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Sample records for particles characteristics role

  1. Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

    2000-05-03

    The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

  2. Instillation versus Inhalation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Exposure-Related Health Effects, Clearance, and the Role of Particle Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may cause adverse pulmonary responses due to their nanoscale, fibrous morphology and/or biopersistance. This study tested multiple factors (dose, time, physicochemical characteristics, and administration method) shown to affect MWCNT toxicity with the hypothesis that these factors will influence significantly different responses upon MWCNT exposure. The study is unique in that (1) multiple administration methods were tested using particles from the same stock; (2) bulk MWCNT formulations had few differences (metal content, surface area/functionalization); and (3) MWCNT retention was quantified using a specialized approach for measuring unlabeled MWCNTs in rodent lungs. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to original (O), purified (P), and carboxylic acid functionalized (F) MWCNTs via intratracheal instillation and inhalation. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissues were collected at postexposure days 1 and 21 for quantifying biological responses and MWCNTs in lung tissues by programmed thermal analysis. At day 1, MWCNT instillation produced significant BALF neutrophilia and MWCNT-positive macrophages. Instilled O- and P-MWCNTs produced significant inflammation in lung tissues, which resolved by day 21 despite MWCNT retention. MWCNT inhalation produced no BALF neutrophilia and no significant histopathology past day 1. However, on days 1 and 21 postinhalation of nebulized MWCNTs, significantly increased numbers of MWCNT-positive macrophages were observed in BALF. Results suggest (1) MWCNTs produce transient inflammation if any despite persistence in the lungs; (2) instilled O-MWCNTs cause more inflammation than P- or F-MWCNTs; and (3) MWCNT suspension media produce strikingly different effects on physicochemical particle characteristics and pulmonary responses. PMID:25144856

  3. Fabrication, characterisation and stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by solid lipid particles: the role of particle characteristics and emulsion microstructure upon Pickering functionality.

    PubMed

    Zafeiri, I; Smith, P; Norton, I T; Spyropoulos, F

    2017-07-19

    The quest to identify and use bio-based particles with a Pickering stabilisation potential for food applications has lately been particularly substantial and includes, among other candidates, lipid-based particles. The present study investigates the ability of solid lipid particles to stabilise oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions against coalescence. Results obtained showed that emulsion stability could be achieved when low amounts (0.8 wt/wt%) of a surface active species (e.g. Tween 80 or NaCas) were used in particles' fabrication. Triple staining of the o/w emulsions enabled the visualisation of emulsion droplets' surface via confocal microscopy. This revealed an interfacial location of the lipid particles, hence confirming stabilisation via a Pickering mechanism. Emulsion droplet size was controlled by varying several formulation parameters, such as the type of the lipid and surface active component, the processing route and the polarity of the dispersed phase. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed as the analytical tool to quantify the amount of crystalline material available to stabilise the emulsion droplets at different intervals during the experimental timeframe. Dissolution of lipid particles in the oil phase was observed and evolved distinctly between a wax and a triglyceride, and in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant and a protein. Yet, this behaviour did not result in emulsion destabilisation. Moreover, emulsion's thermal stability was found to be determined by the behaviour of lipid particles under temperature effects.

  4. Aerodynamic characteristics of popcorn ash particles

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkaduvasala, V.; Murphy, D.W.; Ban, H.; Harrison, K.E.; Monroe, L.S.

    2007-07-01

    Popcorn ash particles are fragments of sintered coal fly ash masses that resemble popcorn in low apparent density. They can travel with the flow in the furnace and settle on key places such as catalyst surfaces. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are often used in the design process to prevent the carryover and settling of these particles on catalysts. Particle size, density, and drag coefficient are the most important aerodynamic parameters needed in CFD modeling of particle flow. The objective of this study was to experimentally determine particle size, shape, apparent density, and drag characteristics for popcorn ash particles from a coal-fired power plant. Particle size and shape were characterized by digital photography in three orthogonal directions and by computer image analysis. Particle apparent density was determined by volume and mass measurements. Particle terminal velocities in three directions were measured in water and each particle was also weighed in air and in water. The experimental data were analyzed and models were developed for equivalent sphere and equivalent ellipsoid with apparent density and drag coefficient distributions. The method developed in this study can be used to characterize the aerodynamic properties of popcorn-like particles.

  5. Ultrafine particle characteristics in seven industrial plants.

    PubMed

    Elihn, Karine; Berg, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Ultrafine particles are considered as a possible cause of some of the adverse health effects caused by airborne particles. In this study, the particle characteristics were measured in seven Swedish industrial plants, with a special focus on the ultrafine particle fraction. Number concentration, size distribution, surface area concentration, and mass concentration were measured at 10 different job activities, including fettling, laser cutting, welding, smelting, core making, moulding, concreting, grinding, sieving powders, and washing machine goods. A thorough particle characterization is necessary in workplaces since it is not clear yet which choice of ultrafine particle metric is the best to measure in relation to health effects. Job activities were given a different order of rank depending on what particle metric was measured. An especially high number concentration (130 x 10(3) cm(-3)) and percentage of ultrafine particles (96%) were found at fettling of aluminium, whereas the highest surface area concentration (up to 3800 mum(2) cm(-3)) as well as high PM10 (up to 1 mg m(-3)) and PM1 (up to 0.8 mg m(-3)) were found at welding and laser cutting of steel. The smallest geometric mean diameter (22 nm) was found at core making (geometric standard deviation: 1.9).

  6. Characteristics of aerosolized ice forming marine biogenic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Peter A.

    Ice particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere existing as the sole constituents of glaciated cirrus clouds or coexisting with supercooled liquid droplets in mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol particles serving as heterogeneous ice nuclei for ice crystal formation impact the global radiative balance by modification of cloud radiative properties, and thus climate. Atmospheric ice formation is not a well understood process and represents great uncertainty for climate prediction. The oceans which cover the majority of the earth's surface host nearly half the total global primary productivity and contribute to the greatest aerosol production by mass. However, the effect of biological activity on particle aerosolization, particle composition, and ice nucleation is not well established. This dissertation investigates the link between marine biological activity, aerosol particle production, physical/chemical particle characteristics, and ice nucleation under controlled laboratory conditions. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions of particles from bursting bubbles generated by plunging water jets and aeration through frits in a seawater mesocosm containing bacteria and/or phytoplankton cultures, were measured as a function of biological activity. Total particle production significantly increases primarily due to enhanced aerosolization of particles ≤100 nm in diameter attributable to the presence and growth of phytoplankton. Furthermore, hygroscopicity measurements indicate primary organic material associated with the sea salt particles, providing additional evidence for the importance of marine biological activity for ocean derived aerosol composition. Ice nucleation experiments show that these organic rich particles nucleate ice efficiently in the immersion and deposition modes, which underscores their importance in mixed-phase and cirrus cloud formation processes. In separate ice nucleation experiments employing pure cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nannochloris

  7. Characteristics of particle ropes in coal pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Yilmaz, A.

    1998-07-01

    Particle ropes, regions in the flow with extremely high particle concentrations, are formed at elbows in coal pipes in pulverized coal boilers. This paper describes a study of the formation of ropes and of rope breakup and dispersion downstream of the elbow exit. The results show a strong influence of elbow radius on the rope formation process and rope dispersion. Average conveying velocity and air-to-fuel ratio also play a role in controlling rope strength at the elbow exit and rate of dispersion downstream of the elbow. The experiments and computer simulations both show a single elbow forms a stationary rope which is symmetrically positioned in the pipe at the outer wall. Ropes produced by two or more closely spaced elbows form a stationary rope which spirals around the pipe perimeter. Measurements with isokinetic extraction instruments have large negative bias errors resulting form the presence of strong ropes. This error decreases with distance from the elbow exit as the rope disintegrates and disperses.

  8. Validation of Spectral IOP and Particle Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    inorganic CaCO3 , phytoplankton (diatoms versus bluegreen), and clay). The lakes include Onondaga Lake, Otisco Lake, Owasco Lake, Skaneateles Lake...1m Otisco Cross N Cross S SR424 SR409 B c p (m -1 ) C p ( m -1 ) Figure 1. Particulate attenuation for each study site [ graph : ac-s derived...from SAX Figure 2. Particle size distribution from SAX [ graph : the particle size distribution over range of 0.2 to 30 μm for each sample showing a

  9. Faster-than-Light Particles: A Review of Tachyon Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    A-DlAO9(4 529 RAND CORP SANTA MNtICA CA F/6 20/S FASTER-THAN-LIBI4T PARTICLES: A REVIEW OF TACHYON CHARACTERISTIC--ETCWU) OCT B0 E A PUSCHER F49620...77-C-0023 UNCLASSIFIED RAI0IN-1530-AF N. I nmui ininmuuuI LEVEL A RAND NOTE FASTER-THAN-LIGHT PARTICLES: A REVIEW OF ) ( TACHYON CHARACTERISTICS Edward...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4TIT LE ( d Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ( Faster-than-Light Particles: A Review of /Interim -i Tachyon

  10. Growing Characteristics of Fine Ice Particles in Surfactant Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kosuke; Komoda, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Hiromoto; Okada, Kazuto; Fujisawa, Ryo

    Time variation characteristics of ice particles in a surfactant solution have been investigated. The effect of surfactants on corrosion characteristics was also studied. The results were compared with those treated with poly(vinyl alcohol). From the results, the present surfactant, cetyl dimethyl betaine was not found to be effective on preventing Ostward ripening of ice particles as poly(vinyl alcohol) showed. Then, it was concluded some effective technology has to be installed with surfactants when this surfactant treatment is realized. On the corrosion characteristics, it was found that the present surfactant shows the same level as tap water.

  11. The characteristics of the particle position along an optical axis in particle holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Y. J.; Kang, B. S.

    2006-04-01

    Particle diagnostics involving three-dimensional distributions are important topics in many engineering fields. The holographic particle velocimetry system is a promising optical tool for measuring three-dimensional particle velocities. One of the inherent limitations of particle holography is the very long depth of field of particle images, which causes considerable difficulty in the determination of particle positions along the optical axis. In this study, diffused illumination holography was adopted as a tool for analysing the characteristics of particles. The prerequisites for a more precise determination of the velocities of particles are a profound understanding of image properties and of the focusing parameter used to determine the particle position along an optical axis. For this purpose, the characteristics of speckles and particle images were investigated with respect to variations in hologram aperture and particle position along the optical axis. Based on our findings, we introduced three auto-focusing parameters corresponding to the sizes of particles, namely, correlation coefficient, sharpness index and depth intensity, to determine the focal plane of a particle along the optical axis. To investigate the suitability of these parameters, the plane image of a dot array screen containing different dot sizes was recorded and the positions of each dot along the optical axis were evaluated. In addition, the effect of particle distance from the holographic film was examined by changing the distance between the screen and the holographic film. All measurement results verified that the evaluated positions throughout the suggested auto-focusing parameters remain within acceptable error ranges. These research results may provide fundamental information for the development of a holographic velocimetry system based on automatic image processing.

  12. Gelatine sponge particles: handling characteristics for endovascular use.

    PubMed

    Abada, Hicham T; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-12-01

    Gelatin sponge particles have been used since the mid 1960's in interventional radiology. It had played an important role as a temporary occlusive agent in the past. Embolization has gained a widespread acceptance in interventional radiology leading to different innovative new agents. This review is aimed to underline the persistent role of Gelfoam along with a better understanding of handling techniques in light of what we have learned from other particles as PVA and Embospheres. The clinical impact of embolization with gelfoam will be also stressed and discussed.

  13. Ultrafine particle characteristics in a rubber manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boowook; Lee, Jong Seong; Choi, Byung-Soon; Park, So-Young; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Hyunwook

    2013-07-01

    According to epidemiological research, exposure to rubber fumes can cause various types of cancer and can lead to an increase in death rate because of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we have assessed the characteristics of ultrafine particles emitted into the air during the manufacturing of rubber products using waste tires. To assess the aerosol distribution of rubber fumes in the workplace from a product during curing, we have performed particle number concentration mapping using a handheld condensation particle counter. The particle number concentration of each process, count median diameter (CMD), and nanoparticle ratio (<100nm) were determined using an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI), and the surface area concentration was determined using a surface area monitor. The shape and composition of the sampled rubber fumes were analyzed using an ELPI-transmission electron microscopy grid method. Further, the rubber fume mass concentration was determined according to the Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 47/2. The results of particle mapping show that the rubber fumes were distributed throughout the air of the workplace. The concentration was the highest during the final process of the work. The particle number concentration and the surface area concentration were 545 000cm(-3) and 640 µm(2) cm(-3), respectively, approximately 10- and 4-fold higher than those in the outdoor background. During the final process, the CMD and the nanoparticle ratio were 26nm and 94%, respectively. Most of the rubber fume particles had a compact shape because of the coagulation between particles. The main components of these fumes were silicon and sulfur, and heavy metals such as zinc were detected in certain particles. The filter concentration of the rubber fumes was 0.22mg m(-3), lower than the UK workplace exposure limit of 0.6mg m(-3). Therefore, the rubber manufacturing process is a potentially dangerous process that produces a high concentration

  14. Denitrification by large NAT particles: the impact of reduced settling velocities and hints on particle characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Grooß, J.-U.; Oelhaf, H.; Molleker, S.; Borrmann, S.; Ebersoldt, A.; Frey, W.; Gulde, T.; Khaykin, S.; Maucher, G.; Piesch, C.; Orphal, J.

    2014-03-01

    Vertical redistribution of HNO3 through condensation, sedimentation and evaporation of large HNO3-containing particles inside polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) plays an important role in the chemistry of the Arctic winter stratosphere. In situ observations by the particle probe FSSP-100 during the RECONCILE campaign indicate unexpected large potential NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) particles inside PSCs. The observations can hardly be explained assuming particles with compact morphology and spherical shape due to limited growing time at temperatures below the existence temperature of NAT (TNAT). Utilizing simulations by the CLaMS and measurements by the airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer MIPAS-STR we study the impact of reduced settling velocities of NAT particles on vertical HNO3 redistribution. Reduced settling velocities are expected for spherical NAT particles with low mass density or aspheric NAT particles that might explain the maximum sizes of the particles observed in situ. The results of our study support the hypothesis that denitrification is produced by significantly aspheric (i.e. columnar) compact NAT particles which are characterised by reduced settling velocities.

  15. [The fractal characteristics of particle size distribution and conservation relationship].

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng-kang; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2004-01-01

    Using a microscopic technique, the characteristics of particle size distribution of Al-humic flocs were studied. The results showed that Al-humic floc size followed a lognormal distribution. By introducing the lognormal distribution and fractal dimension into the fundamental kinetic equation of flocculation, a conservation relationship was obtained between the total number of particles, average floc volume and standard deviation of floc size distribution. Significance of the relation can greatly simplify the complicated procedure of kinetic analysis and enable a more accurate evaluation of floc size distribution.

  16. Analysis of the characteristics of single atmospheric particles in Chengdu using single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junke; Luo, Bin; Zhang, Jianqiang; Ouyang, Feng; Song, Hongyi; Liu, Peichuan; Cao, Pan; Schäfer, Klaus; Wang, Shigong; Huang, Xiaojuan; Lin, Yongfu

    2017-05-01

    Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province and the main city in Sichuan basin, is one of the heavily polluted cities in China. The characteristics of single particles in the atmosphere over Chengdu are critical for the in-depth understanding of their sources, formation mechanisms, and effects. In this study, a continuous ambient aerosol measurement was performed in summer in Chengdu with a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and other monitoring instruments. The particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations were low during our study period: PM2.5 and PM10 (aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 or 10 μm) were 40.5 ± 23.6 μg m-3 and 67.0 ± 38.1 μg m-3, respectively. This was mainly caused by the favorable meteorological conditions during the summer season. Twelve particle types were identified and classified as dust particles (Dust), four types of carbonaceous particles, organic nitrogen and potassium containing particles (KCN), four types of secondary particles, Na-K-containing particles (NaK), and metal-containing particles (Metal). The highest contribution of particles was from potassium with elemental carbon (KEC; 23.0%), and the lowest from elemental carbon (EC; 0.2%). All types of particles showed different diurnal variations and size distributions, which were closely related to their sources and reactions in the atmosphere. The eastern and southern air masses corresponded with high PM2.5 mass concentrations. The contributions of KEC and K-sulfate (KSO4) particles to PM2.5 were clearly higher than those in air masses from the southeast. During polluted days, the contributions of KEC and KSO4 particles increased, while the contributions of organic carbon (OC), combined OC and EC particles (OCEC), and K-nitrate (KNO3) particles decreased. This shows the importance of biomass burning and industrial emissions for the PM2.5 pollution in Chengdu. These results will be useful for the in-depth understanding of the PM2

  17. Laser anemometer signals: visibility characteristics and application to particle sizing.

    PubMed

    Adrian, R J; Orloff, K L

    1977-03-01

    The signal visibility characteristics of a dual beam laser anemometer operated in a backscatter mode have been investigated both experimentally and analytically. The analysis is based on Mie's electromagnetic scattering theory for spherical particles and is exact within the limitations of the scattering theory. It is shown that the signal visibility is a function of the ratio of the particle diameter to the fringe spacing in a certain, restricted case; but more generally it also depends on the Mie scattering size parameter, refractive index, the illuminating beam polarization, and the size, shape, and location of the light collecting aperture. The character of backscatter signal visibility differs significantly from the forward scatter case, and it is concluded that backscatter measurements of particle diameters using the visibility sizing technique may not always be possible. Restrictions on the forward scatter application of the visibility sizing method are also discussed.

  18. Interrelationships among anaerobic digestion, sludge dewaterability, and particle characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to define the interrelationships among anaerobic digestion, sludge dewaterability, and particle characteristics. For this purpose, laboratory scale high-rate anaerobic digesters were designed and operated under various conditions. The reactors were operated under varying conditions of feed strength, feed composition (mixtures of primary and secondary sludge), detention time, and temperature. In each experimental set, one variable was fixed at several different levels while others were held at a single standard value. Digestion performance was monitored by frequent measures of influent and effluent total solids, volatile solids, COD, alkalinity, and volatile acids, and measurements of gas production and composition. Particle characteristics measured were of size distribution, density, and surface charge. Dewaterability was measured as specific resistance and Capillary Suction Time. Digestion generally improved dewaterability, but often in complicated ways. For example, the specific resistance was reduced 65% with a 7-day detention time, but increased detention time lessened the improvement. A small fraction of activated sludge (20% by weight of solids) in the digester influent led to a greater improvement (81% reduction) in dewaterability than no activated sludge (20% reduction), but digestion of 100% activated sludge led to worse dewaterability. Other variables had lesser effects on dewaterability. The particle size distribution results, when analyzed for the surface area of particles, explained these results well.

  19. Particle rebound characteristics of turbomachinery cascade leading edge geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siravuri, Sastri

    The objective of this research work is to investigate and understand the complex phenomena associated with the mechanism of particle impacts on turbomachinery cascade leading edge geometry. At present, there is a need for experimental work in basic and applied research to find out the parameters that are relevant to particle rebound characteristics on turbomachinery blades. In the present work, experiments were conducted with air velocity at 15 m/s (˜50 ft/sec) and at 30 m/s (˜100 ft/sec) using high-speed photography and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Silica sand particles of 1000--1500 micron size were used for this study. In the present investigation, particle rebound data was obtained for cylindrical targets with radius of curvature representative of leading edge geometry (cylinder diameter = 4.5mm & 6.5 mm) using LDV. The numerical simulations, which are based on non-linear dynamic analysis, were also performed using the finite element code DYNA3-D. Several different material models viz elastic-elastic, elastic-plastic, elastic-plastic with friction & isotropic-elastic-plastic with dynamic friction and particle rotation were used in the DYNA3-D numerical analysis. The computational results include a time history of the displacement, stress and strain profiles through the particle collision. Numerical results are presented for the rebound conditions of spherical silica sand particle for different pre-collision velocities. The computed particle restitution coefficients, after they reach steady rebound conditions, are compared with experimental results obtained from LDV. A probabilistic model was developed to incorporate the uncertainties in the impact velocity in the numerical model. Histograms and Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) for impact velocity were obtained from experimental LDV data. Ten randomly selected probabilities for each impact angle were used to calculate the impact velocity from cumulative distribution function. This randomly selected

  20. Fluoroalkyl-functionalized silica particles: synthesis, characterization, and wetting characteristics.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raymond; Guenthner, Andrew J; Haddad, Timothy S; Mabry, Joseph M

    2011-08-16

    Fluoroalkyl-functionalized silica particles for use in nonwetting surfaces were prepared by treatment of silica particles with fluoroalkyl-functional chlorosilanes. Both fumed and precipitated silica were studied, as well as the efficiency of surface coverage using mono-, di-, and trifunctional chlorosilanes. The most effective surface treatment was accomplished via the surface grafting of monofunctional chlorosilanes in the presence of preadsorbed dimethylamine under anhydrous conditions at room temperature. Confirmation of covalent attachment was accomplished via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, while elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to determine grafting densities and additional key geometric characteristics of the grafted layer. The effect of residual silanol content on the moisture uptake properties of the modified silica particles was determined by measuring the water uptake of unbound particles, while liquid wetting properties were determined by dynamic contact angle analysis of elastomeric composites. Although residual silanol content was shown to effect wetting properties, results suggest that surface geometry dominates the performance of liquid-repellent surfaces. The potential use of fluoroalkyl-functionalized silica particles for hydrophobic and oleophobic applications is discussed.

  1. Comparison of multi-sphere and superquadric particle representation for modelling shearing and flow characteristics of granular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanbeigi, Behzad; Podlozhnyuk, Alexander; Ooi, Jin Y.; Kloss, Christoph; Papanicolopulos, Stefanos-Aldo

    2017-06-01

    In the current study, complex-shaped particles are simulated with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using two different approaches, namely Multi-spheres (MS) and Superquadrics (SQ). Both methods have been used by researchers to represent the shape of real particles. However, despite the growing popularity of utilizing MS and SQ particles in DEM simulations, few insights have been given on the comparison of the macro scale characteristics arising from the two methods. In this respect, initially the characteristics of the two shape representation methods are evaluated in a direct shear test simulation. The results suggest that controlling the sharpness of the edges for SQ particles can lead to a good agreement with the results of MS particles. This way, a set of SQ and MS particles, which are numerically calibrated in the shear tester, are obtained. Furthermore, the macro-scale responses of the numerically calibrated particles are assessed during a slow shearing scenario, which is achieved through simulating quasi-static flow of the particles from a flat-bottom silo. The results for mass discharge, flow profile and wall pressure show a good quantitative agreement. These findings suggest that the numerically calibrated MS and SQ particles in the shear tester can provide similar bulk-scale flow properties. Moreover, the results highlight that surface bumpiness for MS particles and corner sharpness for SQ particles change the characteristics of particles and play a significant role in the shear strength of the material composed of these particles.

  2. How particle properties affect the assembly and characteristics of colloidal particle bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Minami; Yee, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of suspended particles with a planar wall is a classic problem of colloid science. Particle-wall interactions in a flowing suspension are a newer area of interest, motivated by applications in microfluidics. Recent studies show that radius a = 245 nm particles in a dilute (volume fraction φ = 0.17%) suspension are attracted to the wall, form 1D "pearl chains," then assemble into concentrated streamwise bands with a roughly constant cross-stream spacing in combined Poiseuille and electroosmotic flow through fused-silica microchannels. The bands only exist within a few μm of the wall, and occur above a minimum shear rate γ˙ and electric field magnitude | E | . Attracting (i.e., concentrating) the particles to (near) the wall is a prerequisite for band formation; however, bands are not observed in all cases when particles are attracted to the wall. Particle properties appear to have a significant effect on these phenomena: decreasing φ, for example, appears to increase both the minimum γ˙ and | E | for band formation. Results are presented on how the assembly and characteristics of the bands are affected by properties such as φ, a (where a < 1 μ m), and zeta-potential ζp. Supported by ARO.

  3. Incidental Learning of Sex Role Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsell-Rainey, Lynn W.

    The content and process of incidental learning of sex role related characteristics through play behavior was explored in a study of more than 6000 toys sold by Sears, Roebuck & Company between 1900 and 1970, as represented in their mail order catalogs. Sixty percent of all toys were sex typed by Sears. The nature of the play behavior…

  4. Denitrification by large NAT particles: the impact of reduced settling velocities and hints on particle characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Grooß, J.-U.; Oelhaf, H.; Molleker, S.; Borrmann, S.; Ebersoldt, A.; Frey, W.; Gulde, T.; Khaykin, S.; Maucher, G.; Piesch, C.; Orphal, J.

    2014-10-01

    Vertical redistribution of HNO3 through large HNO3-containing particles associated with polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) plays an important role in the chemistry of the Arctic winter stratosphere. During the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) campaign, apparently very large NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) particles were observed by the airborne in situ probe FSSP-100 (Molleker et al., 2014). Our analysis shows that the FSSP-100 observations associated with the flight on 25 January 2010 cannot easily be explained assuming compact spherical NAT particles due to much too short growing time at temperatures below the existence temperature of NAT (TNAT). State-of-the-art simulations using CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere; Grooß et al., 2014) suggest considerably smaller particles. We consider the hypothesis that the simulation reproduces the NAT particle masses in a realistic way, but that real NAT particles may have larger apparent sizes compared to compact spherical particles, e.g. due to non-compact morphology or aspheric shape. Our study focuses on the consequence that such particles would have reduced settling velocities compared to compact spheres, altering the vertical redistribution of HNO3. Utilising CLaMS simulations, we investigate the impact of reduced settling velocities of NAT particles on vertical HNO3 redistribution and compare the results with observations of gas-phase HNO3 by the airborne Fourier transform spectrometer MIPAS-STR associated with two RECONCILE flights. The MIPAS-STR observations confirm conditions consistent with denitrification by NAT particles for the flight on 25 January 2010 and show good agreement with the simulations within the limitations of the comparison. Best agreement is found if settling velocities between 100 and 50% relative to compact spherical particles are considered (slight preference

  5. Electrostatic Characteristics of Materials Exposed to Martian Simulant Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, C. I.; Kim, H. S.; Young, S.; Jackson, D.; Lombardi, A. J.

    1998-11-01

    The Pathfinder mission to Mars identified Andesitic rock as the primary type of rock at the landing site. Several experiments were designed at NASA/Kennedy Space Center to determine the charging characteristics of common space materials exposed to small particles derived from those rocks. MARS-1, a Martian soil simulant prepared from Andesitic rocks by NASA/JSC was used in this work. Characterization of this simulant was made using scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy coupled with a carbon-sulfur detector. These results were compared to the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer analysis on Pathfinder. The simulant was found to be a suitable substitute for Martian soil for our purposes. Two experimental designs and methods to simulate the exposure of different materials to wind-blown dust were made. These designs permit dust particle delivery to samples at different speeds. Initial experiments made with these designs to determine their viability were promising.

  6. Experimental evidence links volcanic particle characteristics to pyroclastic flow hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Büttner, Ralf; Dioguardi, Fabio; Doronzo, Domenico M.; La Volpe, Luigi; Mele, Daniela; Sonder, Ingo; Sulpizio, Roberto; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    Pyroclastic flows represent the most hazardous events of explosive volcanism, one striking example being the famous historical eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed Pompeii (AD 79). Much of our knowledge of the mechanics of pyroclastic flows comes from theoretical models and numerical simulations. Valuable data are also stored in the geological record of past eruptions, including the particles contained in pyroclastic deposits, but the deposit characteristics are rarely used for quantifying the destructive potential of pyroclastic flows. By means of experiments, we validate a model that is based on data from pyroclastic deposits. The model allows the reconstruction of the current's fluid-dynamic behaviour. Model results are consistent with measured values of dynamic pressure in the experiments, and allow the quantification of the damage potential of pyroclastic flows.

  7. Investigation on particle flow characteristics using electrostatic sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Feifei; Xu, Chuanlong; Heming, Gao, Jian, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, great advance has been made on electrostatic sensing technique for gas-solid flow measurement. Electrostatic tomography(EST) has been used in experiment researches as a novel non-intrusive measurement technique. Electrostatic sensor array is one of the key parts of electrostatic tomography system. Based on the image reconstruction algorithm, the charge on the particles can be obtained from the electrostatic measurement signals. However, reports on the relationship between the electrostatic signal acquired by the electrostatic sensor array and flow characteristics of the particles were very few. In this paper the mathematical model of the electrostatic sensor array was adopted, and its spatial sensitivity field was investigated. In the experiment, the electrostatic signals of the quarter flow and full pipe flow were acquired by the electrostatic sensor array. Based on the EST experiment and Power Spectrum Analysis of Signal, the energy distributions of those two flow patterns were compared. Results show that the sensitivity of the electrostatic sensor array is inhomogeneous in three-dimensional space. For this reason, the energy distributions of those two flow patterns are distinguished.

  8. Characteristics of activated carbon remove sulfur particles against smog.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shengbo; Liu, Zhenling; Furuta, Yuzo; Peng, Wanxi

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur particles, which could cause diseases, were the main powder of smog. And activated carbon had the very adsorption characteristics. Therefore, five sulfur particles were adsorbed by activated carbon and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal adsorption time were 120 min of Na2SO3, 120 min of Na2S2O8, 120 min of Na2SO4, 120 min of Fe2(SO4)3 and 120 min of S. FT-IR spectra showed that activated carbon had the eight characteristic absorption of S-S stretch, H2O stretch, O-H stretch, -C-H stretch, conjugated C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 O stretch or CC stretch, CH2 bend, C-O stretch and acetylenic C-H bend vibrations at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 3430 cm(-1), 2920 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1), 1390 cm(-1), 1110 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1), respectively. For Na2SO3, the peaks at 2920 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1), 1390 cm(-1) and 1110 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 20 min. For Na2S2O8, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1) and 2920 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 60 min. The peaks at 1390 cm(-1), 1110 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Na2SO4, the peaks at 3430 cm(-1), 2920 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1), 1390 cm(-1), 1110 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 60 min. For Fe2(SO4)3, the peaks at 1390 cm(-1), 1110 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 20 min. For S, the peaks at 1630 cm(-1), 1390 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 120 min. It provided that activated carbon could remove sulfur particles from smog air to restrain many anaphylactic diseases.

  9. Characteristics of sinking particles in the upper ocean at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jennifer; Sanders, Richard; Achterberg, Eric

    2010-05-01

    Sinking particles play an important role in the biological carbon pump, transferring carbon from the surface to the deep ocean. Data from deep ocean sediment traps suggest biominerals influence particle settling velocity, by increasing their density. However it is unclear whether this biomineral facilitated sinking applies to the upper ocean and if shape also plays a critical role on the rate at which particles sink. Measurements of particle settling velocity, density and drag were made in order to determine their influences on the particle sinking rate in the upper water column. Samples were taken during a cruise in summer 2009 from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP site) in the northwest Atlantic. Particles were collected from the base of the mixed layer (approximately 50m) using the Marine Snow Catcher. This instrument samples 100L of water and collects any settling particles in a 5L base chamber over 2 - 3 hours. After settling, the top 95L of water was drained off and any particles collected in the base chamber were transferred to the lab. Particles were individually picked using a Pasteur pipette and subdivided, into categories on the basis of appearance. Settling experiments were conducted in a 2L glass measuring cylinder filled with surface sea water, kept at a constant temperature of 15° C. After each experiment particles were preserved individually in buffered formalin for high quality image analysis back on land. Calculations of both excess density and drag were undertaken using data from microscopic measurements. Five main particle categories were identified; (1) diffuse fluff aggregates, (2) dense fluff aggregates, (3) centred particles (fluff aggregated around a central biomineral test), (4) organisms (biomineralising protists including foraminifera) and (5) calcareous tests. Statistical analysis suggested a significant difference in the rate at which the centred and calcareous particles sank (approximately 248 m day-1 and 1070 m day-1respectively) in

  10. The effects of particle size, shape, density and flow characteristics on particle margination to vascular walls in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ta, Hang T; Truong, Nghia P; Whittaker, Andrew K; Davis, Thomas P; Peter, Karlheinz

    2017-04-13

    Vascular-targeted drug delivery is a promising approach for the treatment of atherosclerosis, due to the vast involvement of endothelium in the initiation and growth of plaque, a characteristic of atherosclerosis. One of the major challenges in carrier design for targeting cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is that carriers must be able to navigate the circulation system and efficiently marginate to the endothelium in order to interact with the target receptors. Areas covered: This review draws on studies that have focused on the role of particle size, shape, and density (along with flow hemodynamics and hemorheology) on the localization of the particles to activated endothelial cell surfaces and vascular walls under different flow conditions, especially those relevant to atherosclerosis. Expert opinion: Generally, the size, shape, and density of a particle affect its adhesion to vascular walls synergistically, and these three factors should be considered simultaneously when designing an optimal carrier for targeting CVD. Available preliminary data should encourage more studies to be conducted to investigate the use of nano-constructs, characterized by a sub-micrometer size, a non-spherical shape, and a high material density to maximize vascular wall margination and minimize capillary entrapment, as carriers for targeting CVD.

  11. Antibacterial characteristics of heated scallop-shell nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Fujimoto, Riku; Sawai, Jun; Kikuchi, Mikio; Yahata, Shinya; Satoh, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Heated scallop-shell (HSS) nano-particles, prepared using a wet grinding mill, and microparticles were examined for their antibacterial activity against vegetative bacterial cells and spores. The median diameters of the nano-particles and micro-particles were approximately 20 nm and 30 µm, respectively. The antibacterial activity of HSS against Escherichia coli increased with an increase in concentration, regardless of particle size; however, the antibacterial activity of the nano-particles was much higher than that of micro-particles. The sporicidal activity of the nano-particles was also much higher than that of micro-particles, with HSS nano-particles able to kill Bacillus subtilis spores. A reduction of more than three orders of magnitude for B. subtilis spores was confirmed following a 30 min treatment at 5 mg/ml and 60℃, showing that the combination of HSS nano-particle treatment with mild heating was particularly effective for controlling bacterial spores.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of ambient particles settling upon leaf surfaces of urban plants in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Lian-you; Gao, Shang-yu; Hasi, Eerdun; Wang, Zhi

    2006-01-01

    Particulate pollution is a serious health problem throughout the world, exacerbating a wide range of respiratory and vascular illnesses in urban areas. Urban plants play an important role in reducing particulate pollution. Physicochemical characteristics of ambient particles settling upon leaf surfaces of eleven roadside plants at four sites of Beijing were studies. Results showed that density of particles on the leaf surfaces greatly varied with plant species and traffic condition. Fraxinus chinensis, Sophora japonica, A ilanthus altissima, Syringa oblata and Prunus persica had larger densities of particles among the tall species. Due to resuspension of road dust, the densities of particles of Euonymus japonicus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia with low sampling height were 2-35 times to other taller tree species. For test plant species, micro-roughness of leaf surfaces and density of particles showed a close correlation. In general, the larger micro-roughness of leaf surfaces is, the larger density of particles is. Particles settling upon leaf surfaces were dominantly PM, (particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter; 98.4%) and PM25 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter; 64.2%) which were closely relative to human health. Constant elements of particles were C, O, K, Ca, Si, Al, Mg, Na, Fe, S, Cl and minerals with higher content were SiO2, CaCO3, CaMg(CO3)2, NaCI and 2CaSO4 x H20, SiO2. CaCO3 and CaMg(CO3)2 mainly came from resuspension of road dust. 2CaSO4 x H20 was produced by the reaction between CaCO3 derived from earth dust or industrial emission and SO2, H2SO4 or sulfate. NaCl was derived from sea salt.

  13. Influence of Coal Particle Size on Coal Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2014-10-01

    Accurate testing coal isotherm can play a significant role in the areas of coal seam gas drainage, outburst control, CO2 geo-sequestration, coalbed methane (CBM) and enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) etc. The effect of particle size on the CO2 and CH4 sorption capacity of bituminous coal from Illawarra, Australia was investigated at 35°C and at pressure up to 4 MPa. A unique indirect gravimetric apparatus was used to measure the gas adsorption and desorption isotherms of coal of different particle sizes ranging from around 150 urn to 16 mm. Langmuir model was used to analysis the experimental results of all gases. Coal particle size was found to have an apparent effect on the coal ash content and helium density results. Coal with larger particle size had higher ash content and higher helium density. The sorption isotherm was found to be highly sensitive with helium density of coal which was determined in the procedure of testing the void volume of sample cell. Hence, coal particle size had a significant influence on the coal sorption characteristics including sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis for CO2 and CH4, especially calculated with dry basis of coal. In this study, the 150-212 um (150 um) coal samples achieved higher sorption capacity and followed by 2.36-3.35 mm (2.4 mm), 8-9.5 mm (8 mm) and 16-19 mm (16 mm) particle size samples. However, the differences between different coal particles were getting smaller when the sorption isotherms are calculated with dry ash free basis. Test with 150 um coal samples were also found to have relatively smaller desorption hysteresis compared with the other larger particle size samples. The different results including adsorption/desorption isotherm, Langmuir parameters and coal hysteresis were all analysed with the CO2 and CH4 gases.

  14. Decoupling the Roles of Inertia and Gravity on Particle Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groszmann, D. E.; Thompson, J. H.; Coppen, S. W.; Rogers, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    Inertial and gravitational forces determine a particle's motion in a turbulent flow field. Gravity plays the dominant role in this motion by pulling the particles through adjacent regions of fluid turbulence. To better understand and model how a particle's inertia effects its displacement, one must examine the dispersion in a turbulent flow in the absence of gravity. In this paper, we present the particle experiments planned for NASA's KC-135 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft, which generates microgravity conditions for about 20 seconds. We also predict the particle behavior using simulation and ground-based experiments. We will release particles with Stokes numbers of 0.1, 1, and 10 into an enclosed tank of near-isotropic, stationary, and homogenous turbulence. These particle Stoke numbers cover a broad range of flow regimes of interest. Two opposed grids oscillating back and forth generate the turbulent field in the tank with a range of turbulence scales that covers about three orders of magnitude and with turbulence intensities of about ten times the mean velocity. The motion of the particles will be tracked using a stereo image velocimetry technique.

  15. Biomass-burning particle measurements: Characteristic composition and chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Paula K.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Thomson, David S.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Warneke, Carsten; Holloway, John; Jost, Hans-Jürg; Hübler, Gerd

    2004-12-01

    The NOAA Lockheed Orion WP-3D aircraft intercepted a forest fire plume over Utah on 19 May 2002 during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) mission. Large enhancements in acetonitrile (CH3CN), carbon monoxide (CO) and particle number were measured during the fire plume interception. In the 100 s plume crossing, the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument acquired 202 positive mass spectra from ionizing single particles in the 0.2-5 μm size range. These particles contained carbon, potassium, organics, and ammonium ions. No pure soot particles were sampled directly from the plume. By characterizing these particle mass spectra, a qualitative biomass-burning particle signature was developed that was then used to identify biomass-burning particles throughout ITCT. The analysis was extended to identify biomass-burning particles in four other missions, without the benefit of gas-phase biomass-burning tracers. During ITCT, approximately 33% of the particles sampled in the North American troposphere and 37% of the particles transported from Asia, not influenced by North American sources, were identified as biomass-burning particles. During the WB-57 Aerosol Mission (WAM), Atmospheric Chemistry of Combustion Emissions near the Tropopause (ACCENT) and ACCENT 2000 missions, 7% of stratospheric particles were identified as biomass-burning particles. During the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) this percentage increased to 52% because the regional stratosphere was strongly affected by an active fire season.

  16. Characteristics of meso-particles formed in coagulation process causing irreversible membrane fouling in the coagulation-microfiltration water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Q; Yamamura, H; Murata, N; Aoki, N; Yonekawa, H; Hafuka, A; Watanabe, Y

    2016-09-15

    In coagulation-membrane filtration water treatment processes, it is still difficult to determine the optimal coagulation condition to minimize irreversible membrane fouling. In microfiltration (MF), meso-particles (i.e., 20 nm-0.5 μm) are thought to play an important role in irreversible membrane fouling, especially their characteristics of particle number (PN) and zeta potential (ZP). In this study, a new nanoparticle tracker combined a high-output violet laser with a microscope was developed to identify the physicochemical characteristics of these microscopic and widely dispersed meso-particles. The effects of pH and coagulant dose on ZP and PN of micro-particles (i.e., >0.5 μm) and meso-particles were investigated, and then coagulation-MF tests were conducted. As the result, irreversible membrane fouling was best controlled for both types of membranes, while meso-particle ZP approached zero at around pH 5.5 for both types of natural water. Since PN was greatest under these conditions, ZP is more important in determining the extent of irreversible membrane fouling than PN. However, the acidic condition to neutralize meso-particles is not suitable for actual operation, as considering residual aluminum concentration, pipe corrosion, and chlorination efficiency. It is therefore necessary to investigate coagulants or other methods for the appropriate modification of meso-particle characteristics.

  17. Suspended Particles: Their Role in Estuarine Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A.; Millward, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    Suspended particles are instrumental in controlling the reactivity, transport and biological impacts of substances in aquatic environments, and provide a crucial link for chemical constituents between the water column, bed sediment and food chain. This article reviews the role of suspended particles in the chemical and biological cycling of trace constituents (trace metals, organo-metallic compounds and hydrophobic organic micropollutants; HOMs) in estuaries, with particular emphasis on the effects of and changes to particle reactivity and composition. The partitioning (or distribution coefficient, KD ) and bioavailability of chemical constituents, and assimilation efficiency (AE) of such by bivalve suspension feeders, are identified as key parameters requiring definition for accurate biogeochemical modelling, and the discussion centres around the determination of and controls on these parameters. Particle-water interactions encompass a variety of physical, biological, electrostatic and hydrophobic effects, and are largely dependent on the character and concentration of suspended particles and salinity. The salinity-dependence results from the competing and complexing effects of seawater ions for trace metals, and the compression of water in the presence of dissolved seawater ions and consequent salting out of neutral solute (HOMs, organo-metallic compounds and some trace metal complexes). The extent of biological solubilization of chemical constituents from suspended particles is dependent on the nature of chemical components of the gastro-intestinal environment and their interactions with ingested particles, and the physiological (e.g. gut passage time) and chemical (e.g. redox conditions and pH) constraints imposed on these interactions. Generally, chemicals that associate with fine, organic-rich particles (or, for some HOMs, fine inorganic particles), and desorb at pH 5-6 and/or complex with digestive enzymes or surfactants are most readily solubilized in the

  18. Role of quantum statistics in multi-particle decay dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er’el

    2015-04-15

    The role of quantum statistics in the decay dynamics of a multi-particle state, which is suddenly released from a confining potential, is investigated. For an initially confined double particle state, the exact dynamics is presented for both bosons and fermions. The time-evolution of the probability to measure two-particle is evaluated and some counterintuitive features are discussed. For instance, it is shown that although there is a higher chance of finding the two bosons (as oppose to fermions, and even distinguishable particles) at the initial trap region, there is a higher chance (higher than fermions) of finding them on two opposite sides of the trap as if the repulsion between bosons is higher than the repulsion between fermions. The results are demonstrated by numerical simulations and are calculated analytically in the short-time approximation. Furthermore, experimental validation is suggested.

  19. Numerical simulation of gas and particle flow field characteristics in HVOF guns

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Eidelman, S.; Lottati, I.

    1995-12-31

    The particle flow field characteristics in an HVOF gun are examined using numerical simulation techniques. The authors consider the particle injection, acceleration, convection heat transfer, and particle barrel interaction processes in a TAFA JP-5000 HVOF gun. Details of particle trajectories and temperature history as a function of particle size and other parameters are simulated and analyzed. A parameter study is conducted for different particle size, particle injection direction, and particle velocity. The number of distinct particle injection regimes was predicted and analyzed. Particle velocity and temperature at the exit of the barrel are listed. Using numerical simulation, the injection condition can be designed as a function of the set of flow parameters as well as particle properties, including particle size and material properties, to optimize the thermal spray process. A companion paper by the same authors in this proceedings presents a comprehensive analysis of the gas flow conditions for the HVOF gun.

  20. Characteristics of particle coagulation in an underground parking lot.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Kato, Shinsuke; Zhao, Jianing

    2015-12-01

    Particles in vehicle exhaust plumes in underground parking lots have adverse health effects due to the enclosed environment in which they are released and the temperature difference between the tailpipe and ambient environment; at the same time, particle coagulation might be obvious near the tailpipe in an underground parking lot. In the present study, airflow and temperature fields were calculated using the Realizable k-ε model, and the Eulerian particle transport model was selected in the numerical simulation of particle concentration dispersion. Polydisperse thermal coagulation due to Brownian collisions was employed to calculate the particle coagulation. The results show that particle coagulation rate and half-time were significant within 1 m from the tailpipe. The variations in the particle coagulation rate and half-time were similar, but their directions were opposite. Air exhaust time was nearly four times longer than averaged half-time and 40 times longer than minimum half-time. The peak particle diameter increased approximately 1.43 times due to coagulation. A double particle concentration at the tailpipe caused the fourfold rise in the particle coagulation rate in the distance ranging less than 1 m from the tailpipe. An increase in exhaust velocity at the tailpipe could shorten the obvious range of particle coagulation along the centerline of the tailpipe from 1 to 0.8 m in the study.

  1. [Emission characteristics of fine particles from grate firing boilers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Li, Xing-Hua; Wei, Wei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-04-15

    Grate firing boilers are the main type of Chinese industrial boilers, which accounts for 85% of the industrial boilers and is one of the most important emission sources of primary air pollutants in China. In this study, five boilers in three cities were selected and tested to measure the emission characteristics of PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants were applied by a compact dilution sampling system, which was developed for this field study. Results showed that particles mass size distributions for the five industrial boilers presented single peak or double peak, former peaks near 0.14 microm and the later peaks after 1.0 microm; the cyclone dust remover and wet scrubber dust remover had effective removal efficiencies not only to PM2.5, but also to PM1.0; and under the condition of same control techniques, grate firing boiler with high capacity has less PM2.5 emission than the boiler with low capacity. In the PM2.5 collected from flue gases, SO4(2-) was the most abundant ion, accounted for 20%-40% of the PM2.5; and C was the most abundant element (7.5%-31.8%), followed by S (8.4%-18.7%). Carbon balance method was applied to calculate the emission factors of these pollutants. The emission factors of PM2.5, NO, and SO2 were in the range of 0.046-0.486 g x kg(-1), 1.63-2.47 g x kg(-1), 1.35-9.95 g x kg(-1) respectively. The results are useful for the emission inventory development of industrial boilers and the source analysis of PM2.5 in atmospheric environment.

  2. Particle characteristics of trace high explosives: RDX and PETN.

    PubMed

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R

    2007-03-01

    The sizes of explosives particles in fingerprint residues produced from C-4 and Semtex-1A were investigated with respect to a fragmentation model. Particles produced by crushing crystals of RDX and PETN were sized by using scanning electron microscopy, combined with image analysis, and polarized light microscopy was used for imaging and identifying explosive particles in fingerprint residues. Crystals of RDX and PETN fragment in a manner that concentrates mass in the largest particles of the population, which is common for a fragmentation process. Based on the fingerprints studied, the particle size to target for improving mass detection in fingerprint residues by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is > or = 10 microm in diameter. Although particles smaller than 10 microm in diameter have a higher frequency, they constitute < 20% of the total mass. Efforts to improve collection efficiency of explosives particles for detection by IMS, or other techniques, must take into consideration that the mass may be concentrated in a relatively few particles that may not be homogeneously distributed over the fingerprint area. These results are based on plastic-bonded explosives such as C-4 that contain relatively large crystals of explosive, where fragmentation is the main process leading to the presence of particles in the fingerprint residues.

  3. Computation of single solid particle impact on the target of ductile material to study the rebound characteristics of particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeuan, Jian Jong

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this research work is to simulate a single solid particle impact on a solid target using elastic-plastic theory. The entire impact process involves the adhesion, deformation and rebound process interacting between the solid particle and the target. The governing equations for two dimensional elastic-plastic flow are formulated in Lagrangian coordinates. The equation of state in the elastic region is the time rate of change of Hooke's law. In the plastic region, the experimental Hugoniot equation of state and the yield condition of R. von Mises are used. The effect of strain rate on the material strength is considered using a semi-empirical formulation. The developed computer program employs a finite volume numerical technique and two step explicit MacCormack scheme, which is second order accurate in time, allowing finer resolution of the transient phenomena of impact. Results are presented for a hard tool steel particle impacting on a mild steel target at impact angles of 20 to 90 degrees. The computational results are compared with experimental data for a range of impacting velocities up to 350 m/sec. The effect of particle in the particle rebound characteristics are also investigated. In the previous research, the particle rebound characteristics obtained from experiments were correlated and used in the calculation of particle trajectories in turbomachinery flows. Here, the computational results are applied to predict solid particle trajectories in a highly loaded axial flow turbine.

  4. Characteristics of cascade impactors in size determination of diesel particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tai L.; Lawson, Douglas R.

    Cascade impactors of various designs have been used extensively in air sampling and inhalation toxicology to determine the size distribution of airborne aerosols. In this study, the internal losses of diesel exhaust particles in a multijet Mercer impactor, a low pressure Battelle impactor, and an Anderson impactor were determined by scintillation counting of gamma tagged diesel particles. Total interstage losses were 8-33%. However, losses in the three impactors were comparable on stages where most of the mass was found, ranging from 17 to 25%. Apiezon and Vaseline coated impaction surfaces reduced the internal losses of diesel particles and yielded larger mass median aerodynamic diameters compared to the uncoated impactors.

  5. [Dissolution characteristics of composite particles using a spray freeze drying].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masahiro; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    A spray freeze drying (SFD) method, using a spray nozzle, liquid N(2) and a lyophilizer, was developed to prepare composite particles of a poorly water-soluble drug. The resultant particles were found to have a porous structure. The purpose of the present research was to prepare a sustained release formulation using the SFD technique. Tolbutamide (TBM)and Eudragit S were used as model drugs and pH-dependent carrier, respectively. Eudragit S is a polymer that is soluble at or above pH 7.0. Morphological evaluation of the composite particles revealed that they had a porous structure with a significantly larger specific surface area than bulk TBM. The physicochemical properties of the particles were found to be dependent on the drug to carrier ratio, with the crystallinity of the TBM decreasing as the proportion of Eudragit S increased. Dissolution tests in solutions of pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 showed that the release profiles of TBM from the SFD composite particles were improved compared to bulk TBM, through the use of the pH-dependent carrier. On the other hand, following compression of the composite particles, sustained release was observed in a solution of pH 6.8, whereas almost no dissolution occurred in a solution of pH 1.2.

  6. Particle and bioaerosol characteristics in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    He, Congrong; Mackay, Ian M; Ramsay, Kay; Liang, Zhen; Kidd, Timothy; Knibbs, Luke D; Johnson, Graham; McNeale, Donna; Stockwell, Rebecca; Coulthard, Mark G; Long, Debbie A; Williams, Tara J; Duchaine, Caroline; Smith, Natalie; Wainwright, Claire; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-10-01

    The paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) provides care to critically ill neonates, infants and children. These patients are vulnerable and susceptible to the environment surrounding them, yet there is little information available on indoor air quality and factors affecting it within a PICU. To address this gap in knowledge we conducted continuous indoor and outdoor airborne particle concentration measurements over a two-week period at the Royal Children's Hospital PICU in Brisbane, Australia, and we also collected 82 bioaerosol samples to test for the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens. Our results showed that both 24-hour average indoor particle mass (PM10) (0.6-2.2μgm(-3), median: 0.9μgm(-3)) and submicrometer particle number (PN) (0.1-2.8×10(3)pcm(-3), median: 0.67×10(3)pcm(-3)) concentrations were significantly lower (p<0.01) than the outdoor concentrations (6.7-10.2μgm(-3), median: 8.0μgm(-3) for PM10 and 12.1-22.2×10(3)pcm(-3), median: 16.4×10(3)pcm(-3) for PN). In general, we found that indoor particle concentrations in the PICU were mainly affected by indoor particle sources, with outdoor particles providing a negligible background. We identified strong indoor particle sources in the PICU, which occasionally increased indoor PN and PM10 concentrations from 0.1×10(3) to 100×10(3)pcm(-3), and from 2μgm(-3) to 70μgm(-3), respectively. The most substantial indoor particle sources were nebulization therapy, tracheal suction and cleaning activities. The average PM10 and PN emission rates of nebulization therapy ranged from 1.29 to 7.41mgmin(-1) and from 1.20 to 3.96pmin(-1)×10(11), respectively. Based on multipoint measurement data, it was found that particles generated at each location could be quickly transported to other locations, even when originating from isolated single-bed rooms. The most commonly isolated bacterial genera from both primary and broth cultures were skin commensals while viruses were rarely identified. Based on the

  7. [Experimental study on characteristics of biodiesel exhausted particle].

    PubMed

    Ge, Yun-shan; He, Chao; Han, Xiu-kun; Wu, Si-jin; Lu, Xiao-ming

    2007-07-01

    A particle emission experiment of a direct-injection turbocharged diesel engine with biodiesel and diesel was carried out. A pump of 80 L/min and fiber glass filters with diameter of 90 mm was used to sample engine particles in exhaust pipe. The size distribution, soluble organic fraction (SOF) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of particles were analyzed by a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and GC-MS. The results indicate that the volume weighted size distribution of biodiesel particle is single-peak and its median diameter d(0.5) and mean diameter d32 are decreased with the increasing speed. At the high speed the d32 and d(0.5) of biodiesel are larger than those of diesel, and quite the contrary at the low speed. SOF mass concentration and mass percentage of biodiesel are 12.3 - 31.5 mg/m3 and 38.2% - 58.0% respectively, which are much higher than those of diesel. The total PAHs emission concentration of biodiesel is 2.9 - 4.7 microg/m3 lower than that of diesel as much as 29.1% - 92.4%.

  8. Measurement of two-phase particle flow based on the characteristics of particle-system scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Precise measurement of the mass of moving particles (MPM) is fundamental to the research on particle flows. In non-intrusive optical measurements, traditional discrete methods obtain the MPM by determining the connected domains on experimental pictures, leading to inevitable errors. In this study, the constitutive relationship between the MPM and the foreground grey scale value of the experimental picture is investigated on the basis of the working principle of digital cameras and the scattering theory of particle systems. This relationship is confirmed to be effective in wind-blown sand particle flow experiments using high-speed photography.

  9. Particle number concentrations over Europe in 2030: the role of emissions and new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlm, L.; Julin, J.; Fountoukis, C.; Pandis, S. N.; Riipinen, I.

    2013-04-01

    The aerosol particle number concentration is a key parameter when estimating impacts of aerosol particles on climate and human health. We use a three-dimensional chemical transport model with detailed microphysics, PMCAMx-UF, to simulate particle number concentrations over Europe in the year 2030, by applying emission scenarios for trace gases and primary aerosols. The scenarios are based on expected changes in anthropogenic emissions of sulphur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and primary aerosol particles with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) focusing on a photochemically active period. For the baseline scenario, which represents a best estimate of the evolution of anthropogenic emissions in Europe, PMCAMx-UF predicts that the total particle number concentration (Ntot) will decrease by 30-70% between 2008 and 2030. The number concentration of particles larger than 100 nm (N100), a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, is predicted to decrease by 40-70% during the same period. The predicted decrease in Ntot is mainly a result of reduced new particle formation due to the expected reduction in SO2 emissions, whereas the predicted decrease in N100 is a result of both decreasing condensational growth and reduced primary aerosol emissions. For larger emission reductions, PMCAMx-UF predicts reductions of 60-80% in both Ntot and N100 over Europe. Sensitivity tests reveal that a reduction in SO2 emissions is far more efficient than any other emission reduction investigated, in reducing Ntot. For N100, emission reductions of both SO2 and PM2.5 contribute significantly to the reduced concentration, even though SO2 plays the dominant role once more. The impact of SO2 for both new particle formation and growth over Europe may be expected to be somewhat higher during the simulated period with high photochemical activity than during times of the year with less incoming solar radiation. The predicted reductions in both Ntot and N100 between 2008 and 2030

  10. Particle number concentrations over Europe in 2030: the role of emissions and new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlm, L.; Julin, J.; Fountoukis, C.; Pandis, S. N.; Riipinen, I.

    2013-10-01

    The aerosol particle number concentration is a key parameter when estimating impacts of aerosol particles on climate and human health. We use a three-dimensional chemical transport model with detailed microphysics, PMCAMx-UF, to simulate particle number concentrations over Europe in the year 2030, by applying emission scenarios for trace gases and primary aerosols. The scenarios are based on expected changes in anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and primary aerosol particles with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) focusing on a photochemically active period, and the implications for other seasons are discussed. For the baseline scenario, which represents a best estimate of the evolution of anthropogenic emissions in Europe, PMCAMx-UF predicts that the total particle number concentration (Ntot) will decrease by 30-70% between 2008 and 2030. The number concentration of particles larger than 100 nm (N100), a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, is predicted to decrease by 40-70% during the same period. The predicted decrease in Ntot is mainly a result of reduced new particle formation due to the expected reduction in SO2 emissions, whereas the predicted decrease in N100 is a result of both decreasing condensational growth and reduced primary aerosol emissions. For larger emission reductions, PMCAMx-UF predicts reductions of 60-80% in both Ntot and N100 over Europe. Sensitivity tests reveal that a reduction in SO2 emissions is far more efficient than any other emission reduction investigated, in reducing Ntot. For N100, emission reductions of both SO2 and PM2.5 contribute significantly to the reduced concentration, even though SO2 plays the dominant role once more. The impact of SO2 for both new particle formation and growth over Europe may be expected to be somewhat higher during the simulated period with high photochemical activity than during times of the year with less incoming solar radiation. The predicted

  11. Characteristics of light scattering by smoke particles based on spheroid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiyuan; Zhang, Heping; Wan, Yutian; Zhang, Yongming; Qiao, Lifeng

    2007-09-01

    Light scattering models of smoke particles play an important role on the development of photoelectric smoke detection. Aiming at the influence of morphology of smoke particles, spheroid models are introduced to analyze the Stokes scattering matrix of smoke particles, which are lognormal size distributions. Under the condition of random orientations, the effects of refractive indexes and mean size of smoke particles are considered. The results show that after averaging of the orientation and size, the nonsphericity of smoke particles has a considerable effect on their light scattering. Additionally, the nonsphericity of gray smoke particles generated from smoldering fires is more important than soot from flaming fires for analyzing the light scattering.

  12. Measurement of thermal radiation scattering characteristics of submicron refractory particles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, W. R.; Williams, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The differential scattering parameter has been measured for 0.04-micron tungsten particles in hydrogen and nitrogen at temperatures to 1080 K. The differential scattering parameter has also been measured for 0.1 micron tungsten, three types of carbon particles, and fly ash in nitrogen at temperatures to 1000 K. The 0.04 micron tungsten shows a temperature dependent total scattering parameter varying from around 4000 sq cm per g at room temperature to 7000 sq cm per g at 1088 K. The temperatures over which data were obtained are not high enough to confirm the temperature dependence of the total scattering parameter of tungsten.

  13. Measurement of thermal radiation scattering characteristics of submicron refractory particles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, W. R.; Williams, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The differential scattering parameter has been measured for 0.04-micron tungsten particles in hydrogen and nitrogen at temperatures to 1080 K. The differential scattering parameter has also been measured for 0.1 micron tungsten, three types of carbon particles, and fly ash in nitrogen at temperatures to 1000 K. The 0.04 micron tungsten shows a temperature dependent total scattering parameter varying from around 4000 sq cm per g at room temperature to 7000 sq cm per g at 1088 K. The temperatures over which data were obtained are not high enough to confirm the temperature dependence of the total scattering parameter of tungsten.

  14. Empirically characteristic analysis of chaotic PID controlling particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Danping; Lu, Yongzhong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Shiping; Levy, David

    2017-01-01

    Since chaos systems generally have the intrinsic properties of sensitivity to initial conditions, topological mixing and density of periodic orbits, they may tactfully use the chaotic ergodic orbits to achieve the global optimum or their better approximation to given cost functions with high probability. During the past decade, they have increasingly received much attention from academic community and industry society throughout the world. To improve the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO), we herein propose a chaotic proportional integral derivative (PID) controlling PSO algorithm by the hybridization of chaotic logistic dynamics and hierarchical inertia weight. The hierarchical inertia weight coefficients are determined in accordance with the present fitness values of the local best positions so as to adaptively expand the particles' search space. Moreover, the chaotic logistic map is not only used in the substitution of the two random parameters affecting the convergence behavior, but also used in the chaotic local search for the global best position so as to easily avoid the particles' premature behaviors via the whole search space. Thereafter, the convergent analysis of chaotic PID controlling PSO is under deep investigation. Empirical simulation results demonstrate that compared with other several chaotic PSO algorithms like chaotic PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PSO with the tent map and chaotic catfish PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PID controlling PSO exhibits much better search efficiency and quality when solving the optimization problems. Additionally, the parameter estimation of a nonlinear dynamic system also further clarifies its superiority to chaotic catfish PSO, genetic algorithm (GA) and PSO.

  15. Biogeochemical characteristics of sedimenting particles in Dona Paula Bay, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'souza, Fraddry; Garg, Anita; Bhosle, Narayan B.

    2003-10-01

    Sedimenting particles were collected at weekly intervals from October to May during 1995-1997 at a station in the coastal waters of Dona Paula Bay on the west coast of India. Sedimenting particles were analysed for concentration and composition of total sedimented particulate matter (TPM), biogenic silica (BSi) and total neutral carbohydrates (TCHO). TPM, BSi and TCHO fluxes showed seasonal and annual variations. Fluxes of BSi showed significant correlations with the fluxes of TCHO and fucose indicating that at the study site diatoms were associated with the production of carbohydrates. However, a high content of arabinose plus xylose (˜56% of TCHO without glucose) in some samples and their negative correlations with fucose may suggest terrestrial inputs. Sedimenting particles depleted in glucose content were enriched in rhamnose, fucose, xylose, mannose and galactose. A principal component analysis based on log-normalized wt% of monosaccharides established three factors that contributed 78% of total variance. The first factor was mostly controlled by the abundance of arabinose and xylose while the second and third factors were dependent on fucose, galactose, mannose and rhamnose. Carbohydrate composition data suggest that the nature and sources of organic matter at the study site varied over the period of study.

  16. Characteristics of individual particles in the atmosphere of Guangzhou by single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guohua; Han, Bingxue; Bi, Xinhui; Dai, Shouhui; Huang, Wei; Chen, Duohong; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Zhou, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Continuous ambient measurement of atmospheric aerosols was performed with a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) in Guangzhou during summer of 2012. The aerosols mainly consisted of carbonaceous particles as major compositions in submicrometer range, including K-rich (29.8%), internally mixed organics and elemental carbon (ECOC, 13.5%), organic carbon-rich (OC, 18.5%), elemental carbon (EC, 12.3%) and high molecular OC (HMOC, 3.2%), and inorganic types (e.g., Na-rich Na-K, Fe-rich, V-rich, and Cu-rich) as major ones in supermicrometer range. Results show that carbonaceous particles were commonly internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate through atmospheric processing, in particular, with sulfate; inorganic types were dominantly internally mixed with nitrate rather than sulfate, indicative of different evolution processes for carbonaceous and inorganic particles in the atmosphere. It was observed that variations of these particle types were significantly influenced by air mass back trajectories (BTs). Under the influence of continental BTs, carbonaceous types were prevalent, while Na-K and Na-rich types considerably increased when the BTs originated from south marine regions. Number fraction of carbonaceous types exhibited obvious diurnal variation throughout the sampling period, which reflects their relatively stable emission and atmospheric processes. Two EC particle types LC-EC and NaK-EC showed different diurnal distributions, suggesting their different origins. The obtained information on the mixing state and the temporal variation of particle types is essential for developing an understanding on the origin and evolution processes of atmospheric aerosols.

  17. Sensitivity of dispersion model forecasts of volcanic ash clouds to the physical characteristics of the particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, F. M.; Witham, C. S.; Hort, M. C.; Stevenson, J. A.; Bonadonna, C.; Millington, S. C.

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of atmospheric dispersion model forecasts of volcanic ash clouds to the physical characteristics assigned to the particles. We show that the particle size distribution (PSD) used to initialise a dispersion model has a significant impact on the forecast of the mass loading of the ash particles in the atmosphere. This is because the modeled fall velocity of the particles is sensitive to the particle diameter. Forecasts of the long-range transport of the ash cloud consider particles with diameters between 0.1 μm and 100 μm. The fall velocity of particles with diameter 100 μm is over 5 orders of magnitude greater than a particle with diameter 0.1 μm, and 30 μm particles fall 88% slower and travel up to 5× further than a 100 μm particle. Identifying the PSD of the ash cloud at the source, which is required to initialise a model, is difficult. Further, aggregation processes are currently not explicitly modeled in operational dispersion models due to the high computational costs associated with aggregation schemes. We show that using a modified total grain size distribution (TGSD) that effectively accounts for aggregation processes improves the modeled PSD of the ash cloud and deposits from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. Knowledge of the TGSD of an eruption is therefore critical for reducing uncertainty in quantitative forecasts of ash cloud dispersion. The density and shape assigned to the model particles have a lesser but still significant impact on the calculated fall velocity. Accounting for the density distribution and sphericity of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, modeled particles can travel up to 84% further than particles with default particle characteristics that assume the particles are spherical and have a fixed density.

  18. Roles of Cognitive Characteristics in Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Young; Hong, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Dong-Soo

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the cognitive characteristics that affect the emotional and functional distress caused by tinnitus and to decide and test the model to explain their relations, 167 patients with tinnitus, who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between March 2001 and May 2002 were recruited. To examine their features related to tinnitus, the following scales were administered; Tinnitus-related basic questionnaire including dysfunctional beliefs, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Anxious Thought and Tendencies, Self-Consciousness Scale, and modified 'catastrophic thought' from Coping Strategies Questionnaire. The results showed that the duration of experiencing tinnitus was 4.7±7.1 yr, those who com-plained of hearing one sound were the most common (45.5%), and hearing sounds similarly described to whistling were the most common (22.5%). Also, there were significant correlations among tinnitus features, cognitive characteristics, and distresses from tinnitus. As a result of testing the model, Normed fit index, Incremental fit index, Tucker-Lewis index, and Comparative fit index were over .90, indicating that it is a good model, and Root mean square error of approximation showed a reasonable fit. Also, the direct effects of the trait or severity of tinnitus on distress did not appear to be significant, thus it appeared to be affecting indirectly through the cognitive characteristics. This result shows that cognitive interventions can be important for the psychological adaptations of tinnitus patients. PMID:15608399

  19. Roles of cognitive characteristics in tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Young; Kim, Ji-Hae; Hong, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Dong-Soo

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the cognitive characteristics that affect the emotional and functional distress caused by tinnitus and to decide and test the model to explain their relations, 167 patients with tinnitus, who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between March 2001 and May 2002 were recruited. To examine their features related to tinnitus, the following scales were administered; Tinnitus-related basic questionnaire including dysfunctional beliefs, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Anxious Thought and Tendencies, Self-Consciousness Scale, and modified 'catastrophic thought' from Coping Strategies Questionnaire. The results showed that the duration of experiencing tinnitus was 4.7 +/-7.1 yr, those who complained of hearing one sound were the most common (45.5%), and hearing sounds similarly described to whistling were the most common (22.5%). Also, there were significant correlations among tinnitus features, cognitive characteristics, and distresses from tinnitus. As a result of testing the model, Normed fit index, Incremental fit index, Tucker-Lewis index, and Comparative fit index were over .90, indicating that it is a good model, and Root mean square error of approximation showed a reasonable fit. Also, the direct effects of the trait or severity of tinnitus on distress did not appear to be significant, thus it appeared to be affecting indirectly through the cognitive characteristics. This result shows that cognitive interventions can be important for the psychological adaptations of tinnitus patients.

  20. Packing of nonoverlapping cubic particles: Computational algorithms and microstructural characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2016-12-01

    Packing of cubic particles arises in a variety of problems, ranging from biological materials to colloids and the fabrication of new types of porous materials with controlled morphology. The properties of such packings may also be relevant to problems involving suspensions of cubic zeolites, precipitation of salt crystals during CO2 sequestration in rock, and intrusion of fresh water in aquifers by saline water. Not much is known, however, about the structure and statistical descriptors of such packings. We present a detailed simulation and microstructural characterization of packings of nonoverlapping monodisperse cubic particles, following up on our preliminary results [H. Malmir et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 35024 (2016), 10.1038/srep35024]. A modification of the random sequential addition (RSA) algorithm has been developed to generate such packings, and a variety of microstructural descriptors, including the radial distribution function, the face-normal correlation function, two-point probability and cluster functions, the lineal-path function, the pore-size distribution function, and surface-surface and surface-void correlation functions, have been computed, along with the specific surface and mean chord length of the packings. The results indicate the existence of both spatial and orientational long-range order as the the packing density increases. The maximum packing fraction achievable with the RSA method is about 0.57, which represents the limit for a structure similar to liquid crystals.

  1. Characteristics of Cement Concrete with Nano Alumina Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaishankar, P.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2017-07-01

    Concrete can be nano-engineered by incorporating nano sized building blocks or objects (e.g., nano particles and nano tubes) to control material behaviour and add novel properties. In this work an attempt has been made to study the effect of nano alumina on the properties of concrete composite. In order to investigate the effect of nano-alumina on the mechanical strength of cement composite, the specimens with different volume percentages (0%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%) nano-alumina, in each proportion three sample were cast totally making 58 specimens and after 28 days of curing they were tested. Based on experiment, the compressive strength of concrete cubes was all increased by incorporating nano alumina into matrix, when the fraction of nano alumina was 1% of the cement by weight the compressive strength of composites increased by 33.14% at 28 days. The test results showed that addition of nano alumina enhanced the compressive strength and reduced the initial setting time of concrete composite. Micro analysis was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS).The studies indicated that nano particle was uniformly distributed by improving the microstructure of concrete.

  2. Packing of nonoverlapping cubic particles: Computational algorithms and microstructural characteristics.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2016-12-01

    Packing of cubic particles arises in a variety of problems, ranging from biological materials to colloids and the fabrication of new types of porous materials with controlled morphology. The properties of such packings may also be relevant to problems involving suspensions of cubic zeolites, precipitation of salt crystals during CO_{2} sequestration in rock, and intrusion of fresh water in aquifers by saline water. Not much is known, however, about the structure and statistical descriptors of such packings. We present a detailed simulation and microstructural characterization of packings of nonoverlapping monodisperse cubic particles, following up on our preliminary results [H. Malmir et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 35024 (2016)2045-232210.1038/srep35024]. A modification of the random sequential addition (RSA) algorithm has been developed to generate such packings, and a variety of microstructural descriptors, including the radial distribution function, the face-normal correlation function, two-point probability and cluster functions, the lineal-path function, the pore-size distribution function, and surface-surface and surface-void correlation functions, have been computed, along with the specific surface and mean chord length of the packings. The results indicate the existence of both spatial and orientational long-range order as the the packing density increases. The maximum packing fraction achievable with the RSA method is about 0.57, which represents the limit for a structure similar to liquid crystals.

  3. The role of particle associated microbial respiration in mesopelagic particle flux attenuation in the NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, A.; Henson, S.; Sanders, R.; Lampitt, R. S.

    2016-02-01

    The oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) through the biological carbon pump is intrinsically linked to atmospheric levels of CO2 and hence global climate. Rapid changes in the flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) occur in the upper mesopelagic layer of the ocean, making it a key region for understanding both the current and future balance of oceanic and atmospheric CO2. However, the practical difficulties of making measurements in this dynamic upper region of the ocean mean that the mechanisms controlling both the magnitude and efficiency of the biologically driven carbon flux to the deep ocean are still poorly understood, in particular the relative contributions of zooplankton and microbes to POC remineralisation. Here we present the first vertical profile of particle associated microbial respiration calculated from direct measurements on individual marine snow aggregates collected in situ. Sinking particles were collected over the upper 500 m at a site in the NE Atlantic using Marine Snow Catchers, revealing a decline in POC flux of 76 %. To determine the role of particle associated microbial respiration in flux attenuation, we carried out micro-scale measurements of oxygen gradients through marine snow aggregates collected in situ. The calculated rates of microbial respiration cannot account for the observed steep declines in POC, explaining only 4 % of POC attenuation over the upper 130 m. However, 31 % of POC attenuation in the mesopelagic zone can be explained by particle associated microbial respiration, highlighting the increasing importance of microbial respiration deeper in the water column. Our results imply that zooplankton mediated processes, such as coprorhexy, coprophagy and coprochaly are therefore important drivers of POC flux attenuation in the upper mesopelagic.

  4. Gas-borne particles with tunable and highly controlled characteristics for nanotoxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Messing, Maria E; Svensson, Christian R; Pagels, Joakim; Meuller, Bengt O; Deppert, Knut; Rissler, Jenny

    2013-09-01

    For nanotoxicology investigations of air-borne particles to provide relevant results it is ever so important that the particle exposure of, for example cells, closely resembles the "real" exposure situation, that the dosimetry is well defined, and that the characteristics of the deposited nanoparticles are known in detail. By synthesizing the particles in the gas-phase and directly depositing them on lung cells the particle deposition conditions in the lung is closely mimicked. In this work we present a setup for generation of gas-borne nanoparticles of a variety of different materials with highly controlled and tunable particle characteristics, and demonstrate the method by generation of gold particles. Particle size, number concentration and mass of individual particles of the population are measured on-line by means of differential mobility analyzers (DMA) and an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), whereas primary particle size and internal structure are investigated by transmission electron microscopy. A method for estimating the surface area dose from the DMA-APM measurements is applied and we further demonstrate that for the setup used, a deposition time of around 1 h is needed for deposition onto cells in an air-liquid interface chamber, using electrostatic deposition, to reach a toxicological relevant surface area dose.

  5. Gas-borne particles with tunable and highly controlled characteristics for nanotoxicology studies

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Christian R.; Pagels, Joakim; Meuller, Bengt O.; Deppert, Knut; Rissler, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    For nanotoxicology investigations of air-borne particles to provide relevant results it is ever so important that the particle exposure of, for example cells, closely resembles the “real” exposure situation, that the dosimetry is well defined, and that the characteristics of the deposited nanoparticles are known in detail. By synthesizing the particles in the gas-phase and directly depositing them on lung cells the particle deposition conditions in the lung is closely mimicked. In this work we present a setup for generation of gas-borne nanoparticles of a variety of different materials with highly controlled and tunable particle characteristics, and demonstrate the method by generation of gold particles. Particle size, number concentration and mass of individual particles of the population are measured on-line by means of differential mobility analyzers (DMA) and an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), whereas primary particle size and internal structure are investigated by transmission electron microscopy. A method for estimating the surface area dose from the DMA-APM measurements is applied and we further demonstrate that for the setup used, a deposition time of around 1 h is needed for deposition onto cells in an air–liquid interface chamber, using electrostatic deposition, to reach a toxicological relevant surface area dose. PMID:22630037

  6. Characteristics of alumina particles in dispersion-strengthened copper alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-hui; Li, Xiao-xian

    2014-11-01

    Two types of alumina dispersion-strengthened copper (ADSC) alloys were fabricated by a novel in-situ reactive synthesis (IRS) and a traditional internal oxidation (IO) process. The features of alumina dispersoids in these ADSC alloys were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that nano-sized γ-Al2O3 particles of approximately 10 nm in diameter are homogeneously distributed in the IRS-ADSC composites. Meanwhile, larger-sized, mixed crystal structure alumina with rod-shaped morphology is embedded in the IO-ADSC alloy. The IRS-ADSC composites can obtain better mechanical and physical properties than the IO-ADSC composites; the tensile strength of the IRS-ADSC alloy can reach 570 MPa at room temperature, its electrical conductivity is 85% IACS, and the Rockwell hardness can reach 86 HRB.

  7. The role of impulsive particle acceleration in magnetotail circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelopoulos, V.

    1996-01-01

    Recent results from investigations carried out using the active magnetospheric particle tracer explorer/ion release module (AMPTE/IRM) satellite and International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) show that bursty, near-neutral sheet fast flows are an important part of the transport in the near-earth tail. The results related to such flows are reviewed, and information is presented on their relation to the average plasma sheet characteristics and substorms. The average ion density, temperature and flow variability in the quiet inner plasma sheet exhibit a spatial dependence which suggests a dependence on Bursty Bulk Flows (BBFs). The energy and flux transport in the tail is discussed and it is stated that BBFs are responsible for such transport. The tailward progression of activity is considered.

  8. Self-refreshing characteristics of an airborne particle sensor using a bridged paddle oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsuk; Lee, Seung-Beck; Park, Bonghyun; Sul, Onejae

    2016-05-01

    We report on the self-refreshing characteristics of a micromachined airborne particle sensor. The sensor consists of a bridge-type beam having an oscillating paddle-type particle collector at its center. When a positive potential is applied to the paddle, the sensor is able to attract and collect negatively charged airborne particles while oscillating close to its resonant frequency and thereby measure their density from the change in the oscillating phase at ˜10 pg resolution. When the applied potential is removed, the collected particles are detached from the sensor due to momentum transfer from the oscillating paddle, thus demonstrating a self-refreshing capability.

  9. Effect of Silica-Particle Characteristics on Impact/Usual Fatigue Properties and Evaluation of Mechanical Characteristics of Silica-Particle Epoxy Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Isamu; Higashihara, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshiro

    The structure (crystalline or amorphous) and shape (globular or irregular) of silica fillers were varied and their effects on the impact fatigue and usual fatigue properties in the particle-filled epoxy resins were investigated. The fatigue crack extension process was discussed in terms of initiation and propagation processes. Furthermore, the mechanical characteristics of the material were evaluated by considering the tensile properties, fatigue resistance and the fracture behavior. It has been found that the epoxy resin filled with irregular crystalline silica-particles possessed the best combination of mechanical properties.

  10. Numerical investigation of drag characteristics of spherical particles under non-isothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungwoo; Yim, Yeong Eun

    2016-11-01

    In predicting particle-laden flows related to particle transport and dispersion, better understanding and accurate parameterization of the hydrodynamic forces on the particles are one of the important subjects. Heat transfer between dispersed particle and fluid is often observed in nature and engineering applications. However, existing analytical expressions and empirical correlations used in point particle approaches are made based on the assumption that the particle and surrounding ambient flow are under thermal equilibrium conditions. So, the effect of thermal non-equilibrium state of particle motion remains an unresolved issue. Therefore, we perform three-dimensional numerical simulations for the flow around a finite-sized spherical particle in order to investigate its drag characteristics under non-isothermal conditions (heated or cooled particles). In this study, the working fluids are considered to be water and air as typical cases of liquids and gases. The heated particle experiences larger drag in air and smaller drag in water than that in the isothermal case. On the other hand, the impact of cooling is to decrease drag in air and to increase it in water. These behaviors of the drag coefficient in air and water mainly depend on the variation of the viscosity in terms of the temperature. Those results would provide useful information in understanding the particle motion in heated or cooled conditions.

  11. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di; Hu, Wei; Li, Peng; Ren, Jin; Chen, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements. The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) x 10(8) cm(-3). The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles. The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 2.7 x 10(7) cm(-3) under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 x 10(8) cm(-3) under accelerating operation. It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases. The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions, which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds. The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions. The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range. Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  12. Vehicle and driving characteristics that influence in-cabin particle number concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J; Fruin, Scott A

    2011-10-15

    In-transit microenvironments experience elevated levels of vehicle-related pollutants such as ultrafine particles. However, in-vehicle particle number concentrations are frequently lower than on-road concentrations due to particle losses inside vehicles. Particle concentration reduction occurs due to a complicated interplay between a vehicle's air-exchange rate (AER), which determines particle influx rate, and particle losses due to surfaces and the in-cabin air filter. Accurate determination of inside-to-outside particle concentration ratios is best made under realistic aerodynamic and AER conditions because these ratios and AER are determined by vehicle speed and ventilation preference, in addition to vehicle characteristics such as age. In this study, 6 vehicles were tested at 76 combinations of driving speeds, ventilation conditions (i.e., outside air or recirculation), and fan settings. Under recirculation conditions, particle number attenuation (number reduction for 10-1000 nm particles) averaged 0.83 ± 0.13 and was strongly negatively correlated with increasing AER, which in turn depended on speed and the age of the vehicle. Under outside air conditions, attenuation averaged 0.33 ± 0.10 and primarily decreased at higher fan settings that increased AER. In general, in-cabin particle number reductions did not vary strongly with particle size, and cabin filters exhibited low removal efficiencies.

  13. Effect of flow characteristics on ultrafine particle emissions from range hoods.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms of the production of nanometer-sized particulate generated from cooking oils, the ventilation of kitchen hoods was studied by determining the particle concentration, particle size distribution, particle dimensions, and hood's flow characteristics under several cooking scenarios. This research varied the temperature of the frying operation on one cooking operation, with three kinds of commercial cooking oils including soybean oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil. The variations of particle concentration and size distributions with the elevated cooking oil temperatures were presented. The particle concentration increases as a function of temperature. For oil temperatures ranging between 180°C and 210°C, a 5°C increase in temperature increased the number concentration of ultrafine particles by 20-50%. The maximum concentration of ultrafine particles was found to be approximately 6 × 10(6) particles per cm(3) at 260°C. Flow visualization techniques and particle distribution measurement were performed for two types of hood designs, a wall-mounted range hood and an island hood, at a suction flow rate of 15 m(3) min(-1). The flow visualization results showed that different configurations of kitchen hoods induce different aerodynamic characteristics. By comparing the results of flow visualizations and nanoparticle measurements, it was found that the areas with large-scale turbulent vortices are more prone to dispersion of ultrafine particle leakage because of the complex interaction between the shear layers and the suction movement that results from turbulent dispersion. We conclude that the evolution of ultrafine particle concentration fluctuations is strongly affected by the location of the hood, which can alter the aerodynamic features. We suggest that there is a correlation between flow characteristics and amount of contaminant leakage. This provides a comprehensive strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of kitchen hoods

  14. Empirically characteristic analysis of chaotic PID controlling particle swarm optimization

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Danping; Lu, Yongzhong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Shiping; Levy, David

    2017-01-01

    Since chaos systems generally have the intrinsic properties of sensitivity to initial conditions, topological mixing and density of periodic orbits, they may tactfully use the chaotic ergodic orbits to achieve the global optimum or their better approximation to given cost functions with high probability. During the past decade, they have increasingly received much attention from academic community and industry society throughout the world. To improve the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO), we herein propose a chaotic proportional integral derivative (PID) controlling PSO algorithm by the hybridization of chaotic logistic dynamics and hierarchical inertia weight. The hierarchical inertia weight coefficients are determined in accordance with the present fitness values of the local best positions so as to adaptively expand the particles’ search space. Moreover, the chaotic logistic map is not only used in the substitution of the two random parameters affecting the convergence behavior, but also used in the chaotic local search for the global best position so as to easily avoid the particles’ premature behaviors via the whole search space. Thereafter, the convergent analysis of chaotic PID controlling PSO is under deep investigation. Empirical simulation results demonstrate that compared with other several chaotic PSO algorithms like chaotic PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PSO with the tent map and chaotic catfish PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PID controlling PSO exhibits much better search efficiency and quality when solving the optimization problems. Additionally, the parameter estimation of a nonlinear dynamic system also further clarifies its superiority to chaotic catfish PSO, genetic algorithm (GA) and PSO. PMID:28472050

  15. Geochemical characteristics of sinking particles in the Tonga arc hydrothermal vent field, southwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Jeek; Kim, Jonguk; Pak, Sang Joon; Ju, Se-Jong; Yoo, Chan Min; Kim, Hyun Sub; Lee, Kyeong Yong; Hwang, Jeomshik

    2016-10-01

    Studies of sinking particles associated with hydrothermal vent fluids may help us to quantify mass transformation processes between hydrothermal vent plumes and deposits. Such studies may also help us understand how various types of hydrothermal systems influence particle flux and composition. However, the nature of particle precipitation out of hydrothermal vent plumes in the volcanic arcs of convergent plate boundaries has not been well studied, nor have the characteristics of such particles been compared with the characteristics of sinking particles at divergent boundaries. We examined sinking particles collected by sediment traps for about 10 days at two sites, each within 200 m of identified hydrothermal vents in the south Tonga arc of the southwestern Pacific. The total mass flux was several-fold higher than in the non-hydrothermal southwest tropical Pacific. The contribution of non-biogenic materials was dominant (over 72%) and the contribution of metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn was very high compared to their average levels in the upper continental crust. The particle flux and composition indicate that hydrothermal authigenic particles are the dominant source of the collected sinking particles. Overall, our elemental ratios are similar to observations of particles at the divergent plate boundary in the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Thus, the nature of the hydrothermal particles collected in the south Tonga arc is probably not drastically different from particles in the EPR region. However, we observed consistent differences between the two sites within the Tonga arc, in terms of the contribution of non-biogenic material, the radiocarbon content of sinking particulate organic carbon, the ratios of iron to other metals (e.g. Cu/Fe and Zn/Fe), and plume maturity indices (e.g. S/Fe). This heterogeneity within the Tonga arc is likely caused by differences in physical environment such as water depth, phase separation due to subcritical boiling and associated sub

  16. Penetration of ambient submicron particles into single-family residences and associations with building characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stephens, B; Siegel, J A

    2012-12-01

    This work improves knowledge of particle penetration into buildings by (i) refining a particle penetration test method that minimizes the duration and invasiveness required by individual tests without sacrificing accuracy, (ii) applying the method in an unoccupied manufactured test house and 18 single-family homes in Austin, Texas, USA, and (iii) exploring correlations between particle penetration and building characteristics, including results from blower door air leakage tests. The mean (± s.d.) measured penetration factor of submicron particles (20-1000 nm, not size-resolved) was 0.47 ± 0.15 in 19 residences that relied on infiltration for ventilation air, ranging from 0.17 ± 0.03 to 0.72 ± 0.08. Particle penetration factors (P) and outdoor particle source terms (P × air exchange rates) were both significantly and positively correlated with results from blower door air leakage tests. Outdoor particle source terms were also significantly and negatively correlated with the year of construction. These results suggest that occupants of leakier and older homes are exposed to higher indoor concentrations of outdoor submicron particles than those in tighter and newer homes, and that simple air leakage tests may be able to provide an approximate prediction of outdoor particle infiltration into single-family residences. Results from this work suggest that knowledge of simple building characteristics (i.e., the year of construction and blower door test results) may be used to predict the ability of outdoor particles to infiltrate into single-family residences, which could facilitate easier estimates of indoor exposures to outdoor particulate matter across the building stock. The methods within can also be extended to other buildings and can be used to assess possible changes in penetration factors because of envelope retrofits. Because outdoor particle size distributions were not measured during this study, these tests should also be repeated with size

  17. Characteristics of aerosol and cloud particle size distributions in the tropical tropopause layer measured with optical particle counter and lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Maruyama, K.; Hayashi, M.; Ogino, S.-Y.; Ishimoto, H.; Tachibana, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Matsui, I.; Sugimoto, N.; Yamashita, K.; Saga, K.; Iwamoto, K.; Kamiakito, Y.; Chabangborn, A.; Thana, B.; Hashizume, M.; Koike, T.; Oki, T.

    2007-07-01

    An optical particle counter (OPC) is used in conjunction with lidar measurements to examine the characteristics of the particle size distribution in cirrus cloud in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over Thailand where the TTL is defined as the height at which temperature is lower than -75°C in this paper. Of 11 OPC launches, cirrus cloud was detected at 10-15 km high on 7 occasions, cirrus was detected in the TTL in 6 cases, and simultaneous OPC and lidar measurements were made on two occasions. Comparison of lidar and OPC measurements reveal that the cloud heights of cirrus in the TTL varies by several hundred meters over distances of tens kilometers; hence the height is not always horizontally uniform. The mode radii of particles constituting the clouds are estimated by lidar and OPC measurements to be less than approximately 10 μm. The regression lines of the particle size distribution with and without cirrus cloud exhibit similar features at equivalent radii of <0.8 μm. Enhancement in the integrated number concentration at radii greater than 0.8 μm indicates that liquid particles tend to be frozen at a radius of 0.8 μm, with cirrus clouds above 10 km exhibiting similar features. On the other hand, enhancement in the particle size distribution at radii greater than 0.9 μm and a peak at around 0.8 μm in the ratio of the standard deviation of count values to that of the Poisson distribution of the averaged count values are common features of cirrus clouds in the TTL, where the ratio shows the vertical homogeneity of the particle number. These typical features suggest that the transition from liquid, sulfuric acid aerosol, to ice is more observable in the TTL and the timing of freezing may vary with height in the TTL.

  18. Characteristic aspects of formation of new particles during the growth of monosize silica seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.L.; Dong, P.; Yang, G.H.; Yang, J.Y.

    1996-06-01

    To prepare large monodisperse silica particles, it is necessary to grow silica seeds without the formation of new silica particles. Described in this paper are investigations of the characteristic aspects of formation of new particles during the growth of silica seeds through the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate. Experimental results indicated that with silica particles as seeds, under a given set of reaction conditions and total external surface area of seeds, the smaller the seed particles, the fewer the newly formed particles during seed growth. The larger the total surface area of the seeds, the fewer the newly formed particles during growth with the same diameter particles as seeds. The critical surface area of nucleation increases linearly with the diameter of seeds. Addition of a small amount of NaCl to the breeding solution can dramatically decrease the number of newly formed particles. From these experimental findings, it is believed that under the conditions of formation of new particles, seed growth during the early stage is controlled by diffusion of colloid-unstable condensed species carrying electric charges capable of overcoming electrostatic repulsion.

  19. Effect of solution chemistry on particle characteristics during metal sulfide precipitation.

    PubMed

    Mokone, T P; van Hille, R P; Lewis, A E

    2010-11-01

    Metal sulfide precipitation forms an important component of acid mine drainage remediation systems based on bacterial sulfate reduction. The precipitation reaction is thermodynamically favorable, but a number of technical issues remain. In this study the effect of metal to sulfide molar ratio and operating pH on the nature and settling characteristics of copper and zinc sulfide precipitates was studied in a CSTR. A large number of small copper sulfide particles, with highly negatively charged surfaces and poor settling characteristics, were formed in the presence of a stoichiometric excess of sulfide at pH 6. The size and the settling characteristics of the particles were significantly improved, while the number of particles and magnitude of their zeta potential decreased when experiments were conducted at pH values <6. By comparison, for zinc sulfide, a small change in the number and size of the particles was observed for all metal to sulfide molar ratios and tested operating pH values. Precipitates generated at pH 6 had the most negative zeta potential, while operating at pH values <6 reduced the magnitude of the negative surface charge and improved the settling and dewatering characteristics of the precipitate. The data indicated that the amount of reactive sulfide species (HS(-) and S(2-) ions) available in solution during the precipitation process was important in determining the nature and surface characteristics of the particles produced and this was mainly dependent on pH.

  20. Development of a particle method of characteristics (PMOC) for one-dimensional shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y.-H.

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, a particle method of characteristics is put forward to simulate the evolution of one-dimensional shock waves in barotropic gaseous, closed-conduit, open-channel, and two-phase flows. All these flow phenomena can be described with the same set of governing equations. The proposed scheme is established based on the characteristic equations and formulated by assigning the computational particles to move along the characteristic curves. Both the right- and left-running characteristics are traced and represented by their associated computational particles. It inherits the computational merits from the conventional method of characteristics (MOC) and moving particle method, but without their individual deficiencies. In addition, special particles with dual states deduced to the enforcement of the Rankine-Hugoniot relation are deliberately imposed to emulate the shock structure. Numerical tests are carried out by solving some benchmark problems, and the computational results are compared with available analytical solutions. From the derivation procedure and obtained computational results, it is concluded that the proposed PMOC will be a useful tool to replicate one-dimensional shock waves.

  1. Role of inter-particle force between micro and nano magnetic particles on the stability of magnetorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laherisheth, Zarana; Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2017-02-01

    The concept of phase condensation of larger size particles in a poly-dispersed magnetic fluid (also known as ferrofluid) is employed as a tool to investigate the interaction of nanoparticles with micro particles in magnetorheological (MR) fluid. Two different shapes iron micron sized particles are used in MR fluid formulation: spherical and flake shaped. The magnetic fluid is used as a base carrier having three different magnetic nanoparticles volume fraction (0.2%, 0.6% and 0.8%). The study suggests that the interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with micron sized particle depends on the geometrical shape of the particle as well as surface roughness. The sedimentation ratio of flake shaped MR fluid increases with nanoparticles volume fractions while for spherical particles it remains virtually constant. The supernatant fluid analysis suggests that, larger sized particle fraction from magnetic fluid are attached to the surface of micron sized flake shape particles, which results in reduction of sliding friction between the particles and small sized fraction clouds around the flake. The atomic force microscopy results suggest that the surface roughness of flake shape particles are nearly 5 times higher than spherical shape particles. The role of these two different interactions is reflected in the sedimentation ratio of MR fluid.

  2. Decoupling the Role of Inertia and Gravity on Particle Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Chris; Squires, Kyle

    1996-01-01

    Turbulent gas flows laden with small, dense particles are encountered in a wide number of important applications in both industrial settings and aerodynamics applications. Particle interactions with the underlying turbulent flow are exceedingly complex and, consequently, difficult to accurately model. The difficulty arises primarily due to the fact that response of a particle to the local environment is dictated by turbulence properties in the reference frame moving with the particle (particle-Lagrangian). The particle-Lagrangian reference frame is in turn dependent upon the particle relaxation time (time constant) as well as gravitational drift. The combination of inertial and gravitational effects in this frame complicates our ability to accurately predict particle-laden flows since measurements in the particle-Lagrangian reference frame are difficult to obtain. Therefore, in this work we will examine separately the effects of inertia and gravitational drift on particle dispersion through a combination of physical and numerical experiments. In this study, particle-Lagrangian measurements will be obtained in physical experiments using stereo image velocimetry. Gravitational drift will be varied in the variable-g environments of the NASA DC-9 and in the zero-g environment at the drop tower at NASA-Lewis. Direct numerical simulations will be used to corroborate the measurements from the variable-g experiments. We expect that this work will generate new insight into the underlying physics of particle dispersion and will, in turn, lead to more accurate models of particle transport in turbulent flows.

  3. Human Cough as a Two-Stage Jet and Its Role in Particle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-01

    The human cough is a significant vector in the transmission of respiratory diseases in indoor environments. The cough flow is characterized as a two-stage jet; specifically, the starting jet (when the cough starts and flow is released) and interrupted jet (after the source supply is terminated). During the starting-jet stage, the flow rate is a function of time; three temporal profiles of the exit velocity (pulsation, sinusoidal and real-cough) were investigated in this study, and our results showed that the cough flow’s maximum penetration distance was in the range of a 50.6–85.5 opening diameter (D) under our experimental conditions. The real-cough and sinusoidal cases exhibited greater penetration ability than the pulsation cases under the same characteristic Reynolds number (Rec) and normalized cough expired volume (Q/AD, with Q as the cough expired volume and A as the opening area). However, the effects of Rec and Q/AD on the maximum penetration distances proved to be more significant; larger values of Rec and Q/AD reflected cough flows with greater penetration distances. A protocol was developed to scale the particle experiments between the prototype in air, and the model in water. The water tank experiments revealed that although medium and large particles deposit readily, their maximum spread distance is similar to that of small particles. Moreover, the leading vortex plays an important role in enhancing particle transport. PMID:28046084

  4. Sedimentation of concentrated monodisperse colloidal suspensions: role of collective particle interaction forces.

    PubMed

    Vesaratchanon, Jan S; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh T

    2008-06-01

    The sedimentation velocities and concentration profiles of low-charge, monodisperse hydroxylate latex particle suspensions were investigated experimentally as a function of the particle concentration to study the effects of the collective particle interactions on suspension stability. We used the Kossel diffraction technique to measure the particle concentration profile and sedimentation rate. We conducted the sedimentation experiments using three different particle sizes. Collective hydrodynamic interactions dominate the particle-particle interactions at particle concentrations up to 6.5 vol%. However, at higher particle concentrations, additional collective particle-particle interactions resulting from the self-depletion attraction cause particle aggregation inside the suspension. The collective particle-particle interaction forces play a much more important role when relatively small particles (500 nm in diameter or less) are used. We developed a theoretical model based on the statistical particle dynamics simulation method to examine the role of the collective particle interactions in concentrated suspensions in the colloidal microstructure formation and sedimentation rates. The theoretical results agree with the experimentally-measured values of the settling velocities and concentration profiles.

  5. Ice Nucleating Particles and their Role in California Winter Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prather, K. A.; Hill, T. C. J.; McCluskey, C. S.; Levin, E. J.; Suski, K. J.; Creamean, J.; Collins, D. B.; Martin, A.; Cornwell, G.; Al-Mashat, H.; Rosenfeld, D.; Leung, L. R.; Comstock, J. M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Petters, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Field studies are providing the opportunity to characterize ice nucleating particle (INP) number concentrations, their varied sources, and to examine their influence on ice formation and precipitation processes in winter clouds in California. Aerosol sources that may influence orographic cloud properties in California include pollution, marine aerosols, and transported dusts. Vertical stratification affects the role of different aerosol types. Boundary layer dust and pollution in Central Valley locations may influence cloud properties at times, but may be decoupled from cloud layers at other times or be restricted in affecting clouds by the Sierra barrier jet phenomenon. Marine layers may sometimes be lifted over topography to influence clouds. Finally, long range transported dust/biological particles may directly enter upper cloud levels to act as the trigger for ice initiation. We present analyses of INP number concentrations, INP chemical composition, and related data collected from flights on the DOE G-1 aircraft during the CalWater 1 field study in winter 2011. Sampling of mostly marine boundary layer INP during the surface-based BBACPAX (Bodega Bay Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation in Atmospheric rivers eXperiment) study in 2014 included first sampling with an online method for measuring the mass spectral composition of INP, and new immersion freezing INP measurements extending to the warm temperature limit of heterogeneous ice formation. Studies reveal the strong influence of long range transported aerosols on INP populations and typically lower INP concentrations in marine air layers. Plans for new studies including G-1 aircraft flights during the ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment) study, overlapping with ground-based measurements in the CalWater-2 campaign in winter 2015 will be introduced. Analyses are being applied toward numerical modeling studies of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in California, presented separately in this session.

  6. Integral light-scattering and absorption characteristics of large, nonspherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Macke, Andreas

    1997-11-01

    We obtain and analyze simple analytical formulas for asymmetry parameters and absorption cross sections of large, nonspherical particles. The formulas are based on the asymptotic properties of these characteristics at strong and weak absorption of radiation inside particles. The absorption cross section depends on parameter , which determines the value of the light-absorption cross section for weakly absorbing particles. It is larger for nonspherical scatterers. The asymmetry parameter depends on two parameters. The first is the asymmetry parameter g0 of a nonspherical, transparent particle with the same shape as an absorbing one. The second parameter, , determines the strength of the influence of light absorption on the value of the asymmetry parameter. Parameter is larger for nonspherical particles. One can find these three parameters ( , g0 , and ) using a ray-tracing code (RTC) for nonabsorbing and weakly absorbing particles. The RTC can then be used to check the accuracy of the equations at any absorption for hexagonal cylinders and spheroids. It is found that the error of computing the absorption cross section and 1 -g (g is the asymmetry parameter) is less than 20% at the refractive index of particles n = 1.333. Values for asymmetry parameters of large, nonabsorbing, spheroidal particles with different aspect ratios are tabulated for the first time to our knowledge. They do not depend on the size of particles and can serve as an independent check of the accuracy of T-matrix codes for large parameters.

  7. Laboratory Studies of Optical Characteristics and Condensation Processes of Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.; Venturini, C. C.

    2000-01-01

    Information about the optical characteristics and physical processes involving cosmic dust particles is vital for interpretation of astronomical observations and an understanding of the formation and processing of dust in the evolutionary cycle of matter in the interstellar medium. Cosmic dust particles are formed in a variety of astrophysical environments such as in cool stellar outflows and circumstellar envelopes. Definitive knowledge of the nature, composition, and physical processes of cosmic dust grains, however, can only be inferred from astronomical observations through laboratory experiments on the analogs of hypothesized dust particles and with modeling calculations. Laboratory investigations of the nature, composition, and optical characteristics of cosmic dust particles are being, carried out at many institutions with a variety of experimental techniques. Despite a wealth of available data, however, many basic issues remain unresolved. An experimental facility based on suspension of dust particles in electrodynamic balance in a pressure/temperature controlled environment in a cavity has been operational at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and is currently being employed for studies of dust particle charging mechanisms using electron beams and with UV radiation. In this paper, we discuss two general classes of experiments under planning stages that may be simultaneously carried out on this facility for cosmic dust investigations (i) Infrared optical characteristics (extinction coefficients and scattering phase functions) of the analogs of hypothesized of cosmic dust particles, such as natural and synthetic amorphous silicates with varying compositions, amorphous carbon grains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and icy core-mantle particles etc. The initial spectral range under consideration is 1-25 micrometers, to be extended to the far infrared region in the future (ii) Condensation of volatile gases on nucleus dust particles to be

  8. Laboratory Studies of Optical Characteristics and Condensation Processes of Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.; Venturini, C. C.

    2000-01-01

    Information about the optical characteristics and physical processes involving cosmic dust particles is vital for interpretation of astronomical observations and an understanding of the formation and processing of dust in the evolutionary cycle of matter in the interstellar medium. Cosmic dust particles are formed in a variety of astrophysical environments such as in cool stellar outflows and circumstellar envelopes. Definitive knowledge of the nature, composition, and physical processes of cosmic dust grains, however, can only be inferred from astronomical observations through laboratory experiments on the analogs of hypothesized dust particles and with modeling calculations. Laboratory investigations of the nature, composition, and optical characteristics of cosmic dust particles are being, carried out at many institutions with a variety of experimental techniques. Despite a wealth of available data, however, many basic issues remain unresolved. An experimental facility based on suspension of dust particles in electrodynamic balance in a pressure/temperature controlled environment in a cavity has been operational at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and is currently being employed for studies of dust particle charging mechanisms using electron beams and with UV radiation. In this paper, we discuss two general classes of experiments under planning stages that may be simultaneously carried out on this facility for cosmic dust investigations (i) Infrared optical characteristics (extinction coefficients and scattering phase functions) of the analogs of hypothesized of cosmic dust particles, such as natural and synthetic amorphous silicates with varying compositions, amorphous carbon grains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and icy core-mantle particles etc. The initial spectral range under consideration is 1-25 micrometers, to be extended to the far infrared region in the future (ii) Condensation of volatile gases on nucleus dust particles to be

  9. Importance of hydroxyapatite particles characteristics on cytokines production by human monocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Laquerriere, Patrice; Grandjean-Laquerriere, Alexia; Jallot, Edouard; Balossier, Gerard; Frayssinet, Patrick; Guenounou, Moncef

    2003-07-01

    Calcium phosphate bioceramics have been applied as bone substitutes for several decades. Aseptic loosening after total joint arthroplasty is a major problem in orthopaedic surgery. Hydroxyapatite particles from materials wear have been reported as the main cause of implant failure. For this reason, an investigation into possible wear particles from materials used in the implant may lead to longevity after arthroplasty. Monocytes are among the first cells to colonize the inflammatory site. In the present study, we have evaluated the inflammatory response after exposition to particles with different characteristics (size, sintering temperature and shape). Our data demonstrate that the most important characteristic was the shape and the size of the particles. The needle shaped particles induced the larger production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 by cells. To a less manner, the smallest particles induced an increase of the expression and production of the cytokines studied (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10). The sintering temperature appeared to be a less important characteristic even though it was involved in the dissolution/precipitation process.

  10. The effect of precipitation conditions and aging upon characteristics of particles precipitated from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J.A.

    1989-10-01

    Precipitation of a dissolved species from aqueous solutions is one of the techniques used to grow particles with certain size or composition characteristics. Various factors affecting the particle properties for sparingly soluble substances are briefly discussed here, including homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation, the effect of relative supersaturation on the number of nuclei and their relative size, particle growth by way of Ostwald Ripening, the Ostwald Step Rule and nucleation of metastable phases, diffusion-controlled versus surface reaction-controlled growth, incorporation of dopants into the precipitate, and dendritic growth. 13 refs.

  11. Particle properties and the large-scale structure of planetary rings - Rebound characteristics and viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The present treatment of the apparently paradoxical reversal of momentum transport, or 'negative viscosity', in such swarms of particles on Keplerian orbits as planetary rings, illuminates the importance of particles' physical properties. Even the slightest deviation from the idealized (uniform, highly elastic, perfectly slippery, spherical) particles will affect viscosity, yielding predictions that are inconsistent with the observed ring structure. It is presently suggested that the size of the larger bodies in the rings determines random velocities, viscosity, and a substantial portion of ring structural characteristics.

  12. Characteristics of Fine Particles in an Urban Atmosphere—Relationships with Meteorological Parameters and Trace Gases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianhao; Zhu, Zhongmin; Gong, Wei; Xiang, Hao; Fang, Ruimin

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric fine particles (diameter < 1 μm) attract a growing global health concern and have increased in urban areas that have a strong link to nucleation, traffic emissions, and industrial emissions. To reveal the characteristics of fine particles in an industrial city of a developing country, two-year measurements of particle number size distribution (15.1 nm–661 nm), meteorological parameters, and trace gases were made in the city of Wuhan located in central China from June 2012 to May 2014. The annual average particle number concentrations in the nucleation mode (15.1 nm–30 nm), Aitken mode (30 nm–100 nm), and accumulation mode (100 nm–661 nm) reached 4923 cm−3, 12193 cm−3 and 4801 cm−3, respectively. Based on Pearson coefficients between particle number concentrations and meteorological parameters, precipitation and temperature both had significantly negative relationships with particle number concentrations, whereas atmospheric pressure was positively correlated with the particle number concentrations. The diurnal variation of number concentration in nucleation mode particles correlated closely with photochemical processes in all four seasons. At the same time, distinct growth of particles from nucleation mode to Aitken mode was only found in spring, summer, and autumn. The two peaks of Aitken mode and accumulation mode particles in morning and evening corresponded obviously to traffic exhaust emissions peaks. A phenomenon of “repeated, short-lived” nucleation events have been created to explain the durability of high particle concentrations, which was instigated by exogenous pollutants, during winter in a case analysis of Wuhan. Measurements of hourly trace gases and segmental meteorological factors were applied as proxies for complex chemical reactions and dense industrial activities. The results of this study offer reasonable estimations of particle impacts and provide references for emissions control strategies in industrial cities of

  13. Characteristics of Fine Particles in an Urban Atmosphere-Relationships with Meteorological Parameters and Trace Gases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianhao; Zhu, Zhongmin; Gong, Wei; Xiang, Hao; Fang, Ruimin

    2016-08-10

    Atmospheric fine particles (diameter < 1 μm) attract a growing global health concern and have increased in urban areas that have a strong link to nucleation, traffic emissions, and industrial emissions. To reveal the characteristics of fine particles in an industrial city of a developing country, two-year measurements of particle number size distribution (15.1 nm-661 nm), meteorological parameters, and trace gases were made in the city of Wuhan located in central China from June 2012 to May 2014. The annual average particle number concentrations in the nucleation mode (15.1 nm-30 nm), Aitken mode (30 nm-100 nm), and accumulation mode (100 nm-661 nm) reached 4923 cm(-3), 12193 cm(-3) and 4801 cm(-3), respectively. Based on Pearson coefficients between particle number concentrations and meteorological parameters, precipitation and temperature both had significantly negative relationships with particle number concentrations, whereas atmospheric pressure was positively correlated with the particle number concentrations. The diurnal variation of number concentration in nucleation mode particles correlated closely with photochemical processes in all four seasons. At the same time, distinct growth of particles from nucleation mode to Aitken mode was only found in spring, summer, and autumn. The two peaks of Aitken mode and accumulation mode particles in morning and evening corresponded obviously to traffic exhaust emissions peaks. A phenomenon of "repeated, short-lived" nucleation events have been created to explain the durability of high particle concentrations, which was instigated by exogenous pollutants, during winter in a case analysis of Wuhan. Measurements of hourly trace gases and segmental meteorological factors were applied as proxies for complex chemical reactions and dense industrial activities. The results of this study offer reasonable estimations of particle impacts and provide references for emissions control strategies in industrial cities of developing

  14. [Impact of wind-water alternate erosion on the characteristics of sediment particles].

    PubMed

    Tuo, Deng-Feng; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Ma, Xin-Xin; Zheng, Shi-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Wind and water are the two dominant erosion agents that caused soil and water losses in the wind-water alternate erosion region on the Loess Plateau. It is meaningful to study the impact of wind-water alternate erosion on the characteristics of soil particles for understanding the response of soil quality and environment to erosion. Through wind tunnel combined rainfall simulation, this paper studied the characteristics of the erosive sediment particles under the effect of wind-water alternate erosion. The results showed that the particles of 0-1 cm soil were coarsened by wind erosion at the wind speeds of 11 and 14 m x s(-1) compared with no wind erosion. Soil fine particles (< 0.01 mm) decreased by 9.8%-10.8%, and coarse particles (> 0.05 mm) increased by 16.8%-20.8%. The physical property of surface soil was changed by the wind erosion, which, in turn, caused an increase in finer particles content in the sediment. Compared with no wind erosion, fine particles (< 0.01 mm) in sediment under the water-wind alternate erosion increased by 2.7%-18.9% , and coarse particles (> 0.05 mm) decreased by 3.7%-9.3%. However, the changing trend of erosive sediment particles after the wind erosion at wind speeds of 11 and 14 m x s(-1) was different along with the rainfall intensity and duration. The erosive sediment particles at the rainfall intensities of 60, 80, 100 mm x h(-1) changed to greater extents than at the 150 mm x h(-1) rainfall intensity with longer than 15 min runoff flowing.

  15. Particle and field characteristics of the high-latitude plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, G. K.; Mccarthy, M.; Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Etcheto, J.; Anderson, K. A.; Lin, R. P.; Anderson, R. R.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Particle and field data obtained by eight ISEE spacecraft experiments are used to define more precisely the characteristics of the high-latitude boundary region of the plasma sheet. A region immediately adjacent to the high-latitude plasma sheet boundary has particle and field characteristics distinctly different from those observed in the lobe and deeper in the central plasma sheet. Electrons over a broad energy interval are 'field-aligned' and bidirectional, whereas in the plasma sheet the distributions are more isotropic. The region supports intense ion flows, large-amplitude electric fields, and enhanced broad-band electrostatic noise.

  16. The ozone hole - The role of polar stratospheric cloud particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Turco, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    The role of polar stratospheric clouds in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole is considered. Several researchers have suggested that the decrease in ozone over Antarctica is related to the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) which had been observed in the antarctic winter stratosphere. Some of the pertinent characteristics of polar stratospheric clouds are discussed, and it is shown how these clouds may participate in the ozone destruction process. The satellite data for PSCs is analyzed, and statistical information regarding the number and maximum extinctions of these clouds is presented. Evidence that the polar stratospheric clouds are composed of frozen nitric acid is considered. It is suggested that the evaporation of the clouds, in late August and September, will release HOCl and HNO3 to the environment. This could be followed by the photodissociation of HOCl to OH and Cl, which would very effectively destroy ozone. However, the ozone destruction mechanism could be halted when enough of the evaporated nitric acid is photolized.

  17. [Characteristics of DNA adsorption on different sizes red soil colloidal particles].

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Xie, Xiao-Mei; Fang, Shu; Qiu, Xiao-Bai; Chen, Na; Xu, Ya-Qian; Jiang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Xue-fang

    2013-03-01

    By using balance reaction method, this paper studied the adsorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of DNA on four kinds of red soil colloids (organic matter-contained coarse clay, organic matter-removed coarse clay, organic matter-contained fine clay, and organic matter-removed fine clay). The DNA adsorption on the four red soil colloids was a process of fast reaction, and the adsorption isotherms were conformed to the Langmuir equation, with the corresponding correlation coefficient (r2) being 0.974, 0. 991, 0. 958, and 0. 975, respectively. The maximum adsorption amount of DNA on the colloidal particles followed the order of organic matter-contained fine clay > organic matter-removed fine clay > organic matter-contained coarse clay > organic matter-removed coarse clay, implying that the size and organic matter content of colloidal particles played an important role in DNA adsorption. Electrolyte concentration and type and adsorption system pH were the main factors affecting the DNA adsorption on the four soil colloids. Within a definite electrolyte concentration range (NaCl < 60 mmol . L-1 and CaCl2 <10 mmol L-1) , the adsorption amount of DNA on the red soil colloids increased significantly with the increase of electrolyte concentration. As compared with sodium ion, calcium ion had a greater promotion effect on the DNA adsorption, but the effect decreased significantly with the increase of adsorption system pH. The DNA adsorption on the organic matter-contained red soil colloids was an endothermic reaction, while the DNA adsorption on the organic matter-removed red soil colloids was an exothermic reaction. The DNA adsorption on the red soil colloids was a process of entropy increase.

  18. Emissions and Characteristics of Ice Nucleating Particles Associated with Laboratory Generated Nascent Sea Spray Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, C. S.; Hill, T. C. J.; Beall, C.; Sultana, C. M.; Moore, K.; Cornwell, G.; Lee, C.; Al-Mashat, H.; Laskina, O.; Trueblood, J.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; DeMott, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate emission rates and activity spectra of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs) are required for proper representation of aerosol-cloud interactions in atmospheric modeling studies. However, few investigations have quantified or characterized oceanic INP emissions. In conjunction with the Center for Aerosol Impacts on the Climate and the Environment, we have directly measured changes in INP emissions and properties of INPs from nascent sea spray aerosol (SSA) through the evolution of phytoplankton blooms. Multiple offline and online instruments were used to monitor aerosol chemistry and size, and bulk water characteristics during two phytoplankton bloom experiments. Two methods were utilized to monitor the number concentrations of INPs from 0 to -34 °C: The online CSU continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) and collections processed offline using the CSU ice spectrometer. Single particle analyses were performed on ice crystal residuals downstream of the CFDC, presumed to be INPs, via scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and Raman microspectroscopy. Preliminary results indicate that laboratory-generated nascent SSA corresponds to number concentrations of INPs that are generally consistent with open ocean regions, based on current knowledge. STEM analyses revealed that the sizes of ice crystal residuals that were associated with nascent SSA ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 μm. Raman microspectroscopy analysis of 1 μm sized residuals found a variety of INP identities, including long chain organics, diatom fragments and polysaccharides. Our data suggest that biological processes play a significant role in ocean INP emissions by generating the species and compounds that were identified during these studies.

  19. Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Yanan; Qiao, Li

    2011-02-15

    The burning characteristics of fuel droplets containing nano and micron-sized aluminum particles were investigated. Particle size, surfactant concentration, and the type of base fluid were varied. In general, nanosuspensions can last much longer than micron suspensions, and ethanol-based fuels were found to achieve much better suspension than n-decane-based fuels. Five distinctive stages (preheating and ignition, classical combustion, microexplosion, surfactant flame, and aluminum droplet flame) were identified for an n-decane/nano-Al droplet, while only the first three stages occurred for an n-decane/micron-Al droplet. For the same solid loading rate and surfactant concentration, the disruption and microexplosion behavior of the micron suspension occurred later with much stronger intensity. The intense droplet fragmentation was accompanied by shell rupture, which caused a massive explosion of particles, and most of them were burned during this event. On the contrary, for the nanosuspension, combustion of the large agglomerate at the later stage requires a longer time and is less complete because of formation of an oxide shell on the surface. This difference is mainly due to the different structure and characteristics of particle agglomerates formed during the early stage, which is a spherical, porous, and more-uniformly distributed aggregate for the nanosuspension, but it is a densely packed and impermeable shell for the micron suspension. A theoretical analysis was then conducted to understand the effect of particle size on particle collision mechanism and aggregation rate. The results show that for nanosuspensions, particle collision and aggregation are dominated by the random Brownian motion. For micron suspensions, however, they are dominated by fluid motion such as droplet surface regression, droplet expansion resulting from bubble formation, and internal circulation. And the Brownian motion is the least important. This theoretical analysis explains the

  20. Emulsions stabilised by food colloid particles: role of particle adsorption and wettability at the liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Paunov, Vesselin N; Cayre, Olivier J; Noble, Paul F; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Velikov, Krassimir P; Golding, Matt

    2007-08-15

    We study the effect of the particle wettability on the preferred type of emulsion stabilised solely by food colloid particles. We present results obtained with the recently developed gel trapping technique (GTT) for characterisation of wettability and surface structuring of individual food colloid particles adsorbed at air-water and oil-water interfaces. This method allows us to replicate a particle monolayer onto the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) without altering the position of the particles. By observing the polymer surface with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we are able to determine the contact angle of the individual particles at the initial liquid interface. We demonstrate that the GTT can be applied to fat crystal particles, calcium carbonate particles coated with stearic acid and spray-dried soy protein/calcium phosphate particles at air-water and oil-water interfaces. Subsequently, we prepare emulsions of decane and water stabilised by the same food colloid particles and correlate the wettability data obtained for these particles to the preferred type of emulsions they stabilise.

  1. Field-dependent characteristics of magnetorheological fluids containing corroded iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Min; Kim, Soomin; Park, Young-Dai; Kang, Je-Won; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-11-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) devices in vehicle applications and robotic systems require both consistent control performance and reliable operation. However, corrosion of iron particles in MR fluid may occur during long-time operation. This corrosion behavior can significantly affect the performance and reliability of application devices or systems utilizing MR fluids. This study experimentally investigates the effect of the MR particle corrosion on the performance of MR fluids in terms of the field-dependent yield stress magnitude and shear stress controllability. MR particles are first corroded by two different liquids; water-sodium chloride solution and water-calcium chloride solution. The resulting MR particles are examined by scanning electron microscopy and their molar ratios are analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Using the corroded MR particles, MR fluid is synthesized for evaluation of the effects on its characteristics. A rotational viscometer is used to measure the field-dependent shear stress and response time. The measured results are compared between the original MR fluid composed of the non-corroded iron particles and the MR fluid composed of the corroded iron particles. In addition, the effect of the corroded particles in MR fluid on the shear stress controllability is investigated in the time domain.

  2. Formation and characteristics of biomimetic mineralo-organic particles in natural surface water

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Young, David; Liu, Chien-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Young, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles exist in environmental water but the formation, characteristics and fate of such particles remain incompletely understood. We show here that surface water obtained from various sources (ocean, hot springs, and soil) produces mineralo-organic particles that gradually increase in size and number during incubation. Seawater produces mineralo-organic particles following several cycles of filtration and incubation, indicating that this water possesses high particle-seeding potential. Electron microscopy observations reveal round, bacteria-like mineral particles with diameters of 20 to 800 nm, which may coalesce and aggregate to form mineralized biofilm-like structures. Chemical analysis of the particles shows the presence of a wide range of chemical elements that form mixed mineral phases dominated by calcium and iron sulfates, silicon and aluminum oxides, sodium carbonate, and iron sulfide. Proteomic analysis indicates that the particles bind to proteins of bacterial, plant and animal origins. When observed under dark-field microscopy, mineral particles derived from soil-water show biomimetic morphologies, including large, round structures similar to cells undergoing division. These findings have important implications not only for the recognition of biosignatures and fossils of small microorganisms in the environment but also for the geochemical cycling of elements, ions and organic matter in surface water. PMID:27350595

  3. Discrimination between spheres and spheroids in a detection system for single particles based on polarization characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Zhai, Mengran; Sun, Jinlu; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Dagong; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2017-01-01

    The polarization characteristics of light scattered by particles are sensitive to the morphology of the scatterers. In this study, we employed the finite element method (FEM) with a finite element software (COMSOL multiphysics) to retain the potentiality to extend the theoretical study of scattering in this work to single particles with more complex morphology and arbitrary orientation. The angular distribution profiles of the scattering field components perpendicular and parallel to the incident polarization direction are obtained for spherical and spheroidal particles. By comparison with the spheres' preservation of the polarization, cross-polarization effects for differently oriented spheroidal particles are revealed. The question how to experimentally discriminate the particles with smooth surface moving freely in the detected area at single-particle level according to polarization is addressed. To this end, polarizing devices are inserted into an interference particle imaging (IPI) system. By detecting the orthogonally polarized components of the light, the preservation of the polarization state after scattering by spheres and the occurrence of cross-polarization effects after scattering by spheroids are verified experimentally with the fringes in the IPI system as a reference. A feasible method for distinguishing a spheroidal from a spherical shape at the single-particle level based on the existence of a cross-polarized component of the scattered light is proposed.

  4. Frictional and heat resistance characteristics of coconut husk particle filled automotive brake pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, Shahril Anuar; Chik, Mohd Syahrizul; Kassim, Masitah Abu; Som Said, Che Mohamad; Misnon, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamed, Zulkifli; Othman, Eliasidi Abu

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the friction and heat resistance characteristics of automotive brake pad composed with different sizes and percentages of coconut husk particle. The materials used were phenolic resin (phenol formaldehyde) as binder, copper, graphite and brass as friction producer/modifiers, magnesium oxide as abrasive material, steel and barium sulfate as reinforcement while coconut husk particle as filler. To obtain particle, the coconut husk was ground and dried to 3% moisture content. Then the coconut husk particle was screened using 80 mesh (to obtain coarse dust) and 100 mesh (to obtain fine dust). Different percentages of particle, such as 10 and 30% were used in the mixture of brake pad materials. Then the mixture was hot-pressed to produce brake pad. Chase machine was used to determine the friction coefficient in friction resistance testing, while thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) machine was used to determine the heat decomposition values in heat resistance testing. Results showed that brake pad with 100 mesh and 10% composition of coconut husk particle showed the highest friction coefficient. For heat resistance, brake pad with 100 mesh and 30% composition of coconut husk dust showed the highest decomposition temperature, due to the high percentage of coconut husk particle in the composition, thus increased the thermal stability. As a comparison, brake pad composed with coconut husk particle showed better heat resistance results than commercial brake pad.

  5. Formation and characteristics of biomimetic mineralo-organic particles in natural surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Young, David; Liu, Chien-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Young, John D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles exist in environmental water but the formation, characteristics and fate of such particles remain incompletely understood. We show here that surface water obtained from various sources (ocean, hot springs, and soil) produces mineralo-organic particles that gradually increase in size and number during incubation. Seawater produces mineralo-organic particles following several cycles of filtration and incubation, indicating that this water possesses high particle-seeding potential. Electron microscopy observations reveal round, bacteria-like mineral particles with diameters of 20 to 800 nm, which may coalesce and aggregate to form mineralized biofilm-like structures. Chemical analysis of the particles shows the presence of a wide range of chemical elements that form mixed mineral phases dominated by calcium and iron sulfates, silicon and aluminum oxides, sodium carbonate, and iron sulfide. Proteomic analysis indicates that the particles bind to proteins of bacterial, plant and animal origins. When observed under dark-field microscopy, mineral particles derived from soil-water show biomimetic morphologies, including large, round structures similar to cells undergoing division. These findings have important implications not only for the recognition of biosignatures and fossils of small microorganisms in the environment but also for the geochemical cycling of elements, ions and organic matter in surface water.

  6. Two characteristic temperatures for a Bose-Einstein condensate of a finite number of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Idziaszek, Z.; Rzazewski, K.

    2003-09-01

    We consider two characteristic temperatures for a Bose-Einstein condensate, which are related to certain properties of the condensate statistics. We calculate them for an ideal gas confined in power-law traps and show that they approach the critical temperature in the limit of large number of particles. The considered characteristic temperatures can be useful in the studies of Bose-Einstein condensates of a finite number of atoms indicating the point of a phase transition.

  7. Decoupling the Role of Particle Inertia and Gravity on Particle Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, Kyle D.

    2002-01-01

    Particle dispersion and the influence that particle momentum exchange has on the properties of a turbulent carrier flow in micro-gravity environments challenge present understanding and predictive schemes. The objective of this effort has been to develop and assess high-fidelity simulation tools for predicting particle transport within micro-gravity environments suspended in turbulent flows. The computational technique is based on Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The particular focus of the present work is on the class of dilute flows in which particle volume fractions and inter-particle collisions are negligible. Particle motion is assumed to be governed by drag with particle relaxation times ranging from the Kolmogorov scale to the Eulerian timescale of the turbulence and particle mass loadings up to one. The velocity field was made statistically stationary by forcing the low wavenumbers of the flow. The calculations were performed using 96(exp 3) collocation points and the Taylor-scale Reynolds number for the stationary flow was 62. The effect of particles on the turbulence was included in the Navier-Stokes equations using the point-force approximation in which 96(exp 3) particles were used in the calculations. DNS results show that particles increasingly dissipate fluid kinetic energy with increased loading, with the reduction in kinetic energy being relatively independent of the particle relaxation time. Viscous dissipation in the fluid decreases with increased loading and is larger for particles with smaller relaxation times. Fluid energy spectra show that there is a non-uniform distortion of the turbulence with a relative increase in small-scale energy. The non-uniform distortion significantly affects the transport of the dissipation rate, with the production and destruction of dissipation exhibiting completely different behaviors. The spectrum of the fluid-particle energy exchange rate shows that the fluid

  8. Flow characteristics in free impinging jet reactor by particle image velocimetry (PIV) investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Youzhi; Qi, Guisheng; Jiao, Weizhou; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-08-01

    The flow characteristics in free impinging jet reactors (FIJRs) were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The effects of the Reynolds number (Re) and the ratio of jet distance to jet diameter (w/d) on flow behavior were discussed for equal volumetric flow rates of the two jets. The impingement plane, instantaneous velocity, mean velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) distribution of FIJRs are measured from captured images using the PIV technique. As Re increases, the average diameter of the impingement plane linearly increases. The instability of the liquid is closely related to the jet velocity or the Re. However, the stagnation point is insensitive to the variation of the Re. The droplets break up from the turbulent liquid in the ‘wall-free’ environment of FIJRs, so that the liquid back-flow found in confined impinging jet reactors (CIJRs) is not observed. Increasing the Re from 1800-4100 or decreasing the w/d from 20-6 plays a similar role in increasing the TKE values and intensifying turbulence, which promotes the momentum transfer and mixing efficiency in FIJRs.

  9. In situ real-time measurement of physical characteristics of airborne bacterial particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols, including aerosolized bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are associated with public health and environmental problems. One promising control method to reduce the harmful effects of bioaerosols is thermal inactivation via a continuous-flow high-temperature short-time (HTST) system. However, variations in bioaerosol physical characteristics - for example, the particle size and shape - during the continuous-flow inactivation process can change the transport properties in the air, which can affect particle deposition in the human respiratory system or the filtration efficiency of ventilation systems. Real-time particle monitoring techniques are a desirable alternative to the time-consuming process of microscopic analysis that is conventionally used in sampling and particle characterization. Here, we report in situ real-time optical scattering measurements of the physical characteristics of airborne bacteria particles following an HTST process in a continuous-flow system. Our results demonstrate that the aerodynamic diameter of bacterial aerosols decreases when exposed to a high-temperature environment, and that the shape of the bacterial cells is significantly altered. These variations in physical characteristics using optical scattering measurements were found to be in agreement with the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis.

  10. Mexican-American Adolescents’ Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Schaefer, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth’s gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings’ gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers’ gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters’ gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters’ and brothers’ gender-typed characteristics. PMID:25539774

  11. Mexican-American Adolescents' Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.

  12. Study of particle rebound characteristics and material erosion at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.; Eroglu, H.

    1988-12-01

    The rebound characteristics of 15 micron mean diameter fly ash particles impacting several target materials were measured using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Detailed results including the effects of various parameters were given in a previous report. This report focuses on the effects of new additional parameters on the rebound characteristics. First, the restitution parameters are reported at small impact angles (less than 15 degrees) for 410 stainless steel, 2024 aluminum, 6Al-4V titanium, INCO 718, RENE 41, AM 355, L605 cobalt and alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/). The fly ash rebound data for these target materials are then investigated in an effort to develop generalized correlations for the restitution coefficients. The effect of the target surface geometry on the rebound characteristics is investigated for 2024 aluminum as the next step. Finally, three-dimensional (3-D) rebound characteristics are presented for fly ash particles impacting INCO 718 and 2024 aluminum target materials. Semiempirical erosion rate equations are reported for 2024 aluminum, INCO 718, RENE 41 and AM355 alloys from the experimental erosion results for fly ash and silica sand particles at various particle velocities and material temperatures. 18 refs., 86 figs.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Penning Discharge Characteristics using 2D/3V Particle-In-Cell Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikalyuk, A. S.; E Kuratov, S.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical model for the simulation of characteristics of Penning discharge is presented in the paper. The model is based on the 2D/3V axisymmetric electrostatic particle-in-cell algorithm implemented on unstructured triangular meshes. In order to simulate kinetic processes in the gas discharge plasma Monte-Carlo collision (MCC) method was incorporated into the model. Considered processes for the numerical experiments are elastic scattering of electrons on the neutral particles and ionization of neutral particles by electrons. Using this model various characteristics of Penning discharge such as anode and cathode currents, distribution of charged components in the discharge chamber have been calculated at various applied voltages and magnetic flux densities. The results of numerical experiments have been analyzed and discussed.

  14. Relations between mental health team characteristics and work role performance.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.

  15. Effect of carbonyl iron particles composition on the physical characteristics of MR grease

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamad, Norzilawati Mazlan, Saiful Amri; Ubaidillah

    2016-03-29

    Magnetorheological (MR) grease is an extension of the study of magnetorheological materials. The MR grease can help to reduce the particles sedimentation problem occurred in the MR fluids. Within this study, an effort has been taken to investigate the effect of different weight compositions of carbonyl iron particles on the physical and chemical characteristics of the MR grease under off-state condition (no magnetic field). The MR grease is prepared by mixing carbonyl iron particles having a size range of 1 to 10 µm with commercial NPC Highrex HD-3 grease. Characterizations of MR grease are investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and rheometer. The dependency of carbonyl iron particles weight towards the magnetic properties of MR grease and other characterizations are investigated.

  16. Study of particle rebound characteristics and material erosion at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.; Metwally, A.; Yeuan, J. . Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics)

    1992-04-01

    In this research an investigation was conducted to study the ash particle rebound characteristics and the associated erosion behavior of alloys and coatings which are widely used in gas and steam turbines. A three-component LDV system was used to measure the restitution parameters of 15 micron mean diameter coal ash particles impacting superalloys and coating at different angles. The presented results show the variation of the particle restitution ratios with the impingement angle for the coated and uncoated surfaces. The experimental results were used to develop correlations for the restitution parameters for coated and uncoated superalloys. In addition, a theoretical model based on elastic-plastic theory has been developed to simulate single solid particle impacts on solid targets.

  17. Particle swarm optimization using multi-information characteristics of all personal-best information.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song; Tian, Na; Wang, Yan; Ji, Zhicheng

    2016-01-01

    Convergence stagnation is the chief difficulty to solve hard optimization problems for most particle swarm optimization variants. To address this issue, a novel particle swarm optimization using multi-information characteristics of all personal-best information is developed in our research. In the modified algorithm, two positions are defined by personal-best positions and an improved cognition term with three positions of all personal-best information is used in velocity update equation to enhance the search capability. This strategy could make particles fly to a better direction by discovering useful information from all the personal-best positions. The validity of the proposed algorithm is assessed on twenty benchmark problems including unimodal, multimodal, rotated and shifted functions, and the results are compared with that obtained by some published variants of particle swarm optimization in the literature. Computational results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm finds several global optimum and high-quality solutions in most case with a fast convergence speed.

  18. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  19. Physicochemical characteristics and occupational exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particles during building refurbishment activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Mulheron, Mike; Colaux, Julien L.; Jeynes, Chris; Adhami, Siavash; Watts, John F.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding of the emissions of coarse (PM10 ≤10 μm), fine (PM2.5 ≤2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles (UFP <100 nm) from refurbishment activities and their dispersion into the nearby environment is of primary importance for developing efficient risk assessment and management strategies in the construction and demolition industry. This study investigates the release, occupational exposure and physicochemical properties of particulate matter, including UFPs, from over 20 different refurbishment activities occurring at an operational building site. Particles were measured in the 5-10,000-nm-size range using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer and a GRIMM particle spectrometer for 55 h over 8 days. The UFPs were found to account for >90 % of the total particle number concentrations and <10 % of the total mass concentrations released during the recorded activities. The highest UFP concentrations were 4860, 740, 650 and 500 times above the background value during wall-chasing, drilling, cementing and general demolition activities, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis were used to identify physicochemical characteristics of particles and attribute them to probable sources considering the size and the nature of the particles. The results confirm that refurbishment activities produce significant levels (both number and mass) of airborne particles, indicating a need to develop appropriate regulations for the control of occupational exposure of operatives undertaking building refurbishment.

  20. Characteristics of the Contact between Regolith Particles: Their Influence on the Physical Properties of Regoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starukhina, L. V.

    The relationships for estimation of the physical properties of regolith-type media, such as the strength, thermal conductivity, and maximum curvature of particles, which depend on the particle-contact area, have been obtained from the consideration of two regolith particles in contact. A comparison of the calculated characteristics with experimental data for the lunar regolith has shown the applicability of the relations obtained. This paper presents the estimates of the time taken to form a contact and to smooth microirregularities on the particle surface by diffusion. These estimates account for the deficit of particles smaller than 1 μm in the lunar soil and show that the smoothing of regolith-particle sharp edges does not depend on the solar-wind irra- diation and takes as short a time as in the case of radiative smoothing. Therefore, this time cannot be used for the determination of the exposure age of the surface. The relationship for estimating the threshold micromete- orite mass that is sufficient to break the contact of the target particle with its neighbors has been obtained. It is shown that the breaking of single interparticle contacts under micrometeorite bombardment cannot be consid- ered as an effective mechanism of lunar resurfacing.

  1. Evaluating Geometric Characteristics of Planar Surfaces using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Vimal Kumar; Kumar, Sagar; Nayak, Chitresh; Gowripathi Rao, NRNV

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) algorithm for the evaluation of geometric characteristics defining form and function of planar surfaces. The geometric features of planar surfaces are decomposed into four components; namely straightness, flatness, perpendicularity, and parallelism. A non-linear minimum zone objective function is formulated mathematically for each planar surface geometric characteristic. Finally, the result of the proposed method is compared with previous work on the same problem and with other nature inspired algorithms. The results demonstrate that the proposed MPSO algorithm is more efficient and accurate in comparison to other algorithms and is well suited for effective and accurate evaluation of planar surface characteristics.

  2. The Role of Substorms in Radiation Belt Particle Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2014-12-01

    Observational and numerical modeling evidence demonstrates that magnetospheric substorms are a coherent set of processes within the coupled near-Earth system. This supports the view that substorms are a global configurational instability. The magnetosphere progresses through a specific sequence of energy-loading and stress-developing states until the entire system suddenly reconfigures. Related long-term studies of relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere have revealed many of their temporal occurrence characteristics and their relationships to solar wind drivers. Early work showed the obvious and powerful role played by solar wind speed in producing subsequent high-energy electron enhancements. More recent work has also pointed out the key role that the north-south component of the IMF plays: In order to observe major relativistic electron enhancements, there must typically be a significant interval of southward IMF along with a period of high (VSW≥500 km/s) solar wind speed. This has led to the view that enhancements in geomagnetic activity (i.e., magnetospheric substorms) are normally a key first step in the acceleration of radiation belt electrons to high energies. A second step is suggested to be a period of powerful low-frequency waves that is closely related to high values of VSW or higher frequency ("chorus") waves that rapidly heat and accelerate electrons. Hence, substorms provide a "seed" population, while high-speed solar wind drives the acceleration to relativistic energies in this two-step geomagnetic activity scenario. This picture seems to apply to most storms examined whether associated with high-speed streams or with CME-related events. In this talk, we address the substorm relationships as they pertain to high-energy electron acceleration and transport. We also discuss various models of electron energization that have recently been advanced. We present remarkable new results from the Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm

  3. Rating Students' Problem Behaviour: The Role of Teachers' Individual Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kargiotidis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of teachers' personal characteristics and mental health status on their frequency ratings of student problem behaviour. A sample of 121 primary school teachers were asked to rate the frequency of a student's behavioural problems, and to self-report their personality traits, psychopathology symptoms and burnout.…

  4. Rating Students' Problem Behaviour: The Role of Teachers' Individual Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kargiotidis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of teachers' personal characteristics and mental health status on their frequency ratings of student problem behaviour. A sample of 121 primary school teachers were asked to rate the frequency of a student's behavioural problems, and to self-report their personality traits, psychopathology symptoms and burnout.…

  5. Evidence that Hsc70 Is Associated with Cucumber Necrosis Virus Particles and Plays a Role in Particle Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Syed Benazir

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uncoating of a virus particle to expose its nucleic acid is a critical aspect of the viral multiplication cycle, as it is essential for the establishment of infection. In the present study, we investigated the role of plant HSP70 homologs in the uncoating process of Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), a nonenveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] virus having a T=3 icosahedral capsid. We have found through Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry that the HSP70 homolog Hsc70-2 copurifies with CNV particles. Virus overlay and immunogold labeling assays suggest that Hsc70-2 is physically bound to virions. Furthermore, trypsin digestion profiles suggest that the bound Hsc70-2 is partially protected by the virus, indicating an intimate association with particles. In investigating a possible role of Hsc70-2 in particle disassembly, we showed that particles incubated with Hsp70/Hsc70 antibody produce fewer local lesions than those incubated with prebleed control antibody on Chenopodium quinoa. In conjunction, CNV virions purified using CsCl and having undetectable amounts of Hsc70-2 produce fewer local lesions. We also have found that plants with elevated levels of HSP70/Hsc70 produce higher numbers of local lesions following CNV inoculation. Finally, incubation of recombinant Nicotiana benthamiana Hsc70-2 with virus particles in vitro leads to conformational changes or partial disassembly of capsids as determined by transmission electron microscopy, and particles are more sensitive to chymotrypsin digestion. This is the first report suggesting that a cellular Hsc70 chaperone is involved in disassembly of a plant virus. IMPORTANCE Virus particles must disassemble and release their nucleic acid in order to establish infection in a cell. Despite the importance of disassembly in the ability of a virus to infect its host, little is known about this process, especially in the case of nonenveloped spherical RNA viruses. Previous work has shown that host

  6. The role of particle collisions in pneumatic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastorakos, E.; Louge, M.; Jenkins, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    A model of dilute gas-solid flow in vertical risers is developed in which the particle phase is treated as a granular material, the balance equations for rapid granular flow are modified to incorporate the drag force from the gas, and boundary conditions, based on collisional exchanges of momentum and energy at the wall, are employed. In this model, it is assumed that the particle fluctuations are determined by inter-particle collisions only and that the turbulence of the gas is unaffected by the presence of the particles. The model is developed in the context of, but not limited to, steady, fully developed flow. A numerical solution of the resulting governing equations provides concentration profiles generally observed in dilute pneumatic flow, velocity profiles in good agreement with the measurements of Tsuji, et al. (1984), and an explanation for the enhancement of turbulence that they observed.

  7. The role of particle collisions in pneumatic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastorakos, E.; Louge, M.; Jenkins, J. T.

    1989-09-01

    A model of dilute gas-solid flow in vertical risers is developed in which the particle phase is treated as a granular material, the balance equations for rapid granular flow are modified to incorporate the drag force from the gas, and boundary conditions, based on collisional exchanges of momentum and energy at the wall, are employed. In this model, it is assumed that the particle fluctuations are determined by inter-particle collisions only and that the turbulence of the gas is unaffected by the presence of the particles. The model is developed in the context of, but not limited to, steady, fully developed flow. A numerical solution of the resulting governing equations provides concentration profiles generally observed in dilute pneumatic flow, velocity profiles in good agreement with the measurements of Tsuji, et al. (1984), and an explanation for the enhancement of turbulence that they observed.

  8. The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James D.

    2000-12-14

    Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

  9. The perspective of medical students regarding the roles and characteristics of a clinical role model.

    PubMed

    Bahmanbijari, Bahareh; Beigzadeh, Amin; Etminan, Abbas; Najarkolai, Atena Rahmati; Khodaei, Marzieh; Askari, Seyed Mostafa Seyed

    2017-04-01

    As medical students spend most of their time with their clinical teachers and imitate their roles and characteristics during the school year, it is important to identify the roles and characteristics that they find essential in their role models. These traits play a part in their future professions as doctors. The aim of this study was to determine the perspective of students, interns, and residents regarding the roles and characteristics of a clinical role model. In an analytical cross-sectional study, a structured and self-developed questionnaire was completed by 185 medical students at educational hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences during April and May 2015. Participants were selected using convenience sampling method. For data analysis, we used descriptive and inferential statistics. SPSS software version 16 was used as needed. In total, 90 medical students (48.7%), 65 interns (35.1%), and 30 residents (16.2%) participated in this study. Male respondents (n=75) comprised 40.5% and female respondents (n=110) 59.5% of the study sample. The three most important roles of a clinical teacher were organizer role (99.7), teacher role (101.7), and supporter role (109.5) for students, interns, and residents respectively. On the other hand, supporter role (85.4), communicator role (86.4) and organizer role (83.4) were ranked as the least important for students, interns, and residents respectively. There was no significant association among the three batches and the roles of a clinical teacher (p>0.05). Conversely, Females rated the roles of a clinical teacher significantly higher than males (p<0.05). As teachers are frequently perceived by students as role models in medical schools, great attention should be given to their roles. Teachers must be aware that their roles have an impact on students' professional development and performance.

  10. Formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high-temperature environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Hsin Chen; Shan-Wen Du; Hsi-Hsien Yang; Jheng-Syun Wu

    2008-05-15

    The formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high temperatures are studied experimentally. By conducting a drop-tube furnace, fuel pyrolysis processes in industrial furnaces are simulated in which three different reaction temperatures of 1000, 1200, and 1400{sup o}C are considered. Experimental observations indicate that when the reaction temperature is 1000{sup o}C, submicron particles are produced, whereas the particle size is dominated by nanoscale for the temperature of 1400{sup o}C. Thermogravimetric analysis of the aerosol particles stemming from the pyrolysis temperature of 1000{sup o}C reveals that the thermal behavior of the aerosol is characterized by a three-stage reaction with increasing heating temperature: (1) a volatile-reaction stage, (2) a weak-reaction stage, and (3) a soot-reaction stage. However, with the pyrolysis temperature of 1400{sup o}C, the volatile- and weak-reaction stages almost merge together and evolve into a chemical-frozen stage. The submicron particles (i.e., 1000{sup o}C) are mainly composed of volatiles, tar, and soot, with the main component of the nanoscale particles (i.e., 1400{sup o}C) being soot. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in the aerosols are also analyzed. It is found that the PAH content in generated aerosols decreases dramatically as the pyrolysis temperature increases. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high-temperature environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wu, Jheng-Syun

    2008-05-01

    The formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high temperatures are studied experimentally. By conducting a drop-tube furnace, fuel pyrolysis processes in industrial furnaces are simulated in which three different reaction temperatures of 1000, 1200, and 1400 degrees C are considered. Experimental observations indicate that when the reaction temperature is 1000 degrees C, submicron particles are produced, whereas the particle size is dominated by nanoscale for the temperature of 1400 degrees C. Thermogravimetric analysis of the aerosol particles stemming from the pyrolysis temperature of 1000 degrees C reveals that the thermal behavior of the aerosol is characterized by a three-stage reaction with increasing heating temperature: (1) a volatile-reaction stage, (2) a weak-reaction stage, and (3) a soot-reaction stage. However, with the pyrolysis temperature of 1400 degrees C, the volatile- and weak-reaction stages almost merge together and evolve into a chemical-frozen stage. The submicron particles (i.e., 1000 degrees C) are mainly composed of volatiles, tar, and soot, with the main component of the nanoscale particles (i.e., 1400 degrees C) being soot. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in the aerosols are also analyzed. It is found that the PAH content in generated aerosols decreases dramatically as the pyrolysis temperature increases.

  12. Measurement of Characteristics of Micron Size Individual Dust Particles of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D.; Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Spann, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory facility for levitating single isolated dust particles in an electrodynamic balance has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for conducting studies of the physical and optical properties of the analogs of interstellar and interplanetary dust grains of 0.2-20 micron size under controlled pressures/temperatures simulating astrophysical environments. We plan three classes of experiments using this facility: (1) Charge characteristics of micron size single dust grains: The photoelectric efficiencies, yields, and equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation found from these measurements will provide much-needed photoelectric emission data for individual dust particles; (2) Infrared optical properties of dust particles: Specifically, we will determines the complex refractive indices, the extinction coefficients, the scattering phase functions, and the polarization properties of single dust grains of interest in interstellar environments, in the 1- 25 micron spectral region; (3) Condensation experiments to investigate the deposition of volatile gases on colder nucleated particles in dense interstellar clouds and lower planetary atmospheres: The measured data will permit determination of the sticking efficiencies of volatile gases of astrophysical interest. Brief descriptions of the experimental setup for the last two classes of experiments will be given. We will present results of measurements of photoelectric emission using 0.2-6.6 micron size silica particles exposed to UV radiation at 120-200 nm and also results of radiation pressure measurements using the same size silica particles and laser light at 5320 Angstrom.

  13. Measurement of Characteristics of Micron Size Individual Dust Particles of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D.; Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Spann, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory facility for levitating single isolated dust particles in an electrodynamic balance has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for conducting studies of the physical and optical properties of the analogs of interstellar and interplanetary dust grains of 0.2-20 micron size under controlled pressures/temperatures simulating astrophysical environments. We plan three classes of experiments using this facility: (1) Charge characteristics of micron size single dust grains: The photoelectric efficiencies, yields, and equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation found from these measurements will provide much-needed photoelectric emission data for individual dust particles; (2) Infrared optical properties of dust particles: Specifically, we will determines the complex refractive indices, the extinction coefficients, the scattering phase functions, and the polarization properties of single dust grains of interest in interstellar environments, in the 1- 25 micron spectral region; (3) Condensation experiments to investigate the deposition of volatile gases on colder nucleated particles in dense interstellar clouds and lower planetary atmospheres: The measured data will permit determination of the sticking efficiencies of volatile gases of astrophysical interest. Brief descriptions of the experimental setup for the last two classes of experiments will be given. We will present results of measurements of photoelectric emission using 0.2-6.6 micron size silica particles exposed to UV radiation at 120-200 nm and also results of radiation pressure measurements using the same size silica particles and laser light at 5320 Angstrom.

  14. The characteristics of particle charging and deposition during powder coating processes with ultrafine powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangbo; Zhu, Jingxu Jesse; Zhang, Hui

    2009-03-01

    In a preceding work, the mechanisms of particle charging and deposition during powder coating processes were explored with coarse polyurethane powder. In this paper, the developed mechanisms were further examined with ultrafine polyurethane powder in order to meet the growing needs for ultrafine powder in finishing industries. This study first verified the previous findings in particle deposition, which account for a cone-shaped pattern formed by deposited particles on the substrate and a rise in particle accumulation in the fringe region. It was further demonstrated with ultrafine powder that, as disclosed by using coarse powder, the primary charging of in-flight particles competes with back corona in particle deposition processes, and the highest deposition efficiency is a compromise by balancing their effects. In comparison with coarse powder, ultrafine powder presents a faster reduction in the deposition rate with extended spraying duration, but shows some superiority in the uniformity of the deposited layer. In the case of charging characteristics of the deposited particles, it was further substantiated with ultrafine powder that the secondary charging mechanism takes predominance in determining the distribution of local charge-to-mass ratios. It was also disclosed that ultrafine powder shows a decreasing charge-to-mass ratio with increased charging voltage in the deposited layer, opposite to the increasing tendency of coarse powder. However, it was commonly demonstrated by both coarse and ultrafine powders that the charge-to-mass ratio of the deposited particles decreases with the extended spraying durations. In comparison, ultrafine powder is more likely to produce uniform charge-to-mass ratio distributions in the deposited layer, which contrast sharply with the ones associated with the coarse powder. In conclusion, it is believed that this study supplements the preceding study and is of great help in providing a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms

  15. The role of cometary particle coalescence in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Mckay, C. P.; Carle, G. C.; Valentin, J. R.; Scattergood, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    Important prebiotic organic compounds might have been transported to earth in dust or produced in vapor clouds resulting from atmospheric explosions or impacts of comets. These compounds coalesced in the upper atmosphere with particles ejected from craters formed by impacts of large objects. Coalescence during exposure to UV radiation concentrated organic monomers and enhanced formation of oligomers. Continuing coalescence added material to the growing particles and shielded prebiotic compounds from prolonged UV radiation. These particles settled into the lower atmosphere where they were scavenged by rain. Aqueous chemistry and evaporation of raindrops containing monomers in high temperature regions near the earth's surface also promoted continued formation of oligomers. Finally, these oligomers were deposited in the oceans where continued prebiotic evolution led to the most primitive cell. Results of present studies suggest that prebiotic chemical evolution may be an inevitable consequence of impacting comets during the late accretion of planets anywhere in the universe if oceans remained on those planetary surfaces.

  16. Reversible gels of patchy particles: Role of the valence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, John; Tartaglia, Piero; Sciortino, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    We simulate a binary mixture of colloidal patchy particles with two and three patches, respectively, for several relative concentrations and hence relative average valences. For these limited-valence systems, it is possible to reach low temperatures, where the lifetime of the patch-patch interactions becomes longer than the observation time without encountering phase separation in a colloid-poor (gas) and a colloid rich (liquid) phase. The resulting arrested state is a fully connected long-lived network where particles with three patches provide the branching points connecting chains of two-patch particles. We investigate the effect of the valence on the structural and dynamic properties of the resulting gel and attempt to provide a theoretical description of the formation and of the resulting gel structure based on a combination of the Wertheim theory for associated liquids and the Flory-Stockmayer approach for modeling chemical gelation.

  17. Gravitational radiation by point particle eccentric binary systems in the linearised characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño Montaña, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-04-01

    We study a binary system composed of point particles of unequal masses in eccentric orbits in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, generalising a previous study found in the literature in which a system of equal masses in circular orbits is considered. We also show that the boundary conditions on the time-like world tubes generated by the orbits of the particles can be extended beyond circular orbits. Concerning the power lost by the emission of gravitational waves, it is directly obtained from the Bondi's News function. It is worth stressing that our results are completely consistent, because we obtain the same result for the power derived by Peters and Mathews, in a different approach, in their seminal paper of 1963. In addition, the present study constitutes a powerful tool to construct extraction schemes in the characteristic formalism to obtain the gravitational radiation produced by binary systems during the inspiralling phase.

  18. Determination of particle sedimentation rate by ultrasonic interferometry: role of particle size, density and volume fraction.

    PubMed

    Razavian, S M; Wenby, R B; Fisher, T C; Meiselman, J H

    1997-01-01

    The sedimentation rate (SR) of non-aggregated spherical particles in suspension was determined using an ultrasonic interferometry technique (Echo-Cell); this method is based on A-mode echography and measures the rate of formation of a sediment on a solid plate during settling. The particle accumulation rate, which is related to SR, is obtained from the interference of two waves reflected by two interfaces: one between the plate and the sediment and the other between the sediment and the suspension. Studies were carried out at 25 degrees C using latex spheres of different diameters (7 to 20 micron) and densities (1.062 to 1.190 g/cm3) suspended in distilled water at various volume fractions (1% to 5%). As anticipated by the Stokes model, linear relations were found between SR and both particle density and the square of particle radius. Experimental SR values decreased with increasing suspension particle concentration; these concentration effects were in good agreement with those predicted by the Steinour model. Our results thus serve to validate the theoretical aspects of the Echo-Cell method and suggest its usefulness as a tool for studies of RBC interaction and RBC aggregation.

  19. Emission characteristics of ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds in a commercial printing center.

    PubMed

    Betha, Raghu; Selvam, Valliappan; Blake, Donald R; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-11-01

    Laser printers are one of the common indoor equipment in schools, offices, and various other places. Laser printers have recently been identified as a potential source of indoor air pollution. This study examines the characteristics of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter <100 nm) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from laser printers housed in a commercial printing center. The results indicated that apart from the printer type, the age of printers, and the number of pages printed, the characteristics of UFPs emitted from printers also depend on indoor ventilation conditions. It was found that at reduced ventilation rates of indoor air, there was a rise in the number concentration of UFPs in the printing center. Interestingly, the contribution of UFPs to the total number of submicrometer-sized particles was observed to be higher at a sampling point far away from the printer than the one in the immediate vicinity of the printer. Black carbon (BC) measurements showed a good correlation (rs = 0.82) with particles in the size range of 100-560 nm than those with diameters less than 100 nm (rs = 0.33 for 50-100 nm, and rs = -0.19 for 5.6-50 nm particles). Measurements of VOCs in the printing center showed high levels of m-, o-, and p-xylene, styrene, and ethylbenzenes during peak hours of printing. Although toluene was found in higher levels, its concentration decreased during peak hours compared to those during nonoperating hours of the printing center.

  20. Silica-graphene oxide hybrid composite particles and their electroresponsive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2012-05-01

    Silica-graphene oxide (Si-GO) hybrid composite particles were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of hydrophilic GO obtained from a modified Hummers method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images provided visible evidence of the silica nanoparticles grafted on the surface of GO, resulting in Si-GO hybrid composite particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated the coexistence of silica and GO in the composite particles. The Si-GO hybrid composite particles showed better thermal stability than that of GO according to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrorheological (ER) characteristics of the Si-GO hybrid composite based ER fluid were examined further by optical microscopy and a rotational rheometer in controlled shear rate mode under various electric field strengths. Shear stress curves were fitted using both conventional Bingham model and a constitutive Cho-Choi-Jhon model. The polarizability and relaxation time of the ER fluid from dielectric spectra measured using an LCR meter showed a good correlation with its ER characteristics.

  1. Spatial and temporal dynamics of suspended particle characteristics and composition in Navigation Pool 19 of the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milde, Amanda S.

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles are an essential component of large rivers influencing channel geomorphology, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, and food web resources. The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) is a large floodplain river that exhibits pronounced spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions and biota, providing an ideal environment for investigating dynamics of suspended particles in large river ecosystems. Here we investigated two questions: (1) How do suspended particle characteristics (e.g., size and morphology) vary temporally and spatially? and (2) What environmental variables have the strongest association with particle characteristics? Water sampling was conducted in June, August, and September of 2013 and 2014 in Navigation Pool 19 of the UMR. A FlowCAM particle imaging system was used to enumerate and measure particles 53–300 µm in diameter for size and shape characteristics (e.g., volume, elongation, and symmetry). Suspended particle characteristics varied considerably over space and time and were strongly associated with discharge and concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (NO3-) and soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP). Particle characteristics in backwaters were distinct from those in other habitats for most of the study period, likely due to reduced hydrologic connectivity and higher biotic production in backwaters. During low discharge, phytoplankton and zooplankton made up relatively greater proportions of the observed particles. Concurrently during low discharge, concentrations of chlorophyll, volatile suspended solids, and total phosphorous were higher. Our results suggest that there are complex interactions among space, time, discharge, and other environmental variables (e.g. water nutrients) which drive suspended particle dynamics in large rivers.

  2. An optical investigation of the geometric characteristics of aggregates formed by particles of magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokof'ev, A. V.; Pleshakov, I. V.; Bibik, E. E.; Kuz'min, Yu. I.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the dimensions of elements of a structure formed by particles of a colloidal solution of magnetite under the action of a magnetic field. The pattern observed in a thin layer of this fluid illuminated by a focused laser beam was characteristic of diffraction on the infinitely long dielectric cylinder that was used for determining the dimensions of separate aggregates. The obtained results proved to be well consistent with the values determined by means of optical microscopy.

  3. Flow Characteristics of Lid-Driven Cavities with Particle Suspensions using an Eulerian-Lagrangian Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesemowo, Morakinyo; Shelton, John

    2016-11-01

    Previous experimental and numerical investigations involving lid-driven cavity flows with particle suspensions have primarily focused on particle tracking and the visualization of complex three-dimensional structures that compose the flow field. However, these particle suspensions and their resulting particle-particle interactions could also be viewed as a system of time-dependent perturbation equations to the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations and could affect both the stability and steady-state characteristics of the two-dimensional lid-driven cavity system. In this investigation, an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to modeling particle suspensions in the lid-driven cavity is utilized in FV-CFD simulations to investigate the effect particle density, area fraction, and Reynolds number have on the two-dimensional flow characteristics of a laminar fluid. Observations have indicated that the development of the primary vortex in the lid-driven cavity varies according to the area fraction of particle suspensions in the system; transitioning from development via an adverse pressure gradient at the top-right corner of the cavity towards particle-laden behavior where particle-particle interactions dominate the development of the primary vortex. Dynamic responses were also observed for particle systems of less dense particles. Finally, a comparison between flows perturbed using disturbance velocities and from particle interactions was performed.

  4. Combustion characteristics of GAP-coated boron particles and the fuel-rich solid propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, I.M.; Liu, T.K.

    1995-03-01

    A process was employed that permits the coating of energetic glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) on the boron surface. Ignition and combustion behavior of single particle pure crystalline boron and GAP-coated boron at atmospheric pressure was studied experimentally by injecting the particles into the stream of hot gaseous environment of a flat-flame burner using premixed propane-oxygen-nitrogen gases. Chopped streak photographic observation was used to measure the ignition and combustion time. The flame temperature was fixed around 2,343 K, but under wider O{sub 2} level range than previous investigations. Measurement results show that GAP coating can shorten boron particle ignition delay time, however, the effect diminishes as the O{sub 2} level in combustion gas decreases. Possible mechanisms based on relevant reactions and heat effects were proposed. Combustion characteristics of fuel-rich solid propellants based on GAP-coated amorphous boron particles and uncoated ones were compared using different techniques such as combustion phenomena observations by a windowed strand burner, quenched propellant surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscope, and combustion residues size analysis from the quenched particle collection bomb experiments. It was concluded that GAP-coated amorphous-boron-based fuel-rich propellants exhibit more vigorous combustion phenomena, higher burning rates, and a lesser extent of residue agglomeration than the uncoated baseline propellant. Moreover, reaction mechanisms were proposed to elucidate the combustion products obtained in this study.

  5. The adsorption characteristics of heavy metals by various particle sizes of MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Shim, Young-Sook; Kim, Young-Keun; Kong, Sung-Ho; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun

    2003-01-01

    The incineration rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been increased because of difficulty in securing a proper disposal site for MSW in Korea. The advantage of incineration is reduction of the volume of waste; however, significant amounts of bottom ash and fly ash were generated in the incineration process. Their treatment has attracted growing interest because of the potential toxicity of hazardous heavy metals. Generally, heavy metals are less released from bottom ash than from fly ash. In this study the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals were investigated using various particle sizes of MSWI bottom ash. Since bottom ash has a broad particle size distribution, it was sieved to size classes of +20, -20, -48, -80, -100 mesh. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) was analyzed by the ammonium acetate method to evaluate the potential as an adsorbent. The CEC values and surface areas increase as the range of particle size becomes finer. The adsorption experiment was conducted using synthetic (Cu and Ni) and plating rinse water as a function of reaction time (10-180 min), liquid/solid ratio (2-100) and particle size (+20 to -100 mesh), respectively. The adsorption rate increased with decreasing particle size and with increasing liquid/solid ratio; however, the removal efficiency of Cu was higher than that of Ni. In the case of plating rinse water, the adsorption rate decreased sharply at high liquid/solid ratio, and it showed over 80% of adsorption rates for Cu and Ni at an initial pH of 3.

  6. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Larry L.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2005-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  7. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  8. The effect of ash and filter media characteristics on particle filtration efficiency in fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Wey, Ming-Yen; Chen, Ke-Hao; Liu, Kuang-Yu

    2005-05-20

    The phenomenon of filtering particles by a fluidized bed is complex and the parameters that affect the control efficiency of filtration have not yet been clarified. The major objective of the study focuses on the effect of characteristics of ash and filter media on filtration efficiency in a fluidized bed. The performance of the fluidized bed for removal of particles in flue gas at various fluidized operating conditions, and then the mechanisms of collecting particles were studied. The evaluated parameters included (1) various ashes (coal ash and incinerator ash); (2) bed material size; (3) operating gas velocity; and (4) bed temperature. The results indicate that the removal efficiency of coal ash increases initially with gas velocity, then decreases gradually as velocity exceeds some specific value. Furthermore, the removal of coal ash enhance with silica sand size decreasing. When the fluidized bed is operated at high temperature, diffusion is a more important mechanism than at room temperature especially for small particles. Although the inertial impaction is the main collection mechanism, the "bounce off" effect when the particles collide with the bed material could reduce the removal efficiency significantly. Because of layer inversion in fluidized bed, the removal efficiency of incinerator ash is decreased with increasing of gas velocity.

  9. Characteristics of SME biodiesel-fueled diesel particle emissions and the kinetics of oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heejung; Kittelson, David B; Zachariah, Michael R

    2006-08-15

    Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative diesel fuels. As diesel emission regulations have become more stringent, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) has become an essential part of the aftertreatment system. Knowledge of kinetics of exhaust particle oxidation for alternative diesel fuels is useful in estimating the change in regeneration behavior of a DPF with such fuels. This study examines the characteristics of diesel particulate emissions as well as kinetics of particle oxidation using a 1996 John Deere T04045TF250 off-highway engine and 100% soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B100) as fuel. Compared to standard D2 fuel, this B100 reduced particle size, number, and volume in the accumulation mode where most of the particle mass is found. At 75% load, number decreased by 38%, DGN decreased from 80 to 62 nm, and volume decreased by 82%. Part of this decrease is likely associated with the fact that the particles were more easily oxidized. Arrhenius parameters for the biodiesel fuel showed a 2-3times greater frequency factor and approximately 6 times higher oxidation rate compared to regular diesel fuel in the range of 700-825 degrees C. The faster oxidation kinetics should facilitate regeneration when used with a DPF.

  10. Particle model analyses of N{sub 2}O dilution with He on electrical characteristics of radio-frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Younis, G.; Yousfi, M.; Despax, B.

    2009-05-01

    The electrical characteristics (voltage, electric field, charged particle densities, dissipated power, particle energy, etc.) are analyzed in the case of low pressure (0.5 and 1 Torr) radio-frequency (rf) discharges in nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O)/Helium (He) mixtures. An optimized and validated particle model has been used for these analyses in the case of gradual dilutions of N{sub 2}O with He buffer gas. A specific care is carried on the power density evolution and variation which show a complex behavior as a function of He proportion (up to 85%). These analyses are based on a microscopic approach enabling one to show the contribution of the different inelastic processes mainly between electrons and respectively N{sub 2}O and He gases. This approach enables also one to show the discharge region (the positive column or the plasma region) where the power is preferentially dissipated. The power density variation is found to be mainly proportional to the electron density variation. The latter is dependent on the different processes occurring between the charged particles [i.e., electrons, negative ions (O{sup -} and NO{sup -}), and positive ions (N{sub 2}O{sup +} and He{sup +})] and the neutral gas mixture (N{sub 2}O and He). Furthermore, the particle model shows the role of the electron-He collisions on the variation in the electron energy and distribution. This allows more particularly explaining the effects of N{sub 2}O dilution with He on the dissipated power variation in terms of creation and loss of electrons through collision processes.

  11. Accounting for the role of turbulent flow on particle dislodgement via a coupled quadrant analysis of velocity and pressure sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, WuRong; Diplas, Panayiotis; Celik, Ahmet Ozan; Dancey, Clinton

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of duration, in addition to magnitude, of energetic turbulent events on particle dislodgement under threshold of motion conditions. It is therefore proposed here that the use of turbulence sequences, instead of single instantaneous extreme events, is more appropriate for characterizing the role of fluctuating velocities and associated hydrodynamic forces on particle mobility. The validity of the proposed method is examined through the detailed analysis of directly measured velocity and pressure data sets. In an effort to relate the results of the conventional velocity quadrant analysis with the instantaneous pressure measurements, the concept of pressure quadrant analysis is introduced. The coupled sequences of the synchronous velocity and pressure quadrant events allow for a more complete description of the local turbulent flow characteristics, including the prevalent coherent structures, and more clear interpretation of their role on particle mobility. It is concluded here that large-scale sweep structures are capable of generating excessive and persistent force fluctuations which are predominantly responsible for the dynamic process of particle dislodgement. This result supports the impulse criterion as the proper way of accounting for the cumulative effect of coherent structures on particle movement.

  12. The role of large particles in the formation of the radio echo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salman, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution to the total reflectivity of separate parts of a particle spectrum described by a gamma distribution is estimated. It is shown that the largest individual particles, whose percent concentration is 0.1 - 1, originate approximately 60 - 70% of the total reflectivity of the spectrum. Explanations are given of a number of effects which confirm the dominant role of large particles in the formation of the echo.

  13. Human fibrinogen monolayers on latex particles: role of ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Żeliszewska, Paulina; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Cieśla, Michał

    2013-03-19

    The adsorption of human serum fibrinogen on polystyrene latex particles was studied using the microelectrophoretic and concentration depletion methods. Measurements were carried out for pH 3.5 and an ionic strength range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M NaCl. The electrophoretic mobility of latex was determined as a function of the amount of adsorbed fibrinogen (surface concentration). A monotonic increase in the electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential) of the latex was observed, indicating a significant adsorption of fibrinogen on latex for all ionic strengths. No changes in the latex mobility were observed for prolonged time periods, suggesting the irreversibility of fibrinogen adsorption. The maximum coverage of fibrinogen on latex particles was precisely determined using the depletion method. The residual protein concentration after making contact with latex particles was determined by electrokinetic measurements and AFM imaging where the surface coverage of fibrinogen on mica was quantitatively determined. The maximum fibrinogen coverage increased monotonically with ionic strength from 1.8 mg m(-2) for 10(-3) M NaCl to 3.6 mg m(-2) for 0.15 M NaCl. The increase in the maximum coverage was interpreted in terms of the reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed fibrinogen molecules. The experimental data agree with theoretical simulations made by assuming a 3D unoriented adsorption of fibrinogen. The stability of fibrinogen monolayers on latex was also determined in ionic strength cycling experiments. It was revealed that cyclic variations in NaCl concentration between 10(-3) and 0.15 M induced no changes in the latex electrophoretic mobility, suggesting that there were no irreversible molecule orientation changes in the monolayers. On the basis of these experimental data, a robust procedure of preparing fibrinogen monolayers on latex particles of well-controlled coverage was proposed.

  14. Multidimensional analysis of particle size fractal characteristics in a farmland soil profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Y. C.; Han, J. C.; Zhang, S. W.; Huang, Y. F.; Wang, H. Y.; Luo, L. T.; Zhang, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Soil particle size distribution (PSD) is a basic soil property, closely related to soil erosion, soil moisture, and so on. The multidimensional fractal method has been proved to be a better description of soil PSD. By choosing the four fractal parameters of Δa, ΔaR/ΔaL, D1/D0 and, Δf(a)R/Δf(a)L, and using the multifractal spectrum, this paper analyzed one- and two-dimensional fractal characteristics of the soil profile (A, B, and C layers from top to bottom) PSD and their relationship on a field scale. The results showed that the PSD characteristics of different soil profiles were more heterogeneous in the east and west (WE) than the north and south (NS) in the study area, and the A layer soil PSD was the most uneven, with a larger degree of dispersion. With the soil layer depth, the soil PSD tended to be uniform. Regardless of one-dimensional or two-dimensional characteristics, the proportion of the low value of soil particle mass percent was relatively larger. The results of this study will not only provide a reference method for analyses of the fractal characteristics of soil PSD on a field scale, but also provide guidance in further understanding the soil structure and soil forming process.

  15. Role of cathode identity in liquid chromatography particle beam glow discharge mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, M. V. Balarama; Marcus, R. K.

    2008-06-01

    A detailed evaluation of the role of cathode identity on the analytical and spectral characteristics of various organic, organometallic and metal analytes using liquid chromatography-particle beam/glow discharge mass spectrometry (LC-PB/GDMS) has been carried out. A d.c. discharge, operating with argon as the support gas, was used throughout this work. In this study, Cu which has a relatively high sputtering rate, Ni which has moderate sputtering rate and Ta which has very low sputtering rate, are taken as cathode materials to study the ionization, fragmentation, and analytical characteristics of organic (caffeine, epigallocatechin gallate, peptide as representative compounds), organometallic (selenomethionine, triethyl lead chloride as representative compounds) and metal (Fe, La, Cs and Pb) species. A range of discharge gas pressures (26.6-106.4 Pa) and currents (0.2-1.5 mA) were investigated with the test cathodes to determine their influence on the spectral composition and overall analytical response for the various test species. Calibration plots were obtained for all of the species for each of the three cathodes to determine the respective limits of detection. Relative detection limits in the range of 0.02 to 15 ng mL - 1 (0.002-1.5 ng, absolute) for the test species were found to be in the order of Cu > Ni > Ta; which follows the order of the sputtering characteristics of the respective cathodes. These studies rendered information about the respective discharge parameters' role in choosing the most appropriate cathode identity in PB-GDMS for application in the areas of organic, organometallic and inorganic species analysis.

  16. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  17. Characteristic, parametric, and diffracted transition X-ray radiation for observation of accelerated particle beam profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikovska, I.; Chehab, R.; Artru, X.; Shchagin, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The applicability of X-ray radiation for the observation of accelerated particle beam profiles is studied. Three types of quasi-monochromatic X-ray radiation excited by the particles in crystals are considered: characteristic X-ray radiation, parametric X-ray radiation, diffracted transition X-ray radiation. Radiation is collected at the right angle to the particle beam direction. It is show that the most intensive differential yield of X-ray radiation from Si crystal can be provided by characteristic radiation at incident electron energies up to tens MeV, by parametric radiation at incident electron energies from tens to hundreds MeV, by diffracted transition X-ray radiation at GeV and multi-GeV electron energies. Therefore these kinds of radiation are proposed for application to beam profile observation in the corresponding energy ranges of incident electrons. Some elements of X-ray optics for observation of the beam profile are discussed. The application of the DTR as a source of powerful tunable monochromatic linearly polarized X-ray beam excited by a multi-GeV electron beam on the crystal surface is proposed.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of spectral characteristics of the photoacoustic signal from stochastically distributed particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohua; Tao, Chao; Yang, Yiqun; Wang, Xueding; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technique which inherits the merits of optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging. However, classical photoacoustic imaging mainly makes use of the time-domain parameters of signals. In contrast to previous studies, we theoretically investigate the spectral characteristics of the photoacoustic signal from stochastic distributed particles. The spectral slope is extracted and used for describing the spectral characteristics of the photoacoustic signal. Both Gaussian and spherical distributions of optical absorption in particles are considered. For both situations, the spectral slope is monotonically decreased with the increase of particle size. In addition, the quantitative relationship between the spectral slope and the imaging system factors, including the laser pulse envelope, directivity of ultrasound transducer, and signal bandwidth, are theoretically analyzed. Finally, an idealized phantom experiment is performed to validate the analyses and examine the instrument independent of the spectral slope. This work provides a theoretical framework and new experimental evidence for spectrum analysis of the photoacoustic signal. This could be helpful for quantitative tissue evaluation and imaging based on the spectral parameters of the photoacoustic signal.

  19. [Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles from a diesel car].

    PubMed

    Tan, Pi-Qiang; Zhou, Zhou; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Lou, Di-Ming

    2013-03-01

    The emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust particles from a diesel car were studied. In the experiment, pure diesel fuel and B10 fuel with a biodiesel blend ratio of 10% were chosen. The gaseous emissions of HC, CO and NO(x) under New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were measured, and exhaust particulate matter (PM) samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The emission characteristics of PAHs in exhaust particles were highlighted. The results show that the emission concentrations of HC, CO, NO(x), and PM decreased when the diesel car used B10 fuel. Fluoranthene and pyrene were dominant in PAHs of PM emissions when the diesel car used pure diesel or B10 fuel. Compared to pure diesel, there was a slight increase in low-ring PAHs emissions when the diesel car used B10 fuel. On the contrary, PAHs emissions in middle and high-ring declined significantly. Besides, Benzo [ a] pyrene equivalent toxicity analysis results show that the BEQs of B10 fuel decreased by 21.6% compared to pure diesel. That means the toxicity of PAHs in exhaust particles declined when the diesel car used biodiesel fuel.

  20. The neutron and its role in cosmology and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dubbers, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael G.

    2011-10-01

    Experiments with cold and ultracold neutrons have reached a level of precision such that problems far beyond the scale of the present standard model of particle physics become accessible to experimental investigation. Because of the close links between particle physics and cosmology, these studies also permit a deep look into the very first instances of our Universe. First addressed in this article, in both theory and experiment, is the problem of baryogenesis, the mechanism behind the evident dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The question of how baryogenesis could have happened is open to experimental tests, and it turns out that this problem can be curbed by the very stringent limits on an electric dipole moment of the neutron, a quantity that also has deep implications for particle physics. Then the recent spectacular observation of neutron quantization in the Earth's gravitational field and of resonance transitions between such gravitational energy states is discussed. These measurements, together with new evaluations of neutron scattering data, set new constraints on deviations from Newton's gravitational law at the picometer scale. Such deviations are predicted in modern theories with extra dimensions that propose unification of the Planck scale with the scale of the standard model. These experiments start closing the remaining ''axion window'' on new spin-dependent forces in the submillimeter range. Another main topic is the weak-interaction parameters in various fields of physics and astrophysics that must all be derived from measured neutron-decay data. Up until now, about 10 different neutron-decay observables have been measured, much more than needed in the electroweak standard model. This allows various precise tests for new physics beyond the standard model, competing with or surpassing similar tests at high energy. The review ends with a discussion of neutron and nuclear data required in the synthesis of the elements during the

  1. Approximate analytical scattering phase function dependent on microphysical characteristics of dust particles.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2011-06-10

    The approximate bulk-scattering phase function of a polydisperse system of dust particles is derived in an analytical form. In the theoretical solution, the particle size distribution is modeled by a modified gamma function that can satisfy various media differing in modal radii. Unlike the frequently applied power law, the modified gamma distribution shows no singularity when the particle radius approaches zero. The approximate scattering phase function is related to the parameters of the size distribution function. This is an important advantage compared to the empirical Henyey-Greenstein (HG) approximation, which is a simple function of the average cosine. However, any optimized value of average cosine of the HG function cannot provide the information on particle microphysical characteristics, such as the size distribution function. In this paper, the mapping between average cosine and the parameters of size distribution function is given by a semianalytical expression that is applicable in rapid numerical simulations on various dust populations. In particular, the modal radius and half-width can be quickly estimated using the presented formulas.

  2. Deciphering The Role of Plankton Taxa in Particle Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuer, Susanne; Amacher, Jessica; DeMartini, Francesca; Wilson, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    The sinking of phytoplankton derived particulate organic matter to the deep ocean constitutes an important removal process of atmospheric CO2 and is termed the biological carbon pump. Understanding the taxon specific connection between phytoplankton communities in the euphotic zone and their contribution to particle flux is a high priority in current oceanographic research and provides a basis to evaluate how carbon export might change in a future ocean. Here we present results from DNA-based molecular studies that investigate the taxonomic composition of cyanobacterial and protist communities retrieved from shallow particle traps in comparison to those living in the euphotic zone. This research has been mainly carried out in the Sargasso Sea at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS). Trap material collected at this oligotrophic ocean site reveals a surprisingly high diversity of small, non-mineral ballasted taxa, some of which are over-represented compared to the euphotic zone communities. But the majority of clones in the traps belong to mostly heterotrophic protist taxa. By analyzing the fingerprints of prey DNA in guts and fecal pellets of dominant zooplankton grazers we find that there is a close link between prey utilization and the recovery of those taxa in the traps, showing the importance of fecal pellets in packaging and mediating their flux out of the euphotic zone.

  3. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their gas/particle partitioning from fugitive emissions in coke plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiaofeng; Song, Chongfang; Bai, Huiling; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hu, Dongmei; He, Qiusheng; Li, Fan

    2014-02-01

    Coking is one of the most important emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in China. However, there is little information available on the emission characteristics of PAHs from fugitive emission during coking, especially on the specific processes dominating the gas-particle partitioning of PAHs. In this study, emission characteristics and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs from fugitive emission in four typical coke plants (CPs) with different scales and techniques were investigated. The average concentrations of total PAHs from fugitive emission at CP2, CP3 and CP4 (stamp charging) were 146.98, 31.82, and 35.20 μg m-3, which were 13.38-, 2.90- and 3.20-fold higher, respectively, than those at CP1 (top charging, 10.98 μg m-3). Low molecular weight PAHs with 2-3 rings made up 75.3% of the total PAHs on average, and the contributions of particulate PAH to the total BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) in each plant were significantly higher than the corresponding contributions to the total PAH mass concentrations. The calculated total BaPeq concentrations varied from 0.19 to 10.86 μg m-3 with an average of 3.14 μg m-3, and more efficient measures to control fugitive emission in coke plants should be employed to prevent or reduce the health risk to workers. Absorption into organic matter dominated the gas-particle partitioning for most of the PAHs including PhA, FluA, Chr, BbF, BkF and BaP, while adsorption on elemental carbon appeared to play a dominant role for AcPy, AcP and Flu.

  4. Particle characteristics of different materials after ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Joerg; Schelle, Florian; Kowalczyk, Philip; Frentzen, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The exposition of nanoparticles caused by laser application in dental health care is an open discussion. Based on the fact that nanoparticles can penetrate through the mucosa, the knowledge about particle characteristics after irradiation with an USPL is of high importance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the particle characteristics, especially the size of the ablated debris after USPL irradiation. The irradiation was carried out with an USP Nd:YVO4 laser with a center wavelength of 1064 nm. Based on the pulse duration of 8 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 500 kHz the laser emits an average power of 9 W. The materials investigated were dental tissues and dental restorative materials (composite and amalgam), ceramic and different metals (gold and aluminium). The samples were irradiated with a power density in the order of 300 GW/cm2 at distances of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm. The debris was collected on an object plate. SEM pictures were used for analysis of the ablation debris. Depending on the irradiated material, we observed different kinds of structures: vitreous, flocculent, and pellet-like. The mean particle sizes were 10 x 10 up to 30 x 30 μm2. In addition, a cluster of ablated matter (nanometer range) distributed over the whole irradiated area was found. With increasing distances the cluster structure reduced from multi-layer to mono-layer clusters. Particle sizes in the micrometer and nanometer range were found after irradiation with an USPL. The nanoparticles create a cluster structure which is influenced by increasing distances.

  5. Eosinophils in vasculitis: characteristics and roles in pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Paneez; Grayson, Peter C.; Klion, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granular leukocytes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including asthma, helminth infection, and rare hypereosinophilic syndromes. Although peripheral and tissue eosinophilia can be a feature of many types of small-vessel and medium-vessel vasculitis, the role of eosinophils has been best studied in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where eosinophils are a characteristic finding in all three clinical stages of the disorder. Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of eosinophils and markers of eosinophil activation in the blood and tissues of patients with EGPA, the precise role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis has been difficult to ascertain owing to the complexity of the disease process. In this regard, results of clinical trials using novel agents that specifically target eosinophils are providing the first direct evidence of a central role of eosinophils in EGPA. This Review focuses on the aspects of eosinophil biology most relevant to the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provides an update of current knowledge regarding the role of eosinophils in EGPA and other vasculitides. PMID:25003763

  6. Eosinophils in vasculitis: characteristics and roles in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Paneez; Grayson, Peter C; Klion, Amy D

    2014-08-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granular leukocytes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including asthma, helminth infection, and rare hypereosinophilic syndromes. Although peripheral and tissue eosinophilia can be a feature of many types of small-vessel and medium-vessel vasculitis, the role of eosinophils has been best studied in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where eosinophils are a characteristic finding in all three clinical stages of the disorder. Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of eosinophils and markers of eosinophil activation in the blood and tissues of patients with EGPA, the precise role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis has been difficult to ascertain owing to the complexity of the disease process. In this regard, results of clinical trials using novel agents that specifically target eosinophils are providing the first direct evidence of a central role of eosinophils in EGPA. This Review focuses on the aspects of eosinophil biology most relevant to the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provides an update of current knowledge regarding the role of eosinophils in EGPA and other vasculitides.

  7. The effect of particle characteristics on stick-slip instability in granular fault gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, J.; Marone, C.

    2003-04-01

    The characteristics of fault gouge material affect the amount of pre-seismic slip and stress drop during stick-slip instability in the laboratory. In order to improve our understanding of pre-seismic and co-seismic earthquake instability, we performed laboratory experiments using a double-direct-shear testing apparatus. This assembly includes three rigid forcing blocks with two gouge layers sandwiched between rough surfaces of the blocks. The center block is forced at a constant displacement rate between the two side blocks to create frictional shear. We studied gouge layers ranging from 3-9 mm thick, consisting of either smooth glass beads, rough sand particles, or mixtures of both. We report on particle sizes that range from 0.053-0.210 mm in diameter. The experiments are run at room temperature and humidity, and the layers were sheared at rates from 1 to 1000 microns per second. Experiments are carried out under a normal stress of 5 MPa, a non-fracture loading regime where sliding friction for smooth spherical particles is measurably lower than for rough angular particles. Stick-slip instability begins once the frictional stress (shear stress divided by normal stress) within the sheared layers reaches a value of 0.3-0.4, and peak friction during continued sliding is about 0.45. Each stick-slip event involves a small amount of quasi-static displacement prior to failure, which we refer to as pre-seismic slip. When the shear stress reaches this peak strength, failure occurs, and shear stress drops dynamically. For each experiment we measure the amount of pre-seismic slip that occurs just before failure, and the magnitude of stress drop that occurs during failure. The amounts of pre-seismic slip and stress drop vary systematically with sliding velocity. Previous experiments have shown that particle size distribution and particle roughness affect the stability of sliding. A narrow particle size distribution of spherical beads exhibits unstable stick-slip behavior

  8. Roles of Colloidal Silicon Dioxide Particles in Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Dielectric Silicon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wonseop; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2005-12-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is carried out using slurry particles in contact with a wafer and a pad. The size and distribution of particles between the wafer and the pad play a crucial role in achieving desired CMP performance. Polishing rates and friction forces were measured as a function of particle size and solids loading, and surface finishes of silica wafers polished with colloidal silica particles were analyzed to validate the polishing mechanism. On the basis of polishing rate, friction force and surface finish, polishing occurring at the pad-particles-wafer interface was analyzed and an interfacial contact model was proposed. Understanding the polishing mechanism using colloidal particles makes it possible to achieve desired CMP performance.

  9. Particle characteristics in the reactor and pelletizing areas of carbon black production.

    PubMed

    Kuhlbusch, T A J; Fissan, H

    2006-10-01

    Physical and chemical characteristics of airborne particles (ultrafine, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10) in reactor and pelletizing areas during carbon black production were measured to assess process related sources of particles in work areas. Results from bagging areas within the same three facilities have been previously published. Particle number and mass concentration measurements were conducted in these work areas and at ambient comparison sites at each of the three carbon black plants. No elevated ultrafine particle number concentrations (UFP, <100 nm) with respect to ambient were determined in the work areas of Plant 1, intermittently elevated concentrations at Plant 2, and permanently elevated concentrations at Plant 3. The intermittently elevated UFP concentrations in the pelletizer and reactor areas of Plant 2 could be related to nearby traffic emissions. The ultrafine particle number concentrations at Plant 2 are comparable to those determined at urban traffic sites. Both work areas of Plant 3 showed elevated UFP concentrations in the pelletizer reactor and areas. In the case of the reactor, which was the only enclosed reactor area investigated among the three facilities, the source of the elevated UFP number concentration was most likely attributable to grease and oil fumes from maintenance activities, a conclusion supported by carbon fractionation analysis. The elevated UFP number concentrations in the pelletizing area in this same plant are related to leaks in the production line, which allowed particulate matter to escape to the surrounding areas. Absolute PM10 mass concentrations were all within normal ambient concentrations except for the pelletizing area in Plant 3, which showed continuous levels above ambient. One additional source contributing to peak level PM10 mass concentrations at Plant 2 was due to wind dispersion from a carbon black spill incident the day prior to measurements. It is concluded from these measurements that no carbon black is released

  10. Sub-micron particle number size distribution characteristics at two urban locations in Leicester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Sarkawt M. L.; Cordell, Rebecca L.; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, E. P.; Monks, Paul S.

    2017-09-01

    The particle number size distribution (PNSD) of atmospheric particles not only provides information about sources and atmospheric processing of particles, but also plays an important role in determining regional lung dose. Owing to the importance of PNSD in understanding particulate pollution two short-term campaigns (March-June 2014) measurements of sub-micron PNSD were conducted at two urban background locations in Leicester, UK. At the first site, Leicester Automatic Urban Rural Network (AURN), the mean number concentrations of nucleation, Aitken, accumulation modes, the total particles, equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were 2002, 3258, 1576, 6837 # cm-3, 1.7 μg m-3, respectively, and at the second site, Brookfield (BF), were 1455, 2407, 874, 4737 # cm-3, 0.77 μg m-3, respectively. The total particle number was dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes, with both consisting of 77%, and 81% of total number concentrations at AURN and BF sites, respectively. This behaviour could be attributed to primary emissions (traffic) of ultrafine particles and the temporal evolution of mixing layer. The size distribution at the AURN site shows bimodal distribution at 22 nm with a minor peak at 70 nm. The size distribution at BF site, however, exhibits unimodal distribution at 35 nm. This study has for the first time investigated the effect of Easter holiday on PNSD in UK. The temporal variation of PNSD demonstrated a good degree of correlation with traffic-related pollutants (NOX, and eBC at both sites). The meteorological conditions, also had an impact on the PNSD and eBC at both sites. During the measurement period, the frequency of NPF events was calculated to be 13.3%, and 22.2% at AURN and BF sites, respectively. The average value of formation and growth rates of nucleation mode particles were 1.3, and 1.17 cm-3 s-1 and 7.42, and 5.3 nm h-1 at AURN, and BF sites, respectively. It can suggested that aerosol particles in Leicester originate mainly

  11. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4°C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  12. Role of Surface Characteristics in Urban Meteorology and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailor, David Jean

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result in higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4^circ C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  13. Impact of polymer surface characteristics on the microrheological measurement quality of protein solutions - A tracer particle screening.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katharina Christin; Schermeyer, Marie-Therese; Seidel, Jonathan; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-05-30

    Microrheological measurements prove to be suitable to identify rheological parameters of biopharmaceutical solutions. These give information about the flow characteristics but also about the interactions and network structures in protein solutions. For the microrheological measurement tracer particles are required. Due to their specific surface characteristic not all are suitable for reliable measurement results in biopharmaceutical systems. In the present work a screening of melamine, PMMA, polystyrene and surface modified polystyrene as tracer particles were investigated at various protein solution conditions. The surface characteristics of the screened tracer particles were evaluated by zeta potential measurements. Furthermore each tracer particle was used to determine the dynamic viscosity of lysozyme solutions by microrheology and compared to a standard. The results indicate that the selection of the tracer particle had a strong impact on the quality of the microrheological measurement dependent on pH and additive type. Surface modified polystyrene was the only tracer particle that yielded good microrheological results for all tested conditions. The study indicated that the electrostatic surface charge of the tracer particle had a minor impact than its hydrophobicity. This characteristic was the crucial surface property that needs to be considered for the selection of a suitable tracer particle to achieve high measurement accuracy.

  14. The Role of Noise in Finite Ensembles of Nanomagnetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neklyudov, Mikhail; Prohl, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of finitely many nanomagnetic particles are described by the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. We show that the system relaxes exponentially quickly to the unique invariant measure which is described by a Boltzmann distribution. We present two approaches to verify this result. The first uses the general theory of (Meyn and Tweedy, Adv Appl Prob 24:542-574, 1992; Meyn and Tweedy, Adv Appl Prob 25:487-517 1993; Meyn and Tweedy, Adv Appl Prob 25:518-548, 1993) for Markov chains, which involves the concepts of a Lyapunov structure, and irreducibility of transition probabilities; we show exponential convergence in a supremum topology, but lack explicit rates. The second approach shows exponential ergodicity in a weaker L 2 topology, with an explicit rate of convergence of the Arrhenius type law. Then, we discuss two implicit discretizations to approximate transition functions at both finite and infinite times: the first scheme is shown to inherit the geometric `unit-length' property of single spins, as well as the Lyapunov structure, and is shown to be geometrically ergodic; moreover, iterates converge strongly with a rate for finite times. The second scheme is computationally more efficient since it is linear; it is shown to converge weakly at an optimal rate for all finite times. We use a general result of Shardlow and Stuart (Siam J Numer Anal 37(4):1120-1137 2000) to conclude convergence to the invariant measure of the limiting problem for both discretizations.

  15. Particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  16. Observations and Characteristics of Particles in the 0.5 to 2.5 micron Size Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The size distributions of particles with diameters between ~0.5 and 2.5 microns are difficult to characterize accurately. However, these particles frequently constitute large fractions of the PM2.5 or "fine mode" aerosol mass concentrations; contribute non-negligibly to aerosol extinction; and may represent key cloud-active particles that include giant cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles. Some fraction of these particles is derived from sources in common with true coarse mode particles (diameters between ~2.5 and 10 microns), while the remainder are derived from sources that dominate submicron particles, including cloud processing. In this presentation we review measurements by our group in various U.S.-based field studies to demonstrate the variability in this mode and in its contributions to the aforementioned characteristics of atmospheric relevance. Size-resolved composition data demonstrate the complexity of the aerosol sources contributing to this size range.

  17. Characteristics of large three-dimensional heaps of particles produced by ballistic deposition from extended sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topic, Nikola; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a detailed numerical investigation of the geometrical and structural properties of three-dimensional heaps of particles. Our goal is the characterization of very large heaps produced by ballistic deposition from extended circular dropping areas. First, we provide an in-depth study of the formation of monodisperse heaps of particles. We find very large heaps to contain three new geometrical characteristics: they may display two external angles of repose, one internal angle of repose, and four distinct packing fraction (density) regions. Such features are found to be directly connected with the size of the dropping zone. We derive a differential equation describing the boundary of an unexpected triangular packing fraction zone formed under the dropping area. We investigate the impact that noise during the deposition has on the final heap structure. In addition, we perform two complementary experiments designed to test the robustness of the novel features found. The first experiment considers changes due to polydispersity. The second checks what happens when letting the extended dropping zone to become a point-like source of particles, the more common type of source.

  18. Changes In The Characteristics of Basaltic Particles During Different Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Rose, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of the grains in sedimentary deposits can provide valuable clues about transport processes, distance traveled, and provenance. A fundamental physical characteristic is particle shape, which is diagnostic of transport process as well as the distance traveled. For example, it is possible to distinguish the emplacement process of sediments based entirely on the shape of the quartz grains in the deposit [e.g., Folk, 1980]. Such basic sedimentological concepts have been applied to our interpretation of surface materials on the terrestrial planets [e.g. Cabrol et al., 2014]. However, what we know about the nature of sedimentary materials is based primarily on sediments that have weathered from felsic rocks—granite. This is true because felsic materials compose most of the landmass on the Earth. Yet, the surface of Mars is composed predominately of mafic materials—basalt—and sedimentary particles derived from basalt are much different than those derived from granite. Instead of quartz, feldspar, and heavy minerals commonly found in most terrestrial sedimentary deposits, basaltic sediments are typically composed of varying amounts of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, and vitric and lithic fragments. Both the persistence of basaltic particles and their specific gravities are different than particles derived from granite. These differences are important because they will affect the characteristics of basaltic sediment as it is transported by wind, water, and ice, and currently we have little to no understanding as to how basaltic sediment will weather as a function of the transport mechanism and distance. We will present preliminary analyses of typical basaltic sediments that have been transported by a variety of geologic processes in Hawaii, including details about surface texture, componentry, and the influence different sedimentary processes may have on remote sensing data. The figure below shows examples of A) sediment

  19. Response characteristics of laser diffraction particle size analyzers - Optical sample volume extent and lens effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirleman, E. D.; Oechsle, V.; Chigier, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    The response characteristics of laser diffraction particle sizing instruments were studied theoretically and experimentally. In particular, the extent of optical sample volume and the effects of receiving lens properties were investigated in detail. The experimental work was performed with a particle size analyzer using a calibration reticle containing a two-dimensional array of opaque circular disks on a glass substrate. The calibration slide simulated the forward-scattering characteristics of a Rosin-Rammler droplet size distribution. The reticle was analyzed with collection lenses of 63 mm, 100 mm, and 300 mm focal lengths using scattering inversion software that determined best-fit Rosin-Rammler size distribution parameters. The data differed from the predicted response for the reticle by about 10 percent. A set of calibration factor for the detector elements was determined that corrected for the nonideal response of the instrument. The response of the instrument was also measured as a function of reticle position, and the results confirmed a theoretical optical sample volume model presented here.

  20. Solid particle impingement erosion characteristics of cylindrical surfaces, pre-existing holes and slits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The erosion characteristics of aluminum cylinders sand-blasted with both spherical and angular erodent particles were studied and compared with results from previously studied flat surfaces. The cylindrical results are discussed with respect to impact conditions. The relationship between erosion rate and pit morphology (width, depth, and width to depth ratio) is established. The aspects of (1) erosion rate versus time curves on cylindrical surfaces; (2) long-term exposures; and (3) erosion rate versus time curves with spherical and angular particles are presented. The erosion morphology and characteristics of aluminum surfaces with pre-existing circular cylindrical and conical holes of different sizes were examined using weight loss measurements, scanning electron microscopy, a profilometer, and a depth gage. The morphological features (radial and concentric rings) are discussed with reference to flat surfaces, and the erosion features with spherical microglass beads. The similarities and differences of erosion and morphological features are highlighted. The erosion versus time curves of various shapes of holes are discussed and are compared with those of a flat surface. The erosion process at slits is considered.

  1. Spatial and temporal dynamics of suspended particle characteristics and composition in Navigation Pool 19 of the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milde, Amanda S.; Richardson, William B.; Strauss, Eric A.; Larson, James H.; Vallazza, Jon; Knights, Brent C.

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles are an essential component of large rivers influencing channel geomorphology, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, and food web resources. The Upper Mississippi River is a large floodplain river that exhibits pronounced spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions and biota, providing an ideal environment for investigating dynamics of suspended particles in large river ecosystems. Here we investigated two questions: (i) How do suspended particle characteristics (e.g. size and morphology) vary temporally and spatially? and (ii) What environmental variables have the strongest association with particle characteristics? Water sampling was conducted in June, August, and September of 2013 and 2014 in Navigation Pool 19 of the Upper Mississippi River. A FlowCAM® (Flow Cytometer and Microscope) particle imaging system was used to enumerate and measure particles 53–300 μm in diameter for size and shape characteristics (e.g. volume, elongation, and symmetry). Suspended particle characteristics varied considerably over space and time and were strongly associated with discharge and concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (NO3−) and soluble reactive phosphorus. Particle characteristics in backwaters were distinct from those in other habitats for most of the study period, likely due to reduced hydrologic connectivity and higher biotic production in backwaters. During low discharge, phytoplankton and zooplankton made up relatively greater proportions of the observed particles. Concurrently during low discharge, concentrations of chlorophyll, volatile suspended solids, and total phosphorus were higher. Our results suggest that there are complex interactions among space, time, discharge, and other environmental variables (e.g. water nutrients), which drive suspended particle dynamics in large rivers.

  2. Role of Surface Area, Primary Particle Size, and Crystal Phase on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Dispersion Properties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing nanoparticle dispersions and understanding the effect of parameters that alter dispersion properties are important for both environmental applications and toxicity investigations. The role of particle surface area, primary particle size, and crystal phase on TiO2 nanoparticle dispersion properties is reported. Hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, and isoelectric point (IEP) of ten laboratory synthesized TiO2 samples, and one commercial Degussa TiO2 sample (P25) dispersed in different solutions were characterized. Solution ionic strength and pH affect titania dispersion properties. The effect of monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (MgCl2) inert electrolytes on dispersion properties was quantified through their contribution to ionic strength. Increasing titania particle surface area resulted in a decrease in solution pH. At fixed pH, increasing the particle surface area enhanced the collision frequency between particles and led to a higher degree of agglomeration. In addition to the synthesis method, TiO2 isoelectric point was found to be dependent on particle size. As anatase TiO2 primary particle size increased from 6 nm to 104 nm, its IEP decreased from 6.0 to 3.8 that also results in changes in dispersion zeta potential and hydrodynamic size. In contrast to particle size, TiO2 nanoparticle IEP was found to be insensitive to particle crystal structure. PMID:27502650

  3. Self-assembly of virus particles: The role of genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Wagner, Jef; Podgornik, Rudolf; Zandi, Roya

    2013-03-01

    A virus is an infectious agent that inserts its genetic material into the cell and hijacks the cell's machinery to reproduce. The simplest viruses are made of a protein shell (capsid) that protects its genome (DNA or RNA). Many plant and animal viruses can be assembled spontaneously from a solution of proteins and genetic material in different capsid shapes and sizes. This work focuses on the role of genome in the assembly of spherical RNA viruses. The RNA, a highly flexible polymer, is modeled by mean field approximations. Two RNA models are discussed: (i) A linear polymer model including a pairing affinity between RNA base pairs, and (ii) a branched polymer model. Polymer density and electrostatic potential profiles are obtained, and the relevant free energies are calculated from these profiles. The optimal length of the encapsidated chain is examined as a function of the model parameters. The osmotic pressure of the system is also discussed.

  4. Investigating the role of particle shape on colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Seymour, M.; Chen, G.; Su, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the transport and retention of nanoparticles in porous media is essential both for environmental applications of nanotechnology and assessing the potential environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials. Engineered and naturally occurring nanoparticles can be found in various shapes including rod-shape carbon nanotubes that have high aspect ratios. Although it is expected that nonspherical shape could play an important role on their transport and retention behaviors, current theoretical models for particle transport in porous media, however, are mostly based on spherical particle shape. In this work, the effect of particle shape on its transport and retention in porous media was evaluated by stretching carboxylate-modified fluorescent polystyrene spheres into rod shapes with aspect ratios of 2:1 and 4:1. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation experiments (QCM-D) were conducted to measure the deposition rates of spherical and rod-shaped nanoparticles to the collector (poly-L-lysine coated silica sensor) surface under favorable conditions. Under unfavorable conditions, the retention of nanoparticles in a microfluidic flow cell packed with glass beads was studied with the use of laser scanning cytometry (LSC). Under favorable conditions, the spherical particles displayed a significantly higher deposition rate compared with that of the rod-shaped particles. Theoretical analysis based on Smoluchowski-Levich approximation indicated that the rod-shaped particles largely counterbalance the attractive energies due to higher hydrodynamic forces and torques experienced during their transport and rotation. Under unfavorable conditions, significantly more attachment was observed for rod-shaped particles than spherical particles, and the attachment rate of the rod-shaped particles showed an increasing trend with the increase in injection volume. Rod-shaped particles were found to be less sensitive to the surface charge heterogeneity change

  5. Investigating the role of particle shape on colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Seymour, M.; Chen, G.; Su, C.

    2013-12-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the transport and retention of nanoparticles in porous media is essential both for environmental applications of nanotechnology and assessing the potential environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials. Engineered and naturally occurring nanoparticles can be found in various shapes including rod-shape carbon nanotubes that have high aspect ratios. Although it is expected that nonspherical shape could play an important role on their transport and retention behaviors, current theoretical models for particle transport in porous media, however, are mostly based on spherical particle shape. In this work, the effect of particle shape on its transport and retention in porous media was evaluated by stretching carboxylate-modified fluorescent polystyrene spheres into rod shapes with aspect ratios of 2:1 and 4:1. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation experiments (QCM-D) were conducted to measure the deposition rates of spherical and rod-shaped nanoparticles to the collector (poly-L-lysine coated silica sensor) surface under favorable conditions. Under unfavorable conditions, the retention of nanoparticles in a microfluidic flow cell packed with glass beads was studied with the use of laser scanning cytometry (LSC). Under favorable conditions, the spherical particles displayed a significantly higher deposition rate compared with that of the rod-shaped particles. Theoretical analysis based on Smoluchowski-Levich approximation indicated that the rod-shaped particles largely counterbalance the attractive energies due to higher hydrodynamic forces and torques experienced during their transport and rotation. Under unfavorable conditions, significantly more attachment was observed for rod-shaped particles than spherical particles, and the attachment rate of the rod-shaped particles showed an increasing trend with the increase in injection volume. Rod-shaped particles were found to be less sensitive to the surface charge heterogeneity change

  6. A role of aerosol particles in forming urban skyglow and skyglow from distant cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kómar, Ladislav

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles may represent the largest uncertainty about skyglow change in many locations under clear-sky conditions. This is because aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and influence the ground-reaching radiation in different ways depending on their concentrations, origins, shapes, sizes, and compositions. Large particles tend to scatter in Fraunhofer diffraction regime, while small particles can be treated in terms of Rayleigh formalism. However, the role of particle microphysics in forming the skyglow still remains poorly quantified. We have shown in this paper that the chemistry is somehow important for backscattering from large particles that otherwise work as efficient attenuators of light pollution if composed of absorbing materials. The contribution of large particles to the urban skyglow diminishes as they become more spherical in shape. The intensity of backscattering from non-absorbing particles is more-or-less linearly decreasing function of particle radius even if number size distribution is inversely proportional to the fourth power of particle radius. This is due to single particle backscattering that generally increases steeply as the particle radius approaches large values. Forward scattering depends on the particle shape but is independent of the material composition, thus allowing for a simplistic analytical model of skyglow from distant cities. The model we have developed is based on mean value theorem for integrals and incorporates the parametrizable Garstang's emission pattern, intensity decay along optical beam path, and near-forward scattering in an atmospheric environment. Such model can be used by modellers and experimentalists for rapid estimation of skyglow from distant light sources.

  7. Significant role of deformation in probing postsaddle nuclear dissipation with light particle emission

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, W.

    2010-05-15

    Using a one-dimensional Langevin model, we study the effects of deformation on the multiplicities of postsaddle neutrons, protons, alpha particles, and giant dipole resonance (GDR) gamma rays of a heavy fissioning system {sup 240}Cf as probes of postsaddle nuclear dissipation (beta). It is shown that postsaddle dissipation effects on these light particles have a significant deformation dependence. Furthermore, we find that the role of deformation depends on the type of the particle. It reduces the sensitive influence of beta on protons, alpha particles, and GDR gamma rays substantially, whereas it enhances the sensitivity of neutrons to beta. The results suggest that to accurately extract the postsaddle friction strength by comparing measured prescission particle multiplicities of heavy nuclei with calculations based on statistical models or stochastic equations like Langevin equations, it is important to take into account the deformation effects. The influence of model dimensionality is discussed.

  8. Role of organics in particle nucleation: From the lab to global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommen, Josef; Riccobono, Francesco; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Bianchi, Federico; Scott, Catherine; Ortega, Ismael K.; Rondo, Linda; Breitenlechner, Martin; Junninen, Heikki; Donahue, Neil M.; Kürten, Andreas; Praplan, Arnaud; Weingartner, Ernest; Hansel, Armin; Curtius, Joachim; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Baltensperger, Urs; Cloud Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    The role of oxidized organic compounds in the process of new particle formation in the atmosphere is poorly known. Here we used the ultraclean and most sophisticated CLOUD chamber to investigate systematically particle formation in the presence of sulfuric acid and oxidized organics. We varied independently the concentrations of both of these components. In addition, nucleation was observed without and in the presence of ionic compounds. From the results a new parameterized description of nucleation was derived for global climate model simulations.

  9. Characteristics of atmospheric ice nucleating particles associated with biomass burning in the US: Prescribed burns and wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Christina S.

    Insufficient knowledge regarding the sources and number concentrations of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INP) leads to large uncertainties in understanding the interaction of aerosols with cloud processes, such as cloud life time and precipitation rates. This study utilizes measurements of INP from a diverse set of biomass burning events to better understand INP associated with biomass burning in the U.S. Prescribed burns in Georgia and Colorado, two Colorado wildfires and two laboratory burns were monitored for INP number concentrations. The relationship between nINP and total particle number concentrations, evident within prescribed burning plumes, was degraded within aged smoke plumes from the wildfires, limiting the utility of this relationship for comparing laboratory and field data. Larger particles, represented by n500nm, are less vulnerable to plume processing and have previously been evaluated for their relation to nINP. Our measurements indicated that for a given n500nm, nINP associated with the wildfires were nearly an order of magnitude higher than nINP found in prescribed fire emissions. Reasons for the differences between INP characteristics in these emissions were explored, including variations in combustion efficiency, fuel type, transport time and environmental conditions. Combustion efficiency and fuel type were eliminated as controlling factors by comparing samples with contrasting combustion efficiencies and fuel types. Transport time was eliminated because the expected impact would be to reduce n500nm, thus resulting in the opposite effect from the observed change. Bulk aerosol chemical composition analyses support the potential role of elevated soil dust particle concentrations during the fires, contributing to the population of INP, but the bulk analyses do not target INP composition directly. It is hypothesized that both hardwood burning and soil lofting are responsible for the elevated production of INP in the Colorado wildfires in

  10. Chemical characteristics and source of size-fractionated atmospheric particle in haze episode in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun; Zhen, Naijia; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    The abundance, behavior, and source of chemical species in size-fractionated atmospheric particle were studied with a 13-stage low pressure impactor (ELPI) during high polluted winter episode in Beijing. Thirty three elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) and eight water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +) were determined by ICP/MS and IC, respectively. The size distribution of TC (OC + EC) was reconstructed. Averagely, 51.5 ± 5.3% and 74.1 ± 3.7% of the total aerosol mass was distributed in the sub-micron (PM1) and fine particle (PM2.5), respectively. A significant shift to larger fractions during heavy pollution episode was observed for aerosol mass, NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. The mass size distributions of NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, and K were dominated by accumulation mode. Size distributions of elements were classified into four main types: (I) elements were enriched within the accumulation mode (< 1 μm, Ge, Se, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Hg, Ti, and Pb); (II) those mass (K, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, and Cd) was resided mainly within the accumulation mode, ranged from 1 to 2 μm; (III) Na, V, Co, Ni, and Ga were distributed among fine, intermediate, and coarse modes; and (IV) those which were mainly found within particles larger than 2.7 μm (Al, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Tl, Fe, Sr, Zr, and Ba). [H+]cor showed an accumulation mode at 600-700 nm and the role of Ca2 + should be fully considered in the estimation of acidity. The acidity in accumulation mode particles suggested that generally gaseous NH3 was not enough to neutralize sulfate completely. PMF method was applied for source apportionment of elements combined with water soluble ions. Dust, vehicle, aged coal combustion, and sea salt were identified, and the size resolved source apportionments were discussed. Aged coal combustion was the important source of fine particles and

  11. Identification of characteristic mass spectrometric markers for primary biological aerosol particles and comparison with field data from submicron pristine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freutel, F.; Schneider, J.; Zorn, S. R.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Hoffmann, T.; Martin, S. T.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of primary biological aerosol (PBA) to the total aerosol particle concentration is estimated to range between 25 and 80%, depending on location and season. Especially in the tropical rain forest it is expected that PBA is a major source of particles in the supermicron range, and is also an important fraction of the submicron aerosol. PBA particles like plant fragments, pollen, spores, fungi, viruses etc. contain chemical compounds as proteins, sugars, amino acids, chlorophyll, and cellular material as cellulose. For this reason we have performed mass spectrometric laboratory measurements (Aerodyne C-ToF and W-ToF AMS, single particle laser ablation instrument SPLAT) on pure submicron aerosol particles containing typical PBA compounds in order to identify typical mass spectral patterns of these compounds and to explain the observed fragmentation patterns on the basis of molecular structures. These laboratory data were compared to submicron particle mass spectra obtained during AMAZE-08 (Amazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment, Brazil, February/March 2008). The results indicate that characteristic m/z ratios for carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, saccharose, levoglucosan, mannitol) can be identified, for example m/z = 60(C2H4O2+) or m/z = 61(C2H5O2+). Certain characteristic peaks for amino acids were also identified in the laboratory experiments. In the field data from AMAZE-08, these characteristic peaks for carbohydrates and amino acids were found, and their contribution to the total organic mass was estimated to about 5%. Fragment ions from peptides and small proteins were also identified in laboratory experiments. Larger proteins, however, seem to become oxidized to CO2+ to a large extend in the vaporizing process of the AMS. Thus, detection of proteins in atmospheric aerosol particles with the AMS appears to be difficult.

  12. Characteristics of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in Aerosol Particles in Jingjinji-Mega Typical Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li

    2013-06-01

    seasonal variation characteristics.The highest WSI concentrations appeared in winter or in summer.Particle size distribution analysis reveals that SO42-NO3-Na+ and K+showed a bimodal size distribution. The first peak with fine mode appeared at 0.43.1μm, and the second peak with the coarse mode appeared at 4.7-5.8μm. NH4+was unimodal the peak with the fine mode of 0.43-1.1μm. Ca2+ and Mg2+were unimodal the peak respectively with the coarse mode of4.7-5.8μm. Modes of SNA transferred obviously in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, except Beijing, which may be due to higher humidity. Haze is more conducive to generation and accumulation of water-soluble ions, in which the accumulation of SNA is major.Sources analysis indicated that dust, biomass burning emission, sea salt, secondary formation in fine particles and heterogeneous reaction of NH4+ and NO3-in coarse particles were the major sources of TWSI in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. Secondary formation and dust were the major sources of the fine particles, in which the contributing rate of secondary formation was over 40%. Coal burning emission and exhaust pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region becomes more and more serious. The whole area should strengthen the control of gaseous pollutants emissions.

  13. Characteristics of atmospheric particulate mercury in size-fractionated particles during haze days in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojia; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Zhu, Qiongyu; Behera, Sailesh N.; Bo, Dandan; Huang, Xian; Xie, Haiyun; Cheng, Jinping

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (PHg) is recognized as a global pollutant that requires regulation because of its significant impacts on both human health and wildlife. The haze episodes that occur frequently in China could influence the transport and fate of PHg. To examine the characteristics of PHg during haze and non-haze days, size-fractioned particles were collected using thirteen-stage Nano-MOUDI samplers (10 nm-18 μm) during a severe haze episode (from December 2013 to January 2014) in Shanghai. The PHg concentration on haze days (4.11 ± 0.53 ng m-3) was three times higher than on non-haze days (1.34 ± 0.15 ng m-3). The ratio of the PHg concentration to total gaseous mercury (TGM) ranged from 0.42 during haze days to 0.21 during non-haze days, which was possibly due to the elevated concentration of particles for gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) adsorption, elevated sulfate and nitrate contributing to GEM oxidation, and the catalytic effect of elevated water-soluble inorganic metal ions. PHg/PM10 during haze days (0.019 ± 0.004 ng/μg) was lower than during non-haze days (0.024 ± 0.002 ng/μg), and PHg/PM10 was significantly reduced with an increasing concentration of PM10, which implied a relatively lower growth velocity of mercury than other compositions on particles during haze days, especially in the diameter range of 0.018-0.032 μm. During haze days, each size-fractioned PHg concentration was higher than the corresponding fraction on non-haze days, and the dominant particle size was in the accumulation mode, with constant accumulation to a particle size of 0.56-1.0 μm. The mass size distribution of PHg was bimodal with peaks at 0.32-0.56 μm and 3.1-6.2 μm on non-haze days, and 0.56-1.0 μm and 3.1-6.2 μm on haze days. There was a clear trend that the dominant size for PHg in the fine modes shifted from 0.32-0.56 μm during non-haze days to 0.56-1.0 μm on haze days, which revealed the higher growth velocity of PHg on haze days due to the

  14. Role of Particle Focusing in Resistive-Pulse Technique: Direction-Dependent Velocity in Micropores.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yinghua; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Hinkle, Preston; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia; Levine, Alex J; Siwy, Zuzanna S

    2016-03-22

    Passage time through single micropores is an important parameter used to quantify the surface charge and zeta potential of particles. In the resistive-pulse technique, the measured time of pressure- or electric-field-induced translocation is assumed to be direction independent. This assumption is supported by the low velocities of the particles and the supporting fluid such that the transport reversibility known for Stokes flow is expected to apply. In this article, we present examples of micropores in which passage time of ∼400 nm diameter particles becomes direction-dependent; that is, the particles' translocation times from left to right and right to left are different. These pores are characterized by an undulating inner diameter such that at least one wider zone called a cavity separates two narrower regions of different lengths. We propose that the observed direction-dependence of the translocation velocity is caused by an asymmetric efficiency of particle focusing toward the pore axis, which leads to a direction-dependent set of particle trajectories. The reported pores present the simplest system in which time-broken symmetry has been observed. The results are of importance for sensing of particles and molecules by the resistive-pulse technique since pores used for detection are often characterized by finite roughness or noncylindrical shape. This article also points to the role of particle focusing in the magnitude and distribution of the translocation times.

  15. Role of Settling Particles on Mercury Methylation in the Oxic Water Column of Freshwater Systems.

    PubMed

    Gascón Díez, Elena; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Cosio, Claudia; Bouchet, Sylvain; Adatte, Thierry; Amouroux, David; Bravo, Andrea G

    2016-11-01

    As the methylation of inorganic mercury to neurotoxic methylmercury has been attributed to the activity of anaerobic bacteria, the formation of methylmercury in the oxic water column of marine ecosystems has puzzled scientists over the past years. Here we show for the first time that methylmercury can be produced in particles sinking through oxygenated water column of lakes. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in the settling particles and in surface sediments of the largest freshwater lake in Western Europe (Lake Geneva). While total mercury concentration differences between sediments and settling particles were not significant, methylmercury concentrations were about ten-fold greater in settling particles. Methylmercury demethylation rate constants (kd) were of similar magnitude in both compartments. In contrast, mercury methylation rate constants (km) were one order of magnitude greater in settling particles. The net potential for methylmercury formation, assessed by the ratio between the two rate constants (km kd(-1)), was therefore up to ten fold greater in settling particles, denoting that in situ transformations likely contributed to the high methylmercury concentration found in settling particles. Mercury methylation was inhibited (∼80%) in settling particles amended with molybdate, demonstrating the prominent role of biological sulfate-reduction in the process.

  16. Etching characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samman, H.; Ashry, A. H.; Arafa, W.; Abou-leila, M.; Abdalla, A. M.; Tsuruta, T.

    2014-09-01

    This study reports the characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector. Several important parameters that control the track formation such as, the bulk etch rate (VB), track etching rate (VT), dependence of VB and VT on etching concentration and temperature have been extensively studied. The activation energy (Eb) of the bulk etching rate for the DAM-ADC sheets has been calculated, the dependence of etching efficiency and sensitivity upon etchant concentrations and temperature has been investigated, registration efficiency of DAM-ADC detector etched at the optimum etching condition has been examined. The detailed studied results presented in this study provide various useful information about the mechanism of track formation in polymers.

  17. Characteristics of beryllium exposure to small particles at a beryllium production facility.

    PubMed

    Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Day, Gregory A; Stanton, Marcia L; Kent, Michael S; Kreiss, Kathleen; Schuler, Christine R

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported process-specific elevated prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) among workers. However, exposure-response relationships have been inconsistent, possibly due to incomplete characterization of many biologically relevant aspects of exposure, including particle size. In 1999, two surveys were conducted 3-5 months apart at a beryllium metal, oxide, and alloy production facility during which personal impactor samples (n = 198) and personal 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) 'total' samples (n = 4026) were collected. Among process areas, median particle mass median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 5 to 14 μm. A large fraction of the beryllium aerosol was in the nonrespirable size range. Respirable beryllium concentrations were among the highest for oxide production [geometric mean (GM) = 2.02 μg m⁻³, geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.3] and pebbles plant (GM = 1.05 μg m⁻³, GSD = 2.9), areas historically associated with high risk of BeS and CBD. The relationship between GM 'CFC total' and GM respirable beryllium for jobs varied by process areas; the rank order of the jobs showed high overall consistency (Spearman r = 0.84), but the overall correlation was moderate (Pearson r = 0.43). Total beryllium concentrations varied greatly within and between workers among process areas; within-worker variance was larger than between-worker variance for most processes. A review of exposure characteristics among process areas revealed variation in chemical forms and solubility. Process areas with high risk of BeS and CBD had exposure to both soluble and insoluble forms of beryllium. Consideration of biologically relevant aspects of exposure such as beryllium particle size distribution, chemical form, and solubility will likely improve exposure assessment.

  18. Particle and field characteristics of broadband electrons observed by the FAST satellite during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, A.; Shiokawa, K.; Seki, K.; Strangeway, R. J.; McFadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.

    2007-06-01

    Broadband electrons (BBEs) are remarkable flux enhancements (>1013 eV cm-2 s-1) of precipitating electrons over a broad energy range (0.03-30 keV) near the equatorward edge of the auroral oval during geomagnetic storms. We show characteristics of particles (energy spectra and pitch angle distribution) and fields (electric field, magnetic field, and wave spectra) during a BBE event observed by the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) satellite. The BBEs were observed at an altitude of ˜2000 km at 59°-61° invariant latitudes (ILATs) and 21 h magnetic local time (MLT). The event was observed at ˜7 min after the onset of a substorm during the main phase of the Bastille Day geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -301 nT) on 15 July 2000. The precipitation region of the BBEs corresponded to a localized intensification of auroral emission, lasting ˜14 min, observed by the Polar UVI images at 50°-60° geomagnetic latitudes (MLATs) and 20-21 MLTs. These results suggest that rapid particle acceleration was occurring in the inner magnetosphere associated with a storm-time substorm. The pitch angle distribution of BBEs was isotropic except for a loss cone feature around the field-aligned upward direction at a higher energy range above ˜1 keV, while field-aligned electron fluxes were larger than the perpendicular fluxes below ˜1 keV. These results imply that a higher energy part of the BBEs originated from higher altitudes in the inner magnetosphere and that a lower energy part was accelerated parallel to the local magnetic field at lower altitudes near the satellite. Intense fluctuations of electric and magnetic fields were observed during this BBE event. From these results, we discuss possible acceleration of the lower energy part of BBEs through wave-particle interaction.

  19. Characteristics of temporal evolution of particle density and electron temperature in helicon discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiong; Cheng, Mousen; Guo, Dawei; Wang, Moge; Li, Xiaokang

    2017-10-01

    On the basis of considering electrochemical reactions and collision relations in detail, a direct numerical simulation model of a helicon plasma discharge with three-dimensional two-fluid equations was employed to study the characteristics of the temporal evolution of particle density and electron temperature. With the assumption of weak ionization, the Maxwell equations coupled with the plasma parameters were directly solved in the whole computational domain. All of the partial differential equations were solved by the finite element solver in COMSOL MultiphysicsTM with a fully coupled method. In this work, the numerical cases were calculated with an Ar working medium and a Shoji-type antenna. The numerical results indicate that there exist two distinct modes of temporal evolution of the electron and ground atom density, which can be explained by the ion pumping effect. The evolution of the electron temperature is controlled by two schemes: electromagnetic wave heating and particle collision cooling. The high RF power results in a high peak electron temperature while the high gas pressure leads to a low steady temperature. In addition, an OES experiment using nine Ar I lines was conducted using a modified CR model to verify the validity of the results by simulation, showing that the trends of temporal evolution of electron density and temperature are well consistent with the numerically simulated ones.

  20. Chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from different gas cooking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.

  1. Characteristics of PAH tar oil contaminated soils-Black particles, resins and implications for treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Trellu, Clément; Miltner, Anja; Gallo, Rosita; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A; Kästner, Matthias

    2017-04-05

    Tar oil contamination is a major environmental concern due to health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the difficulty of reaching acceptable remediation end-points. Six tar oil-contaminated soils with different industrial histories were compared to investigate contamination characteristics by black particles. Here we provide a simple method tested on 6 soils to visualize and identify large amounts of black particles (BP) as either solid aggregates of resinified and weathered tar oil or various wood/coke/coal-like materials derived from the contamination history. These materials contain 2-10 times higher PAH concentrations than the average soil and were dominantly found in the sand fraction containing 42-86% of the total PAH. The PAH contamination in the different granulometric fractions was directly proportional to the respective total organic carbon content, since the PAH were associated to the carbonaceous particulate materials. Significantly lower (bio)availability of PAH associated to these carbonaceous phases is widely recognized, thus limiting the efficiency of remediation techniques. We provide a conceptual model of the limited mass transfer of PAH from resinated tar oil phases to the water phase and emphasize the options to physically separate BP based on their lower bulk density and slower settling velocity.

  2. Characteristics of particle-associated PAHs in a first flush of a highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Aryal, R K; Furumai, H; Nakajima, F; Boller, M

    2006-01-01

    Runoff monitoring of six rainfall events was carried out in a highway, Winterthur, Switzerland focusing on first flush (runoff volume up to 2.88 mm). Six runoff events were used to investigate the characteristics of particle-associated PAHs in first flush. The fine fraction (< 45 microm) had a relatively higher contribution than the coarse fraction. A significant contribution of the coarse fraction was observed at some periods when the runoff flow rapidly increased. Fluctuation of PAH content during a runoff event was significant in the coarse fraction and, in contrast, the PAH content in the fine fraction was less fluctuating. The weighted average PAH content in each event ranged from 17 to 62 microg/g in total SS, from 23 to 54 microg/g in the fine fraction and from 16 to 84 microg/g in the coarse fraction. The loading of particle-associated PAHs from the first flush of highway runoff ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 g/ha in a total of 12 PAH species.

  3. Origin of shear-induced diffusion in particulate suspensions: Crucial role of solid contacts between particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong

    organized structure. Two different experiments were performed to assess the role of contacts between particles in sheared suspensions. In the first experiment, the dynamics of three non-Brownian and neutrally buoyant particles were measured under periodic shear. The particle trajectories are irreversible during the first cycle of shear but reversible for the following cycles. By showing that the magnitude of irreversibility increases systematically with the particle roughness, we provide direct evidence that contacts between particles occur in viscous flow and strongly influence the particle dynamics. The experimental particle trajectories are very well captured by the minimal numerical model. In the second experiment, performed in a homogeneous suspension, the role of solid collisions was also revealed by showing that the critical strain amplitude depends on the particle roughness. A geometrical model based on the assumption that colliding particles produce irreversibility was derived. The model, which considers a 'quasi-particle' having a strain and roughness dependent effective-volume, successfully reproduces the measured values of the critical strain amplitude as functions of the volume fraction and particle roughness.

  4. Mechanisms of sequential particle transfer and characteristics of light neutron-excess and oriented nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanina, L. I.; Zelenskaya, N. S.

    2012-03-01

    The procedure for evaluating the second-order corrections to the matrix elements of the reaction A( x, y) B, which are obtained using the method of distorted waves with a finite radius of intercluster interaction (DWBAFR), is developed. It is based on the assumption of a virtual cluster structure of light nuclei and uses integral equations for a four-body problem in the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas formalism. These corrections are related with the mechanisms of sequential particles transfer. The latter are represented by the quadrangle diagrams. Their matrix elements are summed up coherently with those given by the pole and triangle diagrams which were calculated by using DWBAFR. The computer code QUADRO is written for the numerical implementation of the method proposed. The statistical tensors of nucleus B formed in the reaction A( x, y) B at incident particle energies of about 10 MeV/nucleon in the center of mass frame are determined. Specific calculations allowed for description of both the experimental cross sections (0-rank statistical tensors) of various reactions (including those where nucleus B has some excess neutrons) and polarized characteristics of nucleus B* (in the case of the latter produced in the exited state). A two-neutron periphery of nuclei 6He, 10Be, 12B (both in dineutron and cigarlike configurations) is restored by analyzing the differential cross sections of elastic alpha-6He-scattering and 9Be( d, p)10Be and 10B( t, p)12B reactions. It is shown that the structure of neutron peripheries is fundamentally different for these nuclei and its feature depends on the way those neutron-excess nuclei are formed: in 6He both configurations contribute to a two-neutron halo, while in 10Be there is a barely noticeable one-neutron halo, and in 12B there is a "dineutron skin". Orientation characteristics of nuclei B* are calculated. Their comparison with experimental data made it possible to draw important conclusions about a contribution to the statistical

  5. Response characteristics of the phase Doppler particle analyzer for sizing spherical particles larger than the light wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Subramanian V.; Bachalo, William D.

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical model, based on the geometrical optics approach, has been developed to simulate various aspects of the phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The model has taken into consideration the nonuniform (Gaussian) illumination of the particles as they pass through the measurement probe volume. Instrument response curves have been generated for various scattering angles by performing spatial and temporal integration of the scattered intensity distribution over the receiver surface. Experimental and theoretical investigations have established the applicability of this instrument to both forward scattered and backscattered angles.

  6. Response characteristics of the phase Doppler particle analyzer for sizing spherical particles larger than the light wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Subramanian V.; Bachalo, William D.

    1991-04-01

    A theoretical model, based on the geometrical optics approach, has been developed to simulate various aspects of the phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The model has taken into consideration the nonuniform (Gaussian) illumination of the particles as they pass through the measurement probe volume. Instrument response curves have been generated for various scattering angles by performing spatial and temporal integration of the scattered intensity distribution over the receiver surface. Experimental and theoretical investigations have established the applicability of this instrument to both forward scattered and backscattered angles.

  7. Response characteristics of the phase Doppler particle analyzer for sizing spherical particles larger than the light wavelength.

    PubMed

    Sankar, S V; Bachalo, W D

    1991-04-20

    A theoretical model, based on the geometrical optics approach, has been developed to simulate various aspects of the phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The model has taken into consideration the nonuniform (Gaussian) illumination of the particles as they pass through the measurement probe volume. Instrument response curves have been generated for various scattering angles by performing spatial and temporal integration of the scattered intensity distribution over the receiver surface. Experimental and theoretical investigations have established the applicability of this instrument to both forward scattered and backscattered angles.

  8. The role of organic condensation on ultrafine particle growth during nucleation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patoulias, D.; Fountoukis, C.; Riipinen, I.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    A new aerosol dynamics model (DMANx) has been developed that simulates aerosol size/composition distribution and includes the condensation of organic vapors on nanoparticles through the implementation of the recently developed volatility basis set framework. Simulations were performed for Hyytiälä (Finland) and Finokalia (Greece), two locations with different organic sources where detailed measurements were available to constrain the new model. We investigate the effect of condensation of organics and chemical aging reactions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors on ultrafine particle growth and particle number concentration during a typical springtime nucleation event in both locations. This work highlights the importance of the pathways of oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds and the production of extremely low volatility organics. At Hyytiälä, organic condensation dominates the growth process of new particles. The low-volatility SOA contributes to particle growth during the early growth stage, but after a few hours most of the growth is due to semi-volatile SOA. At Finokalia, simulations show that organics have a complementary role in new particle growth, contributing 45% to the total mass of new particles. Condensation of organics increases the number concentration of particles that can act as CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) (N100) by 13% at Finokalia and 25% at Hyytiälä during a typical spring day with nucleation. The sensitivity of our results to the surface tension used is discussed.

  9. Role of relative size of asperities and adhering particles on the adhesion force.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aditya; Staedler, Thorsten; Jiang, Xin

    2013-11-01

    Adhesion force between silica microspheres of different sizes and different rough surfaces (silicon and diamond like carbon) has been measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Surface roughness, asperity geometry, and size of adhering particles play an important role in determining the adhesion force. Adhesion force linearly increases with size of adhering particle for smooth surfaces and can be described by the JRK model. Adhesion force of adhering particle bigger than in size to the asperities decreases with surface roughness and can be described by the Rabinovich model. For the particles smaller than or similar in size to the asperities, the adhesion force increases with surface roughness. In later case, the interaction of adhering particles with valley portion of asperities is dominated and the contact area increases. On the basis of Rabinovich model, a new equation, which takes the relative size of adhering particles and asperities into account, is derived and compared with experimental results. The normalized adhesion force decreases with ratio of root-mean-square (rms) roughness to radius of adhering particle up to 0.0025, followed by increasing normalized adhesion forces.

  10. Role of radiation reaction forces in the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dalakishvili, G. T.; Rogava, A. D.; Berezhiani, V. I.

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we study the influence of radiation reaction (RR) forces on the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles. It is assumed that the particles move along magnetic field lines anchored in the rotating central object. The common 'bead-on-the-wire' approximation is used. The solutions are found and analyzed for cases when the form of the prescribed trajectory (rigidly rotating field line) is approximated by: (a) straight line, and (b) Archimedes spiral. Dynamics of neutral and charged particles are compared with the emphasis on the role of RR forces in the latter case. It is shown that for charged particles there exist locations of stable equilibrium. It is demonstrated that for particular initial conditions RR forces cause centripetal motion of the particles: their 'falling' on the central rotating object. It is found that in the case of Archimedes spiral both neutral and charged particles can reach infinity where their motion has asymptotically force-free character. The possible importance of these processes for the acceleration of relativistic, charged particles by rotating magnetospheres in the context of the generation of nonthermal, high-energy emission of AGN and pulsars is discussed.

  11. Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Joseph J

    2009-08-07

    This Final Report summarizes work performed under DOE STTR Phase II Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER86258 during the project period from August 2006 to August 2009. The project, “Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments,” was led by Prism Computational Sciences (Madison, WI), and involved collaboration with subcontractors University of Nevada-Reno and Voss Scientific (Albuquerque, NM). In this project, we have: Developed and implemented a multi-dimensional, multi-frequency radiation transport model in the LSP hybrid fluid-PIC (particle-in-cell) code [1,2]. Updated the LSP code to support the use of accurate equation-of-state (EOS) tables generated by Prism’s PROPACEOS [3] code to compute more accurate temperatures in high energy density physics (HEDP) plasmas. Updated LSP to support the use of Prism’s multi-frequency opacity tables. Generated equation of state and opacity data for LSP simulations for several materials being used in plasma jet experimental studies. Developed and implemented parallel processing techniques for the radiation physics algorithms in LSP. Benchmarked the new radiation transport and radiation physics algorithms in LSP and compared simulation results with analytic solutions and results from numerical radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. Performed simulations using Prism radiation physics codes to address issues related to radiative cooling and ionization dynamics in plasma jet experiments. Performed simulations to study the effects of radiation transport and radiation losses due to electrode contaminants in plasma jet experiments. Updated the LSP code to generate output using NetCDF to provide a better, more flexible interface to SPECT3D [4] in order to post-process LSP output. Updated the SPECT3D code to better support the post-processing of large-scale 2-D and 3-D datasets generated by simulation codes such as LSP. Updated atomic physics modeling to provide for

  12. Particle Morphology Effects on Flow Characteristics of PS304 Plasma Spray Coating Feedstock Powder Blend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Eylon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The effects of BaF2-CaF 2 particle morphology on PS304 feedstock powder flow ability have been investigated. BaF2-CaF2 eutectic powders were fabricated by comminution (angular) and by gas atomization (spherical). The fluoride powders were added incrementally to the other powder constituents of the PS304 feedstock: nichrome, chromia, and silver powders. A linear relationship between flow time and concentration of BaF2-CaF2 powder was found. Flow of the powder blend with spherical BaF2-CaF2 was better than the angular BaF2-CaF2. Flow ability of the powder blend with angular fluorides decreased linearly with increasing fluoride concentration. Flow of the powder blend with spherical fluorides was independent of fluoride concentration. Results suggest that for this material blend, particle morphology plays a significant role in powder blend flow behavior, offering potential methods to improve powder flow ability and enhance the commercial potential. These findings may have applicability to other difficult-to-flow powders such as cohesive ceramics.

  13. TNT phytotransformation pathway characteristics in Arabidopsis: role of aromatic hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Murali; Oliver, David J; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2006-01-01

    Basic knowledge of the plant transformation pathways of TNT will aid phytoremediation design and assessment. While TNT transformation by plant metabolism has been demonstrated in previous studies, the presence and role of hydroxylamines in the transformation pathway has not been sufficiently understood. Hydroxylamines are unequivocally shown to be formed by plant transformation of TNT by two axenic plant systems (Arabidopsis thaliana and Catharanthusroseus). In addition, confirmation was obtained for conversion of these hydroxylamines to previously identified conjugates. Further characteristics of TNT transformation in Arabidopsis, an increasingly popular model system for genetic and biochemical studies of TNT transformation, were elucidated by [U-14C]TNT mass balance studies and metabolite feeding studies. These studies showed the rapid conversion of TNT to unextractable bound compounds by Arabidopsis seedlings in agreement with the green-liver model. Arabidopsis seedlings formed and transformed 4-substituted metabolites more efficiently than the 2-substituted metabolites. A qualitative kinetic rate analysis of the pathway was performed to propose rate-limiting steps in the pathway and theoretical schemes for improved rates are suggested.

  14. Particle-In-Cell Simulation on the Characteristics of a Receiving Antenna in Space Plasma Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Yohei; Usui, Hideyuki; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2008-12-31

    We applied the electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell simulation to the analysis of receiving antenna characteristics in space plasma environment. In the analysis, we set up external waves in a simulation region and receive them with a numerical antenna model placed in the simulation region. Using this method, we evaluated the effective length of electric field antennas used for plasma wave investigations conducted by scientific spacecraft. We particularly focused on the effective length of an electric field instrument called MEFISTO for a future mission to Mercury: BepiColombo. We first confirmed that the effective length of the MEFISTO-type antenna is basically longer than that of a simple dipole antenna for both electrostatic and electromagnetic plasma waves. By applying the principle of a voltmeter, the effective length of the MEFISTO-type antenna is predicted to become identical to the separation between two sensor-conductor's midpoints. However, the numerical result revealed that the actual effective length becomes shorter than the prediction, which is caused by the shorting-out effect due to the presence of a center boom conductor between the two sensor conductors. Since the above effect is difficult to treat theoretically, the present numerical method is a powerful tool for further quantitative evaluation of the antenna characteristics.

  15. Biological and immunological characteristics of hepatitis E virus-like particles based on the crystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Mori, Yoshio; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Cheng, R. Holland; Yoshimura, Masato; Unno, Hideaki; Shima, Ryoichi; Moriishi, Kohji; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Li, Tian Cheng; Takeda, Naokazu; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis. The crystal structure of HEV-like particles (HEV-LP) consisting of capsid protein was determined at 3.5-Å resolution. The capsid protein exhibited a quite different folding at the protruding and middle domains from the members of the families of Caliciviridae and Tombusviridae, while the shell domain shared the common folding. Tyr-288 at the 5-fold axis plays key roles in the assembly of HEV-LP, and aromatic amino acid residues are well conserved among the structurally related viruses. Mutational analyses indicated that the protruding domain is involved in the binding to the cells susceptive to HEV infection and has some neutralization epitopes. These structural and biological findings are important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of assembly and entry of HEV and also provide clues in the development of preventive and prophylactic measures for hepatitis E. PMID:19620712

  16. IN VITRO CARDIOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: ROLE OF BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CARDIOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: ROLE OF BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION.

    T. L. Knuckles1 R. Jaskot2, J. Richards2, and K.Dreher2.
    1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicin...

  17. IN VITRO CARDIOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: ROLE OF BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CARDIOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: ROLE OF BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION.

    T. L. Knuckles1 R. Jaskot2, J. Richards2, and K.Dreher2.
    1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicin...

  18. THE ROLE OF ZINC IN PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED PROCOAGULANT AND CARDIAC EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE ROLE OF ZINC IN PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED PROCOAGULANT AND CARDIAC EFFECTS
    PS Gilmour, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, Samet JM and UP Kodavanti, CEMLB, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, US EPA, HSD, NHEERL, Chapel Hill, NC, and US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PTB, Research Triangle Park, NC USA....

  19. THE ROLE OF ZINC IN PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED PROCOAGULANT AND CARDIAC EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE ROLE OF ZINC IN PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED PROCOAGULANT AND CARDIAC EFFECTS
    PS Gilmour, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, Samet JM and UP Kodavanti, CEMLB, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, US EPA, HSD, NHEERL, Chapel Hill, NC, and US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PTB, Research Triangle Park, NC USA....

  20. Particle-In-Cell Simulations on Electric Field Antenna Characteristics in the Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.; Kojima, H.; Omura, Y.; Matsumoto, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Physics (STP) group in Japan has organized a new magnetospheric mission named SCOPE whose objective is to investigate the scale-coupling process of plasma dynamics in the Terrestrial magnetosphere. For the sophisticated electric field measurements planned in the SCOPE mission, we have to investigate the antenna characteristics which are essential for the precise calibration of observed data. Particularly, (1) realistic antenna geometries including spacecraft body and (2) inhomogeneous plasma environment created by plasma-spacecraft interactions should be taken into consideration in the antenna analysis for application to the scientific mission. However, the analysis of the antenna impedance is very complex because the plasma is a dispersive and anisotropic medium, and thus it is too difficult to consider the realistic plasma environment near the spacecraft by the theoretical approaches. In the present study, we apply the Particle-In-Cell simulations to the antenna analysis, which enables us to treat the antenna model including a spacecraft body and analyze the effects of photoelectron emission on antenna characteristics. The present antenna model consists of perfect conducting antennas and spacecraft body, and the photoelectron emission from the sunlit surfaces is also modeled. Using these models, we first performed the electrostatic simulations and examined the photoelectron environment around the spacecraft. Next, the antenna impedance under the obtained photoelectron environment was examined by the electromagnetic simulations. Impedance values obtained in photoelectron environment were much different from those in free space, and they were analogous to the impedance characteristics of an equivalent electric circuit consisting of a resistance and capacitance connected in parallel. The validity of the obtained values has been examined by the comparison with the measurements by the scientific spacecraft.

  1. The role of unsteady forces for sediment particles in bedload transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Detian; Liu, Xiaofeng; Fu, Xudong

    2016-04-01

    In engineering, bedload transport is usually predicted by a variety of formulas, and huge uncertainty is found from case to case. One of the fundamental reasons is the lack of fully understanding the dynamic behavior of bedload particles. We explore the dynamic characteristics of sediment particles transported in turbulent open-channel flows. A numerical model of sediment transport is built by combining the large eddy simulation (LES) with discrete element model (DEM) using a fully four-way coupling method. Particular attention is paid to the hydrodynamic forces acting on bedload particles. The result shows that, in addition to drag force, the unsteady forces (i.e. Basset history force and added mass force) are important (40%~60% in the summation of all the time-averaged magnitude of forces) for fine sediment particles (with a diameter of 0.5 mm), which are usually ignored for computational complexity. While the lift force has been found to be significant for gravel particles (with a diameter of 31 mm)[1], it is not relatively dominant for such fine particles (less than 3% in the summation). This helps explaining why the prediction of the same formula change greatly from case to case. The comparison with experimental data also shows great potential of the current LES-DEM model for fundamental research in bedload transport. Reference: [1] Nino, Y., & Garcia, M. (1994). Gravel saltation 2. Modeling. Water Resources Research, 30(6), 1915-1924.

  2. The roles of organics in New particle formation in the Megacity of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Min; Wang, Zhibin; Wu, Zhijun; Yue, Dingli; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi; Boy, Michael; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2013-04-01

    The new particle formation (NPF) has been investigated in the high aerosol loading environment of Beijing since March 2004. The occurrence frequency is comparable with less aerosol loading environment, whereas the monthly or seasonal variations indicate location dependency. Simultaneously measurements of gaseous precursors of H2SO4 vapor and ammonia proved that the H2SO4-NH3-H2O ternary nucleation is an important mechanism for Beijing NPF, which is mainly constrained by the concentrations of the gaseous sulfuric acid and total particle surface area. The higher particle formation rates were observed on high aerosol loading days, followed up NPF, then high organic matter observed by AMS, which indicated the organic vapors should be involved in the new particle formation process. The roles of organics in the formation and growth of the NPF were focused on in the case of summer 2008, Olympic Games period, the particle formation rates show good correlations with sulfuric acid and organic vapors implying that both play an important role in the atmospheric new particle formation. The best fit between observed and modelled particle formation rates is achieved with the homogenous nucleation theory of sulfuric acid (both homomolecularly and hetermolecularly) with separate coefficients in J = KSA1[H2SO4]2 + KSA2[H2SO4][Org], in which the contributions of the sulfuric acid and the organics involving terms have been estimated as 43% and 57%, respectively. The growth of new particles contributed by condensation and neutralization of sulfuric acid, coagulation as well as organic compounds involved growth are discussed. The apparent growth rates vary from 3 to 11 nm h-1. Condensation of sulfuric acid and its subsequent neutralization by ammonia and coagulation contribute to the apparent particle growth on average 45±18% and 34±17%, respectively. The 30% higher concentration of sulfate than organic compounds in particles during the sulfur-rich NPF events but 20% lower

  3. Morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of long range transported wildfire particles at Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, Beatrice; Cappelletti, David; Crocchianti, Stefano; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Mazzola, Mauro; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Ritter, Christoph; Zielinski, Tymon

    2017-05-01

    A prolonged and exceptionally intense air mass advection event transporting biomass burning aerosols generated in Alaska affected Ny-Ålesund in the mid of July 2015. This paper reports the morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of individual aerosol particles collected during the event. To this aim aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore polycarbonate membrane filters using a DEKATI 12-stage low volume impactor and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Results of SEM investigations depict a complex aerosol characterized by an external mixing between a main part of carbonaceous organic particles (tar balls and organic particles), lower ammonium sulfate and minor potassium chloride and mineral dust amounts. The carbonaceous particles are spherical to slightly elongated and the organic particles show an internal mixing of low density organics and/or ammonium sulfate upon denser nuclei. Most particles are in the accumulation mode size range although the size and the morphology of the chloride and the sulfate salts evidence the growth of these species both in the air and upon the sampling membranes. Individual particle analyses were complemented by aerosol size distribution (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and optical (Particle Soot Absorption Photometer, nephelometer) measurements at ground level in order to retrieve the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol in the atmosphere and to predict the fate and behaviour of particles upon deposition at ground level. Individual particle analyses were also compared with bulk chemical analyses on daily sampling filters and back-trajectory analyses of the air mass movement in order to enucleate distinct sources of the aerosol during the long range transport.

  4. Effects of Maternal Employment on Perceived Parental Sex-Role Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated young adults' (N=88) perceptions of their parents' sex role characteristics on the basis of maternal employment status. The object of the study was to assess whether an employed mother's nontraditional role affected perceptions of her sex-role characteristics and those of her husband. In addition, the study looked at the…

  5. Personality characteristics in MS patients: The role of avoidant personality.

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, Amin; Davoodi-Makinejad, Mahsa; Azimi, Amirreza; Nafissi, Shahriar

    2016-05-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is markedly affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). Particular personality characteristics (PC) of MS patients can affect their QOL. We designed the present study to determine the role of various PCs on QOL in MS patients accounting for other clinical factors. QOL, PC, physical disability, and mental status were recorded in 83 MS patients referred to two academic hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2011-2012. The mean age of enrolled patients was 31.54±7.38 (range: 14-50) years and 74 (89.2%) were female. Mean disease duration was 4.55±4.70 years. Seventy-seven patients (92.8%) had relapsing-remitting disease, five (6%) had primary progressive, and one showed a secondary progressive course. Correlation between total QOL scores in MS patients and disease duration, cognitive impairment, and physical disability was significant (all p<0.001). Obsessive-compulsive personality was the most frequent PC (43.4%) in our patients. Only avoidant personality had a significant negative correlation with all components of QOL (Beta: 0.33, p<0.00). In addition, avoidant personality, physical disability, and mental status were found to be three predictors of QOL with all its components. Avoidant personality appears to be an important predictor of poor QOL in MS patients. In addition, avoidant coping strategies appear to be associated with adverse response to stressful events in these patients. These findings suggest the need for psychological intervention for improving the coping strategies and QOL in MS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Airborne ultrafine particles in a Pacific Island country: Characteristics, sources and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Isley, C F; Nelson, P F; Taylor, M P; Mazaheri, M; Morawska, L; Atanacio, A J; Stelcer, E; Cohen, D D; Morrison, Anthony L

    2017-08-14

    The Pacific Islands carry a perception of having clean air, yet emissions from transport and burning activities are of concern in regard to air quality and health. Ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNCs), one of the best metrics to demonstrate combustion emissions, have not been measured either in Suva or elsewhere in the Islands. This work provides insight into PNC variation across Suva and its relationship with particle mass (PM) concentration and composition. Measurements over a short monitoring campaign provide a vignette of conditions in Suva. Ambient PNCs were monitored for 8 day at a fixed location, and mobile PNC sampling for two days. These were compared with PM concentration (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1) and are discussed in relation to black carbon (BC) content and PM2.5 sources, determined from elemental concentrations; for the October 2015 period and longer-term data. Whilst Suva City PM levels remained fairly low, PM2.5 = 10-12 μg m(-3), mean PNC (1.64 ± 0.02 × 10(4) cm(-3)) was high compared to global data. PNCs were greater during mobile sampling, with means of 10.3 ± 1.4 × 10(4) cm(-3) and 3.51 ± 0.07 × 10(4) cm(-3) when travelling by bus and taxi, respectively. Emissions from road vehicles, shipping, diesel and open burning were identified as PM sources for the October 2015 period. Transport related ultrafine particle emissions had a significant impact on microscale ambient concentrations, with PNCs near roads being 1.5 to 2 times higher than nearby outdoor locations and peak PNCs occurring during peak traffic times. Further data, particularly on transport and wet-season exposures, are required to confirm results. Understanding PNC in Suva will assist in formulating effective air emissions control strategies, potentially reducing population exposure across the Islands and in developing countries with similar emission characteristics. Suva's PNC was high in comparison to global data; high exposures were related to

  7. The role of multivalency in the association kinetics of patchy particle complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Arthur C.; Groenewold, Jan; Kegel, Willem K.; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2017-06-01

    Association and dissociation of particles are elementary steps in many natural and technological relevant processes. For many such processes, the presence of multiple binding sites is essential. For instance, protein complexes and regular structures such as virus shells are formed from elementary building blocks with multiple binding sites. Here we address a fundamental question concerning the role of multivalency of binding sites in the association kinetics of such complexes. Using single replica transition interface sampling simulations, we investigate the influence of the multivalency on the binding kinetics and the association mechanism of patchy particles that form polyhedral clusters. When the individual bond strength is fixed, the kinetics naturally is very dependent on the multivalency, with dissociation rate constants exponentially decreasing with the number of bonds. In contrast, we find that when the total bond energy per particle is kept constant, association and dissociation rate constants turn out rather independent of multivalency, although of course still very dependent on the total energy. The association and dissociation mechanisms, however, depend on the presence and nature of the intermediate states. For instance, pathways that visit intermediate states are less prevalent for particles with five binding sites compared to the case of particles with only three bonds. The presence of intermediate states can lead to kinetic trapping and malformed aggregates. We discuss implications for natural forming complexes such as virus shells and for the design of artificial colloidal patchy particles.

  8. The role of adsorbed endotoxin in particle-induced stimulation of cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Cho, David R; Shanbhag, Arun S; Hong, Chi-Yuan; Baran, George R; Goldring, Steven R

    2002-07-01

    Numerous in vitro models have demonstrated the capacity of wear particles to stimulate the release of soluble pro-inflammatory products with the ability to induce local bone resorption. Recent observations have demonstrated that binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to particulate wear debris can significantly modulate the pattern of cell response in the in vitro models. These findings raise concerns over the possible role of LPS in the pathogenesis of aseptic loosening after total joint replacements, and also indicates the importance of controlling for possible confounding effects of LPS contamination in the in vitro models used to study the reactive nature of wear debris. Our studies were undertaken to rigorously analyze the effects of particle-associated LPS on cell responses and to assess the efficacy of different treatment protocols to inactivate LPS associated with different particulate materials. Particles of cobalt-chrome alloy, titanium-6-aluminum-4-vanadium, titanium nitride and silica were pretreated with LPS and exposed to multiple treatment protocols. When cells were treated with "as-received" particles prepared by washing in ethanol, small amounts of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta. and IL-1alpha were detected. In contrast, all particle species pretreated with LPS produced marked increases in TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, and IL-1beta release, as well as upregulation of corresponding mRNA levels even after ethanol washing. Boiling the LPS-pretreated particles in 1% acetic acid or autoclaving and baking the particles also markedly reduced and in some instances abolished the effect of the LPS-pretreatment. This indicates that LPS binds to the surface of particles of diverse composition and that the bound LPS is biologically active. Treatment protocols to inactivate particle-associated LPS demonstrated significant differences in efficacy. When the most rigorous treatments were utilized, essentially all LPS activity could be eliminated. Particles treated with these methods

  9. Role of electron temperature in the particle transport in the pedestal during pedestal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willensdorfer, M.; Fable, E.; Wolfrum, E.; Aumayr, F.; Fischer, R.; Reimold, F.; Ryter, F.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of the electron temperature (Te) on the edge particle transport in the pedestal is analyzed during the density build-up after the L-H transition. Electron cyclotron resonance heating was used to vary the pedestal temperature during the density evolution between subsequent H-mode phases. Although the pedestal Te and its gradients could be varied by a factor of 2, almost no change in the edge density evolution is observed within the measurement uncertainties. ASTRA was used to interpret the measurements and to analyze the dependence of the pedestal particle transport on the Te profile. Thermo-diffusion seems to play a minor role in the pedestal.

  10. Roles of trichomes with silica particles on the surface of leaves in Aphananthe aspera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Fuyu; Yamanaka, Shigeru; Takiyama, Naoyuki; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2013-03-01

    There exist many trichomes with silica particles on the surface of leaves in Aphananthe aspera (Muku tree). The size of the trichomes is on the order of some tens to hundreds of micrometers. Investigating the electric-field local densities of the states and distributions of electromagnetic wave propagation, we theoretically revealed that while trichomes play a role as waveguides for the far-infrared, silica particles help incident far-infrared light efficiently propagate inside the trichomes and leaves. These properties would be useful for efficiently warming plants, since absorbed far-infrared light is converted to heat.

  11. particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yu; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengguo; Fang, Xiaoming; Liang, Guozheng

    2014-05-01

    We explore a facile and nontoxic hydrothermal route for synthesis of a Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material by using l-cysteine as the sulfur source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the complexing agent. The effects of the amount of EDTA, the mole ratio of the three metal ions, and the hydrothermal temperature and time on the phase composition of the obtained product have been systematically investigated. The addition of EDTA and an excessive dose of ZnCl2 in the hydrothermal reaction system favor the generation of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4. Pure kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 has been synthesized at 180°C for 12 h from the reaction system containing 2 mmol of EDTA at 2:2:1 of Cu/Zn/Sn. It is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy that those binary and ternary phases are absent in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 product. The kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 material synthesized by the hydrothermal process consists of flower-like particles with 250 to 400 nm in size. It is revealed that the flower-like particles are assembled from single-crystal Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoflakes with ca. 20 nm in size. The band gap of the Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material is estimated to be 1.55 eV. The films fabricated from the hierarchical Cu2ZnSnS4 particles exhibit fast photocurrent responses under intermittent visible-light irradiation, implying that they show potentials for use in solar cells and photocatalysis.

  12. Mechanical Particle Coating Using Polymethacrylate Nanoparticle Agglomerates for the Preparation of Controlled Release Fine Particles: the Relationship between Coating Performance and the Characteristics of Various Polymethacrylates.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keita; Kato, Shinsuke; Niwa, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-09

    We aimed to understand the factors controlling mechanical particle coating using polymethacrylate. The relationship between coating performance and the characteristics of polymethacrylate powders was investigated. First, theophylline crystals were treated using a mechanical powder processor to obtain theophylline spheres (<100μm). Second, five polymethacrylate latexes were powdered by spray freeze drying to produce colloidal agglomerates. Finally, mechanical particle coating was performed by mixing theophylline spheres and polymethacrylate agglomerates using the processor. The agglomerates were broken under mechanical stress to coat the spheres effectively. The coating performance of polymethacrylate agglomerates tended to increase as their pulverization progressed. Differences in the grindability of the agglomerates were attributed to differences in particle structure, resulting from consolidation between colloidal particles. High-grindability agglomerates exhibited higher pulverization as their glass transition temperature (Tg) increased and the further pulverization promoted coating. We therefore conclude that the minimization of polymethacrylate powder by pulverization is an important factor in mechanical particle coating using polymethacrylate with low deformability. Meanwhile, when product temperature during coating approaches Tg of polymer, polymethacrylate was soften to show high coating performance by plastic deformation. The effective coating by this mechanism may be accomplished by adjusting the temperature in the processor to the Tg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events and Their Dependence on Associated Coronal Mass Ejection Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-08-2005 REPRINT 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar ...coronagraph on SOHO observed during 1998-2002 to statistically determine three characteristic times of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events as...functions of solar source longitude: (1) To, the time from associated CME launch to SEP onset at I AU, (2) TR, the rise time from SEO onset to the time when

  14. Characteristics of turbulence transport for momentum and heat in particle-laden turbulent vertical channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caixi; Tang, Shuai; Shen, Lian; Dong, Yuhong

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic and thermal performance of particle-laden turbulent flow is investigated via direction numerical simulation combined with the Lagrangian point-particle tracking under the condition of two-way coupling, with a focus on the contributions of particle feedback effect to momentum and heat transfer of turbulence. We take into account the effects of particles on flow drag and Nusselt number and explore the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement in particle-laden turbulent flows. The effects of particles on momentum and heat transfer are analyzed, and the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement for the prototypical case of particle-laden turbulent channel flows is addressed. We present results of turbulence modification and heat transfer in turbulent particle-laden channel flow, which shows the heat transfer reduction when large inertial particles with low specific heat capacity are added to the flow. However, we also found an enhancement of the heat transfer and a small reduction of the flow drag when particles with high specific heat capacity are involved. The present results show that particles, which are active agents, interact not only with the velocity field, but also the temperature field and can cause a dissimilarity in momentum and heat transport. This demonstrates that the possibility to increase heat transfer and suppress friction drag can be achieved with addition of particles with different thermal properties.

  15. Mixing and water-soluble characteristics of particulate organic compounds in individual urban aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weijun; Shao, Longyi

    2010-01-01

    Particulate organic compounds (POCs) in the atmosphere can alter the morphology and hygroscopicity of inorganic particles by coagulation and mixing. Direct observations can illustrate the mixing of organic and inorganic particles. Compositions, mixing states, and morphologies of 360 aerosol particles from urban Beijing collected on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids with Si-O substrate were obtained using TEM coupled with energy-dispersive X ray spectrometry (TEM/EDX). The Si-O substrate used in this study allows TEM/EDX to detect carbonaceous particles internally mixed with inorganic particles. POCs were present in approximately 90% of the nitrate-coated mineral particles on both hazy and clear days. Approximately 73% of K- and S-rich particles contained organic coatings and organic inclusions/aggregations on hazy days, while 53% of S-rich particles on clear days during the Beijing Olympics contained only organic coatings. Water dialysis of individual particles indicated that the organic inclusions/aggregations in the K- and S-rich particles were insoluble in water but that POCs from the coatings of individual particles were soluble. The organic coatings on individual inorganic particles may influence their surface hygroscopicity and optical properties.

  16. Theoretical Investigation on Particle Brownian Motion on Micro-air-bubble Characteristic in H2O Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eka Putri, Irana; Gita Redhyka, Grace

    2017-07-01

    Micro-air-bubble has a high potential contribution in waste water, farming, and fishery treatment. In this research, submicron scale of micro-air-bubble was observed to determine its stability in H2O solvent. By increasing its stability, it can be used for several applications, such as bio-preservative for medical and food transport. The micro-air-bubble was assumed in spherical shape that in incompressible gas boundary condition. So, the random motion of particle (Brownian motion) can be solved by using Stokes-Einstein approximation. But, Hadamard and Rybczynski equation is promoted to solve for larger bubble (micro scale). While, the effect of physical properties (e.g. diffusion coefficient, density, and flow rate) have taken important role in its characteristics in water. According to the theoretical investigation that have been done, decreasing of bubble velocity indicates that the bubble dissolves away or shrinking to the surface. To obtain longevity bubble in pure water medium, it is recomended to apply some surfactant molecules (e.g. NaCl) in micro-air-bubble medium.

  17. Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Nietert, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    The heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary packed-particle beds have recently become of interest in connection with conceptual designs of fusion reactor blankets. A detailed literature survey has shown that the processes taking place in such beds are not fully understood despite their widespread use in the chemical industry and other engineering disciplines for more than five decades. In this study, two experimental investigations were pursued. In the first, a heat-transfer loop was constructed through which glass microspheres were allowed to flow by rgravity at controlled rates through an electrically heated stainless steel tubular test section. In the second, an annular packed bed was constructed in which heat was applied through the outer wall by electric heating of a stainless steel tube. Cooling occurred at the inner wall of the annular bed by flowing air through the central tube. A second air stream was allowed to flow through the voids of the packed bed. An error-minimization technique was utilized in order to obtain the two-dimensional one-parameter effective conductivity for the bed by comparing the experimental and theoretically predicted temperature profiles. Experiments were conducted for various modified Reynolds numbers less than ten.

  18. Experimental Analysis of Damping and Tribological Characteristics of Nano-CuO Particle Mixed Lubricant in Ball Bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, E.; Sivakumar, K.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental analysis of damping capacity and tribological characteristics of nano CuO added Servosystem 68 lubricant is attempted. CuO nano particles were synthesized by aqueous precipitation method and characterized. Prior to dispersion into lubricant, CuO nano particles were coated with 0.2 wt.% surfactant (Span-80) to stabilize the nano fluid. Tribological characteristics of particle added lubricant were tested in ASTM D 4172 four ball wear tester. Scanning electron microscopy test results of worn surfaces of nano CuO particle added lubricant were smoother than base lubricant. The particle added lubricant was applied in a new ball bearing and three defected ball bearings. When particle added lubricant was used, the ball defected bearing's vibration amplitude was reduced by 21.94% whereas it was 16.46% for new bearing and was ≤ 11% for other defected bearings. The formation of protection film of CuO over ball surface and regime of full film lubrication near the ball zone were observed to be reason for improved damping of vibrations.

  19. Role of rotational deformations in the formation of spherical particles in a fatigue fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Shanyauskii, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    Investigations of the fractures of specimens of VT3-1 and VT8 titanium alloys and AVT and D1T aluminum alloys under steadt and nonsteady loading conditions indicate that in the near-threshold area and in the case of partial stoppage of a crack after overloading the processes of transverse (K /SUB III/ ) slip play a significant role in failure. The authors consider a plan of deformation of a material in the elastic area associated with loading of the specimen in compression and tension at a distance from the crack tip and in a crosspice between the microtunnels. It was concluded that the formation of spherical particles must be related to microtunneling of a fatigue crack and rupture of the crosspices between the microtunnels in rotational plastic deformation of the materials, ''nondulizing'', fragmentation of the particles with heating, and subsequent rolling of the particles between the free surfaces of the crack edges.

  20. Solar flares, coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle event characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Sandberg, Ingmar; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Kostas; Tsiropoula, Georgia; Jiggens, Piers; Hilgers, Alain

    2016-12-01

    A new catalogue of 314 solar energetic particle (SEP) events extending over a large time span from 1984 to 2013 has been compiled. The properties as well as the associations of these SEP events with their parent solar sources have been thoroughly examined. The properties of the events include the proton peak integral flux and the fluence for energies above 10, 30, 60 and 100 MeV. The associated solar events were parametrized by solar flare (SF) and coronal mass ejection (CME) characteristics, as well as related radio emissions. In particular, for SFs: the soft X-ray (SXR) peak flux, the SXR fluence, the heliographic location, the rise time and the duration were exploited; for CMEs the plane-of-sky velocity as well as the angular width were utilized. For radio emissions, type III, II and IV radio bursts were identified. Furthermore, we utilized element abundances of Fe and O. We found evidence that most of the SEP events in our catalogue do not conform to a simple two-class paradigm, with the 73% of them exhibiting both type III and type II radio bursts, and that a continuum of event properties is present. Although, the so-called hybrid or mixed events are found to be present in our catalogue, it was not possible to attribute each SEP event to a mixed/hybrid sub-category. Moreover, it appears that the start of the type III burst most often precedes the maximum of the SF and thus falls within the impulsive phase of the associated SF. At the same time, type III bursts take place within ≈5.22 min, on average, in advance from the time of maximum of the derivative of the SXR flux (Neupert effect). We further performed a statistical analysis and a mapping of the logarithm of the proton peak flux at E > 10 MeV, on different pairs of the parent solar source characteristics. This revealed correlations in 3-D space and demonstrated that the gradual SEP events that stem from the central part of the visible solar disk constitute a significant radiation risk. The velocity of

  1. Surfactant effect on functionalized carbon nanotube coated snowman-like particles and their electro-responsive characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ke; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2012-10-15

    The core–shell structured snowman-like (SL) microparticles coated by functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) were prepared in the presence of different surfactants including cationic surfactant-cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic surfactant-sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS). The effect of surfactants on adsorption onto SL particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and conductivity. The cationic surfactant is found to be more effective than anionic surfactant for helping nanotube adsorbed onto microparticle due to the presence of electrostatic interaction between the functionalized MWNT and the surfactant. Furthermore, the MWNT/SL particles dispersed in silicone oil exhibited a typical fibril structure of the electrorheological characteristics under an applied electric field observed by an optical microscope (OM), in which the state of nanotubes wrapped on the particles strongly affects their electro-responsive characteristics.

  2. Flow Scales of Influence on the Settling Velocities of Particles with Varying Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Corrine N.; Merchant, Wilmot; Jendrassak, Marek; Limpasuvan, Varavut; Gurka, Roi; Hackett, Erin E.

    2016-01-01

    The settling velocities of natural, synthetic, and industrial particles were measured in a grid turbulence facility using optical measurement techniques. Particle image velocimetry and 2D particle tracking were used to measure the instantaneous velocities of the flow and the particles’ trajectories simultaneously. We find that for particles examined in this study (Rep = 0.4–123), settling velocity is either enhanced or unchanged relative to stagnant flow for the range of investigated turbulence conditions. The smallest particles’ normalized settling velocities exhibited the most consistent trends when plotted versus the Kolmogorov-based Stokes numbers suggesting that the dissipative scales influence their dynamics. In contrast, the mid-sized particles were better characterized with a Stokes number based on the integral time scale. The largest particles were largely unaffected by the flow conditions. Using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), the flow pattern scales are compared to particle trajectory curvature to complement results obtained through dimensional analysis using Stokes numbers. The smallest particles are found to have trajectories with curvatures of similar scale as the small flow scales (higher POD modes) whilst mid-sized particle trajectories had curvatures that were similar to the larger flow patterns (lower POD modes). The curvature trajectories of the largest particles did not correspond to any particular flow pattern scale suggesting that their trajectories were more random. These results provide experimental evidence of the “fast tracking” theory of settling velocity enhancement in turbulence and demonstrate that particles align themselves with flow scales in proportion to their size. PMID:27513958

  3. Physical and Optical/Radiative Characteristics of Small Particles in Tropical Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Ferry, G. V.; Strawa, Anthony W.; Allen, D. A.; Howard, S. D.; Foster, T. C.; Hallett, J.; Arnott, W. P.

    1995-01-01

    Whether cirrus clouds heat or cool the Earth-atmosphere system depends on the relative importance of the cloud shortwave albedo effect and the cloud thermal greenhouse effect. Both an determined by the distribution of ice condensate with cloud particle size. The microphysics instrument package flown aboard the DC-8 In TOGA/COARE included an ice crystal replicator, a 2D Greyscale Cloud Particle Probe and a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Aerosol Probe. In combination. these instruments permitted particle size measurements between 0.5 micrometers and 2.6 mm diameter. Ice crystal replicas were used to validate signals from the electro-optical instruments. Typical results show a prevalence in tropical cirrus clouds of micron-sized particles, in addition to cloud particles that exceed 100 micrometer radius. The mechanism of their formation is growth of (hygroscopic, possibly ocean-derived) aerosol particles along the Kohler curves. The concentration of small particles is higher and less variable in space and time, and their tropospheric residence time is longer, than those of large cloud particles because of lower sedimentation velocities. Small particles shift effective cloud particle radii to sizes much smaller than the mean diameter of the cloud particles. This causes an increase in shortwave reflectivity and IR emissivity. and a decrease in transmissivity. In the cirrus outflow of tropical cyclone Oliver on 8 February, 1993, the reflectivity increases with altitude (decreasing temperature) stronger than does cloud emissivity, yielding enhanced radiative cooling at higher altitudes.

  4. DEM investigation on characteristics of rolling resistance for modelling particle shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lunlun; Chu, Xihua; Xu, Yuanjie

    2017-06-01

    To examine the capability of rolling resistance to model the effects of particle shape, two sets of samples, composed of binary clumped particles and circular particles with rolling resistance, are tested in DEM simulation. The coefficient of rolling friction is estimated based on the energy dissipation. The effects of rolling resistance and particle shape on the shear strength, deformation behavior and non-coaxiality are compared. The numerical results show that rolling resistance reproduces well the effect of particle shape on the peak strength. However, other macro-properties, such as residual strength, elasticity modulus, poisson's ratio, dilatancy and non-coaxiality, introduced by rolling resistance both exist certain differences compared with the effect of particle shape. The discrepancies is thought to be due to the increasing compressibility of samples as the particle shape becomes more elongated, which cannot be reproduced by increasing rolling friction.

  5. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: the role of biological particles in cloud physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhler, O.; Demott, P. J.; Vali, G.; Levin, Z.

    2007-12-01

    As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and potential impact of biological particles in the atmosphere, this paper introduces and summarizes the potential role of biological particles in atmospheric clouds. Biological particles like bacteria or pollen may be active as both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and thereby can contribute to the initial cloud formation stages and the development of precipitation through giant CCN and IN processes. The paper gives an introduction to aerosol-cloud processes involving CCN and IN in general and provides a short summary of previous laboratory, field and modelling work which investigated the CCN and IN activity of bacterial cells and pollen. Recent measurements of atmospheric ice nuclei with a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) and of the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of bacterial cells are also briefly discussed. As a main result of this overview paper we conclude that a proper assessment of the impact of biological particles on tropospheric clouds needs new laboratory, field and modelling work on the abundance of biological particles in the atmosphere and their CCN and heterogeneous IN properties.

  6. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: the role of biological particles in cloud physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhler, O.; Demott, P. J.; Vali, G.; Levin, Z.

    2007-08-01

    As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and potential impact of biological particles in the atmosphere, this paper introduces and summarizes the potential role of biological particles in atmospheric clouds. Biological particles like bacteria or pollen may be active as both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and thereby can contribute to the initial cloud formation stages and the development of precipitation through giant CCN and IN processes. The paper gives an introduction to aerosol-cloud processes like CCN and IN in general and provides a short summary of previous laboratory, field and modelling work investigating the CCN and IN activity of bacterial cells and pollen. Recent measurements of atmospheric ice nuclei with a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) and of the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of bacterial cells are also briefly discussed. As a main result of this overview paper we conclude that a proper assessment of the impact of biological particles on tropospheric clouds needs new laboratory, field and modelling work investigating the abundance of biological particles in the atmosphere and their CCN and heterogeneous IN properties.

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics of Dust Particles in HVOF Spraying and Occupational Hazards: Case Study in a Chinese Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haihong; Li, Haijun; Li, Xinyu

    2016-06-01

    Dust particles generated in thermal spray process can cause serious health problems to the workers. Dust particles generated in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying WC-Co coatings were characterized in terms of mass concentrations, particle size distribution, micro morphologies, and composition. Results show that the highest instantaneous exposure concentration of dust particles in the investigated thermal spray workshop is 140 mg/m3 and the time-weighted average concentration is 34.2 mg/m3, which are approximately 8 and 4 times higher than the occupational exposure limits in China, respectively. The large dust particles above 10 μm in size present a unique morphology of polygonal or irregular block of crushed powder, and smaller dust particles mainly exist in the form of irregular or flocculent agglomerates. Some heavy metals, such as chromium, cobalt, and nickel, are also found in the air of the workshop and their concentrations are higher than the limits. Potential occupational hazards of the dust particles in the thermal spray process are further analyzed based on their characteristics and the workers' exposure to the nanoparticles is assessed using a control banding tool.

  8. Biological and physical controls on the flux and characteristics of sinking particles on the Northwest Atlantic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jeomshik; Manganini, Steven J.; Park, JongJin; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Toole, John M.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2017-06-01

    matter characteristics and radiocarbon contents of organic carbon (OC) were examined on sinking particle samples intercepted at three nominal depths of 1000 m, 2000 m, and 3000 m (˜50 m above the seafloor) during a 3 year sediment trap program on the New England slope in the Northwest Atlantic. We have sought to characterize the sources of sinking particles in the context of vertical export of biogenic particles from the overlying water column and lateral supply of resuspended sediment particles from adjacent margin sediments. High aluminum (Al) abundances and low OC radiocarbon contents indicated contributions from resuspended sediment which was greatest at 3000 m but also significant at shallower depths. The benthic source (i.e., laterally supplied resuspended sediment) of opal appears negligible based on the absence of a correlation with Al fluxes. In comparison, CaCO3 fluxes at 3000 m showed a positive correlation with Al fluxes. Benthic sources accounted for 42 ˜ 63% of the sinking particle flux based on radiocarbon mass balance and the relationship between Al flux and CaCO3 flux. Episodic pulses of Al at 3000 m were significantly correlated with the near-bottom current at a nearby hydrographic mooring site, implying the importance of current variability in lateral particle transport. However, Al fluxes at 1000 m and 2000 m were coherent but differed from those at 3000 m, implying more than one mode of lateral supply of particles in the water column.

  9. Virus-like particles: promising platforms with characteristics of DIVA for veterinary vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Ge, Shengqiang; Liu, Zengshan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2013-07-01

    In general, it is difficult to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals through vaccination with conventional vaccines, thereby impeding the serological surveillance of animal diseases. DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) vaccine, originally known as marker vaccine, usually based on the absence of at least one immunogenic protein in the vaccine strain, allows DIVA in conjunction with a diagnostic test that detects antibodies against the antigens lacking in the vaccine strain. Virus-like particles (VLPs), composed of one or more structural proteins but no genomes of native viruses, mimic the organization and conformation of authentic virions but have no ability to self-replicate in cells, potentially yielding safer vaccine candidates. Since VLPs containing either monovalent or multivalent antigen can be produced in compliance with the requirements for serological surveillance, the use of VLP-based vaccines plays a promising role in DIVA vaccination strategies against animal diseases. Here, we critically reviewed VLPs and companion diagnostics with properties of DIVA for veterinary vaccine design, and three different VLPs as promising platforms for DIVA vaccination strategies in animals.

  10. The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröstl, Jasmin; Chuang, Wayne K.; Gordon, Hamish; Heinritzi, Martin; Yan, Chao; Molteni, Ugo; Ahlm, Lars; Frege, Carla; Bianchi, Federico; Wagner, Robert; Simon, Mario; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Williamson, Christina; Craven, Jill S.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, Joao; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Dias, Antònio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Gysel, Martin; Hansel, Armin; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Möhler, Ottmar; Nieminen, Tuomo; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Piel, Felix M.; Miettinen, Pasi; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N.; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomè, Antònio; Virtanen, Annele; Wagner, Andrea C.; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Ye, Penglin; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Riipinen, Ilona; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Donahue, Neil M.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-05-01

    About half of present-day cloud condensation nuclei originate from atmospheric nucleation, frequently appearing as a burst of new particles near midday. Atmospheric observations show that the growth rate of new particles often accelerates when the diameter of the particles is between one and ten nanometres. In this critical size range, new particles are most likely to be lost by coagulation with pre-existing particles, thereby failing to form new cloud condensation nuclei that are typically 50 to 100 nanometres across. Sulfuric acid vapour is often involved in nucleation but is too scarce to explain most subsequent growth, leaving organic vapours as the most plausible alternative, at least in the planetary boundary layer. Although recent studies predict that low-volatility organic vapours contribute during initial growth, direct evidence has been lacking. The accelerating growth may result from increased photolytic production of condensable organic species in the afternoon, and the presence of a possible Kelvin (curvature) effect, which inhibits organic vapour condensation on the smallest particles (the nano-Köhler theory), has so far remained ambiguous. Here we present experiments performed in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions that investigate the role of organic vapours in the initial growth of nucleated organic particles in the absence of inorganic acids and bases such as sulfuric acid or ammonia and amines, respectively. Using data from the same set of experiments, it has been shown that organic vapours alone can drive nucleation. We focus on the growth of nucleated particles and find that the organic vapours that drive initial growth have extremely low volatilities (saturation concentration less than 10-4.5 micrograms per cubic metre). As the particles increase in size and the Kelvin barrier falls, subsequent growth is primarily due to more abundant organic vapours of slightly higher volatility (saturation concentrations of 10-4.5 to 10

  11. The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Tröstl, Jasmin; Chuang, Wayne K; Gordon, Hamish; Heinritzi, Martin; Yan, Chao; Molteni, Ugo; Ahlm, Lars; Frege, Carla; Bianchi, Federico; Wagner, Robert; Simon, Mario; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Williamson, Christina; Craven, Jill S; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, Joao; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Dias, Antònio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Gysel, Martin; Hansel, Armin; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Möhler, Ottmar; Nieminen, Tuomo; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Piel, Felix M; Miettinen, Pasi; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomè, Antònio; Virtanen, Annele; Wagner, Andrea C; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Riipinen, Ilona; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-05-26

    About half of present-day cloud condensation nuclei originate from atmospheric nucleation, frequently appearing as a burst of new particles near midday. Atmospheric observations show that the growth rate of new particles often accelerates when the diameter of the particles is between one and ten nanometres. In this critical size range, new particles are most likely to be lost by coagulation with pre-existing particles, thereby failing to form new cloud condensation nuclei that are typically 50 to 100 nanometres across. Sulfuric acid vapour is often involved in nucleation but is too scarce to explain most subsequent growth, leaving organic vapours as the most plausible alternative, at least in the planetary boundary layer. Although recent studies predict that low-volatility organic vapours contribute during initial growth, direct evidence has been lacking. The accelerating growth may result from increased photolytic production of condensable organic species in the afternoon, and the presence of a possible Kelvin (curvature) effect, which inhibits organic vapour condensation on the smallest particles (the nano-Köhler theory), has so far remained ambiguous. Here we present experiments performed in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions that investigate the role of organic vapours in the initial growth of nucleated organic particles in the absence of inorganic acids and bases such as sulfuric acid or ammonia and amines, respectively. Using data from the same set of experiments, it has been shown that organic vapours alone can drive nucleation. We focus on the growth of nucleated particles and find that the organic vapours that drive initial growth have extremely low volatilities (saturation concentration less than 10(-4.5) micrograms per cubic metre). As the particles increase in size and the Kelvin barrier falls, subsequent growth is primarily due to more abundant organic vapours of slightly higher volatility (saturation concentrations of 10(-4.5) to 10

  12. MYOCARDIAL INJURY FROM INHALED COMBUSTION PARTICLES: IS THERE A ROLE FOR ZINC?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Myocardial injury from inhaled combustion particles: Is there a role for zinc?
    U.P.Kodavanti, PhD 1, C.F.Moyer, PhD, DVM 2, A.D.Ledbetter, BS 1, M.C.Schladweiler, BS
    1, P.S.Gilmour, PhD 1, R.Hauser, ScD, MPH 3, D.C.Christiani, MPH, MS 3, D.L.Costa, ScD
    1 and A.Ny...

  13. MYOCARDIAL INJURY FROM INHALED COMBUSTION PARTICLES: IS THERE A ROLE FOR ZINC?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Myocardial injury from inhaled combustion particles: Is there a role for zinc?
    U.P.Kodavanti, PhD 1, C.F.Moyer, PhD, DVM 2, A.D.Ledbetter, BS 1, M.C.Schladweiler, BS
    1, P.S.Gilmour, PhD 1, R.Hauser, ScD, MPH 3, D.C.Christiani, MPH, MS 3, D.L.Costa, ScD
    1 and A.Ny...

  14. Particle motion in a periodic driving flow. The role of added mass force and the finite size of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier

    2016-11-01

    The motion of particles in a fluid is an open problem. The main difficulty arises from the fact that hydrodynamical forces acting on a particle depend on the flow properties. In addition, the form and the size of particles must be taken into account. In this work we present numerical results of the particle transport in a periodic driving flow in a channel flushing into an open domain. To study the transport of particles we solve the equation of motion for a spherical particle in which we include the drag, the gravity, the buoyancy, the added mass and the history force. Additionally we include the corrections for a particle of finite size. For solving this equation a knowledge of the velocity field is required. To obtain the velocity field we solve the Navier Stokes and the continuity equations with a finite volume method. In the flow under study a vorticity dipole and a spanwise vortex are present, both have an important influence on the motion of particles. The dipole enhances displacement of particles because flow between vortices behaves like a jet and the spanwise vortex produces the lifting and deposition of particles from/to the bottom. We observe clustering of particles both into the channel and in the open domain as observed in coastal systems. The authors acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project PAPIIT IN115315 "Ondas y estructuras coherentes en dinámica de fluidos".

  15. Fathers in Turkey: Paternity Characteristics, Gender Role, Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ünüvar, Perihan

    2017-01-01

    Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…

  16. Defining the characteristics of the nurse practitioner role.

    PubMed

    Eve, Lisa

    The role of the nurse practitioner (NP) has recently expanded and is now recognised in a range of health care delivery settings including primary care. In addition, the last few years have seen a proliferation of use of the NP title. This article outlines a set of competencies that aim to bring clarity to the role.

  17. Adsorption characteristics of 210Pb, 210Po and 7Be onto micro-particle surfaces and the effects of macromolecular organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weifeng; Guo, Laodong; Chuang, Chia-Ying; Schumann, Dorothea; Ayranov, Marin; Santschi, Peter H.

    2013-04-01

    210Po, 210Pb and Be isotopes (e.g. 7Be and 10Be) have long been used as proxies of particle/sediment dynamics, carbon cycling, and oceanographic investigations of coupled processes. However, adsorption characteristics and interactions between these nuclides and particle surfaces remain poorly understood. Laboratory studies have been conducted to examine the adsorption of 210Po, 210Pb and 7Be onto micro-particles, including marine suspended particulate matter, kaolinite, Al2O3, SiO2, CaCO3, Fe2O3, MnO2, and chitin in natural seawater (<1 kDa), and the role of macromolecular organic compounds (MOCs), including humic acids (HA), acid polysaccharides (APS) and proteins (BSA) in regulating the adsorption process. In the absence of MOCs, the partition coefficients (Kd, reported in log Kd) range from 3.02 to 5.19 for 210Po, from 3.22 to 6.29 for 210Pb, and from 3.57 to 4.65 for 7Be. Ferric and manganese oxides are the strongest sorbents of 210Po and 210Pb, comparing with SiO2 and CaCO3. In the presence of the protein BSA, both SiO2 and CaCO3 preferentially adsorb 210Po over 210Pb, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the presence of acid polysaccharides, indicating that proteins could enhance the adsorption of 210Po and acid polysaccharides enhance the adsorption of 210Pb. The log Kd values of both 210Po and 210Pb in the presence of MOCs become similar (log Kd at ˜4.0) for all lithogenic and biogenic particles, suggesting that their adsorption is likely controlled by specific natural organic compounds associated with particle surfaces. For 7Be, the highest and lowest log Kd value was measured, in general, on SiO2 and CaCO3, respectively, consistent with field observations. Nevertheless, the log Kd values of 7Be varied little between particle types regardless of the presence or absence of MOCs, suggesting that the adsorption of Be on particle surfaces is less affected by particle composition or MOCs. These results indicate that 7Be and 10Be could quantitatively

  18. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of welding fume derived particles generated from real time welding processes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cali; Demokritou, Philip; Shafer, Martin; Christiani, David

    2013-01-01

    Welding fume particles have been well studied in the past; however, most studies have examined welding fumes generated from machine models rather than actual exposures. Furthermore, the link between physicochemical and toxicological properties of welding fume particles has not been well understood. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of particles derived during real time welding processes generated during actual welding processes and to assess the particle size specific toxicological properties. A compact cascade impactor (Harvard CCI) was stationed within the welding booth to sample particles by size. Size fractionated particles were extracted and used for both off-line physicochemical analysis and in vitro cellular toxicological characterization. Each size fraction was analyzed for ions, elemental compositions, and mass concentration. Furthermore, real time optical particle monitors (DustTrak™, TSI Inc., Shoreview, Minn.) were used in the same welding booth to collect real time PM2.5 particle number concentration data. The sampled particles were extracted from the polyurethane foam (PUF) impaction substrates using a previously developed and validated protocol, and used in a cellular assay to assess oxidative stress. By mass, welding aerosols were found to be in coarse (PM 2.5–10), and fine (PM 0.1–2.5) size ranges. Most of the water soluble (WS) metals presented higher concentrations in the coarse size range with some exceptions such as sodium, which presented elevated concentration in the PM 0.1 size range. In vitro data showed size specific dependency, with the fine and ultrafine size ranges having the highest reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Additionally, this study suggests a possible correlation between welders' experience, the welding procedure and equipment used and particles generated from welding fumes. Mass concentrations and total metal and water soluble metal concentrations of welding fume particles may be

  19. A HIGH TEMPERATURE TEST FACILITY FOR STUDYING ASH PARTICLE CHARACTERISTICS OF CANDLE FILTER DURING SURFACE REGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, B.S-J.; Johnson, E.K.; Rincon, J.

    2002-09-19

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure back pulse cleaning jet. After this cleaning process has been done there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) was built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at high temperatures. The system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. Details of the HTTF apparatus as well as some preliminary test results are presented in this paper. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time.

  20. Study of the comminution characteristics of coal by single particle breakage test device

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, R.

    2005-09-01

    Single-particle breakage tests of South Blackwater and Ensham coal from the Bowen Basin area in Queensland were conducted by a computer-monitored twin-pendulum device to measure the energy utilization pattern of the breakage particles. Three particle sizes (-16.0+13.2mm, -13.2+11.2mm, -11.2+9.5mm) of each coal were tested by a pendulum device at five input energy levels to measure the specific comminution energy. When particles were tested at constant input energy, the variation of comminution energy between the same size broken particles of Ensham coal was minimal, because Ensham coal is a softer and higher friability coal, which absorbs more input energy than harder coal during breakage tests. For different particle sizes, the specific comminution energy increases linearly with the input energy and the fineness of the breakage products increases with the specific comminution energy. The size distribution graphs are curved but approach linearity in the finer region. At a constant input energy, the twin pendulum breakage product results show that the fineness of the products increases with decrease in particle size and South Blackwater coal produced finer products than the Ensham coal. The t-curves are the family of size distribution curves, which can describe the product size distribution of the breakage particles during single-particle breakage tests.

  1. Effect of the size of elementary soil particles on the soil moisture characteristic curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2015-07-01

    Statistical analysis of water vapor sorption by light clayey brown forest soil and its elementary particles of different diameters has revealed extremely close correlations and linear relationships between the logarithm of total soil water potential (pressure) and the water contents in the separated particle-size fractions (due to the hydration of exchangeable cations in the diffuse layer near the surface of soil solid phase), as well as between the water content of particle-size fractions and the logarithm of their diameter (due to the differences in the specific surface area and mineralogy of these particles).

  2. Effect of the Shape Factor on the Cold-Spraying Dynamic Characteristics of Sprayed Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun; Liu, Juanfang; Chen, Qinghua; Li, Kepin

    2017-09-01

    Silicon powder was chosen to be deposited by cold spraying for the consideration of possible applications in lithium ion batteries. The influence of the silicon particle shapes other than spherical on the impact velocity and temperature for different working parameters of the gas streams have been numerically investigated by using computational fluid dynamics modeling. The results show that, for same equivalent diameter, the particle impact velocities increase to a maximum velocity when the shape factor increases to a certain value and then decreases to the impact velocity of spherical particles. In the cold-spraying process, the particle velocity profile for smaller shape factors is much closer to that of the gas stream due to the larger particle surface area. Furthermore, the particle impact velocity increment for smaller shape factors is much more remarkable with a higher main propulsion gas temperature and higher carrier gas pressure. The effect of raising the main propulsion gas pressure on the impact velocity of the particles with very smaller shape factors is negligible. The particle impact velocity and temperature can be altered by not only the change of the working parameters of the gas steams but also the change of the sizes and shapes of the sprayed particles.

  3. [Characteristics and Resources of Fly Ash Particles in the Snowpack of Jinfo Mountain, Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zheng-liang; Yang, Ping-heng; Jing, Wei-li; Yuan, Dao-xian; Ren, Kun; Li, Lin-li

    2015-12-01

    Snow can preserve the atmospheric information, which makes it become a good media in studying regional environment. Jinfo Mountain with an elevation of 2251.1 m, located at the transition zone between Sichuan basin and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, is deeply affected by human activities, and snowfall is the main form of precipitation during the winter. While the literature focus on single spherical particles in this area is uncommon. Five snow samples were collected, and determined morphology and chemical composition of 132 single spherical particles by the scanning electron microscope couples with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Results show that snowfall in Jinfo Mountain includes the massive fly ash particles with 1.64 µm in average diameter and 1.09 in average roundness which contains smooth particles, rough particles and soot particles, accounting for 80. 31% , 14. 39% and 5.30% of statistical particles respectively. Furthermore, on the basis of chemical information obtained from EDS, the fly ash particles counted in this research can be classified into 5 types, namely, Si-dominant particles, C-dominant particles, Fe-dominant particles, Al-dominant particles and Ti-dominant particles, which make up 34.09%, 49.24%, 12.88%, 2.27% and 1.52% respectively. In conclusion, it can be inferred, based on the analysis of meteorological information, the properties of fly ash particles, and backward air mass trajectory and dispersion analysis, that C-dominant fly ash mainly comes from daily life and industry activities, Si-dominant fly ash particles may originate from the plant industry located in west Chingqing, north of Guizhou province, central of Hunan province, Zhejiang province, Jiangxi province and the west of Guangdong province, while the activities of foundry and iron or steel plants in the west of Chongqing, the north of Guizhou province and the central of Hunan province may be the main sources of Fe-dominant fly ash particles in our samples.

  4. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Grayson, J. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions). The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η) ranging between 10-3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s) in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter) are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  5. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Grayson, J. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions). The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η) ranging between 10-3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s) in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter) are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  6. Flow characteristic of in-flight particles in supersonic plasma spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Zhao, Guangxi; Du, Jun; Bai, Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a computational model based on supersonic plasma spraying (SAPS) is developed to describe the plasma jet coupled with the injection of carrier gas and particles for SAPS. Based on a high-efficiency supersonic spraying gun, the 3D computational model of spraying gun was built to study the features of plasma jet and its interactions with the sprayed particles. Further the velocity and temperature of in-flight particles were measured by Spray Watch 2i, the shape of in-flight particles was observed by scanning electron microscope. Numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements and a good agreement has been achieved. The flight process of particles in plasma jet consists of three stages: accelerated stage, constant speed stage and decelerated stage. Numerical and experimental indicates that the H2 volume fraction in mixture gas of Ar + H2 should keep in the range of 23-26 %, and the distance of 100 mm is the optimal spraying distance in Supersonic atmosphere plasma spraying. Particles were melted and broken into small child particles by plasma jet and the diameters of most child particles were less than 30 μm. In general, increasing the particles impacting velocity and surface temperature can decrease the coating porosity.

  7. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  8. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  9. Desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbents with various adhesive carrier particles for a semidry CFB-FGD system.

    PubMed

    You, Changfu; Li, Yuan

    2013-03-19

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) experiments were conducted using rapidly hydrated sorbents with four different adhesive carrier particles: circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB circulation ash), fly ash from the first electrical field of the electrostatic precipitator of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB ESP ash), fly ash from a chain boiler (chain boiler ash), and river sand smaller than 1 mm. The influences of various adhesive carrier particles and operating conditions on the desulfurization characteristics of the sorbents were investigated, including sprayed water, reaction temperature, and the ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S). The experimental results indicated that the rapidly hydrated sorbents had better desulfurization characteristics by using adhesive carrier particles which possessed better pore, adhesion, and fluidization characteristics. The desulfurization efficiency of the system increased as the reaction temperature decreased, it improved from 35% to 90% as the mass flow rate of the sprayed water increased from 0 to 10 kg/h, and it increased from 65.6% to 82.7% as Ca/S increased from 1.0 to 2.0. Based on these findings, a new semidry circulating fluidized bed (CFB)-FGD system using rapidly hydrated sorbent was developed. Using the rapidly hydrated sorbent, this system uses a cyclone separator instead of an ESP or a bag filter to recycle the sorbent particles, thereby decreasing the system flow resistance, saving investment and operating costs of the solids collection equipment.

  10. Seawater ultrafiltration: role of particles on organic rejections and permeate fluxes.

    PubMed

    Massé, Anthony; Thi, Hanh Nguyen; Roelens, Guillaume; Legentilhomme, Patrick; Jaouen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The role of natural compounds of seawater and added particles on mechanisms of membrane fouling and organic matter rejection has been investigated. Ultrafiltration (100 kDa) has been conducted in both dead-end (out/in) and tangential (in/out) modes on polysulfone hollow fibre membranes. The permeate fluxes are approximately three times higher for tangential ultrafiltration than for dead-end ultrafiltration without differences between settled and non-settled seawaters (NS-SWs) (51-55 L h(-1) m(-2) for tangential and 17-22 L h(-1) m(-2) for dead-end ultrafiltration). Adding bentonite or kieselguhr from 0.13 to 1.13 g L(-1) of suspended solids to NS-SW does not act significantly on permeate fluxes of dead-end contrary to tangential ultrafiltration. For the latter, an addition of particles induces a slight drop of permeate fluxes. Original particles of reconstituted seawater could increase the cake porosity, whereas bentonite and kieselguhr, compounds smaller than original particles, could participate in the formation of a compact cake. The total organic carbon removal was equal to approximately 80% whatever the mode of ultrafiltration may be and the suspended solid concentration ranged from 0.13 to 1.13 g L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colloidal organic carbon rejection rates were greater for tangential ultrafiltration (37-49%) compared with dead-end ultrafiltration (30-44%) at different concentrations of added particles. Bentonite or kieselguhr addition induced a slight decrease of DOC removal. In the case of particles addition, the worst DOC rejection is found for bentonite.

  11. Particle Motion Analysis Reveals Nanoscale Bond Characteristics and Enhances Dynamic Range for Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Visser, Emiel W A; van IJzendoorn, Leo J; Prins, Menno W J

    2016-03-22

    Biofunctionalized colloidal particles are widely used as labels in bioanalytical assays, lab-on-chip devices, biophysical research, and in studies on live biological systems. With detection resolution going down to the level of single particles and single molecules, understanding the nature of the interaction of the particles with surfaces and substrates becomes of paramount importance. Here, we present a comprehensive study of motion patterns of colloidal particles maintained in close proximity to a substrate by short molecular tethers (40 nm). The motion of the particles (500-1000 nm) was optically tracked with a very high localization accuracy (below 3 nm). A surprisingly large variation in motion patterns was observed, which can be attributed to properties of the particle-molecule-substrate system, namely the bond number, the nature of the bond, particle protrusions, and substrate nonuniformities. Experimentally observed motion patterns were compared to numerical Monte Carlo simulations, revealing a close correspondence between the observed motion patterns and properties of the molecular system. Particles bound via single tethers show distinct disc-, ring-, and bell-shaped motion patterns, where the ring- and bell-shaped patterns are caused by protrusions on the particle in the direct vicinity of the molecular attachment point. Double and triple tethered particles exhibit stripe-shaped and triangular-shaped motion patterns, respectively. The developed motion pattern analysis allows for discrimination between particles bound by different bond types, which opens the possibility to improve the limit of detection and the dynamic range of bioanalytical assays, with a projected increase of dynamic range by nearly 2 orders of magnitude.

  12. The role of the interplanetary shock surface fluctuations in shaping energetic storm particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.

    2006-12-01

    Solar cycle 23 has provided us with a large variety of shocks and associated energetic particle storm (ESP) events. Statistical analysis of shocks and ESP events detected by ACE has shown a tendency for observing more quasi-perpendicular shocks; whereas the most common types of event are those that do not display any >47 keV ion intensity increase [Lario et al., 2005a; Proc. SW11, ESA SP-592, pp. 81-86]. Faster and stronger shocks have greater effects on the particle intensities at their passage by 1 AU, but the shock parameters do not determine unequivocally the characteristics of the ESP events. A few of these events show characteristics similar to those predicted by the theory of diffusive shock acceleration, although detailed analysis reveals significant inconsistencies between observations and theory [Lario et al., 2005b; Proc. 4th IGPP Conf., AIP-781, pp. 180-184]. A common type of event has irregular structure, showing multiple intensity bursts before and/or after the shock passage. We present both the observations of one of these events and the results of a test-particle, full-orbit-integration simulation of ion shock-acceleration in a corrugated shock surface [Decker, 1990; JGR 95, pp. 11993-12003]. Although meso-scale fluctuations of the shock surface or in magnetic field direction, or both, can produce similar features in shock-accelerated particle distributions, we invoke the rippled shock model in this case because the measured pre-shock field is relatively steady. These simulations allow us to reproduce not only the evolution of the ion intensities but also the observed ion anisotropies and energy spectra. Fluctuations of both the solar wind plasma where the shock travels and of the shock surface may determine the main features of those ESP events with irregular variations of intensities and angular distributions. This presentation constitutes a progress report on NASA LWS TR{&}T grant NAG5-13487.

  13. Drug release characteristics of physically cross-linked thermosensitive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) hydrogel particles.

    PubMed

    Vihola, Henna; Laukkanen, Antti; Tenhu, Heikki; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2008-11-01

    The effect of physical cross-linking was studied on the formation and properties of thermosensitive polymer particles of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam), PVCL, and PVCL grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) macromonomer, PVCL-graft-C(11)EO(42). Loading and release of model drugs into/from the hydrogel particles were evaluated. Thermosensitive particles were stabilized by cross-linkers, the most feasible of which was salicylic acid (SA). At 23 degrees C, below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the thermosensitive polymers, stability of the hydrogels was poor, whereas at 37 degrees C stable hydrogel particles were formed. All the drugs and also the cross-linker (SA) were released more efficiently from the PVCL particles compared to the PVCL-graft-C(11)EO(42) particles. Drug concentration and pH affected clearly the rate and extent of drug release in physiological buffer. The higher drug release from the PVCL was based on the more open gel-like structure as opposed to PVCL-graft-C(11)EO(42) particles. Complex formation between the cross-linker and the polymers was due to the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of SA and H-bond acceptors of the PVCL. In the case of PVCL-graft-C(11)EO(42), the ethylene oxide chain provided more opportunities for H-bonding in comparison to the pure PVCL, creating more stable complexes (more tightly packed particles) leading to sustained drug release.

  14. Statistical characteristics of quasi-elastically scattered light in analysis of size of aggregated biological particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, A. N.; Prigun, N. P.

    2002-12-01

    The spectra of the intensity fluctuations of light scattered by large (erythrocytes of whole blood) and small (vesicles of surgical bile) particles in natural conditions were studied. It is shown that photon correlation spectroscopy can be used in analysis of variations in the size of biological particles in normal and pathological conditions and as an express method of noninvasive diagnostics of diseases.

  15. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NANOCOMPOSITES FABRICATED WITH IN-SITU PARTICLE SYNTHESIS METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Polyzos, Georgios; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; More, Karren Leslie; Cantoni, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In this article we discuss fabrication of nanocomposites using an {\\em in-situ} particle synthesis method. The nanocomposites discussed were prepared with solution based chemistry using a particle precursor mixture, which produces the nanoparticles. The nanocomposites presented were synthesized with titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The efforts of Oak Ridge National Laboratory to deliver better electrical insulation materials using nanotechnology are presented.

  16. [Physico-chemical characteristics of ambient particles settling upon leaf surface of six conifers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hasi, Eerdun; Liu, Lian-You; Gao, Shang-Yu

    2007-03-01

    The study on the density of ambient particles settling upon the leaf surface of six conifers in Beijing, the micro-configurations of the leaf surface, and the mineral and element compositions of the particles showed that at the same sites and for the same tree species, the density of the particles settling upon leaf surface increased with increasing ambient pollution, but for various tree species, it differed significantly, with the sequence of Sabina chinensis and Platycladus orientalis > Cedrus deodara and Pinus bungeana > P. tabulaeformis and Picea koraiensis. Due to the effects of road dust, low height leaf had a larger density of particles. The density of the particles was smaller in summer than in winter because of the rainfall and new leaf growth. The larger the roughness of leaf surface, the larger density of the particles was. In the particles, the overall content of SiO2, CaCO3, CaMg(CO3,), NaCl, 2CaSO4 . H2O, CaSO4 . 2H2O and Fe2O3 was about 10%-30%, and the main minerals were montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite and feldspar. The total content of 21 test elements in the particles reached 16%-37%, among which, Ca, Al, Fe, Mg, K, Na and S occupied 97% or more, while the others were very few and less affected by sampling sites and tree species.

  17. Examining the role of particle size on ammonia-based bioprocessing of maize stover.

    PubMed

    Athmanathan, Arun; Trupia, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The role of particle size in carbohydrate fractionation upon pretreatment and glucan yields upon enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated at two different temperatures, to examine the possibility of pretreating under milder conditions smaller particles, in order to satisfy pilot-scale operational constraints. Maize stover was knife-milled through 1-mm and 0.5-mm screens and pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment at 60 or 110°C for 6 h. Pretreated solids were analyzed for composition and a material balance calculated for glucan, xylan, and lignin. At 60°C, milling resulted in greater delignification compared to unmilled biomass. Delignification was more uniform at 110°C. Pretreated solids were washed and cellulase hydrolysis carried out at 10% w/w solids loading, with low and high enzyme loadings. Liquid samples were drawn and concentration data developed through HPLC to calculate 48-h glucan and xylan hydrolytic yields. The differences in hydrolytic yield between milled and unmilled treatments were found to vary with pretreatment temperature and enzyme loading. The results show that while particle size impacts carbohydrate recovery and hydrolytic yield, it is less important in bioprocessing than pretreatment temperature and enzyme loading, possibly owing to the particles' morphology rather than the size.

  18. The Role of Solar and Solar Wind Forcing of Magnetospheric Particle Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Observational and numerical modeling results demonstrate that solar wind streams and coronal mass ejections drive coherent processes within the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. The magnetosphere progresses through a specific sequence of energy-loading and stress-developing states until the entire system suddenly reconfigures. Long-term studies of high-energy particle fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere have revealed many of their temporal occurrence characteristics and their relationships to solar wind drivers. In order to observe major energetic particle enhancements, there must typically be a significant interval of southward IMF along with a period of high (VSW≥500 km/s) solar wind speed. This has led to the view that enhancements in geomagnetic activity are normally a key first step in the acceleration of magnetospheric particles to high energies. A second step is suggested to be a period of powerful low-frequency waves that is closely related to high values of VSW or higher frequency ("chorus") waves that rapidly heat and accelerate electrons. Hence, magnetospheric storms and substorms provide a "seed" population, while high-speed solar wind drives the acceleration to relativistic energies in this two-step geomagnetic activity scenario. This picture seems to apply to most events examined whether associated with high-speed streams or with CME-related changes, but not all. In this work, we address transient solar wind phenomena as they pertain to high-energy particle acceleration and transport. We also discuss various models of particle energization that have recently been advanced. We present remarkable new results from the Van Allen Probes mission and the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission that confirm and greatly extend these key ideas.

  19. Arterial distribution characteristics of Embozene particles and comparison with other spherical embolic agents in the porcine acute embolization model.

    PubMed

    Stampfl, Sibylle; Bellemann, Nadine; Stampfl, Ulrike; Sommer, Christof M; Thierjung, Heidi; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben; Radeleff, Boris; Berger, Irina; Richter, Goetz M

    2009-12-01

    To determine the arterial distribution pattern of the embolic agent Embozene within the porcine kidney and compare it with those of other spherical embolic agents. Embozene, Embosphere, Bead Block, and Contour SE in size classes of 100-300 microm, 500-700 microm, and 700-900 microm and Embozene and Embosphere in the size class of 40-120 microm were used for total arterial occlusion in minipig kidneys. Organs were evaluated microscopically regarding vascular distribution of the different embolic agents and particle sizes. The following variations of arterial distribution were identified. In the 40-120-microm size class, Embosphere particles penetrated significantly deeper compared with Embozene (P = .04). In the 100-300-microm size class, Bead Block showed a significantly deeper distribution as microscopy identified particles in arteries much smaller than their nominal size. In the 500-700-microm size class, Embosphere and Contour SE showed a deeper distribution. The most uniform arterial distribution was observed in the 700-900 microm size class,. However, few Embosphere and Contour SE particles were found in arcuate arteries, also indicating a distal distribution. Throughout the four most-used size classes, from very small (40-120 microm) to large (700-900 microm), the distribution characteristics of the four tested materials vary substantially. Particularly, small Embosphere particles and small Bead Block particles showed a more distal distribution, as did medium-sized Embosphere and Contour SE particles. In the largest investigated size class, the distribution was more uniform. In general, the Embozene particles are very uniform in size, and they seem to reach vessels closely corresponding to their nominal size.

  20. Role of transparent exopolymeric particles in membrane fouling: Chlorella vulgaris broth filtration.

    PubMed

    Discart, V; Bilad, M R; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, I F J

    2013-02-01

    Recent reports show strong evidence for the involvement of transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs), mainly produced by microalgae in natural environments, in membrane fouling in a wide range of membrane filtration processes. The objective of this study is to fundamentally investigate the direct role of TEPs on membrane fouling by using different Chlorella vulgaris broth solutions and different fractions of such broth (the soluble and bound fractions, the cells separated from these fractions and the cells with their bound sugars, separated from the soluble fraction) as filtration feed. The relation between the feed properties and their filterability over three membranes was determined. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy showed that the foulant types differed for each broth fraction and confirmed the role of TEPs in the fouling of microfiltration membranes. In addition, this study contributes to the role of TEPs in the filtration of microalgae cultivated for commercial reasons.

  1. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  2. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  3. Comment on 'Mapping the dayside ionosphere to the magnetosphere according to particle precipitation characteristics' by Newell and Meng

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, M.; Smith, M. F.

    1993-01-01

    Newell and Meng (1992) present maps of the occurrence probability of various classifications of particle precipitation as seen in the dayside topside ionosphere. It is argued that these are maps of the magnetospheric regions, a contention with which their critics disagree. The latter conclude that, because of convection, any one population of particles seen at low altitudes will have originated from a wide variety of locations, and particle characteristics cannot be mapped back to those in the magnetosphere without detailed knowledge of both the convection and magnetic field. Steplike boundaries between the regions will arise from nonsteady-state conditions and cannot be envisaged as steady-state magnetospheric boundaries between two plasma populations. In their reply Newell and Meng contend that convection does not move plasma from the LLBL into the cusp. Most of the LLBL plasma comes from the magnetosheath, so the direction of plasma transfer is in the other direction.

  4. The Role of Oxidized Organics in the Formation of New Particles - Results from the CLOUD Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltensperger, U.; Riccobono, F.; Schobesberger, S.

    2012-12-01

    While hydrated sulfuric acid is considered to be the main responsible vapor for nucleation under atmospheric conditions a number of field studies report observations indicating that organic compounds may be important contributors as well. However, laboratory studies have provided conflicting results on the role of organics, especially concerning the size where organics start to be important. This paper reports results from the CLOUD experiment at CERN, where we studied new particle formation in the presence of sulfuric acid and oxidation products of pinanediol, a model compound for monoterpenes and their oxidation products. Experiments were performed with and without a pion beam to simulate galactic cosmic rays. A suite of state of the art instrumentation was used to determine the size of clusters and newly formed particles. In addition, the chemical composition of the growing charged clusters was followed. Results of the nucleation rates will be shown along with corresponding dependences on the mixing ratios of sulfuric acid and oxidation products of pinanediol.

  5. Student Characteristics and Choice of High School Remembrance Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Alyce; Andre, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Investigates variables related to how students choose to be remembered after high school. Reports sports participation, social activity participation, high school academic rank, mother's education, and masculinity were variables associated with four remembrance roles: brilliant student, most popular, athletic star, and leader. Concludes that…

  6. First identification in energetic particles of characteristic plasma boundaries at Mars and an account of various energetic particle populations close to the planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Afonin, V.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Keppler, E.; Kirsch, E.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    1993-05-01

    Signatures of characteristic boundaries, interpreted to be the bow shock and magnetopause with, between them, the magnetosheath, were recorded for the first time in energetic particles (between 30 keV and 3.2 MeV) in the downstream nightside Martian environment by the SLED instrument aboard Phobos 2. Also, energetic particles, interpreted to be oxygen ions, were recorded by SLED at four distinct locations close to Mars. These include (a) anisotropic fluxes at the terminator shocks with energies of up to at least 72 keV; (b) anisotropic fluxes with energies of up to at least 225 keV inside the magnetopause, at a height above the planet of approximately 900 km in the subsolar part of the magnetosphere; (c) fluxes with energies of up to at least 3.2 MeV in the flanks of the magnetosheath displaying quasi-periodic variations (period approximately 45 min) which are synchronous across the recorded energy spectrum and correlated in time with changes in the local magnetic field; and (d) beams of oxygen ions with energies of up to at least 55 keV traveling out along open field lines in the magnetotail with, in some cases, a suggestion of confinement close to the neutral sheet. A preliminary discussion is provided concerning the energization of the various populations of particles identified.

  7. Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Nietert, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    The following five appendices are included: (1) physical properties of materials, (2) thermal entrance length Nusselt number variations, (3) stationary particle bed temperature variations, (4) falling bed experimental data and calculations, and (5) stationary bed experimental data and calculations. (MOW)

  8. Optical Properties Of Solid Particle Receiver Materials I: Angular Scattering And Extinction Characteristics Of Norton Masterbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, J. W.; Stahl, K. A.; Pettit, R. B.

    1985-12-01

    As part of the Solar Thermal Technology Program, the direct absorption of sunlight by free-falling particles inside a cavity receiver is being evaluated. The objective of the on-going optical properties measurement program is to obtain information to be used as input to radiation transfer models for prediction of receiver performance. Instrumenta tion and data analysis techniques have been developed to determine both the angular scattering properties and the scattering and absorption components of the extinction coefficient of candidate materials. This report summarizes the measurement procedures and presents data for an ion-doped alumina spheroid, Masterbeads, manufactured by Norton Chemical Company. This material exhibits good optical absorption properties over the solar insolation spectrum and favorable thermal and mechanical properties for temperatures up to 1000°C. Scattering and extinction measurements were performed at 632.8 nm in a falling curtain geometry of one-particle nominal thickness. Data were obtained over a range of mass flow rates and particle areal densities. Photographic documentation of curtain particle density enabled calculation of mean particle scattering and absorption loss components in the absence of multiple-particle optical interactions. Prediction of optical extinction properties at other wavelengths is anticipated to be straightforward using spectral hemispherical reflectance measurements on bulk samples. Additional scattering and extinction data were obtained on transparent glass microspheres for comparison and as a verification of the measurement apparatus and procedures.

  9. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Day, D. E.; McMeeking, G. M.; Levin, E. J. T.; Carrico, C. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, A.; Desyaterik, Y.

    2010-02-01

    During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment), laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry) and bsp(RH), respectively) in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH) on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH)=bsp(RH)/bsp(dry)). Values of f(RH) at RH=85-90% ranged from 1.02 to 2.15 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic and organic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 85-90% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  10. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Day, D. E.; McMeeking, G. M.; Levin, E. J. T.; Carrico, C. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, A.; Desyaterik, Y.

    2010-07-01

    During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment), laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry) and bsp(RH), respectively) in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH) on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels from the west and southeast United States showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH)=bsp(RH)/bsp(dry)). Values of f(RH) at RH=80-85% ranged from 0.99 to 1.81 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 80-85% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  11. Measured and Modeled Humidification Factors of Fresh Smoke Particles From Biomass Burning: Role of Inorganic Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Jenny L.; Day, Derek E.; McMeeking, Gavin M.; Levin, Ezra; Carrico, Christian M.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Laskin, Alexander; Desyaterik, Yury

    2010-07-09

    During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment), laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry) and bsp(RH), respectively) in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH) on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH) = bsp(RH)/bsp(dry)). Values of f(RH) at RH=85-90% ranged from 1.02 to 2.15 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic and organic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 85-90% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  12. Immunoregulatory role of intestinal surfactant-like particles during Salmonella typhimurium infection

    PubMed Central

    Sofi, M. Hanief; Bhatnagar, Archana; Sapra, Saveeta; Mahmood, Akhtar; Majumdar, Sidhartha

    2007-01-01

    Surfactants like particles (SLP) are secreted by Intestinal epithelium. These particles have the ability to lower surface tension of intestinal epithelial cells and contain small amounts of surfactant specific proteins A, B, and D. In the intestinal lumen they are known to function as lubricants and/or as a vehicle to deliver digestive enzymes to the luminal fluid. These particles have been found to have the ability in binding of uropathogenic E.coli. But their immunological function is not known. The present study was designed to assess the role of the SLP in the regulation of immune response during Salmonella (S) typhimurium infection using a rat an enteric model. The animals were divided in four different groups including control (PBS), rats fed fat diet (corn oil), rats fed fat diet followed with S. typhimurium infection and rats with S. typhimurium infection alone. The Peyer's patches (PP), intraepithelial (IE) and lamina propria (LP) mononuclear cells were isolated from the above-mentioned groups. These mononuclear cells were then incubated in presence of S. typhimurium lysate alone, SLP alone and S. typhimurium lysate and SLP together. T cell markers CD4 and CD8, cytokines mainly pro-inflammatory ones including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12 etc were studied under such conditions. In addition histological studies were also carried out under these conditions. We report in this study that SLP plays an important role in modulating the cytokine level during infection. The pro-inflammatory cytokines were found significantly reduced in SLP induced diet along with the infection group compared to the infection group alone. Histopathological studies revealed the breakdown of duodenal villi after infection while only broadening of villi was observed in rats given corn oil induced SLP along with infection. These results suggested an important immuno-modulatory role for SLP during Salmonella infection. PMID:18026566

  13. Roles of a 45-plet of Higgs particles in SU(5) grand unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hirofumi; Murayama, Akihiro; Hayashi, Mitsuo J.

    1982-09-01

    In the light of the notable role played by a 45-plet of Higgs particles in SU(5) grand unified theory, a harmless axion containing a component from a Higgs 45-plet is derived following the Dine-Fischler-Srednicki scheme in the SU(5)×U(1)PQ model (PQ refers to Peccei and Quinn). The breaking of U(1)PQ through instanton effects into Z6 gives a useful relation between vacuum expectation values of 45 and 5, Higgs fields. An estimation of the cosmological baryon-to-entropy ratio is also presented, and is consistent with the present observations.

  14. The variation of characteristics of individual particles during the haze evolution in the urban Shanghai atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qingqing; Fu, Hongbo; Wang, Zhenzhen; Kong, Lingdong; Chen, Mindong; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-11-01

    The severe long-lasting haze episode in December 2013 provided a unique opportunity to track the variation of aerosol particles in Shanghai, China. Concentrations and sources of the pollutants varied greatly in severe haze-fog episode (P1), moderate haze episode (P2), and clear episode (P3). Both low wind speed and high relative humidity (RH) during P1 resulted in the high level pollutants of PM2.5 (240.3 ± 167.9 μg m- 3), SO2 (37.9 ± 20.7 μg m- 3), NO2 (111.5 ± 50.2 μg m- 3) and total water-soluble ions (58.73 ± 28.87 μg m- 3), indicating a strong accumulation of local pollutants and secondary species formation. During P2, air masses from the north decreased the concentration level of particles (116.1 ± 65.5 μg m- 3) and increased the visibility, resulting in a moderate degree of pollution. Most of the pollutants dropped to the lowest concentration levels due to the rainfall in P3, and the haze episode ended at 13 December. Single particle analysis showed that C-rich particles exhibited the highest number percentages (30%) in the samples of P1, S/N-rich species (35%) dominated the particles in the samples of P2, and Al/Si-rich particles (23%) were most abundant in the samples of P3. The TEM-EDS analysis confirmed that particles contained more internally mixed components during P1 and P2 than those during P3, suggesting that the particles during P1 and P2 underwent more intense aging in the atmosphere. The single particle analysis indicated that trace metals may promote the heterogeneous transformation of SO2 and NO2 on the surface of the particles during P1, which was in agreement with the highest sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) observed in the haze-fog episode. Such information will deepen our understanding on the evolution of haze and fog pollutions in China, which will help the government to establish efficient control strategy for air pollution prevention.

  15. Characteristics of fine particle carbonaceous aerosol at two remote sites in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Schulze, Justin P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Artamonova, Maria; Chen, Boris; Imashev, Sanjar; Sverdlik, Leonid; Carmichael, Greg R.; Deminter, Jeff T.

    2011-12-01

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of PM to Eastern Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and the Western United States. PM is of significant interest not only because of its adverse effect on public health but also due to its more recently realized role in climate change. To investigate the sources and characteristics of PM in the region, a series of PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were collected on an every-other-day basis at two sites (termed "Bishkek" and "Teploklyuchenka") in the Central Asian nation of the Kyrgyz Republic (also known as Kyrgyzstan) for a full year from July 2008 to July 2009. These samples were analyzed using standard methods for mass, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-insoluble organic carbon by difference (OC minus WSOC) and a variety of molecular marker chemical species to be used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) model to apportion the sources of OC. These analyses indicate that approximately 19 ± 6.4% of the PM 2.5 mass at both sites throughout the year consists of OC. The carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 is dominated by OC, with OC/Total Carbon (TC) ratios being around 0.8 in the winter to almost 0.95 in the summer months. The CMB analysis indicated that mobile sources, i.e., gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, biomass combustion, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene and α-pinene precursors in the summer months were the dominant sources of OC. A strong positive correlation was observed between non-biomass burning WSOC and the un-apportioned OC from the CMB analysis, indicating that some of this un-apportioned OC is WSOC and likely the result of SOA-forming atmospheric processes that were not estimated by the CMB analysis performed. In

  16. [Comparison of in vivo characteristics of polyethylene wear particles produced by a metal and a ceramic femoral component in total knee replacement].

    PubMed

    Veigl, D; Vavřík, P; Pokorný, D; Slouf, M; Pavlova, E; Landor, I

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo and compare, in terms of the quality and number of ultra high-molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles, total knee replacements of identical construction differing only in the material used for femoral component production, i.e., CoCrMo alloy or ZrO2 ceramics. Samples of peri-prosthetic granuloma tissue were collected in two patients with total knee replacement suffering from implant migration, who were matched in relevant characteristics. The primary knee replacement in Patient 1 with a CoCrMo femoral component was done 7.2 years and in Patient 2 with a ZrO2 implant 6.8 years before this assessment. The polyethylene wear-induced granuloma was analysed by the MORF method enabling us to assess the shape and size of wear debris and the IRc method for assessment of particle concentration. In the granuloma tissue samples of Patient 1, on the average, particles were 0.30 mm in size and their relative volume was 0.19. In the Patient 2 tissue samples, the average size of particles was 0.33 mm and their relative volume was 0.26. There was no significant difference in either particle morphology or their concentration in the granuloma tissue between the two patients. One of the options of how to reduce the production of polyethylene wear particles is to improve the tribological properties of contacting surfaces in total knee replacement by substituting a cobalt-chrome femoral component with a zirconia ceramic femoral component. The previous in vitro testing carried out with a mechanical simulator under conditions approaching real weight-bearing in the human body did show a nearly three-fold decrease in the number of UHMWPE wear particles in zirconia components. The evaluation of granuloma tissue induced by the activity of a real prosthetic joint for nearly seven years, however, did not reveal any great difference in either quality or quantity of polyethylene debris between the two replacements. The difference of surface

  17. Characteristics of airborne ultrafine and coarse particles during the Australian dust storm of 23 September 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaratne, E. R.; Johnson, G. R.; McGarry, P.; Cheung, H. C.; Morawska, L.

    2011-08-01

    Particle number concentrations and size distributions, visibility and particulate mass concentrations and weather parameters were monitored in Brisbane, Australia, on 23 September 2009, during the passage of a dust storm that originated 1400 km away in the dry continental interior. The dust concentration peaked at about mid-day when the hourly average PM 2.5 and PM 10 values reached 814 and 6460 μg m -3, respectively, with a sharp drop in atmospheric visibility. A linear regression analysis showed a good correlation between the coefficient of light scattering by particles (Bsp) and both PM 10 and PM 2.5. The particle number in the size range 0.5-20 μm exhibited a lognormal size distribution with modal and geometrical mean diameters of 1.6 and 1.9 μm, respectively. The modal mass was around 10 μm with less than 10% of the mass carried by particles smaller than 2.5 μm. The PM 10 fraction accounted for about 68% of the total mass. By mid-day, as the dust began to increase sharply, the ultrafine particle number concentration fell from about 6 × 10 3 cm -3 to 3 × 10 3 cm -3 and then continued to decrease to less than 1 × 10 3 cm -3 by 14 h, showing a power-law decrease with Bsp with an R2 value of 0.77 ( p < 0.01). Ultrafine particle size distributions also showed a significant decrease in number during the dust storm. This is the first scientific study of particle size distributions in an Australian dust storm.

  18. Characteristics of tyre dust in polluted air: Studies by single particle mass spectrometry (ATOFMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; Gietl, Johanna K.; Olatunbosun, Oluremi A.; Yang, Xiaoguang; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-09-01

    There is a paucity of quantitative knowledge on the contributions of non-exhaust (abrasion and re-suspension) sources to traffic emissions. Abrasive emissions can be broadly categorised as tyre wear, brake wear and road dust/road surface wear. Current research often considers road dust and tyre dust as externally mixed particles, the former mainly composed of mineral matter and the latter solely composed of mainly organic matter and some trace elements. The aim of this work was to characterise tyre wear from both laboratory and field studies by using Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS). Real-time single particle chemical composition was obtained from a set of rubber tyres rotating on a metal surface. Bimodal particle number size distributions peaking at 35 nm and 85 nm were obtained from SMPS/APS measurements over the range 6-20,000 nm. ATOFMS mass spectra of tyre wear in the particle size range 200-3000 nm diameter show peaks due to exo-sulphur compounds, nitrate, Zn and ions of high molecular weight (m/z > 100) attributed to organic polymers. Two large ATOFMS datasets collected from a number of outdoor studies were examined. The former was constituted of 48 road dust samples collected on the roads of London. The latter consisted of ATOFMS ambient air field studies from Europe, overall composed of more than 2,000,000 single particle mass spectra. The majority (95%) of tyre wear particles present in the road dust samples and atmospheric samples are internally mixed with metals (Li, Na, Ca, Fe, Ti), as well as phosphate. It is concluded that the interaction of tyres with the road surface creates particles internally mixed from two sources: tyre rubber and road surface materials. Measurements of the tyre rubber component alone may underestimate the contribution of tyre wear to concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The results presented are especially relevant for urban aerosol source apportionment and PM2.5 exposure assessment.

  19. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanen, Jenni; Simonen, Pauli; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kangasniemi, Oskari; Saukko, Erkka; Hillamo, Risto; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-07-01

    measured to have the highest evaporation temperature, and nitrate had the lowest. The evaporation temperature of ammonium depended on the fractions of nitrate and sulfate in the particles. The average volatility of the total aged particles was measured to be lower than that of primary particles, indicating better stability of the aged natural gas engine-emitted aerosol in the atmosphere. According to the results of this study, the exhaust of a natural gas engine equipped with a catalyst forms secondary aerosol when the atmospheric ages in a PAM chamber are several days long. The secondary aerosol matter has different physical characteristics from those of primary particulate emissions.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles on microbiological characteristics of saffron, using hurdle technology.

    PubMed

    Hamid Sales, E; Motamedi Sedeh, F; Rajabifar, S

    2012-03-01

    Saffron, a plant from the Iridaceae family, is the world's most expensive spice. Gamma irradiation and silver nano particles whose uses are gradually increasing worldwide, have positive effects on preventing decay by sterilizing the microorganisms and by improving the safety without compromising the nutritional properties and sensory quality of the foods. In the present study combination effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles packaging on the microbial contamination of saffron were considered during storage. A combination of hurdles can ensure stability and microbial safety of foods. For this purpose, saffron samples were packaged by Poly Ethylene films that posses up to 300 ppm nano silver particles as antimicrobial agents and then irradiated in cobalt-60 irradiator (gamma cell PX30, dose rate 0.55 Gry/Sec) to 0, 1, 2,3 and 4 kGy at room temperature. The antimicrobial activities against Total Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria, Entrobacteriace, Escherichia Coli and Clostridium Perfringines were higher in the irradiated samples, demonstrating the inhibition zone for their growth. Irradiation of the saffron samples packaged by Poly Ethylene films with nano silver particles showed the best results for decreasing microbial contamination at 2 kGy and for Poly Ethylene films without silver nano particles; it was 4 kGy.

  1. Development of titanium oxide layer containing nanocrystalline zirconia particles with tetragonal structure: Structural and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ki Ryong; Kim, Yeon Sung; Kim, Gye Won; Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the microstructural, mechanical and biological properties of oxide layers containing tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) particles on pure titanium produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. For this purpose, PEO processes were carried out at an AC current density of 200mA/cm(2) for 180s in potassium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7) electrolytes with and without t-ZrO2 powder. Structural investigations using transmission electron microscopy exhibited that the present nanocrystalline oxide layer evidenced the successful incorporation of a myriad of t-ZrO2 particles working as an intermediate medium to reinforce the adhesion strength between the substrate and oxide layer. Regarding biomimetic apatite formation, the t-ZrO2 particles uniformly spread were of considerable importance in triggering the nucleation and growth of biomimetic apatite on the surface of the oxide layer immersed in a simulated body fluid solution. The growth and proliferation rates of the osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cultured on the oxide layer with t-ZrO2 particles were higher than that without t-ZrO2 particles due to the higher roughness providing the better sites for the filopodia extension and interlocking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Roles of Transport and Wave-Particle Interactions on Radiation Belt Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Glocer, Alex; Zheng, Qiuhua

    2011-01-01

    Particle fluxes in the radiation belts can vary dramatically during geomagnetic active periods. Transport and wave-particle interactions are believed to be the two main types of mechanisms that control the radiation belt dynamics. Major transport processes include substorm dipolarization and injection, radial diffusion, convection, adiabatic acceleration and deceleration, and magnetopause shadowing. Energetic electrons and ions are also subjected to pitch-angle and energy diffusion when interact with plasma waves in the radiation belts. Important wave modes include whistler mode chorus waves, plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and magnetosonic waves. We investigate the relative roles of transport and wave associated processes in radiation belt variations. Energetic electron fluxes during several storms are simulated using our Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model. The model includes important transport and wave processes such as substorm dipolarization in global MHD fields, chorus waves, and plasmaspheric hiss. We discuss the effects of these competing processes at different phases of the storms and validate the results by comparison with satellite and ground-based observations. Keywords: Radiation Belts, Space Weather, Wave-Particle Interaction, Storm and Substorm

  3. SU(2) particle sigma model: the role of contact symmetries in global quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, V.; Guerrero, J.; López-Ruiz, F. F.; Cossío, F.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we achieve the quantization of a particle moving on the SU(2) group manifold, that is, the three-dimensional sphere S 3, by using group-theoretical methods. For this purpose, a fundamental role is played by contact symmetries, i.e., symmetries that leave the Poincaré-Cartan form semi-invariant at the classical level, although not necessarily the Lagrangian. Special attention is paid to the role played by the basic quantum commutators, which depart from the canonical, Heisenberg-Weyl ones, as well as the relationship between the integration measure in the Hilbert space of the system and the non-trivial topology of the configuration space. Also, the quantization on momentum space is briefly outlined.

  4. Operational characteristics of single-particle heat engines and refrigerators with time-asymmetric protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the single-particle heat engine and refrigerator driven by time-asymmetric protocol of finite duration. Our system consists of a particle in a harmonic trap with time-periodic strength that drives the particle cyclically between two baths. Each cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps connecting them. The system works in irreversible mode of operation even in the quasistatic regime. This is indicated by finite entropy production even in the large cycle time limit. Consequently, Carnot efficiency for heat engine or Carnot coefficient of performance (COP) for refrigerators is not achievable. We further analyzed the phase diagram of heat engines and refrigerators. They are sensitive to time-asymmetry of the protocol. Phase diagram shows several interesting features, often counterintuitive. The distribution of stochastic efficiency and COP is broad and exhibits power-law tails.

  5. [Fractal characteristics of soil particles in surface layer of black soil].

    PubMed

    Miao, Chi-Yuan; Wang, Ya-Feng; Wei, Xin; Xu, Xia; Shi, Wen

    2007-09-01

    Based on the second national soil survey of China, the fractal dimension of soil particles in the surface layers of 36 typical profiles of black soil was calculated. The results showed that the fractal dimension was 2.5831-2.8230, being increased with decreasing diameter of soil texture, but the variability was inconspicuous. The fractal dimension was negatively correlated with the contents of sand (2-0.02 mm) and silt (0.02-0.002 mm) (P < 0.05), but positively correlated with clay (< 0.002 mm) content (P < 0.01). No significant correlations were observed between soil particle fractal dimension and soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and pH. The fractal dimension of soil particles could be used as a comprehensive and quantitative index in evaluating the degradation degree of black soil.

  6. Fluidization characteristics of and protein adsorption on fluoride-modified porous zirconium oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Griffith, C M; Morris, J; Robichaud, M; Annen, M J; McCormick, A V; Flickinger, M C

    1997-08-01

    Porous zirconia particles of specific gravity approximately 3.2 g/ml, mean particle sizes of approximately 50 microns, and terminal settling velocity of approximately 2.8 mm/s in water, were synthesized using an oil emulsion method from 1000 A colloids and were evaluated for their potential use in expanded bed protein adsorption. Expanded beds of particles were stable even for small volume, shallow beds (settled bed: 10 ml, height to diameter ratio < 1.0) and even for fluidization velocities common to much larger particles (210 cm/h for a three-fold bed expansion). When the surface of these particles was modified by fluoride adsorption, the total bed capacity for bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption was 42 +/- 2 mg BSA/ml of settled bed volume at linear velocities of 109-210 cm/h. Residence time distribution studies of several solutes under non-binding conditions were performed to assess the degree of liquid mixing and channeling in the expanded bed as a function of fluidization velocity. Liquid mixing and channeling were also studied as a function of distributor design. With these very dense particles, the degree of channeling and mixing did not worsen with the degree of expansion. Elution of adsorbed BSA while the bed was expanded (by a step increase in ionic strength) was rapid resulting in a narrow peak at high fluidization velocities without resorting to settling of the bed. The dynamic binding capacity of BSA at 5% breakthrough (protein effluent concentration equal to 5% of the inlet concentration) was the same for a two-fold expanded bed as for a settled bed (22 +/- 2 mg BSA/ml of settled bed volume), though it decreased for higher bed expansions. BSA binding was reproducible following repeated cleaning of the adsorbent with 0.25 M sodium hydroxide.

  7. Characteristics and settling behaviour of particles from blast furnace flue gas washing.

    PubMed

    Kiventerä, Jenni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Keski-Ruismäki, Kirsi; Tanskanen, Juha

    2016-05-01

    A lot of particles from iron-making are removed with blast furnace off-gas and routed to the gas cleaning system. As water is used for cleaning the gas, the produced wash water contains a large amount of particles such as valuable Fe and C. However, the presence of zinc prevents recycling. In addition, the high amount of calcium results in uncontrolled scaling. Therefore, the properties of the wash water from scrubber and sludge, from the Finnish metal industry (SSAB Raahe), were evaluated in this study. Size fractionation of wash water revealed that Fe, Zn, Al, Mn, V, Cr and Cd appeared mainly in the larger fractions (>1.2 μm) and Na, Mg, Si, Ni, K, Cu and As appeared mainly in the smaller fractions (<1.2 μm) or in dissolved form. Calcium was found both in the larger fractions and dissolved (∼60 mg/L). Most of the particles in wash water were included in the 1.2-10 μm particle size and were settled effectively. However, a clear benefit was observed when using a chemical to enhance particle settling. In comparison to 2.5 h of settling without chemical, the turbidity was further decreased by about 94%, iron 85% and zinc 50%. Coagulation-flocculation experiments indicated that both low and high molecular weight cationic polymers could provide excellent purification results in terms of turbidity. Calcium should be removed by other methods. The particles in sludge were mostly in the 2-4 μm or 10-20 μm fractions. Further sludge settling resulted in high solids removal.

  8. Chalk dustfall during classroom teaching: particle size distribution and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; William, S P M Prince

    2009-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the nature of particulate chalk dust settled on classroom floor during traditional teaching with dusting and non-dusting chalks on two types of boards viz. rough and smooth. Settling chalk particles were collected for 30 min during teaching in glass Petri plates placed in classrooms within 3 m distance from the teaching boards. Particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopic images of chalk dusts and compressive strength of two types of chalks were tested and evaluated. Results showed that a larger proportion of dusts generated from anti-dusting chalks were of <4.5 and <2.5 microm size on both smooth and rough boards, as compared to dusting chalks. Non-dusting chalks, on an average, produced about 56% and 62% (by volume) of <4.5 microm (respirable) diameter, on rough and smooth boards, respectively, while the corresponding values for dusting chalks were 36% and 45%. Also, on an average, 83% and 94% (by volume) of the particles were <11 microm (thoracic) in case of non-dusting chalks against 61% and 72% for dusting chalks on rough and smooth boards, respectively. Interestingly, taking into account the mass of chalk dust produced per unit time, which was higher in dusting chalks than non dusting chalks, the former was actually producing higher amount of PM <4.5 and <11 particles from both types of boards. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that chalk particles had random shape, although in dusting chalks prevalence of elongated particles was observed, apparently due to the longitudinal breaking of the chalks during writing, which was confirmed during compressive strength testing. We could conclude that dusting chalks could be potentially more harmful than anti dusting chalks, as they produced higher amount of potentially dangerous PM 4.5 and PM 11.

  9. Characteristics of ultrafine particle sources and deposition rates in primary school classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiman, Rusdin; He, Congrong; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Samuel; Salimi, Farhad; Crilley, Leigh R.; Megat Mokhtar, Megat Azman; Morawska, Lidia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate changes in particle number concentration (PNC) within naturally ventilated primary school classrooms arising from local sources either within or adjacent to the classrooms. We quantify the rate at which ultrafine particles were emitted either from printing, grilling, heating or cleaning activities and the rate at which the particles were removed by both deposition and air exchange processes. At each of 25 schools in Brisbane, Australia, two weeks of measurements of PNC and CO2 were taken both outdoors and in the two classrooms. Bayesian regression modelling was employed in order to estimate the relevant rates and analyse the relationship between air exchange rate (AER), particle infiltration and the deposition rates of particle generated from indoor activities in the classrooms. During schooling hours, grilling events at the school tuckshop as well as heating and printing in the classrooms led to indoor PNCs being elevated by a factor of more than four, with emission rates of (2.51 ± 0.25) × 1011 p min-1, (8.99 ± 6.70) × 1011 p min-1 and (5.17 ± 2.00) × 1011 p min-1, respectively. During non-school hours, cleaning events elevated indoor PNC by a factor of above five, with an average emission rate of (2.09 ± 6.30) × 1011 p min-1. Particles were removed by both air exchange and deposition; chiefly by ventilation when AER > 0.7 h-1 and by deposition when AER < 0.7 h-1.

  10. Cloud condensation nuclei characteristics of Asian dust particles over the western and central North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, M.; Furutani, H.; Kawata, R.; Nakayama, H.

    2015-12-01

    Marine aerosols, such as sea salt particles, and sulfate and organic particles originated from marine biotas, exist in the marine atmosphere. Additionally, continental aerosols, such as dust and anthropogenic substances are transported over the open oceans. Variation of number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) depends on the number-size distribution and chemical compositions of aerosols, and affects the lifetime and the reflectivity of clouds over the open oceans. During the R/V Hakuho Maru KH-12-1 cruise from Callao to Tokyo via Honolulu in the Pacific Ocean (23 January - 7 March 2012), aerosol number-size distribution and CCN number concentration were continuously measured, and the marine aerosols for chemical analysis were collected on shipboard. In the marine atmosphere over the Pacific, averaged aerosol total number concentration (TN) was 280 cm-3. Bimodal number-size distributions were observed frequently with peaks at 40-60 nm (Aitken mode) and 160-230 nm (accumulation mode). CCN concentrations were categorized by assuming three types of particles by chemical compositions (i.e., NaCl; a major component of sea salt particles, (NH4)2SO4; a sulfur oxide originated from the marine biotas, and Oxalic acid; a major component among organic carbon (OC) originated from the marine biotas). Activation Rate (AR), which is defined as the ratio of the number concentrations of CCN against TN, varied mainly because of the number-size distribution. Chemical composition was the factor that determined AR values. However, the AR variations caused by changes of the chemical composition were much smaller than those caused changes of the particle size distribution even when Asian dust were observed over the region on 27-29 February. During the long range transport, rapid coagulation among mineral dust, organics and sea salt particles may accelerate the gravitational setting of marine aerosols and supplies the terrestrial substances to the ocean environment.

  11. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  12. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus–nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus–nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus–nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  13. Human Cathelicidin Compensates for the Role of Apolipoproteins in Hepatitis C Virus Infectious Particle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Basagoiti, Francesc; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Tamura, Tomokazu; Ono, Chikako; Uemura, Kentaro; Kawachi, Yukako; Yamamoto, Satomi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Takeshi; Okamoto, Toru; Aizaki, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exchangeable apolipoproteins (ApoA, -C, and -E) have been shown to redundantly participate in the formation of infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles during the assembly process, although their precise role in the viral life cycle is not well understood. Recently, it was shown that the exogenous expression of only short sequences containing amphipathic α-helices from various apolipoproteins is sufficient to restore the formation of infectious HCV particles in ApoB and ApoE double-gene-knockout Huh7 (BE-KO) cells. In this study, through the expression of a small library of human secretory proteins containing amphipathic α-helix structures, we identified the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), the only known member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in humans and expressed mainly in bone marrow and leukocytes. We showed that CAMP is able to rescue HCV infectious particle formation in BE-KO cells. In addition, we revealed that the LL-37 domain in CAMP containing amphipathic α-helices is crucial for the compensation of infectivity in BE-KO cells, and the expression of CAMP in nonhepatic 293T cells expressing claudin 1 and microRNA miR-122 confers complete propagation of HCV. These results suggest the possibility of extrahepatic propagation of HCV in cells with low-level or no expression of apolipoproteins but expressing secretory proteins containing amphipathic α-helices such as CAMP. IMPORTANCE Various exchangeable apolipoproteins play a pivotal role in the formation of infectious HCV during the assembly of viral particles, and amphipathic α-helix motifs in the apolipoproteins have been shown to be a key factor. To the best of our knowledge, we have identified for the first time the human cathelicidin CAMP as a cellular protein that can compensate for the role of apolipoproteins in the life cycle of HCV. We have also identified the domain in CAMP that contains amphipathic α-helices crucial for compensation and

  14. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Winfried; Brown, David M; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Stone, Vicki

    2005-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon with a very small diameter (ultrafine, less than 100 nm in diameter). Besides the induction of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, ultrafine particles (UFP) can cause intracellular calcium transients and suppression of defense mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, such as impaired migration or phagocytosis. Methods In this study the role of intracellular calcium transients caused by UFP was studied on cytoskeleton related functions in J774A.1 macrophages. Different types of fine and ultrafine carbon black particles (CB and ufCB, respectively), such as elemental carbon (EC90), commercial carbon (Printex 90), diesel particulate matter (DEP) and urban dust (UD), were investigated. Phagosome transport mechanisms and mechanical cytoskeletal integrity were studied by cytomagnetometry and cell viability was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Macrophages were exposed in vitro with 100 and 320 μg UFP/ml/million cells for 4 hours in serum free medium. Calcium antagonists Verapamil, BAPTA-AM and W-7 were used to block calcium channels in the membrane, to chelate intracellular calcium or to inhibit the calmodulin signaling pathways, respectively. Results Impaired phagosome transport and increased cytoskeletal stiffness occurred at EC90 and P90 concentrations of 100 μg/ml/million cells and above, but not with DEP or UD. Verapamil and W-7, but not BAPTA-AM inhibited the cytoskeletal dysfunctions caused by EC90 or P90. Additionally the presence of 5% serum or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) suppressed the cytoskeletal dysfunctions. Cell viability showed similar results, where co-culture of ufCB together with Verapamil, W-7, FCS or BSA produced less cell dead compared to the particles only. PMID:16202162

  15. The Role of Cohesive Particle Interactions on Solids Uniformity and Mobilization During Jet Mixing: Testing Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Fort, James A.; Chun, Jaehun; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

    2010-04-01

    Radioactive waste that is currently stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site will be staged in selected double-shell tanks (DSTs) and then transferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Before being transferred, the waste will be mixed, sampled, and characterized to determine if the waste composition and meets the waste feed specifications. Washington River Protection Solutions is conducting a Tank Mixing and Sampling Demonstration Program to determine the mixing effectiveness of the current baseline mixing system that uses two jet mixer pumps and the adequacy of the planned sampling method. The overall purpose of the demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risk associated with the mixing and sampling systems meeting the feed certification requirements for transferring waste to the WTP.The purpose of this report is to analyze existing data and evaluate whether scaled mixing tests with cohesive simulants are needed to meet the overall objectives of the small-scale mixing demonstration program. This evaluation will focus on estimating the role of cohesive particle interactions on various physical phenomena that occur in parts of the mixing process. A specific focus of the evaluation will be on the uniformity of suspended solids in the mixed region. Based on the evaluation presented in this report and the absence of definitive studies, the recommendation is to conduct scaled mixing tests with cohesive particles and augment the initial testing with non-cohesive particles. In addition, planning for the quantitative tests would benefit from having test results from some scoping experiments that would provide results on the general behavior when cohesive inter-particle forces are important.

  16. Effects of particle size of yellow dent corn on physical characteristics of diets and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine effects of reducing particle size on growth performance, carcass characteristics, stomach morphology, and VFA concentration in the hindgut of growing-finishing pigs if diets were formulated to a constant ME. Thirty-six gilts and 36 barrows (32.00 ± 1.58 kg initial BW) were individually penned and randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial design with sex (gilts and barrows) and corn particle size (i.e., 865, 677, 485, and 339 μm) as factors. The ME was determined in the same 4 batches of corn in a previous experiment to be 3,826, 3,868, 3,895, and 3,964 kcal/kg DM, respectively. Pigs were fed a 3-phase program from 32 to 129 kg. Within each phase, 4 corn-soybean meal diets were formulated, and the only difference among diets was that the corn used was ground to the 4 specified particle sizes and soybean oil was added to the diets in decreasing amounts as the corn particle size was reduced to reflect the increased ME in corn with reduced particle size. Results of the experiment indicated that initial BW, final BW, overall ADFI, and overall ADG were not different among treatments, but final G:F for gilts decreased from 0.38 to 0.35 (linear, < 0.05) as the particle size decreased from 865 to 339 μm, but no difference was observed for barrows (interaction, < 0.05). However, G:F did not change if calculated based on HCW because dressing percentage increased (linear, < 0.01) from 79.30 to 80.29% as the particle size decreased, which was partly due to a reduction (linear, < 0.01) from 3.01 to 2.52 kg in empty intestinal weight. Back fat depth, HCW, loin eye area, and carcass fat-free lean percentage were not different among treatments. There were no incidences of ulcers in the esophageal region of the stomach regardless of the particle size of corn, but parakeratosis in the esophageal region increased ( < 0.05) as the particle size of corn decreased. The concentration of acetate, proprionate, and

  17. Identifying characteristics that students, interns and residents look for in their role models.

    PubMed

    Elzubeir, M A; Rizk, D E

    2001-03-01

    To identify characteristics which students, interns and residents look for in their role models. A 45-item self-administered questionnaire was sent to a sample (n=96, response rate 80%) consisting of three groups: (1) students in years 3-6 of the medical curriculum (n=66); (2) interns (n=17) and (3) residents (n=13). The questionnaire contained characteristics that participants might use to describe excellent role models, grouped under five general headings: personality, clinical, research and teaching skills, and community service. Other characteristics mentioned by study subjects were qualitatively analysed using content analysis. Personality and teaching and clinical skills were ranked as the top three factors, and research skills and community service as the least important factors by 79 (82%) respondents. Qualitative analysis of characteristics described by respondents for their role models yielded 21 characteristics. These were clustered into three main themes: role models as teacher, physician and person. The most frequently mentioned characteristics were personal characteristics such as positive, respectful attitudes toward patients and their families, and staff and colleagues; honesty; politeness; enthusiasm; competence, and knowledge. Females rated nine personal characteristics significantly higher than males (P < 0.05). Interns and residents valued teaching enthusiasm and competence significantly more than students (P=0.01). Role models had a strong influence on the specialty choice of 53 (55%) respondents. Knowing the characteristics of excellent role models should help medical educators to formulate strategies to recruit, retain and develop them. Increasing exposure of a variety of excellent role models to aspiring medical practitioners should be encouraged.

  18. A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Weimer, Carl; Ayers, Kirk; Baize, Rosemary R.; Lee, Tsengdar

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) may have great potential applications in communication technology and in remote sensing of the Earth-atmosphere system and outer planets. Study of their interaction with optical lenses and dielectric or metallic objects, or scattering of them by particles in the Earth-atmosphere system, is a necessary step to explore the advantage of the OAM EM beams. In this study, the 3-dimensional (3D) scattered-field (SF) finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) is applied to calculate the scattering of the purely azimuthal (the radial mode number is assumed to be zero) Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with the OAM by dielectric particles. We found that for OAM beam's interaction with dielectric particles, the forward-scattering peak in the conventional phase function (P11) disappears, and light scattering peak occurs at a scattering angle of 15° to 45°. The disappearance of forward-scattering peak means that, in laser communications most of the particle-scattered noise cannot enter the receiver, thus the received light is optimally the original OAM-encoded signal. This feature of the OAM beam also implies that in lidar remote sensing of the atmospheric particulates, most of the multiple-scattering energy will be off lidar sensors, and this may result in an accurate profiling of particle layers in the atmosphere or in the oceans by lidar, or even in the ground when a ground penetration radar (GPR) with the OAM is applied. This far-field characteristics of the scattered OAM light also imply that the optical theorem, which is derived from plane-parallel wave scattering case and relates the forward scattering amplitude to the total cross section of the scatterer, is invalid for the scattering of OAM beams by dielectric particles.

  19. Negative DC corona discharge current characteristics in a flowing two-phase (air + suspended smoke particles) fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendt, Artur; Domaszka, Magdalena; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2017-04-01

    The electrical characteristics of a steady-state negative DC corona discharge in a two-phase fluid (air with suspended cigarette smoke particles) flowing along a chamber with a needle-to-plate electrode arrangement were experimentally investigated. The two-phase flow was transverse in respect to the needle-to-plate axis. The velocity of the transverse two-phase flow was limited to 0.8 m/s, typical of the electrostatic precipitators. We found that three discharge current modes of the negative corona exist in the two-phase (air + smoke particles) fluid: the Trichel pulses mode, the "Trichel pulses superimposed on DC component" mode and the DC component mode, similarly as in the corona discharge in air (a single-phase fluid). The shape of Trichel pulses in the air + suspended particles fluid is similar to that in air. However, the Trichel pulse amplitudes are higher than those in "pure" air while their repetition frequency is lower. As a net consequence of that the averaged corona discharge current in the two-phase fluid is lower than in "pure" air. It was also found that the average discharge current decreases with increasing suspended particle concentration. The calculations showed that the dependence of the average negative corona current (which is a macroscopic corona discharge parameter) on the particle concentration can be explained by the particle-concentration dependencies of the electric charge of Trichel pulse and the repetition frequency of Trichel pulses, both giving a microscopic insight into the electrical phenomena in the negative corona discharge. Our investigations showed also that the average corona discharge current in the two-phase fluid is almost unaffected by the transverse fluid flow up to a velocity of 0.8 m/s. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  20. Work Characteristics and Occupational Well-Being: The Role of Age.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Schmitt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Based on a lifespan perspective on work design, person-environment interaction and fit theories, models of successful aging at work, and role theory, we review research on the role of worker age in relationships between work characteristics and occupational well-being. We first focus on interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational well-being. Research has found that age can moderate associations between work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators, and that work characteristics can moderate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. Next, we describe research showing that work characteristics can mediate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. The relationships of age with specific work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators can be linear or non-linear. We conclude our literature review by discussing implications for future research.

  1. Work Characteristics and Occupational Well-Being: The Role of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Schmitt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Based on a lifespan perspective on work design, person-environment interaction and fit theories, models of successful aging at work, and role theory, we review research on the role of worker age in relationships between work characteristics and occupational well-being. We first focus on interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational well-being. Research has found that age can moderate associations between work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators, and that work characteristics can moderate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. Next, we describe research showing that work characteristics can mediate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. The relationships of age with specific work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators can be linear or non-linear. We conclude our literature review by discussing implications for future research. PMID:27713711

  2. [Light scattering extinction properties of atmospheric particle and pollution characteristics in hazy weather in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Ye, Hui; Shen, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hong-Liang; Hong, Sheng-Mao; Jiao, Li; Huang, Kan

    2014-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle scattering on visibility, light scattering coefficient, particle concentrations and meteorological factor were simultaneously monitored from July 2011 to June 2012 in Hangzhou. Daily scattering coefficients ranged from 108.4 to 1 098.1 Mm(-1), with an annual average concentration of 428.6 Mm(-1) ± 200.2 Mm(-1). Seasonal variation of scattering coefficients was significant, with the highest concentrations observed in autumn and winter and the lowest in summer. It was found there were two peaks for the average diurnal variations of the scattering coefficient, which could be observed at 08:00 and 21:00. The scattering efficiencies of PM2.5 and PM10 were 7.6 m2 x g(-1) and 4.4 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The particle scattering was about 90.2 percent of the total light extinction. The scattering coefficients were 684.4 Mm(-1) ± 218.1 Mm(-1) and 1 095.4 Mm(-1) ± 397.7 Mm(-1) in hazy and heavy hazy days, respectively, which were 2.6 and 4.2 times as high as in non-hazy weather, indicating that particle scattering is the main factor for visibility degradation and the occurrence of hazy weather in Hangzhou.

  3. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  4. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  5. Second stage mote system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal...

  6. Overflow system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  7. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage mote system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  8. Combined mote system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  9. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin overflow system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  10. Mote trash system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  11. First stage mote system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  12. Mote cyclone robber system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  13. Master trash system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or ...

  14. Second stage lint cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal...

  15. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage mote system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  16. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined mote system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  17. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin unloading system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  18. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cleaner system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  19. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin master trash system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  20. Mote cleaner system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or ...

  1. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  2. First stage lint cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal...

  3. Unloading system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  4. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  5. Cyclone robber system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or ...

  6. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  7. Battery condenser system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  8. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin battery condenser system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  9. Combined lint cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  10. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote trash system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  11. Effects on roughage inclusion and particle size on digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics of beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Roughage is fed to cattle to promote ruminal health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a means to standardize roughage in beef cattle finishing diets, and increasing particle size of roughage could ...

  12. Characteristics of nano-/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs in ambient air at an international airport.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Chang, Jin-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Concentrations of 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated for individual particle-size distributions at the airport apron of the Taipei International Airport, Taiwan, on 48 days in July, September, October, and December of 2011. In total, 672 integrated air samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) and a nano-MOUDI. Particle-bound PAHs (P-PAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC/MSD). The five most abundant species of P-PAHs on all sampling days were naphthalene (NaP), phenanthrene (PA), fluoranthene (FL), acenaphthene (AcP), and pyrene (Pyr). Total P-PAHs concentrations were 152.21, 184.83, and 188.94 ng/m(3) in summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. On average, the most abundant fractions of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq) in different molecular weights were high-weight PAHs (79.29 %), followed by medium-weight PAHs (11.57 %) and low-weight PAHs (9.14 %). The mean BaPeq concentrations were 1.25 and 0.94 (ng/m(3)) in ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm) and nano-particles (<0.032 μm), respectively. The percentages of total BaPeq in nano- and ultrafine particulate size ranges were 52.4 % and 70.15 %, respectively.

  13. [Pollution characteristics of organic and elemental carbon in atmospheric particles in Nanjing northern suburb in summer].

    PubMed

    Duan, Qing; An, Jun-Lin; Wang, Hong-Lei; Miao, Qing

    2014-07-01

    To understand organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration, the particles samples were collected by an Andersen cascade impactor and analyzed with the DRI analyzer in Nanjing northern suburb during May to July in 2013. The results showed that the average mass concentrations of EC and OC in PM2.1 were (2.6 +/- 1.1) microg x m(-3), (13.0 +/- 5.2) microg x m(-3) and (3.4 +/- 1.7) microg x m(-3), (20.3 +/- 7.3) microg x m(-3) in PM90, respectively. EC was mainly enriched in ultrafine particles, and OC was mainly in fine particles. The ratios of PM1.1 (EC)/PM9.0 (EC) and PM2.1 (OC)/PM9.0 (OC) were 0.62 and 0.64, respectively. The average peak of concentration of both EC and OC appeared in 0.43 microm, accounting for 33.4% of TEC and 21.1% of TOC. EC and OC in PM1.1, PM2.1 and PM9.0 had a good relation during the summer in Nanjing northern suburb, suggesting that they shared the same source. Ratios of OC and EC indicated that the main origins of carbonaceous particles were attributed to automobile exhaust fumes, coal combustion and road dust.

  14. Characteristics and Roles of Exosomes in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Hu, Yan-Wei; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized biological membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain a cell-specific cargo of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids that are released and taken up by most cell types, thereby inducing expression and functional changes via horizontal transfer of cargos between cells. Thus, exosomes present a largely unknown "cell-to-cell" communication system, which is now increasingly being investigated for diagnostic and therapeutic use in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the properties and roles of exosomes in a variety of physiological and pathological settings related to CVD. We focus on available information on exosome-mediated intercellular communication relevant to myocardial injury, repair, and regeneration. Finally, we address the promise of exosomes as valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and their potential use as therapeutic tools in CVD. Exosomes remain largely unexplored for therapeutic use in the field of cardiovascular diagnosis and medicine. A more detailed characterization of cardiac exosomes shed by different components of the heart will be of fundamental importance to address specific changes in the profile of exosomal microRNAs and proteins, which will enable the clinical use of exosomes as minimally invasive diagnostic tools and vehicles for delivery of targeted therapies for CVD.

  15. Performance of combination drug and hygroscopic excipient submicrometer particles from a softmist inhaler in a characteristic model of the airways.

    PubMed

    Longest, P Worth; Tian, Geng; Li, Xiang; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Excipient enhanced growth (EEG) of inhaled submicrometer pharmaceutical aerosols is a recently proposed method intended to significantly reduce extrathoracic deposition and improve lung delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the size increase of combination drug and hygroscopic excipient particles in a characteristic model of the airways during inhalation using both in vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The airway model included a characteristic mouth-throat (MT) and upper tracheobronchial (TB) region through the third bifurcation and was enclosed in a chamber geometry used to simulate the thermodynamic conditions of the lungs. Both in vitro results and CFD simulations were in close agreement and indicated that EEG delivery of combination submicrometer particles could nearly eliminate MT deposition for inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols. Compared with current inhalers, the proposed delivery approach represents a 1-2 order of magnitude reduction in MT deposition. Transient inhalation was found to influence the final size of the aerosol based on changes in residence times and relative humidity values. Aerosol sizes following EEG when exiting the chamber (2.75-4.61 μm) for all cases of initial submicrometer combination particles were equivalent to or larger than many conventional pharmaceutical aerosols that frequently have MMADs in the range of 2-3 μm.

  16. Effects of Particle Size and Bubble Characteristics on Transport of Micro- and Nano-Bubbles in Saturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, S.; Nihei, N.; Ueda, Y.; Moldrup, P.; Nishimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    The micro- and nano-bubbles (MNBs) have considerable potentials for the remediation of soil contaminated by organic compounds when used in conjunction with bioremediation technology. Understanding a transport mechanism of MNBs in soils is essential to optimize remediation techniques using MNBs. In this study, column transport experiments using glass beads with different size fractions (average particles size: 0.1 mm and 0.4 mm) were conducted, where MNBs created by oxygen gas were injected to the column with different flow rates. Effects of particle size and bubble characteristics on MNB transport in porous media were investigated based on the column experiments. The results showed that attachments of MNBs were enhanced under lower flow rate. Under higher flow rate condition, there were not significant differences of MNBs transport in porous media with different particle size. A convection-dispersion model including bubble attachment, detachment, and straining terms was applied to the obtained breakthrough curves for each experiment, showing good fitness against the measured data. Further investigations will be conducted to understand bubble characteristics including bubble size and zeta potential on MNB transport in porous media. Relations between in model parameters in the transport model and physical and chemical properties in porous media and MNBs will be discussed.

  17. Performance of Combination Drug and Hygroscopic Excipient Submicrometer Particles from a Softmist Inhaler in a Characteristic Model of the Airways

    PubMed Central

    Longest, P. Worth; Tian, Geng; Li, Xiang; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Excipient enhanced growth (EEG) of inhaled submicrometer pharmaceutical aerosols is a recently proposed method intended to significantly reduce extrathoracic deposition and improve lung delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the size increase of combination drug and hygroscopic excipient particles in a characteristic model of the airways during inhalation using both in vitro experiments and CFD simulations. The airway model included a characteristic mouth-throat (MT) and upper tracheobronchial (TB) region through the third bifurcation (B3) and was enclosed in a chamber geometry used to simulate the thermodynamic conditions of the lungs. Both in vitro results and CFD simulations were in close agreement and indicated that EEG delivery of combination submicrometer particles could nearly eliminate MT deposition for inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols. Compared with current inhalers, the proposed delivery approach represents a 1–2 order of magnitude reduction in MT deposition. Transient inhalation was found to influence the final size of the aerosol based on changes in residence times and relative humidity values. Aerosol sizes following EEG when exiting the chamber (2.75–4.61 μm) for all cases of initial submicrometer combination particles were equivalent to or larger than many conventional pharmaceutical aerosols that frequently have MMADs in the range of 2–3 μm. PMID:22820981

  18. [Analysis of particle size characteristics of road sediments in Beijing Olympic Park].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-yan; Shi, An-bang; Qu, Yang-sheng; Yue, Jing-lin

    2014-09-01

    Particle size analysis of road sediment collected in October and November in Beijing Olympic Park indicates that most of the sediments are 76-830 μm; the grain size of the sediments in the area of large population flow is mainly coarse but the grain size in the area of large traffic volume is fine relatively while most of the sediments are <300 p.m. Moreover, sediments of size range <300 μm can be easily accumulated on the road with moderate traffic density. The results demonstrate that the effect of pedestrian flow on the composition of the particles is unobvious and the main influences are the traffic density, extensive construction. With the length of dry period increasing, the content of sediments of size range >300 μm decreases and the content of sediments of size range < 150 μm increases, however, the change of the content of sediments of size range 150-300 μm is not obvious. The results indicate that the effectiveness of the road sediment removal depends on the length of dry period, and the accumulation of different size particles varies differently under the different dry days. Compared with the stone road, surface particles can accumulate on the asphalt road more easily as the accumulation of particles is affected by the road material significantly. Therefore, to reduce the urban surface water pollution, it is necessary to improve the design of park road such as using the stone road, which can decrease the roughness of the road.

  19. [Pollution characteristics of organic acids in atmospheric particles during haze periods in autumn in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ji-hua; Zhao, Jing-ping; Duan, Jing-chun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin; Yang, Fu-mo

    2013-05-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP), collected during a typical haze period in Guangzhou, were analyzed for the fatty acids (C12-C30) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the concentration of total fatty and carboxylic acids was pretty high during the haze episode. The ratios of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in haze to those in normal days were 1.9 and 2.5, respectively. During the episode of the increasing pollution, the fatty acids and carboxylic acids at night (653 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (487 ng x m(-3)) in days. After that, the level of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in days (412 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (336 ng x m(-3)) at night. In general, the time-series of fatty acids and carboxylic acids was similar to that of the air particle and carbonaceous species, however, the trend of the ratio of fatty acids and carboxylic acids to organic carbon was opposite to that of air particle and carbonaceous species. This ratio decreased with the increase of the concentration of air particle and after the night of 27th, the ratio increased with the decrease in the concentration of air particle. The results showed that haze pollution had a significant inhibitory effect on the enrichment of fatty and carboxylic acids. Based on the ratio of malonate to succinate (C3/C4), it could be found that primary sources contribute more to the atmospheric fatty and carboxylic acids during the autumn haze pollution periods in Guangzhou.

  20. The Role of Color and Morphologic Characteristics in Dermoscopic Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Shirin; Marchetti, Michael A; Navarrete-Dechent, Cristian; Dusza, Stephen W; Kose, Kivanc; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2016-06-01

    a color by diagnosis interaction term showed that participants were more likely to make a correct diagnosis of SCC and hemangioma in color (P < .001 for both comparisons) and dermatofibroma in gray-scale (P < .001). Morphologic characteristics (ie, structures and patterns), not color, provide the primary diagnostic clue in dermoscopy. Use of gray-scale images may improve teaching of dermoscopy to novices by emphasizing the evaluation of morphology.

  1. Role of the particle size polydispersity in the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube-epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Majidian, Maryam; Grimaldi, Claudio; Forró, László; Magrez, Arnaud

    2017-10-02

    Carbon nanotubes (CTNs) with large aspect-ratios are extensively used to establish electrical connectedness in polymer melts at very low CNT loadings. However, the CNT size polydispersity and the quality of the dispersion are still not fully understood factors that can substantially alter the desired characteristics of CNT nanocomposites. Here we demonstrate that the electrical conductivity of polydisperse CNT-epoxy composites with purposely-tailored distributions of the nanotube length L is a quasiuniversal function of the first moment of L. This finding challenges the current understanding that the conductivity depends upon higher moments of the CNT length. We explain the observed quasiuniversality by a combined effect between the particle size polydispersity and clustering. This mechanism can be exploited to achieve controlled tuning of the electrical transport in general CNT nanocomposites.

  2. The Role of Quasi-Perpendicular Shocks in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    SciTech Connect

    Tylka, Allan J.

    2005-08-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are an important venue for testing and refining our understanding of acceleration processes that are ubiquitous in astrophysical plasmas. Large SEP events occur at a rate of about 10 per year during solar maximum. The dominant accelerators in these events are believed to be shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A particular challenge has been the dramatic event-to-event variability in composition and spectral characteristics at energies above a few tens of MeV per nucleon. I discuss recent efforts to understand this variability in terms of the interplay of two factors: seed populations, typically comprising at least suprathermals from flares and suprathermals from the corona or solar wind; and shock geometry, which generally begins as quasi-perpendicular near the Sun but evolves toward quasi-parallel as the shock moves outward.

  3. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Rayner, Perter; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-06-04

    Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmospheric aerosols, by using as a case study the estimation of bacteria emissions from different ecosystem regions in the global atmospheric chemistry and climate model ECHAM5/MESSy-Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). Simulated particle concentrations in the tropopause region and at high latitudes, as well as transport of particles to tundra and land ice regions are shown to be highly sensitive to scavenging in mixed-phase clouds, which is poorly characterized in most global climate models. This may be a critical uncertainty in correctly simulating the transport of aerosol particles to the Arctic. Source estimation via Monte Carlo Markov Chain is applied to a suite of sensitivity simulations and the global mean emissions are estimated. We present an analysis of the partitioning of uncertainties in the global mean emissions that are attributable to particle size, CCN activity, the ice nucleation scavenging ratios for mixed-phase and cold clouds, and measurement error. Uncertainty due to CCN activity or to a 1 um error in particle size is typically between 10% and 40% of the uncertainty due to data uncertainty, as measured by the 5%-ile to 95%-ile range of the Monte Carlo ensemble. Uncertainty attributable to the ice nucleation scavenging ratio in mized-phase clouds is as high as 10% to 20% of the data uncertainty. Taken together, the four model 20 parameters examined contribute about half as much to the uncertainty in the estimated emissions as do the measurements. This was a surprisingly large contribution from model uncertainty in light of the substantial data uncertainty, which ranges from 81

  4. Point particle binary system with components of different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño M, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-05-01

    A study of binary systems composed of two point particles with different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity with a Minkowski background is provided. The present paper generalizes a previous study by Bishop et al. The boundary conditions at the world tubes generated by the particles's orbits are explored, where the metric variables are decomposed in spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The power lost by the emission of gravitational waves is computed using the Bondi News function. The power found is the well-known result obtained by Peters and Mathews using a different approach. This agreement validates the approach considered here. Several multipole term contributions to the gravitational radiation field are also shown.

  5. EUV and debris characteristics of a laser-plasma tin dioxide nano-particle colloidal jet target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, Masanori; Suetake, Sumihiro; Senba, Yusuke; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2008-03-01

    Debris characteristics and its reduction have been investigated for a laser-produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source using a colloidal jet target containing tin dioxide nano-particles. Dominant deposited debris on a witness plate was found to have a form of oxidized tin (SnO x) originated from nano-particles. Quantitative debris amounts were determined by total laser energy irradiated onto a target, not by laser irradiation modes, such as single or double pulse irradiation. In-situ low-temperature (100°C) heating of a plate was effective to reduce the deposited debris amount, since colloidal debris was easily vaporized by the heat. Another approach to remove the deposited debris was roomtemperature photon processing using incoherent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission at 126 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis has shown that the deposited SnOx debris layer was deoxidized by the 126 nm VUV photon energy.

  6. Structural, electrical and magnetic characteristics of nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nano particles, synthesized by self combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontu, Uday Bhasker; Yelasani, Vijayakumar; Musugu, Venkata Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Nickel-substituted cobalt ferrite nano-particles are synthesized using a self-combustion method. Aqueous metal nitrates and citric acid form the precursors. No external oxidizing agents are used to change the pH of the precursors; this resulted in a more environment friendly synthesis. Structural, magnetic and electrical characteristics of the nano ferrites are verified using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), VSM and impedance analyzer respectively. Phase formation, particle size, lattice parameter, X-ray density, saturation magnetization, coercivity, dielectric constant and electrical activation energy as function of nickel substitution in cobalt ferrite are studied. It is shown here that the magnetic and electrical properties can be tuned by varying the nickel concentration.

  7. Quality Characteristics and Ginsenosides Composition of Ginseng-Yakju According to the Particle Size of Ginseng Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Kang Hyun; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop rice wine (Yakju) containing various amounts and particle sizes of ginseng powder and to analyze the physicochemical characteristics and content of ginsenosides in ginseng-Yakju. Soluble solid content, pH, ethanol concentration, acidity, amino acid content, and evaluation of preference showed no difference between four kinds of Yakju groups, regardless of ginseng supplementation and particle size of the ginseng powder. During fermentation of Yakju containing ginseng, the contents of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, and Rc were decreased. Otherwise, the content of ginsenoside Rh1 was increased highly by brewing microorganisms in Yakju. Recovery ratios of ginsenosides in ginseng-Yakju were approximately 25.4% (coarse ginseng power) and 23.8% (fine ginseng powder), which were superior to the recovery ratio of ginsenosides in Yakju containing ginseng slices (5%). PMID:24551824

  8. Characteristics of solar coronal source regions producing He-3-rich particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Lin, R. P.; Reames, D. V.; Stone, R. G.; Liggett, M.

    1987-01-01

    H-alpha, X-ray, and kilometric radio data are used to examine solar coronal activity associated with energetic He-3-rich particle events observed near earth. The basis of the study is the 12 He-3-rich events observed in association with impulsive 2-100 keV electron events reported by Reames et al. (1985). In three or four events, associated H-alpha or X-ray flares were found, and in two events even the metric type III bursts were weak or absent. The measured low energy electron spectra for these events show no evidence of a flattening due to Coulomb collisional losses. These results and several other recent findings are consistent with the idea that the He-3/electron events are due to particle acceleration in the corona well above the associated H-alpha and X-ray flares.

  9. Particle exhaust characteristics of an in-vessel cryopump used in DIII-D diverted plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Hogan, J.T.; Maingi, R.

    1995-07-01

    A particle exhaust scheme, employing a cryocondensation pump in the outboard divertor region under a baffle, has been installed and operated in the DIII-D tokamak. The cryopump provides toroidally symmetric pumping at a rate of 30000 to 40000 l/s for D{sub 2} in the pressure range of 1 to 4 mTorr. Pressures in the 2 to 3 mTorr range are routinely observed under the baffle. This translates to particle exhaust throughputs of nearly 100 Torr l/s. The exhaust throughput could be controlled by selecting the position of the plasma strike region with respect to the opening to the baffle chamber. The pump has been used quite effectively for plasma density control. 19 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The characteristics and application of sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) as novel filter media.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuxin; Yue, Qinyan; Yue, Min; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Yaqin; Qi, Yuanfeng

    2009-11-15

    Novel filter media-sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) were prepared using dewatered sludge, fly ash and clay with a mass ratio of 1:1:1. Compared with commercial ceramic particles (CCP), SFCP had higher total porosity, larger total surface area and lower bulk and apparent density. Tests of heavy metal elements in lixivium proved that SFCP were safe for wastewater treatment. A lab-scale upflow anaerobic bioreactor was employed to ascertain the application of SFCP in denitrification process using acetate as carbon source. The results showed that SFCP reactor brought a relative superiority to CCP reactor in terms of total nitrogen (TN) removal at the optimum C/N ratio of 4.03 when volumetric loading rates (VLR) ranged from 0.33 to 3.69 kg TN (m(3)d)(-1). Therefore, SFCP application, as a novel process of treating wastes with wastes, provided a promising way in sludge and fly ash utilization.

  11. Characteristics of Surface Particle Motion of Coiled Waveguide Caused by Flexural Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shangping; Tanabe, Masayuki; Okubo, Kan; Tagawa, Norio; Moriya, Tadashi

    2008-05-01

    A traveling wave miniature ultrasonic motor has been developed using a helical coiled waveguide as a stator, and it has been applied to an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) probe. In this motor, the elliptical motion of the surface particle due to flexural ultrasonic waves drives the rotor which can be placed inside or outside adjacent to the stator via frictional force. However, the fact that the rotational direction of the outer rotor is the reverse of that of the inner rotor at low frequencies of the flexural wave has not been clarified theoretically. In this study, the surface particle motion is investigated through finite element method (FEM) simulations, and the basis of the rotational directions is clarified.

  12. Computational methods for analyzing the transmission characteristics of a beta particle magnetic analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Computational methods were developed to study the trajectories of beta particles (positrons) through a magnetic analysis system as a function of the spatial distribution of the radionuclides in the beta source, size and shape of the source collimator, and the strength of the analyzer magnetic field. On the basis of these methods, the particle flux, their energy spectrum, and source-to-target transit times have been calculated for Na-22 positrons as a function of the analyzer magnetic field and the size and location of the target. These data are in studies requiring parallel beams of positrons of uniform energy such as measurement of the moisture distribution in composite materials. Computer programs for obtaining various trajectories are included.

  13. Effects of sampling nozzles on the particle-collection characteristics of inertial sizing devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A.D.; Farthing, W.E.; Ward, T.E.; Midgett, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    In several particle-sizing samplers, the sample extraction nozzle is necessarily closely coupled to the first inertial sizing stage. Devices of this type include small sampling cyclones, right-angle impactor precollectors for in-stack impactors, and the first impaction stage of several cascade impactors. In a recent laboratory study of a stack-sampling cyclone with various sampling nozzles, significant perturbations were observed in the actual D50 when some of the nozzles were used. Some nozzles caused the D50 of the cyclone to be reduced from 10 micrometers to less than 6 micrometers. Several alternate nozzle designs were considered to alleviate this behavior. Simple extension of the nozzle length was sufficient to restore the 10-micrometers sampler D50, but at the expense of enhanced deposition of the test-aerosol particles on the nozzle walls.

  14. Exponential Characteristic Spatial Quadrature for Discrete Ordinates Neutral Particle Transport in Slab Geometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    neutron energy distribution function Va1 = fission neutrons produced = scalar neutron flux Functional dependence of each variable is...an albedo ac times the outbound flux of neutrons passing across the surface of the boundary return back into the boundary in an isotropic distribution ...8217)O(7, E’, t) where 4 v = neutron speed xV = angular neutron flux = unit vector in direction of particle motion ; = coordinate location in space

  15. Linear Characteristic Spatial Quadrature for Discrete Ordinates Neutral Particle Transport on Arbitrary Triangles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    density of particles from sources that are independent of the flux distribution emitted at position F with energies in dE about E and directions in dfl...current j can be produced. Scalar fluxes are needed to determine reaction rates such as fission and neutron activation rates. Vector currents are...scalar flux distribution on the spatial mesh. This guess might be zero throughout or some informed initial guess. The guess would be used to construct

  16. Fluid-particle characteristics in fully-developed cluster-induced turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we present a theoretical framework for collisional fluid-particle turbulence. To identify the key mechanisms responsible for energy exchange between the two phases, an Eulerian-Lagrangian strategy is used to simulate fully-developed cluster-inudced turbulence (CIT) under a range of Reynolds numbers, where fluctuations in particle concentration generate and sustain the carrier-phase turbulence. Using a novel filtering approach, a length-scale separation between the correlated particle velocity and uncorrelated granular temperature (GT) is achieved. This separation allows us to extract the instantaneous Eulerian volume fraction, velocity and GT fields from the Lagrangian data. Direct comparisons can thus be made with the relevant terms that appear in the multiphase turbulence model. It is shown that the granular pressure is highly anisotropic, and thus additional transport equations (as opposed to a single equation for GT) are necessary in formulating a predictive multiphase turbulence model. In addition to reporting the relevant contributions to the Reynolds stresses of each phase, two-point statistics, integral length/timescales, averages conditioned on the local volume fraction, and PDFs of the key multiphase statistics are presented and discussed. The research reported in this paper is partially supported by the HPC equipment purchased through U.S. National Science Foundation MRI Grant Number CNS 1229081 and CRI Grant Number 1205413.

  17. Effects of particle characteristics on magnetic immunoassay in a thin channel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H Y; Hsieh, Y C; Su, Y M; Chan, J R; Chang, Y C; Fuh, C Bor

    2011-10-15

    The effects of size and porosity of particles on magnetic immunoassay in a thin channel were studied. Experimental parameters were investigated and compared using a model immunoassay complex of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/anti-CEA. The rate constant for the affinity reaction between functional particles increased as the size of magnetic nanoparticles (800-80 nm) decreased. The affinity reaction between functional particles had no significant effect on the sizes of microparticles (1.0-4.4 μm) at commonly used thin channel flow-rates of 0.001-0.025 ml/min. Competitive and sandwich reactions of CEA/anti-CEA were studied for CEA detection. Microparticles of different porosities produced similar linear ranges of detection and limits of detection. The limits of detection for CEA were 0.29 pg/ml and 0.21 pg/ml for competitive and sandwich reactions, respectively. The linear ranges of detection were from 0.49 pg/ml to 4.9 ng/ml for both competitive and sandwich reactions. The detection limits were lower, and the linear ranges were wider than those of literature. There was a 9% difference in CEA detection measurements between competitive and sandwich magnetic immunoassay. The measurements of two magnetic immunoassays differed by less than 13% from the ELISA reference measurements. The running time was less than 30 min. Magnetic immunoassay in a thin channel has great potential for biochemical analysis and immunoassay-related applications.

  18. Minerals as Time-Integrating Luminescence Detectors for setting bounds on dark matter particle characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polymeris, G. S.; Kitis, G.; Liolios, A. K.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Zioutas, K.

    2006-06-01

    Terrestrial material, since its formation, is supposed to receive additional radiation dose from its exposure to fluxes of dark matter particles. The present work investigates the possibility for bound estimation of interaction parameters of dark matter particles with ordinary matter, by measuring the accumulated doses of certain geological materials. It is proposed that Thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) could enable the differentiation between the individual dose components, attributing a possible excessive dose, beyond the anticipated from cosmic rays and environmental radioactivity, to interactions with dark matter particles. Dosimetric properties of natural calcium fluoride, such as low detectable dose limit and low energy threshold (well below 1 keV), indicate it as a promising Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) for the proposed method. The limitations imposed by the "background" of cosmic rays and environmental radioactivity are discussed, and initial limits for the interaction strengths with ordinary matter, and/or the mass of WIMPs and axions are derived. The use of sedimentary quartz, sited in a free-from background-radiation environment, would yield a value of 4×10 -8 GeV -1 as an upper limit for the axion-to-photon interaction constant gaγγ and a value of 3×10 -8 GeV as a lower limit for the neutralino mass. The best limits, g=1.1×10-10 GeV for solar axions and m=3000 GeV for neutralinos, could be derived for natural calcium fluoride as a dosimeter.

  19. Characteristics of water-soluble ions and carbon in fine and coarse particles collected near an open burning site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Shui-Jen; Lin, Shao-Kai

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the chemical characteristics of particles that were collected from the open burning of wax apple agricultural waste, and evaluates the impact of such burning on regional air quality. The water-soluble ions, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) in fine (Dp ≤ 2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5 < Dp ≤ 10 μm) particles were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) and two Dichot samplers. The average PM2.5/PM10 ratio during open burning (0.90) was higher than those both before and after burning (0.57 and 0.55, respectively). The particle distributions before and during burning were bi-modal and uni-modal, respectively. During the open burning, the OC or K+ content markedly increased; however, that of secondary aerosol (NH4+, NO3- and SO42-) decreased. The Na+/Cl- molar ratios of fine particles before, after, and during the open burning 0.40, 0.18, and 0.24, respectively; however, the corresponding (Na+ + K+)/Cl- molar ratios were 0.74, 0.99, and 0.39, respectively. OC, K+ and Cl- were quite abundant in the open burning of agricultural waste (wax apple), and the OC/Na+, K+/Na+, and Cl-/Na+ (mass) ratios in fine particles (318, 10.2, and 10.5, respectively) may be used as reference indexes associated with the open burning of wax apple waste.

  20. The role of angled-tip microcatheter and microsphere injection velocity in liver radioembolization: A computational particle-hemodynamics study.

    PubMed

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio

    2017-05-04

    Liver radioembolization is a promising treatment option for combating liver tumors. It is performed by placing a microcatheter in the hepatic artery and administering radiation-emitting microspheres through the arterial bloodstream so that they get lodged in the tumoral bed. In avoiding nontarget radiation, the standard practice is to conduct a pretreatment, in which the microcatheter location and injection velocity are decided. However, between pretreatment and actual treatment, some of the parameters that influence the particle distribution in the liver can vary, resulting in radiation-induced complications. The present study aims to analyze the influence of a commercially available microcatheter with an angled tip and particle injection velocity in terms of segment-to-segment particle distribution. Specifically, 4 tip orientations and 2 injection velocities are combined to yield a set of 8 numerical simulations of the particle-hemodynamics in a patient-specific truncated hepatic artery. For each simulation, 4 cardiac pulses are simulated. Particles are injected during the first cycle, and the remaining pulses enable the majority of the injected particles to exit the computational domain. Results indicate that, in terms of injection velocity, particles are more spread out in the cross-sectional lumen areas as the injection velocity increases. The tip's orientation also plays a role because it influences the near-tip hemodynamics, therefore altering the particle travel through the hepatic artery. However, results suggest that particle distribution tries to match the blood flow split, therefore particle injection velocity and microcatheter tip orientation playing a minor role in segment-to-segment particle distribution. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Critical roles of cationic surfactants in the preparation of colloidal mesostructured silica nanoparticles: control of mesostructure, particle size, and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hironori; Urata, Chihiro; Higashitamori, Sayuri; Aoyama, Yuko; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-12

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are promising materials for various applications, such as drug delivery and catalysis, but the functional roles of surfactants in the formation and preparation of mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSN-as) remain to be seen. It was confirmed that the molar ratio of cationic surfactants to Si of alkoxysilanes (Surf/Si) can affect the degree of mesostructure formation (i.e., whether the mesochannels formed inside the nanoparticles actually pass through the outer surface of the particles), the particle diameter, and the dispersibility of MSN-as. Wormhole-like mesostructures formed with low Surf/Si ratios; however, the mesopores did not pass through the outer surface of the particles completely. At high Surf/Si ratios, the mesostructures extended. The particle diameter was 100 nm or larger at low Surf/Si ratios, and the primary particle diameter decreased as the Surf/Si ratio increased. This was because the surfactants enhanced the dispersity of the alkoxysilanes in water and the hydrolysis rate of the alkoxysilanes became faster, leading to an increased nucleation as compared to the particle growth. Moreover, primary particles aggregated at low Surf/Si ratios because of the hydrophobic interactions among the surfactants that were not involved in the mesostructure formation but were adsorbed onto the nanoparticles. At high Surf/Si ratios, the surfactant micelles were adsorbed on the surface of primary particles (admicelles), resulting in the dispersion of the particles due to electrostatic repulsion. In particular, molar ratios of 0.13 or higher were quite effective for the preparation of highly dispersed MSN-as. Surfactants played important roles in the mesostructure formation, decreasing the particle diameters, and the dispersibility of the particles. All of these factors were considerably affected by the Surf/Si ratio. The results suggested novel opportunities to control various colloidal mesostructured nanoparticles from the

  2. Do Magnetically Trapped Particles Play a Role in Asymmetry-Induced Transport?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, D. L.; McMurtry, K.

    2004-11-01

    It has been suggested(C. Fred Driscoll et al., in Non-Neutral Plasma Physics V), Martin Schauer et al., eds., p.3 (2003). that magnetically trapped particles play a role in the asymmetry-induced transport observed in our experiment(D.L. Eggleston and B. Carrillo, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1308 (2003).). This magnetic trapping would occur due to the small increase (β ≡ δ B/B ≈ 0.4%) in magnetic field at the center of our solenoid and would keep low velocity particles confined to the ends of the trap. To test this suggestion, we have added three coils of additional windings to our solenoid that allow us to adjust the axial field variation δ B, and have examined the effect of these adjustments on the radial flux resonances we typically observe. Making B as uniform as possible reduces β by a factor of five, but this produces little change in the transport. Varying β over the broader range -8.5% to 9.5% gives variations of 20-50% in the magnitude, peak frequency, and width of the flux resonances. The flux magnitude decreases with increasing β while the resonance width increases. The resonance peak frequency increases with |β|. We have not yet found a model that can explain these results.

  3. An Improved Model for Studying the Role Played by the Trapped Particle Instability in SRS Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Stephan; Valeo, Ernest

    2005-10-01

    Simulations under laser-fusion conditions have shown the potential role played by the trapped-particle instability (TPI) in saturating the non-linear evolution of Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS). The TPI may indeed act as a secondary instability by breaking-up the primary electron plasma wave [S. Brunner and E. Valeo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 145003-1 (2004)]. First analysis of simulation results were performed using the reduced model of Kruer for the TPI [W. L. Kruer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)]. An improved analysis tool has now been developed which directly implements the general linear stability theory of large BGK-like plasma waves [M. Goldman, Phys. Fluids 13, 1281 (1970)]. The implementation of this stability analysis tool, and its application to the SRS simulation results will be presented.

  4. Theoretical considerations on the free-surface role in the smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics model.

    PubMed

    Colagrossi, Andrea; Antuono, Matteo; Le Touzé, David

    2009-05-01

    In the present work, an in-depth analysis of the theoretical structure of the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (hereinafter SPH) is provided for an inviscid, weakly compressible, and barotropic flow in the presence of a free surface. The role of the free surface in the SPH scheme is indeed little addressed in literature. In the present analysis, the general continuous formulation of the SPH method is considered. A detailed description of the free-surface influence on the smoothed differential operators is supplied. New and existing forms are analyzed in detail, in terms of convergence and conservation properties. The proposed analysis is based on the principle of virtual works, which permits to exhibit the link with the enforcement of the dynamic free-surface boundary condition. Finally, possible SPH formulations resulting from this analysis are investigated, in terms of consistency, conservation, and dynamic free-surface boundary condition.

  5. The role of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in losses of magnetospheric energetic particles through the magnetopause: High-resolution MHD-test-particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Sorathia, Kareem; Merkin, Viacheslav

    2016-10-01

    The Earth's magnetopause is a sharp boundary separating the geomagnetic field from interplanetary field and plasma. During increased solar wind driving and geomagnetic activity, energetic particles produced inside the magnetosphere can gain access to the magnetopause and be permanently lost from the system by crossing the boundary into the region of open interplanetary magnetic field lines. The efficiency of the loss process is controlled by the details of particle interaction with the magnetopause boundary. Characterizing this interaction is important for understanding storm-time variability of magnetospheric energetic particle populations including ring current and radiation belts. The magnetopause structure can be very dynamic due, in particular, to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) produced by the velocity shear at the magnetospheric boundary. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of KHI in energetic particle loss through the magnetopause. For the analysis we use large-scale test-particle simulations in the electromagnetic fields computed with a global magnetospheric MHD model with resolution sufficiently high to resolve KHI. We compute the spatial distributions and rates of the magnetopause losses of energetic electrons, hydrogen and oxygen ions, and discuss our results in the context of recent measurements of magnetopause losses from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission.

  6. VINE-A NUMERICAL CODE FOR SIMULATING ASTROPHYSICAL SYSTEMS USING PARTICLES. II. IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Wetzstein, M.; Naab, T.

    2009-10-01

    We continue our presentation of VINE. In this paper, we begin with a description of relevant architectural properties of the serial and shared memory parallel computers on which VINE is intended to run, and describe their influences on the design of the code itself. We continue with a detailed description of a number of optimizations made to the layout of the particle data in memory and to our implementation of a binary tree used to access that data for use in gravitational force calculations and searches for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) neighbor particles. We describe the modifications to the code necessary to obtain forces efficiently from special purpose 'GRAPE' hardware, the interfaces required to allow transparent substitution of those forces in the code instead of those obtained from the tree, and the modifications necessary to use both tree and GRAPE together as a fused GRAPE/tree combination. We conclude with an extensive series of performance tests, which demonstrate that the code can be run efficiently and without modification in serial on small workstations or in parallel using the OpenMP compiler directives on large-scale, shared memory parallel machines. We analyze the effects of the code optimizations and estimate that they improve its overall performance by more than an order of magnitude over that obtained by many other tree codes. Scaled parallel performance of the gravity and SPH calculations, together the most costly components of most simulations, is nearly linear up to at least 120 processors on moderate sized test problems using the Origin 3000 architecture, and to the maximum machine sizes available to us on several other architectures. At similar accuracy, performance of VINE, used in GRAPE-tree mode, is approximately a factor 2 slower than that of VINE, used in host-only mode. Further optimizations of the GRAPE/host communications could improve the speed by as much as a factor of 3, but have not yet been implemented in VINE

  7. Densification characteristics of chromia/alumina castables by particle size distribution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The quality of the refractories applied on integrated gasification combined cycle should be a key factor that affects both the reliability and the economics of gasifier operation. To enhance the workability of chromia/alumina castables, three types of ultrafine alumina powder were added to improve the workability. Densification behavior of such castables in the presence of ultrafine alumina was assessed through the measurement of parameters like flow value, viscosity, bulk density, apparent porosity, and microstructure evaluation by an SEM study. It's proved that the specific surface area and particle size distribution of ultrafine powders in matrix parts greatly influence the densification behavior of these castables. PMID:22221548

  8. Densification characteristics of chromia/alumina castables by particle size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingming; Kim, Taesuk; Kim, Gichul; Hwang, Kyuhong; Bae, Dongsik

    2012-01-01

    The quality of the refractories applied on integrated gasification combined cycle should be a key factor that affects both the reliability and the economics of gasifier operation. To enhance the workability of chromia/alumina castables, three types of ultrafine alumina powder were added to improve the workability. Densification behavior of such castables in the presence of ultrafine alumina was assessed through the measurement of parameters like flow value, viscosity, bulk density, apparent porosity, and microstructure evaluation by an SEM study. It's proved that the specific surface area and particle size distribution of ultrafine powders in matrix parts greatly influence the densification behavior of these castables.

  9. Some design characteristics of the AMPTE turn and orbit change maneuvers. [Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kechichian, J. A.; Kwong, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The maneuvers carried out by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) including the Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) and the Ion Release Module (IRM) spacecraft are analyzed. Analytic and graphical methods are developed in order to carry out sensitivity analyses that helped design the nominal maneuvers, by taking into account errors in burn initiating time, motor performance, and spin axis pointing. A tradeoff analysis between errors in timing and Delta V magnitude is shown for the IRM orbit transfer, and a technique that allows for the determination of the attitude of spinner spacecraft by way of the observed Doppler shift resulting from an unbalanced turn is investigated.

  10. Vine—A Numerical Code for Simulating Astrophysical Systems Using Particles. II. Implementation and Performance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Wetzstein, M.; Naab, T.

    2009-10-01

    We continue our presentation of VINE. In this paper, we begin with a description of relevant architectural properties of the serial and shared memory parallel computers on which VINE is intended to run, and describe their influences on the design of the code itself. We continue with a detailed description of a number of optimizations made to the layout of the particle data in memory and to our implementation of a binary tree used to access that data for use in gravitational force calculations and searches for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) neighbor particles. We describe the modifications to the code necessary to obtain forces efficiently from special purpose "GRAPE" hardware, the interfaces required to allow transparent substitution of those forces in the code instead of those obtained from the tree, and the modifications necessary to use both tree and GRAPE together as a fused GRAPE/tree combination. We conclude with an extensive series of performance tests, which demonstrate that the code can be run efficiently and without modification in serial on small workstations or in parallel using the OpenMP compiler directives on large-scale, shared memory parallel machines. We analyze the effects of the code optimizations and estimate that they improve its overall performance by more than an order of magnitude over that obtained by many other tree codes. Scaled parallel performance of the gravity and SPH calculations, together the most costly components of most simulations, is nearly linear up to at least 120 processors on moderate sized test problems using the Origin 3000 architecture, and to the maximum machine sizes available to us on several other architectures. At similar accuracy, performance of VINE, used in GRAPE-tree mode, is approximately a factor 2 slower than that of VINE, used in host-only mode. Further optimizations of the GRAPE/host communications could improve the speed by as much as a factor of 3, but have not yet been implemented in VINE

  11. Numerical study on the deposition rate of hematite particle on polypropylene walls: role of surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christophe; Minier, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Grégory; Hurisse, Olivier

    2011-04-19

    In this paper, we investigate the deposition of nanosized and microsized particles on rough surfaces under electrostatic repulsive conditions in an aqueous suspension. This issue arises in the general context of modeling particle deposition which, in the present work, is addressed as a two-step process: first particles are transported by the motions of the flow toward surfaces and, second, in the immediate vicinity of the walls, the forces between the incoming particles and the walls are determined using the classical DLVO theory. The interest of this approach is to take into account both hydrodynamical and physicochemical effects within a single model. Satisfactory results have been obtained in attractive conditions but some discrepancies have been revealed in the case of repulsive conditions, in line with other studies which have noted differences between predictions based on the DLVO theory and experimental measurements for similar repulsive conditions. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to focus on this particular range and, more specifically, to assess the influence of surface roughness on the DLVO potential energy. For this purpose, we introduce a new simplified model of surface roughness where spherical protruding asperities are placed randomly on a smooth plate. On the basis of this geometrical description, approximate DLVO expressions are used and numerical calculations are performed. We first highlight the existence of a critical asperity size which brings about the highest reduction of the DLVO interaction energy. Then, the influence of the surface covered by the asperities is investigated as well as retardation effects which can play a role in the reduction of the interaction energy. Finally, by considering the random distribution of the energy barrier of the DLVO potential due to the random geometrical configurations, the overall effect of surface roughness is demonstrated with one application of the complete deposition model in an industrial

  12. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of Wave Overtopping Characteristics for Different Coastal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jaan Hui; Shao, Songdong

    2012-01-01

    This research paper presents an incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) technique to investigate a regular wave overtopping on the coastal structure of different types. The SPH method is a mesh-free particle modeling approach that can efficiently treat the large deformation of free surface. The incompressible SPH approach employs a true hydrodynamic formulation to solve the fluid pressure that has less pressure fluctuations. The generation of flow turbulence during the wave breaking and overtopping is modeled by a subparticle scale (SPS) turbulence model. Here the ISPH model is used to investigate the wave overtopping over a coastal structure with and without the porous material. The computations disclosed the features of flow velocity, turbulence, and pressure distributions for different structure types and indicated that the existence of a layer of porous material can effectively reduce the wave impact pressure and overtopping rate. The proposed numerical model is expected to provide a promising practical tool to investigate the complicated wave-structure interactions. PMID:22919291

  13. Characteristics of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon particle concentrations in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, H.A.; Cass, G.R.; Huntzicker, J.J.; Heyerdahl, E.K.; Rau, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    A fine particle air monitoring network was operated in the Los Angeles area during 1982. It was found that carbonaceous aerosols accounted for typically 40% of total fine particle mass loadings at most monitoring sites. The ratio of total carbon (TC) to elemental carbon (EC) in ambient samples and in primary source emissions was examined as an indicator of the extent of secondary organic aerosol formation. It was found that TC to EC ratios at all sites on average are no higher than recent estimates of the TC to EC ratio in primary source emissions. There is little evidence of the sustained summer peak in the ratio of TC to EC that one might expect if greatly enhanced secondary organics production occurs during the photochemical smog season. The TC to EC ratio does rise by the time that air masses reach the prevailing downwind edge of the air basin as would be expected if secondary organics are being formed during air parcel transport, but the extent of that increase is modest. These results suggest that primary particulate carbon emissions were the principal contributor to long-term average fine aerosol carbon concentrations in the Los Angeles area during 1982. 45 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Role of particle shape anisotropy on crack formation in drying of colloidal suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugyala, Venkateshwar Rao; Lama, Hisay; Satapathy, Dillip K.; Basavaraj, Madivala G.

    2016-08-01

    Cracks in a colloidal film formed by evaporation induced drying can be controlled by changing drying conditions. We show, for the first time that the crack morphologies in colloidal films are dependent on shape of constituting particles apart from the microstructure and particle assembly. In order to investigate the particle shape effect on crack patterns, monodispered spherical and ellipsoidal particles are used in sessile drop experiments. On observing the dried sessile drop we found cracks along the radial direction for spherical particle dispersions and circular crack patterns for ellipsoidal particle dispersions. The change in crack pattern is a result of self assembly of shape anisotropic particles and their ordering. The ordering of particles dictate the crack direction and the cracks follow the path of least resistance to release the excess stress stored in the particle film. Ellipsoids having different aspect ratio (~3 to 7) are used and circular crack patterns are repeatedly observed in all experiments.

  15. Role of particle shape anisotropy on crack formation in drying of colloidal suspension

    PubMed Central

    Dugyala, Venkateshwar Rao; Lama, Hisay; Satapathy, Dillip K.; Basavaraj, Madivala G.

    2016-01-01

    Cracks in a colloidal film formed by evaporation induced drying can be controlled by changing drying conditions. We show, for the first time that the crack morphologies in colloidal films are dependent on shape of constituting particles apart from the microstructure and particle assembly. In order to investigate the particle shape effect on crack patterns, monodispered spherical and ellipsoidal particles are used in sessile drop experiments. On observing the dried sessile drop we found cracks along the radial direction for spherical particle dispersions and circular crack patterns for ellipsoidal particle dispersions. The change in crack pattern is a result of self assembly of shape anisotropic particles and their ordering. The ordering of particles dictate the crack direction and the cracks follow the path of least resistance to release the excess stress stored in the particle film. Ellipsoids having different aspect ratio (~3 to 7) are used and circular crack patterns are repeatedly observed in all experiments. PMID:27477261

  16. Characteristics of the water-soluble components of aerosol particles in Hefei, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xue-Liang; Shi, Chun-E; Wu, Bi-Wen; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Jin, Qi; Wang, Hong-Lei; Zhu, Song; Yu, Caixia

    2016-04-01

    Size-classified daily aerosol mass concentrations and concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were measured in Hefei, China, in four representative months between September 2012 and August 2013. An annual average mass concentration of 169.09 μg/m(3) for total suspended particulate (TSP) was measured using an Andersen Mark-II cascade impactor. The seasonal average mass concentration was highest in winter (234.73 μg/m(3)) and lowest in summer (91.71 μg/m(3)). Water-soluble ions accounted for 59.49%, 32.90%, 48.62% and 37.08% of the aerosol mass concentration in winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively, which indicated that ionic species were the primary constituents of the atmospheric aerosols. The four most abundant ions were NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+) and NH4(+). With the exception of Ca(2+), the mass concentrations of water-soluble ions were in an intermediate range compared with the levels for other Chinese cities. Sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the dominant fine-particle species, which were bimodally distributed in spring, summer and fall; however, the size distribution became unimodal in winter, with a peak at 1.1-2.1 μm. The Ca(2+) peak occurred at approximately 4.7-5.8 μm in all seasons. The cation to anion ratio was close to 1.4, which suggested that the aerosol particles were alkalescent in Hefei. The average NO3(-)/SO4(2-) mass ratio was 1.10 in Hefei, which indicated that mobile source emissions were predominant. Significant positive correlation coefficients between the concentrations of NH4(+) and SO4(2-), NH4(+) and NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-), and Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were also indicated, suggesting that aerosol particles may be present as (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, and NH4NO3. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO NANO-SCALE TIO2: ROLE OF PARTICLE DOSE, SHAPE AND RETENTION

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rona M.; TeeSy, Christel; Franzi, Lisa; Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Evans, James E.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 is one of the most widely used nanomaterials, valued for its highly refractive, photocatalytic and pigmenting properties. TiO2 is also classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible human carcinogen. The objectives of this study were to establish a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) for nano-scale TiO2, determine TiO2 uptake in the lungs, and estimate toxicity based on physico-chemical properties and retention in the lungs. In vivo lung toxicity of nano-scale TiO2 using varying forms of well-characterized, highly-dispersed TiO2 was assessed. Anatase/rutile P25 spheres (TiO2-P25), pure anatase spheres (TiO2-A), and anatase nanobelts (TiO2-NB) were tested. To determine the effects of dose and particle characteristics, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TiO2 (0, 20, 70, or 200 µg) via intratracheal instillation. Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis 1 and 7 days post exposure. Despite abundant TiO2 inclusions in all exposed animals, only TiO2-NB elicited any significant degree of inflammation seen in BALF at the 1-day time-point. This inflammation resolved by 7 days; although, TiO2 particles had not cleared from alveolar macrophages recovered from the lung. Histological examination showed TiO2-NB caused cellular changes at day 1 which were still evident at day 7. We conclude TiO2-NB is the most inflammatory with a lowest observable effect level of 200 µg at 1 day post instillation. PMID:24156719

  18. Fluoroalkyl-functionalized Silica Particles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Wetting Characteristics (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-03

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Raymond Campos, Andrew J. Guenthner, Timothy S. Haddad, and Joseph M. Mabry 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Characterization, and Wetting Characteristics Raymond Campos,1 Andrew J. Guenthner,2 Timothy S. Haddad,1 and Joseph M. Mabry*,2 1ERC, Inc., Air...Panayiotountheses, C., Langmuir 2008, 24, 11225-11232. (14) Steele, A., Bayer , I. and Loth, E., Nano Lett. 2009, 1, 501-505. (15) Yang, J., Zhang, Z., Men, X

  19. Tribology and Removal Rate Characteristics of Chemical Mechanical Planarization Pads Containing Water Soluble Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charns, L.; Philipossian, A.

    2006-07-01

    Novel non-porous pads incorporating different amounts of embedded water soluble particles (WSP) have been characterized and compared to a conventional porous pad for interlayer dielectric (ILD) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) applications. Removal rate results indicated that polishing with WSP pads was Prestonian in nature (similar to conventional porous pads). A decrease in removal rate at high combinations of pressure and velocity was observed during in-situ conditioning with WSP pads. This anomalous behavior was most likely due to the alternatively feeding and starving the wafer of slurry during in-situ conditioning since doubling the flow rate resolved the problem. The anomalous behavior, however, was not observed when conditioning was performed ex-situ. Frictional analysis indicated that polishing with WSP pads proceeded via boundary lubrication like the other porous pads with concentrically grooved surface geometries.

  20. Simulation study of the discharge characteristics of silos with cohesive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, David; Weis, Dominik; Hesse, Robert; Antonyuk, Sergiy

    2017-06-01

    In many industrial applications the silo for bulk materials is an important part of an overall process. Silos are used for instance to buffer intermediate products to ensure a continuous supply for the next process step. This study deals with the discharging behaviour of silos containing cohesive bulk solids with particle sizes in the range of 100-500 μm. In this contribution the TOMAS [1,2] model developed for stationary and non-stationary discharging of a convergent hopper is verified with experiments and simulations using the Discrete Element Method. Moreover the influence of the cohesion of the bulk solids on the discharge behaviour is analysed by the simulation. The simulation results showed a qualitative agreement with the analytical model of TOMAS.

  1. Particle size distribution and characteristics of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments from Beijing Olympic Park.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Shi, Anbang; Zhang, Xiaoran

    2015-06-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, heavy metals in road-deposited sediments (RDSs) of parks are emitted into the terrestrial, atmospheric, and water environment, and have a severe impact on residents' and tourists' health. To identify the distribution and characteristic of heavy metals in RDS and to assess the road environmental quality in Chinese parks, samples were collected from Beijing Olympic Park in the present study. The results indicated that particles with small grain size (<150 μm) were the dominant fraction. The length of dry period was one of the main factors affecting the particle size distribution, as indicated by the variation of size fraction with the increase of dry days. The amount of heavy metal (i.e., Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) content was the largest in particles with small size (<150 μm) among all samples. Specifically, the percentage of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in these particles was 74.7%, 55.5%, 56.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Heavy metals adsorbed in sediments may mainly be contributed by road traffic emissions. The contamination levels of Pb and Cd were higher than Cu and Zn on the basis of the mean heavy metal contents. Specifically, the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) decreased in the order: Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn. This study analyzed the mobility of heavy metals in sediments using partial sequential extraction with the Tessier procedure. The results revealed that the apparent mobility and potential metal bioavailability of heavy metals in the sediments, based on the exchangeable and carbonate fractions, decreased in the order: Cd>Zn≈Pb>Cu.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were < 20% in low-energy input operation areas (ore crushing, hydroxide product drumming) and > 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to

  3. Effects of Different Lasers and Particle Abrasion on Surface Characteristics of Zirconia Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Arami, Sakineh; Tabatabae, Masoume Hasani; Namdar, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the surface of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) after surface treatment with lasers and airborne-particle abrasion. Materials and Methods: First, 77 samples of presintered zirconia blocks measuring 10 × 10 × 2 mm were made, sintered and polished. Then, they were randomly divided into 11 groups (n=7) and received surface treatments namely, Er:YAG laser irradiation with output power of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 W, Nd:YAG laser with output power of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 W, CO2 laser with output power of 3, 4 and 5 W, AL2O3 airborne-particle abrasion (50μ) and no treatment (controls). Following treatment, the parameters of surface roughness such as Ra, Rku and Rsk were evaluated using a digital profilometer and surface examination was done by SEM. Results: According to ANOVA and Tukey’s test, the mean surface roughness (Ra) after Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 2 and 2.5 W was significantly higher than other groups. Roughness increased with increasing output power of Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers. Treated surfaces by Er:YAG laser and air abrasion showed similar surface roughness. SEM micrographs showed small microcracks in specimens irradiated with Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers. Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser created a rough surface on the zirconia ceramic with many microcracks; therefore, its use is not recommended. Air abrasion method can be used with Er:YAG laser irradiation for the treatment of zirconia ceramic. PMID:24910700

  4. Effects of different lasers and particle abrasion on surface characteristics of zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Arami, Sakineh; Tabatabae, Masoume Hasani; Namdar, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the surface of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) after surface treatment with lasers and airborne-particle abrasion. First, 77 samples of presintered zirconia blocks measuring 10 × 10 × 2 mm were made, sintered and polished. Then, they were randomly divided into 11 groups (n=7) and received surface treatments namely, Er:YAG laser irradiation with output power of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 W, Nd:YAG laser with output power of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 W, CO2 laser with output power of 3, 4 and 5 W, AL2O3 airborne-particle abrasion (50μ) and no treatment (controls). Following treatment, the parameters of surface roughness such as Ra, Rku and Rsk were evaluated using a digital profilometer and surface examination was done by SEM. According to ANOVA and Tukey's test, the mean surface roughness (Ra) after Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 2 and 2.5 W was significantly higher than other groups. Roughness increased with increasing output power of Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers. Treated surfaces by Er:YAG laser and air abrasion showed similar surface roughness. SEM micrographs showed small microcracks in specimens irradiated with Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers. Nd:YAG laser created a rough surface on the zirconia ceramic with many microcracks; therefore, its use is not recommended. Air abrasion method can be used with Er:YAG laser irradiation for the treatment of zirconia ceramic.

  5. Characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composite with chemically doped TiO2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Youngsoo; Kim, Seong Jun; Kim, Kwang J.; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have investigated techniques to improve the bending performance of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators, including 'doping' of metal particles in the polymer membrane usually by means of physical processes. This study is mainly focused on the characterization of the physical, electrochemical and electromechanical properties of TiO2-doped ionic polymer membranes and IPMCs prepared by the sol-gel method, which results in a uniform distribution of the particles inside the polymer membrane. X-ray and UV-visible spectra indicate the presence of anatase-TiO2 in the modified membranes. TiO2-doped membranes (0.16 wt%) exhibit the highest level of water uptake. The glass transition temperature of these membranes, measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), increases with the increase of the amount of TiO2 in the membrane. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated that the storage modulus of dried TiO2-doped ionic polymer membranes increases as the amount of TiO2 in the membrane increases, whereas the storage modulus of hydrated samples is closely related to the level of water uptake. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the conductivity of TiO2-doped membranes decreases with increasing TiO2 content in spite of an internal resistance drop in the samples. Above all, bending deflection of TiO2-doped IPMC decreased with higher TiO2 content in the membrane while the blocking force of each sample increased with the higher TiO2 content. Additionally, it was determined that the lifetime of IPMC is strongly dependent on the level of water uptake.

  6. Influences of fireworks on chemical characteristics of atmospheric fine and coarse particles during Taiwan's Lantern Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Chien, Li-Hsing; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Ie, Iau-Ren

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, the celebration activities of various folk-custom festivals have been getting more and more attention from the citizens in Taiwan. Festivities throughout the whole island are traditionally accompanied by loud and brightly colored firework displays. Among these activities, the firework displays during Taiwan's Lantern Festival in Kaohsiung harbor is one of the largest festivals in Taiwan each year. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate the influence of fireworks displays on the ambient air quality during the Taiwan's Lantern Festival. Field measurements of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were conducted on February 9th-11th, 2009 during Taiwan's Lantern Festival in Kaohsiung City. Moreover, three kinds of fireworks powders obtained from the same manufacturing factory producing Kaohsiung Lantern Festival fireworks were burned in a self-designed combustion chamber to determine the physicochemical properties of the fireworks' particles and to establish the source profile of firework burning. Several metallic elements of PM during the firework display periods were notably higher than those during the non-firework periods. The concentrations of Mg, K, Pb, and Sr in PM2.5 during the firework periods were 10 times higher than those during the non-firework periods. Additionally, the Cl-/Na+ ratio was approximately 3 during the firework display periods as Cl- came from the chlorine content of the firework powder. Moreover, the OC/EC ratio increased up to 2.8. Results obtained from PCA and CMB receptor modeling showed that major sources of atmospheric particles during the firework display periods in Kaohsiung harbor were fireworks, vehicular exhausts, soil dusts and marine sprays. Particularly, on February 10th, the firework displays contributed approximately 25.2% and 16.6% of PM10 at two downwind sampling sites, respectively.

  7. Role of alveolar macrophage chemotaxis and phagocytosis in pulmonary clearance responses to inhaled particles: Comparisons among rodent species

    SciTech Connect

    Warheit, D.B.; Hartsky, M.A. . Du Pont Haskell Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) play an important role in clearing inhaled particles from the lung. The mechanisms through which macrophages identify particles that have been deposited in the alveolar regions is not well understood, although macrophage motility and phagocytic functions appear to be prerequisites for efficient clearance of inhaled materials. The current studies were undertaken to compare pulmonary clearance responses in several rodent species exposed to carbonyl iron (CI) particles. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary clearance responses were evaluated using one strain each of mouse, hamster, rat, and guinea pig. In vitro studies showed that hamster AM had the greatest phagocytic activity and that rat AM migrated best to complement-dependent chemotactic factors. Subsequently, groups of animals from each species were exposed to CI particles for 1 or 6 hr at aerosol concentrations of 100 mg/m[sup 3]. Particle deposition patterns in the distal lung were nearly identical for all species, although enhanced numbers of CI particles were deposited on alveolar duct bifurcations of either rats or mice compared to hamsters, and particle deposition in guinea pigs was substantially lower. Time course studies showed that enhanced numbers of rat AM migrated to deposition sites and phagocytized particles, and this correlated with increased numbers and percentages of phagocytic macrophages recovered by lavage (P < 0.01). In vivo phagocytic rates were the lowest in the mouse, and this correlated with reduced phagocytic rates in vitro.

  8. Characteristics and role of dynamic membrane layer in anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Tao, Yu; Ozgun, Hale; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2016-04-01

    A submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) was operated for treatment of concentrated wastewater. The dynamic membrane (DM) or cake layer was characterized on its physicochemical and biological composition and the role of the DM layer in treatment and filtration performances was assessed. The results showed that the DM layer had an important role in organic matter removal. Both organic and inorganic materials, such as sludge particles, soluble microbial products (SMP), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and Ca, N, P, Mg precipitations contributed to the DM layer formation. Thus, effective retention of very small particles by the DM layer was achieved. The DM layer had higher microbial diversity and different microbial population composition in comparison to the bulk sludge. Overall, this study provided a better understanding about the DM layer structure in AnDMBRs, which might lead to increased applicability of this promising technology for the treatment of concentrated wastewaters.

  9. An Investigation of the Role of Second Phase Particles in the Design of Ultra High Strength Steels of Improved Toughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-20

    examples in the literature. The only example in the literature of blunting to vertices from an initially sharp crack is the blunting of HY80 steel to three...AD-A226 056 AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ROLE OF SECOND PHASE PARTICLES IN THE DESIGN OF ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH STEELS OF IMPROVED TOUGHNESS FINAL REPORT W...THE ROLE OF SECOND PHASE PARTICLES IN THE DESIGN OF ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH STEELS OF IMPROVED TOUGHNESS FINAL REPORT W. M. Garrison, Jr. June 15, 1990 U.S

  10. Aggregate stability and magnetic characteristics of colloidal Fe m O n -SiO2 particles obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezo, O. S.; Gareev, K. G.; Korolev, D. V.; Kuryshev, I. A.; Lebedev, S. V.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Sergienko, E. S.; Kharitonskii, P. V.

    2017-05-01

    Composite Fe m O n -SiO2 particles have been obtained by precipitation of iron oxide from aqueous solution with the addition of tetraethoxysilane. The shapes and sizes of separate single particles and their aggregates have been determined by scanning electron microscopy. Changes in the stability of the colloidal suspension due to external magnetic field and the addition of NaCl have been evaluated. Based on magnetization curves obtained on a vibrating-sample magnetometer and characteristics calculated within the theoretical model of magnetostatically interacting particles, it is shown that the composite particles are superparamagnetic.

  11. Influence of magnetic interactions between clusters on particle orientational characteristics and viscosity of a colloidal dispersion composed of ferromagnetic spherocylinder particles: analysis by means of mean field approximation for a simple shear flow.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira

    2005-09-01

    We have theoretically investigated the particle orientational distribution and viscosity of a dense colloidal dispersion composed of ferromagnetic spherocylinder particles under an applied magnetic field. The mean field approximation has been applied to take into account the magnetic interactions of the particle of interest with the other ones that belong to the neighboring clusters, besides those that belong to its own cluster. The basic equation of the orientational distribution function, which is an integrodifferential equation, has approximately been solved by Galerkin's method and the method of successive approximation. Some of the main results obtained here are summarized as follows. Even when the magnetic interaction between particles is of the order of the thermal energy, the effect of particle-particle interactions on the orientational distribution comes to appear more significant with increasing volumetric fraction of particles; the orientational distribution function exhibits a sharper peak in the direction nearer to the magnetic field one as the volumetric fraction increases. Such a significant inclination of the particle in the field direction induces the large increase in viscosity in the range of larger values of the volumetric fraction. The above-mentioned characteristics of the orientational distribution and viscosity come to appear more significantly when the influence of the applied magnetic field is not so strong compared with that of magnetic particle-particle interactions.

  12. More Practice, Less Preach? The role of supervision processes and therapist characteristics in EBP implementation

    PubMed Central

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Weisz, John R.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Ward, Alyssa; Ugueto, Ana M.; Bernstein, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Identifying predictors of evidence-based practice (EBP) use, such as supervision processes and therapist characteristics, may support dissemination. Therapists (N = 57) received training and supervision in EBPs to treat community-based youth (N = 136). Supervision involving modeling and role-play predicted higher overall practice use than supervision involving discussion, and modeling predicted practice use in the next therapy session. No therapist characteristics predicted practice use, but therapist sex and age moderated the supervision and practice use relation. Supervision involving discussion predicted practice use for male therapists only, and modeling and role-play in supervision predicted practice use for older, not younger, therapists. PMID:23525895

  13. Role of the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 PTAP Motif in Gag Targeting and Particle Release

    PubMed Central

    Dorweiler, Irene J.; Ruone, Susan J.; Wang, Huating; Burry, Richard W.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2006-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Gag is targeted to the plasma membrane for particle assembly and release. How HTLV-1 Gag targeting occurs is not well understood. The PPPY and PTAP motifs were previously shown to be involved in HTLV-1 particle release with PTAP playing a more subtle role in virus budding. These L domains function through the interaction with host cellular proteins normally involved in multivesicular body (MVB) morphogenesis. The plasma membrane pathway rather than the MVB pathway was found to be the primary pathway for HTLV-1 particle release in HeLa cells. Intriguingly, disruption of the PTAP motif led to a defect in the targeting of Gag from the plasma membrane to CD63-positive MVBs. Particles or particle buds were observed to be associated with MVBs by electron microscopy, implying that Gag targeting to the MVB resulted in particle budding. Blocking clathrin-dependent endocytosis was found not to influence localization of the HTLV-1 Gag PTAP mutant, indicating that Gag did not reach the MVBs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Our observations imply that the interaction between Gag and TSG101 is not required for Gag targeting to the MVB. Overexpression of dynamitin p50 increased particle release, suggesting that there was an increase in the intracellular transport of MVBs to the cell periphery by the utilization of the dynein-dynactin motor complex. Intriguingly, virus particle release with this mutant was reduced by 20-fold compared to that of wild type in HeLa cells, which is in marked contrast to the less-than-twofold defect observed for particle production of the HTLV-1 Gag PTAP mutant from 293T cells. These results indicate that the role of the PTAP motif in L domain function is cell type dependent. PMID:16537631

  14. Role of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 PTAP motif in Gag targeting and particle release.

    PubMed

    Dorweiler, Irene J; Ruone, Susan J; Wang, Huating; Burry, Richard W; Mansky, Louis M

    2006-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Gag is targeted to the plasma membrane for particle assembly and release. How HTLV-1 Gag targeting occurs is not well understood. The PPPY and PTAP motifs were previously shown to be involved in HTLV-1 particle release with PTAP playing a more subtle role in virus budding. These L domains function through the interaction with host cellular proteins normally involved in multivesicular body (MVB) morphogenesis. The plasma membrane pathway rather than the MVB pathway was found to be the primary pathway for HTLV-1 particle release in HeLa cells. Intriguingly, disruption of the PTAP motif led to a defect in the targeting of Gag from the plasma membrane to CD63-positive MVBs. Particles or particle buds were observed to be associated with MVBs by electron microscopy, implying that Gag targeting to the MVB resulted in particle budding. Blocking clathrin-dependent endocytosis was found not to influence localization of the HTLV-1 Gag PTAP mutant, indicating that Gag did not reach the MVBs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Our observations imply that the interaction between Gag and TSG101 is not required for Gag targeting to the MVB. Overexpression of dynamitin p50 increased particle release, suggesting that there was an increase in the intracellular transport of MVBs to the cell periphery by the utilization of the dynein-dynactin motor complex. Intriguingly, virus particle release with this mutant was reduced by 20-fold compared to that of wild type in HeLa cells, which is in marked contrast to the less-than-twofold defect observed for particle production of the HTLV-1 Gag PTAP mutant from 293T cells. These results indicate that the role of the PTAP motif in L domain function is cell type dependent.

  15. Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high

  16. [Characteristics of water soluble inorganic ions in fine particles emitted from coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Ma, Zi-Zhen; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jing-Kun; Ye, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Currently, China suffers from serious pollution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Coal-fired power plant is one of the most important sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere. To achieve the national goals of total emission reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) during the 11th and 12th Five-Year Plan, most of coal-fired power plants in China have installed or will install flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and flue gas denitrification (DNO(x)) systems. As a result, the secondary PM2.5, generated from gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere, would be decreased. However, the physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in flue gas would be affected, and the emission of primary PM2.5 might be increased. This paper summarized the size distributions of PM2.5 and its water soluble ions emitted from coal-fired power plants, and highlighted the effects of FGD and DNO(x) on PM2.5 emission, especially on water soluble ions (such as SO4(2-), Ca2+ and NH4+) in PM2.5. Under the current condition of serious PM2.5 pollution and wide application of FGD and DNO(x), quantitative study on the effects of FGD and DNO(x) installation on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants is of great necessity.

  17. Dust anchoring characteristics of electret fibres with respect to Der p 1 allergen carrying particles.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, P T; Hughes, J F

    1998-09-01

    The avoidance of house dust mite allergens is a major area of interest and essentially requires a significant removal of these allergens from the immediately respirable air. Electrostatic attraction and anchoring of particulate matter using electret polymers is commonly used for air filtration purposes. This effect is investigated for its possible use in domestic allergen avoidance. Polypropylene electret, heat-treated electret and non-electret, and wool and nylon fibre samples were soiled with house dust known to contain Der p 1 allergen. These samples were vacuumed at three air face velocities. The proportions of released and anchored dust were calculated. Released dust was collected and analysed for Der p 1 concentration and compared to stock dust values. Results showed that compared to uncharged fibres at least 95% more dust remained anchored in the electret fibres. Also, overall Der p 1 release was reduced by more than 49%. Der p 1 allergen concentrations in the collected dust were relatively constant for all the fibres tested, indicating no selective attraction or repulsion of Der p 1 allergen carrying particles in the experimental dust. The consistently high dust anchoring ability of the electret fibres could be used in many domestic products that are known to harbour particulate allergens, to reduce their release and inhalation.

  18. Surface Plasmon Resonance Characteristics of Optical Fiber Incorporated with Au Nano-Particles in Cladding Region.

    PubMed

    Ju, Seongmin; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Han, Won-Taek

    2016-06-01

    A novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on specialty optical fiber having its cladding doped with Au nano-particles (NPs) was developed by modified chemical vapor deposition process. To optimize the SPR absorption and sensitivity of the fiber SPR sensor, effect of the fiber length (20 cm-90 cm) on sensing capability of refractive index (n = 1.418-1.448) was investigated. Absorption peaks appearing at 392 and 790 nm were due to SPR from Au NPs in the cladding region of the optical fiber. The SPR was found to occur at particular wavelengths around 390 nm for the corresponding refractive indices regardless of the length of the fiber, increased with the increase of the index. The measured SPR sensitivities (wavelength/RIU) of the fiber were estimated to be 407 nm/RIU, 217 nm/RIU, and 54 nm/RIU with the fiber lengths of 20 cm, 45 cm, and 90 cm, respectively. The SPR absorption intensity and FWHM decreased with the increase of the fiber length because the propagation loss of the signal through the fiber cladding region increased.

  19. Calculations of critical micelle concentration by dissipative particle dynamics simulations: the role of chain rigidity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2013-09-05

    Micelle formation in surfactant solutions is a self-assembly process governed by complex interplay of solvent-mediated interactions between hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, which are commonly called heads and tails. However, the head-tail repulsion is not the only factor affecting the micelle formation. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the effect of chain rigidity on critical micelle concentration and micelle size, which is performed with the dissipative particle dynamics simulation method. Rigidity of the coarse-grained surfactant molecule was controlled by the harmonic bonds set between the second-neighbor beads. Compared to flexible molecules with the nearest-neighbor bonds being the only type of bonded interactions, rigid molecules exhibited a lower critical micelle concentration and formed larger and better-defined micelles. By varying the strength of head-tail repulsion and the chain rigidity, we constructed two-dimensional diagrams presenting how the critical micelle concentration and aggregation number depend on these parameters. We found that the solutions of flexible and rigid molecules that exhibited approximately the same critical micelle concentration could differ substantially in the micelle size and shape depending on the chain rigidity. With the increase of surfactant concentration, primary micelles of more rigid molecules were found less keen to agglomeration and formation of nonspherical aggregates characteristic of flexible molecules.

  20. Evaluating the dynamical characteristics of particle matter emissions in an open ore yard with industrial operation activities.

    PubMed

    Cong, X C; Yang, G S; Qu, J H; Dai, M X

    2016-11-01

    A study to investigate the dynamical characteristics of particle matter emissions in a working open yard is conducted in Caofeidian Port of Hebei Province, China. The average diurnal concentrations of the total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and respirable particulate matter (PM10 and PM5) are monitored during the field measurement campaign. Sampling is performed at a regular interval at 8 monitoring stations in the yard with normal industrial activities. The average TSP, PM10 and PM5 concentrations range from 285 to 568, 198 to 423 and 189 to 330 μg.m-3 in the yard, respectively. The linear regression correlation coefficient of TSP/PM10 and TSP/PM5 is 0.95±0.01 and 0.88±0.02, respectively.By using the Spearman correlation method, the wind speed and relative humidity are both weakly correlated with the PM10 and PM5 concentrations according to the measurements. In addition, industrial operation activities, such as vehicular traffic in the yard and the loading time of stackers, are significantly positively correlated with the PM concentration. Using the multivariate regression method, the main parameters influencing the TSP concentration variations are integratedly analysed. The traffic volume is found to be a significant predictor of TSP concentration variation, with the smallest P value (P<0.05).To understand the dynamical characteristics of particle emissions in the yard, the emissions from the truck transports, that is, from unpaved haul roads and from the loading process, are established. Then, the dynamical emission factor (EFD) based on the industrial activities in the yard is proposed. The dynamical emissions average 5.25x10(5) kg.year(-1) and EFD is evaluated to be 0.29 kg.(ton.day)(-1) during the measurement period. These outcomes have meaningful implications not only for understanding the dynamical characteristics of particle emissions in the working stockyard but also for implementing effective control measures at appropriate sites in the harbour

  1. Role of engine age and lubricant chemistry on the characteristics of EGR soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniran, Olusanmi Adeniji

    Exhaust products of Diesel Engines serves as an environmental hazard, and to curtail this problem a Tier 3 emission standard was introduced which involves change in engine designs and introduction of EGR systems in Diesel engines. EGR systems, however has the challenge of generating soot which are abrasive and are major causes of wear in Diesel engines. This work has studied the characteristics of EGR soot formed in different range of engine age and in different lubricant chemistries of Mineral and Synthetic based diesel Oils. It is found that lubricant degradation is encouraged by less efficient combustion as engine age increases, and these are precursors to formation of crystalline and amorphous particles that are causes of wear in Diesel Engines. It is found that soot from new engine is dominated by calcium based crystals which are from calcium sulfonate detergent, which reduces formation of second phase particles that can be abrasive. Diversity and peak intensity is seen to increase in soot samples as engine age increases. This understanding of second phase particles formed in engines across age ranges can help in the durability development of engine, improvement of Oil formulation for EGR engines, and in development of chemistries for after-treatment Oil solutions that can combat formation of abrasive particles in Oils.

  2. The Role of Criegee Intermediates in Particle Formation and Growth during the Ozonolysis of Small Alkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wingen, L. M.; Perraud, V. M.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ozonolysis of alkenes is an important source of particulate matter (e.g., secondary organic aerosol) in the atmosphere. However, the mechanisms by which Criegee intermediates (CI) react to form the particles, particularly the oligomeric components, are currently not well understood. In this study, ozonolysis of trans-3-hexene was investigated with a focus on the formation mechanism of oligomers involving CI, as well as their contributions to particle formation and growth. Ozonolysis experiments were performed both in a static chamber and in a flow reactor in the absence and presence of an OH or stabilized CI (SCI) scavenger. The oligomeric and elemental composition of the total and size-selected particles was measured with different mass spectrometries, and the effects of adding OH and SCI scavengers were investigated. Size-selected measurements show that the relative abundance of higher ordered oligomers in the particles decreases with increasing particle size, indicating the preference of larger oligomers in the growth of smaller particles. Consistent with oligomeric composition, the O/C ratio of the particles decreases with particle size, suggesting more oxygenated organic material (e.g., primarily oligomeric peroxides) in smaller particles. The mechanism for particle formation suggested by these data is the initial reaction of RO2 radicals to the CI, followed by sequential addition of CI, in agreement with the earlier work of Sadezky et al. (2008). The relationship to the mechanism of particle formation from larger alkenes such as terpenes and the atmospheric implications will be explored.

  3. Microstructure and Texture Through Thixomolding and Thermomechanical Processing and the Role of Mg17Al12 Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Tracy D.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Jones, J. Wayne

    2016-06-01

    Thixomolding and thermomechanical processing (TTMP) is a pathway through which it is possible to produce Mg alloy sheet with both a fine grain size and a weak basal texture. Following static recrystallization, the texture of TTMP AZ61 is comparable to that of rare-earth Mg alloy sheets. The β-Mg17Al12 particles in the alloy serve several important roles. Pinning during rolling retards dynamic recrystallization, thereby preventing the development of the typical Mg sheet deformation texture. Recrystallized grains form near clusters of β-particles and in the grain mantle regions. Larger β-particles pin boundaries during subsolvus thermal exposures and therefore provide grain size stability during annealing. The size and spatial arrangement of the β-particles are relatively stable during processing, so modifications to optimize the texture reduction or grain size stability would require changes in composition or modifications in the Thixomolding parameters.

  4. On the role of ice-nucleating aerosol in the formation of ice particles in tropical mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladino, Luis A.; Korolev, Alexei; Heckman, Ivan; Wolde, Mengistu; Fridlind, Ann M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.

    2017-02-01

    Over the decades, the cloud physics community has debated the nature and role of aerosol particles in ice initiation. The present study shows that the measured concentration of ice crystals in tropical mesoscale convective systems exceeds the concentration of ice nucleating particles (INPs) by several orders of magnitude. The concentration of INPs was assessed from the measured aerosol particle concentration in the size range of 0.5 to 1 µm. The observations from this study suggest that primary ice crystals formed on INPs make only a minor contribution to the total concentration of ice crystals in tropical mesoscale convective systems. This is found by comparing the predicted INP number concentrations with in situ ice particle number concentrations. The obtained measurements suggest that ice multiplication is the likely explanation for the observed high concentrations of ice crystals in this type of convective system.

  5. Synthesis of Titanate/polypyrrole Composite Rod-Like Particles and the Role of Conducting Polymer on Electrorheological Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrlik, Miroslav; Pavlinek, Vladimir; Cheng, Qilin; Saha, Petr

    In this paper, we study the preparation of titanate/polypyrrole core-shell rod-like composite particles. The mere titanate rod-like particles were prepared as core material and PPy was polymerized on their surface in different amounts. Rheological measurements showed that under an applied external electric field, shear stress of these materials significantly increased with amount of PPy in the shell layer. The yield stresses obtained from the Cho-Choi-Jhon model were correlated with dielectric properties of suspensions. Polarizability as a measure of particle polarization obtained from Havriliak-Negami model of dielectric spectra increases with the content of PPy in the samples. Furthermore, role of particle concentration and silicone oil viscosity was also investigated.

  6. Participant roles of bullying in adolescence: Status characteristics, social behavior, and assignment criteria.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-01-01

    This study had three goals. First, we examined the prevalence of the participant roles of bullying in middle adolescence and possible gender differences therein. Second, we examined the behavioral and status characteristics associated with the participant roles in middle adolescence. Third, we compared two sets of criteria for assigning students to the participant roles of bullying. Participants were 1,638 adolescents (50.9% boys, M(age)  = 16.38 years, SD =.80) who completed the shortened participant role questionnaire and peer nominations for peer status and behavioral characteristics. Adolescents were assigned to the participant roles according to the relative criteria of Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, Björkqvist, Österman, and Kaukiainen (1996). Next, the students in each role were divided in two subgroups based on an additional absolute criterion: the Relative Only Criterion subgroup (nominated by less than 10% of their classmates) and the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup (nominated by at least 10% of their classmates). Adolescents who bullied or reinforced or assisted bullies were highly popular and disliked and scored high on peer-valued characteristics. Adolescents who were victimized held the weakest social position in the peer group. Adolescents who defended victims were liked and prosocial, but average in popularity and peer-valued characteristics. Outsiders held a socially weak position in the peer group, but were less disliked, less aggressive, and more prosocial than victims. The behavior and status profiles of adolescents in the participant roles were more extreme for the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup than for the Relative Only Criterion subgroup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Role of Student Characteristics in Studying Micro Teaching-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the role of student characteristics in studying micro teaching-learning environments. The overarching hypothesis is that teachers teach differently to micro environments in their classrooms. This study is the first of a series exploring the following four questions: (1) What student profiles are identified at the beginning of a…

  8. Foster Parents Speak: Preferred Characteristics of Foster Children and Experiences in the Role of Foster Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenwald, Mitchell; Bronstein, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Foster parents play a pivotal role in the child welfare system. A study that employed focus groups with foster parents was conducted at a private foster care agency with the initial purpose of understanding the characteristics of foster children that foster parents both preferred and not preferred. In the qualitative research tradition, their…

  9. The Role of Reader Characteristics in Processing and Learning from Informational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Emily

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the role of reader characteristics in processing and learning from informational text, as revealed in think-aloud research. A theoretical framework for relevant aspects of readers' processing and products was developed. These relevant aspects included three attentional foci for processing (comprehension, monitoring, and…

  10. A Research Brief: A Novel Characteristic of Role Model Choice by Black Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, B. J.; Davis, R.; Harris, A.; Brown, K.; Wood, P.; Jones, D. R.; Spencer, S.; Nelson, L.; Brown, J.; Waddell, T.; Jones, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present research brief is to report a novel characteristic of role model choice that may be unreported in the literature for black males and to assess this finding in relation to perceived attractiveness of self and a member of the opposite sex. The study found that the proportion of males choosing themselves as their own role…

  11. The Role of Student Characteristics in Studying Micro Teaching-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the role of student characteristics in studying micro teaching-learning environments. The overarching hypothesis is that teachers teach differently to micro environments in their classrooms. This study is the first of a series exploring the following four questions: (1) What student profiles are identified at the beginning of a…

  12. Role of fluid density in shaping eruption currents driven by frontal particle blow-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, C. S.; Turnbull, B.; Louge, M. Y.

    2012-06-01

    We study the role of suspension density in eruption currents, a regime of gravity-driven flow that is sustained by massive, localized blow-out of particles acting as a steady source of heavier fluid injected into a uniform flow at high Reynolds number. Inspired by the potential flow solution of Saffman and Yuen ["Finite-amplitude interfacial waves in the presence of a current," J. Fluid Mech. 123, 459-476 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082003152], we show that the relative density difference between the two fluids swells the size of the current's head without changing its shape, while inducing a velocity jump at the interface. We test this inviscid theory against inviscid and large-eddy-simulations. We also conduct experiments in a water flume, where a line source of fluorescent brines of various densities is injected in a cross-stream and visualized with a narrow sheet of light. Simulations and experiments reveal that, with isotropic velocity distribution on a finite source, eruption currents expand further and develop interface oscillations, but the inviscid theory still captures relative swelling induced by density. We compare predictions to the static pressure data of McElwaine and Turnbull ["Air pressure data from the Vallee de la Sionne avalanches of 2004," J. Geophys. Res. 110, F03010, doi:, 10.1029/2004JF000237 (2005)] in powder snow avalanches.

  13. (The role of colloidal particles on the subsurface transport of contaminants)

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1990-02-22

    The primary purpose of this foreign travel was to attend the 10th meeting of the European Community's CoCo (colloids and complexation) Club to learn about research on groundwater colloids in Europe and inform the CoCo participants about the colloid subprogram of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Science Program. The goal of CoCo Club research, and of the umbrella MIRAGE (MIgration of RAdionuclides in the GEosphere) Project, is to develop data and understanding necessary to complete safety assessments for licensing nuclear repositories in Europe. The emphasis of CoCo Club research is sorption of radionuclides to organic and inorganic colloidal particles. The traveler also visited the British Geological Survey (BGS) headquarters and a BGS field site. Discussions focused on development of innovative drilling equipment for minimizing aquifer disturbance, development and application of computerized resistivity tomography for aquifer characterization, and laboratory research on the role of organic matter on metal transport. The trip was successful in that the traveler obtained a comprehensive overview of European research on groundwater colloids which will help improve and focus DOE's colloid subprogram, and the traveler learned about advances in specific areas that will contribute to his own DOE-funded project.

  14. The role of DNA repair on cell killing by charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Murakami, M.; Itsukaichi, H.; Fukutsu, K.; Kanai, T.; Furusawa, Y.; Sato, K.; Ohara, H.; Yatagai, F.

    It can be noted that it is not simple double strand breaks (dsb) but the non-reparable breaks that are associated with high biological effectiveness in the cell killing effect for high LET radiation. Here, we have examined the effectiveness of fast neutrons and low (initial energy = 12 MeV/u) or high (135 MeV/u) energy charged particles on cell death in 19 mammalian cell lines including radiosensitive mutants. Some of the radiosensitive lines were deficient in DNA dsb repair such as LX830, M10, V3, and L5178Y-S cells and showed lower values of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for fast neutrons if compared with their parent cell lines. The other lines of human ataxia-telangiectasia fibroblasts, irs 1, irs 2, irs 3 and irs1SF cells, which were also radiosensitive but known as proficient in dsb repair, showed moderate RBEs. Dsb repair deficient mutants showed low RBE values for heavy ions. These experimental findings suggest that the DNA repair system does not play a major role against the attack of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Therefore, we hypothesize that a main cause of cell death induced by high LET radiations is due to non-reparable dsb, which are produced at a higher rate compared to low LET radiations.

  15. [Particle Size Distribution, Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Human Exposure Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Settled Dust from Beijing].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi-guo; Yu, Gang; Lü, Xiang-ying; Wang, Meng-lei; Li, Qi-lu; Feng, Jing-lan; Yan, Guang-xuan; Yu, Hao; Sun, Jian-hui

    2016-04-15

    Four types of dust from dormitories, offices, hotels and roads in Beijing were collected and fractionated into 9 fractions, respectively. Totally 36 samples were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni. Particle size distributions of those heavy metals in these four types of dust were investigated and the influencing mechanisms were discussed. Distribution patterns of the same heavy metal in different types of dust showed various characteristics. Also different metals in the same type of dust represented different distribution patterns. Heavy metals in road dust tended to concentrate in finer particles. Two offices from the same building, located in Beijing, China, were selected to study the seasonality of heavy metals in dust. Dust sampling from Office A was conducted at weekly intervals between March 2012 and August 2012, while dust from Office B was sampled fortnightly from March 2012 to December 2012. Generally, levels of all heavy metals remained stable among different seasons, however, Cr and Pb represented more significant fluctuations than other four heavy metals. Based on the geo-accumulation index method, the pollution of Zn, Cu and Pb was more serious in the investigated samples, and dust from offices and hotels were moderately polluted by Zn. According to the risk assessment results, the carcinogenic health risks of the six heavy metals in the four types of dust were negligible.

  16. Investigation of Propagation Characteristics of Twisted Hollow Waveguides for Particle Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Joshua Lee

    2008-12-01

    A new class of accelerating structures employing a uniformly twisted waveguide is investigated. Twisted waveguides of various cross-sectional geometries are considered and analyzed. It is shown that such a twisted waveguide can support waves that travel at a speed slower than the speed of light c. The slow-wave properties of twisted structures are of interest because these slow-wave electromagnetic fields can be used in applications such as electron traveling wave tubes and linear particle accelerators. Since there is no exact closed form solution for the electromagnetic fields within a twisted waveguide or cavity, several previously proposed approximate methods are examined, and more effcient approaches are developed. It is found that the existing perturbation theory methods yield adequate results for slowly twisted structures; however, our efforts here are geared toward analyzing rapidly twisted structures using modifed finite difference methods specially suited for twisted structures. Although the method can handle general twisted structures, three particular cross sections are selected as representative cases for careful analysis. First, a slowly twisted rectangular cavity is analyzed as a reference case. This is because its shape is simple and perturbation theory already gives a good approximate solution for such slow twists rates. Secondly, a symmetrically notched circular cross section is investigated, since its longitudinal cross section is comparable to the well known disk-loaded cavity (used in many practical accelerator designs, including SLAC). Finally, a "dumbbell" shaped cross section is analyzed because of its similarity to the well-known TESLA-type accelerating cavity, which is of great importance because of its wide acceptance as a superconducting cavity. To validate the results of the developed theory and our extensive simulations, the newly developed numerical models are compared to commercial codes. Also, several prototypes are developed

  17. Chemical and physical characteristics of long-range transport submicron particles at the central Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Shi, J.; Ge, X.; Xie, C.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Tibetan Plateau, the biggest and highest plateau on the Earth, is an ideal location for studying long range transport of air pollution due to the minimum of local emission. Recent studies in this region have revealed a significant influx of air pollution from south Asia during pre-monsoon period because of the favorable atmospheric circulation and less precipitation. In order to characterize the chemical composition of aerosol particles in this pristine area and elucidate the sources and optical properties of transported aerosol pollutants, we conducted an intensive field study during June 2015 at a high elevation station (4730 m a.s.l) on the central Tibetan Plateau by deploying a suite of advanced instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a nephelometer, and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP). The average mass concentration of submicron particular matter (PM1) for the whole campaign period was 1.85 µg m-3, with organics accounting for 64% of the mass, followed by sulfate (16%), black carbon (9%), ammonium (8%), and nitrate (3%). The mass concentrations and chemical properties of PM1 were significantly different between pre-monsoon and monsoon periods. Elevated aerosol pollution episodes were observed during pre-monsoon period, while aerosol concentrations were persistently low during monsoon period. Aerosol composition was generally similar during the whole campaign period. However, organic aerosol was more oxidized during premonsoon period with an average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio of = 0.7 compared to O/C = 0.52 during monsoon period. HYSPLIT trajectory calculations revealed that most of the arriving air masses traveled long distances (>1,000 km) and went through the northwest of India during premonsoon period. Positive matrix factorization of the HR-ToF-AMS spectra of organic aerosol identified two oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) factors - a less oxidized OOA (LO-OOA) and a more

  18. Correlation Analyses Between the Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events and the Properties of Associated Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wang, Yuming; Xue, X. H.

    2011-06-01

    It is generally believed that gradual solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated by shocks associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Using an ice-cream cone model, the radial speed and angular width of 95 CMEs associated with SEP events during 1998 - 2002 are calculated from SOHO/LASCO observations. Then, we investigate the relationships between the kinematic properties of these CMEs and the characteristic times of the intensity-time profile of their accompanied SEP events observed at 1 AU. These characteristic times of SEP are i) the onset time from the accompanying CME eruption at the Sun to the SEP arrival at 1 AU, ii) the rise time from the SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is one-half of peak intensity, and iii) the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of two of the peak intensity. It is found that the onset time has neither significant correlation with the radial speed nor with the angular width of the accompanying CME. For events that are poorly connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have no significant correlation with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. However, for events that are magnetically well connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have significantly positive correlations with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. This indicates that a CME event with wider angular width and higher speed may more easily drive a strong and wide shock near to the Earth-connected interplanetary magnetic field lines, may trap and accelerate particles for a longer time, and may lead to longer rise time and duration of the ensuing SEP event.

  19. Shape-anisotropic particles at curved fluid interfaces and role of Laplace pressure: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tian-Le; Wang, Yu U

    2013-07-15

    The self-assembly behavior of shape-anisotropic particles at curved fluid interfaces is computationally investigated by diffuse interface field approach (DIFA). A Gibbs-Duhem-type thermodynamic formalism is introduced to treat heterogeneous pressure within the phenomenological model, in agreement with Young-Laplace equation. Computer simulations are performed to study the effects of capillary forces (interfacial tension and Laplace pressure) on particle self-assembly at fluid interfaces in various two-dimensional cases. For isolated particles, it is found that the equilibrium liquid interface remains circular and particles of different shapes do not disturb the homogeneous curvature of liquid interface, while the equilibrium position, orientation and stability of a particle at the liquid interface depend on its shape and initial location with respect to the liquid interface. For interacting particles, the curvature of local liquid interfaces is different from the apparent curvature of the particle shell; nevertheless, irrespective of the particle shapes, a particle-coated droplet always tends to deform into a circular morphology under positive Laplace pressure, loses mechanical stability and collapses under negative Laplace pressure, while adapts to any morphology and stays in neutral equilibrium under zero Laplace pressure. Finally, the collective behaviors of particles and Laplace pressure evolution in bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsion gels (bijels) are investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A massively parallel method of characteristic neutral particle transport code for GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, W. R.; Smith, K.; Forget, B.

    2013-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, parallel computing has enabled computers to grow ever larger and more powerful while scientific applications have advanced in sophistication and resolution. This trend is being challenged, however, as the power consumption for conventional parallel computing architectures has risen to unsustainable levels and memory limitations have come to dominate compute performance. Heterogeneous computing platforms, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), are an increasingly popular paradigm for solving these issues. This paper explores the applicability of GPUs for deterministic neutron transport. A 2D method of characteristics (MOC) code - OpenMOC - has been developed with solvers for both shared memory multi-core platforms as well as GPUs. The multi-threading and memory locality methodologies for the GPU solver are presented. Performance results for the 2D C5G7 benchmark demonstrate 25-35 x speedup for MOC on the GPU. The lessons learned from this case study will provide the basis for further exploration of MOC on GPUs as well as design decisions for hardware vendors exploring technologies for the next generation of machines for scientific computing. (authors)

  1. Protein Analysis of Purified Respiratory Syncytial Virus Particles Reveals an Important Role for Heat Shock Protein 90 in Virus Particle Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Anuradha; Yeo, Dawn; Brown, Gaie; Myaing, Myint Zu; Iyer, Laxmi Ravi; Fleck, Roland; Tan, Boon-Huan; Aitken, Jim; Sanmun, Duangmanee; Tang, Kai; Yarwood, Andy; Brink, Jacob; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we used imaging and proteomics to identify the presence of virus-associated cellular proteins that may play a role in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) maturation. Fluorescence microscopy of virus-infected cells revealed the presence of virus-induced cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and mature virus particles, the latter appearing as virus filaments. In situ electron tomography suggested that the virus filaments were complex structures that were able to package multiple copies of the virus genome. The virus particles were purified, and the protein content was analyzed by one-dimensional nano-LC MS/MS. In addition to all the major virus structural proteins, 25 cellular proteins were also detected, including proteins associated with the cortical actin network, energy pathways, and heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSC70, and HSP90). Representative actin-associated proteins, HSC70, and HSP90 were selected for further biological validation. The presence of β-actin, filamin-1, cofilin-1, HSC70, and HSP90 in the virus preparation was confirmed by immunoblotting using relevant antibodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy of infected cells stained with antibodies against relevant virus and cellular proteins confirmed the presence of these cellular proteins in the virus filaments and inclusion bodies. The relevance of HSP90 to virus infection was examined using the specific inhibitors 17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. Although virus protein expression was largely unaffected by these drugs, we noted that the formation of virus particles was inhibited, and virus transmission was impaired, suggesting an important role for HSP90 in virus maturation. This study highlights the utility of proteomics in facilitating both our understanding of the role that cellular proteins play during RSV maturation and, by extrapolation, the identification of new potential targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:20530633

  2. Characteristics of energetic particles at the termination shock and in the inner heliosheath : observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Robert; Krimigis, Stamatios; Roelof, Edmond; Hill, Matthew

    Voyagers 1 (V1) and 2 (V2) are in the inner heliosheath (HSH) behind the termination shock (TS) of the solar wind. From 2004/351 (TS crossing) to 2010/050 (most recent data examined), V1 moved in helioradius over 94-113 AU at heliographic latitude N34° , and from 2007/242 (TS crossing) to 2010/050, V2 moved over 84-91 AU at S28° . We review low-energy ion (>30 keV) intensities, energy spectra, and angular distributions measured at the TS crossings and in the HSH. We discuss the similarities and differences of the observations made at the widely separated (˜125 AU) locations of the two spacecraft. During its first 1.5 years in the HSH, the V2 Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument measured quasi-recurrent (15-35 day) variations in the intensities and energy spectra of suprathermal ions (30 keV-few MeV in 8 energy intervals). Comparable variations have not been seen in the V1/LECP ions, which show relatively smooth intensities that are well fit by a power law with spectral index -1.5±0.1. In addition, the low-energy ions at V1 have convective angular distributions that indicate a steady decrease in the radial component of HSH plasma flow from ≈55-65 km/s in mid-2007 to ≈10-20 km/s in early 2010. The quasi-recurrent intensity variations at V2 can be understood in terms of what occurred on the sun a year or so earlier, as revealed by examination of synoptic polar coronal hole maps from GONG. Analysis suggests relations between HSH ion intensity variations and equatorward extensions of polar coronal holes that produce stream interaction regions in the solar wind. These interaction regions and associated enhancements of low-energy ions accelerated at recurrent shocks can propagate into the outer heliosphere and into the TS/HSH. The results are promising, not only in helping explain the presence of the quasi-periodic intensity variations at V2 and the lack thereof at V1, but also in enabling us to successfully predict the diminution of intensity variations

  3. The Role of Friction in the Segregation of Particles in a Chute Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Federico; Zenit, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    When a granular media, compound of particles with different properties, flows de-mixing of the constituent components may occur. This phenomenon, known as segregation, has been observed in particles with different sizes (the Brazil nut effect). In spite of being a well studied process, there is not a general understanding of the mechanisms that dominate this process. It is our interest to study the conditions that determine particle segregation in avalanches. Using a two-dimensional, discrete-element simulation, we study a bidisperse flow of particles over an inclined plane with periodic boundaries. We vary the roughness of the wall by attaching fixed particles on it. A wide range of parameters were varied (slope, number of particles, size ratio, density ratio). Both ordinary and reverse segregation patterns were observed. In this talk some preliminary results and their interpretation will be presented.

  4. Particle Size Reduction in Geophysical Granular Flows: The Role of Rock Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, G.; Sklar, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Particle size reduction in geophysical granular flows is caused by abrasion and fragmentation, and can affect transport dynamics by altering the particle size distribution. While the Sternberg equation is commonly used to predict the mean abrasion rate in the fluvial environment, and can also be applied to geophysical granular flows, predicting the evolution of the particle size distribution requires a better understanding the controls on the rate of fragmentation and the size distribution of resulting particle fragments. To address this knowledge gap we are using single-particle free-fall experiments to test for the influence of particle size, impact velocity, and rock properties on fragmentation and abrasion rates. Rock types tested include granodiorite, basalt, and serpentinite. Initial particle masses and drop heights range from 20 to 1000 grams and 0.1 to 3.0 meters respectively. Preliminary results of free-fall experiments suggest that the probability of fragmentation varies as a power function of kinetic energy on impact. The resulting size distributions of rock fragments can be collapsed by normalizing by initial particle mass, and can be fit with a generalized Pareto distribution. We apply the free-fall results to understand the evolution of granodiorite particle-size distributions in granular flow experiments using rotating drums ranging in diameter from 0.2 to 4.0 meters. In the drums, we find that the rates of silt production by abrasion and gravel production by fragmentation scale with drum size. To compare these rates with free-fall results we estimate the particle impact frequency and velocity. We then use population balance equations to model the evolution of particle size distributions due to the combined effects of abrasion and fragmentation. Finally, we use the free-fall and drum experimental results to model particle size evolution in Inyo Creek, a steep, debris-flow dominated catchment, and compare model results to field measurements.

  5. The role of ions in the self-healing behavior of soft particle suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Andrea; Gasser, Urs; Herman, Emily S.; Pelaez-Fernandez, Miguel; Han, Jun; Menzel, Andreas; Lyon, L. Andrew; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Impurities in crystals generally cause point defects and can even suppress crystallization. This general rule, however, does not apply to colloidal crystals formed by soft microgel particles [Iyer ASJ, Lyon LA (2009) Angew Chem Int Ed 48:4562–4566], as, in this case, the larger particles are able to shrink and join the crystal formed by a majority of smaller particles. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, we find the limit in large-particle concentration for this spontaneous deswelling to persist. We rationalize our data in the context of those counterions that are bound to the microgel particles as a result of the electrostatic attraction exerted by the fixed charges residing on the particle periphery. These bound counterions do not contribute to the suspension osmotic pressure in dilute conditions, as they can be seen as internal degrees of freedom associated with each microgel particle. In contrast, at sufficiently high particle concentrations, the counterion cloud of each particle overlaps with that of its neighbors, allowing these ions to freely explore the space outside the particles. We confirm this scenario by directly measuring the osmotic pressure of the suspension. Because these counterions are then no longer bound, they create an osmotic pressure difference between the inside and outside of the microgels, which, if larger than the microgel bulk modulus, can cause deswelling, explaining why large, soft microgel particles feel the squeeze when suspended with a majority of smaller particles. We perform small-angle neutron scattering measurements to further confirm this remarkable behavior. PMID:27125854

  6. Pulmonary bioassay studies with nanoscale and fine-quartz particles in rats: toxicity is not dependent upon particle size but on surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Warheit, David B; Webb, Thomas R; Colvin, Vicki L; Reed, Kenneth L; Sayes, Christie M

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicology studies in rats demonstrate that nanoparticles are more toxic than fine-sized particles of similar chemistry. This study, however, provides evidence to contradict this theory. The aims of the study were (1) to compare the toxicity of synthetic 50 nm nanoquartz I particles versus (mined) Min-U-Sil quartz ( approximately 500 nm); the toxicity of synthetic 12 nm nanoquartz II particles versus (mined) Min-U-Sil ( approximately 500 nm) versus (synthetic) fine-quartz particles (300 nm); and (2) to evaluate the surface activities among the samples as they relate to toxicity. Well-characterized samples were tested for surface activity and hemolytic potential. In addition, groups of rats were instilled with either doses of 1 or 5 mg/kg of carbonyl iron (CI) or various alpha-quartz particle types in phosphate-buffered saline solution and subsequently assessed using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid biomarkers, cell proliferation, and histopathological evaluation of lung tissue at 24 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postexposure. Exposures to the various alpha-quartz particles produced differential degrees of pulmonary inflammation and cytotoxicity, which were not always consistent with particle size but correlated with surface activity, particularly hemolytic potential. Lung tissue evaluations of three of the quartz samples demonstrated "typical" quartz-related effects--dose-dependent lung inflammatory macrophage accumulation responses concomitant with early development of pulmonary fibrosis. The various alpha-quartz-related effects were similar qualitatively but with different potencies. The range of particle-related toxicities and histopathological effects in descending order were nanoscale quartz II = Min-U-Sil quartz > fine quartz > nanoscale quartz I > CI particles. The results demonstrate that the pulmonary toxicities of alpha-quartz particles appear to correlate better with surface activity than particle size and surface area.

  7. Pulmonary response to intratracheal instillation of ultrafine versus fine titanium dioxide: role of particle surface area.

    PubMed

    Sager, Tina M; Kommineni, C; Castranova, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    The production and use of nanoparticles is growing rapidly due to the unique physical and chemical properties associated with their nano size and large surface area. Since nanoparticles have unique physicochemical properties, their bioactivity upon exposure to workers or consumers is of interest. In this study, the issue of what dose metric (mass dose versus surface area dose) is appropriate for toxicological studies has been addressed. Rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to various doses of ultrafine or fine TiO2. At 1, 7, or 42 days post-exposure, inflammatory and cytotoxic potential of each particle type was compared on both a mass dosage (mg/rat) as well as an equal surface area dosage (cm2 of particles per cm2 of alveolar epithelium) basis. The findings of the study show that on a mass basis the ultrafine particles caused significantly more inflammation and were significantly more cytotoxic than the fine sized particles. However, when doses were equalized based on surface area of particles delivered, the ultrafine particles were only slightly more inflammogenic and cytotoxic when compared to the fine sized particles. Lung burden data indicate that ultrafine TiO2 appears to migrate to the interstitium to a much greater extent than fine TiO2. This study suggests that surface area of particles may be a more appropriate dose metric for pulmonary toxicity studies than mass of particles.

  8. Food sensory characteristics: their unconsidered roles in the feeding behaviour of domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Favreau-Peigné, A; Baumont, R; Ginane, C

    2013-05-01

    When domestic ruminants are faced with food diversity, they can use pre-ingestive information (i.e. food sensory characteristics perceived by the animal before swallowing the food) and post-ingestive information (i.e. digestive and metabolic consequences, experienced by the animal after swallowing the food) to evaluate the food and make decisions to select a suitable diet. The concept of palatability is essential to understand how pre- and post-ingestive information are interrelated. It refers to the hedonic value of the food without any immediate effect of post-ingestive consequences and environmental factors, but with the influence of individual characteristics, such as animal's genetic background, internal state and previous experiences. In the literature, the post-ingestive consequences are commonly considered as the main force that influences feeding behaviour whereas food sensory characteristics are only used as discriminatory agents. This discriminatory role is indeed important for animals to be aware of their feeding environment, and ruminants are able to use their different senses either singly or in combination to discriminate between different foods. However, numerous studies on ruminants' feeding behaviour demonstrate that the role of food sensory characteristics has been underestimated or simplified; they could play at least two other roles. First, some sensory characteristics also possess a hedonic value which influences ruminants' intake, preferences and food learning independently of any immediate post-ingestive consequences. Further, diversity of food sensory characteristics has a hedonic value, as animals prefer an absence of monotony in food sensory characteristics at similar post-ingestive consequences. Second, some of these food sensory characteristics become an indicator of post-ingestive consequences after their initial hedonic value has acquired a positive or a negative value via previous individual food learning or evolutionary processes

  9. Voltage-time characteristics for steep-front impulse voltages of particle-contaminated spacers in SF sub 6 gas-insulated switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Okabe, S.; Yorozuya, T. ); Endo, F.; Yamagiwa, T.; Iwassa, S. )

    1992-07-01

    In this paper voltage-time characteristics of spacer surfaces for steep-front impulse waves are investigated under a particle-contaminated condition in SF{sub 6} gas. The characteristics are measured as a function of particle length, particle position and spacer shapes. Flashover voltages monotonically increase in the submicrosecond region as time to flashover is shorter, and are a minimum in the 1 {mu}s region. Applicability of the equal voltage-time area criterion for estimating voltage-time characteristics is discussed and the technical meaning of the two parameters used in the estimation is clarified. Moreover, it is demonstrated that an optimized spacer with ribs remarkably improves flashover voltages in the submicrosecond region as well as in the 1 {mu}s and power frequency region.

  10. Depressive Symptoms of Older Adults Living Alone: The Role of Community Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Lee, Minhong

    2015-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests that community characteristics may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms among older adults, current literature has not attended to the role of community characteristics in depression in South Korea. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship of community characteristics and depressive symptoms, controlling for individual characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design and probability sampling, we surveyed 949 older adults living alone in 70 communities in the Busan metropolitan area in South Korea in 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that community characteristics are predictive of depressive symptoms. We find that both the proportion of older adults and the number of senior citizen facilities in a community are associated with depressive symptoms, whereas community poverty is not related to depressive symptoms. Men with lower income, with lower levels of functional abilities, and without stronger family and friend social networks have a higher risk of depressive symptoms. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  11. Role of impactor properties on the computational simulation of particle impact damage in transparent ceramic windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Robert; Guven, Ibrahim; Zelinski, Brian J.

    2014-05-01

    The ability to deploy advanced sensor and seeker systems in harsh environments is often restricted by the mechanical durability of the external electromagnetic window or dome. Mission environments may range from long flights at high speeds through rain, ice, or sand to exposure at slower speeds to debris on runways or from helicopter downwash. While significant progress has been made to characterize, understand, and model rain damage, less is known about modeling damage in windows and domes caused by impacts from solid particles such as stones, pebbles, and sand. This paper highlights recent progress made to simulate particle impact damage in zinc sulfide (ZnS) using peridynamics (PD). Early versions of the PD model of sand impact damage simulated the sand particle as a rigid disk. Results from these early models indicated that the extent of damage in relation to the size of the impacting particle was significantly larger than the actual damage observed by experimentation. In order to identify possible explanations for this discrepancy, the shape, impact orientation and mechanical properties of the impacting particle were modified to more closely resemble actual sand particle impacts, that is, the particle was made friable (deformable and breakable). The impacting geometries considered include sphere, flat face of a cylinder, cube-face, cube-edge, and cube-corner. Results confirm that modification of the impacting particle's mechanical properties, shape and impact orientation lead to better agreement between experimental observations and simulation results.

  12. Revising the release of fixed carbon in coastal phytoplankton: the role of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windecker, L.; Brzezinski, M. A.; Wear, E.; Carlson, C. A.; Passow, U.

    2016-02-01

    Historically, dissolved organic carbon production by phytoplankton in laboratory cultures has been measured to be 10% or less of total production, yet this percentage becomes more variable and generally higher in the field. Reconciling these differences is challenging, with implications for carbon modeling, carbon sequestration, and microbial loop processes. We modeled how carbon flows in upwelling systems among various carbon pools (particulate, dissolved, respired CO2) by growing three coastal diatom species of varied sizes and life histories under three types of nutrient stress (silicic acid, nitrate or simultaneous silicic acid and nitrate) in simulated upwelling conditions (i.e. batch cultures). We tracked transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) (particulate carbon assumed to form from dissolved precursors) and bacterial production (BP) (bacterial carbon formed from dissolved carbon substrate) in addition to dissolved (DOCp) and particulate (POCp) production. By taking into account the range of conversion factors used to convert these measures to estimates of TEP carbon production and bacterial respiration (BR) from the literature, we found that while traditional estimates of dissolved carbon production relative to total production (i.e. DOCp/(DOCp + POCp)) were consistent with previous studies (5% or less), actual extracellular release (defined here as DOCp + TEP production (TEPp) + BR) relative to total production averaged 40% (Range: 12-70%). This percentage varied most among species, with the type of nutrient stress and growth stage (i.e. exponential, stationary) playing secondary roles. The results imply that that a greater fraction of fixed carbon is excreted by phytoplankton than previously thought with the majority forming TEP.

  13. Industry growth, work role characteristics, and job satisfaction: a cross-level mediation model.

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael T; Wooldridge, Jessica D

    2012-10-01

    The associations between industry revenue growth, individual work role characteristics, and job satisfaction were examined in this cross-level mediation analysis. Work roles were expected to be more autonomous, involve greater skill variety, and offer more opportunities for growth and development for workers in growing industries than for workers in declining industries. Supervisor support was also hypothesized to be stronger for workers in high-growth industries. Results from a nationally representative (U.S.) sample of service industry workers, using multilevel modeling, supported these propositions and suggest that job enrichment mediates relations between industry growth and job satisfaction. Associations between industry growth and autonomy were also stronger among workers in occupations that are less normatively autonomous, suggesting that industry growth fosters a weakening, and industry decline a strengthening, of traditional differences in autonomy across work roles. These results contribute to a multilevel perspective on organizational environments, individual work roles, and worker attitudes and well-being.

  14. [Characteristics of fly ash particles deposition in the snowpack of Laohugou Glacier no. 12 in western Qilian Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhi-Wen; Qin, Da-He; Qin, Xiang; Du, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Ji-Zu; Ren, Jia-Wen

    2014-02-01

    This research aimed to identify and characterize individual spherical fly ash particles extracted from surface snow at Laohugou Glacier No. 12, western Qilian Mountains, China. Characterization of the spherical particles (i. e. morphology, chemical composition and genesis) was obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Spherical particles and agglomerates were identified according to their morphology in nine snow samples. Prevalent particle types in all samples were granular spherical particles, hollow spherical particles, and agglomerates. The vast majority of spherical particles in our samples had mostly smooth and glossy surfaces. Individual particle analyses of elemental composition showed that particles formed in combustion were mainly composed of silicon, aluminum and trace elements. On the basis of chemical information obtained from EDX, the fly ash particles deposited in the snow could be classified into three types, which were Si-dominant particles, Fe-dominant particles, and Ti-dominant spherical particles. Backward air mass trajectory and dispersion analysis suggested that the developed urban regions of central Asia and surrounding Yumen city contributed the primary fly ash particles from industrial combustion to the study site through the high-level atmospheric circulation.

  15. Predicting Intentions to Read Suicide Awareness Stories. The Role of Depression and Characteristics of the Suicidal Role Model.

    PubMed

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Arendt, Florian; Till, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Research on factors that influence the intention to read suicide awareness material is lacking. To identify how social and state similarities between the featured protagonist of a suicide awareness story and the audience impact on the intent to read similar stories. Laboratory experiment with n = 104 students. Participants were randomly assigned to study groups. In the first group, the role model provided his personal story of crisis and was a student. In the second group, the content was identical but the model was socially dissimilar. The third group read about a topic unrelated to suicide. Depression, identification, and exposure intent were measured after the experiment. Conditional process analysis was carried out. In the group featuring a once-suicidal role model with high social similarity, depression in the audience increased the intention to read similar material in the future via identification with the role model; 82% of individuals wanted to read similar material in the future, but only 50% wanted to do so in the group featuring a dissimilar person. Exposure intention increases via identification when role model and audience characteristics align regarding social traits and the experience of depression. These factors are relevant when developing campaigns targeting individuals with stories of recovery.

  16. Characteristics of hypervelocity impact craters on LDEF experiment S1003 and implications of small particle impacts on reflective surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, Michael J.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Devries, Christopher; Merrow, James E.

    1993-01-01

    The Ion Beam textured and coated surfaces EXperiment (IBEX), designated S1003, was flown on LDEF at a location 98 deg in a north facing direction relative to the ram direction. Thirty-six diverse materials were exposed to the micrometeoroid (and some debris) environment for 5.8 years. Optical property measurements indicated no changes for almost all of the materials except S-13G, Kapton, and Kapton-coated surfaces, and these changes can be explained by other environmental effects. From the predicted micrometeoroid flux of NASA SP-8013, no significant changes in optical properties of the surfaces due to micrometeoroids were expected. There were hypervelocity impacts on the various diverse materials flown on IBEX, and the characteristics of these craters were documented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The S1003 alumigold-coated aluminum cover tray was sectioned into 2 cm x 2 cm pieces for crater documentation. The flux curve generated from this crater data fits well between the 1969 micrometeoroid model and the Kessler debris model for particles less than 10(exp -9) gm which were corrected for the S1003 positions (98 deg to ram). As the particle mass increases, the S1003 impact data is greater than that predicted by even the debris model. This, however, is consistent with data taken on intercostal F07 by the Micrometeoroid/Debris Special Investigating Group (M/D SIG). The mirrored surface micrometeoroid detector flown on IBEX showed no change in solar reflectance and corroborated the S1003 flux curve, as well as results of this surface flown on SERT 2 and OSO 3 for as long as 21 years.

  17. Characteristics of hypervelocity impact craters on LDEF experiment S1003 and implications of small particle impacts on reflective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirtich, Michael J.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Devries, Christopher; Merrow, James E.

    1993-04-01

    The Ion Beam textured and coated surfaces EXperiment (IBEX), designated S1003, was flown on LDEF at a location 98 deg in a north facing direction relative to the ram direction. Thirty-six diverse materials were exposed to the micrometeoroid (and some debris) environment for 5.8 years. Optical property measurements indicated no changes for almost all of the materials except S-13G, Kapton, and Kapton-coated surfaces, and these changes can be explained by other environmental effects. From the predicted micrometeoroid flux of NASA SP-8013, no significant changes in optical properties of the surfaces due to micrometeoroids were expected. There were hypervelocity impacts on the various diverse materials flown on IBEX, and the characteristics of these craters were documented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The S1003 alumigold-coated aluminum cover tray was sectioned into 2 cm x 2 cm pieces for crater documentation. The flux curve generated from this crater data fits well between the 1969 micrometeoroid model and the Kessler debris model for particles less than 10(exp -9) gm which were corrected for the S1003 positions (98 deg to ram). As the particle mass increases, the S1003 impact data is greater than that predicted by even the debris model. This, however, is consistent with data taken on intercostal F07 by the Micrometeoroid/Debris Special Investigating Group (M/D SIG). The mirrored surface micrometeoroid detector flown on IBEX showed no change in solar reflectance and corroborated the S1003 flux curve, as well as results of this surface flown on SERT 2 and OSO 3 for as long as 21 years.

  18. Role of rock/fluid characteristics in carbon (CO2) storage and modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2005-01-01

    The presentation ? Role of Rock/Fluid Characteristics in Carbon (CO2) Storage and Modeling ? was prepared for the meeting of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Houston, Tex., on April 6?7, 2005. It provides an overview of greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, and a summary of their effects on the Earth?s atmosphere. It presents methods of mitigating the effects of greenhouse gases, and the role of rock and fluid properties on CO2 storage mechanisms. It also lists factors that must be considered to adequately model CO2 storage.

  19. The role of kinetic effects, including plasma rotation and energetic particles, in resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Reimerdes, H.; Betti, R.; Hu, B.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Manickam, J.; Podesta, M.

    2010-08-15

    The resistive wall mode (RWM) instability in high-beta tokamaks is stabilized by energy dissipation mechanisms that depend on plasma rotation and kinetic effects. Kinetic modification of ideal stability calculated with the 'MISK' code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)] is outlined. For an advanced scenario ITER [R. Aymar et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)] plasma, the present calculation finds that alpha particles are required for RWM stability at presently expected levels of plasma rotation. Kinetic stabilization theory is tested in an experiment in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] that produced marginally stable plasmas with various energetic particle contents. Plasmas with the highest and lowest energetic particle content agree with calculations predicting that increased energetic particle pressure is stabilizing but does not alter the nonmonotonic dependence of stability on plasma rotation due to thermal particle resonances. Presently, the full MISK model, including thermal particles and an isotropic slowing-down distribution function for energetic particles, overpredicts stability in NSTX experiments. Minor alteration of either effect in the theory may yield agreement; several possibilities are discussed.

  20. Role of particle size and composition in metal adsorption by solids deposited on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-01-01

    Despite common knowledge that the metal content adsorbed by fine particles is relatively higher compared to coarser particles, the reasons for this phenomenon have gained little research attention. The research study discussed in the paper investigated the variations in metal content for different particle sizes of solids associated with pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces. Data analysis confirmed that parameters favourable for metal adsorption to solids such as specific surface area, organic carbon content, effective cation exchange capacity and clay forming minerals content decrease with the increase in particle size. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of solids was found to be the governing factor influencing the specific surface area and effective cation exchange capacity. There is high quartz content in particles >150 μm compared to particles <150 μm. As particle size reduces below 150 μm, the clay forming minerals content increases, providing favourable physical and chemical properties that influence adsorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cultured airway epithelium responses to mineral particles: role of the oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Guilianelli, C; Baeza-Squiban, A; Lapart, E; Marano, F

    1996-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis according to which mineral particles containing iron would be able to produce cytotoxic-ROS. We approached this problem in vitro using primary cultures of rabbit tracheal epithelial cells. The oxidizing power of three mineral particles, i.e. nemalite, chrysotile and hematite, has been evaluated for their capacity to induce lipid peroxidation, and to activate intra-cellular anti-oxidant enzymes. The results show that nemalite and chrysotile which contain Fe2+ have a strong oxidizing power, inducing an oxidative stress on airway epithelial cells, whereas hematite, the Fe3+ containing particles, is without effect.

  2. The role of interplanetary shocks in the longitude distribution of solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Reames, D. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Data from the Goddard particle experiments on IMPs 4, 5, 7, and 8, and ISEE 3 are used to model particle intensity profiles including prompt solar particles and the effects of shocks. It is shown that the intensity profiles of solar protons depend on the heliolongitude, and it is suggested that the major controlling agent is the existence of an interplanetary (IP) shock. Shocks are strongest when observed along the radial from the source region, with the highest shock-associated intensities generally observed from central meridian flares. Using a recently derived model for the large-scale structure of IP shocks, the change in shape as a function of heliolongitude is explained.

  3. The role of equiaxed particles on the yield stress of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, R. M., Jr.; Christodoulou, L.

    1991-01-01

    Possible explanations are investigated for the yield strength enhancement of discontinuously reinforced Al alloy matrix MMCs, for the case of low temperature yield behavior where deformation occurs by dislocation slide. The Al alloys contain 0.1-10 micron diameter equiaxed particle discontinuous reinforcements of TiB2, Al2O3, and TiC. Attention is given to a single dislocation-particle interaction model, and both dislocation pile-up and forest-hardening multiple-dislocation particle interaction models.

  4. The role of equiaxed particles on the yield stress of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, R. M., Jr.; Christodoulou, L.

    1991-01-01

    Possible explanations are investigated for the yield strength enhancement of discontinuously reinforced Al alloy matrix MMCs, for the case of low temperature yield behavior where deformation occurs by dislocation slide. The Al alloys contain 0.1-10 micron diameter equiaxed particle discontinuous reinforcements of TiB2, Al2O3, and TiC. Attention is given to a single dislocation-particle interaction model, and both dislocation pile-up and forest-hardening multiple-dislocation particle interaction models.

  5. Creativity and innovation at work: the role of work characteristics and personal initiative.

    PubMed

    Binnewies, Carmen; Gromer, Marco

    2012-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the role of work characteristics (creative requirement, job control, coworker and supervisor support) and personal initiative for teachers' idea generation, idea promotion, and idea implementation. Eighty-nine teachers responded to two surveys with an interval of two weeks. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that creative requirement and job control predicted idea generation, whereas support from coworkers and the supervisor predicted idea promotion. Coworker and supervisor support, as well as teachers' personal initiative, predicted idea implementation.

  6. Interaction potential of microparticles in a plasma: role of collisions with plasma particles.

    PubMed

    Khrapak, S A; Ivlev, A V; Morfill, G

    2001-10-01

    The interaction potential of two charged microparticles in a plasma is studied. Violation of the plasma equilibrium around the dust particles due to plasma-particle inelastic collisions results in three effects: long-range (non-Yukawa) electrostatic repulsion, attraction due to ion shadowing, and attraction or repulsion due to neutral shadowing (depending on the sign of the temperature difference between the particle surface and neutral gas). An analytical expression for the total potential is obtained and compared with previous theoretical results. The relative contribution of these effects is studied in two limiting cases-an isotropic bulk plasma and the plasma sheath region. The results obtained are compared with existing experimental results on pair particle interaction. The possibility of the so-called dust molecule formation is discussed.

  7. The Role of Particle Deformation in the Rheology and Microstructure of Noncolloidal Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Jonathan; Reasor, Daniel; Aidun, Cyrus

    2009-11-01

    Particle deformation creates a marked effect on the rheology of noncolloidal suspensions. More pronounced non-Newtonian behavior such as shear-thinning and normal stress differences can be seen as compared with rigid particle suspensions. In this study, a lattice-Boltzmann-method fluid is coupled to a finite-element-method solid to simulate three-dimensional deformable particles. A Lees--Edwards boundary condition is implemented in the lattice-Boltzmann method, which allows the investigation of bulk suspension properties. Simulation results focus on shear viscosity and normal stress differences, as well as microstructure parameters such as the Taylor deformation index. Simulations of hundreds of three-dimensional deformable particles are presented in unbounded shear at concentrations up to 40%. Results include suspensions of solid elastic spheres, spherical capsules with elastic membranes, and model red blood cells.

  8. Role of Polymer Segment-Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling Nanoparticle Dispersions in Concentrated Polymer Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, So Youn; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-09-24

    The microstructure of particles suspended in concentrated polymer solutions is examined with small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Of interest are changes to long wavelength particle density fluctuations in ternary mixtures of silica nanoparticles suspended in concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene glycol). The results are understood in terms of application of the pseudo-two-component polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory modified to account for solvent addition via effective contact strength of interfacial attraction, εpc, in an implicit manner. The combined experimental-theoretical study emphasizes the complex interactions between solvent, polymer, and particle surface that control particle miscibility but also demonstrate that these factors can all be understood in terms of variations of εpc.

  9. Role of surface gauging in extended particle interactions: The case for spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazilu, Nicolae; Ghizdovat, Vlad; Agop, Maricel

    2016-05-01

    The matter, being extended in space, should be first characterized by a surface of separation from the empty space. This surface cannot be neatly, i.e. purely geometrically, defined. When it comes to extended particles, which thereby are to be considered the fundamental structural units of the matter, the physical evidence points out that they are not even stable: they are in a continuous transformation; and so is their limit of separation from space. The present work describes a concept of extended particle with special emphasis on this limit of separation. It turns out that the properties of inertia, as classically understood, are intrinsically related to the spin properties of quantum origin. Thus, an extended particle model cannot be but "holographic" when it comes to imbedding it in a physical structure. The spin properties turn out to be essential, inasmuch as they decide the forces of interaction issuing from particles.

  10. The role of adsorbed water on the friction of a layer of submicron particles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sammis, Charles G.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously low values of friction observed in layers of submicron particles deformed in simple shear at high slip velocities are explained as the consequence of a one nanometer thick layer of water adsorbed on the particles. The observed transition from normal friction with an apparent coefficient near μ = 0.6 at low slip speeds to a coefficient near μ = 0.3 at higher slip speeds is attributed to competition between the time required to extrude the water layer from between neighboring particles in a force chain and the average lifetime of the chain. At low slip speeds the time required for extrusion is less than the average lifetime of a chain so the particles make contact and lock. As slip speed increases, the average lifetime of a chain decreases until it is less than the extrusion time and the particles in a force chain never come into direct contact. If the adsorbed water layer enables the otherwise rough particles to rotate, the coefficient of friction will drop to μ = 0.3, appropriate for rotating spheres. At the highest slip speeds particle temperatures rise above 100°C, the water layer vaporizes, the particles contact and lock, and the coefficient of friction rises to μ = 0.6. The observed onset of weakening at slip speeds near 0.001 m/s is consistent with the measured viscosity of a 1 nm thick layer of adsorbed water, with a minimum particle radius of approximately 20 nm, and with reasonable assumptions about the distribution of force chains guided by experimental observation. The reduction of friction and the range of velocities over which it occurs decrease with increasing normal stress, as predicted by the model. Moreover, the analysis predicts that this high-speed weakening mechanism should operate only for particles with radii smaller than approximately 1 μm. For larger particles the slip speed required for weakening is so large that frictional heating will evaporate the adsorbed water and weakening will not occur.

  11. Molecular simulation study of role of polymer-particle interactions in the strain-dependent viscoelasticity of elastomers (Payne effect)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yulong; Li, Ziwei; Wen, Shipeng; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Liqun; Zhong, Chongli; Liu, Li

    2014-09-01

    The strain-amplitude dependence of viscoelastic behavior of model crosslinked elastomers containing various concentrations of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) was studied by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. All the filler NPs were in monodispersed state and the interactions between these particles were purely repulsive. The polymer-particle interactions were attractive and their interaction energies were tuned in a broad range. Through the computational study, many important features of the behavior of particle-reinforced elastomers observed in experiments, including the Payne effect, were successfully reproduced. It was shown that the magnitude of the Payne effect was found to depend on the polymer-particle interaction and the filler loading. By examining the microstructures of the simulation systems and their evolution during oscillatory shear, four different mechani