken; Nakagawa, Takao; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Kenichi; Murakami, Masahide; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Ootsuka, Kiyomi; Kanao, Kenichi; Narasaki, Katsuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Astro-H is the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite to be launched in 2015. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board Astro-H is a high energy resolution spectrometer utilizing an X-ray micro-calorimeter array, which is operated at 50 mK by the ADR with the 30 liter superfluid liquid helium. The mechanical cryocoolers, 4 K-class Joule Thomson (JT) cooler and 20 K-class double-staged Stirling (2ST) cooler, are key components of the SXS cooling system to extend the lifetime of LHe cryogen beyond 3 years as required. Higher reliability was therefore investigated with higher cooling capability based on the heritage of existing cryocoolers. As the task of assessing further reliability dealt with the pipe-choking phenomena by contaminant solidification of the on-orbit SMILES JT cryocooler, outgassing from materials and component parts used in the cryocoolers was measured quantitatively to verify the suppression of carbon dioxide gas by their storage process and predict the total accumulated carbon dioxide for long-term operation. A continuous running test to verify lifetime using the engineering model (EM) of the 4 K-JT cooler is underway, having operated for a total of 720 days as of June 2013 and showing no remarkable change in cooling performance. During the current development phase, prototype models (PM) of the cryocoolers were installed to the test SXS dewar (EM) to verify the overall cooling performance from room temperature to 50 mK. During the EM dewar test, the requirement to reduce the transmitted vibration from the 2ST cooler compressor was recognized as mitigating the thermal instability of the SXS microcalorimeter at 50 mK.

  14. Caliste-SO, a CdTe based spectrometer for bright solar event observations in hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Gevin, O.; Blondel, C.; Martignac, J.; Vassal, M.-C.; Soufflet, F.; Fiant, N.; Bednarzik, M.; Stutz, S.; Grimm, O.; Commichau, V.

    2015-07-01

    Caliste-SO is a CdTe hybrid detector designed to be used as a spectrometer for a hard X-ray Fourier telescope. The imaging technique was implemented in the Yohkoh satellite in 1991 and the RHESSI satellite in 2002 to achieve arc-second angular resolution images of solar flares with spectroscopic capabilities. The next generation of such instruments will be the Spectrometer Telescope Imaging X-rays (STIX) on-board the Solar Orbiter mission adopted by the European Space Agency in 2011 for launch in 2017. The design and performance of Caliste-SO allows both high spectral resolution and high count rate measurements from 4 to 150 keV with limited demands on spacecraft resources such as mass, power and volume (critical for interplanetary missions). The paper reports on the flight production of the Caliste-SO devices for STIX, describing the test facilities built-up in Switzerland and France. It illustrates some results obtained with the first production samples that will be mounted in the STIX engineering model.

  15. Combined Backscatter Moessbauer Spectrometer and X Ray Fluorescence analyzer (BaMS/XRF) for planetary surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, D. G.; Shelfer, T. D.; Pimperl, M. M.; Wills, E. L.; Morris, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer (BaMS) with included x ray fluorescence (XRF) capability for the Mars Environment Survey (MESUR) Mission, which has been proposed by NASA for 1998, is being developed. The instrument will also be suitable for other planetary missions such as those to the Moon, asteroids, and other solid solar-system objects. The BaMS would be unique for MESUR in providing information about iron mineralogy in rocks, clays, and other surface materials, including relative proportions of iron-bearing minerals. It requires no sample preparation and can identify all the normal oxidation states of iron (3+, 2+, 0). Thus, BaMS is diagnostic for weathering and other soil-forming processes. Backscatter design allows the addition of XRF elemental analysis with little or no modification. The BaMS/XRF instrument complements the thermal analyzer with evolved gas analyzer (TA-EGA) and the alpha-proton x-ray spectrometer (APXS) proposed (along with BaMS) for geochemical analysis on MESUR.

  16. Wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for simultaneous acquisition of several characteristic lines based on strongly and accurately shaped Ge crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Kozo; Nishikata, Susumu

    2008-03-15

    Si and Ge are widely used as analyzing crystals for x-rays. Drastic and accurate shaping of Si or Ge gives significant advance in the x-ray field, although covalently bonded Si or Ge crystals have long been believed to be not deformable to various shapes. Recently, we developed a deformation technique for obtaining strongly and accurately shaped Si or Ge wafers of high crystal quality, and the use of the deformed wafer made it possible to produce fine-focused x-rays. In the present study, we prepared a cylindrical Ge wafer with a radius of curvature of 50 mm, and acquired fluorescent x-rays simultaneously from four elements by combining the cylindrical Ge wafer with a position-sensitive detector. The energy resolution of the x-ray fluorescence spectrum was as good as that obtained using a flat single crystal, and its gain was over 100. The demonstration of the simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution x-ray fluorescence spectra indicated various possibilities of x-ray spectrometry, such as one-shot x-ray spectroscopy and highly efficient wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometers.

  17. Focal aberrations of large-aperture HOPG von-Hàmos x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Brown, C. R. D.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Lee, H. J.; Marschner, H.; Toleikis, S.; Wehrhan, O.; Förster, E.

    2012-09-01

    Focal aberrations of large-aperture highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystals in von-Hàmos geometry are investigated by experimental and computational methods. A mosaic HOPG crystal film of 100 μm thickness diffracts 8 keV x-rays. This thickness is smaller than the absorption depth of the symmetric 004-reflection, which amounts to 257 μm. Cylindrically bent crystals with 110mm radius of curvature and up to 100 mm collection width produce a X-shaped halo around the focus. This feature vanishes when the collection aperture is reduced, but axial spectral profiles show that the resolution is not affected. X-ray topography reveals significant inhomogeneous crystallite domains of 2±1mm diameter along the entire crystal. Rocking curves shift by about ±20arcmin between domains, while their full width at half-maximum varies between 30 and 50 arcmin. These inhomogeneities are not imprinted at the focal spot, since the monochromatically reflecting area of the crystal is large compared to inhomogeneities. Ray-tracing calculations using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm developed for mosaic crystals reproduce the X-shaped halo in the focal plane, stemming from the mosaic defocussing in the non-dispersive direction in combination with large apertures. The best achievable resolution is found by analyzing a diversity of rocking curve widths, source sizes and crystal thicknesses for 8 keV x-rays to be ΔE/E ~ 10-4. Finally a general analytic expression for the shape of the aberration is derived.

  18. Micro X-ray Fluorescence Imaging in a Tabletop Full Field-X-ray Fluorescence Instrument and in a Full Field-Particle Induced X-ray Emission End Station.

    PubMed

    Romano, Francesco Paolo; Caliri, Claudia; Cosentino, Luigi; Gammino, Santo; Mascali, David; Pappalardo, Lighea; Rizzo, Francesca; Scharf, Oliver; Santos, Hellen Cristine

    2016-10-08

    A full field-X-ray camera (FF-XRC) was developed for performing the simultaneous mapping of chemical elements with a high lateral resolution. The device is based on a conventional CCD detector coupled to a straight shaped polycapillary. Samples are illuminated at once with a broad primary beam that can consist of X-rays or charged particles in two different analytical setups. The characteristic photons induced in the samples are guided by the polycapillary to the detector allowing the elemental imaging without the need for scanning. A single photon counting detection operated in a multiframe acquisition mode and a processing algorithm developed for event hitting reconstruction have enabled one to use the CCD as a high energy resolution X-ray detector. A novel software with a graphical user interface (GUI) programmed in Matlab allows full control of the device and the real-time imaging with a region-of-interest (ROI) method. At the end of the measurement, the software produces spectra for each of the pixels in the detector allowing the application of a least-squares fitting with external analytical tools. The FF-XRC is very compact and can be installed in different experimental setups. This work shows the potentialities of the instrument in both a full field-micro X-ray fluorescence (FF-MXRF) tabletop device and in a full field-micro particle induced X-ray emission (FF-MPIXE) end-station operated with an external proton beam. Some examples of applications are given as well.

  19. Relation between electric current densities and X-ray emissions from particles accelerated during solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musset, Sophie; Vilmer, Nicole; Bommier, Veronique

    The energy released during solar flares is believed to be stored in non-potential magnetic fields associated with electric currents. This energy is partially transferred to particle acceleration. We studied for several X-class flares located near the solar disk center the relation between the location of the X-ray emissions produced by energetic electrons accelerated in the corona and the magnetic field and vertical component of the electric current density in the photosphere. The study is based on X-ray images with data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and magnetic field maps and current density maps calculated with the UNNOFIT inversion and Metcalf disambiguation codes from the spectropolarimetric measurements of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). A comparison between X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) complete the study. We shall present preliminary conclusions on the link between particle acceleration and the presence of electric currents in the active region.

  20. Five-frame, x-ray camera for charged particle, inertial confinement fusion studies.

    PubMed

    Fehl, D L; Chang, J; Kuswa, G W; Mendel, C W

    1980-03-01

    A prototype framing x-ray camera has been developed for photographic studies of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets irradiated by charged particle beams. Electron images from five, independently gated, microchannel plates are transported out of the radiation field by means of a toroidal magnetic field and are permanently recorded on film. The calculated, effective exposure time is x-ray pinhole optics to approximately 0.5 mm. Time-resolved photographic studies have been made of luminous targets irradiated by pulsed electron and ion beams. The camera has also been adapted for single frame, x-radiographic studies of nonluminous imploding targets.

  1. Determination of selenium in biological samples with an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Zhaoshui

    2016-05-01

    Selenium is both a nutrient and a toxin. Selenium-especially organic selenium-is a core component of human nutrition. Thus, it is very important to measure selenium in biological samples. The limited sensitivity of conventional XRF hampers its widespread use in biological samples. Here, we describe the use of high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) in tandem with a three-dimensional optics design to determine 0.1-5.1μgg(-1) levels of selenium in biological samples. The effects of various experimental parameters such as applied voltage, acquisition time, secondary target and various filters were thoroughly investigated. The detection limit of selenium in biological samples via high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was decreased by one order of magnitude versus conventional XRF (Paltridge et al., 2012) and found to be 0.1μg/g. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe EDXRF measurements of Se in biological samples with important implications for the nutrition and analytical chemistry communities.

  2. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  3. Hygroscopic behavior of individual submicrometer particles studied by X-ray spectromicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Suman; Tivanski, Alexei V

    2010-11-15

    A novel application of single particle scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is presented for quantitative analysis of hygroscopic properties and phase transitions of individual submicrometer particles. The approach utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited individual particles to water vapor at different relative humidity followed by STXM/NEXAFS spectromicroscopy analysis. The hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and NaNO(3) submicrometer particles were measured to evaluate the utility of the approach. An analytical approach for quantification of a water-to-solute ratio within an individual submicrometer particle during hydration and dehydration cycles is presented. The results for the deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions and quantitative measurements of water-to-solute ratios are found in excellent agreement with available literature data. Oxygen K-edge NEXAFS spectra of submicrometer sodium halide droplets are reported along with a unique experimental observation of the formation of the halide-water anionic complex in NaBr and NaI microdimensional droplets. The analytical approach provides a unique opportunity for spectromicroscopy studies of water uptake on environmental particles collected in both laboratory and field studies.

  4. Design, Characterization and Application of Biocompatible Micro- and Nano-Particles for Dynamic X-ray Visual Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Jung, Sung Yong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2010-03-01

    For a dynamic X-ray visual imaging, contrast agents in particle forms are developed in micro- and nano-scales. First, water- soluble contrast agents are encapsulated into biocompatible polymeric microparticles. The fabricated polymeric microparticles are controlled in terms of the size, degree of crosslinking and encapsulation efficiency of the X-ray contrast agent. Second, gold is designed into functionalized nanoparticles. Properly controlled aggregates or encapsulated into human red blood cell (RBC), the surface modified gold nanoparticles are used as excellent X-ray contrast agent. The behaviors of the particles in the solution state are described by hydrodynamic size (DH) and zeta-potential (?-potential). The microscopic structures of the gold nanoparticle aggregates are determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and zone-plate X-ray microscopy. The designed particulate biocompatible tracers are successfully used as excellent X-ray imaging tracers which enable the dynamic study in various biological fluid flows.

  5. Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Manganese and Other Metals in Welding Fumes by Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Fang, Shona C.; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Elemental analysis of welding fume samples can be done using several laboratory-based techniques. However, portable measurement techniques could offer several advantages. In this study, we sought to determine whether the portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) is suitable for analysis of five metals (manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and chromium) on 37-mm polytetrafluoroethylene filters. Using this filter fitted on a cyclone in line with a personal pump, gravimetric samples were collected from a group of boilermakers exposed to welding fumes. We assessed the assumption of uniform deposition of these metals on the filters, and the relationships between measurement results of each metal obtained from traditional laboratory-based XRF and the portable XRF. For all five metals of interest, repeated measurements with the portable XRF at the same filter area showed good consistency (reliability ratios are equal or close to 1.0 for almost all metals). The portable XRF readings taken from three different areas of each filter were not significantly different (p-values = 0.77 to 0.98). This suggested that the metal rich PM2.5 deposits uniformly on the samples collected using this gravimetric method. For comparison of the two XRFs, the results from the portable XRF were well correlated and highly predictive of those from the laboratory XRF. The Spearman correlation coefficients were from 0.325 for chromium, to 0.995 for manganese and 0.998 for iron. The mean differences as a percent of the mean laboratory XRF readings were also small (<5%) for manganese, iron, and copper. The differences were greater for zinc and chromium, which were present at very low amounts in our samples and below the limits of detection of the portable XRF for many of the samples. These five metals were moderately to strongly correlated with the total fine particle fraction on filters (Spearman ρ = 0.41 for zinc to 0.97 for iron). Such strong correlations and comparable results suggested that the

  6. The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Crannell, Carol JO; Desai, Upendra D.; Orwig, Larry E.; Kiplinger, Alan L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Machado, Marcos; Wood, Kent

    1988-01-01

    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures.

  7. Dual crystal x-ray spectrometer at 1.8 keV for high repetition-rate single-photon counting spectroscopy experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Gamboa, E. J.; Bachmann, B.; Kraus, D.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The recent development of high-repetition rate x-ray free electron lasers (FEL), makes it possible to perform x-ray scattering and emission spectroscopy measurements from thin foils or gasses heated to high-energy density conditions by integrating over many experimental shots. Since the expected signal may be weaker than the typical CCD readout noise over the region-of-interest, it is critical to the success of this approach to use a detector with high-energy resolution so that single x-ray photons may be isolated. We describe a dual channel x-ray spectrometer developed for the Atomic and Molecular Optics endstation at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)more » for x-ray spectroscopy near the K-edge of aluminum. The spectrometer is based on a pair of curved PET (002) crystals coupled to a single pnCCD detector which simultaneously measures x-ray scattering and emission in the forward and backward directions. Furthermore, the signals from single x-ray photons are accumulated permitting continuous single-shot acquisition at 120 Hz.« less

  8. Dual crystal x-ray spectrometer at 1.8 keV for high repetition-rate single-photon counting spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E. J.; Bachmann, B.; Kraus, D.; MacDonald, M. J.; Bucher, M.; Carron, S.; Coffee, R. N.; Drake, R. P.; Emig, J.; Ferguson, K. R.; Fletcher, L. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gorkhover, T.; Hau-Riege, S. P.; Krzywinski, J.; Levitan, A. L.; Meiwes-Broer, K. -H.; Osipov, T.; Pardini, T.; Peltz, C.; Skruszewicz, S.; Bostedt, C.; Fennel, T.; Döppner, T.

    2016-08-01

    The recent development of high-repetition rate x-ray free electron lasers (FEL), makes it possible to perform x-ray scattering and emission spectroscopy measurements from thin foils or gasses heated to high-energy density conditions by integrating over many experimental shots. Since the expected signal may be weaker than the typical CCD readout noise over the region-of-interest, it is critical to the success of this approach to use a detector with high-energy resolution so that single x-ray photons may be isolated. We describe a dual channel x-ray spectrometer developed for the Atomic and Molecular Optics endstation at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) for x-ray spectroscopy near the K-edge of aluminum. The spectrometer is based on a pair of curved PET (002) crystals coupled to a single pnCCD detector which simultaneously measures x-ray scattering and emission in the forward and backward directions. Furthermore, the signals from single x-ray photons are accumulated permitting continuous single-shot acquisition at 120 Hz.

  9. Calibration of the lunar orbital x-ray fluorescence imaging spectrometer (LOXIA) of Chang'E-1 satellite at INAF-OAPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Marco; Candia, Roberto; Collura, Alfonso; Di Cicca, Gaspare; Varisco, Salvatore; Zhang, Chengmo; Wang, Huan Yu; Yang, JiaWei; Peng, Wenxi; Cui, Xingzhu; Cao, XueLei; Liang, XiaoHua

    2007-09-01

    The Lunar Orbital X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Spectrometer (LOXIA) designed and constructed at the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to perform chemical composition analysis of the Moon surface will operate on-board the Chang'E-1 mission, the first Chinese lunar spacecraft to be launched in 2007. We report the main results of the calibration measurements that we have performed using the X-ray beamline of the XACT facility of INAFOsservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G.S. Vaiana to determine the quantum efficiency of the XRS detector in the soft X-rays as a function of photon energy and angle of incidence.

  10. Conception of broadband stigmatic high-resolution spectrometers for the soft X-ray range

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, E A; Shatokhin, A N; Ragozin, E N

    2015-04-30

    We formulate an approach to the development of stigmatic high-resolution spectral instruments for the soft X-ray range (λ ≤ 300 Å), which is based on the combined operation of normalincidence multilayer mirrors (including broadband aperiodic ones) and grazing-incidence reflection gratings with nonequidistant grooves (so-called VLS gratings). A concave multilayer mirror serves to produce a slightly astigmatic image of the radiation source (for instance, an entrance slit), and the diffraction grating produces a set of its dispersed stigmatic spectral images. The width of the operating spectral region is determined by the aperiodic structure of the multilayer mirror and may range up to an octave in wavelength. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. X-ray spectrometer spectrograph telescope system. [for solar corona study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Salat, S. W.; Franks, A.; Schmidtke, G.; Schweizer, W.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A new sounding rocket payload that has been developed for X-ray spectroscopic studies of the solar corona is described. The instrument incorporates a grazing incidence Rowland mounted grating spectrograph and an extreme off-axis paraboloic sector feed system to isolate regions of the sun of order 1 x 10 arc seconds in size. The focal surface of the spectrograph is shared by photographic and photoelectric detection systems, with the latter serving as a part of the rocket pointing system control loop. Fabrication and alignment of the optical system is based on high precision machining and mechanical metrology techniques. The spectrograph has a resolution of 16 milliangstroms and modifications planned for future flights will improve the resolution to 5 milliangstroms, permitting line widths to be measured.

  12. Hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer for x-rays above 120 keV

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Ching L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus utilizing filter-fluorescer combinations is provided to measure short bursts of high fluence x-rays above 120 keV energy, where there are no practical absorption edges available for conventional filter-fluorescer techniques. The absorption edge of the prefilter is chosen to be less than that of the fluorescer, i.e., E.sub.PRF E.sub.F. In this way, the response function is virtually zero between E.sub.PRF and E.sub.F and well defined and enhanced in an energy band of less than 1000 keV above the 120 keV energy.

  13. He flow rate measurements on the engineering model for the Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer dewar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, I.; Ezoe, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Mitsuda, K.; Tsunematsu, S.; Yoshida, S.; Kanao, K.; Murakami, M.; DiPirro, M.; Shirron, P.

    2014-11-01

    The sixth X-ray Japanese astronomy satellite, namely Astro-H, will be launched in 2015. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer onboard the Astro-H is a 6 × 6 X-ray microcalorimeter array and provides us with both a high energy resolution of <7 eV at 0.5-10 keV and a 3‧ × 3‧ modest imaging capability for the first time. To cool the detector down to the operation temperature of 50 mK, five cryocoolers, a 30-L superfluid helium cryostat, and a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator are utilized. A very small heat load up to ∼0.9 mW on the helium tank is allowable to realize the helium lifetime of >3 years, which consequently requires that the vapor flow rate out of the helium tank should be very small <42 μg/s. We adopted a porous plug phase separator in combination with a film flow suppression system composed of an orifice, a heat exchanger and knife edge devices to retain the liquid helium under zero gravity and safely vent the small amount of the helium vapor. We measured helium mass flow rates from the helium tank equipped in the engineering model dewar. We tilted the dewar at an angle of 75° so that one side of the porous plug located at the top of the helium tank attaches the liquid helium and the porous plug separates the liquid and vapor helium by thermomechanical effect. Helium mass flow rates were measured at helium tank temperatures of 1.3, 1.5 and 1.9 K. We confirmed that resultant mass flow rates are in good agreement within the systematic error or low compared to component test results and achieve all the requirements. The film flow suppression also worked normally. Therefore, we concluded that the SXS helium vent system satisfactorily performs integrated into the dewar.

  14. High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of zeta Puppis with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, S. M.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Cottam, J.; Rauw, G.; Vreux, J.-M.; denBoggende, A. J. F.; Mewe, R.; Guedel, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present the first high resolution X-ray spectrum of the bright O4Ief supergiant star Puppis, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on- board XMM-Newton. The spectrum exhibits bright emission lines of hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon, as well as neon-like ions of iron. The lines are all significantly resolved, with characteristic velocity widths of order 1000 - 1500 km/ s. The nitrogen lines are especially strong, and indicate that the shocked gas in the wind is mixed with CNO-burned material, as has been previously inferred for the atmosphere of this star from ultraviolet spectra. We find that the forbidden to intercombination line ratios within the helium-like triplets are anomalously low for N VI, O VII, and Ne IX. While this is sometimes indicative of high electron density, we show that in this case, it is instead caused by the intense ultraviolet radiation field of the star. We use this interpretation to derive constraints on the location of the X-ray emitting shocks within the wind that agree remarkably well with current theoretical models for this system.

  15. Engineering design of the Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument: an OSIRIS-REx student collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew J.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-07-01

    OSIRIS-REx is a NASA New Frontiers mission scheduled for launch in 2016 that will travel to the asteroid Bennu and return a pristine sample of the asteroid to Earth. The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is a student collaboration instrument on-board the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. REXIS is a NASA risk Class D instrument, and its design and development is largely student led. The engineering team consists of MIT graduate and undergraduate students and staff at the MIT Space Systems Laboratory. The primary goal of REXIS is the education of science and engineering students through participation in the development of light hardware. In light, REXIS will contribute to the mission by providing an elemental abundance map of the asteroid and by characterizing Bennu among the known meteorite groups. REXIS is sensitive to X-rays between 0.5 and 7 keV, and uses coded aperture imaging to map the distribution of iron with 50 m spatial resolution. This paper describes the science goals, concept of operations, and overall engineering design of the REXIS instrument. Each subsystem of the instrument is addressed with a high-level description of the design. Critical design elements such as the Thermal Isolation Layer (TIL), radiation cover, coded-aperture mask, and Detector Assembly Mount (DAM) are discussed in further detail.

  16. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for direct analysis of aerosol particle samples.

    PubMed

    Bontempi, E; Zacco, A; Benedetti, D; Borgese, L; Colombi, P; Stosnach, H; Finzi, G; Apostoli, P; Buttini, P; Depero, L E

    2010-04-14

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have a great impact on the environment and on human health. Routine analysis of the particles usually involves only the mass determination. However, chemical composition and phases provide fundamental information about the particles' origins and can help to prevent health risks. For example, these particles may contain heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and Cd, which can adversely affect human health. In this work, filter samples were collected in Brescia, an industrial town located in Northern Italy. In order to identify the chemical composition and the phases of the atmospheric aerosols, the samples were analysed by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry with a laboratory instrument and X-ray microdiffraction at Synchrotron Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington (Cheshire, UK). The results are discussed and correlated to identify possible pollution sources. The novelty of this analytical approach is that filter samples for TXRF were analysed directly and did not require chemical pretreatment to leach elements from the aerosol particulates. The results of this study clearly show that TXRF is a powerful technique for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols on 'as-received' filters, thereby leaving samples intact and unaltered for possible subsequent analyses by other methods. In addition, the low detection limits for many elements (low ng/cm2) indicate that this method may hold promise in various application fields, such as nanotechnology.

  17. SAXES, a high resolution spectrometer for resonant x-ray emission in the 400-1600 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Dallera, C.; Trezzi, G.; Braicovich, L.; Schmitt, T.; Strocov, V. N.; Betemps, R.; Patthey, L.; Wang, X.; Grioni, M.

    2006-11-15

    We present a 5 m long spectrometer for soft x rays to be used at a synchrotron radiation beamline for resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in the 400-1600 eV energy range. It is based on a variable line spacing spherical grating (average groove density of 3200 mm{sup -1}, R=58.55 m) and a charge coupled device two dimensional detector. With an x-ray spot on the sample of 10 {mu}m, the targeted resolving power is higher than 10 000 at all energies below 1100 eV and better than 7000 at 1500 eV. The off-line tests made with Al and Mg K{alpha}{sub 1,2} fluorescence emissions indicate that the spectrometer can actually work at 12 000 and 17 000 resolving power at the L{sub 3} edges of Cu (930 eV) and of Ti (470 eV), respectively. SAXES (superadvanced x-ray emission spectrometer) is mounted on a rotating platform allowing to vary the scattering angle from 25 degree sign to 130 degree sign . The spectrometer will be operational at the ADRESS (advanced resonant spectroscopies) beamline of the Swiss Light Source from 2007.

  18. Chemical Composition of Martian Surface and Rocks on Pathfinder Mission: The Alpha-Proton-X-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, T.; Turkevich, A.; Rieder, R.; Wanke, H.

    1996-03-01

    Although the Mars pathfinder mission is primarily designed as an engineering precursor, pioneering a new approach for landing-type missions to Mars, it is also intended to obtain a significant amount of scientific information. The Alpha-Proton-X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) is designed to provide a complete and detailed chemical analysis of the martian soil and rocks near the landing side. All elements (except H) present in amounts above a fraction of a percent and, in many cases, greater than several hundred ppm will be identified and their elemental abundance determined. The APXS will be transported on the martian surface by a microrover which will enable the APXS to select and analyze multiple soil and rock samples.

  19. Data Processing for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) Ground System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mikheeva, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Floyd, S. R.; Boynton, W. V.; Bailey, H.; Bhangoo, J.; Starr, R.; Clark, P. E.; Evans, L. G.

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray and Gamma-ray spectrometer (XGRS) is onboard the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft to determine the elemental composition of the surface of the asteroid 433Eros. The Eros asteroid is highly non-spherical in physical shape and the development of data management and analysis methodologies are in several areas a divergence from traditional remotely sensed geographical information systems techniques. Field of view and asteroid surface geometry must be derived virtually and then combined with real measurements of solar, spectral and instrument calibration information to derive meaningful scientific results. Spatial resolution of planned geochemical maps will be improved from the initial conditions of low statistical significance per integration by repeated surface flyovers and regional spectral accumulation. This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort of design and development of the NEAR XGRS instrument ground system undertaken by participants at the Goddard Space Flight Center, University of Arizona, Cornell University, Applied Physics Laboratory, and Max Plank institute.

  20. Data Processing for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), X-ray and Gamma-ray Spectrometer (XGRS) Ground System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mikheeva, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Floyd, S. R.; Boynton, W. V.; Bailey, H.; Bhangoo, J.; Starr, R.; Clark, P. E.; Evans, L. G.

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray and Gamma-ray spectrometer (XGRS) is onboard the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft to determine the elemental composition of the surface of the asteroid 433Eros. The Eros asteroid is highly non-spherical in physical shape and the development of data management and analysis methodologies are in several areas a divergence from traditional remotely sensed geographical information systems techniques. Field of view and asteroid surface geometry must be derived virtually and then combined with real measurements of solar, spectral and instrument calibration information to derive meaningful scientific results. Spatial resolution of planned geochemical maps will be improved from the initial conditions of low statistical significance per integration by repeated surface flyovers and regional spectral accumulation. This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort of design and development of the NEAR XGRS instrument ground system undertaken by participants at the Goddard Space Flight Center, University of Arizona, Cornell University, Applied Physics Laboratory, and Max Plank institute.

  1. Thermodynamic Performance of the 3-Stage ADR for the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theodore; DiPirro, Michael J.; Bialas, Thomas G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument[1] on Astro-H[2] will use a 3-stage ADR[3] to cool the microcalorimeter array to 50 mK. In the primary operating mode, two stages of the ADR cool the detectors using superfluid helium at =1.20 K as the heat sink[4]. In the secondary mode, which is activated when the liquid helium is depleted, the ADR uses a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cooler as its heat sink. In this mode, all three stages operate together to continuously cool the (empty) helium tank and singleshot cool the detectors. The flight instrument - dewar, ADR, detectors and electronics - were integrated in 2014 and have since undergone extensive performance testing. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the ADR's operation, including cooling capacity, heat rejection to the heat sinks, and various measures of efficiency.

  2. In-flight performance of pulse processing system of the ASTRO-H soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Shinya; Seta, Hiromi; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Takeda, Sawako; Terada, Yukikatsu; Kato, Yuka; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Koyama, Shu; MItsuda, Kazuhisa; Sawada, Makoto; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Porter, F. Scott; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2016-07-01

    We summarize results of the initial in-orbit performance of the pulse shape processor (PSP) of the soft x-ray spectrometer instrument onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi). Event formats, kind of telemetry, and the pulse processing parameters are described, and the parameter settings in orbit are listed. PSP was powered-on two days after launch, and the event threshold was lowered in orbit. PSP worked fine in orbit, and there were no memory error nor SpaceWire communication error until the break-up of spacecraft. Time assignment, electrical crosstalk, and the event screening criteria are studied. It is confirmed that the event processing rate at 100% CPU load is 200 c/s/array, compliant with the requirement on PSP.

  3. Development of a Silicon Drift Detector Array: An X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Remote Surface Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Carini, Gabriella A.; Wei, Chen; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kramer, Georgiana; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Keister, Jeffrey W.; Zheng, Li; Ramsey, Brian D.; Rehak, Pavel; Siddons, D. Peter

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three years NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been collaborating with Brookhaven National Laboratory to develop a modular Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) intended for fine surface mapping of the light elements of the moon. The value of fluorescence spectrometry for surface element mapping is underlined by the fact that the technique has recently been employed by three lunar orbiter missions; Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, and Chang e. The SDD-XRS instrument we have been developing can operate at a low energy threshold (i.e. is capable of detecting Carbon), comparable energy resolution to Kaguya (<150 eV at 5.9 keV) and an order of magnitude lower power requirement, making much higher sensitivities possible. Furthermore, the intrinsic radiation resistance of the SDD makes it useful even in radiation-harsh environments such as that of Jupiter and its surrounding moons.

  4. Particle charge spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An airflow through a tube is used to guide a charged particle through the tube. A detector may be used to detect charge passing through the tube on the particle. The movement of the particle through the tube may be used to both detect its charge and size.

  5. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I. V.; Ene, A.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  6. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, I. V.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Ene, A.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-23

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  7. TAKASAGO-6 apparatus for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological non-crystalline particles using X-ray free electron laser at SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Shirahama, Keiya; Torizuka, Yasufumi; Manoda, Masahiro; Nakasako, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a technique for structure analyses of non-crystalline particles with dimensions ranging from micrometer to sub-micrometer. We have developed a diffraction apparatus named TAKASAGO-6 for use in single-shot CXDI experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline biological particles at cryogenic temperature with X-ray free electron laser pulses provided at a repetition rate of 30 Hz from the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser. Specimen particles are flash-cooled after being dispersed on thin membranes supported by specially designed disks. The apparatus is equipped with a high-speed translation stage with a cryogenic pot for raster-scanning of the disks at a speed higher than 25 μm/33 ms. In addition, we use devices assisting the easy transfer of cooled specimens from liquid-nitrogen storages to the cryogenic pot. In the current experimental procedure, more than 20 000 diffraction patterns can be collected within 1 h. Here we report the key components and performance of the diffraction apparatus. Based on the efficiency of the diffraction data collection and the structure analyses of metal particles, biological cells, and cellular organelles, we discuss the future application of this diffraction apparatus for structure analyses of biological specimens.

  8. TAKASAGO-6 apparatus for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological non-crystalline particles using X-ray free electron laser at SACLA.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Shirahama, Keiya; Torizuka, Yasufumi; Manoda, Masahiro; Nakasako, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a technique for structure analyses of non-crystalline particles with dimensions ranging from micrometer to sub-micrometer. We have developed a diffraction apparatus named TAKASAGO-6 for use in single-shot CXDI experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline biological particles at cryogenic temperature with X-ray free electron laser pulses provided at a repetition rate of 30 Hz from the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser. Specimen particles are flash-cooled after being dispersed on thin membranes supported by specially designed disks. The apparatus is equipped with a high-speed translation stage with a cryogenic pot for raster-scanning of the disks at a speed higher than 25 μm/33 ms. In addition, we use devices assisting the easy transfer of cooled specimens from liquid-nitrogen storages to the cryogenic pot. In the current experimental procedure, more than 20 000 diffraction patterns can be collected within 1 h. Here we report the key components and performance of the diffraction apparatus. Based on the efficiency of the diffraction data collection and the structure analyses of metal particles, biological cells, and cellular organelles, we discuss the future application of this diffraction apparatus for structure analyses of biological specimens.

  9. Lead iodide X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers for room and high temperature operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hermon, H.; James, R.B.; Cross, E.

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we report on the results of the investigation of lead iodide material properties. The effectiveness of zone refining purification methods on the material purity is determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES and correlated to the electrical and physical material properties. We show that this zone refining method is very efficient in removing impurities from lead iodide and we also determine the segregation coefficient for some of these impurities. Triple axis x- ray diffraction (TAD) analysis has been used to determine the crystalline perfection of the lead iodide after applying various cutting, etching, and fabrication methods. The soft lead iodide crystal was found to be damaged when cleaved by a razor blade, but by using a diamond wheel saw, followed by etching, the crystallinity of the material was improved, as observed by TAD. Low temperature photoluminescence also indicates an improvement in the material properties of the purified lead iodide. Electrical properties of lead iodide such as carrier mobility, were calculated based on carrier- phonon scattering. The results for the electrical properties were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. X-ray observations of EX Hydrae with the Einstein Solid State Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jyoti; Swank, Jean

    1993-01-01

    Einstein SSS X-ray observations of the eclipsing intermediate polar EX Hya are presented. The SSS data have a better resolution at energies extending below 2 keV than do the EXOSAT data. These data reveal the presence of a soft component with a temperature of about 0.74 keV. The phase-resolved data can be fitted to a model of two-temperature thermal plasma with a single absorber, with the result that only the normalization varies with phase. This suggests that part of the soft component might become occulted at minimum. If we assume that the reduction in the flux occurs due to the photoelectric absorption, we find that a high-density material covering only about 40 percent of the emission can fit the data equally well. The EXOSAT and Ginga data of this source favor the accretion curtain model rather than the occultation model. We modify the accretion curtain model by assuming that the modulation is caused by an absorber which partially covers the accreting column at the minimum of the 67-min pulse. An emission line at 1.72 keV is present in the data. The equivalent width of this line varies in phase with the continuum. We associate this line with Si fluorescence.

  11. Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Colin; Harrington, Charles; Schuff, Katie; Battaglia, Maria; Moore, Robert; Turley, Colin; Vineyard, Michael; Labrake, Scott

    2010-11-01

    We are developing a research program in ion-beam analysis (IBA) of atmospheric aerosols at the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory to study the transport, transformation, and effects of airborne pollution in Upstate New York. The simultaneous applications of the IBA techniques of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry (RBS), particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), and proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA) is a powerful tool for the study of airborne pollution because they are non-destructive and provide quantitative information on nearly all elements of the periodic table. PIXE is the main IBA technique because it is able to detect nearly all elements from Na to U with high sensitivities and low detection limits. The aerosol samples are collected with cascade impactors that allow for the study of particulate matter as a function of particle size and the samples are analyzed using proton beams with energies around 2 MeV from the Union College 1.1-MV Pelletron Accelerator. The emitted X-rays are measured using a silicon drift detector with a resolution of 136 eV. We will describe how the aerosol samples were collected, discuss the PIXE analysis, and present preliminary results.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of recombinant hepatitis E virus-like particle

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Che-Yen; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Higashiura, Akifumi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Li, Tian-Cheng; Takeda, Naokazu; Xing, Li; Hjalmarsson, Erik; Friberg, Claes; Liou, Der-Ming; Sung, Yen-Jen; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Cheng, R. Holland

    2008-04-01

    A recombinant virus-like particle that is a potential oral hepatitis E vaccine was crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 8.3 Å resolution and the X-ray structure was phased with the aid of a low-resolution density map determined using cryo-electron microscopy data. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) accounts for the majority of enterically transmitted hepatitis infections worldwide. Currently, there is no specific treatment for or vaccine against HEV. The major structural protein is derived from open reading frame (ORF) 2 of the viral genome. A potential oral vaccine is provided by the virus-like particles formed by a protein construct of partial ORF3 protein (residue 70–123) fused to the N-terminus of the ORF2 protein (residues 112–608). Single crystals obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K diffract X-rays to 8.3 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 337, b = 343, c = 346 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, and contain one particle per asymmetric unit.

  13. Science Goals and First Light Analysis from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Warren, Harry; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Mason, James; McTiernan, James; Moore, Christopher; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat with deployment from the ISS planned in Q2 2016. Its goal is to measure the solar soft X-ray (SXR) spectral irradiance, an observational signature of hot plasma in the solar corona. Over the last few decades, there have been very few spectrally resolved observations from ~0.2 to ~4 keV (~0.3-6 nm). This range is sensitive to high-temperature plasma and contains many spectral lines (e.g., Mg, Si, Fe, S, Ar), the abundances of which probe plasma transport and provide valuable constraints on plasma heating mechanisms during both flares and quiescence. This solar SXR emission is primarily absorbed in the E-region of Earth's ionosphere, and the subsequently driven dynamical processes are still poorly understood, in large part because the energy distribution of the incident SXRs is not yet well characterized.MinXSS flies a miniature commercial off-the-shelf soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer, the Amptek X123-SDD. The silicon drift detector has 0.5 mm fully depleted thickness and a 25 mm^2 physical area, with a ~16 micron Be entrance window; with on-board thermoelectric cooling and pulse pile-up rejection, it is sensitive to solar SXRs from ~0.5 to 30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution. MinXSS also includes a broadband SXR photometer, providing an integrated intensity over a similar energy range for comparison, cross-calibration, and additional data, especially useful during more intense flares at the upper end of the X123 dynamic range.We present the MinXSS science goals for studying hot plasma in the solar corona, including impulsive flare heating and quiescent coronal heating, and the impact of the resultant SXR emission on Earth's ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere. We present analysis of MinXSS first light results (depending on deployment date from the ISS), as well as modeling and predictions of future observations over the MinXSS 6-12 month mission lifetime.

  14. Atmospheric Electron-induced X-Ray Spectrometer (AEXS) Instrument Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urgiles, E.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Toda, R.; Crisp, J.; George, T.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes the progress in data acquisition and establishing the observational capability of the AEXS instrument. The AEXS is a miniature instrument[1-4] based on the excitation of characteristic X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and luminescence spectra using a focused electron beam which enables nondestructive evaluation of sample surfaces in planetary ambient atmospheres. In situ operation is obtained through the use of a thin electron transmissive membrane to isolate the vacuum of the AEXS source from the outside ambient atmosphere. Thus eliminating the need for a vacuum pumped sample chamber as is common in all laboratory SEM s. The transmitted electrons impinge on the sample exciting XRF spectra from the irradiated spot on in-situ or collected samples with sub-mm to cm-scale spatial resolution at Mars atmospheric pressure. The AEXS system (Fig 1) consists of a high-energy (>10keV) electron gun encapsulated by the isolation membrane, an XRF detection and analyzer system, and a high voltage power supply. The XRF data are analyzed to determine the elemental abundance for the irradiated spots. The approach to demonstrating a proof of concept of the AEXS has been through 1) demonstrating the viability of microfabricated membranes, 2) assembling AEXS setups with increasingly integrated functional components, and 3) simulating the AEXS observational capabilities. The development of the instrument is described in detail in the poster paper[4] at this conference. This paper focuses on describing the progress of the AEXS instrument to acquire XRF data and using commercially available software to analyze the data streams and determine the accuracy, precision and resolution of the analysis compared to the certified elemental abundance.

  15. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat: instrument characterization techniques, instrument capabilities and solar science objectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher; Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in early 2016. MinXSS will utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 - 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV and a LASP developed X-ray photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder.The majority of previous solar X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broad band) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements of moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and their effects on Earth’s ionosphere. This presentation focuses on the science instrument characterization involving radioactive X-ray sources and the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). Detector spectral response, spectral resolution, response linearity are discussed as well as future solar science objectives.

  16. Construction of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and its application to pulse duration measurement of X-ray laser using a pump-probe method

    SciTech Connect

    Namba, S.; Hasegawa, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Nishikino, M.; Ishino, M.; Kawachi, T.

    2015-11-15

    To characterize the temporal evolution of ultrashort X-ray pulses emitted by laser plasmas using a pump-probe method, a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer is constructed. The design is determined by numerical calculations of a mirror magnetic field and of the electron trajectory in a flight tube. The performance of the spectrometer is characterized by measuring the electron spectra of xenon atoms irradiated with a laser-driven plasma X-ray pulse. In addition, two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) experiment is conducted for measurement of the X-ray laser pulse duration, in which xenon atoms are simultaneously irradiated with an X-ray laser pump and an IR laser probe. The correlation in the intensity of the sideband spectra of the 4d inner-shell photoelectrons and in the time delay of the two laser pulses yields an X-ray pulse width of 5.7 ps, in good agreement with the value obtained using an X-ray streak camera.

  17. Flash X-Ray measurements on the shock-induced dispersal of a dense particle curtain

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean P.; Beresh, Steven J.; ...

    2015-11-23

    The interaction of a Mach 1.67 shock wave with a dense particle curtain is quantified using flash radiography. These new data provide a view of particle transport inside a compressible, dense gas–solid flow of high optical opacity. The curtain, composed of 115-µm glass spheres, initially spans 87 % of the test section width and has a streamwise thickness of about 2 mm. Radiograph intensities are converted to particle volume fraction distributions using the Beer–Lambert law. The mass in the particle curtain, as determined from the X-ray data, is in reasonable agreement with that given from a simpler method using amore » load cell and particle imaging. Following shock impingement, the curtain propagates downstream and the peak volume fraction decreases from about 23 to about 4 % over a time of 340 µs. The propagation occurs asymmetrically, with the downstream side of the particle curtain experiencing a greater volume fraction gradient than the upstream side, attributable to the dependence of particle drag on volume fraction. Bulk particle transport is quantified from the time-dependent center of mass of the curtain. Furthermore, the bulk acceleration of the curtain is shown to be greater than that predicted for a single 115-µm particle in a Mach 1.67 shock-induced flow.« less

  18. Flash X-Ray measurements on the shock-induced dispersal of a dense particle curtain

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean P.; Beresh, Steven J.; DeMauro, Edward Paisley; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-11-23

    The interaction of a Mach 1.67 shock wave with a dense particle curtain is quantified using flash radiography. These new data provide a view of particle transport inside a compressible, dense gas–solid flow of high optical opacity. The curtain, composed of 115-µm glass spheres, initially spans 87 % of the test section width and has a streamwise thickness of about 2 mm. Radiograph intensities are converted to particle volume fraction distributions using the Beer–Lambert law. The mass in the particle curtain, as determined from the X-ray data, is in reasonable agreement with that given from a simpler method using a load cell and particle imaging. Following shock impingement, the curtain propagates downstream and the peak volume fraction decreases from about 23 to about 4 % over a time of 340 µs. The propagation occurs asymmetrically, with the downstream side of the particle curtain experiencing a greater volume fraction gradient than the upstream side, attributable to the dependence of particle drag on volume fraction. Bulk particle transport is quantified from the time-dependent center of mass of the curtain. Furthermore, the bulk acceleration of the curtain is shown to be greater than that predicted for a single 115-µm particle in a Mach 1.67 shock-induced flow.

  19. Spatial Gradients in Particle Reinforced Polymers Characterized by X-Ray Attenuation and Laser Confocal Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    LAGASSE,ROBERT R.; THOMPSON,KYLE R.

    2000-06-12

    The goal of this work is to develop techniques for measuring gradients in particle concentration within filled polymers, such as encapsulant. A high concentration of filler particles is added to such materials to tailor physical properties such as thermal expansion coefficient. Sedimentation and flow-induced migration of particles can produce concentration gradients that are most severe near material boundaries. Therefore, techniques for measuring local particle concentration should be accurate near boundaries. Particle gradients in an alumina-filled epoxy resin are measured with a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm using an x-ray beam attenuation technique, but an artifact related to the finite diameter of the beam reduces accuracy near the specimen's edge. Local particle concentration near an edge can be measured more reliably using microscopy coupled with image analysis. This is illustrated by measuring concentration profiles of glass particles having 40 {micro}m median diameter using images acquired by a confocal laser fluorescence microscope. The mean of the measured profiles of volume fraction agrees to better than 3% with the expected value, and the shape of the profiles agrees qualitatively with simple theory for sedimentation of monodisperse particles. Extending this microscopy technique to smaller, micron-scale filler particles used in encapsulant for microelectronic devices is illustrated by measuring the local concentration of an epoxy resin containing 0.41 volume fraction of silica.

  20. Flash X-ray measurements on the shock-induced dispersal of a dense particle curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean P.; Beresh, Steven J.; DeMauro, Edward P.; Pruett, Brian O.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of a Mach 1.67 shock wave with a dense particle curtain is quantified using flash radiography. These new data provide a view of particle transport inside a compressible, dense gas-solid flow of high optical opacity. The curtain, composed of 115-µm glass spheres, initially spans 87 % of the test section width and has a streamwise thickness of about 2 mm. Radiograph intensities are converted to particle volume fraction distributions using the Beer-Lambert law. The mass in the particle curtain, as determined from the X-ray data, is in reasonable agreement with that given from a simpler method using a load cell and particle imaging. Following shock impingement, the curtain propagates downstream and the peak volume fraction decreases from about 23 to about 4 % over a time of 340 µs. The propagation occurs asymmetrically, with the downstream side of the particle curtain experiencing a greater volume fraction gradient than the upstream side, attributable to the dependence of particle drag on volume fraction. Bulk particle transport is quantified from the time-dependent center of mass of the curtain. The bulk acceleration of the curtain is shown to be greater than that predicted for a single 115-µm particle in a Mach 1.67 shock-induced flow.

  1. Photonuclear reaction based high-energy x-ray spectrometer to cover from 2 MeV to 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, S. Arikawa, Y.; Kojima, S.; Ikenouchi, T.; Nagai, T.; Abe, Y.; Inoue, H.; Morace, A.; Utsugi, M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H.; Kato, R.

    2014-11-15

    A photonuclear-reaction-based hard x-ray spectrometer is developed to measure the number and energy spectrum of fast electrons generated by interactions between plasma and intense laser light. In this spectrometer, x-rays are converted to neutrons through photonuclear reactions, and the neutrons are counted with a bubble detector that is insensitive to x-rays. The spectrometer consists of a bundle of hard x-ray detectors that respond to different photon-energy ranges. Proof-of-principle experiment was performed on a linear accelerator facility. A quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch (N{sub e} = 1.0 × 10{sup −6} C, E{sub e} = 16 ± 0.32 MeV) was injected into a 5-mm-thick lead plate. Bremsstrahlung x-rays, which emanate from the lead plate, were measured with the spectrometer. The measured spectral shape and intensity agree fairly well with those computed with a Monte Carlo simulation code. The result shows that high-energy x-rays can be measured absolutely with a photon-counting accuracy of 50%–70% in the energy range from 2 MeV to 20 MeV with a spectral resolution (Δhν/hν) of about 15%. Quantum efficiency of this spectrometer was designed to be 10{sup −7}, 10{sup −4}, 10{sup −5}, respectively, for 2–10, 11–15, and 15–25 MeV of photon energy ranges.

  2. Particle-in-cell simulation of x-ray wakefield acceleration and betatron radiation in nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Tajima, Toshiki; Farinella, Deano; Shin, Youngmin; Mourou, Gerard; Wheeler, Jonathan; Taborek, Peter; Chen, Pisin; Dollar, Franklin; Shen, Baifei

    2016-10-18

    Though wakefield acceleration in crystal channels has been previously proposed, x-ray wakefield acceleration has only recently become a realistic possibility since the invention of the single-cycled optical laser compression technique. We investigate the acceleration due to a wakefield induced by a coherent, ultrashort x-ray pulse guided by a nanoscale channel inside a solid material. By two-dimensional particle-in-cell computer simulations, we show that an acceleration gradient of TeV/cm is attainable. This is about 3 orders of magnitude stronger than that of the conventional plasma-based wakefield accelerations, which implies the possibility of an extremely compact scheme to attain ultrahigh energies. In addition to particle acceleration, this scheme can also induce the emission of high energy photons at ~O(10–100) MeV. Here, our simulations confirm such high energy photon emissions, which is in contrast with that induced by the optical laser driven wakefield scheme. In addition to this, the significantly improved emittance of the energetic electrons has been discussed.

  3. Particle-in-cell simulation of x-ray wakefield acceleration and betatron radiation in nanotubes

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Tajima, Toshiki; Farinella, Deano; ...

    2016-10-18

    Though wakefield acceleration in crystal channels has been previously proposed, x-ray wakefield acceleration has only recently become a realistic possibility since the invention of the single-cycled optical laser compression technique. We investigate the acceleration due to a wakefield induced by a coherent, ultrashort x-ray pulse guided by a nanoscale channel inside a solid material. By two-dimensional particle-in-cell computer simulations, we show that an acceleration gradient of TeV/cm is attainable. This is about 3 orders of magnitude stronger than that of the conventional plasma-based wakefield accelerations, which implies the possibility of an extremely compact scheme to attain ultrahigh energies. In additionmore » to particle acceleration, this scheme can also induce the emission of high energy photons at ~O(10–100) MeV. Here, our simulations confirm such high energy photon emissions, which is in contrast with that induced by the optical laser driven wakefield scheme. In addition to this, the significantly improved emittance of the energetic electrons has been discussed.« less

  4. An alpha particle instrument with alpha, proton, and X-ray modes for planetary chemical analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of alpha particles with matter is employed in a compact instrument that could provide rather complete in-situ chemical analyses of surfaces and thin atmospheres of extraterrestrial bodies. The instrument is a miniaturized and improved version of the Surveyor lunar instrument. The backscattering of alpha particles and (alpha, p) reactions provide analytical data on the light elements (carbon-iron). An X-ray mode that detects the photons produced by the alpha sources provides sensitivity and resolution for the chemical elements heavier than about silicon. The X-rays are detected by semiconductor detectors having a resolution between 150 and 250 eV at 5.9 keV. Such an instrument can identify and determine with good accuracy 99 percent of the atoms (except hydrogen) in rocks. For many trace elements, the detecting sensitivity is a few ppm. Auxiliary sources could be used to enhance the sensitivities for elements of special interest. The instrument could probably withstand the acceleration involved in semi-hard landings.

  5. Constraining the particle spectrum in blazar jets: importance of the hard X-ray spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Atreyee; Sahayanathan, Sunder; Chitnis, Varsha

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of the spectral curvature in blazar jets can throw light on the underlying particle spectral distribution, and hence, the acceleration and diffusion processes at play. With the advent of NuSTAR and ASTROSAT, and the upcoming ASTRO-H, this curvature can now be measured accurately across the broadband X-ray energies. We will discuss results from our recent works on two HBLs, Mkn421 (Sinha et al, A&A 2015) and 1ES1011+496 (Sinha et al, ApJ submitted), and show how simultaneous measurement at hard and soft X-ray energies can be crucial in understanding the underlying particle spectrum. Detection of lognormality in blazars is beginning to hint at strong disk-jet connections. India's recently launched multiwavelength satellite, the ASTROSAT will provide simultaneous time resolved data between 0.2-80keV, along with measurements at Optical-UV energies. We will discuss prospects from ASTROSAT for studying jet triggering mechanisms in blazars.

  6. Particle-in-cell simulation of x-ray wakefield acceleration and betatron radiation in nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Tajima, Toshiki; Farinella, Deano; Shin, Youngmin; Mourou, Gerard; Wheeler, Jonathan; Taborek, Peter; Chen, Pisin; Dollar, Franklin; Shen, Baifei

    2016-10-01

    Though wakefield acceleration in crystal channels has been previously proposed, x-ray wakefield acceleration has only recently become a realistic possibility since the invention of the single-cycled optical laser compression technique. We investigate the acceleration due to a wakefield induced by a coherent, ultrashort x-ray pulse guided by a nanoscale channel inside a solid material. By two-dimensional particle-in-cell computer simulations, we show that an acceleration gradient of TeV /cm is attainable. This is about 3 orders of magnitude stronger than that of the conventional plasma-based wakefield accelerations, which implies the possibility of an extremely compact scheme to attain ultrahigh energies. In addition to particle acceleration, this scheme can also induce the emission of high energy photons at ˜O (10 - 100 ) MeV . Our simulations confirm such high energy photon emissions, which is in contrast with that induced by the optical laser driven wakefield scheme. In addition to this, the significantly improved emittance of the energetic electrons has been discussed.

  7. Atmospheric Electron-induced X-Ray Spectrometer (AEXS) Instrument Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. Z.; Urgiles, E.; Toda, R.; George, T.; Crisp, J.

    2005-01-01

    Instrument Development: The membrane properties were investigated in detail due to its critical role. A series of experiments determined that our designed membranes have high electron transmission, yet are capable of isolating high vacuum, are able to withstand differential pressure in excess of one atmosphere, survive vibrational shocks of a magnitude to be expected during a planetary mission. Our initial work has been with a 10 keV source and a 200 nm thick Silicon Nitride (SiN) encapsulation membrane micro-fabricated within a Si support frame (1.5 mm x 1.5 mm window openings. Fig 2 compares the spectra taken with the 10 keV source with spectra taken within SEM. Introduction: This paper describes the progress in the development of the AEXS instrument in our laboratory at JPL. The AEXS is a novel miniature instrument[1-3] based on the excitation of characteristic X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and luminescence spectra using a focused electron beam, for non-destructive evaluation of surfaces of samples in planetary ambient atmosphere. In situ operation is obtained through the use of a thin electron transmissive membrane to isolate the vacuum within the AEXS electron source from the outside ambient atmosphere. The impinging electrons excite XRF spectra from the irradiated spots on samples in external atmosphere with high-to-medium (sub-mm to cm-scale) spatial resolution at Mars atmospheric pressure. The XRF spectra are analyzed using an energy-dispersive detector to determine surface elemental composition, or in the case of electron-induced luminescence to identify unusual formations on surface that cathodo-luminescence (CL). The AEXS system (Fig 1) consists of a high-energy (>10keV) electron gun encapsulated by the isolation membrane, an EDX detection and analyzer system to determine the elemental abundance, an optional CL detection system, and a high voltage power supply. The approach to demonstrating a proof of concept of the AEXS has been through 1) demonstrating the

  8. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Wobrauschek, P. Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Streli, C.; Misra, N. L.

    2015-08-15

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm{sup 2} active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  9. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Misra, N. L.; Streli, C.

    2015-08-01

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm2 active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  10. Particle-Charge Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen; Wilson, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    An instrument for rapidly measuring the electric charges and sizes (from approximately 1 to approximately 100 micrometers) of airborne particles is undergoing development. Conceived for monitoring atmospheric dust particles on Mars, instruments like this one could also be used on Earth to monitor natural and artificial aerosols in diverse indoor and outdoor settings for example, volcanic regions, clean rooms, powder-processing machinery, and spray-coating facilities. The instrument incorporates a commercially available, low-noise, ultrasensitive charge-sensing preamplifier circuit. The input terminal of this circuit--the gate of a field-effect transistor--is connected to a Faraday-cage cylindrical electrode. The charged particles of interest are suspended in air or other suitable gas that is made to flow along the axis of the cylindrical electrode without touching the electrode. The flow can be channeled and generated by any of several alternative means; in the prototype of this instrument, the gas is drawn along a glass capillary tube (see upper part of figure) coaxial with the electrode. The size of a particle affects its rate of acceleration in the flow and thus affects the timing and shape of the corresponding signal peak generated by the charge-sensing amplifier. The charge affects the magnitude (and thus also the shape) of the signal peak. Thus, the signal peak (see figure) conveys information on both the size and electric charge of a sensed particle. In experiments thus far, the instrument has been found to be capable of measuring individual aerosol particle charges of magnitude greater than 350 e (where e is the fundamental unit of electric charge) with a precision of +/- 150 e. The instrument can sample particles at a rate as high as several thousand per second.

  11. X-ray fluorescence experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

    1972-01-01

    The preliminary results from the Sco X-1 and Cyg X-1 obtained from the Apollo 15 X-ray detector data are presented along with preliminary results of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric data of the lunar surface composition. The production of the characteristic X-rays following the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface is described along with the X-ray spectrometer. Preliminary analyses of the astronomical X-ray observation and the X-ray fluorescence data are presented.

  12. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; Caillaud, T.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Poirier, M.; Serres, F.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Villette, B.

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ⟨E/δE⟩ ˜ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  13. Surface Structure of Nanometer-Sized Zinc Ferrite Particles by the Anomalous X-ray Scattering (AXS) Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Eiichiro; Okuda, Kaneharu; Waseda, Yoshio; Saito, Toshihiko

    1992-10-01

    The atomic structure of nanometer-sized zinc ferrite particles has been studied with the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) method as well as the ordinary x-ray diffraction. The analysis of the peak broadening indicated that little microstrain exists in these nanometer-sized particles, and the average size of the particles is estimated to be 4 nm. Since the ratio of atoms located on the surface increases extremely in such fine particles, the contribution of these surface atoms to the x-ray scattering intensity was evaluated. The interference function Qi (Q) for the surface atoms appears to be similar to that of the zinc-ferrite glass. The experimental intensity is successfully explained by using a simple particle model consisting of the about 0.2 nm thick surface layer having a glass-like structure and the internal atoms having the ferrite crystalline structure.

  14. Design of a 3-Stage ADR for the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument on the Astro-H Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; Wegel, Donald C.; Canavan, Edgar R.; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Astro-H mission will include the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument, whose 36-pixel detector array of ultra-sensitive x-ray microcalorimeters requires cooling to 50 mK. This will be accomplished using a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design is dictated by the need to operate with full redundancy with both a superfluid helium dewar at 1.3 K or below, and with a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cooler. The ADR is configured as a 2-stage unit that is located in a well in the helium tank, and a third stage that is mounted to the top of the helium tank. The third stage is directly connected through two heat switches to the JT cooler and the helium tank, and manages heat flow between the two. When liquid helium is present, the 2-stage ADR operates in a single-shot manner using the superfluid helium as a heat sink. The third stage may be used independently to reduce the time-average heat load on the liquid to extend its lifetime. When the liquid is depleted, the 2nd and 3rd stages operate as a continuous ADR to maintain the helium tank at as low a temperature as possible - expected to be 1.2 K - and the 1st stage cools from that temperature as a single-stage, single-shot ADR. The ADR s design and operating modes are discussed, along with test results of the prototype 3-stage ADR.

  15. Microstructural analysis of TRISO particles using multi-scale X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, T.; Bradley, R. S.; Yue, S.; Barii, K.; Gelb, J.; Rohbeck, N.; Turner, J.; Withers, P. J.

    2015-06-01

    TRISO particles, a composite nuclear fuel built up by ceramic and graphitic layers, have outstanding high temperature resistance. TRISO fuel is the key technology for High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) and the Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) variant. TRISO offers unparalleled containment of fission products and is extremely robust during accident conditions. An understanding of the thermal performance and mechanical properties of TRISO fuel requires a detailed knowledge of pore sizes, their distribution and interconnectivity. Here 50 nm, nano-, and 1 μm resolution, micro-computed tomography (CT), have been used to quantify non-destructively porosity of a surrogate TRISO particle at the 0.3-10 μm and 3-100 μm scales respectively. This indicates that pore distributions can reliably be measured down to a size approximately 3 times the pixel size which is consistent with the segmentation process. Direct comparison with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) sections indicates that destructive sectioning can introduce significant levels of coarse damage, especially in the pyrolytic carbon layers. Further comparative work is required to identify means of minimizing such damage for SEM studies. Finally since it is non-destructive, multi-scale time-lapse X-ray CT opens the possibility of intermittently tracking the degradation of TRISO structure under thermal cycles or radiation conditions in order to validate models of degradation such as kernel movement. X-ray CT in-situ experimentation of TRISO particles under load and temperature could also be used to understand the internal changes that occur in the particles under accident conditions.

  16. High resolution spectrometer for extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements in the 6 keV to 15 keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J. F.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, Albert; Feldman, U.

    2016-11-01

    A Cauchois transmission-crystal spectrometer has been developed with high crystal resolving power in the 6 keV-15 keV energy range and sufficient sensitivity to record single-shot spectra from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Titan laser and other comparable or more energetic lasers. The spectrometer capabilities were tested by recording the W L transitions from a laboratory source and the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum through a Cu foil.

  17. Impact of Oriented Clay Particles on X-Ray Spectroscopy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, A. J. M. S.; Syazwani, R. N.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the engineering properties of the mineralogy and microfabic of clayey soils is very complex and thus very difficult for soil characterization. Micromechanics of soils recognize that the micro structure and mineralogy of clay have a significant influence on its engineering behaviour. To achieve a more reliable quantitative evaluation of clay mineralogy, a proper sample preparation technique for quantitative clay mineral analysis is necessary. This paper presents the quantitative evaluation of elemental analysis and chemical characterization of oriented and random oriented clay particles using X-ray spectroscopy. Three different types of clays namely marine clay, bentonite and kaolin clay were studied. The oriented samples were prepared by placing the dispersed clay in water and left to settle on porous ceramic tiles by applying a relatively weak suction through a vacuum pump. Images form a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was also used to show the comparison between the orientation patterns of both the sample preparation techniques. From the quantitative analysis of the X-ray spectroscopy, oriented sampling method showed more accuracy in identifying mineral deposits, because it produced better peak intensity on the spectrum and more mineral content can be identified compared to randomly oriented samples.

  18. Imaging whole Escherichia coli bacteria by using single-particle x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianwei; Hodgson, Keith O; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Larabell, Carolyn A; LeGros, Mark A; Nishino, Yoshinori

    2003-01-07

    We report the first experimental recording, to our knowledge, of the diffraction pattern from intact Escherichia coli bacteria using coherent x-rays with a wavelength of 2 A. By using the oversampling phasing method, a real space image at a resolution of 30 nm was directly reconstructed from the diffraction pattern. An R factor used for characterizing the quality of the reconstruction was in the range of 5%, which demonstrated the reliability of the reconstruction process. The distribution of proteins inside the bacteria labeled with manganese oxide has been identified and this distribution confirmed by fluorescence microscopy images. Compared with lens-based microscopy, this diffraction-based imaging approach can examine thicker samples, such as whole cultured cells, in three dimensions with resolution limited only by radiation damage. Looking forward, the successful recording and reconstruction of diffraction patterns from biological samples reported here represent an important step toward the potential of imaging single biomolecules at near-atomic resolution by combining single-particle diffraction with x-ray free electron lasers.

  19. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction of virus-like particles from a piscine betanodavirus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu-Chun; Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Wu, Yi-Min; Liu, Wangta; Lu, Ming-Wei; Lin, Chan-Shing

    2014-08-01

    Dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus (DGNNV), a member of the genus Betanodavirus, causes high mortality of larvae and juveniles of the grouper fish Epinephelus lanceolatus. Currently, there is no reported crystal structure of a fish nodavirus. The DGNNV virion capsid is derived from a single open reading frame that encodes a 338-amino-acid protein of approximately 37 kDa. The capsid protein of DGNNV was expressed to form virus-like particles (VLPs) in Escherichia coli. The VLP shape is T = 3 quasi-symmetric with a diameter of ∼38 nm in cryo-electron microscopy images and is highly similar to the native virion. In this report, crystals of DGNNV VLPs were grown to a size of 0.27 mm within two weeks by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 283 K and diffracted X-rays to ∼7.5 Å resolution. In-house X-ray diffraction data of the DGNNV VLP crystals showed that the crystals belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 353.00, c = 800.40 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. 23 268 unique reflections were acquired with an overall Rmerge of 18.2% and a completeness of 93.2%. Self-rotation function maps confirmed the fivefold, threefold and twofold symmetries of the icosahedron of DGNNV VLPs.

  20. Impurity precipitation in atomized particles evidenced by nano x-ray diffraction computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnin, Anne; Wright, Jonathan P.; Tucoulou, Rémi; Palancher, Hervé

    2014-08-25

    Performances and physical properties of high technology materials are influenced or even determined by their initial microstructure and by the behavior of impurity phases. Characterizing these impurities and their relations with the surrounding matrix is therefore of primary importance but it unfortunately often requires a destructive approach, with the risk of misinterpreting the observations. The improvement we have done in high resolution X-ray diffraction computed tomography combined with the use of an X-ray nanoprobe allows non-destructive crystallographic description of materials with microscopic heterogeneous microstructure (with a grain size between 10 nm and 10 μm). In this study, the grain localization in a 2D slice of a 20 μm solidified atomized γU-Mo particle is shown and a minority U(C,O) phase (1 wt. %) with sub-micrometer sized grains was characterized inside. Evidence is presented showing that the onset of U(C,O) grain crystallization can be described by a precipitation mechanism since one single U-Mo grain has direct orientation relationship with more than one surrounding U(C,O) grains.

  1. Single-particle coherent diffractive imaging with a soft x-ray free electron laser: towards soot aerosol morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogan, Michael J.; Starodub, Dmitri; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond G.

    2010-10-01

    The first of its kind, the Free electron LASer facility in Hamburg, FLASH, produces soft x-ray pulses with unprecedented properties (10 fs, 6.8-47 nm, 1012 photons per pulse, 20 µm diameter). One of the seminal FLASH experiments is single-pulse coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI). CXDI utilizes the ultrafast and ultrabright pulses to overcome resolution limitations in x-ray microscopy imposed by x-ray-induced damage to the sample by 'diffracting before destroying' the sample on sub-picosecond timescales. For many lensless imaging algorithms used for CXDI it is convenient when the data satisfy an oversampling constraint that requires the sample to be an isolated object, i.e. an individual 'free-standing' portion of disordered matter delivered to the centre of the x-ray focus. By definition, this type of matter is an aerosol. This paper will describe the role of aerosol science methodologies used for the validation of the 'diffract before destroy' hypothesis and the execution of the first single-particle CXDI experiments being developed for biological imaging. FLASH CXDI now enables the highest resolution imaging of single micron-sized or smaller airborne particulate matter to date while preserving the native substrate-free state of the aerosol. Electron microscopy offers higher resolution for single-particle analysis but the aerosol must be captured on a substrate, potentially modifying the particle morphology. Thus, FLASH is poised to contribute significant advancements in our knowledge of aerosol morphology and dynamics. As an example, we simulate CXDI of combustion particle (soot) morphology and introduce the concept of extracting radius of gyration of fractal aggregates from single-pulse x-ray diffraction data. Future upgrades to FLASH will enable higher spatially and temporally resolved single-particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science and nanotechnology. Many of the methodologies described for FLASH will

  2. Automated Chemical Analysis of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Using X-ray Spectromicroscopy at the Carbon K-Edge

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, Mary K; Moffet, R.C.; Henn, T.; Laskin, A.

    2011-01-20

    We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicrometer particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278 to 320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and noncarbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate the application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.

  3. Study of the elemental composition of Yellow Pine using particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Changgeng; Hollerman, William A.; Glass, Gary A.; Greco, Richard

    2001-07-01

    It has been found that metals in woody tissue will influence the growth rate of trees. Utilization of particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) for determination of trace element levels in biological systems is rather extensive. In this work, three rings taken from a 50-year-old Yellow Pine tree were PIXE analyzed with minimal sample preparation. Eight elements (potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, and zinc) were studied during the PIXE analysis. The relationship between relative yield and tree ring thickness is presented for each detected element. These results show that wood taken from the oldest ring has the widest ring thickness and possesses the largest quantities of all the tested elements. Calcium appears to have the largest relative yield of all the tested elements and is roughly proportional to ring thickness. Heavier elements, such as lead and mercury, were not detected in any of the Yellow Pine samples.

  4. Quasars in miniature: new insights into particle acceleration from X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoff, Sera

    2013-04-01

    A variety of astronomical objects routinely accelerate particles to high energy, with the maximum possible energy per particle typically limited by the size of the system and magnetic field strength. For that reason, much attention has focused on the massive jets of relativistic plasma ejected from supermassive black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), which are at least theoretically capable of producing particles (cosmic rays) up to a whopping 10{20 }eV. However neither how these jets are formed or function, nor how exactly they accelerate particles, is well understood. While we do not expect the mechanisms for particle acceleration in stellar remnant black holes within X-ray binaries (XRBs) to be particularly different than in other sources, XRBs do offer some unique insights. Primarily, jets very similar to those in AGN come and go on timescales of weeks to months, while often monitored simultaneously across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Through such observations we have been able to probe the processes by which jets not only build up dynamically, but also at what point the jets begin to accelerate particles, providing hints about the necessary conditions and efficiencies. Because the physics of accretion-driven processes such as jets seems to scale predictably with black hole mass, we can also potentially apply what we are learning in these smaller systems to the same phenomena AGN, giving us a new handle on several longstanding questions. I will review our current understanding of particle acceleration in XRBs, as well as the increasing body of evidence suggesting that XRBs indeed seem to represent scaled-down (and thus handily faster evolving) versions of the much more powerful AGN. I will also touch on how accelerated particles from XRBs may contribute significantly to the low-energy Galactic cosmic ray distribution, with local impact on gas chemistry and star formation.

  5. The terminal velocity of volcanic particles with shape obtained from 3D X-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dioguardi, Fabio; Mele, Daniela; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Dürig, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    New experiments of falling volcanic particles were performed in order to define terminal velocity models applicable in a wide range of Reynolds number Re. Experiments were carried out with fluids of various viscosities and with particles that cover a wide range of size, density and shape. Particle shape, which strongly influences fluid drag, was measured in 3D by High-resolution X-ray microtomography, by which sphericity Φ3D and fractal dimension D3D were obtained. They are easier to measure and less operator dependent than the 2D shape parameters used in previous papers. Drag laws that make use of the new 3D parameters were obtained by fitting particle data to the experiments, and single-equation terminal velocity models were derived. They work well both at high and low Re (3 × 10- 2 < Re < 104), while earlier formulations made use of different equations at different ranges of Re. The new drag laws are well suited for the modelling of particle transportation both in the eruptive column, where coarse and fine particles are present, and also in the distal part of the umbrella region, where fine ash is involved in the large-scale domains of atmospheric circulation. A table of the typical values of Φ3D and D3D of particles from known plinian, subplinian and ash plume eruptions is presented. Graphs of terminal velocity as a function of grain size are finally proposed as tools to help volcanologists and atmosphere scientists to model particle transportation of explosive eruptions.

  6. Simple convergent-nozzle aerosol injector for single-particle diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers

    PubMed Central

    Kirian, R. A.; Awel, S.; Eckerskorn, N.; Fleckenstein, H.; Wiedorn, M.; Adriano, L.; Bajt, S.; Barthelmess, M.; Bean, R.; Beyerlein, K. R.; Chavas, L. M. G.; Domaracky, M.; Heymann, M.; Horke, D. A.; Knoska, J.; Metz, M.; Morgan, A.; Oberthuer, D.; Roth, N.; Sato, T.; Xavier, P. L.; Yefanov, O.; Rode, A. V.; Küpper, J.; Chapman, H. N.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in high-resolution x-ray free-electron laser-based coherent diffractive imaging is the development of aerosol injectors that can efficiently deliver particles to the peak intensity of the focused X-ray beam. Here, we consider the use of a simple convergent-orifice nozzle for producing tightly focused beams of particles. Through optical imaging we show that 0.5 μm particles can be focused to a full-width at half maximum diameter of 4.2 μm, and we demonstrate the use of such a nozzle for injecting viruses into a micro-focused soft-X-ray FEL beam. PMID:26798816

  7. Simple convergent-nozzle aerosol injector for single-particle diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Kirian, R A; Awel, S; Eckerskorn, N; Fleckenstein, H; Wiedorn, M; Adriano, L; Bajt, S; Barthelmess, M; Bean, R; Beyerlein, K R; Chavas, L M G; Domaracky, M; Heymann, M; Horke, D A; Knoska, J; Metz, M; Morgan, A; Oberthuer, D; Roth, N; Sato, T; Xavier, P L; Yefanov, O; Rode, A V; Küpper, J; Chapman, H N

    2015-07-01

    A major challenge in high-resolution x-ray free-electron laser-based coherent diffractive imaging is the development of aerosol injectors that can efficiently deliver particles to the peak intensity of the focused X-ray beam. Here, we consider the use of a simple convergent-orifice nozzle for producing tightly focused beams of particles. Through optical imaging we show that 0.5 μm particles can be focused to a full-width at half maximum diameter of 4.2 μm, and we demonstrate the use of such a nozzle for injecting viruses into a micro-focused soft-X-ray FEL beam.

  8. The Alpha-Proton-X-ray Spectrometer deployment mechanism: An anthropomorphic approach to sensor placement on Martian rocks and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomquist, Richard S.

    1995-01-01

    On July 4,1997, the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft lands on Mars and starts conducting technological and scientific experiments. One experiment, the Alpha-Proton-X-ray Spectrometer, uses a sensor head placed against rocks and soil to determine their composition. To guarantee proper placement, a deployment mechanism mounted on the Mars Rover aligns the sensor head to within 20 deg of the rock and soil surfaces. In carrying out its task, the mechanism mimics the action of a human hand and arm. Consisting of a flexible wrist, a parallel link arm, a brush dc motor actuator, and a revolutionary non-pyrotechnic fail-safe release device, the mechanism correctly positions the sensor head on rocks as high as 0.29 m and on targets whose surfaces are tilted as much as 45 deg from the nominal orientation of the sensor head face. The mechanism weighs less than 0.5 kg, can withstand 100 g's, and requires less than 2.8 N x m of actuation torque. The fail-safe coupler utilizes Cerrobend, a metal alloy that melts at 60 C, to fuse the actuator and the rest of the mechanism together. A film heater wrapped around the coupler melts the metal, and Negator springs drive the mechanism into its stowed position. The fail-safe actuates using 6.75 Watts for 5 minutes in the event of an actuator failure.

  9. The scientific rationale for the C1XS X-ray spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I. A.; Joy, K. H.; Kellett, B. J.; Grande, M.; Anand, M.; Bhandari, N.; Cook, A. C.; d'Uston, L.; Fernandes, V. A.; Gasnault, O.; Goswami, J.; Howe, C. J.; Huovelin, J.; Koschny, D.; Lawrence, D. J.; Maddison, B. J.; Maurice, S.; Narendranath, S.; Pieters, C.; Okada, T.; Rothery, D. A.; Russell, S. S.; Sreekumar, P.; Swinyard, B.; Wieczorek, M.; Wilding, M.

    2009-06-01

    The UK-built Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) will fly as an ESA instrument on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon, launched in October 2008. C1XS builds on experience gained with the earlier D-CIXS instrument on SMART-1, but will be a scientifically much more capable instrument. Here we describe the scientific objectives of this instrument, which include mapping the abundances of the major rock-forming elements (principally Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca and Fe) in the lunar crust. These data will aid in determining whether regional compositional differences (e.g., the Mg/Fe ratio) are consistent with models of lunar crustal evolution. C1XS data will also permit geochemical studies of smaller scale features, such as the ejecta blankets and central peaks of large impact craters, and individual lava flows and pyroclastic deposits. These objectives all bear on important, and currently unresolved, questions in lunar science, including the structure and evolution of any primordial magma ocean, as revealed by vertical and lateral geochemical variations in the crust, and the composition of the lunar mantle, which will further constrain theories of the Moon's origin, thermal history and internal structure.

  10. Data management and analysis techniques used in the near X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Trombka, J. I.; Floyd, S. R.; Boynton, W. V.; Mikheeva, I.; Bailey, H.; Liewicki, C.; Bhangoo, J.; Starr, R.; Clark, P. E.; Evans, L. G.; Squyres, S.; McNutt, R.; Brückner, J.

    1999-02-01

    The NEAR Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft will encounter the 433Eros asteroid for a one year orbital mission in December 1998. Its on-board remote sensing instrumentation includes X-ray and gamma-ray (XGRS) spectrometers. NEAR is an orbital mission and long integrations over spatially specific asteroid regions are generally not possible. A methodology for simulating longer integrations has been developed for XGRS and uses unique management, correlative and analytical ground systems to render mapping data products. Evaluation of the spatial environment is accomplished through virtual renderings of the asteroid surface giving incidence, emission and surface roughness factors. Extended computer plate modeling information is employed to optimize ground computer systems processing time. Interactive visualization systems have been developed to manage close to a million spectra that will be collected during the encounter. Feedback systems are employed to inspect, tag and calibrate spectral data products. Mission planning, systems development and managerial responsibilities have been distributed to cooperating science organizations at The Goddard Space Flight Center, The University of Arizona, Cornell University, The Applied Physics Laboratory and The Max Plank Institute.

  11. Thermodynamic performance of the 3-stage ADR for the Astro-H Soft-X-ray Spectrometer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theodore; DiPirro, Michael J.; Bialas, Thomas G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2016-03-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument (Mitsuda et al., 2010) [1] on Astro-H (Takahashi et al., 2010) [2] will use a 3-stage ADR (Shirron et al., 2012) to cool the microcalorimeter array to 50 mK. In the primary operating mode, two stages of the ADR cool the detectors using superfluid helium at ⩽1.20 K as the heat sink (Fujimoto et al., 2010). In the secondary mode, which is activated when the liquid helium is depleted, the ADR uses a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cooler as its heat sink. In this mode, all three stages operate together to continuously cool the (empty) helium tank and single-shot cool the detectors. The flight instrument - dewar, ADR, detectors and electronics - were integrated in 2014 and have since undergone extensive performance testing. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the ADR's operation, including cooling capacity, heat rejection to the heat sinks, and various measures of efficiency.

  12. Thermodynamic Analysis of the 3-Stage ADR for the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter; Kimball, Mark; DiPirro, Michael; Bialas, Tom; Sneiderman, Gary; Porter, Scott; Kelley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument on Astro-H will use a 3-stage ADR to cool the microcalorimeter array to 50 mK. In the primary operating mode, two stages of the ADR cool the detectors using superfluid helium at 1.20 K as the heat sink. In the secondary mode, which is activated when the liquid helium is depleted, two of the stages continuously cool the (empty) helium tank using a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cooler as the heat sink, and the third stage cools the detectors. In the design phase, a high-fidelity model of the ADR was developed in order to predict both the cooling capacity and heat rejection rates in both operating modes. The primary sources of heat flow are from the salt pills, hysteresis heat from the magnets and magnetic shields, and power dissipated by the heat switches. The flight instrument dewar, ADR, detectors and electronics were integrated in mid-2014 and have since undergone extensive performance testing, in part to validate the performance model. This paper will present the thermodynamic performance of the ADR, including cooling capacity, heat rejection to the heat sinks, and various measures of efficiency.

  13. The Alpha-Proton-X-ray Spectrometer deployment mechanism: an anthropomorphic approach to sensor placement on Martian rocks and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, Richard S.

    1995-05-01

    On July 4,1997, the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft lands on Mars and starts conducting technological and scientific experiments. One experiment, the Alpha-Proton-X-ray Spectrometer, uses a sensor head placed against rocks and soil to determine their composition. To guarantee proper placement, a deployment mechanism mounted on the Mars Rover aligns the sensor head to within 20 deg of the rock and soil surfaces. In carrying out its task, the mechanism mimics the action of a human hand and arm. Consisting of a flexible wrist, a parallel link arm, a brush dc motor actuator, and a revolutionary non-pyrotechnic fail-safe release device, the mechanism correctly positions the sensor head on rocks as high as 0.29 m and on targets whose surfaces are tilted as much as 45 deg from the nominal orientation of the sensor head face. The mechanism weighs less than 0.5 kg, can withstand 100 g's, and requires less than 2.8 N x m of actuation torque. The fail-safe coupler utilizes Cerrobend, a metal alloy that melts at 60 C, to fuse the actuator and the rest of the mechanism together. A film heater wrapped around the coupler melts the metal, and Negator springs drive the mechanism into its stowed position. The fail-safe actuates using 6.75 Watts for 5 minutes in the event of an actuator failure.

  14. Quasi-particle interference of heavy fermions in resonant x-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Gyenis, András; da Silva Neto, Eduardo H.; Sutarto, Ronny; Schierle, Enrico; He, Feizhou; Weschke, Eugen; Kavai, Mariam; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Thompson, Joe D.; Bauer, Eric D.; Fisk, Zachary; Damascelli, Andrea; Yazdani, Ali; Aynajian, Pegor

    2016-01-01

    Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) has recently become an increasingly important tool for the study of ordering phenomena in correlated electron systems. Yet, the interpretation of RXS experiments remains theoretically challenging because of the complexity of the RXS cross section. Central to this debate is the recent proposal that impurity-induced Friedel oscillations, akin to quasi-particle interference signals observed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), can lead to scattering peaks in RXS experiments. The possibility that quasi-particle properties can be probed in RXS measurements opens up a new avenue to study the bulk band structure of materials with the orbital and element selectivity provided by RXS. We test these ideas by combining RXS and STM measurements of the heavy fermion compound CeMIn5 (M = Co, Rh). Temperature- and doping-dependent RXS measurements at the Ce-M4 edge show a broad scattering enhancement that correlates with the appearance of heavy f-electron bands in these compounds. The scattering enhancement is consistent with the measured quasi-particle interference signal in the STM measurements, indicating that the quasi-particle interference can be probed through the momentum distribution of RXS signals. Overall, our experiments demonstrate new opportunities for studies of correlated electronic systems using the RXS technique. PMID:27757422

  15. Quasi-particle Interference of Heavy Fermions in Resonant X-ray Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Gyenis, Andras; da Silva Neto, Eduardo H.; Sutarto, Ronny; ...

    2016-10-14

    Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) has recently become an increasingly important tool for the study of ordering phenomena in correlated electron systems. Yet, the interpretation of RXS experiments remains theoretically challenging because of the complexity of the RXS cross section. Central to this debate is the recent proposal that impurity-induced Friedel oscillations, akin to quasi-particle interference signals observed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), can lead to scattering peaks in RXS experiments. The possibility that quasi-particle properties can be probed in RXS measurements opens up a new avenue to study the bulk band structure of materials with the orbital and elementmore » selectivity provided by RXS. We test these ideas by combining RXS and STM measurements of the heavy fermion compound CeMIn5 (M = Co, Rh). Temperature- and doping-dependent RXS measurements at the Ce-M4 edge show a broad scattering enhancement that correlates with the appearance of heavy f-electron bands in these compounds. The scattering enhancement is consistent with the measured quasi-particle interference signal in the STM measurements, indicating that the quasi-particle interference can be probed through the momentum distribution of RXS signals. Overall, our experiments demonstrate new opportunities for studies of correlated electronic systems using the RXS technique.« less

  16. Quasi-particle Interference of Heavy Fermions in Resonant X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gyenis, Andras; da Silva Neto, Eduardo H.; Sutarto, Ronny; Schierle, Enrico; He, Feizhou; Weschke, Eugen; Kavai, Mariam; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Thompson, Joe D.; Bauer, Eric D.; Fisk, Zachary; Damascelli, Andrea; Yazdani, Ali; Aynajian, Pegor

    2016-10-14

    Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) has recently become an increasingly important tool for the study of ordering phenomena in correlated electron systems. Yet, the interpretation of RXS experiments remains theoretically challenging because of the complexity of the RXS cross section. Central to this debate is the recent proposal that impurity-induced Friedel oscillations, akin to quasi-particle interference signals observed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), can lead to scattering peaks in RXS experiments. The possibility that quasi-particle properties can be probed in RXS measurements opens up a new avenue to study the bulk band structure of materials with the orbital and element selectivity provided by RXS. We test these ideas by combining RXS and STM measurements of the heavy fermion compound CeMIn5 (M = Co, Rh). Temperature- and doping-dependent RXS measurements at the Ce-M4 edge show a broad scattering enhancement that correlates with the appearance of heavy f-electron bands in these compounds. The scattering enhancement is consistent with the measured quasi-particle interference signal in the STM measurements, indicating that the quasi-particle interference can be probed through the momentum distribution of RXS signals. Overall, our experiments demonstrate new opportunities for studies of correlated electronic systems using the RXS technique.

  17. HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MICRO-TOMOGRAPHY ON SINGLE SEDIMENT PARTICLES.

    SciTech Connect

    VINCZE,L.; VEKEMANS,B.; SZALOKI,I.; JANSSENS,K.; VAN GRIEKEN,R.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.; ADAMS,F.

    2002-07-29

    This work focuses on the investigation of the distribution of contaminants in individual sediment particles from the New York/New Jersey Harbor. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the contaminants within the particles is needed to enable (1) more sophisticated approaches to the understanding of the fate and transport of the contaminants in the environment and (2) more refined methods for cleaning the sediments. The size of the investigated particles ranges from 30-80 microns. Due to the low concentration of the elements of interest and the microscopic size of the environmental particles in these measurements, the small size and high intensity of the analyzing X-ray beam was critical. The high photon flux at the ESRF Microfocus beam line (ID13) was used as the basis for fluorescence tomography to investigate whether the inorganic compounds are taken upon the surface organic coating or whether they are distributed through the volume of the grains being analyzed. The experiments were done using a 13 keV monochromatic beam of approximately 2 {micro}m in size having an intensity of 10{sup 10} ph/s, allowing absolute detection limits on the 0.04-1 fg level for Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn.

  18. A simple method for detection of gunshot residue particles from hands, hair, face, and clothing using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX).

    PubMed

    Kage, S; Kudo, K; Kaizoji, A; Ryumoto, J; Ikeda, H; Ikeda, N

    2001-07-01

    We devised a simple and rapid method for detection of gunshot residue (GSR) particles, using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX) analysis. Experiments were done on samples containing GSR particles obtained from hands, hair, face, and clothing, using double-sided adhesive coated aluminum stubs (tape-lift method). SEM/WDX analyses for GSR were carried out in three steps: the first step was map analysis for barium (Ba) to search for GSR particles from lead styphnate primed ammunition, or tin (Sn) to search for GSR particles from mercury fulminate primed ammunition. The second step was determination of the location of GSR particles by X-ray imaging of Ba or Sn at a magnification of x 1000-2000 in the SEM, using data of map analysis, and the third step was identification of GSR particles, using WDX spectrometers. Analysis of samples from each primer of a stub took about 3 h. Practical applications were shown for utility of this method.

  19. Measurement of fundamental illite particle thicknesses by X-ray diffraction using PVP-10 intercalation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Nuesch, R.; Sucha, V.; Tsipursky, S.

    1998-01-01

    The thicknesses of fundamental illite particles that compose mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) crystals can be measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak broadening techniques (Bertaut-Warren-Averbach [BWA] method and integral peak-width method) if the effects of swellinf and XRD background noise are eliminated from XRD patterns of the clays. Swelling is eliminated by intercalating Na-saturated I-S with polyvinylpyrrolidone having a molecular weightof 10,000 (PVP-10). Background is minimized by using polished metallic silicon wafers cut perpendicular to (100) as a substrate for XRD specimens, and by using a single-crystal monochromator. XRD measurements of PVP-intercalated diagenetic, hydro-thermal and low-grade metamorphic I-S indicate that there at least 2 type of crystallite thickness distribution shapes for illite fundamental particles, lognormal and asymptotic; that measurements of mean fundamental illite particle thicknesses made by various techniques (Bertaut-Warren-Averbach, integral peak width, fixed cation content, and transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) give comparable results; and that strain (small difference in layer thicknesses) generally has a Gaussian distribution in the lognormal-type illites, but is often absent in the asymptotic-type illites.

  20. Hard x-ray imaging and particle detection with TIMEPIX3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröjdh, Christer; Krapohl, David; Thungström, Göran

    2016-09-01

    CMOS pixel electronics open up for applications with single photon or particle processing. TIMEPIX3 is a readout chip in the MEDIPIX family with the ability to simultaneously determine energy and time of interaction in the pixel. The device is fully event driven, sending out data on each interaction at a maximum speed of about 40 Mhits/s. The concept allows for off-line processing to correct for charge sharing or to find the interaction point in multi pixel events. The timing resolution of 1.56 ns allows for three dimensional tracking of charged particles in a thick sensor due to the drift time for the charge in the sensor. The experiments in this presentation have been performed with silicon sensors bonded MEDIPIX family chips with special focus on TIMEPIX3. This presentation covers basic performance of the chip, spectral imaging with hard X-rays, detection and imaging with charged particles and neutrons. Cluster identification, centroiding and charge summing is extensively used to determine energy and position of the interaction. For neutron applications a converter layer was placed on top of the sensor.

  1. X-ray Machine on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  2. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  3. Deciphering the Complex Chemistry of Deep-Ocean Particles Using Complementary Synchrotron X-ray Microscope and Microprobe Instruments.

    PubMed

    Toner, Brandy M; German, Christopher R; Dick, Gregory J; Breier, John A

    2016-01-19

    The reactivity and mobility of natural particles in aquatic systems have wide ranging implications for the functioning of Earth surface systems. Particles in the ocean are biologically and chemically reactive, mobile, and complex in composition. The chemical composition of marine particles is thought to be central to understanding processes that convert globally relevant elements, such as C and Fe, among forms with varying bioavailability and mobility in the ocean. The analytical tools needed to measure the complex chemistry of natural particles are the subject of this Account. We describe how a suite of complementary synchrotron radiation instruments with nano- and micrometer focusing, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) capabilities are changing our understanding of deep-ocean chemistry and life. Submarine venting along mid-ocean ridges creates hydrothermal plumes where dynamic particle-forming reactions occur as vent fluids mix with deep-ocean waters. Whether plumes are net sources or sinks of elements in ocean budgets depends in large part on particle formation, reactivity, and transport properties. Hydrothermal plume particles have been shown to host microbial communities and exhibit complex size distributions, aggregation behavior, and composition. X-ray microscope and microprobe instruments can address particle size and aggregation, but their true strength is in measuring chemical composition. Plume particles comprise a stunning array of inorganic and organic phases, from single-crystal sulfides to poorly ordered nanophases and polymeric organic matrices to microbial cells. X-ray microscopes and X-ray microprobes with elemental imaging, XAS, and XRD capabilities are ideal for investigating these complex materials because they can (1) measure the chemistry of organic and inorganic constituents in complex matrices, usually within the same particle or aggregate, (2) provide strong signal-to-noise data with exceedingly small

  4. Background X-ray Spectrum of Radioactive Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Yee; Dawn E. Janney

    2008-02-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) is commonly used with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the elemental compositions and microstructures of a variety of samples. For example, the microstructures of nuclear fuels are commonly investigated with this technique. However, the radioactivity of some materials introduces additional X-rays that contribute to the EDS background spectrum. These X-rays are generally not accounted for in spectral analysis software, and can cause misleading results. X-rays from internal conversion [1], Bremsstrahlung [2] radiation associated with alpha ionizations and beta particle interactions [3], and gamma rays from radioactive decay can all elevate the background of radioactive materials.

  5. X-ray Scattering Measurements of Particle Orientation in a Sheared Polymer/Clay Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, Saswati; Dougherty, Leah; Mobuchon, Christoph; Carreau, Pierre J.; Heuzey, Marie-Claude; Burghardt, Wesley R.

    2012-01-20

    We report steady and transient measurements of particle orientation in a clay dispersion subjected to shear flow. An organically modified clay is dispersed in a Newtonian polymer matrix at a volume fraction of 0.02, using methods previously reported by Mobuchon et al. (Rheol Acta 46: 1045, 2007). In accord with prior studies, mechanical rheometry shows yield stress-like behavior in steady shear, while time dependent growth of modulus is observed following flow cessation. Measurements of flow-induced orientation in the flow-gradient plane of simple shear flow using small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) are reported. Both SAXS and WAXS reveal increasing particle orientation as shear rate is increased. Partial relaxation of nanoparticle orientation upon flow cessation is well correlated with time-dependent changes in complex modulus. SAXS and WAXS data provide qualitatively similar results; however, some quantitative differences are attributed to differences in the length scales probed by these techniques.

  6. Toward steering a jet of particles into an x-ray beam with optically induced forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerskorn, Niko; Bowman, Richard; Kirian, Richard A.; Awel, Salah; Wiedorn, Max; Küpper, Jochen; Padgett, Miles J.; Chapman, Henry N.; Rode, Andrei V.

    2015-08-01

    Optical trapping of light-absorbing particles in a gaseous environment is governed by a laser-induced photophoretic force, which can be orders of magnitude stronger than the force of radiation pressure induced by the same light intensity. In spite of many experimental studies, the exact theoretical background underlying the photophoretic force and the prediction of its influence on the particle motion is still in its infancy. Here, we report the results of a quantitative analysis of the photophoretic force and the stiffness of trapping achieved by levitating graphite and carbon-coated glass shells of calibrated sizes in an upright diverging hollow-core vortex beam, which we refer to as an `optical funnel'. The measurements of forces were conducted in air at various gas pressures in the range from 5 mbar to 2 bar. The results of these measurements lay the foundation for developing a touch-free optical system for precisely positioning sub-micrometer bioparticles at the focal spot of an x-ray free electron laser, which would significantly enhance the efficiency of studying nanoscale morphology of proteins and biomolecules in femtosecond coherent diffractive imaging experiments.

  7. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  8. Radiation-induced genomic instability: delayed mutagenic and cytogenetic effects of X rays and alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Little, J B; Nagasawa, H; Pfenning, T; Vetrovs, H

    1997-10-01

    The frequency of mutations at the Hprt locus was measured in clonal populations of Chinese hamster ovary cells derived from single cells surviving exposure to 0-12 Gy of X rays or 2 Gy of alpha particles. Approximately 8-9% of 446 clonal populations examined 23 population doublings after irradiation showed high frequencies of late-arising mutations as indicated by mutant fractions 10(2)-10(4)-fold above background. The frequency with which such clones occurred was similar for alpha-particle irradiation and X irradiation, with no apparent dose dependence for X irradiation over the range of 4-12 Gy. The molecular structure of Hprt mutations was determined by analysis by multiplex polymerase chain reaction of all nine exons. Of mutations induced directly after exposure to X rays, 75% involved partial or total gene deletions. Only 19-23% of late-arising (delayed) mutations were associated with deletions, the preponderance of these being partial deletions involving one or two exons. This spectrum was very similar to that for spontaneously arising mutations. To determine whether delayed mutations were non-clonal, the spectrum of exons deleted was examined among 29 mutants with partial deletions derived from a single clonal population. The results indicated that at least 15 of these mutants arose independently. To examine the relationship between the occurrence of delayed mutations and chromosomal instability, 60 Hprt mutant subclones isolated from a clonal population showing a high frequency of delayed mutations were serially cultivated in vitro. Of these, 14 showed a slow-growth phenotype with a high frequency of polyploid cells (10-38%) and a markedly enhanced frequency of non-clonal chromosomal rearrangements including both chromosome-type and chromatid-type aberrations. These clones also showed a 3- to 30-fold increase in the frequency of ouabain-resistant mutations; no ouabain-resistant mutants were induced directly by X irradiation. These results suggest that among

  9. Micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to mixed beams of X-rays and alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Staaf, Elina; Brehwens, Karl; Haghdoost, Siamak; Nievaart, Sander; Pachnerova-Brabcova, Katerina; Czub, Joanna; Braziewicz, Janusz; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the cytogenetic effect of exposing human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to a mixed beam of alpha particles and X-rays. Whole blood collected from one donor was exposed to different doses of alpha particles ((241)Am), X-rays and a combination of both. All exposures were carried out at 37 °C. Three independent experiments were performed. Micronuclei (MN) in binucleated PBL were scored as the endpoint. Moreover, the size of MN was measured. The results show that exposure of PBL to a mixed beam of high and low linear energy transfer radiation led to significantly higher than expected frequencies of MN. The measurement of MN size did not reveal any differences between the effect of alpha particles and mixed beam. In conclusion, a combined exposure of PBL to alpha particles and X-rays leads to a synergistic effect as measured by the frequency of MN. From the analysis of MN distributions, we conclude that the increase was due to an impaired repair of X-ray-induced DNA damage.

  10. Synchrotron X-Ray Microprobe In-Situ Analysis of Extraterrestrial Particles Collected in Aerogel on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Horz, F.

    2000-01-01

    Using in-situ x-ray fluorescence, we determined the Cr/Fe, Mn/Fe and Ni/Fe of a particle captured in aerogel on MIR are approximately chondritic, indicating an extraterrestrial origin. Impurity of the aerogel precluded determining the Cu and Zn.

  11. Einstein Observatory SSS and MPC observations of the complex X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies. [Solid State Spectrometer and Monitor Proportional Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.; Madejski, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of 25 Seyfert galaxies measured with the Solid State Spectrometer on the Einstein Observatory have been investigated. This new investigation utilizes simultaneous data from the Monitor Proportional Counter, and automatic correction for systematic effects in the Solid State Spectrometer which were previously handled subjectively. It is found that the best-fit single-power-law indices generally agree with those previously reported, but that soft excesses of some form are inferred for about 48 percent of the sources. One possible explanation of the soft excess emission is a blend of soft X-ray lines, centered around 0.8 keV. The implications of these results for accretion disk models are discussed.

  12. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Thfoin, I. Reverdin, C.; Duval, A.; Leboeuf, X.; Lecherbourg, L.; Rossé, B.; Hulin, S.; Batani, D.; Santos, J. J.; Vaisseau, X.; Fourment, C.; Giuffrida, L.; Szabo, C. I.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Brambrink, E.; Koenig, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Morace, A.

    2014-11-15

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromètre PETAL à Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding.

  13. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-02-27

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and vφ on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  14. Upgrades of poloidal and tangential x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers for temperature and rotation measurements on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fudi; Chen, Jun; Hu, Ruiji; Lyu, Bo; Colledani, Gilles; Fu, Jia; Li, Yingying; Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth; Lee, Sangon; Ye, Minyou; Shi, Yuejiang; Wan, Baonian

    2016-11-01

    During the past two years, key parts of poloidal and tangential x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers (PXCSs and TXCSs) have been upgraded. For poloidal XCSs, double-crystals of ArXVII and FeXXV were deployed. For fulfilling in situ alignment of a poloidal XCS, the beryllium window must be flexibly removed. By utilizing a design, where the beryllium window was installed in the vacuum chamber of the double-crystal, and between the double-crystal and wall of this chamber, an in situ alignment for the two spectrometers was fulfilled. Also, a new holder for the double-crystal was installed to allow for precise adjustments of azimuth angle and vertical height of the double-crystal. In order to facilitate these adjustments of double-crystal and installation of beryllium window, the chamber of the double-crystal for PXCS was upgraded from a cylinder to a cuboid. The distance between double-crystal and magnetic axis was extended from 8936 mm to 9850 mm in order to improve spatial resolution for PXCS, which is currently in the range from 1.237 mm to 4.80 mm at magnetic axis. Furthermore, a new pixelated detector (PILATUS 900K), which has a large sensitive area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm2 and which is vacuum compatible, is being implemented on the PXCS. This detector is mounted on a rail, so that its position can be changed by 50 mm to effectively record spectra of He-like argon and He-like iron (ArXVII and FeXXV). Similarly, a rail, which allows detector movement by 50 mm, was also installed in TXCS to alternatively record spectra of ArXVII and ArXVIII. Presently, the operation duration of PXCS and TXCS has been upgraded to hundreds of seconds in one shot. Ti- and uϕ-profiles measured by TXCS and charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) were compared and found to be in good agreement.

  15. X-ray Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowicz, Andrzej A.; Van Grieken, Rene E.

    1984-01-01

    Provided is a selective literature survey of X-ray spectrometry from late 1981 to late 1983. Literature examined focuses on: excitation (photon and electron excitation and particle-induced X-ray emission; detection (wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive spectrometry); instrumentation and techniques; and on such quantitative analytical…

  16. Coherent diffraction of single Rice Dwarf virus particles using hard X-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Munke, Anna; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Awel, Salah; Ayyer, Kartik; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Berntsen, Peter; Bielecki, Johan; Boutet, Sébastien; Bucher, Maximilian; Chapman, Henry N.; Daurer, Benedikt J.; DeMirci, Hasan; Elser, Veit; Fromme, Petra; Hajdu, Janos; Hantke, Max F.; Higashiura, Akifumi; Hogue, Brenda G.; Hosseinizadeh, Ahmad; Kim, Yoonhee; Kirian, Richard A.; Reddy, Hemanth K.N.; Lan, Ti-Yen; Larsson, Daniel S.D.; Liu, Haiguang; Loh, N. Duane; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.; Mancuso, Adrian P.; Mühlig, Kerstin; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nam, Daewoong; Nelson, Garrett; Nettelblad, Carl; Okamoto, Kenta; Ourmazd, Abbas; Rose, Max; van der Schot, Gijs; Schwander, Peter; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Song, Changyong; Svenda, Martin; Timneanu, Nicusor; Vartanyants, Ivan A.; Westphal, Daniel; Wiedorn, Max O.; Williams, Garth J.; Xavier, Paulraj Lourdu; Yoon, Chun Hong; Zook, James

    2016-01-01

    Single particle diffractive imaging data from Rice Dwarf Virus (RDV) were recorded using the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). RDV was chosen as it is a well-characterized model system, useful for proof-of-principle experiments, system optimization and algorithm development. RDV, an icosahedral virus of about 70 nm in diameter, was aerosolized and injected into the approximately 0.1 μm diameter focused hard X-ray beam at the CXI instrument of LCLS. Diffraction patterns from RDV with signal to 5.9 Ångström were recorded. The diffraction data are available through the Coherent X-ray Imaging Data Bank (CXIDB) as a resource for algorithm development, the contents of which are described here. PMID:27478984

  17. Coherent diffraction of single Rice Dwarf virus particles using hard X-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Munke, Anna; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Awel, Salah; Ayyer, Kartik; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J; Berntsen, Peter; Bielecki, Johan; Boutet, Sébastien; Bucher, Maximilian; Chapman, Henry N; Daurer, Benedikt J; DeMirci, Hasan; Elser, Veit; Fromme, Petra; Hajdu, Janos; Hantke, Max F; Higashiura, Akifumi; Hogue, Brenda G; Hosseinizadeh, Ahmad; Kim, Yoonhee; Kirian, Richard A; Reddy, Hemanth K N; Lan, Ti-Yen; Larsson, Daniel S D; Liu, Haiguang; Loh, N Duane; Maia, Filipe R N C; Mancuso, Adrian P; Mühlig, Kerstin; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nam, Daewoong; Nelson, Garrett; Nettelblad, Carl; Okamoto, Kenta; Ourmazd, Abbas; Rose, Max; van der Schot, Gijs; Schwander, Peter; Seibert, M Marvin; Sellberg, Jonas A; Sierra, Raymond G; Song, Changyong; Svenda, Martin; Timneanu, Nicusor; Vartanyants, Ivan A; Westphal, Daniel; Wiedorn, Max O; Williams, Garth J; Xavier, Paulraj Lourdu; Yoon, Chun Hong; Zook, James

    2016-08-01

    Single particle diffractive imaging data from Rice Dwarf Virus (RDV) were recorded using the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). RDV was chosen as it is a well-characterized model system, useful for proof-of-principle experiments, system optimization and algorithm development. RDV, an icosahedral virus of about 70 nm in diameter, was aerosolized and injected into the approximately 0.1 μm diameter focused hard X-ray beam at the CXI instrument of LCLS. Diffraction patterns from RDV with signal to 5.9 Ångström were recorded. The diffraction data are available through the Coherent X-ray Imaging Data Bank (CXIDB) as a resource for algorithm development, the contents of which are described here.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene embolization particles doped with tantalum oxide nanoparticles for X-ray contrast.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Rachel; Thompson, James; Bird, Luke; Hill, Mark A; Townley, Helen

    2015-08-01

    Radiopaque and fluorescent embolic particles have been synthesized and characterised to match the size of vasculature found in tumours to ensure effective occlusion of the vessels. A literature search showed that the majority of vessels surrounding a tumour were less than 50 µm and therefore polydispersed polystyrene particles with a peak size of 50 µm have been synthesised. The embolic particles contain 5-8 nm amorphous tantalum oxide nanoparticles which provide X-ray contrast. Embolic particles containing up to 9.4 wt% tantalum oxide were prepared and showed significant contrast compared to the undoped polystyrene particles. The X-ray contrast of the embolic particles was shown to be linear (R(2) = 0.9) with respect to the concentration of incorporated tantalum nanoparticles. A model was developed which showed that seventy-five 50 µm embolic particles containing 10% tantalum oxide could provide the same contrast as 5 cm of bone. Therefore, the synthesized particles would provide sufficient X-ray contrast to enable visualisation within a tumour.

  19. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3). We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other. PMID:27453995

  20. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M. Hill, K. W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N.; Lu, Jian; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, Hui

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from laser-produced plasmas with a high (sub-ns) time resolution. The spectrometer consists of a convex, spherically bent crystal, which images individual spectral lines as perfectly straight lines across multiple, sequentially gated, strip detectors. Since the Bragg-reflected rays are divergent, the distance between detector and crystal is arbitrary, so that this distance can be appropriately chosen to optimize the experimental arrangement with respect to the detector parameters. The spectrometer concept was verified in proof-of-principle experiments by imaging the Lβ{sub 1}- and Lβ{sub 2}-lines of tungsten, at 9.6735 and 9.96150 keV, from a micro-focus x-ray tube with a tungsten target onto a two-dimensional pixilated Pilatus detector, using a convex, spherically bent Si-422 crystal with a radius of curvature of 500 mm.

  1. Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) Of Silicate Coatings On High Impact Resistance Polycarbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Qian; Hart, M. A.; Culbertson, R. J.; Bradley, J. D.; Herbots, N.; Wilkens, Barry J.; Sell, David A.; Watson, Clarizza Fiel

    2011-06-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis was employed to characterize hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) C32H60O19 polymer film via areal density measurement on silicon-based substrates utilizing the differential PIXE concept, and compared with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) results. It is demonstrated in this paper that PIXE and RBS measurements both yield comparable results for areal densities ranging from 1018 atom/cm2 to several 1019 atom/cm2. A collection of techniques including PIXE, RBS, tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM), and contact angle analysis were used to compute surface free energy, analyze surface topography and roughness parameters, determine surface composition and areal density, and to predict the water affinity and condensation behaviors of silicates and other compounds used for high impact resistance vision ware coatings. The visor surface under study is slightly hydrophilic, with root mean square of surface roughness on the order of one nm, and surface wavelength between 200 nm and 300 nm. Water condensation can be controlled on such surfaces via polymers adsorption. HPMC polymer areal density measurement supports the analysis of the surface water affinity and topography and the subsequent control of condensation behavior. HPMC film between 1018 atom/cm2 and 1019 atom/cm2 was found to effectively alter the water condensation pattern and prevents fogging by forming a wetting layer during condensation.

  2. Super Rover's X-Ray Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Located on the arm of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer uses alpha particles and X-rays to determine the chemical make up of martian rocks and soils. This type of information helps scientists understand how the planet's crust was weathered and formed. Mars Exploration Rover team members used this palm-sized instrument on a small patch of martian soil just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station. They found that although the soil was very similar to what they had seen previously on Mars, the instrument's improved sensitivity allowed them to see new elements and subtle differences not detected before.

  3. Performance characteristics of CCDs for the ACIS experiment. [Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility CCD Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmire, Gordon P.; Nousek, John; Burrows, David; Ricker, George; Bautz, Mark; Doty, John; Collins, Stewart; Janesick, James

    1988-01-01

    The search for the optimum CCD to be used at the focal surface of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) is described. The physics of the interaction of X-rays in silicon through the photoelectric effect is reviewed. CCD technology at the beginning of the AXAF definition phase is summarized, and the results of the CCD enhancement program are discussed. Other sources of optimum CCDs are examined, and CCD enhancements made at MIT Lincoln Laboratory are addressed.

  4. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer with 25meV resolution at the Cu K -edge

    SciTech Connect

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Harder, Manuel; Klementiev, Konstantin; Upton, Mary; Taherkhani, Mehran; Spiwek, Manfred; Dill, Frank-Uwe; Wille, Hans-Christian; Yavaş, Hasan

    2015-06-27

    An unparalleled resolution is reported with an inelastic X-ray scattering instrument at the CuK-edge. Based on a segmented concave analyzer, featuring single-crystal quartz (SiO2) pixels, the spectrometer delivers a resolution near 25meV (FWHM) at 8981eV. Besides the quartz analyzer, the performance of the spectrometer relies on a four-bounce Si(553) high-resolution monochromator and focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez optics. The measured resolution agrees with the ray-tracing simulation of an ideal spectrometer. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by reproducing the phonon dispersion curve of a beryllium single-crystal.

  5. Spirit Switches on Its X-ray Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit probing its first target rock, Adirondack. At the time this picture was snapped, the rover had begun analyzing the rock with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer located on its robotic arm. This instrument uses alpha particles and X-rays to determine the elemental composition of martian rocks and soil. The image was taken by the rover's hazard-identification camera.

  6. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  7. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  8. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  9. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N. Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; Mancuso, Adrian P.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy and incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. We demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design. PMID:27109208

  10. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge. PMID:26908198

  11. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N. Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; Mancuso, Adrian P.

    2016-04-25

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy and incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design.

  12. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; ...

    2016-04-25

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy andmore » incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design.« less

  13. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  14. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; Mancuso, Adrian P

    2016-04-25

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy and incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. We demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design.

  15. Measurement of illite particle thickness using a direct Fourier transform of small-angle X-ray scattering data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shang, C.; Rice, J.A.; Eberl, D.D.; Lin, S.-J.

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that interstratified illite-smectite (I-S) minerals are composed of aggregates of fundamental particles. Many attempts have been made to measure the thickness of such fundamental particles, but each of the methods used suffers from its own limitations and uncertainties. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can be used to measure the thickness of particles that scatter X-rays coherently. We used SAXS to study suspensions of Na-rectorite and other illites with varying proportions of smectite. The scattering intensity (I) was recorded as a function of the scattering vector, q = (4 ??/??) sin(??/2), where ?? is the X-ray wavelength and ?? is the scattering angle. The experimental data were treated with a direct Fourier transform to obtain the pair distance distribution function (PDDF) that was then used to determine the thickness of illite particles. The Guinier and Porod extrapolation were used to obtain the scattering intensity beyond the experimental q, and the effects of such extrapolations on the PDDF were examined. The thickness of independent rectorite particles (used as a reference mineral) is 18.3 A??. The SAXS results are compared with those obtained by X-ray diffraction peak broadening methods. It was found that the power-law exponent (??) obtained by fitting the data in the region of q = 0.1 -0.6 nm-1 to the power law (I = Ioq-??) is a linear function of illite particle thickness. Therefore, illite particle thickness could be predicted by the linear relationship as long as the thickness is within the limit where ?? <4.0.

  16. Joint Experiments on X-ray/Particle Emission from Plasmas Produced by Laser Irradiating Nano Structured Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, H.; Allam, S. H.; Chaurasia, S.; Dhareshwar, L.; El-Sherbini, Th. M.; Kunze, H.-J.; Mank, G.; McDaniel, D. H.; Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L.; Stewart, B.; Wolowski, J.; Abd El-Ghany, H.; Abd El-Latif, G.; Abd El-Rahim, F. M.; Bedrane, Z.; Diab, F.; Farrag, A.; Hedwig, R.; Helal, A.; Pardede, M.; Refaie, A.; Sharkawy, H.; El-khatim, A., Sir

    2008-04-01

    The 1st Joint (Host Laboratory) Experiment on laser plasma involving more than twenty scientists from eight countries has been carried out at the Laser and New Materials Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt. It was co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and supported through the IAEA and the ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste). The main experimental programme was aimed at characterising the possible enhancement of x-ray and particle emission from plasmas produced by laser incidence on nano-structured targets. Laser beams at 1.064 μm of 250 mJ and 532 nm of 165 mJ focused at the target surface using a nanosecond laser type Quantel were used in the present study. In the present experiments nano-copper structures evaporated onto copper bulk disks and nano-gold structures evaporated onto gold ones were used. The thickness of the nano-materials on their bulk material was 1 μm. An ion collector and x-ray semiconductor diode were used to study the ion and x-ray emission, respectively. Both were positioned at the same port at 90° with respect to the target surface and at 90 cm from the surface in the case of the ion collector and 55 cm in the case of the x-ray detector. These experiments were performed at vacuum pressures of (5—8)×10-6 mbar. Comparison of both studies in the case of nano structured targets and bulk targets were performed at different laser fluencies (1×109-1×1012 W/cm2) on the target. A 20% increase of the X-ray emission for nano gold with respect to bulk gold was observed, however, the x-ray emission in the of nano copper and copper was the same.

  17. Joint Experiments on X-ray/Particle Emission from Plasmas Produced by Laser Irradiating Nano Structured Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, H.; Diab, F.; Allam, S. H.; El-Sherbini, Th. M.; Abd El-Latif, G.; Farrag, A.; Helal, A.; Refaie, A.; Sharkawy, H.; Chaurasia, S.; Dhareshwar, L.; Kunze, H.-J.; Mank, G.; McDaniel, D. H.; Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L.; Wolowski, J.; Stewart, B.; Abd El-Ghany, H.; Abd El-Rahim, F. M.

    2008-04-07

    The 1st Joint (Host Laboratory) Experiment on laser plasma involving more than twenty scientists from eight countries has been carried out at the Laser and New Materials Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt. It was co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and supported through the IAEA and the ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste). The main experimental programme was aimed at characterising the possible enhancement of x-ray and particle emission from plasmas produced by laser incidence on nano-structured targets. Laser beams at 1.064 {mu}m of 250 mJ and 532 nm of 165 mJ focused at the target surface using a nanosecond laser type Quantel were used in the present study. In the present experiments nano-copper structures evaporated onto copper bulk disks and nano-gold structures evaporated onto gold ones were used. The thickness of the nano-materials on their bulk material was 1 {mu}m. An ion collector and x-ray semiconductor diode were used to study the ion and x-ray emission, respectively. Both were positioned at the same port at 90 deg. with respect to the target surface and at 90 cm from the surface in the case of the ion collector and 55 cm in the case of the x-ray detector. These experiments were performed at vacuum pressures of (5--8)x10{sup -6} mbar. Comparison of both studies in the case of nano structured targets and bulk targets were performed at different laser fluencies (1x10{sup 9}-1x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}) on the target. A 20% increase of the X-ray emission for nano gold with respect to bulk gold was observed, however, the x-ray emission in the of nano copper and copper was the same.

  18. Application of micron X-ray CT based on micro-PIXE to investigate the distribution of Cs in silt particles for environmental remediation in Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Keizo; Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Itoh, Shin; Sata, Daichi; Ohnuma, Tohru; Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Arai, Hiromu; Arai, Hirotsugu; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kim, Seong-Yun

    2016-03-01

    We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) using characteristic X-rays produced in micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to investigate the internal structure of silt particles and develop new methods to decontaminate soil containing radioactive cesium. We obtained 3D attenuation coefficient images of silt particles with a diameter of approximately 100 μm for V K and Cr K X-rays. Owing to the absorption edges of the Cs L-shell, the differences between the V K and Cr K X-ray images revealed the spatial distribution of Cs atoms in the silt particles. Cs atoms were distributed over the surfaces of the silt particles to a thickness of approximately 10 μm. This information is useful for the decontamination of silt contaminated by radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

  19. Observations of celestial X-ray sources above 20 keV with the high-energy scintillation spectrometer on board OSO 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Dolan, J. H.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Beall, J. H.; Maurer, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    High-energy X-ray spectra of the Crab Nebula, Cyg- XR-1, and Cen A were determined from observations with the scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite, launched in June, 1975. Each of these sources was observed over two periods of 8 days or more, enabling a search for day-to-day and year to year variations in the spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-ray emission. No variation in the light curve of the Crab pulsar was found from observations which span a 15-day period in March 1976, with demonstrable phase stability. Transitions associated with the binary phase of Cyg XR-1 and a large change in the emission from Con A are reported.

  20. Operating Modes and Cooling Capabilities of the 3-Stage ADR Developed for the Soft-X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument on Astro-H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theo; DiPirro, Michael J.; Letmate, Richard V.; Sampson, Michael A.; Bialas, Tom G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    A 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is used on the Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument on Astro-H to cool a 6x6 array of x-ray microcalorimeters to 50 mK. The ADR is supported by a cryogenic system consisting of a superfluid helium tank, a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler, and additional 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers that pre-cool the JT cooler and cool radiation shields within the cryostat. The ADR is configured so that it can use either the liquid helium or the JT cryocooler as its heat sink, giving the instrument an unusual degree of tolerance for component failures or degradation in the cryogenic system. The flight detector assembly, ADR and dewar were integrated into the flight dewar in early 2014, and have since been extensively characterized and calibrated. This paper summarizes the operation and performance of the ADR in all of its operating modes

  1. Development of a spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature (T[sub i]) and rotation-velocity (v) profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dunn, J.; Morris, K.; Wang, E.; Reinke, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Barnsley, R.; O’Mullane, M.; Lee, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer XCS arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of Ti and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, and Fe) with ~ 7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a prototype instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2D x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E / dE > 6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure Ti and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. The measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for the inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod are presented.

  2. Development of a spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature (T{sub i}) and rotation-velocity (v) profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dunn, J.; Morris, K.; Wang, E.; Reinke, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Barnsley, R.; O'Mullane, M.; Lee, S. G.

    2010-10-15

    Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of T{sub i} and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, and Fe) with {approx}7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a prototype instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2D x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure T{sub i} and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. The measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for the inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod are presented.

  3. Global Mg/Si and Al/Si Distributions on the Lunar Surface Derived from Chang'E-2 X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wu-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Xu, Ao-Ao; Tang, Ze-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence remote sensing plays a significant role in research related to the chemical compositions of the Moon. Here we describe the data analysis method for China's Chang'E-2 X-ray spectrometer in detail and present the preliminary results about the first global Mg/Si and Al/Si maps of the lunar surface. Our results show that the distributions of Mg/Si and Al/Si correlate well with terrains on the Moon. The higher Mg/Si ratio corresponds to the mare regions while the lower value corresponds to the highland terrains. The map of the Al/Si ratio shows a reversed distribution compared with the map of the Mg/Si ratio.

  4. Reconstruction of the energy spectrum of electrons accelerated in the April 15, 2002 solar flare based on IRIS X-ray spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motorina, G. G.; Kudryavtsev, I. V.; Lazutkov, V. P.; Savchenko, M. I.; Skorodumov, D. V.; Charikov, Yu. E.

    2016-04-01

    We reconstruct the energy distribution of electrons accelerated in the April 15, 2002 solar flare on the basis of the data from the IRIS X-ray spectrometer onboard the CORONAS-F satellite. We obtain the solution to the integral equations describing the transformation of the spectrum of X-ray photons during the recording and reconstruction of the spectrum of accelerated electrons in the bremsstrahlung source using the random search method and the Tikhonov regularization method. In this event, we detected a singularity in the electron spectrum associated with the existence of a local minimum in the energy range 40-60 keV, which cannot be detected by a direct method.

  5. Shock Timing and Radiation Temperature in National Ignition Campaign Holhraum Tuning Experiments using the Dante X-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radousky, H. B.; Robey, H. F.; Widmann, K.; Moody, J. D.; Landen, O. L.

    2011-06-01

    Indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes a sequence of four shocks to compress a spherically-shaped fuel capsule within a laser heated gold hohlraum target. The soft x-ray power diagnostic DANTE, provides the important capability of measuring the spectrally and temporally resolved absolute x-ray emission flux from the hohlraum. Up to 18 x-ray diodes are fielded on DANTE which allows continuous spectral coverage from 50eV to 20,000 eV. This spectral range fully covers the black body radiation and the characteristic M-band and L-band emission from the high-Z target. Energetics experiments on NIF produce over 10 TW/sr of peak x-ray flux which corresponds to peak radiation temperatures near 300 eV (3.5 Million Deg. K). The Dante measured flux and radiation temperature are correlated with measurements of important shock parameters such as the break out times and shock velocity for the complex shock timing sequence. We will discuss the rationale for this shock configuration and show how recent Dante data can improve confidence in tuning adjustments to the laser and target parameters for achieving ignition. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Quantitative Homogeneity and In-Contact Particles of High Temperature Reactors (htr) Compacts Determination via X-Ray Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, G.; Tisseur, D.; Létang, J. M.; Banchet, J.; Vitali, M. P.

    2008-02-01

    In AREVA Nuclear Power's High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design called ANTARES, fuel consists of compacts composed of few thousands millimetric quasi-spherical particles dispersed in a graphite matrix. Compact homogeneity, defined as the homogeneous particles spatial distribution in the matrix, as well as the possibility of obtaining particles in contact, need to be assessed since they condition the thermo-mechanical behavior of the nuclear fuel under irradiation. In this paper, image and data processing algorithms are developed to do so, based on X-Ray tomographic images.

  7. Solar Flares as Natural Particle Accelerators: A High-energy View from X-ray Observations and Theoretical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    2008-07-01

    Solar flares, which have significant space weather consequences, are natural particle accelerators and one of the most spectacular phenomena of solar activity. RHESSI is the most advanced solar X-ray and gamma-ray mission ever flown and has opened a new era in solar flare research following its launch in 2002. This book offers a glimpse of this active research area from a high-energy perspective and contains a comprehensive guideline for RHESSI data analysis. Its main theme is the investigation of particle acceleration and transport in solar flares. The strength of this book lies in its well-balanced account of the latest X-ray observations and theoretical models. The observational focus is on the morphology and spectra of imaged X-ray sources produced by nonthermal electrons or hot plasma. The modeling takes the novel approach of combining the Fokker-Planck treatment of the accelerated particles with the hydrodynamic treatment of the heated atmosphere. Applications of this modeling technique reach beyond the Sun to other exotic environments in the universe, such as extrasolar planetary auroras, stellar flares, and flares on accretion disks around neutron stars and black holes.

  8. Soft-X-Ray-Enhanced Electrostatic Precipitation for Protection against Inhalable Allergens, Ultrafine Particles, and Microbial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kettleson, Eric M.; Schriewer, Jill M.; Buller, R. Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of the human lung from infectious agents, allergens, and ultrafine particles is difficult with current technologies. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters remove airborne particles of >0.3 μm with 99.97% efficiency, but they are expensive to maintain. Electrostatic precipitation has been used as an inexpensive approach to remove large particles from airflows, but it has a collection efficiency minimum in the submicrometer size range, allowing for a penetration window for some allergens and ultrafine particles. Incorporating soft X-ray irradiation as an in situ component of the electrostatic precipitation process greatly improves capture efficiency of ultrafine particles. Here we demonstrate the removal and inactivation capabilities of soft-X-ray-enhanced electrostatic precipitation technology targeting infectious agents (Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and poxviruses), allergens, and ultrafine particles. Incorporation of in situ soft X-ray irradiation at low-intensity corona conditions resulted in (i) 2-fold to 9-fold increase in capture efficiency of 200- to 600-nm particles and (ii) a considerable delay in the mean day of death as well as lower overall mortality rates in ectromelia virus (ECTV) cohorts. At the high-intensity corona conditions, nearly complete protection from viral and bacterial respiratory infection was afforded to the murine models for all biological agents tested. When optimized for combined efficient particle removal with limited ozone production, this technology could be incorporated into stand-alone indoor air cleaners or scaled for installation in aircraft cabin, office, and residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. PMID:23263945

  9. British X-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pounds, K. A.

    1986-09-01

    The development of solar and cosmic X-ray studies in the UK, in particular the Skylark and Ariel programs, is discussed. The characteristics and capabilities of the X-ray emulsion detector developed to monitor the solar X-radiation in the Skylark program, and of the proportional counter spectrometer developed for solar X-ray measurements on the Ariel I satellite are described. The designs and functions of the pin-hole camera, the Bragg crystal spectrometer, and the X-ray spectroheliograph are exmained. The Skylark observations of cosmic X-ray sources and high-resolution solar spectra, and the Ariel 5 data on cosmic X-ray sources are presented. Consideration is given to the Ariel 6, the U.S. Einstein Observatory, Exosat, and ASTRO-C.

  10. Effect of Bi2O3 particle sizes and addition of starch into Bi2O3-PVA composites for X-ray shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor Azman, Nurul Z.; Musa, Nur F. L.; Nik Ab Razak, Nik N. A.; Ramli, Ramzun M.; Mustafa, Iskandar S.; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Yahaya, Nor Z.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of Bi2O3 particle sizes filled PVA composites on X-ray transmission for X-ray shielding purpose had been successfully fabricated and analyzed by using X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy (XRF) and mammography units with various low X-ray energy ranges. Besides, a preliminary investigation was carried out by using XRF unit to obtain the effect of starch addition into the composite on the X-ray transmissions by both particle sizes of Bi2O3-PVA composites. The results showed that the ability of the composite to attenuate the initial X-ray beam was augmented with the increased Bi2O3 weight percentage (wt%). The density of both particle sizes of Bi2O3-PVA composites was compared with the addition of 1 and 3 wt% starch, while a fluctuation of density occurred for the composites without starch. Moreover, the nano-sized Bi2O3-PVA composite without starch did not exemplify better X-ray attenuation capability compared to its micro-sized counterpart even though their density was higher than the micro-sized Bi2O3-PVA composite. However, the nano-sized Bi2O3-PVA composite with starch offered better particle size effect for X-ray shielding ability than its micro-sized counterpart compared to the Bi2O3-PVA composites without starch.

  11. Porous plug phase separator and superfluid film flow suppression system for the soft x-ray spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Murakami, Masahide; Kanao, Kenichi; Yoshida, Seiji; Tsunematsu, Shoji; DiPirro, Michael; Shirron, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Suppression of super fluid helium flow is critical for the Soft X-ray Spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi). In nominal operation, a small helium gas flow of 30 μg/s must be safely vented and a super fluid film flow must be sufficiently small <2 μg/s. To achieve a life time of the liquid helium, a porous plug phase separator and a film flow suppression system composed of an orifice, a heat exchanger, and knife edge devices are employed. In this paper, design, on-ground testing results and in-orbit performance of the porous plug and the film flow suppression system are described.

  12. Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made available by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS)

    SciTech Connect

    Pablant, N A; Bitter, M; Burhenn, R; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Ellis, R; Gates, D; Goto, M; Hill, K W; Langenberg, A; Lazerson, S; Mardenfeld, M; Morita, S; Neilson, G H; Oishi, T; Pedersen, T S

    2014-07-01

    A new x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer diagnostic (XICS) is currently being built for installation on W7-X. This diagnostic will contribute to the study of ion and electron thermal transport and the evolution of the radial electric field by providing high resolution temperature and rotation measurements under many plasma conditions, including ECH heated plasmas. Installation is expected before the first experimental campaign (OP1.1), making an important set of measurements available for the first W7-X plasmas. This diagnostic will also work in concert with the HR-XCS diagnostic to provide an excellent diagnostic set for core impurity transport on W7-X.

  13. A method for sizing sub-micron particles using small angle diffraction of soft x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Berkeland, D.J.; Underwood, J.H.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a method of sizing sub-micron particles using small-angle soft x-ray diffraction. Solid poly-styrene spheres of known sizes were used as scattering samples, with C-K..cap alpha.. (44.8/angstrom/) and V-L..cap alpha.. (24.3/angstrom/) radiation from a conventional x-ray source. Two devices were used to diffract the x-rays. One collimates the radiation using a series of pinholes immediately preceding the sample, and directs the unfocussed radiation onto film placed far from the sample. The other utilizes radiation from a single pinhole above the source onto the sample and a spherical multilayer mirror in series, so that the radiation passes twice through the sample and is focused onto film immediately above the pinhole assembly to increase the effective sample area. Using the latter device, two types of diffraction patterns were obtained: a sharp, relatively small pattern from spheres which form a hexagonal lattice structure, and a diffuse, larger pattern from an unordered, or random, array of spheres. Both patterns are presented in this work, along with the calculations, based upon light scattering from an unordered and an ordered array of particles, of the scattering patterns. 9 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Transmission grating streaked spectrometer for the diagnosis of soft x-ray emission from ultrahigh intensity laser heated targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eagleton, R.T.; James, S.F.

    2004-10-01

    A free-standing gold transmission grating with a period of 5000 A has been coupled to a soft x-ray sensitive streak camera with a limiting temporal resolution of 10 ps. The streak camera is equipped with a caesium iodide transmission photocathode and observations have been made in the 10-100 A regime. For a small source (200 {mu}m diameter) the spectral resolution is predicted to be around 2.5 A. This has been confirmed by examination of the Lyman-{alpha} line in hydrogen-like laser heated boron. A recorded linewidth of 2.44 A is demonstrated. The instrument has been used to diagnose the soft x-ray emission from a plastic (CH) foil target heated by an ultra-intense (2x10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}) laser pulse.

  15. Transmission grating streaked spectrometer for the diagnosis of soft x-ray emission from ultrahigh intensity laser heated targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagleton, R. T.; James, S. F.

    2004-10-01

    A free-standing gold transmission grating with a period of 5000 Å has been coupled to a soft x-ray sensitive streak camera with a limiting temporal resolution of 10 ps. The streak camera is equipped with a caesium iodide transmission photocathode and observations have been made in the 10-100 Å regime. For a small source (200 μm diameter) the spectral resolution is predicted to be around 2.5 Å. This has been confirmed by examination of the Lyman-α line in hydrogen-like laser heated boron. A recorded linewidth of 2.44 Å is demonstrated. The instrument has been used to diagnose the soft x-ray emission from a plastic (CH) foil target heated by an ultra-intense (2×1020 W cm-2) laser pulse.

  16. Two classes of solar energetic particle events associated with impulsive and long-duration soft X-ray flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Mcguire, R. E.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1986-01-01

    For the period 1978 September to 1983 December, 67 solar particle events have been identified for which the instruments detected electrons above 3 MeV and for which there are soft X-ray observations. The events are divided into two classes impulsive and long-duration - based on their signature in soft X-rays, and it is found that they have different properties. The events originating with impulsive flares are associated with intensed meter-wavelength type III bursts with associated type V continuum. The events associated with long-duration flares can originate anywhere on the solar disk, extend to much higher proton energies, and are well associated with coronal and interplanetary shocks; for about half of the long-duration events, the associated meter-wavelength events do not include type III bursts. The results discovered by Evenson et al. (1984) and by Kahler et al. (1984) are extended.

  17. The front-end electronics of the Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX) on the ESA Solar Orbiter satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, O.; Bednarzik, M.; Commichau, V.; Graczyk, R.; Gröbelbauer, H. P.; Hurford, G.; Krucker, S.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Przepiórka, A.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.; Viertel, G.

    2012-12-01

    Solar Orbiter is an ESA mission to study the heliosphere in proximity to the Sun, scheduled for launch in January 2017. It carries a suite of ten instruments for comprehensive remote-sensing and in-situ measurements. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX), one of the remote sensing instruments, images X-rays between 4 and 150keV using an Fourier technique. The angular resolution is 7 arcsec and the spectral resolution 1keV full-width-half-maximum at 6keV. X-ray detection uses pixelized Cadmium Telluride crystals provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The crystals are bonded to read-out hybrids developed by CEA Saclay, called Caliste-SO, incorporating a low-noise, low-power analog front-end ASIC IDeF-X HD. The crystals are cooled to -20°C to obtain very low leakage currents of less than 60pA per pixel, the prerequisite for obtaining the required spectral resolution. This article briefly describes the mission goals and then details the front-end electronics design and main challenges, resulting in part from the allocation limit in mass of 7kg and in power of 4W. Emphasis is placed on the design influence of the cooling requirement within the warm environment of a mission approaching the Sun to within the orbit of Mercury. The design for the long-term in-flight energy calibration is also explained.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry fixedbeam or overscan x-ray microanalysis of particles can miss the real structure: x-ray spectrum image mapping reveals the true nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbury, Dale E.; Ritchie, Nicholas W. M.

    2013-05-01

    The typical strategy for analysis of a microscopic particle by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry x-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDS) is to use a fixed beam placed at the particle center or to continuously overscan to gather an "averaged" x-ray spectrum. While useful, such strategies inevitably concede any possibility of recognizing microstructure within the particle, and such fine scale structure is often critical for understanding the origins, behavior, and fate of particles. Elemental imaging by x-ray mapping has been a mainstay of SEM/EDS analytical practice for many years, but the time penalty associated with mapping with older EDS technology has discouraged its general use and reserved it more for detailed studies that justified the time investment. The emergence of the high throughput, high peak stability silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) has enabled a more effective particle mapping strategy: "flash" x-ray spectrum image maps can now be recorded in seconds that capture the spatial distribution of major (concentration, C > 0.1 mass fraction) and minor (0.01 <= C <= 0.1) constituents. New SEM/SDD-EDS instrument configurations feature multiple SDDs that view the specimen from widely spaced azimuthal angles. Multiple, simultaneous measurements from different angles enable x-ray spectrometry and mapping that can minimize the strong geometric effects of particles. The NIST DTSA-II software engine is a powerful aid for quantitatively analyzing EDS spectra measured individually as well as for mapping information (available free for Java platforms at: http://www.cstl.nist.gov/div837/837.02/epq/dtsa2/index.html).

  19. Soft X-ray emissions, meter-wavelength radio bursts, and particle acceleration in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, H. V.; Reames, D. V.

    1988-02-01

    A detailed study of the relationship between metric radio bursts and soft X-ray flares has been made using an extensive data set covering 15 yr. It is found that type IV emission is mainly associated with long-duration 1-8 A events that are known to be well associated with coronal mass ejections. In contrast, type II and type III bursts originate primarily in impulsive soft X-ray events that are not necessarily accompanied by mass ejection. Strong type III bursts, in particular, appear to occur only in association with relatively impulsive flares. It is suggested that coronal shocks responsible for type II bursts are blast waves generated in impulsive energy releases.

  20. Enhanced x-ray emission from nano-particle doped bacteria.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, M; Kundu, M; Bane, Kartik; Lad, Amit D; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Chatterjee, Gourab; Ravindra Kumar, G; Ray, Krishanu

    2015-07-13

    Recently, it has been greatly appreciated that intense light matter interaction is modified due to the nano- and microstructures in the target by--surface plasmons, laser energy localization scattering etc. Extreme laser intensities produce dense plasmas and collective mechanisms generate energetic electrons, ions and hard x-rays. Recently, it is postulated that the anharmonic electron motion, driven by ultrashort, high-intensity laser pulses, provides a universal mechanism for the laser absorption. Here, we provide the first demonstration of anharmonic-resonance-aided high laser-absorption in a biological system. At intensities of ∼ 10¹⁶⁻¹⁸ W/cm², 40 fs pulses excite a plasma formed with E. coli bacteria. The density-inhomogeneities due to the micro- and nanostructures in the bacterial target increase anharmonic resonance (AHR) heating and result in a 10⁴-fold enhancement in the hard x-ray yield compared to plain solid targets. These observations lead to novel high-energy x-ray sources that have implications to lithography, imaging and medical applications.

  1. Performance verification and system integration tests of the pulse shape processor for the soft x-ray spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Sawako; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Seta, Hiromi; Shimoda, Yuya; Yamaguchi, Sunao; Uehara, Sho; Terada, Yukikatsu; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2014-07-01

    The soft X-ray spectrometer (SXS) aboard ASTRO-H is equipped with dedicated digital signal processing units called pulse shape processors (PSPs). The X-ray microcalorimeter system SXS has 36 sensor pixels, which are operated at 50 mK to measure heat input of X-ray photons and realize an energy resolution of 7 eV FWHM in the range 0.3-12.0 keV. Front-end signal processing electronics are used to filter and amplify the electrical pulse output from the sensor and for analog-to-digital conversion. The digitized pulses from the 36 pixels are multiplexed and are sent to the PSP over low-voltage differential signaling lines. Each of two identical PSP units consists of an FPGA board, which assists the hardware logic, and two CPU boards, which assist the onboard software. The FPGA board triggers at every pixel event and stores the triggering information as a pulse waveform in the installed memory. The CPU boards read the event data to evaluate pulse heights by an optimal filtering algorithm. The evaluated X-ray photon data (including the pixel ID, energy, and arrival time information) are transferred to the satellite data recorder along with event quality information. The PSP units have been developed and tested with the engineering model (EM) and the flight model. Utilizing the EM PSP, we successfully verified the entire hardware system and the basic software design of the PSPs, including their communication capability and signal processing performance. In this paper, we show the key metrics of the EM test, such as accuracy and synchronicity of sampling clocks, event grading capability, and resultant energy resolution.

  2. X-ray microtomography characterization of Sn particle evolution during lithiation/delithiation in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Joseph; Sun, Ke; Huang, Meng; Dillon, Shen; Chasiotis, Ioannis; Lambros, John

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we investigate Tin (Sn) as a high capacity Li+ host material and perform an ex situ study with X-ray microtomography characterizing in three-dimensions (3D) Sn particle deformation during the crucial first cycles of lithiation/delithiation. We combine in-house algorithms with commercial software to develop 3D visualizations and measurements showing radial particle fracture, non-uniform lithiation of Sn particles, and a link between the global change in image intensity and loss of capacity. Particle size dependent "effective" volume expansion between 200% and 450% was measured during lithiation, and effective volume reductions of 50% were measured during delithiation. Relationships between the gray scale intensity change, volumetric expansion and particle size during the first cycle are also illustrated.

  3. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analyses of stratospheric cosmic dust: New results for chondritic and nickel-depleted particles

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.J.; Sutton, S.R.

    1989-06-01

    Trace element abundance determinations were performed using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence on nine particles collected from the stratosphere and classified as ''cosmic''. Improvements to the Synchrotron Light Source allowed the detection of all elements between Cr and Mo, with the exceptions of Co and As, in our largest particle. The minor and trace element abundance patterns of three Ni-depleted particles were remarkably similar to those of extraterrestrial igneous rocks. Fe/Ni and Fe/Mn ratios suggest that one of these may be of lunar origin. All nine particles exhibited an enrichment in Br, ranging form 1.3 to 38 times the Cl concentration. Br concentrations were uncorrelated with particle size, as would be expected for a surface correlated component acquires from the stratosphere. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Broadband Ultrahigh-Resolution Spectroscopy of Particle-Induced X Rays: Extending the Limits of Nondestructive Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palosaari, M. R. J.; Käyhkö, M.; Kinnunen, K. M.; Laitinen, M.; Julin, J.; Malm, J.; Sajavaara, T.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J.; Reintsema, C.; Swetz, D.; Schmidt, D.; Ullom, J. N.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2016-08-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) based on x-ray emission is widely used, for example, in the semiconductor and concrete industries. Here, we demonstrate significant quantitative and qualitative improvements in broadband x-ray NDA by combining particle-induced emission with detection based on superconducting microcalorimeter arrays. We show that the technique offers great promise in the elemental analysis of thin-film and bulk samples, especially in the difficult cases where tens of different elements with nearly overlapping emission lines have to be identified down to trace concentrations. We demonstrate the efficiency and resolving capabilities by spectroscopy of several complex multielement samples in the energy range 1-10 keV, some of which have a trace amount of impurities not detectable with standard silicon drift detectors. The ability to distinguish the chemical environment of an element is also demonstrated by measuring the intensity differences and chemical shifts of the characteristics x-ray peaks of titanium compounds. In particular, we report measurements of the K α /K β intensity ratio of thin films of TiN and measurements of Ti K α satellite peak intensities in various Ti thin-film compounds. We also assess the detection limits of the technique, comment on detection limits possible in the future, and discuss possible applications.

  5. X-ray Flare Spectra from the DIOGENESS Spectrometer and Its Concept Applied to ChemiX on the Interhelioprobe Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kordylewski, Zbigniew; Płocieniak, Stefan; Siarkowski, Marek; Kowaliński, Mirosław; Nowak, Stanisław; Trzebiński, Witold; Śtęślicki, Marek; Sylwester, Barbara; Stańczyk, Eugeniusz; Zawerbny, Ryszard; Szaforz, Żaneta; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.; Fárník, František; Stepanov, Anatolyi

    2015-12-01

    The DIOGENESS X-ray crystal spectrometer on the CORONAS-F spacecraft operated only for a single month (25 August to 17 September) in 2001, but in its short lifetime obtained one hundred and forty high-resolution spectra of eight solar flares with GOES importance ranging from C9 to X5. The instrument included four scanning flat crystals with wavelength ranges covering the regions of Si xiii (6.65 Å), S xv (5.04 Å), and Ca xix (3.18 Å) X-ray lines and associated dielectronic satellites. Two crystals covering the Ca xix lines were oriented in a "dopplerometer" manner, i.e. such that spatial and spectral displacements, both of which commonly occur in flares, can be separated. We describe the DIOGENESS spectrometer and the spectra obtained during flares that include lines not hitherto seen from spacecraft instruments. An instrument with a very similar concept is currently being built for the two Russian Interhelioprobe spacecraft that are scheduled for launch in 2020 and 2022 and will make a near-encounter (perihelion ˜ 0.3 AU) with the Sun in its orbit. We outline the results that are likely to be obtained.

  6. A minimal view of single-particle imaging with X-ray lasers

    PubMed Central

    Loh, N. Duane

    2014-01-01

    The ability to serially interrogate single biomolecules with femtosecond X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers has ushered in the possibility of determining the three-dimensional structure of biomolecules without crystallization. However, the complexity of imaging a sample's structure from very many of its noisy and incomplete diffraction data can be daunting. In this review, we introduce a simple analogue of this imaging workflow, use it to describe a structure reconstruction algorithm based on the expectation maximization principle, and consider the effects of extraneous noise. Such a minimal model can aid experiment and algorithm design in future studies. PMID:24914155

  7. X-ray fluorescence mapping of mercury on suspended mineral particles and diatoms in a contaminated freshwater system

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Baohua; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Miller, Carrie L; Wang, Wei; Lai, Barry; Brooks, Scott C; Kemner, Kenneth M; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioavailability and geochemical cycling is affected by its partitioning between the aqueous and particulate phases. We applied X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobes to directly visualize and quantify the spatial localization of Hg and its correlations with other elements of interest on suspended particles from a Hg contaminated freshwater system. Up to 175 g/g Hg is found on suspended particles. Mercury is heterogeneously distributed among phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms) and mineral particles that are rich in iron oxides and natural organic matter (NOM), possibly as Hg-NOM-iron oxide ternary complexes. The diatom-bound Hg is mostly found on outer surfaces of the cells, suggesting passive sorption of inorganic Hg on diatoms. Our results indicate that localized sorption of Hg onto suspended particles, including diatoms and NOM-coated oxide minerals, is an important sink for Hg in natural aquatic environments.

  8. Method and apparatus for digitally based high speed x-ray spectrometer for direct coupled use with continuous discharge preamplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, William K.

    1998-01-01

    A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system which accepts directly coupled input data from a detector with a continuous discharge type preamplifier and produces a spectral analysis of the x-rays illuminating the detector. The system's principal elements are an analog signal conditioning section, a combinatorial logic section which implements digital triangular filtering and pileup inspection, and a microprocessor which accepts values captured by the logic section and uses them to compute x-ray energy values. Operating without pole-zero correction, the system achieves high resolution by capturing, in conjunction with each peak value from the digital filter, an associated value of the unfiltered signal, and using this latter signal to correct the former for errors which arise from its local slope terms. This correction greatly reduces both energy resolution degradation and peak centroid shifting in the output spectrum as a function of input count rate. When the noise of this correction is excessive, a modification allows two filtered averages of the signal to be captured and a corrected peak amplitude computed therefrom.

  9. Method and apparatus for digitally based high speed x-ray spectrometer for direct coupled use with continuous discharge preamplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.

    1998-06-30

    A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system is disclosed which accepts directly coupled input data from a detector with a continuous discharge type preamplifier and produces a spectral analysis of the x-rays illuminating the detector. The system`s principal elements are an analog signal conditioning section, a combinatorial logic section which implements digital triangular filtering and pileup inspection, and a microprocessor which accepts values captured by the logic section and uses them to compute x-ray energy values. Operating without pole-zero correction, the system achieves high resolution by capturing, in conjunction with each peak value from the digital filter, an associated value of the unfiltered signal, and using this latter signal to correct the former for errors which arise from its local slope terms. This correction greatly reduces both energy resolution degradation and peak centroid shifting in the output spectrum as a function of input count rate. When the noise of this correction is excessive, a modification allows two filtered averages of the signal to be captured and a corrected peak amplitude computed therefrom. 14 figs.

  10. Gamma-H2AX foci in cells exposed to a mixed beam of X-rays and alpha particles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the cellular effects of exposure to mixed beams of high and low linear energy transfer radiation. So far, the effects of combined exposures have mainly been assessed with clonogenic survival or cytogenetic methods, and the results are contradictory. The gamma-H2AX assay has up to now not been applied in this context, and it is a promising tool for investigating the early cellular response to mixed beam irradiation. Purpose To determine the dose response and repair kinetics of gamma-H2AX ionizing radiation-induced foci in VH10 human fibroblasts exposed to mixed beams of 241Am alpha particles and X-rays. Results VH10 human fibroblasts were irradiated with each radiation type individually or both in combination at 37°C. Foci were scored for repair kinetics 0.5, 1, 3 and 24 h after irradiation (one dose per irradiation type), and for dose response at the 1 h time point. The dose response effect of mixed beam was additive, and the relative biological effectiveness for alpha particles (as compared to X-rays) was of 0.76 ± 0.52 for the total number of foci, and 2.54 ± 1.11 for large foci. The repair kinetics for total number of foci in cells exposed to mixed beam irradiation was intermediate to that of cells exposed to alpha particles and X-rays. However, for mixed beam-irradiated cells the frequency and area of large foci were initially lower than predicted and increased during the first 3 hours of repair (while the predicted number and area did not). Conclusions The repair kinetics of large foci after mixed beam exposure was significantly different from predicted based on the effect of the single dose components. The formation of large foci was delayed and they did not reach their maximum area until 1 h after irradiation. We hypothesize that the presence of low X-ray-induced damage engages the DNA repair machinery leading to a delayed DNA damage response to the more complex DNA damage induced by alpha particles. PMID:23121736

  11. Flight model measurements of the porous plug and film flow suppression system for the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer dewar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Murakami, Masahide; Kanao, Kenichi; Yoshida, Seiji; Tsunematsu, Shoji; DiPirro, Michael; Shirron, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Flight model measurements of a porous plug phase separator and a film flow suppression system for the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer dewar are described. ASTRO-H is the sixth Japanese astronomy satellite and will be launched in 2016. It carries the Soft X-ray Spectrometer consisting of an X-ray optic and an X-ray microcalorimeter system operated at 50 mK. Superfluid liquid He is employed as a part of the cooling system. A wide range of He flows from 28 μ g/s to 3.2 mg/s in various operation cases must be safely vented under zero gravity. At the same time, superfluid He film flow through the vent line must be suppressed to <2 μ g/s in a nominal case to avoid extra loss of the liquid He. For this purpose, a porous plug phase separator together with a film flow suppression system is installed. To verify its performance, the mass flow rates and the film flow rate of the flight model system were measured at component level. The mass flow rates at various He tank temperatures (1.15, 1.30, 1.50, and 2.00 K) were obtained and also the film flow rate was measured at 1.15 K. Then, the mass flow rates were measured after installing the whole system into a flight model dewar at the He tank temperature of 1.16, 1.30, 1.50, and 2.00 K. The dewar was tilted so that the porous plug located at the top of the dewar is immersed in the liquid He and the porous plug separates the liquid and vapor He by the thermomechanical effect as in orbit. The obtained mass flow rates and the film flow rate in these tests were confirmed to meet the requirements and to be consistent with each other. No abnormal event such as large mass flow rates was observed. All these experimental results strongly suggest that this flight model of the porous plug and the film flow suppression system will work properly in space.

  12. Solution x-ray scattering-based estimation of electron cryomicroscopy imaging parameters for reconstruction of virus particles.

    PubMed Central

    Thuman-Commike, P A; Tsuruta, H; Greene, B; Prevelige, P E; King, J; Chiu, W

    1999-01-01

    Structure factor amplitudes and phases can be computed directly from electron cryomicroscopy images. Inherent aberrations of the electromagnetic lenses and other instrumental factors affect the structure factors, however, resulting in decreased accuracy in the determined three-dimensional reconstruction. In contrast, solution x-ray scattering provides absolute and accurate measurement of spherically averaged structure factor amplitudes of particles in solution but does not provide information on the phases. In the present study, we explore the merits of using solution x-ray scattering data to estimate the imaging parameters necessary to make corrections to the structure factor amplitudes derived from electron cryomicroscopic images of icosahedral virus particles. Using 400-kV spot-scan images of the bacteriophage P22 procapsid, we have calculated an amplitude contrast of 8.0 +/- 5.2%. The amplitude decay parameter has been estimated to be 523 +/- 188 A2 with image noise compensation and 44 +/- 66 A2 without it. These results can also be used to estimate the minimum number of virus particles needed for reconstruction at different resolutions. PMID:10096920

  13. Application of X-ray microtomography for the characterisation of hollow polymer-stabilised spray dried amorphous dispersion particles.

    PubMed

    Gamble, John F; Terada, Masako; Holzner, Christian; Lavery, Leah; Nicholson, Sarah J; Timmins, Peter; Tobyn, Mike

    2016-08-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of X-ray microtomography to obtain information relating to powder characteristics such as wall thickness and solid volume fraction for hollow, polymer-stabilised spray dried dispersion (SDD) particles. SDDs of varying particle properties, with respect to shell wall thickness and degree of particle collapse, were utilised to assess the capability of the approach. The results demonstrate that the approach can provide insight into the morphological characteristics of these hollow particles, and thereby a means to understand/predict the processability and performance characteristics of the bulk material. Quantitative assessments of particle wall thickness, particle/void volume and thereby solid volume fraction were also demonstrated to be achievable. The analysis was also shown to be able to qualitatively assess the impact of the drying rate on the morphological nature of the particle surfaces, thus providing further insight into the final particle shape. The approach demonstrated a practical means to access potentially important particle characteristics for SDD materials which, in addition to the standard bulk powder measurements such as particle size and bulk density, may enable a better understanding of such materials, and their impact on downstream processability and dosage form performance.

  14. Quantitative 3D shape description of dust particles from treated seeds by means of X-ray micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Devarrewaere, Wouter; Foqué, Dieter; Heimbach, Udo; Cantre, Dennis; Nicolai, Bart; Nuyttens, David; Verboven, Pieter

    2015-06-16

    Crop seeds are often treated with pesticides before planting. Pesticide-laden dust particles can be abraded from the seed coating during planting and expelled into the environment, damaging nontarget organisms. Drift of these dust particles depends on their size, shape and density. In this work, we used X-ray micro-CT to examine the size, shape (sphericity) and porosity of dust particles from treated seeds of various crops. The dust properties quantified in this work were very variable in different crops. This variability may be a result of seed morphology, seed batch, treatment composition, treatment technology, seed cleaning or an interaction of these factors. The intraparticle porosity of seed treatment dust particles varied from 0.02 to 0.51 according to the crop and generally increased with particle size. Calculated settling velocities demonstrated that accounting for particle shape and porosity is important in drift studies. For example, the settling velocity of dust particles with an equivalent diameter of 200 μm may vary between 0.1 and 1.2 m s(-1), depending on their shape and density. Our analysis shows that in a wind velocity of 5 m s(-1), such particles ejected at 1 m height may travel between 4 and 50 m from the source before settling. Although micro-CT is a valuable tool to characterize dust particles, the current image processing methodology limits the number of particles that can be analyzed.

  15. Performance of three different Si X-ray detectors for portable XRF spectrometers in cultural heritage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M.; Manso, M.; Longelin, S.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a study of detection systems in portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry was performed. An assessment of various detectors and their influence on the measurement of trace elements in different bulk materials, from light to heavy matrices, was done. Four reference materials were analyzed: Orchard Leaves (NBS-1571); Bone Meal (NIST-1486); River Sediment (NBS-1645) and Free-Cutting Brass (NBS-1105). Detection limits were calculated for the elements present in the reference materials, quantitative calculations were performed for three known samples and a comparison was made for each detector. Three case studies were also performed in order to appraise the behavior of the detection systems: A paper document from 1909, a potassium alum/calcite mixture and a Portuguese coin.

  16. Using Nondestructive Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers on Stone, Ceramics, Metals, and Other Materials in Museums: Advantages and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Tykot, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Elemental analysis is a fundamental method of analysis on archaeological materials to address their overall composition or identify the source of their geological components, yet having access to instrumentation, its often destructive nature, and the time and cost of analyses have limited the number and/or size of archaeological artifacts tested. The development of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) instruments over the past decade, however, has allowed nondestructive analyses to be conducted in museums around the world, on virtually any size artifact, producing data for up to several hundred samples per day. Major issues have been raised, however, about the sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of these devices, and the limitation of performing surface analysis on potentially heterogeneous objects. The advantages and limitations of pXRF are discussed here regarding archaeological studies of obsidian, ceramics, metals, bone, and painted materials.

  17. The Importance of Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) Analysis and Imaging to the Search for Life on the Ocean Worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Thompson, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    The MapX imaging X-ray spectrometer is described and Monte Carlo modeling is used to show the efficacy of 244-Cm radioisotope sources in detecting and quantifying the biogenic elements in ices on Ocean Worlds such as Europa.

  18. Quantitative x ray microanalysis of pulmonary mineral particles in a patient with pneumoconiosis and two primary lung tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, S; Sutinen, S; Pääkkö, P; Alapieti, T; Peura, R; Sivonen, S J

    1984-01-01

    The right upper lung lobe of a 74 year old man was resected for a central tumour. Two primary cancers were found; a central small cell carcinoma and a peripheral squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, the peripheral lung tissue showed generalised peribronchiolar fibrosis extending from the non-respiratory bronchioles to the level of the alveolar ducts. Abundant asbestos bodies and large amounts of black dust were seen around the bronchioles. Pulmonary mineral particles were studied by quantitative energy dispersive x ray microanalysis (EDS) using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The x ray spectra for mineral particles were measured in thin sections, and the characteristic peak intensities of the elements were converted to weight fractions (in oxides). The results enabled the minerals present to be identified and their presence confirmed by calculating the mineral formula. These originated from nine natural minerals, anthophyllite and chrysotile asbestos, talc, and quartz, feldspars, and muscovite, which are components of sand, and also from two artificial mullites used in fire clay. The exposure history of the patient explained the most likely origins of the minerals detected. The patient had been a mason for 23 years, repairing and demolishing stoves and fireplaces and using asbestos for insulation work. Images PMID:6093848

  19. Detection of charged particles and X-rays by scintillator layers coupled to amorphous silicon photodiode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, T.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Lee, H.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.; Wildermuth, D.

    1995-04-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n diodes with transparent metallic contacts are shown to be suitable for detecting charged particles, electrons, and X-rays. When coupled to a suitable scintillator using CsI(Tl) as the scintillator we show a capability to detect minimum ionizing particles with S/N {approximately}20. We demonstrate such an arrangement by operating a p-i-n diode in photovoltaic mode (reverse bias). Moreover, we show that a p-i-n diode can also work as a photoconductor under forward bias and produces a gain yield of 3-8 higher light sensitivity for shaping times of 1 {mu}s. n-i-n devices have similar optical gain as the p-i-n photoconductor for short integrating times ( < 10{mu}s). However, n-i-n devices exhibit much higher gain for a long term integration (10ms) than the p-i-n ones. High sensitivity photosensors are very desirable for X-ray medical imaging because radiation exposure dose can be reduced significantly. The scintillator CsI layers we made have higher spatial resolution than the Kodak commercial scintillator screens due to their internal columnar structure which can collimate the scintillation light. Evaporated CsI layers are shown to be more resistant to radiation damage than the crystalline bulk CsI(Tl).

  20. X-ray mapping technique: a preliminary study in discriminating gunshot residue particles from aggregates of environmental occupational origin.

    PubMed

    Cardinetti, Bruno; Ciampini, Claudio; D'Onofrio, Carlo; Orlando, Giovanni; Gravina, Luciano; Ferrari, Francesco; Di Tullio, Donatello; Torresi, Luca

    2004-06-30

    The possibility of detection of lead-antimony-barium aggregates from non-firearm sources is confirmed according to the tests performed on brake pads, and firework and automobile workers. Moreover, information on particles taken from cartridge cases shows the relative feeble importance of the morphology in distinguishing gunshot residues (GSRs). Furthermore, also the presence in the spectrum of other elements (e.g., iron) is not so conclusive. In this panorama, the possibility of discriminating gunshot residue particles from other non-firearm lead-antimony-barium aggregates is investigated: the proposed method is based on X-ray mapping technique--currently applied used in Reparto Carabinieri Investigazioni Scientifiche in Rome, the forensic service of Italian Carabinieri--according to which the spatial distribution of the emission energy of each element of the sample is pictured. Gunshot residues present the same lead-antimony-barium distribution (or at least the same antimony-barium distribution with lead nodules), as some other environmental occupational aggregates do not (different plaques of lead, antimony, and barium). So, X-ray mapping technique can offer a new fundamental evaluation parameter in analysis of gunshot residues with scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive (SEM/EDS) spectrometry, and new standards could be considered.