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Sample records for particleboards

  1. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  2. Integration of textile fabric and coconut shell in particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misnon, M. I.; Bahari, S. A.; Islam, M. M.; Epaarachchi, J. A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, cotton fabric and coconut shell were integrated in particleboard to reduce the use of wood. Particleboards containing mixed rubberwood and coconut shell with an equal weight ratio have been integrated with various layers of cotton fabric. These materials were bonded by urea formaldehyde with a content level of 12% by weight. Flexural and water absorption tests were conducted to analyze its mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Results of flexural test showed an increment at least double strength values in fabricated materials as compared to control sample. The existence of fabric in the particleboard system also improved the dimensional stability of the produced material. Enhancement of at least 39% of water absorption could help the dimensional stability of the produced material. Overall, these new particleboards showed better results with the incorporation of cotton fabric layers and this study provided better understanding on mechanical and physical properties of the fabricated particleboard.

  3. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  4. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  5. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  6. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States and to...

  7. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States and to...

  8. Ensiling corn stover: effect of feedstock preservation on particleboard performance.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L; Chen, Zhilin; Kuo, Monlin; Bian, Yilin; Moore, Kenneth J; Patrick, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Ensilage is a truncated solid-state fermentation in which anaerobically produced organic acids accumulate to reduce pH and limit microbial activity. Ensilage can be used to both preserve and pretreat biomass feedstock for further downstream conversion into chemicals, fuels, and/or fiber products. This study examined the ensilage of enzyme-treated corn stover as a feedstock for particleboard manufacturing. Corn stover at three different particle size ranges (<100, <10, and <5 mm) was ensiled with and without a commercial enzyme mixture having a cellulase:hemicellulase ratio of 2.54:1, applied at a hemicellulase rate of 1670 IU/kg dry mass. Triplicate 20 L mini-silos were destructively sampled and analyzed on days 0, 1, 7, 21, 63, and 189. Analysis included produced organic acids and water-soluble carbohydrates, fiber fractions, pH, and microorganisms, including Lactobacillus spp. and clostridia were monitored. On days 0, 21, and 189, the triplicate samples were mixed evenly and assembled into particleboard using 10% ISU 2 resin, a soy-based adhesive. Particleboard panels were subjected to industry standard tests for modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bonding strength (IB), thickness swell (TS), and water absorption at 2 h boiling and 24 h soaking. Enzyme addition did improve the ensilage process, as indicated by sustained lower pH (P < 0.0001), higher water-soluble carbohydrates (P < 0.05), and increased lactic acid production (P < 0.0001). The middle particle size range (<10 mm) demonstrated the most promising results during the ensilage process. Compared with fresh stover, the ensilage process did increase IB of stover particleboard by 33% (P < 0.05) and decrease water adsorption at 2 h boiling and 24 h soaking significantly (P < 0.05). Particleboard panels produced from substrate ensiled with enzymes showed a significant reduction in water adsorption of 12% at 2 h boiling testing. On the basis of these results, ensilage can be used as

  9. Particleboard manufacturing: an innovative way to recycle paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Taramian, Asghar; Doosthoseini, Kazem; Mirshokraii, Sayyed Ahmad; Faezipour, Mehdei

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results on a study to use paper mill sludge for particleboard production. Single-layer board and three-layer board, with paper sludge on the surface, were fabricated. Four levels of mixing ratios of paper sludge to wood particles (0:100, 15:85, 30:70, and 45:55) were used. The boards were produced with 3% and 4% methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), and 10% and 12% urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives. The bending and shear strengths, water absorption, and thickness swelling of the boards were investigated. The results indicated that the mechanical properties of the boards were negatively affected by the paper sludge amount. Overall, UF-bonded particleboards gave superior mechanical performance, water resistance, and thickness swell than MDI-bonded particleboards. The strengths of the UF-bonded board decreased much more than those of MDI-bonded board as paper sludge content increased. The three-layer boards made from 15% paper sludge with 12% UF satisfied fully the minimum requirements set by EN, ASTM D 1037-99, and ANSI A208.1 standards for general uses.

  10. Chemical composition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) stalk and suitability in the particleboard production.

    PubMed

    Guuntekin, Ergun; Uner, Birol; Karakus, Beyhan

    2009-09-01

    This study examined chemical composition of tomato stalks and their possible feasibility in the production of particleboard. Three-layer experimental particleboards with density of 0.53, 0.63, and 0.73 g cm(-3) were manufactured from tomato stalks using certain ratios of urea formaldehyde (UF) and melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF) adhesives. Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bond strength (IB), thickness swelling (TS) properties of the boards were evaluated, and a statistical analysis was performed in order to examine possible feasibility of these stalks in commercial particleboard manufacturing. The experimental results have shown that production of general purpose particleboard used in dry conditions using tomato stalks is technically viable. The results of the study demonstrate that tomato stalks can be an alternative raw material source for particleboard industry. Use of agricultural waste such as tomato stalk can help solving waste management problems and contribute conservation of natural resources.

  11. Post-treatment Effect of Particleboard on Dimensional Stability and Durability Properties of Particleboard Made From Sorghum Bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iswanto, A. H.; Sucipto, T.; Nadeak, S. S. D.; Fatriasari, W.

    2017-03-01

    In general, the weakness of particleboard using urea formaldehyde (UF) resin has a low dimensional stability. This reasearch intends to improve its properties by post-treatment technique using several water repellent materials. The post-treatment effect on dimensional stability and durability properties of particleboard against to subterranean and dry termites has been evaluated. Sample was dipped into water reppelent solution namely parafin, palm oil, silicon and water proof for 3 minutes. Furthermore, they were oven dried at 50°C for 24 hours. The results showed that the density varied of 0.60 to 0.74 g/cm3. The post-treatment of particleboard increases the density value. Water absorption and thickness swelling of board were varied of 29.35% to 114.99% and 13.23 to 37.31%, respectively. This treatment also improved up the thickness swelling to 65%. The best durability of board to subterranean and dry termite attack has found on silicon and waterproof treatment, respectively.

  12. Fire-retardant-treated low-formaldehyde-emission particleboard made from recycled wood-waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song-Yung; Yang, Te-Hsin; Lin, Li-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Jung; Tsai, Ming-Jer

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to manufacture fire-retardant-treated low-formaldehyde-emission particleboard from recycled wood-waste particles using polymeric 4,4'-methylenediphenyl isocyanate (PMDI) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins. The influence of the PMDI/PF ratio (ratio of particles sprayed with PMDI to particles sprayed with PF, w/w) after fire retardant treatment on formaldehyde emissions, mechanical properties, and surface fire resistant performance of the manufactured particleboard was investigated. The experimental results showed that the formaldehyde emissions linearly decreased with an increasing PMDI/PF ratio. Moreover, the bending strength, internal bond strength, and screw holding strength increased with an increasing PMDI/PF ratio. The thickness swelling of the particleboard was improved by using an increasing PMDI/PF ratio. Furthermore, the fire-retardant-treated low-formaldehyde-emission particleboards fabricated in our study could pass the third grade standard of surface fire resistant performance as specified by CNS 6532.

  13. Carbon footprint as an environmental sustainability indicator for the particleboard produced in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Naseem Malik, Riffat; Taylor, Adam

    2017-05-01

    This study quantified the carbon footprint of particleboard production in Pakistan using a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach. The system boundary comprised raw materials acquisition, transport, particleboard manufacture and finished product distribution. Primary data were collected through surveys and meetings with particleboard manufacturers. Secondary data were taken from the literature. Greenhouse gas emissions from off-site industrial operations of the particleboard industry represented 52% of the total emissions from the production of 1.0m(3) of particleboard in Pakistan. The on-site industrial operations cause direct greenhouse gas emissions and accounted for 48% of the total emissions. These operations included energy consumption in stationary sources, the company-owned vehicle fleet, and the distribution and marketing of the finished product. The use of natural gas combustion in the stationary and mobile sources, raw material transport and urea-formaldehyde resin production chain accounted for the highest emissions from the particleboard production chain in Pakistan. The identification of the major hotspots in the particleboard production chain can assist the wood panel industry to improve their environmental profile. More efforts are needed to investigate the urea-formaldehyde resin production chain and substitution of roundwood with wood and agri-residues to assess the potential improvements. In addition, renewable energy sources should be encouraged to avoid greenhouse gas emissions by substituting fossil energy. This study also provides a benchmark for future research work to formulate comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions reduction plans, because no previous research work is available on the carbon footprint of particleboard production in Pakistan.

  14. Prospects for the use of municipal tree pruning wastes in particleboard production.

    PubMed

    Duarte da Silva, Manuel Joaquim; Bezerra, Barbara Stolte; Gomes Battistelle, Rosane Aparecida; Valarelli, Ivaldo De Domenico

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made with pruning wastes from Ipê (Tabebuia serratifolia) and Chapéu-de-Sol (Terminalia catappa) trees. Particleboards were prepared with both wood species, using all the material produced by grinding the pruning wastes. The particleboards had dimensions of 45 × 45 cm, a thickness of approximately 11.5 mm and an average density of 664 kg/m3. A urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used in the proportion of 12% of the dry particle mass. The particleboards were pressed at a temperature of 130°C for 10 mins. The physical and mechanical properties analyzed were density, moisture content, thickness swelling, percentage of lignin and cellulose, modulus of resilience, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength parallel to the grain, accordingly to the standards NBR 14810 and CS 236-66 (1968). The particleboards were considered to be of medium density. The particle size significantly affected the static bending strength and tensile strength parallel to the grain. Ipê presented better results, demonstrating a potential for the production and use of particleboard made from this species.

  15. Durian Husk as Potential Source for Particleboard Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zddin, Z.; Risby, M. S.

    2010-03-11

    The main purpose of this study is to develop low cost particleboards using durian skin as its reinforcing materials. Mechanical characterizations such as tensile, compressive and flexural strength were investigated. The fibers were extracted through the traditional retting and also mechanized process to compare the fibers production output. Surface topology study using Scanning Electron Microscope was done to examine the surface texture of the produced fibers, as shown in Figure 1. The experimental investigation reveals that the addition of these fibers reduces the mechanical properties of the composite specimen. However it can be concluded that this composite satisfies the basic requirement of non-load bearing construction materials, and they could be used for partition walls and the like. Thus, the potential for development, therefore, seems to be very promising. Finally, apart from saving energy consumption for the building, the proposed materials offer an alternative option to dispose waste of fruit industry.

  16. Organic emissions from combustion of wood, plywood and particleboard

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerning, J.M.; Evans, M.A.; Aerts, D.J.; Ragland, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    Organic emissions, CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and four temperatures were measured in a 13-cm i.d. by 5-m long fixed bed combustor using 6-mm and 12-min cubes of southern pine wood, plywood, and particleboard. Organic emissions, measured with a GC/MS-FID, were very sensitive to combustor temperature, excess oxygen and residence time. At outlet temperatures above 700{degrees}C, benzene was less than 0.1 ppm for lean combustion and residence time at least 1 s. For temperatures less than 600{degrees}C, benzene, toluene, and naphthalene concentrations increase. For fuel rich conditions at any temperature, many polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were observed. Similar trends for formaldehyde are presented.

  17. Medium-density particleboards from modified rice husks and soybean protein concentrate-based adhesives.

    PubMed

    Ciannamea, Emiliano M; Stefani, Pablo M; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using rice husk (RH) as wood substitute in the production of environmentally sound medium-density particleboards using adhesives from soybean protein concentrate (SPC). Chemical modification of rice husk with sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide (bleaching) were undertaken to evaluate the effect of such treatments on the composition and topology of rice husk and the performance of produced panels. Both treatments were efficient in partially eliminating hemicelluloses, lignin and silica from RH, as evidenced by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy observations suggested that alkaline treatment resulted in a more damaged RH substrate than bleaching. The dependence of mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond) and the physical properties (water absorption and thickness swelling) on chemical treatments performed on both, rice husk and SPC was studied. Bleached-rice husk particleboards bonded with alkaline-treated soybean protein concentrate displayed the best set of final properties. Particleboards with this formulation met the minimum requirements of internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture recommended by the US Standard ANSI/A208.1 specifications for M1, MS and M2-grade medium-density particleboards, but failed to achieve the thickness swelling value recommended for general use panels. This limitation of soybean protein concentrate-bonded rice husk particleboards was counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde-free which makes them a suitable alternative for indoor applications.

  18. The Research of Improving the Particleboard Glue Dosing Process Based on TRIZ Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huiling; Fan, Delin; Zhang, Yizhuo

    This research creates a design methodology by synthesizing the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) and cascade control based on Smith predictor. The particleboard glue supplying and dosing system case study defines the problem and the solution using the methodology proposed in the paper. Status difference existing in the gluing dosing process of particleboard production usually causes gluing volume inaccurately. In order to solve the problem above, we applied the TRIZ technical contradiction and inventive principle to improve the key process of particleboard production. The improving method mapped inaccurate problem to TRIZ technical contradiction, the prior action proposed Smith predictor as the control algorithm in the glue dosing system. This research examines the usefulness of a TRIZ based problem-solving process designed to improve the problem-solving ability of users in addressing difficult or reoccurring problems and also testify TRIZ is practicality and validity. Several suggestions are presented on how to approach this problem.

  19. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  20. Study on the Possibility of Using Vine Stalk Waste ( Vitis Vinifera) for Producing Gypsum Particleboards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangavar, H.; Khosro, S. Kh.; Payan, M. H.; Soltani, A.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was the production of gypsum particleboards with vine stalk waste and the investigation of some physical and mechanical properties of the boards. For this purpose, boards were made from gypsum, oven-dried mass of vine stalk waste, and the white portland cement in various ratios. The thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of immersion in water, the modulus of rupture, the modulus of elasticity, and the internal bond strength of the boards were determined according to the European Norms standard. The results show that, by selecting proper ratios between the constituents, particleboards with good physicomechanical properties can be produced.

  1. Processing of Fireproof and High Temperature Durable Particleboard from Rice Husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürü, Metin; Karabulut, Ahmet F.; Aydın, Mustafa Yasir; Bilici, İbrahim

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is the recovery of rice husk waste by researching usability in industry as an alternative to wood. In this study urea formaldehyde resin was used mainly as binding agent for wood-panel used in industry. For the preparation of composite material, ground powder rice husks were mixed with urea formaldehyde resin used in different proportions (65/50, 75/50, 80/50, 85/50, 95/50 by mass of filler/binder). Each particleboard produced in 393.15 K and 9.8 MPa pressure was tested by means of three point bending strength, shore hardness and limited oxygen index (LOI) tests. Particleboard made with 75/50 paddy husk/urea formaldehyde composition material formed of 11.40 MPa specimens showed the highest strength. Limited oxygen index value increased by increasing the filler material usage. The highest LOI value was recorded as 40%. Besides, fire point of particleboards which have the best three point bending strength has been analyzed at environmental atmosphere and 493.15 K has been measured as fire point. The results of the tests showed that this material maybe used instead of wooden plate. The usage of agricultural wastes like these in processing of particleboard will give economically benefits and slow down waste products.

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Saline Creeping Wild Ryegrass for Biogas Production and Pretreatment of Particleboard Material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop an integrated process to produce biogas and high-quality particleboard using saline creeping wild ryegrass (CWR), Leymus triticoides through anaerobic digestion (AD). Besides producing biogas, AD also serves as a pretreatment method to remove the wax la...

  3. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  4. Activated carbons prepared from wood particleboard wastes: characterisation and phenol adsorption capacities.

    PubMed

    Girods, P; Dufour, A; Fierro, V; Rogaume, Y; Rogaume, C; Zoulalian, A; Celzard, A

    2009-07-15

    The problems of valorisation of particleboard wastes on one hand, and contamination of aqueous effluents by phenolic compounds on the other hand, are simultaneously considered in this work. Preparation of activated carbons from a two steps thermo-chemical process, formerly designed for generating combustible gases, is suggested. The resultant carbonaceous residue is activated with steam at 800 degrees C. Depending on the preparation conditions, surface areas within the range 800-1300 m(2)/g are obtained, close to that of a commercial activated carbon (CAC) specially designed for water treatment and used as a reference material. The present work shows that particleboard waste-derived activated carbons (WAC) are efficient adsorbents for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions, with maximum measured capacities close to 500 mg/g. However, most of times, the adsorption capacities are slightly lower than that of the commercial material in the same conditions, i.e., at equilibrium phenol concentrations below 300 ppm. Given the extremely low cost of activated carbons prepared from particleboard waste, it should not be a problem to use it in somewhat higher amounts than what is required with a more expensive commercial material. Phenol adsorption isotherms at 298 K were correctly fitted by various equations modelling type I and type II isotherms for CAC and WAC, respectively. Phenol adsorption isotherms of type II were justified by a 3-stages adsorption mechanism.

  5. Evaluation of the physical, mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of particleboard manufactured from waste stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cones.

    PubMed

    Buyuksari, Umit; Ayrilmis, Nadir; Avci, Erkan; Koc, Enus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate some physical/mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of particleboard containing particles of waste stone pine cone at various usage ratios using urea-formaldehyde resin. Some physical (thickness swelling, water absorption), mechanical (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bond strength) properties and formaldehyde emission of particleboards were evaluated. The addition of cone particle improved water resistance of the panels and greatly reduced their formaldehyde emissions. However, flexural properties and internal bond strength decreased with increasing cone particle content in the panel. The cone of the stone pine can be considered as an alternative to wood material in the manufacture of particleboard used in indoor environment due to lower thickness swelling, water absorption and formaldehyde emission.

  6. New insulating particleboards prepared from mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing and corn peel.

    PubMed

    Lertsutthiwong, Pranee; Khunthon, Srichalai; Siralertmukul, Krisana; Noomun, Khanittha; Chandrkrachang, Suwalee

    2008-07-01

    New composite boards with low-thermal conductivity produced from a mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing (solid waste TPM) and corn peel have been developed. The effects of solid waste TPM/corn peel ratio on the properties of the boards were investigated and the possibility of using recycled polystyrene packaging foam as a laminating agent to improve the quality of the boards was also evaluated. Our results show that the density of the particleboards decrease with increasing the amount of corn peel added in the mixture, leading to a decrease in thermal conductivity of the final product. In contrary, larger amount of solid waste TPM added in the mixture produced stronger boards. The lamination of recycled polystyrene on the surface of particleboards improves the mechanical properties and reduces the thickness swelling of the boards. The best improvement in mechanical properties and swelling resistance could be achieved when 15% polystyrene (w/v) was coated on the surface of the boards.

  7. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 - 25.26 keV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941).

  8. Feasibility of incorporating waste grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) in particleboard composites.

    PubMed

    Nemli, Gökay; Demirel, Samet; Gümüşkaya, Esat; Aslan, Mustafa; Acar, Cengiz

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated some of the important physical (thickness swelling) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties of single-layer particleboard panels made from eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), waste of grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) and combinations of the two. The chemical properties (pH, holocelluse and alpha cellulose contents, and water, alcohol-benzene and 1% sodium hydroxide solubilities) of the raw materials were also determined. Panels with a 6:94 ratio of grass-to-eucalyptus particles had the required mechanical properties for interior fitments including furniture and general uses. Boards manufactured with 100% grass clippings exhibited the lowest quality. The overall panel properties improved with a lower percentage of grass clippings added. Based on initial results, it also appears that grass should compose no more than 13% to achieve acceptable panel properties for interior fitments and general uses.

  9. Utilization of the coconut shell of babaçu (Orbignya sp.) to produce cement-bonded particleboard.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renato Rocha; Del Menezzi, Cláudio Henrique Soares; Teixeira, Divino Eterno

    2002-11-01

    This experiment evaluated the use of the material of the outer coconut shell of babaçu (Orbignya sp.), a palm tree from Brazil, for the manufacture of particleboards bonded with Portland cement. Four treatments were analyzed at two target densities (1.2 g/cm3 and 1.4 g/cm3) and two levels (0% and 4%) of addition of calcium chloride. The lignocellulosic material from babaçu presented a low cement inhibition index according to the hydration test. Testing of manufactured panels showed that good physical and mechanical properties were achieved at the treatment levels tested.

  10. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 – 25.26 keV photon energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)

  11. Investigation of mass attenuation coefficient of almond gum bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboard as equivalent human tissue using XRF technique in the 16.6-25.3 keV photon energy.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Baker; Tajuddin, Abd Aziz; Hashim, Rokiah; Shuaib, Ibrahim Lutfi

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the novel use of almond gum as a binder in manufacturing Rhizophora spp. particleboard. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was employed for analysis under photon energy range of 16.6-25.3 keV. Results showed that almond gum-bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboard can be used as tissue-equivalent phantom in diagnostic radiation. The calculated mass attenuation coefficients of the particleboards were consistent with the values of water calculated using XCOM program for the same photon energies, with p values of 0.056, 0.069, and 0.077 for samples A8, C0, and C8, respectively. However, no direct relationship was found between the percentage of adhesive and the mass attenuation coefficient. The results positively supported the use of almond gum as a binding agent in the fabrication of particleboards, which can be used as a phantom material in dosimetric and quality control applications.

  12. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion.

    PubMed

    Konopa, Stephanie Lucero; Mulholland, James A; Realff, Matthew J; Lemieux, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particle-board combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. SO2 emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet.

  14. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboards for X-ray in the 16.63-25.30 keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tousi, E. T.; Bauk, S.; Hashim, R.; Jaafar, M. S.; Abuarra, A.; Aldroobi, K. S. A.; Al-Jarrah, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The roots of Eremurus spp. were used as a bio-adhesive in the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard of six samples with two different weight percentages of the Eremurus spp. root (6% and 12%) and three various Rhizophora spp. particle sizes (≤149 μm, 149-500 μm and 500-1000 μm) were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons in 16.63 keV and 25.30 keV of the photon energy range. The results were compared with theoretically calculated mass attenuations using the XCOM computer program for younger-age (breast 1: 75% muscle+25% fat), middle-age (breast 2: 50% muscle+50% fat), and old-age (breast 3: 25% muscle+75% fat) breasts. The results indicated that Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard is the appropriate suitable phantom in the diagnostic energy region. The mass attenuation coefficient in the low weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and the large Rhizophora spp. particle size were found very close to breast 1. Moreover the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample with high weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and small Rhizophora spp. particle size was found very close to water as a standard material phantom. In addition, the viscosity of dissolved Eremurus spp. root in water could be considerably higher than that of formaldehyde-based adhesives, which affects on some properties such as high strength and high binding.

  15. Effects of tree species and wood particle size on the properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufacturing from tree prunings.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Ramadan A; Al-Mefarrej, H A; Abdel-Aal, M A; Alshahrani, T S

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the possibility of using the prunings of six locally grown tree species in Saudi Arabia for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) production. Panels were made using four different wood particle sizes and a constant wood/cement ratio (1/3 by weight) and target density (1200 kg/m3). The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the produced panels were determined. The interfacial area and distribution of the wood particles in cement matrix were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the panels produced from these pruning materials at a target density of 1200 kg m(-3) meet the strength and dimensional stability requirements of the commercial CBP panels. The mean moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE) ranged from 9.68 to 11.78 N mm2 and from 3952 to 5667 N mm2, respectively. The mean percent water absorption for twenty four hours (WA24) ranged from 12.93% to 23.39%. Thickness swelling values ranged from 0.62% to 1.53%. For CBP panels with high mechanical properties and good dimensional stability, mixed-size or coarse particles should be used. Using the tree prunings for CBPs production may help to solve the problem of getting rid of these residues by reducing their negative effects on environment, which are caused by poor disposal of such materials through direct combustion process and appearance of black cloud and then the impact on human health or the random accumulation and its indirect effects on the environment.

  16. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ2 value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ2 value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  17. The manufacture of particleboards using mixture of peanut hull (Arachis hypoqaea L.) and European Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) wood chips.

    PubMed

    Guler, Cengiz; Copur, Yalcin; Tascioglu, Cihat

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the suitability of peanut hull to produce general purpose particleboards. A series of panels were produced using peanut hull and mixture of peanut hull and European Black pine wood chips. Particleboards were manufactured using various hull ratios in the mixture (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Urea formaldehyde adhesive was utilized in board production and boards were produced to target panel's density of 0.7 g/cm3. Panels were tested for some physical (water absorption and thickness swelling), chemical (holocellulose content, lignin content, alcohol-benzene solubility, 1% NaOH solubility, hot water solubility and cold water solubility) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties. The main observation was that increase in peanut hull in the mixture resulted in a decrease in mechanical and physical properties of produced panels and panel including 25% hull in the mixture solely met the standard required by TS-EN 312 standard. Conclusively, a valuable renewable natural resource, peanut hull could be utilized in panel production while it has been mixed to the wood chips.

  18. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  19. Determining the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density of raw wood and binderless particleboards of Rhizophora spp. by using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marashdeh, Mohammad W.; Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F.; Abdel Munem, Eid M.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Ariffin, Alawiah; Al-Omari, Saleh

    Rhizophora spp. wood has the potential to serve as a solid water or tissue equivalent phantom for photon and electron beam dosimetry. In this study, the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron density (Neff) of raw wood and binderless Rhizophora spp. particleboards in four different particle sizes were determined in the 10-60 keV energy region. The mass attenuation coefficients used in the calculations were obtained using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation code. The MCNP5 calculations of the attenuation parameters for the Rhizophora spp. samples were plotted graphically against photon energy and discussed in terms of their relative differences compared with those of water and breast tissue. Moreover, the validity of the MCNP5 code was examined by comparing the calculated attenuation parameters with the theoretical values obtained by the XCOM program based on the mixture rule. The results indicated that the MCNP5 process can be followed to determine the attenuation of gamma rays with several photon energies in other materials.

  20. Attenuation properties and percentage depth dose of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms using computed tomography (CT) and treatment planning system (TPS) at high energy x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, M. F. Mohd; Abdullah, R.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Hashim, R.; Bauk, S.

    2016-01-01

    A set of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms with dimension of 30 cm x 30 cm was fabricated at target density of 1.0 g/cm3. The mass attenuation coefficient of the phantom was measured using 60Co gamma source. The phantoms were scanned using Computed Tomography (CT) scanner and the percentage depth dose (PDD) of the phantom was calculated using treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray and compared to that in solid water phantoms. The result showed that the mass attenuation coefficient of tannin-based Rhizohora spp. phantoms was near to the value of water with χ2 value of 1.2. The measured PDD also showed good agreement with solid water phantom at both 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray with percentage deviation below 8% at depth beyond the maximum dose, Zmax.

  1. Attenuation properties and percentage depth dose of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms using computed tomography (CT) and treatment planning system (TPS) at high energy x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yusof, M. F. Mohd; Abdullah, R.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Hashim, R.; Bauk, S.

    2016-01-22

    A set of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms with dimension of 30 cm x 30 cm was fabricated at target density of 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}. The mass attenuation coefficient of the phantom was measured using {sup 60}Co gamma source. The phantoms were scanned using Computed Tomography (CT) scanner and the percentage depth dose (PDD) of the phantom was calculated using treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray and compared to that in solid water phantoms. The result showed that the mass attenuation coefficient of tannin-based Rhizohora spp. phantoms was near to the value of water with χ{sup 2} value of 1.2. The measured PDD also showed good agreement with solid water phantom at both 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray with percentage deviation below 8% at depth beyond the maximum dose, Z{sub max}.

  2. Modeling and prediction of density distribution and microstructure in particleboards from acoustic properties by correlation of non-contact high-resolution pulsed air-coupled ultrasound and X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Sergio J; Hilbers, Ulrich; Neuenschwander, Jürg; Niemz, Peter; Sennhauser, Urs; Thömen, Heiko; Wenker, Jan L

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive density and microstructure quality control testing in particleboards (PBs) is necessary in production lines. A pulsed air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) high-resolution normal transmission system, together with a first wave tracking algorithm, were developed to image amplitude transmission G(p) and velocity c(p) distributions at 120kHz for PBs of specific nominal densities and five particle geometries, which were then correlated to X-ray in-plane density images ρ(s). Test PBs with a homogeneous vertical density profile were manufactured in a laboratory environment and conditioned in a standard climate (T=20°C, RH=65%) before the measurements. Continuous trends (R(2)>0.97) were obtained by matching the lateral resolution of X-ray images with the ACU sound field radius (σ(w)(o)=21mm) and by clustering the scatter plots. ρ(s)↦c(p) was described with a three-parameter non-linear model for each particle geometry, allowing for ACU density prediction with 3% uncertainty and PB testing according to EN312. ρ(s)↦G(p) was modeled by calculating ACU coupling gain and by fitting inverse power laws with offset of ρ(s) and c(p) to material attenuation, which scaled with particle volume. G(p) and c(p) variations with the frequency were examined, showing thickness resonances and scattering attenuation. The combination of ACU and X-ray data enabled successful particle geometry classification. The observed trends were interpreted in terms of multi-scale porosity and grain scattering with finite-difference time-domain simulations, which modeled arbitrarily complex stiffness and density distributions. The proposed method allows for non-contact determination of relations between acoustic properties and in-plane density distribution in plate materials. In future work, commercial PBs with non-uniform vertical density profiles should be investigated.

  3. Organic emissions from combustion of plywood and particleboard

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerning, J.M.; Evans, M.A.; Aerts, D.J.; Ragland, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    Large amounts of wood, wood waste and manufactured wood products are burned on grates to produce process heat and electricity in industrial boilers. Industrial combustion chambers generate high temperatures for relatively long residence times, however emissions of volatile organic substances are of concern if the residence time, temperature and turbulence are inadequate. The typical industrial plant does not measure volatile organic emissions, but does measure oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations. With sufficient excess O{sub 2} and low enough CO, the organic emissions are thought to be acceptably low. For example, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources specifies good combustion practice as CO less than 600 ppm corrected to 7 % oxygen plus temperatures greater than 675{degrees}C for 1.0 s. The purpose of this project was to determine the adequacy of this criteria with respect to volatile organic emissions for selected wood and manufactured wood products in a laboratory combustor.

  4. PSD Applicability Analysis for a Past Change at the Georgia-Pacific Taylorsville Facility Particleboard Plant, Taylorsville, Mississippi

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. 77 FR 56870 - Notice of Continuation of Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... that may not be either like or directly competitive with either particleboard or laminated wood panels... particleboard and/or laminated wood panels, and provided additional information regarding the subject facilities' operations related to particleboard and/or laminated wood panel production and their respective...

  6. [Formaldehyde emissions from wooden products and office furniture].

    PubMed

    Pecka, I; Wiglusz, R; Madeja-Grzyb, A; Dziewanowska-Pudliszak, A

    2001-01-01

    The formaldehyde emission from wood-products (particleboards, particleboards veneered with artificial veneer, laminated particleboard, hard fibreboards, plywood) and office furniture was measured with the use of environmental chamber (0.2 m3, 0.6 m3, 1.0 m3 capacity) in the following conditions: temperature 23 degrees C, relative humidity 45%, 1 air exchange/hour and factor loading 1 m2/m3. Formaldehyde was determined by using colorimetric methods. Among the tested products, hard fibreboards, plywood and almost all of the enriched particleboards should not contaminate indoor air with formaldehyde over its threshold limit values. The tested office furniture fulfill of the hygienic requirements.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND EMISSIONS AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS FOR THE COMPOSITE WOOD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes information gathered on emissions from the composite wood industry (also called the Plywood and particleboard industry) and potential pollution prevention options. Information was gathered during a literature search that included trade association publicatio...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.406 - Air chamber test method for certification and qualification of formaldehyde emission levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... particleboard is produced or surface-finished, whichever is later, the panels must be dead-stacked or air-tight... with the Standard Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Levels from Wood Products Under Defined...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.406 - Air chamber test method for certification and qualification of formaldehyde emission levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... particleboard is produced or surface-finished, whichever is later, the panels must be dead-stacked or air-tight... with the Standard Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Levels from Wood Products Under Defined...

  10. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cured with a heat-curable, a...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood... testing laboratory must approve a written quality control plan for each plant where the particleboard is produced or finished or where the plywood is finished. The quality control plan must be designed to...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1977 - Content of approved State submitted implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Particleboard Plants (3/10/93) 21-235Hardboard Manufacturing Plants (1/29/96) 21-240Air Conveying Systems (3/10...-340Criteria for Qualifications of Persons Eligible to Inspect Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Pollution...) Division 28—Stationary Source Air Pollution Control and Permitting Procedures Excess Emissions...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1977 - Content of approved State submitted implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Particleboard Plants (3/10/93) 21-235Hardboard Manufacturing Plants (1/29/96) 21-240Air Conveying Systems (3/10...-340Criteria for Qualifications of Persons Eligible to Inspect Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Pollution...) Division 28—Stationary Source Air Pollution Control and Permitting Procedures Excess Emissions...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1977 - Content of approved State submitted implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Particleboard Plants (3/10/93) 21-235Hardboard Manufacturing Plants (1/29/96) 21-240Air Conveying Systems (3/10...-340Criteria for Qualifications of Persons Eligible to Inspect Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Pollution...) Division 28—Stationary Source Air Pollution Control and Permitting Procedures Excess Emissions...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1977 - Content of approved State submitted implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Particleboard Plants (3/10/93) 21-235Hardboard Manufacturing Plants (1/29/96) 21-240Air Conveying Systems (3/10...-340Criteria for Qualifications of Persons Eligible to Inspect Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Pollution...) Division 28—Stationary Source Air Pollution Control and Permitting Procedures Excess Emissions...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1977 - Content of approved State submitted implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Particleboard Plants (3/10/93) 21-235Hardboard Manufacturing Plants (1/29/96) 21-240Air Conveying Systems (3/10...-340Criteria for Qualifications of Persons Eligible to Inspect Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Pollution...) Division 28—Stationary Source Air Pollution Control and Permitting Procedures Excess Emissions...

  17. Life cycle assessment of wood wastes: A case study of ephemeral architecture.

    PubMed

    Rivela, Beatriz; Moreira, María Teresa; Muñoz, Iván; Rieradevall, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2006-03-15

    One of the most commonly used elements in ephemeral architecture is a particleboard panel. These types of wood products are produced from wood wastes and they are used in temporary constructions such as trade fairs. Once the event is over, they are usually disposed into landfills. This paper intends to assess the environmental effects related to the use of these wood wastes in the end-of-life stage. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two scenarios was performed, considering the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture and energy generation from non-renewable resources (Scenario 1) versus the production of energy from the combustion of wood waste and particleboard manufacture with conventional wooden resources (Scenario 2). A sensitive analysis was carried out taking into account the influence of the percentage of recycled material and the emissions data from wood combustion. According to Ecoindicator 99 methodology, Damage to Human Health and Ecosystem Quality are more significant in Scenario 2 whereas Scenario 1 presents the largest contribution to Damage to Resources. Between the two proposed alternatives, the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture seems to be more favorable under an environmental perspective.

  18. Chamber assessment of formaldehyde and VOC emissions from wood-based panels.

    PubMed

    Brown, S K

    1999-09-01

    Volatile organic emissions from particleboard, medium density fibreboard (MDF) and office furniture have been measured in dynamic environmental chambers, both small and room-sized. Characterisation of product emission properties in small chambers was possible when inter- and intra-sheet variations were considered. Formaldehyde emission factors for all products were approximately double European low-emission specifications and did not decay to the latter for several months. Long-term emission behaviour could not be predicted from short-term measurements. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions were low for the MDF product, higher for particleboard, and highest for laminated office furniture. The compounds emitted differed from those reported in other countries. VOC emissions from the sheet products decreased more quickly than formaldehyde, reaching low levels within two weeks, except for MDF which was found to become a low-level source of hexanal after several months.

  19. Pressure Modeling of Char-Forming and Laminated Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    terms of rate of total mass loss, flame heighit, upward flame spread rate, and maximum lateral flame dimensions during the spread process . The cnar...flame extent during the spread process . The char-forming materials (pine-wood, particle-board and a rigid, polyurethane foam) are tested in a 900... processes occur. 2. The behavior of the flame spread process at elevated air pressures, for walls composed of a face layer of PMMA with a thick

  20. 40 CFR 52.1970 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Waste Boilers 3/10/1993 2/25/1997, 62 FR 8385 021-230 Wood Particle Dryers at Particleboard Plants 3/10/1993 2/25/1997, 62 FR 8385 021-235 Hardboard Manufacturing Plants 1/29/1996 2/25/1997, 62 FR 8385 021.../1997, 62 FR 8385 Division 200General Air Pollution Procedures and Definitions 200-0010 Purpose...

  1. Measurements of VOC emissions from three building materials using small environmental chamber under defined standard test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, J.; Lusztyk, E.; Magee, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    VOC emission profile is an important parameter to describe the building materials and consumer products for their impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). Emission profiles are dependent on the test conditions. It is therefore very important to standardize testing conditions in order to compare emission factors and decay constants reported by various testing laboratories. Standard chamber test conditions (Chamber temperature of 23 C, relative humidity of 50 %, air change rate of 1 ACH, and specimen loading ratio of 0.4 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}) have been proposed for using small environment chamber (0.05 m{sup 3}) by an international consortium research program led by the Institute for Research in Construction, NRCC. VOC emissions (excluding formaldehyde) from three building materials, a particleboard, a carpet with rubber backing and a vinyl floor tile were measured under above defined test conditions. Samples of the chamber air were collected using multi-sorbent tubes during the chamber tests, and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) GC/FID. GC peaks were identified using TD/GC/MS. Major VOCs emitted were solvents, aldehydes, C10-and C15-terpenes for the particleboard, alkanes, alkenes and 4-phenyl cyclohexene for the carpet. VOC emissions from vinyl floor tile were dominated by a mixture of two alkyl propanoates, which eluted late (at about 230 C) on GC column. Total VOCs in the chamber air reached at 1100, 210 and 2400 m g/m3 for the particleboard, carpet and vinyl floor tile respectively. The analytical variation was around 5 to 10 % judged by a number of duplicates analyzed during the tests. First order exponential decay model and power law decay model were used to describe the emission factor decay from 12 h after the start of dynamic chamber tests. The power law model was found to better fit the experimental data than the first order decay model.

  2. Soy protein isolate molecular level contributions to bulk adhesive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Jeanne Norton

    Increasing environmental awareness and the recognized health hazards of formaldehyde-based resins has prompted a strong demand for environmentally-responsible adhesives for wood composites. Soy protein-based adhesives have been shown to be commercially viable with 90-day shelf stability and composite physical properties comparable to those of commercial formaldehyde-based particleboards. The main research focus is to isolate and characterize the molecular level features in soy protein isolate responsible for providing mechanical properties, storage stability, and water resistance during adhesive formulation, processing, and wood composite fabrication. Commercial composite board will be reviewed to enhance our understanding of the individual components and processes required for particleboard production. The levels of protein structure will be defined and an overview of current bio-based technology will be presented. In the process, the logic for utilizing soy protein as a sole binder in the adhesive will be reinforced. Variables such as adhesive components, pH, divalent ions, blend aging, protein molecular weight, formulation solids content, and soy protein functionalization will relate the bulk properties of soy protein adhesives to the molecular configuration of the soybean protein. This work has demonstrated that when intermolecular beta-sheet interactions and protein long-range order is disrupted, viscosity and mechanical properties decrease. Storage stability can be maintained through the stabilization of intermolecular beta-sheet interactions. When molecular weight is reduced through enzymatic digestion, long-range order is disrupted and viscosity and mechanical properties decrease accordingly. Processibility and physical properties must be balanced to increase solids while maintaining low viscosity, desirable mechanical properties, and adequate storage stability. The structure of the soybean protein must be related to the particleboard bulk mechanical

  3. Columbia-North Pacific Region Comprehensive Framework Study of Water and Related Lands. Appendix VI. Economic Base and Projections,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-01-01

    29 The Lumber Industry 29 The Plywood Industry 30 The Pulp Industry 33 The Particleboard Industry 34 Foreign Log Exports 34 Emp loyment 35 The Future...growth of the plywood indus try in California and the southern states has reduced the region ’s share of national plywood production. The Pulp Indus t...s pul p indus t r\\ - p r o d u c e d about two m i l l i on tons of pulp , and in 1965 i t produced approximatel y 5.4 mil l ion tons , or 16

  4. Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.

    1991-10-01

    The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

  5. A brief review of control measures for indoor formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    Indoor environments contain a variety of consumer and construction products that emit formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) vapor. The strongest CH/sub 2/O emitters are typically particleboard underlayment and industrial particleboard, hardwood plywood paneling, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and medium density fiberboard, all of which contain urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. The contribution of individual products to indoor CH/sub 2/O levels depends on several parameters, including the quantity and age of the product, building ventilation rate, presence of permeation barriers, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and CH/sub 2/O vapor concentration resulting from all of the CH/sub 2/O emitters (1,3-8). Combustion sources (e.g., kerosene heaters, gas stoves and cigarettes), carpet and carpet padding, resilient flooring (e.g., linoleum), gypsum board, non-apparel and apparel textiles, ceiling tiles, fibrous glass insulation and softwood plywood subflooring are generally weak emitters that do not contribute significantly to steady-state, indoor CH/sub 2/O levels. Control measures exist to reduce CH/sub 2/O emissions from consumer and construction products during their manufacturer and in post-installation applications. This note summarized the effectiveness of the following subset of post-installation control measures: product aging, installations of permeation barriers (i.e., flooring) and increased building ventilation. 14 refs.

  6. The nature of the MDI/wood bond

    SciTech Connect

    Marcinko, J.J.; Phanopoulos, C.; Newman, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    Polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) binders have been used in the wood composite industry for 20 years. Almost one half of the oriented strand board (OSB) manufactures in North America are taking advantage of its processing speed and superior board performance. MDI`s current use in Strandboard, MDF (medium density fiber board), LVL (laminated veneer lumber), Plywood, and Particleboard is wide spread. A fundamental understanding of the role of MIDI as a binder in these complex composites is essential for further processing optimization. Experimental data is presented which investigates the nature of the chemical bonding in wood composites. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is combined with data from thermal analysis and fluorescence microscopy to investigate the chemistry, penetration, and morphology of the isocyanate/wood interphase. Structure property relationships are developed and related to composite performance. The study contrasts isocyanate and phenol formaldehyde binder systems.

  7. X-Ray Tomography to Measure Size of Fragments from Penetration of High-Velocity Tungsten Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Zach; Hanna, Romy; Bless, Stephan; Levinson, Scott; InstituteAdvanced Technology Collaboration; Department of Geological Sciences-UT Austin Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    Behind-armor debris that results from tungsten rods penetrating armor steel at 2 km/s was studied by analysis of recovered fragments. Fragment recovery was by means of particleboard. Individual fragments were analyzed by x-ray tomography, which provides information for fragment identification, mass, shape, and penetration down to masses of a few milligrams. The experiments were complemented by AUTODYN SPH calculations to provide the exit velocity and the strain rate at the time of particle formation. There were four types of fragments: steel or tungsten, and generated from the channel or from the breakout through the target rear surface. Channel fragment motions were well described by Tate theory. Breakout fragments had velocities from the projectile remnant to the channel velocity, apparently depending on where in the projectile a fragment originated. The fragment size distribution was extremely broad and did not correlate well with simple uniform-fragment-size models, e.g., Grady Kipp.

  8. Use of lasers in the furniture industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieloch, Grzegorz; Pohl, Piotr

    1995-03-01

    One of the ways of using laser in industry is its usage in loss treatment of wood and composite wood products. In the furniture industry the above mentioned machining is used in such technological processes in which tool machining (sawing, molding) is not economical or even possible. These processes are mainly curvilinear cutting of layer materials like veneers, plywood, and face layers and thicker materials like particleboards, fiberboards, and lumber- core panels. Wide usage has also been achieved in heat treatment in wood for decoration. It can be calcinating designs, engraving them, blackening of parts of surfaces, or changing of anatomic characteristics of wood tissue. Nevertheless laser usage in recliner cutting seems at present causeless.

  9. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Miksch, R.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Traynor, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminants and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. These air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings were measured and analyzed with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency.

  10. Characterization of emissions of aliphatic aldehydes and monoterpenes from wood-based building materials using small dynamic environmental test chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.P.; Magee, R.J.; Zhang, J.S.; Lusztyk, E.; Shaw, C.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Aliphatic aldehydes and monoterpenes are the two major classes of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in wood and engineered wood products. In this investigation of VOC emissions from building materials, the authors have measured emissions of chemicals of these two classes from various wood related products including engineered woods such as particleboard, oriented strand board and plywood, and natural solid woods such as pine, oak and maple. These products are widely used in building construction. Aldehyde and monoterpene emissions from these products may have an impact on concentrations of these chemicals in indoor air. Chamber conditions used in the tests were similar to those recommended in the ASTM practice D 6330-98 (23 degrees C temperature, 50% relative humidity, and 1 h-1 air change rate). An in-house sample holder was used to seal sample edges and allow only the top surface to be exposed in a test chamber of 0.05 m3. Chamber air was collected in multi-sorbent tubes that were analyzed using a thermal desorption apparatus coupled with GC/MS or GC/FID. Identification of emissions indicated that monoterpenes were the major VOCs emitted from the pine sample while the maple sample emitted mainly the aldehydes. Three samples of each of the engineered wood product were tested for emissions of selected major chemicals and total VOCs. Emission data of these chemicals are reported in this paper. Initial emission factors and decay constants were calculated using a method that is recommended in ASTM D 6330-98. The results show that particleboard has higher initial emission factors than plywood or oriented strand board. A comparison of first order decay and power law decay models are examined with the emission data obtained from chamber tests.

  11. Urban wood waste in Michigan: Supply and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    This study provides the most comprehensive and detailed non-proprietary assessment and characterization of urban wood waste (UWW) to date for Michigan and the U.S. Nine components of the UWW stream were quantified and analyzed by surveying 44 UWW haulers and processors and 19 urban wood foresters in the Detroit, Grand Rapids, and Lansing markets. The nine UWW components consist of (1) used pallets, (2) wood scraps, (3) construction debris, (4) demolition debris, (5) tree trimming residue, (6) land clearing wood waste, (7) plywood/particleboard waste, (8) used railroad ties, and (9) {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} wood waste. UWW is defined as wood residue generated by municipal, industrial, commercial, construction, and demolition sources, and includes pallets/dunnage, wood scraps, construction and demolition debris, railroad ties, tree trimmings, land clearing, plywood/particleboard, and other UWW component streams. Our final estimate of 593,395 tonnes of annually generated UWW compares with 781,630 tonnes of residue generated by Michigan`s secondary wood manufacturing industry. Our study estimates that 90 MW of electric generating capacity can be produced from the UWW supply in our study area. Total electric power capacity is about 20,000 MW in the state. The UWW market was found to be highly dependent on used pallet generation (46% of total UWW). Current fuel demand by Michigan`s wood burning power facilities is 1,530,360 TPY and will increase to 1,936,800 TPY as a major new facility comes on-line. Unless regulatory standards for {open_quotes}contaminated{close_quotes} wood supplies are relaxed, supply shortages may occur. Other significant end-markets for UWW compete for UWW supplies which may drive prices up. UWW markets and prices are extremely volatile, and they are extremely sensitive to various regulatory and market factors that are not always carefully considered nor understood.

  12. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (-560 to -120 kg CO(2)equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (-665 to -125 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (-1.9 to -1.3 tonnes CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

  13. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus

  14. Formaldehyde emission—Comparison of different standard methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risholm-Sundman, Maria; Larsen, Annelise; Vestin, Ewa; Weibull, Anders

    The emission of formaldehyde is an important factor in the evaluation of the environmental and health effects of wood-based board materials. This article gives a comparison between commonly used European test methods: chamber method [EN 717-1, 2004. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 1: formaldehyde emission by the chamber method. European Standard, October 2004], gas analysis method [EN 717-2, 1994. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 2: formaldehyde release by the gas analysis method, European Standard, November 1994], flask method [EN 717-3, 1996. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 3: formaldehyde release by the flask method, European Standard, March 1996], perforator method [EN 120, 1993. Wood based panels—determination of formaldehyde content—extraction method called perforator method, European Standard, September 1993], Japanese test methods: desiccator methods [JIS A 1460, 2001. Building boards. Determination of formaldehyde emission—desiccator method, Japanese Industrial Standard, March 2001 and JAS MAFF 233, 2001] and small chamber method [JIS A 1901, 2003. Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes for building products—small chamber method, Japanese Industrial Standard, January 2003], for solid wood, particleboard, plywood and medium density fiberboard. The variations between the results from different methods can partly be explained by differences in test conditions. Factors like edge sealing, conditioning of the sample before the test and test temperature have a large effect on the final emission result. The Japanese limit for F **** of 0.3 mg l -1 (in desiccator) for particleboards was found to be equivalent to 0.04 mg m -3 in the European chamber test and 2.8 mg per 100 g in the perforator test. The variations in inter-laboratory tests are much larger than in intra-laboratory tests; the coefficient of variation is 16% and 6

  15. Dehydration project report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-31

    Catalytic Industrial Group became interested in the ability to use its catalytic infrared technology for the removal of moisture in substances after having had very positive experience in removing moisture from water-based coatings which are becoming increasingly popular as industry strives to comply with clean air mandates. The first attempts were crude but showed that the moisture could be removed, and intriguing enough that they started to think about a conveying-based system that would remove moisture from products. The initial tests were designed around sawdust. The authors felt that the market in particleboard and in the MDF board by itself justified the research into this concept. The Kansas Department of Health and Environment has been kept apprised of the on-going development of the infrared drying system by Catalytic Industrial Group. There were some early delays in the delivery of equipment needed to build the prototype machine. The design changes identified during the experimental phase of the development of the infrared dryer have been resolved and a process-testing device has been developed. This technical report outlines the progress made to date.

  16. Graphene-Borate as an Efficient Fire Retardant for Cellulosic Materials with Multiple and Synergetic Modes of Action.

    PubMed

    Nine, Md J; Tran, Diana N H; Tung, Tran Thanh; Kabiri, Shervin; Losic, Dusan

    2017-03-10

    To address high fire risks of flamable cellulosic materials, that can trigger easy combustion, flame propagation, and release of toxic gases, we report a new fire-retardant approach using synergetic actions combining unique properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and hydrated-sodium metaborates (SMB). The single-step treatment of cellulosic materials by a composite suspension of rGO/SMB was developed to create a barrier layer on sawdust surface providing highly effective fire retardant protection with multiple modes of action. These performances are designed considering synergy between properties of hydrated-SMB crystals working as chemical heat-sink to slow down the thermal degradation of the cellulosic particles and gas impermeable rGO layers that prevents access of oxygen and the release of toxic volatiles. The rGO outer layer also creates a thermal and physical barrier by donating carbon between the flame and unburnt wood particles. The fire-retardant performance of developed graphene-borate composite and mechanism of fire protection are demonstrated by testing of different forms of cellulosic materials such as pine sawdust, particle-board, and fiber-based structures. Results revealed their outstanding self-extinguishing behavior with significant resistance to release of toxic and flammable volatiles suggesting rGO/SMB to be suitable alternative to the conventional toxic halogenated flame-retardant materials.

  17. Evaluation of a headspace solid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of ignitable liquids in fire debris.

    PubMed

    Fettig, Ina; Krüger, Simone; Deubel, Jan H; Werrel, Martin; Raspe, Tina; Piechotta, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The chemical analysis of fire debris represents a crucial part in fire investigations to determine the cause of a fire. A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure for the detection of ignitable liquids in fire debris using a fiber coated with a mixture of three different sorbent materials (Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane, DVB/CAR/PDMS) is described. Gasoline and diesel fuel were spiked upon a preburnt matrix (wood charcoal), extracted and concentrated with HS-SPME and then analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The experimental conditions--extraction temperature, incubation and exposure time--were optimized. To assess the applicability of the method, fire debris samples were prepared in the smoke density chamber (SDC) and a controlled-atmosphere cone calorimeter. The developed methods were successfully applied to burnt particleboard and carpet samples. The results demonstrate that the procedure that has been developed here is suitable for detecting these ignitable liquids in highly burnt debris.

  18. Water Absorption of Jute/Polylactic Acid Composite Intended for an Interior Application and Comparison with Wood-Based Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, C.; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, D.

    2014-04-01

    Jute/polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources with high mechanical properties. Thus, it could be a more eco-friendly alternative to the conventional wood-based panels made of formaldehyde resin which is asserted to be carcinogenic. Yet the water affinity of the natural fibres and susceptibility of polylactic acid towards hydrolysis raise a question about the water resistance of such composites in service condition. In this work, the water absorption behaviour of jute/PLA composites, jute/maleated polypropylene was investigated with regard to interior applications following the standard test method in accordance to ISO 16983:2003 `Wood-based panels—determination of swelling in thickness after immersion in water' and compared to standard of wood-based panels. Untreated and treated jute/PLA composites exhibited a superior water resistance property compared to particleboard, MDF and hardboard and they are by far, below the minimum requirement of the ISO standard 16983.

  19. Clinical evaluation of patients with complaints related to formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Imbus, H.R.

    1985-12-01

    Formaldehyde is a very widely used chemical in our present society and one with which every physician has had a first-hand experience in his early days of training in the anatomy laboratory. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health lists 52 occupations that expose people to formaldehyde. In recent years, however, the increasing use of formaldehyde resins in the production of building materials such as particleboard and urea-formaldehyde foam insulation has resulted in exposures of large numbers of people in nonoccupational settings. Consumer products such as cosmetics, cigarettes, textiles, furniture, draperies, and preservatives release formaldehyde. It is present in the outdoor atmosphere from products of combustion and automobile exhaust and likewise in the home from such things as gas cooking. These more widespread and increased exposures have resulted in concern regarding potential health effects. Therefore, it is likely that physicians have or will encounter patients who wish evaluations of a present or potential health effect from formaldehyde. This article is for the purpose of providing assistance in such evaluation.110 references.

  20. Characterization of VOC and formaldehyde emissions from a wood based panel: results from an inter-laboratory comparison.

    PubMed

    Yrieix, Christophe; Dulaurent, Alina; Laffargue, Caroline; Maupetit, François; Pacary, Tiphaine; Uhde, Erik

    2010-04-01

    Six European laboratories used the emission test chamber method (EN ISO 16000-9) for the determination of VOC and formaldehyde emissions from a wood based panel (particleboard). The tested panel was conditioned without wrapping over 28 d at 23 degrees C and 50% RH before shipping to each participating laboratory. Emission chamber testing was carried out with air sampling after 3 and 28 d. Main VOCs (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, pentanal, hexanal) and TVOC were analysed according to ISO 16000-6 and main aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal) were specifically analysed according to ISO 16000-3. Results indicated that relative standard deviations of reproducibility after 28 testing days are between 27.5% and 45.5% for VOC concentrations ranging from 5.9 to 38.6 microg m(-3) and between 17.1% and 23.8% for aldehyde concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 57.6 microg m(-3). Formaldehyde results showed standard deviation of only 17.4% for a mean concentration of 57.6 microg m(-3) after 28 testing days. In general, results are similar to recent inter-laboratory comparison studies even if wood based panels can be considered as heterogeneous materials.

  1. Possibility of using waste tire composites reinforced with rice straw as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Kang, Chun-Won

    2004-10-01

    Agricultural lignocellulosic fiber (rice straw)-waste tire particle composite boards were manufactured for use as insulation boards in construction, using the same method as that used in the wood-based panel industry. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.8 and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of rice straw/waste tire particle). A commercial polyurethane adhesive for rubber was used as the composite binder. The water proof, water absorption and thickness swelling properties of the composite boards were better than those of wood particleboard. Furthermore, the flexibility and flexural properties of the composite boards were superior to those of other wood-based panel products. The composite boards also demonstrated good acoustical insulation, electrical insulation, anti-caustic and anti-rot properties. These boards can be used to prevent impact damage, are easily modifiable and are inexpensive. They are able to be used as a substitute for insulation boards and other flexural materials in construction.

  2. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions.

  3. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  4. Laser processing of phenolic wood substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Penide, J.; Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Phenolic resin boards (PRB) are wood substitutes that comprises of a thick core exclusively made of phenolic resin covered by a thin sheet of melamine resin imitating the aspect of natural wood. The use of these materials in furniture and in construction industry has proliferated during last years. Boards made of phenolic resins are dense, hard and very difficult to cut using band saws, disc saws, or milling cutters. Nevertheless, these difficulties can be overcome by means of laser cutting, which is one of the most firmly established techniques for separating materials. This is due to the great advantages of this technique over traditional cutting methods, such as its versatility and flexibility that allow effective cutting. Nevertheless, charring of the cut edge surface caused by laser induced thermal degradation degrades the cut quality under non-optimized processing conditions. In this research work the viability and quality of CO2 laser cutting process of phenolic resin boards and wood particleboard panels has been evaluated. The present work validates the cut of phenolic resin boards by CO2 lasers using a high laser power and elevated cutting speeds. Moreover, this process involves a serious health hazard since the combustion and decomposition of wood may produce fumes and vapors, which can be toxic and carcinogenic according to the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Therefore, this work was complemented by the assessment of the potential toxicity of the condensed residues formed on the cut edges, and assessment of the chemistry of the generated fumes by chromatography.

  5. From MDF and PB wastes to adsorbents for the removal of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. A. F. L.; Azaruja, B. A.; Mourão, P. A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The production of activated carbons in powder and monolith forms, by physical activation with CO2, with specific surface areas between 804 and 1469 m2 g-1, porous volume between 0.33 and 0.59 cm3 g-1, with basic nature (PZC ∼ 9.6-10.6) was achieved in our lab, from medium density fibreboard (MDF) and particleboard (PB), engineered wood composites wastes. These highly porous adsorbents were applied in kinetic and equilibrium adsorption studies, in batch and dynamic modes, in powder and monolith forms, of specific adsorptives, considered pollutants, namely phenol (P), p-nitrophenol (PNP) and neutral red (NR). In batch the maximum adsorbed amount was 267, 162 and 92 mg g-1, for PNP, P and NR, respectively. The application of different kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion model) leads to a better knowledge of the adsorption mechanisms of those adsorptives. The results obtained in the kinetic and equilibrium tests show that the combination of the structural features and the surface chemistry nature of the adsorbents, with the adsorptives properties, establish the kinetic performance, the type and amount adsorbed for each system. This work confirms the potential of these types of wastes in the production of activated carbons and its application in adsorption from liquid phase.

  6. Wood specific gravity variation among five important hardwood species of Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Bodha, R H; Khan, Amina

    2014-02-01

    Wood Specific Gravity (SG) is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In the present study, specific gravity varied among the five different woods at three different sites from 0.40 in Populus nigra at site III (Shopian) to 0.80 in Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana at site II (Surasyar). Among the three different sites, specific gravity varied from 0.73 to 0.80 in Parroptiosis jacquemontiana; in Robinia pseudoacacia it varied from 0.71 to 0.79; in Salix alba, it varied from 0.42 to 0.48; In Populus nigra it varied from 0.40 to 0.48 and in Juglans regia it varied from 0.59 to 0.66. On the basis of the specific gravity variation patterns these woods were categorized as light (Salix alba, Populus nigra) moderately heavy (Juglans regia) and moderately heavy to heavy (Robinia pseudoacacia, Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana) which predicts their properties like strength, dimensional stability with moisture content change, ability to retain paint, fiber yield per unit volume, suitability for making particleboard and related wood composite materials and suitability as a raw material for making paper.

  7. Wood biodegradation in laboratory-scale landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this research was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of major wood products in municipal waste by measuring methane yields, decay rates, the extent of carbohydrate decomposition, carbon storage, and leachate toxicity. Tests were conducted in triplicate 8 L reactors operated to obtain maximum yields. Measured methane yields for red oak, eucalyptus, spruce, radiata pine, plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB) from hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW), particleboard (PB) and medium-density fiberboard (MDF) were 32.5, 0, 7.5, 0.5, 6.3, 84.5, 0, 5.6, and 4.6 mL CH(4) dry g(-1), respectively. The red oak, a HW, exhibited greater decomposition than either SW (spruce and radiata), a trend that was also measured for the OSB-HW relative to OSB-SW. However, the eucalyptus (HW) exhibited toxicity. Thus, wood species have unique methane yields that should be considered in the development of national inventories of methane production and carbon storage. The current assumption of uniform biodegradability is not appropriate. The ammonia release from urea formaldehyde as present in PB and MDF could contribute to ammonia in landfill leachate. Using the extent of carbon conversion measured in this research, 0-19.9%, predicted methane production from a wood mixture using the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change waste model is only 7.9% of that predicted using the 50% carbon conversion default.

  8. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Hou, Guojun; Shen, Zaihua; Zhang, Shuangbao

    2015-01-01

    As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE) but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST), so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE), 9–11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40), and environmental chamber method (EC) of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1) Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2) In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3) Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential) models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC—the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk

  9. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  10. Scale-model study of the effectiveness of highway noise barriers.

    PubMed

    Busch, Todd; Hodgson, Murray; Wakefield, Clair

    2003-10-01

    A scale-model facility was developed to test the insertion loss (IL) of highway noise barriers. Three model materials were utilized to simulate packed-earth berms and ground (expanded polystyrene), vertical walls (dense polystyrene), and roadways (varnished particleboard). Thirty-eight noise-barrier configurations were tested and used to compare how IL varied with changes to the barrier profile for walls, berms, and combinations of walls and berms for receivers at a representative, highway-adjacent location. The atmospheric conditions were assumed to be homogeneous and nonrefracting. Changes of barrier surface impedance were also assessed. A highway line source was simulated by positioning both an air-jet point source and a receiver microphone at a series of equally spaced points, in order to form an array of source-receiver measurement pairs making differing angles of propagation to the noise-barrier crest line. The IL measurement results are presented in unweighted third-octave bands. In addition, total A-weighted insertion losses (ILA) were obtained by applying an A-weighted, traffic-noise spectrum. When a berm was modeled with surface impedance closely matching that of packed earth, it was found that walls outperformed berms by 1 to 2 dBA. When the surface impedance of a berm was modeled to be acoustically soft, the ILA increased sufficiently to favor berms by about 2 dBA. The result for an acoustically soft berm does not support the long-standing practice of assuming that earth berms outperform walls by 3 dBA, but is consistent with the performance predicted by newer prediction algorithms. When the slopes of berms were made shallower, the IL generally decreased for a berm alone, but generally increased in cases with a wall atop the berm.

  11. Life cycle assessment of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) manufacturing process in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, Cassiano Moro; de Francisco, Antonio Carlos; da Luz, Leila Mendes; Kovaleski, João Luiz; Silva, Diogo Aparecido Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest producers of medium-density fibreboard (MDF) in the world, and also the MDF has the highest domestic consumption and production rate in the country. MDF applications are highlighted into residential and commercial furniture design and also a wide participation in the building sector. This study aimed to propose ways of improving the environmental cradle-to-gate life-cycle of one cubic meter MDF panel by means of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) study. Complying with requirements of ISO 14040 and 14,044 standards, different MDF manufacturing scenarios were modelled using Umberto® v.5.6 software and the Ecoinvent v.2.2 life-cycle inventory (LCI) database for the Brazilian context. Environmental and human health impacts were assessed by using the CML (2001) and USEtox (2008) methods. The evaluated impact categories were: acidification, global warming, ozone layer depletion, abiotic resource depletion, photochemical formation of tropospheric ozone, ecotoxicity, eutrophication and human toxicity. Results identified the following hotspots: gas consumption at the thermal plant, urea-formaldehyde resin, power consumption, wood chip consumption and wood chip transportation to the plant. The improvement scenario proposals comprised the following actions: eliminate natural gas consumption at the thermal plant, reduce electrical power consumption, reduce or replace urea-formaldehyde resin consumption, reduce wood consumption and minimize the distance to wood chip suppliers. The proposed actions were analysed to verify the influence of each action on the set of impact categories. Among the results, it can be noted that a joint action of the proposed improvements can result in a total reduction of up to 38.5% of impacts to OD, 34.4% to AD, 31.2% to ET, and 30.4% to HT. Finally, MDF was compared with particleboard production in Brazil, and additional opportunities to improve the MDF environmental profile were identified.

  12. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

  13. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Hou, Guojun; Shen, Zaihua; Zhang, Shuangbao

    2015-01-01

    As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE) but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST), so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE), 9-11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40), and environmental chamber method (EC) of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1) Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2) In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3) Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential) models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC-the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk assessment.

  14. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green

  15. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  16. Study of VOCs transport and storage in porous media and assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing

    the vapor pressure of the compound, but also increased with the increase of the Henry's law constant. Experiment results also showed that a higher relative humidity led to a larger effective diffusion coefficient for both conventional wallboard and green wallboard. The partition coefficient (Kma) of formaldehyde in conventional wallboard was larger at 50% RH than at 20% RH, while the difference in partition coefficient between 50% RH and 70% RH was insignificant. For the green wallboard and green carpet, the partition coefficient increased slightly with the increase of relative humidity from 20% to 50% and 70%. Engineered wood products such as particleboard have widely been used with wood veneer and laminate to form multilayer assembly work surfaces or panels. The multilayer model study in this dissertation comprised both numerical and experimental investigation of the VOCs emission from such an assembly. A coupled 1D multilayer model based on CHAMPS (coupled heat, air, moisture and pollutant simulations) was first described. Later, the transport properties of each material layer were determined. Several emission cases from a three-layered heterogeneous work assembly were modeled using a developed simulation model. At last, the numerical model was verified by the experimental data of both hexanal and acetaldehyde emissions in a 50L standard small scale chamber. The model is promising in predicting VOCs' emissions for multilayered porous materials in emission tests.

  17. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    , formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.