Science.gov

Sample records for particulate collector quarterly

  1. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  2. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  3. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  4. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  5. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  6. Collation of quarterly reports on air flat plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar 2 air flat plate collectors are described. The development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet of collector area are described. Three instrumented panels were completely assembled with glazing and insulation. Manufacture of the last seven prototype collectors was completed in October 1977.

  7. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-02-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

  8. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay C. Almlie

    2004-12-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-FC26-01NT41184 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the original five-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included benchscale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task was to

  9. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology

  10. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-03-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  11. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot-Scale. The project team will include the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor, W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner, and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a

  12. Mercuty Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  13. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  14. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Steven A. Benson; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ''Advanced Hybrid''{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  15. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  16. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Charlene R. Crocker; Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller

    2003-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  17. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-12-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  18. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  19. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-09-30

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the

  20. Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. [Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    The major emphasis this quarter has been in two areas. The first is to continue working the bugs out of the new particle pressure transducer. The second was to try and measure the particle pressures generated in a bed of FCC catalyst that is undergoing particulate fluidization. The results indicate that the stabilization of fluidized beds in that regime cannot be explained in terms of particle pressure generation. Instead, consistent with other recent observations,the observations can be explained by a material is that not completely fluidized but, instead, retains much of the properties of a solid and, in particular, can transmit particle pressure like a solid. 2 figs.

  1. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.

    2003-04-08

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between the rows of filter elements are rows of high voltage discharge electrodes. Between the rows of discharge electrodes and the rows of filter elements are grounded perforated plates for creating electrostatic precipitation zones.

  2. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.

    1999-01-01

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements.

  3. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.J.

    1999-08-17

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements. 12 figs.

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  5. A novel Aerosol-Into-Liquid Collector for online measurements of trace metal and elements in ambient particulate matter (PM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongbin; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2015-04-01

    A novel monitor for online, in-situ measurement of several important metal species (i.e. Fe, Mn and Cr) in ambient fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is developed based on a recent published high flow rate Aerosol-Into-Liquid Collector. This Aerosol-Into-Liquid Collector collects particles directly as highly concentrated slurry samples, and the concentrations of target metals in slurry samples are subsequently determined in a Micro Volume Flow Cell (MVFC) coupled with absorbance spectrophotometry to detect colored complexes coming from the reactions between target metals and specific reagents. Laboratory tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of the MVFC-absorbance system. The calibration curves of the system are determined using standard solutions prepared by serial dilution. As part of the evaluation, the effects of reaction time, reagent amount and interference on the system are also evaluated. Field evaluations of the online monitor will be performed to validate the ability of this new online sampler in near-continuous collection and measurements. Both laboratory and field evaluations of the novel monitor will indicate that it is an effective and valuable technology for PM collection and characterization of important metal species in ambient aerosols.

  6. Liquid flat plate collector and pump for solar heating and cooling systems: A collection of quarterly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development, fabrication, and delivery of solar subsystems consisting of a solar operated pump, and solar collectors which can be used in solar heating and cooling, or hot water, for single family, multifamily, or commercial applications is reported.

  7. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This is the seventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed for this project. Our analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic barrier filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, we received and analyzed a hopper ash sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota`s Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). We also received six ash samples from the Ahlstrom 10 MWt Pressurized Fluidized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility located at Karhula, Finland. We selected one of the filter cake ashes from this batch of samples for detailed analyses. We continued our work on the HGCU data base we are constructing in Microsoft Access{reg_sign}. We have been entering a variety of information into the data base, including numerical values, short or long text entries, and photographs. Task 2 efforts during the past quarter focused on hoop tensile testing of Schumacher FT20 and Refractron candle filter elements removed from the Karhula APF after {approximately}540 hours of service.

  8. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    This project involves the implementation of a new particulate control technology called a ``Core Separator`` for low emission sources (LES) in Krakow. With several hundred boiler sites in the city burning low grade coal, existing pollution control equipment consists primarily of low efficiency cyclones. Such equipment cannot meet the emission standards of most industrial nations. More importantly, these conditions have been the cause of low ambient air quality in Krakow from suspended particles. The Core Separator can be retrofitted onto these boiler houses to substantially reduce particulate emissions, particularly those consisting of the fraction classified as PM10. In this project, Core Separator technology will be demonstrated for boiler house applications in the Krakow region. Phase I entailed business planning and infrastructure studies to determine the market for this equipment. In the second phase, the technology is to be demonstrated in several boilers of different capacity and firing various grades of coal. Later, a joint venture company was to be established with capability of manufacturing and supplying this equipment in Krakow and throughout Poland.

  9. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Comparisons were made between laboratory analyses of these PSDF ashes and field data obtained from facility operation. In addition, selected laboratory techniques were reviewed to assess their reproducibility and the influence of non-ideal effects and differences between laboratory and filter conditions on the quantities measured. Further work on the HGCU data base is planned for the next quarter. Two Dupont PRD-66 candle filters, one McDermott candle filter, one Blasch candle filter, and one Specific Surfaces candle filter were received at SRI for testing. A test plan and cutting plan for these candles was developed. Acquisition of two of the Dupont PRD-66 candle filters will allow candle-to-candle variability to be examined.

  10. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, October 1995--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This is the fifth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Task 1 of this contract concerns analyses of HGCU ashes and descriptions of filter performance that are designed to address the problems with filter operation linked to the characteristics of the collected ash. Task 2 of this contract includes characterization of new and used filter elements. Some of the problems observed at the Tidd and Karhula PFBC facilities include excessive filtering pressure drop, the formation of large, tenacious ash deposits within the filter vessel, and bent or broken candle filter elements. These problems have been attributed to ash characteristics, durability of the ceramic filter elements, and specific limitations of the filter design. In addition to these problems related to the characteristics of PFBC ashes, our laboratory characterizations of gasifier and carbonizer ashes have shown that these ashes also have characteristics that might negatively affect filtration. Problems with the durability of the filter elements are being addressed by the development and evaluation of elements constructed from alternative ceramic materials.

  11. Concentrating collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Selected specifications from sixteen concentrating collector manufacturers are tabulated. Eleven are linear parabolic trough collectors, and the others include slats, cylindrical trough, linear Fresnel lens, parabolic cylindrical Fresnel lens, and two point focus parabolic dish collectors. Also included is a brief discussion of the operating temperatures and other design considerations for concentrating collectors. (LEW)

  12. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  13. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  14. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  15. Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Ness, S.R.; Laudal, D.L.; Dunham, G.

    1992-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is the development of a catalyst-coated fabric filter for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. The catalyst-coated fabric filter must provide high removal efficiency of NO{sub x} and particulate matter. An acceptable bag and catalyst life must be demonstrated, and process economics must show a significant cost savings when compared to a commercial SCR process and conventional particulate control. Specific goals include the following: Reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 60 ppM or less; demonstrate particulate removal efficiency of > 99.5%; demonstrate a bag/catalyst life of > 1 year; control ammonia slip to <25 ppM; show that catalytic fabric filtration can achieve a 50% cost savings over conventional fabric filtration and SCR control technology; determine compatibility with SO{sub 2} removal systems; and show that the concept results in a nonhazardous waste product. Specific project activities during the past quarter were to include the following: Fundamental Testing; process Testing/Reverse-Gas System; process Testing/Pulse-Jet System; and Fabric Durability Testing/Pulse-Jet System.

  16. Solar Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  17. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Uroshevich, M.

    1981-09-22

    The disclosure illustrates a solar collector of the focusing type comprising a trough like element with an interior reflective surface that faces a main reflector of the collector. A tubular receiver providing a passage for heat transfer fluid is positioned in the trough like element generally along the focal line of the main reflector. A flat glass plate covers the trough along a perimeter seal so that subatmospheric conditions may be maintained within the trough like element to minimize convection heat losses.

  18. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  19. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  20. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues: Task 1.0, Assessment of ash characteristics. Quarterly report, October-- December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This is the first in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Task 1. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance presented in this report were designed to address the problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash. This task is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APF`s) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. Observations of the filter assembly during site visits to the Tidd Demonstration Plant APF have led to the conclusion that that tenacious ash deposits that form in the APF apparently induce stresses that result in bent and/or broken ceramic candle filter elements. A site visit, was made to the Tidd APF on October 27, 1994 to collect ash samples from various locations in the filter vessel and to document the condition of the APF. A variety of laboratory analyses were performed on ash samples collected during this site visit to assess whether recent attempts to introduce larger particles into the ash deposits by derating the cyclone upstream of the APF have been successful. Some particles larger than 45 Jim were identified in various ash samples from the APF, but they account for less than 5 % of the mass of the ash. Although Scanning Electron Microscope EDX spectra and elemental maps lack the resolution to identify the bonds between particles in the ash agglomerates found in the APF, an excellent stereographic image of the structure of an ash nodule collected from the APF was generated with the Scanning Electron Microscope. The stereographic image was very enlightening as to the structure of the nodule.

  1. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  2. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. Sixth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, K.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  3. Passive thermosiphon solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A passive thermosiphon solar collector was designed, built, installed and tested under this grant. The basic premise was to design a simple system that was economical to build and easy to install as a retrofit to many similar homes in the local community. The module is comprised of a 2X4 frame with a sandwiched insert consisting of a flat black painted aluminum absorber panel and a fiberglass reinforced plastic glazing. This insert is completely sealed from the environment with neoprene seals and rubber silicone sealant. The modules are enclosed in an overall framework of 2X8 material bolted to a concrete reinforced footing and attached to the residence at the top. This framework results in an air chamber behind the absorber panel where the air from the basement enters the chamber at the bottom and exits at the top of the chamber into the house. The air chamber is completely insulated with 5/8 inch polyisocyanurate foil covered foam board. Fabrication is detailed in the Design and Construction section and supplemented with the photo series submitted with the Second Quarter report. The test results indicate this modular concept is a viable solution to conserving our national resources and reducing heating expenses. In this specific experiment, the use of solar energy provided a thirty-five percent reduction in natural gas consumption for this home.

  4. High performance collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, H.; Hozumi, S.; Mitsumata, T.; Yoshino, K.; Aso, S.; Ebisu, K.

    1983-04-01

    Materials and structures used for flat plate solar collectors and evacuated tubular collectors were examined relative to their overall performance to project effectiveness for building heating and cooling and the feasibility of use for generating industrial process heat. Thermal efficiencies were calculated for black paint single glazed, selective surface single glazed, and selective surface double glazed flat plate collectors. The efficiencies of a single tube and central tube accompanied by two side tube collectors were also studied. Techniques for extending the lifetimes of the collectors were defined. The selective surface collectors proved to have a performance superior to other collectors in terms of the average annual energy delivered. Addition of a black chrome-coated fin system to the evacuated collectors produced significant collection efficiency increases.

  5. Faceted solar energy collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segna, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two concepts enhance efficiency and flexibility of solar collectors: faceting collector surface and adding coloring agent to working fluid. Collector can be placed on existing structures and oriented to take advantage of position of sun. By adding coloring agent to working fluid, total absorbance can be increased and altered if required.

  6. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  7. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  8. Cross-flow, filter-sorbet catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: A cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  9. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. First quarterly technical progress report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  10. Pulsed depressed collector

    DOEpatents

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  11. Air-liquid solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and hot water subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collection of quarterly reports consisting of the installation and layout design of the air collector system for commercial applications, completion of the preliminary design review, detailed design efforts, and preparation of the verification test plan are given. Performance specifications and performance testing of a prototype model of a two manifold, 144 tube air collector array is presented.

  12. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. Seventh quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, K.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work performed on a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particle filter, an SO {sub 2} sorbent, and a NO {sub x} reduction catalyst. One critical element of the R&D program is the development of mixed metal oxide materials that serve as combined SO {sub 2} sorbents and NO {sub x} reduction catalysts. In this seventh quarterly progress report, we summarize the performance characteristics of three promising sorbent/catalyst materials tested in powder form.

  13. Cleaning Surface Particle Contamination with Ultrapure Water (UPW) Megasonic Flow on Genesis Array Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Calaway, Michael J.; Hittle, J. D.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The hard landing experienced by the Genesis sample return capsule breached the science canister containing the solar wind collectors. This impact into the damp lakebed contaminated collector surfaces with pulverized collector and spacecraft materials and Utah sediment and brine residue. The gold foil, polished aluminum, and bulk metallic glass remained intact, but the solar wind bulk and regime-specific array collectors were jarred loose from their frames and fractured into greater than 10,000 specimens. After a year of investigation and cleaning experimentation, the Genesis Science Team determined that array collectors had 4 classes of contaminants: particles, molecular film, submicron inorganic particulate ("aerosol"), and pre-launch surface contamination. We discuss here use of megasonically energized ultrapure water (UPW) for removing particulate debris from array collector fragments.

  14. All-glass solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisnewski, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed all tempered glass solar collector uses black collection fluid and mirrored bottom to reduce energy loss and overall costs associated with conventional collectors. Collector is more efficient and practically maintenance-free.

  15. Foamglass solar window collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, P. C.

    Solar heating of a living area by means of a foamglass window collector is reported. The collector was built with readily available materials available at most local hardware stores. The payback period was found to be 3.7 years, slightly longer than anticipated.

  16. Solar thermal collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranovitch, E.

    Thermal processes in solar flat plate collectors are described and evaluated analytically, and numerical models are presented for evaluating the performance of various designs. A flat plate collector consists of a black absorber plate which transfers absorbed heat to a fluid, a cover which limits thermal losses, and insulation to prevent backlosses. Calculated efficiencies for the collectors depend on the radiation absorbed, as well as IR losses due to natural convection, conduction, and radiation out of the collector. Formulations for the global emittance and heat transfer, as well as losses and their dependence on the Nusselt number and Grashof number are defined. Consideration is given to radiation transmission through transparent covers and Fresnel reflections at interfaces in the cover material. Finally, the performance coefficients for double-glazed and selective surface flat plate collectors are examined.

  17. Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Ness, S.R.; Laudal, D.L.; Dunham, G.E.

    1993-08-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation (OCF), and Raytheon Engineers & Constructors (RE&C), are conducting research to develop a catalytic fabric filter (CFF) for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Advances at OCF have shown that a high-activity catalyst can be applied to a high-temperature woven glass cloth resulting in a fabric filter material that can operate at temperatures higher than commercially available, coated glass fabric. The NO{sub x} is removed by catalytic reduction with ammonia to form nitrogen and water. The catalyst employed at this time is vanadium/titanium, but the exact catalyst composition and the unique method of applying the catalyst to high-temperature glass fabric are the property of OCF. Other catalyst options are being evaluated by OCF in order to improve catalyst performance and minimize catalyst cost. Bench-scale experimental results have shown that over 90% NO{sub x} removal can be achieved, that the catalyst/fabric has promising self-abrasion characteristics, and that the potential exists for substantially reduced cost compared to conventional SCR/fabric filtration technology. However, development of the technology requires further evaluation of air-to-cloth ratio effects, ammonia slip, SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3}, temperature cycling, catalyst-coated fabric preparation, fuel impacts, fabric cleaning (reverse-gas versus pulse-jet), catalyst life (poisoning and resistance to erosion), and filter performance/life (particulate control, differential pressure, and durability).

  18. Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    The EERC approach to meeting the program objective involves the development of a CFF for simultaneous NO. and particulate control. The idea of applying either a permanent or throwaway catalyst to a high-temperature fabric filter for NO. control is not new (1--4). However, advances at OCF have shown that a high-activity catalyst can be applied to a high-temperature woven glass cloth, resulting in a fabric filter material that can operate at temperatures higher than commercially available, coated glass fabric. The NO. is removed by catalytic reduction with ammonia to form nitrogen and water. The catalyst employed at this time is vanadium-titanium, but the exact catalyst composition and the unique method of applying the catalyst to high-temperature glass fabric are the property of OCF (5). Other catalyst options are being evaluated by OCF in order to improve catalyst performance and minimize catalyst cost. Bench-scale experimental results have shown that over 90% NO. removal can be achieved, that the catalyst-coated fabric has promising self-abrasion characteristics, and that the potential exists for substantially reduced cost compared to conventional SCR and fabric filtration technologies (6,7). However, development of the technology required further evaluation of air-to-cloth ratio effects, ammonia slip, SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3}, temperature cycling, catalyst-coated fabric preparation, fuel impacts, fabric cleaning (reverse-gas versus pulse-jet), catalyst life (poisoning and resistance to erosion), and filter performance/life (particulate control, differential pressure, and durability).

  19. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  20. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. Fifth quarterly project report, April 1982-June 1982. [Concentration of Na and K in gas at process conditions; also optimization of removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mulik, P.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-07-01

    This program is directed at performing experimental and analytical investigations, deriving system designs, and estimating costs to ascertain the feasibility of using aluminosilicate-based getters for controlling alkali in pressurized gasification systems. Its overall objective is to develop a comprehensive plan for evaluating a scaled-up version of the gettering process as a unit operation or as an integral part of a particulate removal device. This report briefly summarizes efforts previously completed on thermodynamic projections and system performance projections, together with current work on getter selection and qualification completed during the fifth quarter of the project. Work on the thermodynamic projections has been completed and includes an update of the data base, development of alkali phase diagrams, and projections for several gasification processes. Getter selection and qualification efforts involved four tests - two with activated bauxite and one each with diatomaceous earth and Novacite on the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Finally, system performance projections entailed examination of available kinetic data to ascertain the rate-controlling step, along with modeling efforts to determine the size requirements of a commercial-sized unit.

  1. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  2. Fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  3. Flatplate Solar Energy Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A small truck body fabricator in Florida became producer of flatplate solar collectors after having an inexpensive literature search performed by the NASA IAC in Research Triangle Park, NC. The center provided him with 314 abstracts of which he requested 15 full length articles. His total cost, $100.00, was sufficient to launch his new venture OEM Products, Inc. Flatplate collector design incorporates new black paint developed by Dow-Corning Corporation but not yet commercially available.

  4. EUV source collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böwering, Norbert R.; Ershov, Alex I.; Marx, William F.; Khodykin, Oleh V.; Hansson, Björn A. M.; Vargas L., Ernesto; Chavez, Juan A.; Fomenkov, Igor V.; Myers, David W.; Brandt, David C.

    2006-03-01

    A collector subsystem has been designed, built, and tested. The subsystem consists of a 320mm diameter ellipsoidal collector coated with a graded multilayer, mounting mechanics, thermal management capability, and a collector protection system. The EUV light emission can be collected with a solid angle of 1.6 sr. Collector substrates have been developed with the goal of offering both optical surface quality to support high multilayer mirror (MLM) reflectivity and material compatibility for long-term operation in the EUV source system. An interface-engineered MLM coating capable of maintaining high normal-incidence peak reflectivity at 13.5 nm during continuous operation at 400 °C has been developed. The thermal management of the system has been engineered and tested to maintain uniform substrate temperature during operation. Lastly, protection techniques have been developed to provide the collector with a long operational lifetime. Performance data for the entire subsystem are presented. The collector was installed in the source chamber of a laser-produced-plasma EUV source during system integration experiments using a tin droplet target. First results of the collected EUV output at the intermediate focus measured with a power meter and a fluorescence-converter-based imaging system are discussed.

  5. Solvent vapor collector

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  6. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  7. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  8. Biological sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  9. Artists and collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien-Ohlmann, Odile

    1995-02-01

    `Where can I buy holograms?' `Where can I exhibit, there is no more gallery to show me?' These are the two complaints I have heard these past two years, first from the collectors and museum curators, second from the artists, Trained as a psycho-sociologist, I have been the curator and research associate of the Museum of Holography in Washington, D.C. for 7 years, at a time when holography was coming out of the laboratory, creating a real 3-D novelty in people's minds. I saw the mass production growing and the applications multiplying. Meanwhile the artists appeared and started to deal with gallery managers. After the renting period of artworks for exhibits, price went up. The general recession affected the art and the dialogue between collectors and artists became harder. Having my husband as an artist, I know pretty well both sides. My paper tries to analyze the situation to facilitate the communication between artists and collectors.

  10. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  11. Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

  12. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  13. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  14. Solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  15. Sheldon Jackson the Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Rosemary

    Missionary, educator, humanitarian, and collector, the Reverend Sheldon Jackson came to Alaska in 1877 to assimilate Native populations into the dominant White culture, but his collecting efforts between 1877 and 1902 represent a significant effort to preserve the legacy of Alaska Natives during a period of tumultuous change. A zealous missionary,…

  16. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  17. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  18. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  19. Analysis of Molecular Contamination on Genesis Collectors Through Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, Eileen K.

    2005-01-01

    Before the spacecraft returned to Earth in September, the Genesis mission had a preliminary assessment plan in place for the purpose of providing information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. One important component of that plan was the evaluation of collector surfaces for molecular contamination. Sources of molecular contamination might be the on-orbit outgassing of spacecraft and science canister components, the condensation of thruster by-products during spacecraft maneuvers, or the condensation of volatile species associated with reentry. Although the non-nominal return of the Genesis spacecraft introduced particulate contamination to the collectors, such as dust and heatshield carbon-carbon, it is unlikely to have caused any molecular deposition. The contingency team's quick action in returning the damaged payload the UTTR cleanroom by 6 PM the evening of recovery help to ensure that exposure to weather conditions and the environment were kept to a minimum.

  20. Solar collector array

    DOEpatents

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  1. Textile solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Guadard, Y.; Guillemaud, H.

    1982-04-27

    Disclosed is a solar collector employing a liquid collecting medium. A textile collection surface of which the thickness possesses different densities is employed to carry the medium. These densities are such that the densities increase from the surface exposed to the sun to the opposite surface, in order to enable the liquid to run in the upper thickness. The textile collecting surface consists of at least one nonwoven textile thickness.

  2. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  3. Current collector for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having higher power output is formed of an open mesh current collector such as expanded nickel covering an electrode film applied to a tube of beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). A plurality of cross-members such as spaced, parallel loops of molybdenum metal wire surround the BASE tube. The loops are electrically connected by a bus wire. As the AMTEC cell is heated, the grid of expanded nickel expands more than the BASE tube and the surrounding loop of wire and become diffusion welded to the electrode film and to the wire loops.

  4. Particulate behavior in a controlled-profile pulverized coal-fired reactor: A study of coupled turbulent particle dispersion and thermal radiation transport. Quarterly technical progress report, June 15, 1995--September 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, M.; Webb, B.W.

    1995-11-01

    During the sixteenth quarter progress has been made in the area of turbulence modeling and in the data reduction of heat flux measurements. A multiple-time-scale turbulence model was developed for axisymmetric, swirling flows.

  5. Preliminary design of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report containing performance specifications and engineering drawings of concentric-tube air solar collector show details of collector and subcomponents that indicate efficiency surpassing predetermined performance baseline for air collectors.

  6. Genesis: Removing Contamination from Sample Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V.; McNamara, K. M.; Westphal, Andrew; Butterworth, A. L.; Burnett, D. S.; Jurewicz, A.; Woolum, D.; Allton, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis mission returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry. The parachutes which were supposed to slow and stabilize the capsule throughout the return failed to deploy, causing the capsule to impact the desert floor at a speed of nearly 200 MPH. Both the science canister and the major components of the SRC were returned before nightfall on September 8 to the prestaged cleanroom at UTTR , avoiding prolonged exposure or pending weather changes which might further contaminate the samples. The majority of the contaminants introduced as a result of the anomalous landing were in the form of particulates, including UTTR dust and soil, carbon-carbon heat shield material, and shattered collector dust (primarily silicon and germanium). Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  7. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  8. Integrated solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Tchernev, Dimiter I.

    1985-01-01

    A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

  9. The PKI collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    The design and manufacturing of a solar thermal collector is discussed. The collector has three primary subsystems: concentrator, receiver/fluid loop, and controls. Identical curved reflective columns are utilized in a faceted Fresnel design to support 864 one foot square flat inexpensive second-surface, silvered glass mirrors. The columns are ganged together and rotated through their centers of gravity to provide elevation tracking. The concentrator is supported by a lightweight spaceframe structure which distributes all wind and gravity loads to the base supports. The base of the structure is a track which rotates on wheels mounted on concrete piers. A parallel tube steel heat exchanger is mounted at the concentrator focal area in a well insulated, galvanized steel housing. Two rows of vertical close-packed, staggered tubes connect a mud header and a steam header. Automatic two axis tracking and operational control is provided with a microprocessor based package. Concentrator-mounted shadowbands are the basis for active tracking. A software program provides azimuthal tracking during cloudy periods.

  10. Depressed collector for electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A depressed collector for recovery of spent beam energy from electromagnetic sources emitting sheet or large aspect ration annular electron beams operating aver a broad range of beam voltages and currents. The collector incorporates a trap for capturing and preventing the return of reflected and secondary electrons.

  11. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. A Passive Nuclear Debris Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a nuclear debris collector which removes trace substances from the lower atmosphere during rainfall. Suggests that the collector could be implemented into courses at various educational levels and could result in developing a network for monitoring the geographical extent of nuclear contamination. (Author/SA)

  13. A Passive Nuclear Debris Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a nuclear debris collector which removes trace substances from the lower atmosphere during rainfall. Suggests that the collector could be implemented into courses at various educational levels and could result in developing a network for monitoring the geographical extent of nuclear contamination. (Author/SA)

  14. High-performance solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beekley, D. C.; Mather, G. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Evacuated all-glass concentric tube collector using air or liquid transfer mediums is very efficient at high temperatures. Collector can directly drive existing heating systems that are presently driven by fossil fuel with relative ease of conversion and less expense than installation of complete solar heating systems.

  15. Solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, R.J.

    1980-09-02

    A sun tracking solar energy collector assembly having both a longitudinally extending flat plate absorber and a tube absorber spaced from and extending longitudinally generally parallel to the flat plate absorber. In one form a parabolic reflector focuses direct rays of solar radiation on the tube absorber and directs diffused rays of solar radiation onto the plate absorber. In another form a fresnel lens plate focuses direct rays of solar radiation on the tube absorber and flat reflector surfaces direct diffused solar radiation passing through the lens plate onto the plate absorber. In both forms a fluid is first heated as it circulates through passages in the flat plate absorber and then is further heated to a higher temperature as it passes through the tube absorber.

  16. Radiant energy collector

    DOEpatents

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  17. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1997-04-01

    A thorough analysis of the dust to be captured and determination of specific application requirements are necessary when designing a baghouse collection system. Independent consultants specializing in pollution control equipment and manufacturers with experience in several types of collectors are possible sources of assistance. These experts typically have testing facilities to analyze the dust characteristics. This final article of a two-part series on baghouse design and selection concentrates on application considerations created by the type of dust handled, selecting the best filtration media, selecting the best filtration media, and determining the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio. The first article discussed bag sizing and cleaning methods and housing and hopper designs.

  18. Solar optical energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.

    1983-10-18

    A solar optical energy collector is disclosed having a lens system for concentrating sun beams and a sun beams receiving system for introducing said sun beams being concentrated into a optical-conductor cable. In order to obtain the most effective arrangement of the lens system, said lens system comprises a plurality (N) of Fresnel lenses each formed in the shape of a hexagon, i.e. N=3n(+1) Fresnel lenses are disposed around one Fresnel lens so that each side of the one Fresnel lens positioned in the center of the lens system adjoins to one side of each respective surrounding Fresnel lenses in a concentric-circular relationship, wherein (n) stands for a natural number.

  19. Biobriefcase aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Perry M [Tracy, CA; Christian, Allen T [Madison, WI; Bailey, Christopher G [Pleasanton, CA; Willis, Ladona [Manteca, CA; Masquelier, Donald A [Tracy, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2009-09-22

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

  20. LHCb Tag Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuente Fernández, Paloma; Clemencic, Marco; Cousin, Nicolas; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The LHCb physics software consists of hundreds of packages, each of which is developed by one or more physicists. When the developers have some code changes that they would like released, they commit them to the version control system, and enter the revision number into a database. These changes have to be integrated into a new release of each of the physics analysis applications. Tests are then performed by a nightly build system, which rebuilds various configurations of the whole software stack and executes a suite of run-time functionality tests. A Tag Collector system has been developed using solid standard technologies to cover both the use cases of developers and integration managers. A simple Web interface, based on an AJAX-like technology, is available. Integration with SVN and Nightly Build System, is possible via a Python API. Data are stored in a relational database with the help of an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) library.

  1. Empty Quarter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Empty Quarter - February 1st, 20003 Description: White pinpricks of cloud cast ebony shadows on the Rub' al Khali, or Empty Quarter, near the border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The lines of wind-sculpted sand are characteristic of immense sand deserts, or sand seas, and the Rub' al Khali is the largest desert of this type in the world. A highland ridge is just high enough to disturb the flow of the lines. In the center of that interruption lies the Saudi Arabian town of Sharurah. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  2. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  3. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  4. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  5. Inverted flat plate solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1981-08-26

    Construction and testing of an inverted flat plate solar collector are described. Heat transfer and economic analysis were performed to optimize the collector design. The newly designed collector was tested against two other flat plate collectors and the results and comparison of efficiencies are presented. (BCS)

  6. Wisconsin collector-efficiency study, phase two

    SciTech Connect

    Abright, B.L.

    1982-01-15

    The collector efficiency study developed a solar collector rating methodology specific to Wisconsin conditions. Existing rating programs were researched and a collector methodology was developed. A computer program was written to calculate the collector ratings and 25 collector models were rated. The accuracy of the proposed rating methodology was evaluated for 16 collectors placed in 11 domestic hot water systems. One liquid space heating analysis with storage and one air space heating analysis without storage were completed. A solar assisted heat pump in which the solar collectors function as evaporators was also analyzed.

  7. Solar-collector test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoney, W. E.

    1981-06-01

    Activities to evaluate the commercial readiness and potential of an all plastic solar hot water collector are summarized. The results of tests at the Florida Solar Energy Center are reported. The collector is described and data are given including the efficiency curve, incident angle modifier, raw test data, and the results of static tests. A meeting is also described which was called to obtain an outside evaluation of the collector and recommendations as to future activities. It was agreed that the design demonstrated that a thin-film plastic absorber could be built to produce performance at least equal to the mid-range of conventional copper or aluminum absorbers and that production costs could probably be at least half that of currently available collectors. (LEW)

  8. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  9. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  10. The parabolic concentrating collector: A tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1979-01-01

    A tutorial overview of point-focusing parabolic collectors is presented. Optical and thermal characteristics are discussed. Data representing typical achievable collector efficiencies are presented and the importance of balancing collector cost with concentrator quality is argued through the development of a figure of merit. Various types of two-axis tracking collectors are described. The Department of Energy program to develop these devices is briefly discussed, as are present and projected costs for these collectors.

  11. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  12. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    1992-01-01

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector produces a shadow on the other side of the collector. This self-shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse, and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  13. Elastocapillary mist collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Camille; Labbé, Romain; Rewakowicz, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are commonly used to collect droplets from an aerosol. In particular, woven textiles are used to harvest fresh water from fog, and coalescing filters made of non-woven entangled fibers are used to extract oil drops from gas streams. We propose a novel mist collector made of a forest of vertical flexible threads. As the droplets accumulate on the fibers, capillary bridges are formed, leading to the collapse of adjacent fibers thus forming liquid columns. This improve the liquid collection by preventing clogging, enabling high capture and precluding re-entrainment of drops in the gas stream due to the immediate coalescence of incoming droplets, and promoting fast drainage. We find that the collection flow rate is constant and can be adjusted by varying the fibers arrangement and flexibility. We show that there is an optimal situation for which this collection rate, i.e. the global efficiency, is maximal due to an elastocapillary coupling that we further characterize with a model experiment. Specifically, we study the drainage between two flexible fibers. Depending on the geometry and the fiber deformations, several flow regimes are observed. We characterize these regimes, and discuss the consequences on the drainage velocity, and thus the collection efficiency.

  14. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  15. Solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kellberg, H.; Wilder, A.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of a solar energy collector structure comprising: a plurality of partially evacuated tublar members substantially transparent to incident solar radiation, said tubular members having opposed lateral ends being arranged in a first and second group and lying adjacent one another in parallel axial alignment, means for joining each tubular member next to each adjacent tubular member of the group to form a first and second respective tube sheet structure; said tube sheets arranged adjacent each other in tendem to form at least one flow channel therebetween in a self-supporting structure; an absorber member disposed within said flow channel for intercepting and absorbing solar energy; and an insulating film having deposited theron a radiation reflecting substance located behind said absorber member disposed over and conforming closely to a surface of said second tube sheet for forming an insulating space between the insulating film and the second tube sheet to thereby suppress radiation, conduction and convection from said absorber in a direction out of the interior of the flow channel.

  16. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  17. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  18. The multiple layer solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for obtaining numerical solutions for differential equations describing the performance of separate layers in a multiple layer solar collector. The configurations comprises heat transfer fluid entering at the top of the collector and travelling down through several layers. A black absorber plate prevents reemission of thermal radiation. The overall performance is shown to depend on the number of layers, the heat transfer coefficient across each layer, and the absorption properties of the working fluid. It is found that the multiple layer system has a performance inferior to that of flat plate selective surface collectors. Air gaps insulating adjacent layers do not raise the efficiency enough to overcome the relative deficiency.

  19. Fiber reinforced concrete solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, A. J.; Newgard, P. J.

    1985-05-07

    A solar collector is disclosed comprising a glass member having a solar selective coating thereon, and a molded, glass-reinforced concrete member bonded to the glass member and shaped to provide a series of passageways between the glass member and the fiber-reinforced concrete member capable of carrying heat exchanging fluid therethrough. The fiber-reinforced concrete member may be formed by spraying a thin layer of concrete and chopped fibers such as chopped glass fibers onto a mold to provide an inexpensive and lightweight, thin-walled member. The fiber-reinforced concrete member may have a lightweight cellular concrete backing thereon for insulation purposes. The collector is further characterized by the use of materials which have substantially matching thermal coefficients of expansion over the temperature range normally encountered in the use of solar collectors.

  20. Solar collector method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, C.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a solar collector system. It comprises: an extruded solar collector with a plurality of orifices longitudinally extending therethrough; an input manifold having a central conduit member with male and female ends and a plurality of radially extending nipples corresponding to the plurality of orifices; an output manifold having a central conduit member with male and female ends and a plurality of radially extending nipples corresponding to the plurality of orifices; means for positioning the nipples of the input manifold into one end of the plurality of orifices and for positioning the nipples of the output manifold into the other end of the plurality of orifices such that a fluid flowing into the input manifold flows through the nipples of the input manifold into the plurality of orifices and then through the nipples of the output manifold into the output manifold; a sheet of transparent material affixed in a spaced-apart position above the solar collector by means of a stand-off material; an insulated material positioned above the manifolds; and an arcuate member adhered between the sheet of transparent material and the strip of material and positioned over one of the manifolds to prevent debris from being deposited between the manifold and the solar collector. Also described is a nipple formed in a cylindrical configuration with an exterior surface and a free end. Also described is coupling apparatus between a manifold having a cylindrical nipple and a solar collector having a cylindrical orifice. Also described is a manifold for connection to a solar collector having a plurality of orifices extending longitudinally therethrough.

  1. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  2. Pyrolytic graphite collector development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Pyrolytic graphite promises to have significant advantages as a material for multistage depressed collector electrodes. Among these advantages are lighter weight, improved mechanical stiffness under shock and vibration, reduced secondary electron back-streaming for higher efficiency, and reduced outgassing at higher operating temperatures. The essential properties of pyrolytic graphite and the necessary design criteria are discussed. This includes the study of suitable electrode geometries and methods of attachment to other metal and ceramic collector components consistent with typical electrical, thermal, and mechanical requirements.

  3. High efficiency flat plate solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R. F.

    1985-04-30

    A concentrating flat plate collector for the high efficiency collection of solar energy. Through an arrangement of reflector elements, incoming solar radiation, either directly or after reflection from the reflector elements, impinges upon both surfaces of a collector element.

  4. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  5. Performance verification of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. C.; Romaker, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures and results of battery of qualification tests performed by independent certification agency on commercial solar collector are presented in report. Reported results were used as basis in judging collector suitable for field installation in residential and commerical buildings.

  6. Large-scale solar thermal collector concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal collector could be used ultimately to power steamplant to produce electricity. Collector would consist of two major subsystems: (1) series of segmented tracking mirrors with two axes of rotation and (2) absorber mounted on centrally located tower.

  7. Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

  8. Solar collectors. I - Fundamentals and collectors of the past and present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper is a state-of-the-art review aiming to familiarize those who are new in the solar energy field with past accomplishment in solar energy utilization. Consideration is given to the design features and performance definition of solar collectors. The characteristics of planar collectors, line focusing collectors, and point focusing collectors (including the central receiver concept) are briefly discussed.

  9. Macroscopic Subdivision of Silica Aerogel Collectors for Sample Return Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, H A; Bradley, J P

    2005-09-14

    Silica aerogel collector tiles have been employed for the collection of particles in low Earth orbit and, more recently, for the capture of cometary particles by NASA's Stardust mission. Reliable, reproducible methods for cutting these and future collector tiles from sample return missions are necessary to maximize the science output from the extremely valuable embedded particles. We present a means of macroscopic subdivision of collector tiles by generating large-scale cuts over several centimeters in silica aerogel with almost no material loss. The cut surfaces are smooth and optically clear allowing visual location of particles for analysis and extraction. This capability is complementary to the smaller-scale cutting capabilities previously described [Westphal (2004), Ishii (2005a, 2005b)] for removing individual impacts and particulate debris in tiny aerogel extractions. Macroscopic cuts enable division and storage or distribution of portions of aerogel tiles for immediate analysis of samples by certain techniques in situ or further extraction of samples suited for other methods of analysis.

  10. Installation package for Sunpak solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A subsystem (air/liquid vacuum collector) was developed for use with solar combined heating and cooling subsystems. The collector is modular in design, is approximately twelve-feet-three-inches wide and is eight-feet-seven-inches high. The module contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds.

  11. Solar collector and arrangements thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.N.

    1985-03-19

    In an all liquid flat plate type solar collector having risers therein, the risers having inlet and outlet portions, the improvement comprises providing a single header for servicing the risers and arranging the risers inlet and outlet portions within the header so as to obtain flow through the risers using the velocity effect or dynamic effect of flow through the header.

  12. Selective coating for solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schardein, D.J.

    1983-03-15

    A selective solar coating for solar collectors is disclosed. The coating is characterized by its high absorptance and low emittance. The coating comprises an organic compound or substance having a high molecular weight and a high carbon content, such as a petroleum, vegetable or animal oil, fat or wax, which is pyrolyzed to produce a carbon black pigmented varnish.

  13. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  14. Line-focus concentrating solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J. A.; Dugan, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the line-focus concentrating solar collector technology and applications is presented. Included are a description of the collectors, some of the key features of the engineering approach, instantaneous and all-day performance and operating data, temperature capabilities and limitations for selected collectors, projected future capabilities for peak and annual performance. Projected system capital costs and annualized life cycle costs for thermal energy produced are discussed. Several existing application projects which employ line concentrating collectors are reviewed, and finally, plans for future DOE-funded line concentrating collector projects are described.

  15. Line focus concentrating collector for Copper Mountain Ski Resort, Colorado (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-02

    The present invention is a device which develops an accurate line focus concentrating collector by flexural bending of thin reflective materials. This method avoids the need for expensive tooling and support frame fabrication. The technical work conducted during this quarter included completion of designs for the prototype system for the Copper Mountain Ski Resort in Colorado. Evaluation of alternate tracking and drive systems and final design of the support system. These drawings accompany DOE/CS/15072--T4.

  16. Recommendations for European solar collector test methods (Liquid heating collectors)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrick, A.; Gillett, W. B.

    Standardized testing formats, equipment, conditions, and tests defined as part of the solar flat plate collector testing program performed by the Commission of the European Communities are detailed. The work is a product of efforts at 20 laboratories, and alternative methods have been characterized for tailoring tests to particular locations and climatic conditions. The testing methods are intended for collectors using a liquid as the heat transfer medium. Procedures have been defined for examining steady state and transient performance, heat loss, thermal capacity, pressure drop, and anemometry. Instrumentation types and accuracies have been defined, and a standardized format for presentation of results has been developed. The tests are tailored for determining the durability of the flat plate systems under simulated solar radiation conditions.

  17. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Wipke, K.

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69 percent more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44 percent less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration.

  18. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A. ); Wipke, K. )

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

    2003-01-28

    In the first quarter of the project, we reviewed many past references about using light scattering to characterize particulate matters. We also constructed light sources, detection systems and PM synthesizer for the project.

  20. Collector ring project at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinskii, A.; Berkaev, D.; Blell, U.; Dimopoulou, C.; Gorda, O.; Leibrock, H.; Litvinov, S.; Laier, U.; Koop, I.; Schurig, I.; Starostenko, A.; Shatunov, P.; Weinrich, U.

    2015-11-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed.

  1. A generalized correlation of experimental flat-plate collector performance. [solar collectors, performance tests, energy policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Miller, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized collector performance correlation was derived and shown by experimental verification to be of the proper form to account for the majority of the variable conditions encountered both in outdoor and in indoor collector tests. This correlation permits a determination of collector parameters which are essentially nonvarying under conditions which do vary randomly (outdoors) or conditions which vary in a controlled manner (indoors - simulator). It was shown that correlation of the experimental performance of collectors allows the following: (1) comparisons of different collector designs; (2) collector performance prediction under conditions that differ from the conditions of the test program; and (3) monitoring performance degradation effects.

  2. Analysis of boiling flat-plate collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1986-05-01

    A detailed model for use with TRNSYS, capable of modelling a wide range of boiling collector types, was used to analyze boiling flat-plate collector systems. This model can account for a subcooled liquid entering the collector, heat losses in the vapor and the liquid return line, pressure drops due to friction in the collector and piping, and pressure drops due to the hydrostatic head of the fluid. The model has been used to determine the yearly performance of boiling flat-plate solar collector systems. A simplified approach was also developed which can be used with the f-Chart method to predict yearly performance of boiling flat-plate collector systems.

  3. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: Prototype moderately concentrating grooved collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of moderately concentrating grooved collectors were tested with a solar simulator for varying inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  4. Window box collectors for Squirrel Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, B.J.

    1981-05-01

    A prototype thermosyphoning collector was built and installed in the windows of a house in Pittsburgh. Testing of the collectors revealed an efficiency of 35% and a payback period of 10 years. The prototype was redesigned and tested under a DOE grant. The final design of the collector is presented, but only a small amount of data was taken to begin the evaluation of the units. The use of thermal shutters is also included. (BCS)

  5. Solar thermal collectors using planar reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    Specular reflectors have been used successfully with flat-plate collectors to achieve exceptionally high operating temperatures and high delivered energy per unit collector area. Optimal orientation of collectors and reflectors can result in even higher performance with an improved relationship between energy demand and supply. This paper reports on a study providing first order optimization of collector-reflector arrays in which single- and multiple-faceted reflectors in fixed or singly adjustable configurations provide delivered energy maxima in either summer or winter.

  6. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  7. Fog collectors and collection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhler, I.; Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    The earth sciences taught that due to the occurrence of water in three phases: gas, liquid and solid, solar energy keeps the hydrological cycle going, shaping the earth surface while regulating the climate and thus allowing smart technologies to interfere in the natural process by rerouting water and employing its yield for natural and human environments’ subsistence. This is the case of traditional fog collectors implemented by several researchers along the Atacama Desert since late ’50s such as vertical tensile mesh or macro-diamonds structures. Nevertheless, these basic prototypes require to be upgraded, mainly through new shapes, fabrics and frameworks’ types by following the principles of lightness, transformability, portability and polyvalence. The vertical canvas of conventional fog collectors contain too much stressed at each joints and as result it became vulnerable. Our study constitutes a research by design of two fog-trap devices along the Atacama Desert. Different climatic factors influence the efficiency of fog harvesting. In order to increase yield of collected fog water, we need to establish suitable placements that contain high rates of fog’s accumulation. As important as the location is also the building reliability of these collectors that will be installed. Their frames and skins have to be adjustable to the wind direction and resistant against strong winds and rust. Its fabric need to be more hydrophobic, elastic and with light colours to ease dripping/drainage and avoid ultra-violet deterioration. In addition, meshes should be well-tensed and frames well-embraced too. In doing so we have conceived two fog collectors: DropNet© (Höhler) and FogHive© (Suau). These designs explore climatic design parameters combined with the agile structural principles of Tensegrity and Geodesic widely developed by Bucky Fuller and Frei Otto. The research methods mainly consisted of literature review; fieldwork; comparative analysis of existing fog

  8. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  9. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  10. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  11. Evacuated flat-plate solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, P.G.

    1981-09-15

    A structural support system is disclosed for use in an evacuated, flat-plate, solar collector to eliminate the problem of stress fractures in a glass cover plate. Nonlinearly spaced supports are used within the collector to dampen vibrations in the glass cover and to prevent overdeflection before buckling or stress fractures occur.

  12. 49 CFR 229.77 - Current collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current collectors. 229.77 Section 229.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....77 Current collectors. (a) Pantographs shall be so arranged that they can be operated from the...

  13. Solar collector with improved thermal concentration

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    Reduced heat loss from the absorbing surface of the energy receiver of a cylindrical radiant energy collector is achieved by providing individual, insulated, cooling tubes for adjacent parallel longitudinal segments of the receiver. Control means allow fluid for removing heat absorbed by the tubes to flow only in those tubes upon which energy is then being directed by the reflective wall of the collector.

  14. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25... OTHER FIREARMS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 479.25 Collector's items. The Director shall determine in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 5845(a), whether a firearm or device, which although...

  15. Development and testing of the Shenandoah collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinoshita, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    The test and development of the 7-meter Shenandoah parabolic dish collector incorporating an FEK-244 film reflective surface and cavity receiver are described. Four prototypes tested in the midtemperature Solar System Test Facility indicate, with changes incorporated from these development tests, that the improvements should lead to predicted performance levels in the production collectors.

  16. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  17. Cleaner for Solar-Collector Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frickland, P. O.; Cleland, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple self-contained cleaning system proposed for solar collectors or solar-collector protective domes. Perforated transparent plastic cap attached to top of protective dome in heliostat solar-energy collection system distributes cleaning fluid over surface of dome without blocking significant fraction of solar radiation.

  18. Design review of a liquid solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesewmaier, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Report documents procedures, results, and recommendations for in-depth analysis of problems with liquid-filled version of concentric-tube solar collector. Problems are related to loss of vacuum and/or violent fracture of collector elements, fluid leakage, freezing, flow anomalies, manifold damage, and other component failures.

  19. Pioneer CESA Guidance Project: Data Collectors Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brenda; Andrews, Theodore

    The purpose of this guide is to assist trained data collectors in the use of the "Performance-Based Counselor Certification Model for the State of Georgia." The guidelines are intended to clarify the process rather than to limit the data collector to a confining set of definitions. In addition, the guide discusses specific school…

  20. 49 CFR 229.77 - Current collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current collectors. 229.77 Section 229.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....77 Current collectors. (a) Pantographs shall be so arranged that they can be operated from the...

  1. Electrostatic particle collector with improved features for installing and/or removing its collector plates

    DOEpatents

    Siegfried, Matthew J.; Radford, Daniel R.; Huffman, Russell K.

    2017-04-04

    An electrostatic particle collector may generally include a housing having sidewalls extending lengthwise between a first end and a second end. The housing may define a plate slot that extends heightwise within the housing between a top end and a bottom end. The housing may further include a plate access window that provides access to the bottom end of the plate slot. The collector may also include a collector plate configured to be installed within the plate slot that extends heightwise between a top edge and a bottom edge. Additionally, when the collector plate is installed within the plate slot, the bottom edge of the collector plate may be accessible from an exterior of the housing via the plate access window so as to allow the bottom edge of the collector plate to be moved relative to the housing to facilitate removal of the collector plate from the housing.

  2. Performance of solar collector arrays and collector controllers in the National Solar Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logee, T. L.; Kendall, P. W.

    1984-07-01

    The accumulated National Solar Data Network (NSDN) data has been analyzed with regard to collector and collector control performance. The collector data is presented in the ASHRAE format as efficiency vs. operating points, (Tinlet - Tambient)/insolation. Collector controls were analyzed by determining the losses caused by control problems common to the NSDN solar systems. This study of collectors and collector controls has several objectives which are: (1) to compare actual and predicted collector performance; (2) to determine which generic types of components performed well and which performed poorly; (3) to determine why predicted performance was not achieved in the field; (4) to determine the types and causes of failures; (5) to determine the reliability weaknesses; and (6) to determine whether there are any component integration problems.

  3. Second law analysis and synthesis of solar collector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Kearney, D. W.; Kreith, F.

    1981-02-01

    The second law of thermodynamics is used to analyze the potential for energy conservation in solar collector systems. It is shown that the amount of useful energy (exergy) delivered by solar collector systems is affected by heat transfer irreversibilities occurring between the sun and the collector, between the collector and the ambient air, and inside the collector. Using as working examples an isothermal collector, a nonisothermal collector, and the design of the collector-user heat exchanger, the optimum operating conditions for minimum heat transfer irreversibility (maximum exergy delivery) are derived.

  4. Direct expansion solar collector and heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    A hybrid heat pump/solar collector combination in which solar collectors replace the outside air heat exchanger found in conventional air-to-air heat pump systems is discussed. The solar panels ordinarily operate at or below ambient temperature, eliminating the need to install the collector panels in a glazed and insulated enclosure. The collectors simply consist of a flat plate with a centrally located tube running longitudinally. Solar energy absorbed by exposed panels directly vaporizes the refrigerant fluid. The resulting vapor is compressed to higher temperature and pressure; then, it is condensed to release the heat absorbed during the vaporization process. Control and monitoring of the demonstration system are addressed, and the tests conducted with the demonstration system are described. The entire heat pump system is modelled, including predicted performance and costs, and economic comparisons are made with conventional flat-plate collector systems.

  5. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  6. A reliable method for rating solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lof, G. O. G.; Jones, D.; Shaw, L. E.

    Features of a solar flat plate collector system rating scheme which can be used by either technical or nontechnically trained persons are described and compared with other rating systems. Performance curves from the ASHRAE 93-77 technique are taken as the basic indicator of collector heat delivery capability, and can be combined with data on the type of climate, heating demand the collector serves, and the solar fraction of the load. The rating method comparisons covered calculations of heat delivery, for space heating applications, for four different collectors supplying four different load fractions in five locations. F-Chart simulations were run for the test, considering commercially available systems. Useful heat from the collectors varied with location, as did relative performance. The ARI rating system was found to be useless as a performance predictor, and recommendations are provided for an adequate rating system.

  7. A reliable method for rating solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loef, G. O. G.; Jones, D.; Shaw, L. E.

    A method is outlined which accurately and meaningfully rates solar collectors in all parts of the country. The basis for the rating is a first order efficiency curve developd from test results obtained in an accredited laboratory by methods prescribed in the ASHRAE 93-77 procedure. Annual solar heat delivery per square foot of collector is then calculated for standard hot water and space heating applications in cities throughout the U.S. by use of the F-Chart procedure. Four collectors are analyzed by the FCHART method for space heating applications in five U.S. cities at five solar load fractions. It is shown that although all the collectors have comparable outputs under some conditions, they perform quite differently in different parts of the country and at different ratios of collector area to heating load.

  8. 6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  9. 1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  10. 5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  11. 4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  12. 2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  13. 3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  14. 2. Southeast side of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast side of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters R, Essex Street, .43 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  15. 5. Interior of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), living room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), living room, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters R, Essex Street, .43 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  16. 4. Northwest side of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northwest side of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters R, Essex Street, .43 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. 3. Southwest side of quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southwest side of quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters R, Essex Street, .43 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. 1. Northeast side of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northeast side of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters R, Essex Street, .43 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  19. Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and water tower, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  20. Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

  1. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1989. Articles in number 1 deal with professional development, and include: "Sharing Expertise within a Department" (Martha R. Dolly); "Empowerment Develops a Computer Writing Center" (Norman…

  2. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms"…

  3. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirinsky, Driek, Ed.; Strickland, James, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1988. Articles in number 1 include: "Relearning Leadership" (Tom Jones); "The English Coalition Conference" (Robert Denham); "The Reluctant Writer and Word Processing" (James…

  4. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1990. Articles in number 1 deal with student teachers and include: "Student Teaching: Smoothing Out the Rough Spots" (Susan B. Argyle and Fred C. Feitler); "A Partnership for Urban Student…

  5. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Attila; Charles, Ruth

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  6. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  7. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal Collectors: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Figueiredo; Cardoso, António; Alcaso, Adérito

    Solar energy can be converted directly into electric and thermal energy through photovoltaic cells and thermal collectors, respectively. However this conversion, in particular the photovoltaic, has a reduced efficiency. A solution proposed to increase this efficiency is with the hybrid solar structure, which consists in the junction of the photovoltaic panel and the thermal collector in a single module. The interest on these solar systems led the International Energy Agency to create a "Task" on this subject. This paper presents a review of the research in this area, presenting the definitions of the related collectors and results of their characteristics, as well as some ideas for future studies.

  8. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  9. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  10. A thermal comparison among several beverage can solar collectors.

    Treesearch

    Peter Y.S. Chen

    1984-01-01

    Four air-heated solar collectors were built using four different configurations of aluminum beverage cans. The collectors were then tested for four consecutive seasons for their daily efficiencies. One of the collectors was also evaluated for one season for the effect of air velocity on efficiency, temperature rise, and power consumption of the collector.

  11. Flat solar energy collector with low heat contact between absorber and edge of collector

    SciTech Connect

    Hussmann, E.

    1981-10-27

    The present invention relates to a flat, gas-tight solar energy collector having a novel absorber means consisting of an absorber plate and an edge connecting means attached thereto for connecting the absorber to the edge structure of the collector. No direct thermal contact exists between the edge of the absorber plate and the edge structure means. Thus, heat losses on the sides of the collector are kept to a minimum.

  12. 4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto Quarter R (commanding officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Texas State Highway 202, 4.8 miles east of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & U.S. State Highway 181, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  13. Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, Deven; Farr, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The parabolic trough is the most established CSP technology and carries a long history of design experimentation dating back to the 1970’s. This has led to relatively standardized collector architectures, a maturing global supply chain, and a fairly uniform cost reduction strategy. Abengoa has deployed more than 1,500MWe of CSP troughs across several countries and has built and tested full-scale prototypes of many R&D concepts. The latest trough R&D efforts involved efforts to internalize non-CSP industry experience including a preliminary DFMA principles review done with Boothroyd Dewhurst, a construction literature review by the Arizona State University School of Construction Management, and two more focused manufacturing engineering subcontracts done by Ricardo Inc. and the nonprofit Edison Welding Institute. The first two studies highlighted strong opportunities in lowering part count, standardizing components and fasteners, developing modular designs to support prefabrication and automation, and devising simple, error-proof manual assembly methods. These principles have delivered major new cost savings in otherwise “mature” products in analogous industries like automotive, truck trailer manufacture, metal building fabrication, and shipbuilding. For this reason, they were core in the design development of the SpaceTube® collector, and arguably key to its early successes. The latter two studies were applied specifically to the first-generation SpaceTube® design and were important in setting the direction of the present SolarMat project. These studies developed a methodology to analyze the costs of manufacture and assembly, and identify new tooling concepts for more efficient manufacture. Among the main opportunities identified in these studies were the automated mirror arm manufacturing concept and the need for a less infrastructure-intensive assembly line, both of which now form central pillars of the SolarMat project strategy. These new designs will be

  14. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Paticulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay Almlie

    2004-09-30

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task

  15. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  16. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  17. Concentrating solar collector-installation package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains general description of concentrating solar collector and tracking system kit, along with comprehensive drawings, instructions, and guidelines to assist in field assembly, installation, operation, and maintenance of system.

  18. The optimum flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, K.-E.

    The solar fluid heater problem is formulated as an unsteady, two-dimensional conduction problem. Simplified to a steady, one-dimensional problem provides a direct formulation far more flexible than the formulation hitherto in use, without any loss of generality. This flexibility is used to determine the geometry of optimum collectors, and to determine the performance of fan-shaped ones. An optimum collector would have a uniform effectiveness along the fluid path and, hence, effect a required fluid temperature rise with the least possible area. A fan-shaped collector of about the same geometrical proportions is shown to be nearly as effective as the corresponding optimum collector. The performance of either shape is determined for certain conditions. It shows that for this case a saving of some 6 to 13 percent could be obtained in comparison with the corresonding usual 'parallel-tube' design.

  19. Performance of a solar-thermal collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higa, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    Possible means of achieving the technology required for field application of solar thermal power systems are discussed. Simplifications in construction techniques as well as in measurement techniques for parabolic trough collectors are described. Actual measurement data is also given.

  20. Application of Fiber Optics and Compound Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantone, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of fiber optics and compound flux collectors as optical components in stellar photometers is discussed. Basic principles are outlined for such components and systems issues are addressed.

  1. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  2. Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, Torsten; Perske, Marco; Pauer, Hagen; Fiedler, Tobias; Yulin, Sergiy; Trost, Marcus; Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas; Böwering, Norbert R.; Ershov, Alex I.; Hoffmann, Kay; La Fontaine, Bruno; Cummings, Kevin D.

    2012-03-01

    The usable power and the collector optics lifetime of high-power extreme ultraviolet light sources at 13.5 nm are considered as the major challenges in the transitioning of EUV lithography from the current pre-production phase to high volume manufacturing. We give a detailed performance summary of the large ellipsoidal multilayer collector mirrors used in Cymer's laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet light sources. In this paper we present the optical performance - reflectance and wavelength - of the multilayer-coated ellipsoidal collectors as well as a novel approach for the roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics based on light scattering measurements at 442 nm. We also describe the optical performance and characteristics during operation of the light source and the substantial increase of collector lifetime by the implementation of new coating designs.

  3. Subsystem design package for Solar II collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for the design and performance of the Solar 2 Collector Subsystem developed for use in solar heating of single family residences and mobile homes are presented. Installation drawings are included.

  4. Inspecting a Canister and Sample Collector

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-20

    Investigators from University of Washington, Johnson Space Center, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, Denver, Colorado, inspect a canister and sample collector soon after opening a container with Stardust material in a laboratory at the JSC.

  5. A self-tractable solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulhadi, M.; Ghorayeb, F.

    2006-06-01

    An analytical experimental investigation into the thermal performance of a tubeless hemispherical (a spherical cap) solar collector for use in heating and cooling purposes is presented. The receiver plate surface temperature was estimated at the prevailing steady-state conditions from the energy balance equation on the absorber plate. From the experimental analytical investigation, the present collector was found to be much more efficient than a flat-plate collector. Fluid outlet temperatures over 95°C could be provided on mid clear shining sunny days. Remembering the easiness of building a complex of such a collector, it follows that plenty of residential and industrial implementations, mostly in heating and cooling refrigeration absorption cycles, could be undertaken.

  6. Qualification test and analysis report: Solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Test results show that the Owens-Illinois Sunpak TM Model SEC 601 air-cooled collector meets the national standards and codes as defined in the Subsystem Peformance Specification and Verification Plan of NASA/MSFC, dated October 28, 1976. The program calls for the development, fabrication, qualification and delivery of an air-cooled solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems.

  7. Installation package for air flat plate collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Solar 2 dimensions are four feet by eight feet by two and one half inches. The collector weighs 130 pounds and has an effective solar collection area of over 29.5 square feet. This area represents 95 percent of the total surface of the collector. The installation, operation and maintenance manual, safety hazard analysis, special handling instructions, materials list, installation concept drawings, warranty and certification statement are included in the installation package.

  8. Self-cleaning cabinet dust collector

    SciTech Connect

    Brenholt, D.L.; Risch, D.T.

    1984-04-17

    A compact, self-cleaning, cabinet, dust collector is provided. The collector housing is a single-piece, molded unit having recessed areas and a molded air inlet. Entering dust-laden air is directed into two flows in a passageway surrounding a suspended, flexible, pleated filter element. An inner wall of the passageway contains a precleaner upstream from the filter element. A collector ramp, at the bottom of the passageway, directs precleaned matter to a removable hopper. A fan, supported above the open upper end of the filter element draws air through the collector. A fan motor is isolated from the housing interior in one of the recessed areas of the housing. To gain access to the filter element the fan is rotated upwardly and away from the filter element. To prevent the pleats of the element from collapsing, hot-melt spacers are provided on the pleat surfaces. The element is flex-cleaned by a rotatable mechanism located beneath and adjacent the bottom closed end of the element. The mechanism causes a lifting and twisting of the element and includes an isolated motor, a rotatable arm with wiper blades, and ramp lugs on the bottom end of the filter element. The released dust is swept into the hopper by the wiper blades. A removable double-walled cover is secured over the fan. Filtered air is released from the collector through louvered openings in the cover. Transistor logic and various sensors are used to control the operation of the collector.

  9. Optimal nonimaging integrated evacuated solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, John D.; Duff, W. S.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Winston, Roland

    1993-11-01

    A non imaging integrated evacuated solar collector for solar thermal energy collection is discussed which has the lower portion of the tubular glass vacuum enveloped shaped and inside surface mirrored to optimally concentrate sunlight onto an absorber tube in the vacuum. This design uses vacuum to eliminate heat loss from the absorber surface by conduction and convection of air, soda lime glass for the vacuum envelope material to lower cost, optimal non imaging concentration integrated with the glass vacuum envelope to lower cost and improve solar energy collection, and a selective absorber for the absorbing surface which has high absorptance and low emittance to lower heat loss by radiation and improve energy collection efficiency. This leads to a very low heat loss collector with high optical collection efficiency, which can operate at temperatures up to the order of 250 degree(s)C with good efficiency while being lower in cost than current evacuated solar collectors. Cost estimates are presented which indicate a cost for this solar collector system which can be competitive with the cost of fossil fuel heat energy sources when the collector system is produced in sufficient volume. Non imaging concentration, which reduces cost while improving performance, and which allows efficient solar energy collection without tracking the sun, is a key element in this solar collector design.

  10. Wind loading on solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L. M.

    1985-06-01

    The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors were reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, were compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, were estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

  11. Single collector attachment efficiency of colloid capture by a cylindrical collector in laminar overland flow

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little research has been conducted to investigate fate and transport of colloids in surface vegetation in overland flow under unfavorable chemical conditions. In this work, single collector attachment efficiency (a) of colloid capture by a simulated plant stem (i.e. cylindrical collector) in laminar...

  12. Ceramic materials for solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankeny, A.E.

    1982-09-29

    The purpose of this project was to identify ceramic materials which exhibit solar absorption properties which are appropriate for flat plate solar collectors. To accomplish this, various glaze formulations and clay combinations were produced and evaluated for their potential as solar absorbers. For purposes of comparison a black coated copper sheet was also tested concurrently with the ceramic materials. Thirty-five different coatings were prepared on fifty-six tiles. Two different clays, a porcelain and a stoneware clay, were used to make the tiles. From the tiles prepared, thirty of the most promising coatings were chosen for evaluation. The test apparatus consisted of a wooden frame which enclosed four mini-collectors. Each mini-collector was a rectangular ceramic heat exchanger on which a test tile could be mounted. The working fluid, water, was circulated into the collector, passed under the test tile where it gained heat, and then was discharged out of the collector. Thermometers were installed in the inlet and discharge areas to indicate the temperature increase of the water. The quantity of heat absorbed was determined by measuring the water flow (pounds per minute) and multiplying it by the temperature increase (/sup 0/F). The control sample, a copper wheet painted flat black, provided a base by which to compare the performance of the test tiles installed in the other three mini-collectors. Testing was conducted on various days during August and September, 1982. The test results indicate that coatings with very satisfactory solar absorbing properties can be made with ceramic materials. The results suggest that an economically viable ceramic solar collector could be constructed if engineered to minimize the effects of relatively low thermal conductivity of clay.

  13. Step tracking program for concentrator solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, D.; Jaliu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The increasing living standards in developed countries lead to increased energy consumption. The fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas effect that accompany the energy production can be reduced by using renewable energy. For instance, the solar thermal systems can be used in temperate climates to provide heating during the transient period or cooling during the warmer months. Most used solar thermal systems contain flat plate solar collectors. In order to provide the necessary energy for the house cooling system, the cooling machine uses a working fluid with a high temperature, which can be supplied by dish concentrator collectors. These collectors are continuously rotated towards sun by biaxial tracking systems, process that increases the consumed power. An algorithm for a step tracking program to be used in the orientation of parabolic dish concentrator collectors is proposed in the paper to reduce the consumed power due to actuation. The algorithm is exemplified on a case study: a dish concentrator collector to be implemented in Brasov, Romania, a location with the turbidity factor TR equal to 3. The size of the system is imposed by the environment, the diameter of the dish reflector being of 3 meters. By applying the proposed algorithm, 60 sub-programs are obtained for the step orientation of the parabolic dish collector over the year. Based on the results of the numerical simulations for the step orientation, the efficiency of the direct solar radiation capture on the receptor is up to 99%, while the energy consumption is reduced by almost 80% compared to the continuous actuation of the concentrator solar collector.

  14. Anatomical Variation of Human Collector Channel Orifices

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Michael D.; Hann, Cheryl R.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the anatomical variation of normal human collector channel orifices and their relationship with Schlemm's canal. Methods Ten human anterior segments fixed by immersion or perfusion were dissected radially and further divided by fine dissection into corresponding inner and outer wall segments. The tissues were dehydrated, critical-point dried, sputter coated, and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Images were obtained at magnifications from ×200 to ×10,000. Selected radial collector channel regions were processed for plastic embedding. Results Two classes of collector channel orifices were identified. Simple oval orifices (54.7 ± 4.6–μm diameter) were lined with endothelial cells and most often occurred on a planar region of Schlemm's canal outer wall. Complex orifices (62.7 ± 3.4–μm diameter) were often found associated with septal columns and bridges, and typically covered with flap-like structures (10–40 μm) that extended between the inner and outer wall and over the collector channel orifices. Both simple and complex orifices had complete or partial lip-like rims. In orifices with partial rims, a trough-like groove was often visible on the outer wall surface opposite the lip. Transected septa and inner and outer wall adhesion sites were often found in association with complex collector channel orifices. Conclusions Collector channel orifice structure varied from simple ovals to complex tethered flaps and bridges. Collector channel orifices with complex flaps connect the inner and outer walls of Schlemm's canal, and may serve to enhance and regulate aqueous outflow in these regions. PMID:26975026

  15. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the last quarter of the Second Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1994, entitled {open_quotes}Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.{close_quotes} The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particulate control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size.

  16. Method of preparing electrodes with porous current collector structures and solid reactants for secondary electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1976-01-01

    Particulate electrode reactants, for instance transition metal sulfides for the positive electrodes and lithium alloys for the negative electrodes, are vibratorily compacted into porous, electrically conductive structures. Structures of high porosity support sufficient reactant material to provide high cell capacity per unit weight while serving as an electrical current collector to improve the utilization of reactant materials. Pore sizes of the structure and particle sizes of the reactant material are selected to permit uniform vibratory loading of the substrate without settling of the reactant material during cycling.

  17. Low cost anti-soiling coatings for CSP collector mirrors and heliostats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Barton Barton; Polyzos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A; Lee, Dominic F; Datskos, Panos G

    2014-01-01

    Most concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities in the USA are located in the desert southwest of the country where land and sunshine are abundant. But one of the significant maintenance problems and cost associated with operating CSP facilities in this region is the accumulation of dust, sand and other pollutants on the collector mirrors and heliostats. In this paper we describe the development of low cost, easy to apply anti-soiling coatings based on superhydrophobic (SH) functionalized nano silica materials and polymer binders that posses the key requirements necessary to inhibit particulate deposition on and sticking to CSP mirror surfaces, and thereby significantly reducing mirror cleaning costs and facility downtime.

  18. Are serum eosinophilic cationic protein levels of toll collectors affected by diesel exhaust exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Cahit; Arbak, Peri; Yavuz, Ozlem; Balbay, Ege Gulec; Balbay, Oner; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are few studies on the diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) / eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) level relationship. This study aimed to detect ECP levels in a highly DE exposed group, named as toll collectors. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, levels of serum ECP, rates of respiratory symptoms, mean levels of respiratory functions, smoking status, and variations in peak expiratory flow (PEF) during weekends and working days were compared for 68 toll collectors (TC) (range of age, 24-48 years) and 28 controls (range of age, 25-61 years). All subjects in the study group were men. Results: No significant difference was observed in terms of symptoms and smoking rates between the toll collectors and control group. The number of toll collectors [12/68 (17.7%) vs 1/28 (3.5%)] with diurnal PEF variability in the working period was higher than that of controls (p=0.058). Mean ECP level of toll collectors was higher than that of controls (32.8 vs 21.4 ng/L), but the difference was not significant. Mean ECP levels were higher in subjects experiencing diurnal PEF variability during work and off-work periods (34.9 vs 28.3 ng/L, p=0.410). Conclusions: Serial PEF measurements combined with serum ECP measurements did not add a new tool to detect the sensitivity of workers dealing with DE. Much more diesel exhaust exposed workers should be included to search for cheap and available methods when evaluating airway. PMID:27882015

  19. Solar collector testing in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, W. B.; Moon, J. E.; Aranovitch, E.

    Recent work by the Commission of the European Communities Solar Collector Testing Group at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, is reviewed. Five test methods for liquid-heating collectors are described. Data scatter in the results of round-robin outdoor thermal-performance tests (performed at each Group-member laboratory) is analyzed in terms of environmental effects not accounted for in the linear performance model, calibration and precision differences, and real differences due to manufacturing variations. Comparative data on solar-irradiance-pyranometer calibration is presented. Solar-simulator test devices are reported to provide reproducible measurements which accord with outdoor results. Preliminary findings of studies of collector durability, including inspection reports, natural aging observations, development of qualification criteria (high-temperature stagnation, rain/wind penetration, absorber internal pressure, and external thermal shock), and round-robin solar-absorptance and thermal-emittance measurements, are presented. Future work will be directed to the testing of air collectors, installed domestic hot-water systems, and high-perormance evacuated-tube collectors.

  20. Test results: SEGS LS-2 solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Vernon E.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Mahoney, A. Roderick; Mancini, Thomas R.; Matthews, Chauncey W.; Sloan, Michael; Kearney, David

    1994-12-01

    A SEGS LS-2 parabolic trough solar collector was tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with two types of receiver selective coatings, combined with three different receiver configurations: glass envelope with either vacuum or air in the receiver annulus, and glass envelope removed from the receiver. As expected, collector performance was significantly affected by each variation in receiver configuration. Performance decreased when the cermet selective coating was changed to a black chrome coating, and progressively degraded as air was introduced into the vacuum annulus, and again when the glass envelope was removed from the receiver. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. For the bare receiver (no glass envelope) efficiency and thermal losses are shown as a function of wind speed. An incident angle modifier equation was also developed for each receiver case. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature. Results from the experiments were compared with predictions from a one-dimensional analytical model of the solar receiver. Differences between the model and experiment were generally within the band of experimental uncertainty.

  1. Heat Pumps With Direct Expansion Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Sadasuke

    In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough. The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer. For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

  2. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  3. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1994-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  4. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  5. Recent progress in terrestrial photovoltaic collector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Photovoltaic Research and Development Program has the objective to develop the technology necessary to foster widespread grid-competitive electric power generation by the late 1980s. The flat-plate and the concentrator collector activities form the nucleus of the program. The project is concerned with the refining of silicon, silicon sheet production, solar cell processing and fabrication, encapsulation materials development, and collector design and production. The Large-Area Silicon Sheet Task has the objective to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of several methods for producing large area silicon sheet material suitable for fabricating low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. It is expected that a variety of economic flat-plate and concentrator collectors will become commercially available for grid-connected applications.

  6. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  7. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  8. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  9. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  10. Economic analysis based on land costs of collector spacing in a collector field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. O.

    1981-10-01

    Three collector fluid outlet average field temperatures were used: 200, 250, and 300 C. Land cost varied from $0.54/sq m to $215.20/sq m. and collector costs from $53.80/sq. m to $322.80/sq. m FOB factory. Costs of fees, controls, foundations, etc, are considered as separate items which are added to the land and collector costs to obtain the total cost of the systems. These studies were normalized to a 5,000,000 Btu/day requirement. Thus, the life-cycle costs of the various configurations are, in essence, the cost of energy.

  11. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes summaries of analyses performed on particulate samples from Sierra Pacific Power Company's Pinon Pine Power Project. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, and plans for enhancing the data bank with interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  12. Tracking booster and multiple mirror concentrator floating collector

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, C.

    1981-10-27

    A water-borne tracking solar energy collecting and converting system employing booster and multiple mirror concentrator collectors for concentrating sunlight on either photovoltaic cells and/or flat plate collectors.

  13. A comparison of three different collectors for process heat applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brunold, S.; Frey, R.; Frei, U.

    1994-12-31

    In general vacuum tube collectors are used in solar process heat systems. Another possibility is to use transparent insulated flat plate collectors. A critical point however, is that most of the common transparent insulating materials can not withstand high temperatures because they consist of plastics. Thus, temperature resistive collector covers combining a high transmissivity with a low U-value are required. One possibility is to use capillaries made of glass instead of plastics. Measurement results of collector efficiency and incident angle modifier will be presented as well as calculated energy gains for three different collectors: a vacuum tube collector (Giordano Ind., France), a CPC vacuum tube collector (microtherm Energietechnik, Germany) and a new flat plate collector using glass capillary as transparent insulation (SET, Germany).

  14. Comparison of three different collectors for process heat applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunold, Stefan; Frey, R.; Frei, Ulrich

    1994-09-01

    In general vacuum tube collectors are used in solar process heat systems. Another possibility is to use transparent insulated flat plate collectors. A critical point however, is that most of the common transparent insulating materials can not withstand high temperatures because they consist of plastics. Thus, temperature resistive collector covers combining a high tranmisivity with a low U-value are required. One possibility is to use capillaries made of glass instead of plastics. Measurement results of collector efficiency and incident angle modifier will be presented as well as calculated energy gains for three different collectors: a vacuum tube collector (Giordano Ind., France), a CPC vacuum tube collector (microtherm Energietechnik Germany; a new flat plate collector using glass capillary as transparent insulation (SET, Germany).

  15. Indoor thermal performance evaluation of Daystar solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K., Sr.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used and results obtained from a test program to obtain thermal performance data on a Daystar Model 21B, S/N 02210, Unit 2, liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are described. The test article is a flat plate solar collector using liquid as a heat transfer medium. The absorber plate is copper and coated with black paint. Between the tempered low iron glass and absorber plate is a polycarbonate trap used to suppress convective heat loss. The collector incorporates a convector heat dump panel to limit temperature excursions during stagnation. The following tests were conducted: (1) collector thermal efficiency; (2) collector time constant; (3) collector incident angle modifier; (4) collector heat loss coefficient; and (5) collector stagnation.

  16. Two-axis movable concentrating solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed solar-tracker collector assembly with boiler in fixed position, allows use of hard line connections, capable of withstanding optimum high temperature fluid flow. System thereby eliminates need for flexible or slip connection previously used with solar collector systems.

  17. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  18. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  19. Pitch based foam with particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  20. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  1. Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Newburn, J. D.

    1985-04-01

    A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4 x 8 collectors in a typical house.

  2. Circumferentially-segmented collector usable with a TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, II, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A TWT collector has axially-positioned collector stages in which at least one of the stages includes a plurality of annularly-arranged stage segments. The collector enhances electron beam velocity sorting by facilitating a combination of (a) selecting axial electric field distributions with application of selected voltages to the axially-positioned collector stages and (b) selecting radial electric field distributions with application of selected voltages to the annularly-arranged stage segments.

  3. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  4. Particulate matter fugitive dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in this conference include: Review of EPA's cost/benefit analysis for additional regulation of surface coal mines; Particulate monitoring on the Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii, and The MEDUSA sampling system: case histories in the measurement of particulate matter with wide spectrum analysis.

  5. Particulate fracture during deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, J.; Martin, A.; Ruiz, J.; Elices, M.

    1993-07-01

    The mechanisms of deformation and failure in a 2618 Al alloy reinforced with 15 vol pct SiC particilates were studied and compared with those of the unreinforced alloy, processed by spray forming as well. Tensile and fracture toughness tests were carried out on naturally aged and peak-aged specimens. The broken specimens were sliced through the middle, and the geometric features of fractured and intact particulates were measured. The experimental observations led to the conclusion that failure took place by the progressive fracture of the particulates until a critical volume fraction was reached. An influence of the particulate size and aspect ratio on the probability of fracture was found, the large and elongated particulates being more prone to fail, and the fracture stress in the particulates seemed to obey the Weibull statistics. The dif- ferences in ductility found between the naturally aged and peak-aged composites were explained in terms of the number of broken particulates as a function of the applied strain. Numerical simulations of the deformation process indicated that the stresses acting on the particulates are higher in the peak-aged material, precipitating the specimen failure. Moreover, the compressive residual stresses induced on the SiC during water quenching delayed the onset of particulate breakage in the naturally aged material.

  6. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-01-16

    An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  7. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1983-07-12

    The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  8. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  11. Indoor thermal performance evaluation of the SEPCO air collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solaron solar air collector, model EF-212, under simulated conditions for comparison with data collected in outdoor tests on the same collector are given. The test article was a single glazed collector with a nonsensitive absorber plate, aluminum box frame, and one inch isocyanurate foam insulation.

  12. Development, testing, and certification of life sciences engineering solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudle, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for the development of an air flat plate collector for use with solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and hot water systems. The contract was for final development, testing, and certification of the collector, and for delivery of a 320 square feet collector panel.

  13. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction...

  16. 7 CFR 58.221 - Collectors and conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collectors and conveyors. 58.221 Section 58.221....221 Collectors and conveyors. Collectors shall be made of stainless steel or equally noncorrosive... for cleaning and inspection. Conveyors shall be of stainless steel or equally corrosion...

  17. 7 CFR 58.221 - Collectors and conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collectors and conveyors. 58.221 Section 58.221....221 Collectors and conveyors. Collectors shall be made of stainless steel or equally noncorrosive... for cleaning and inspection. Conveyors shall be of stainless steel or equally corrosion...

  18. Hybrid thermoelectric solar collector design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Shaheen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    A flat-plate solar collector is conceived where energy cascades through thermoelectric power modules generating direct-current electricity. The intent of this work was to choose a collector configuration and to perform a steady-state thermal performance assessment. A set of energy balance equations were written and solved numerically for the purpose of optimizing collector thermal and electrical performance. The collector design involves finned columns of thermoelectric modules imbedded in the absorber plate (hot junction) over a parallel array of vertical tubes. The thermoelectric power output is limited by the small hot-junction/cold-junction temperature difference which can be maintained under steady-state conditions. The electric power per unit tube pass area is found to have a maximum as a function of a geometric parameter, while electric power is maximized with respect to an electric resistance ratio. Although the electric power efficiency is small, results indicate that there is sufficient electric power production to drive a coolant circulator, suggesting the potential for a stand-alone system.

  19. Performance evaluation of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Indoor tests on signal-glazed flat-plate collector are described in report. Marhsall Space Flight Center solar simulator is used to make tests. Test included evaluations on thermal performance under various combinations of flow rate, incident flux, inlet temperature, and wind speed. Results are presented in graph/table form.

  20. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  1. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  2. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  3. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  4. Performance evaluation of a liquid solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes thermal performance and structural-load tests on commercial single glazed flat-plate solar collector with gross area of 63.5 sq ft that uses water as heat-transfer medium. Report documents test instrumentation and procedures and presents data as tables and graphs. Results are analyzed by standard data-reduction methods.

  5. Hybrid thermoelectric solar collector design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Shaheen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    A flat-plate solar collector is conceived where energy cascades through thermoelectric power modules generating direct-current electricity. The intent of this work was to choose a collector configuration and to perform a steady-state thermal performance assessment. A set of energy balance equations were written and solved numerically for the purpose of optimizing collector thermal and electrical performance. The collector design involves finned columns of thermoelectric modules imbedded in the absorber plate (hot junction) over a parallel array of vertical tubes. The thermoelectric power output is limited by the small hot-junction/cold-junction temperature difference which can be maintained under steady-state conditions. The electric power per unit tube pass area is found to have a maximum as a function of a geometric parameter, while electric power is maximized with respect to an electric resistance ratio. Although the electric power efficiency is small, results indicate that there is sufficient electric power production to drive a coolant circulator, suggesting the potential for a stand-alone system.

  6. Thermionic converter performance with oxide collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieb, D.; Goodale, D.; Briere, T.; Balestra, C.

    1977-01-01

    Thermionic converters using a variety of metal oxide collector surfaces have been fabricated and tested. Both work function and power output data are presented and evaluated. Oxides of barium, strontium, zinc, tungsten and titanium have been incorporated into a variable spacing converter. Tungsten oxide was found to give the highest converter performance and to furnish oxygen for the emitter at the same time. Oxygenated emitters operate at reduced cesium pressure with an increase in electrode spacing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) performed on several tungsten oxide collectors showed cesium penetration of the oxide layer, possibly forming a cesium tungstate bronze. Titanium oxide showed high performance but did not furnish oxygen for the emitter; strontium oxide, in the form of a sprayed layer, appeared to dissociate in the presence of cesium. Sprayed coatings of barium and zinc oxides produced collector work functions of about 1.3 eV, but had excessive series resistance. Lanthanum hexaboride, in combination with oxygen introduced through a silver tube, and cesium produced a low work function collector and better than average performance.

  7. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

  8. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

  9. Thermionic converter performance with oxide collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieb, D.; Goodale, D.; Briere, T.; Balestra, C.

    1977-01-01

    Thermionic converters using a variety of metal oxide collector surfaces have been fabricated and tested. Both work function and power output data are presented and evaluated. Oxides of barium, strontium, zinc, tungsten and titanium have been incorporated into a variable spacing converter. Tungsten oxide was found to give the highest converter performance and to furnish oxygen for the emitter at the same time. Oxygenated emitters operate at reduced cesium pressure with an increase in electrode spacing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) performed on several tungsten oxide collectors showed cesium penetration of the oxide layer, possibly forming a cesium tungstate bronze. Titanium oxide showed high performance but did not furnish oxygen for the emitter; strontium oxide, in the form of a sprayed layer, appeared to dissociate in the presence of cesium. Sprayed coatings of barium and zinc oxides produced collector work functions of about 1.3 eV, but had excessive series resistance. Lanthanum hexaboride, in combination with oxygen introduced through a silver tube, and cesium produced a low work function collector and better than average performance.

  10. Supplemental Grounding of Extended EMP Collectors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-31

    58 27. Calculated current response of 0.05 m internal collector for three different shielding conditions ................. 60 28. Calculated...grounds ...... 82 43. Impedance of ground rod and three auxiliary grounds ..... 83 -44. Impedance of ground rod and four auxiliary grounds ..... 83 45...55. Single ground rod model........................98 * 56. Two parallel rod model ......................... 98 - 57. Three parallel rod model

  11. A test program for solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Rigorous environmental and performance tests qualify solar collector for use in residential solar-energy systems. Testing over 7 month period examined pressurized effects, wind and snow loading, hail damage, solar and thermal degradation, effects of pollutants, efficiency, and outgassing. Test procedures and results are summarized in tables, graphs, and text.

  12. Cristoforetti in Crew quarters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-06

    iss042e023422 (12/6/14) --- Expedition 42 Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (ESA) on 6 December 2014 is seen inside of a sleeping bag in her personal crew quarters on the International Space Station. Astronauts will strap the bag to the wall to prevent from free floating and potentially bumping into equipment while sleeping.

  13. Coleman in sleeping quarters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-25

    ISS026-E-012158 (25 Dec. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, and one of six crew members currently aboard the International Space Station, peeks out of her sleeping quarters on Christmas morning to view the station’s decorations and gifts.

  14. Gifted Education Quarterly, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These four issues of "Gifted Education Quarterly" include the following articles: (1) "Using Test Results To Support Clinical Judgment" (Linda Kreger Silverman), which discusses some of the difficulties in obtaining accurate indications of a child's level of giftedness and the importance of using professional judgment in…

  15. English Leadership Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 17, published during 1995. Articles in number 1 deal with multicultural and multiethnic literature, and are, as follows: "Guidelines for Selecting European Ethnic Literature for Interdisciplinary Courses" (Sandra Stotsky); "Striving for Kinship within Diverse Communities" (Peter…

  16. Trustee Quarterly, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sally, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" focus on current topics affecting community college trustees. Issue 1 focuses on the learning revolution and serves as a guide for community college trustees. It offers the following feature articles by Terry O'Banion: "Education Reform: Two Waves,""The Second Wave and the Community…

  17. English Leadership Quarterly, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.; Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 16, published during 1994. Articles in number 1 deal with practical advice, and include: "The Law of Privacy and the Writing Teacher" (Ben T. Allen); Beware of Teachers Who Laminate Their Lesson Plans and Other Useful Suggestions about Teaching" (Robert Perrin);…

  18. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…

  19. Trustee Quarterly, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" combined here focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1994 issues offers these feature articles: "Honoring Retiring Presidents," by Terry O'Banion; "Trustees as Reluctant Leaders: The Board/CEO Relationship," Norma Jean Germond, John Keyser, and Vaughn A. Sherman; and…

  20. Trustee Quarterly, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" combined here focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1994 issues offers these feature articles: "Honoring Retiring Presidents," by Terry O'Banion; "Trustees as Reluctant Leaders: The Board/CEO Relationship," Norma Jean Germond, John Keyser, and Vaughn A. Sherman; and…

  1. English Leadership Quarterly, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1992. Articles in number 1 deal with testing assessing, and measuring student performance, and include: "Real Evaluation: Portfolios as an Effective Alternative to Standardized Testing" (Kate Kiefer); "No More Objective Tests, Ever" (Carol…

  2. Trustee Quarterly, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" contained in this document focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1992 issue offers articles on the trustee's role in politics, community colleges as community catalysts, Lewis and Clark Community College's (Illinois) strategic planning process, staff development…

  3. Trustee Quarterly, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" contained in this document focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1993 issue offers articles on the prospects for educational reform under the Clinton administration and the current Congress, strategies for obtaining needed resources from the state legislature, and the…

  4. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  5. The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huabin; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min; Wu, Yusheng

    2016-04-01

    An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed by Peking University based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98 %) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5 %). An inter-comparison between the GAC-IC system and the filter-pack method was performed and the results indicated that the GAC-IC system could supply reliable particulate sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and ammonium data in field measurement with a much wider range of ambient concentrations. From 2008 to 2015, dozens of big field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) were executed in different parts of China, the GAC-IC system took the chance having its field measurement performance checked repeatedly and provided high quality data in ambient conditions either under high loadings of pollutants or background area. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer, the HONO analyzer, a filter sampler, Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), etc. over a wide range of concentrations and proved particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation. During these years of applications of GAC-IC in those field campaigns, we found some problems of several instruments running under field environment and some interesting results could also be drew from the large amount of data measured in near 20 provinces of China. Detail results will be demonstrated on the poster afterwards.

  6. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, steel collector with one transparent cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are presented of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency was correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  7. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  8. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: An evacuated flatplate copper collector with a serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  9. Thermal performance of honeywell double covered liquid solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures and results obtained during an evaluation test program to determine the outdoor performance characteristics of the Honeywell liquid solar collector are presented. The program was based on the thermal evaluation of a Honeywell double covered liquid solar collection. Initial plans included the simultaneous testing of a single covered Honeywell collector. During the initial testing, the single covered collector failed due to leakage; thus, testing continued on the double covered collector only. To better define the operating characteristics of the collector, several additional data points were obtained beyond those requested.

  10. Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse insolation, outdoor data recorded on 'cloudy' days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

  11. Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse isolation, outdoor data recorded on cloud days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

  12. Outdoor performance results for NBS Round Robin collector no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of a PPG flat-plate solar collector was evaluated utilizing an outdoor solar collector test facility at the NASA-Lewis Research Center, as part of the National Bureau of Standards 'round robin' collector test program. The correlation equation for collector thermal efficiency Eta curve fit of the data was: Eta = 0.666 - 1.003(Btu/hr-sq ft-F) Theta, where the parameter Theta is the difference between the average fluid temperature and the ambient temperature, all divided by the total flux impinging on the collector.

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  14. Improvement of flat plate collectors for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, H.; Hallermayer, R.; Schoelkopf, W.; Sizman, R.

    1984-03-01

    Selective absorption for thermal conversion of radiative energy was investigated. Improvement and operation of various measuring devices for absorption and emission are presented. Selective coatings were produced by vapor deposition and galvanic treatment. Calculations of the transmittance of turbular collector fields are presented. Operational Characteristics of Collector were examined. A collector test field with simultaneous recording of data from 24 collectors or uncovered absorbers was built and connected to a high performance microprocessor system. The transient behavior of collectors by variation of the irradiation and the collector inlet temperature were investigated. A mechanism for stratification of hot water of fluctuating inlet temperature in a storage tank was studied. The operating conditions of a heat pump installed in the collector test plant are investigated. A large domestic hot water system is equipped with temperature sensors and flowmeters for computer recording.

  15. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies.

  16. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    A flexible whip suspended in a hopper is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  17. Close Quarters Combat Shooting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    1994.at the Palm Beach Community College Criminal Justice Institute ofLakeworth, Florida to the more dynamic force-on-force, realistic scenario...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC...Shooting is the Superior Method for Close Quarters Combat 5b. GRANT NUMBER Shooting" N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR( S ) Sd. PROJECT

  18. Empty Quarter, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the northeast end of the Saudi Arabian desert called the Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) (21.0N, 53.0E) is the great sand dune field known as the Ash Shaiba. Here, the dunes reach great heights and are held at the maximum angle of repose by the wind. Any disturbance of the base will cause a great cascade of sand burying an intruder like a great wave. The dunes are of a classic style known as 'Barcans'.

  19. A Self-Biasing Pulsed Depressed Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jensen, Aaron; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2014-05-29

    Depressed collectors have been utilized successfully for many years to improve the electrical efficiency of vacuum electron devices. Increasingly, pulsed, high-peak power accelerator applications are placing a premium on electrical efficiency. As RF systems are responsible for a large percentage of the overall energy usage at accelerator laboratories, methods to improve upon the state-of-the-art in pulsed high-power sources are desired. This paper presents a technique for self-biasing the stages in a multistage depressed collector. With this technique, the energy lost during the rise and fall times of the pulse can be recovered, separate power supplies are not needed, and existing modulators can be retrofitted. Calculations show that significant cost savings can be realized with the implementation of this device in high-power systems. In this paper, the technique is described along with experimental demonstration. (auth)

  20. High performance flat plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  1. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  2. Improved Collectors for High Power Gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Singh, Amarjit; Read, Michael; Borchard, Phillipp; Neilson, Jeff

    2009-05-20

    High power gyrotrons are used for electron cyclotron heating, current drive and parasitic mode suppression in tokamaks for fusion energy research. These devices are crucial for successful operation of many research programs around the world, including the ITER program currently being constructed in France. Recent gyrotron failures resulted from cyclic fatigue of the copper material used to fabricated the collectors. The techniques used to collect the spent beam power is common in many gyrotrons produced around the world. There is serious concern that these tubes may also be at risk from cyclic fatigue. This program addresses the cause of the collector failure. The Phase I program successfully demonstrated feasibility of a mode of operation that eliminates the cyclic operation that caused the failure. It also demonstrated that new material can provide increased lifetime under cyclic operation that could increase the lifetime by more than on order of magnitude. The Phase II program will complete that research and develop a collector that eliminates the fatigue failures. Such a design would find application around the world.

  3. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  4. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  5. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid-based Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, M.; Raisee, M.; Delfani, S.

    2014-08-01

    Solar thermal collectors are applicable in the water heating or space conditioning systems. Due to the low efficiency of the conventional collectors, some suggestions have been presented for improvement in the collector efficiency. Adding nanoparticles to the working fluid in direct absorption solar collector, which has been recently proposed, leads to improvement in the working fluid thermal and optical properties such as thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient. This results certainly in collector efficiency enhancement. In this paper, the radiative transfer and energy equations are numerically solved. Due to laminar and fully developed flow in the collector, the velocity profile is assumed to be parabolic. As can be observed from the results, outlet temperature of collector is lower than that obtained using uniform velocity profile. Furthermore, a suspension of carbon nanohorns in the water is used as the working fluid in the model and its effect on the collector efficiency is investigated. It was found that the presence of carbon nanohorns increases the collector efficiency by about 17% compared to a conventional flat-plate collector. In comparison with the mixture of water and aluminium nanoparticles, a quite similar efficiency is obtained using very lower concentration of carbon nanohorns in the water.

  7. The Effect of Collector Motion on Particle Capture Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, J. D.; Gao, D.

    2016-02-01

    Particle capture is central to many fundamental processes in aquatic systems including suspension feeding and submarine pollination. Our current model of understanding and predicting particle capture efficiencies (η) is through the application of rigid cylindrical collectors over a limited range of collector Reynolds number (Rec), which does capture the full range of environmentally relevant flows or collector behaviors. Recent computational modelling efforts have advanced this model by examining the effect of collector motion on particle capture. Specifically, the models have predicted a difference in particle capture efficiencies between longitudinal motions of collectors caused by unsteady flow and transverse motions of collectors due to vortex shedding. This study examined the effects of collector motion in the transverse and longitudinal direction on capture efficiency using a cylindrical model in the lab and a wind-pollination grass (Phleum pratense) in the field. Results from the both experiments indicated that movement increased particle/pollen capture efficiency and distribution, especially at low Rec. This effect was greatest for transversely moving collectors with large magnitudes of motion, which encountered more particles with higher relative momentum. Results provided helpful insight into controversies in the literature. Importantly, it showed that collector motion can lead to different particle capture efficiencies than those predicted by the standard (rigid) model indicating that collector motion should be considered when examining the aforementioned processes.

  8. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulate bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the twelfth quarter, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1993-12-31

    Two modes of collector addition techniques including gasified collector transported in gas phase and direct collector addition techniques were applied in the column flotation to demonstrate the selectivity of utilizing the hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubbles in the fine coal flotation process. A 3-in. flotation column was used to evaluate two modes of collector dispersion and addition techniques on the recovery and grade of fine coals using various ranks of coal. Five different coal samples were used in the column flotation test program. They are Mammoth, Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Illinois No. 6 seam coals, which correspond to anthracite-, low volatile-, medium volatile-, and high volatile-seam coals, respectively. In this quarterly report, the test results for the Upper Freeport seam coal and Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal are reported.

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  10. Effect of dividing daylight in symmetric prismatic daylight collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lu, Ju-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Chin

    2017-04-01

    This paper presented a symmetric prismatic daylight collector to collect daylight for the natural light illumination system. We analyzed the characteristics of the emerging light when the parallel light beam illuminate on the horizontally placed symmetric prismatic daylight collector. The ratio of the relative intensities of collected daylight that emerging from each surface of the daylight collector shown that the ratio is varied with the incident angle during a day. The simulation of the emerging light of the daylight collector shown that the ratio of emerging light is varied with the tilted angle when sunshine illuminated on a symmetric prismatic daylight collector which was not placed horizontally. The integration of normalized intensity is also varied with the tilted angle. The symmetric prismatic daylight collector with the benefits of reducing glare and dividing intensity of incident daylight, it is applicable to using in the natural light illumination system and hybrid system for improving the efficiency of utilizing of solar energy.

  11. Increasing thermal efficiency of solar flat plate collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pona, J.

    A study of methods to increase the efficiency of heat transfer in flat plate solar collectors is presented. In order to increase the heat transfer from the absorber plate to the working fluid inside the tubes, turbulent flow was induced by installing baffles within the tubes. The installation of the baffles resulted in a 7 to 12% increase in collector efficiency. Experiments were run on both 1 sq ft and 2 sq ft collectors each fitted with either slotted baffles or tubular baffles. A computer program was run comparing the baffled collector to the standard collector. The results obtained from the computer show that the baffled collectors have a 2.7% increase in life cycle cost (LCC) savings and a 3.6% increase in net cash flow for use in domestic hot water systems, and even greater increases when used in solar heating systems.

  12. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Ballheim, R. W.; Bartley, S. M.; Smith, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A two phase program encompassing the redesign and fabrication of a solar collector which is low in cost and aesthetically appealing is described. Phase one work reviewed the current collector design and developed a low-cost design based on specific design/performance/cost requirements. Throughout this phase selected collector component materials were evaluated by testing and by considering cost, installation, maintainability and durability. The resultant collector design was composed of an absorber plate, insulation, frame, cover, desiccant and sealant. In Phase two, three collector prototypes were fabricated and evaluated for both nonthermal and thermal characteristics. Tests included static load tests of covers, burst pressure tests of absorber plates, and tests for optical characteristics of selective absorber plate coatings. The three prototype collectors were shipped to Marshall Space Flight Center for use in their solar heating and cooling test facility.

  13. Department of Defense Quarterly Suicide Report, Calendar Year 2015 Third Quarter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Quarter 3, 2015 0 Department of Defense Quarterly Suicide Report Calendar Year 2015 3rd Quarter Defense Suicide Prevention...Office (DSPO) Keita Franklin, Ph.D. Director, DSPO Quarter 3, 2015 1 Department of Defense Quarterly Suicide Report Calendar Year 2015...Third Quarter Introduction Timely and accurate suicide data reporting allows leaders at all levels to have near real time

  14. Evaluation of a Line-Concentrating Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    45-page report contains results of performance evaluation of line-concentrating solar collector. Collector employs parabolic trough to direct Sunlight to line along its focal axis, along which lies a black-chrome plated receiver tube covered by a glass tube containing still air. Reflective trough has aluminum-mirror surface covered with metallized acrylic film. Array of four collectors, positioned end to end was used for evaluation. Array was driven by single drive mechanism which was controlled by electronic tracking device.

  15. Liquid photovoltaic/thermal collectors for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, S. D.; Raghuraman, P.; Cox, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    A second-generation, liquid photovoltaic/thermal collector has been designed and is currently under fabrication. Results of computer simulations indicate that the collector unit, which incorporates novel cell and framing concepts, yields significnatly improved performance results over earlier units tested. Predicted performance values of 55% thermal efficiency and 11% electrical efficiency make the performance and this collector competitive with its single-function solar thermal and photovoltaic counterparts.

  16. Development of low-cost integrated zeolite collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernev, D. I.

    1981-07-01

    The optimum zeolite loading and the best zeolite for this purpose were determined by careful mathematical analysis, followed by experimental test, to confirm the theoretical results. The integrated collector design was then completed and the collector was constructed. After sealing and vacuum testing the zeolite panels and heat exchanges, the collector was coated with flat black paint and provided with double glazing, aluminum frame and insulation. Preliminary testing indicates close agreement with theoretical predictions of its performance.

  17. Directory of S. R. C. C. certified solar collector ratings. Supplement to Spring 1983 edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This directory is divided into four sections representing the four main generic categories of collector panels currently certified and rated by SRCC. These four categories are: (1) Unglazed flat-plate liquid-type solar collectors: (2) Glazed flat-plate liquid-type solar collectors; (3) Air-type collectors; and (4) Linear tracking concentrator solar collectors.

  18. Investigation of the influence of the zeta-potential on the filtration rate in the presence of collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provirnina, E. V.; Barbin, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    The value of the zeta-potential does not have an explicit effect, which is expressed by a simple math correlation, on filtration rate when a solution of the tested collector is filtered through a cake prepared under standard conditions from the examined particulate material. The zeta-potential measurements and filtration tests were carried out on silica and galena with solutions contg. a cationic container ANP and Et xanthane, resp. at PH = 6.5, varying concentration of the agent (0-2500 g/ton), and under a vacuum of 100 to 600 mm Hg.

  19. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, fourth quarter 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the normally planned semiannual maintenance and testing program, initiated September 12, 1980. Operational testing began on November 7. Maximum power was achieved November 28 and was maintained throughout the remainder of the quarter except as noted. The LWBR Core has generated 19,046.07 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. During this quarter, approximately 0.000025 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. During the fourth quarter of 1980, 1081 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. These shipments contained 0.037 curies of radioactivity.

  20. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, Thomas N.; Karplus, Henry B.

    1985-01-01

    Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

  1. MSFC Assessment of Owens-Illinois SUNPAK Collector Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenmaier, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    An in-depth assessment is presented of problems encountered with the Owens-Illinois SUNPAK collector installed in several ERDA solar system demonstration sites. Analysis and independent tests of the collector in the MSFC Solar Simulator where the system failure conditions were duplicated are included. The basic design of the SUNPAK collector was shown to be sound; however, material limitations dictate that near-term applications constraints be recognized by system designers. MSFC recommendations were presented to ERDA in March 1977. Subsequent retrofit activity by Owens-Illinois appears to have been effective in demonstrating the integrity of the SUNPAK collector.

  2. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  3. Solar system employing ground level heliostats and solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, F.A.; Northrup, L.L.

    1981-07-07

    This specification discloses an improvement in a solar system having one or more collectors for receiving and using radiant energy from the sun and at least one and preferably a plurality of respective reflector means for reflecting the radiant energy onto the collectors. The improvement is characterized by having towerless collectors and towerless reflectors that are disposed at ground level or substantially the same level, to eliminate the major expense of a collector tower, which is inefficient and nonfunctional in a solar system. Also disclosed is a complete system, or combination, for generating power employing solar energy and the improvement delineated above; as well as structural details of preferred arrangements and equipment.

  4. Design and performance of multi-purpose vacuum solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balotaki, H. Kavoosi; Saidi, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    Design and fabrication of solar collectors with high performance of energy efficiency to convert solar energy to utility energy is vitally important. This article reports the results obtained from design, construction and investigation of the performance of a Combined Multi-Purpose Vacuum Solar Collector (CMPVSC). This collector consists of three sections: the vacuum section, the liquid section and the air section. In the present collector, it is capable of transferring heat to two flows (liquid and air) simultaneously and separate with the possibility of multipurpose applications. The CMPVSC is compared with the existing individual collectors and the effects of different parameters on the efficiency of this collector are examined. Experimental data indicate that high temperature and high performance with a 43% reduction in cost can be obtained using CMPVSC compared to two individual collectors. To increase the efficiency of the collector, triangular and rectangular channels in the air section have been used. The vacuum part is implemented to reduce heat losses. The effect of water inlet temperature, air flow rate, shape of air channel and vacuum part on the heat delivery by air and water have been investigated. Furthermore, as a matter of comparison of CMPVSC with the individual collector, there is a chance of obtaining highest temperature and efficiency with minimum cost and space requirements.

  5. High Performance Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collector Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rockenbaugh, Caleb; Dean, Jesse; Lovullo, David; Lisell, Lars; Barker, Greg; Hanckock, Ed; Norton, Paul

    2016-09-01

    This report was prepared for the General Services Administration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Honeycomb Solar Thermal Collector (HSTC) is a flat plate solar thermal collector that shows promising high efficiencies over a wide range of climate zones. The technical objectives of this study are to: 1) verify collector performance, 2) compare that performance to other market-available collectors, 3) verify overheat protection, and 4) analyze the economic performance of the HSTC both at the demonstration sites and across a matrix of climate zones and utility markets.

  6. Design and performance of multi-purpose vacuum solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balotaki, H. Kavoosi; Saidi, M. H.

    2017-09-01

    Design and fabrication of solar collectors with high performance of energy efficiency to convert solar energy to utility energy is vitally important. This article reports the results obtained from design, construction and investigation of the performance of a Combined Multi-Purpose Vacuum Solar Collector (CMPVSC). This collector consists of three sections: the vacuum section, the liquid section and the air section. In the present collector, it is capable of transferring heat to two flows (liquid and air) simultaneously and separate with the possibility of multipurpose applications. The CMPVSC is compared with the existing individual collectors and the effects of different parameters on the efficiency of this collector are examined. Experimental data indicate that high temperature and high performance with a 43% reduction in cost can be obtained using CMPVSC compared to two individual collectors. To increase the efficiency of the collector, triangular and rectangular channels in the air section have been used. The vacuum part is implemented to reduce heat losses. The effect of water inlet temperature, air flow rate, shape of air channel and vacuum part on the heat delivery by air and water have been investigated. Furthermore, as a matter of comparison of CMPVSC with the individual collector, there is a chance of obtaining highest temperature and efficiency with minimum cost and space requirements.

  7. Performance test procedures for thermal collectors - Outdoor testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, W. B.

    A review of outdoor solar collector test methods is presented, based largely on the CEC Recommendations for European Solar Collector Test Methods. Test facility design and instrumentation are discussed, with reference to their influence on measured collector efficiencies. Steady state outdoor testing, mixed indoor/outdoor testing and transient testing are reviewed, and it is concluded that although the testing of simple flat plate water heaters is fairly well understood, more work is now required to develop test methods for the new high performance collectors which are coming onto the market.

  8. Deployable Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The deployable crew quarters (DCQ) have been designed for the International Space Station (ISS). Each DCQ would be a relatively inexpensive, deployable boxlike structure that is designed to fit in a rack bay. It is to be occupied by one crewmember to provide privacy and sleeping functions for the crew. A DCQ comprises mostly hard panels, made of a lightweight honeycomb or matrix/fiber material, attached to each other by cloth hinges. Both faces of each panel are covered with a layer of Nomex cloth and noise-suppression material to provide noise isolation from ISS. On Earth, the unit is folded flat and attached to a rigid pallet for transport to the ISS. On the ISS, crewmembers unfold the unit and install it in place, attaching it to ISS structural members by use of soft cords (which also help to isolate noise and vibration). A few hard pieces of equipment (principally, a ventilator and a smoke detector) are shipped separately and installed in the DCQ unit by use of a system of holes, slots, and quarter-turn fasteners. Full-scale tests showed that the time required to install a DCQ unit amounts to tens of minutes. The basic DCQ design could be adapted to terrestrial applications to satisfy requirements for rapid deployable emergency shelters that would be lightweight, portable, and quickly erected. The Temporary Early Sleep Station (TeSS) currently on-orbit is a spin-off of the DCQ.

  9. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M.; Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  10. Mass Spectrometer Containing Multiple Fixed Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskala, Robert; Celo, Alan; Voss, Guenter; Shaffer, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A miniature mass spectrometer that incorporates features not typically found in prior mass spectrometers is undergoing development. This mass spectrometer is designed to simultaneously measure the relative concentrations of five gases (H2, He, N2, O2, and Ar) in air, over the relative-concentration range from 10(exp -6) to 1, during a sampling time as short as 1 second. It is intended to serve as a prototype of a product line of easy-to-use, portable, lightweight, highspeed, relatively inexpensive instruments for measuring concentrations of multiple chemical species in such diverse applications as detecting explosive or toxic chemicals in air, monitoring and controlling industrial processes, measuring concentrations of deliberately introduced isotopes in medical and biological investigations, and general environmental monitoring. The heart of this mass spectrometer is an integral combination of a circular cycloidal mass analyzer, multiple fixed ion collectors, and two mass-selective ion sources. By circular cycloidal mass analyzer is meant an analyzer that includes (1) two concentric circular cylindrical electrodes for applying a radial electric field and (2) a magnet arranged to impose a magnetic flux aligned predominantly along the cylindrical axis, so that ions, once accelerated into the annulus between the electrodes, move along circular cycloidal trajectories. As in other mass analyzers, trajectory of each ion is determined by its mass-to-charge ratio, and so ions of different species can be collected simultaneously by collectors (Faraday cups) at different locations intersected by the corresponding trajectories (see figure). Unlike in other mass analyzers, the installation of additional collectors to detect additional species does not necessitate increasing the overall size of the analyzer assembly.

  11. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  12. Power Systems Development Facility. Quarterly report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particular control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the Foster Wheeler portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter.

  13. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  14. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  15. Passive integral solar heat collector system

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman Jr., K. T.

    1985-04-30

    The present invention relates to an improved apparatus for collecting, absorbing, transferring, and storing solar heat energy, economically and passively, without pumps or electric power. The apparatus comprises a solar collector with a flat finned heat pipe absorber and an attached integral insulated storage tank with a double wall heat exchanger. The absorber, made of one or more slightly tilted gravity assisted heat pipes with flat absorber fins, absorbs and transfers solar heat by evaporation, vapor transport, and condensation to the slightly elevated heat storage tank. The one or more heat pipes turn on when the sun is shining and turn off automatically when the sun is not shining.

  16. Building-integrated fluorescent solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Neuroth, N.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a building wall wherein the building wall includes windows, window parapets and areas below the window parapets. The window parapets include overhanging lips defining slots with the areas beneath the parapets. Fluorescent solar collectors are received in the slots to form an exterior facing over the area beneath the parapets. A photoelectric cell means is arranged with the fluorescent panels and has leads thereon for conducting electric current therefrom, the photoelectric cell means being positioned within the slots so as to be protected thereby.

  17. Line-focus concentrating collector program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Line-Focus Concentrating Collector Program has emphasized the development and dissemination of concentrating solar technology in which the reflected sunlight is focused onto a linear or line receiver. Although a number of different types of line-focus concentrators were developed, the parabolic trough has gained the widest acceptance and utilization within the industrial and applications sectors. The trough is best applied for application scenarios which require temperatures between 140 and 600 F. Another concept, the bowl, is investigated for applications which may require temperatures in the range between 600 and 1200 F. Current technology emphases are upon the reduction of system installation cost and the implementation of production oriented engineering.

  18. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    D.H. Pontius

    1999-08-30

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, including the interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank, and issuance of a comprehensive final report on activities conducted under Task 1. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  19. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the first quarter, April 1 through June 30, 1995. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasificafion and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel continued at a good pace during the quarter.

  20. Solar energy utilisation and evacuated tubular solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parand, Foroutan

    Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been constructed and their performance evaluated. The characteristics of the collectors are then compared and their design strengths assessed. One of the designs, a flat absorber with a single glass cover using glass to metal seals was found to have the best performance among the four designs which included a dewar vessel type collector, a heat pipe collector and a black liquid collector with an optical efficiency of 87.7 pct. and an overall heat loss coefficient of 12.3 Wm(exp -2)/C. The performance of the dewar vessel type and black liquid collectors was found to be comparable to the glass to metal seal collector. A detailed analysis of the optical and thermal processes in evacuated tubular collectors was made. On the basis of this analysis a computer simulation model using a finite difference technique has been developed to predict the performance of evacuated tubular collectors. The computer simulation results are then compared with the test results. For the majority of the tests the discrepancy between the simulation and the test results was within the error band of the test results (maximum 12 pct.). For the published test results the maximum discrepancy for operating temperature below 100 C was found to be 6 pct. The computer simulation model was compared with other published models and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. In some analytical and semi-analytical simulation models the energy absorbed by the glass cover and the heat loss from joints and supports has to be ignored. The present model has none of these deficiencies and more complex designs can be simulated. The developed computer simulation program might be used as an aid in the design of evacuated tubular collectors. Using the computer simulation, a parametric study of the three commmercially available collectors was made. The results are discussed and the areas of improvement are identified.

  1. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1984-06-27

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  2. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  3. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zagorski, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the third quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station was operating with the 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 1BD purification loops in service. During the quarter, the Station was operated for Duquesne Light Company System grid including base load and swing load operation. Twelve (12) planned swing load operations were performed on the LWBR Core this quarter to complete the LWBR operating plan of fifty (50) during this operating phase. The Station was shutdown on September 12 for the Fall 1980 Shutdown and remained in this mode through the end of the quarter. The LWBR Core has generated 18,297.98 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. The radioactive liquid waste effluent line to the river remained blanked off to prevent inadvertent radioactive liquid waste discharges. During the quarter, approximately 0.001 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. The radioactivity released from Shippingport Station is far too small to have any measurable effect on the general background environmental radioactivity outside the plant.

  4. Particulate and multiphase processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ariman, T.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1987-01-01

    This three-volume set provides information in particulate and multiphase processes. Authorities investigate four key areas of current scientific and engineering interest: aerosol science and technology; contamination analysis and control; suspensions and slurry transport; and fine particle powder science and technology.

  5. Analysis of microsize particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.

    1972-01-01

    Unique methods for analyzing individual particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 1000 micrometers have been developed for investigation of nature of cosmic dust. Methods are applicable to particulate aerosols and contaminants characteristically encountered in studies of air pollution and in experiments designed to abate pollution.

  6. Instructions for Sampling Particulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Frank

    This technical report presents detailed instructions for sampling particulates. The table of contents includes sections on Introduction, Volume Determinations, Apparatus - Assembly and Operation, Sampling Techniques, and Acknowledgment. Six charts, 24 graphs, and one diagram are appended to facilitate sampling, as well as sections on Isokinetic…

  7. Subtask 2.13 - Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector-Fundamental Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller

    2007-07-01

    Under the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a full-scale Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was installed at the Big Stone Plant, with start-up in October 2002. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was retrofitted into Fields 2-4 of the old Big Stone electrostatic precipitator (ESP). While many aspects of the operation were satisfactory, pressure drop was higher than expected. To achieve acceptable pressure drop and successfully demonstrate the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter technology, the first fields of the ESP were also converted into an Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter in 2005. However, since start-up in June 2005, the first fields have been inoperable for multiple reasons. The fundamental cause of the dysfunctional performance of the first fields was attributed to spacing and alignment problems, which led to excessive sparking and shutdown of the high-voltage power. In spite of attempts to correct the problems, satisfactory performance of the first fields was never achieved. Because of the uncertainties of how to achieve acceptable performance with a new technology, the Big Stone Plant made the decision to convert the entire Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter housing into a pulse-jet fabric filter.

  8. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOEpatents

    Gerenser, R.J.; Littauer, E.L.

    1983-08-23

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application. 6 figs.

  9. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOEpatents

    Gerenser, Robert J.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1983-01-01

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application.

  10. Environemental Planning Quarterly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Mary P.

    The Environmental Planning Quarterly is a publication of the Environmental Planning Division of the American Planning Association (APA). Its current editor is G. William Page (Department of Urban Planning, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee). A recent issue included a feature article on forest management in the state of Washington and several lengthy and informative news items about activities of the Environmental Protection Agency related to groundwater contamination and hazardous waste. Other news items contained information on air pollution and acid rain as well as on surface water pollution. Subscriptions can be obtained by writing to the Environmental Planning Division. American Planning Association, Lock Box 97774, Chicago, IL 60690. Annual fees are as follows: $ 15 (APA member), $25 (affiliate), $5 (student), $30 (subscribing).

  11. Feeder for particulate material

    SciTech Connect

    Christofer, D.E.; Stock, A.J.

    1981-03-24

    Feeder apparatus for feeding at a controlled variable rate particulate solid material, such as coal, from a supply conduit located above a gravimetric feeder to a discharge chute located below the feeder. The particulate material flows to the feeder from the supply conduit along a path having a generally vertical center line and the discharge chute provides a flow path having a generally vertical center line closely laterally spaced relative to the center line of flow to the feeder. The feeder apparatus has a horizontally extending housing with an upwardly facing inlet through which the material flows to the feeder and a downwardly facing outlet forming part of the discharge chute through which the material flows from the feeder. Within the housing is a main feeder conveyor including an endless belt with a generally horizontal span adapted to receive at one end the particulate material flowing to the feeder and to convey in a layer a measured quantity of material a horizontal distance across weighing means to an exit zone at the opposite end of the belt, the horizontal distance being substantially greater than the spacing between the center lines of flow to the feeder and through such discharge chute. Associated with the main feeder conveyor is a gravimetric control system for controlling the amount of material deposited on the belt. Particulate material that drops off the main conveyor belt at the exit zone is received on a return belt conveyor and carried in a reverse direction a sufficient distance to bring the material to the discharge chute. Cooperation between the main feeder conveyor and the return conveyor permits gravimetric feeding of particulate material to the discharge chute that is closely laterally spaced to the flow path of material to the main conveyor by a distance that is substantially less than the length of travel of the material on the main conveyor.

  12. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  13. Development of an innovative, low-cost solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, M. P.

    1987-06-01

    A low cost domestic water heating system, one that could be sold at a retail price of $500, was developed and produced. The primary effort was to reduce solar collector plate costs and, more specifically, the collector absorber plate costs. Plastic adhesive research resulted in the extensive use of silicone adhesives in a high performance solar collector which was also durable, reliable and easy to manufacture at a low cost. High thermal performance resulted from development of a silicone based conductive bond. The new collector has full pressure capability, and can be manufactured in quantity at a materials cost of $55 and a labor cost of $3.35. Detailed design descriptions, drawings, and photographs, of four different low cost solar collectors that were designed and built are included. Also, material listings and a step-by-step procedure for manufacturing the selected collector are included. NMSEI Performance Data for the new collector are compared to the certification data of the model SL-100 collector previously manufactured by American Solar Products.

  14. Third generation flat plate solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The design of a flat plate solar collector that meets an allowable cost constraint is studied. The cost constraint is $5 to 6 per square foot. A medium-temperature collector prototype with a non-thin film absorber was constructed and tested. (BCS)

  15. Improved mathematical models of flat-plate solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Siegler, M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis examines various mathematical models of flat-plate solar collectors with the intent of analyzing their strengths and weaknesses and investigating various possible improvements. The purpose is to seek the simplest models that can provide sufficient accuracy for efficient control and design of the collector and for reliable estimation of system parameters. The first part of the thesis investigates the effects of the diffusivity of the collector fluid under steady-state operating conditions. It is shown that under zero flow conditions this diffusivity must be included in the model to accurately describe the rapid changes in the temperatures between adjacent components of the system. The second part of the thesis investigates the relationship between two well-known models for the temperature within the flat-plate solar collector. The simpler of the two models determines the temperature of the collector fluid alone and assumes the collector plate is at the same temperature as the fluid. The other model was separate state equations for the fluid and the collector. Finally, through a frequency analysis of these two different models for the flat-plate collector, it is shown how the thermal effects of the two-temperature model can be imitated by the one-temperature model by adding an artificial diffusion term into the one-temperature model.

  16. Physically absorbable reagents-collectors in elementary flotation

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Kondrat'ev; I.G. Bochkarev

    2007-09-15

    Based on the reviewed researches held at the Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, the effect of physically absorbable reagents-collectors on formation of a flotation complex and its stability in turbulent pulp flows in flotation machines of basic types is considered. The basic requirements for physically absorbable reagents-collectors at different flotation stages are established.

  17. Investigation of TFE collector insulation of thermionic NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Y.V.; Vasilchenko, A.V.; Lapochkin, N.V.; Tzetzhladze, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    Various configurations of thermionic fuel element (TFE) collector insulation of thermionic nuclear power plant (NPP) have been considered. The results of the experimental studies of collector insulation samples are presented. Their serviceability and high insulating characteristics which meet the requirements of high-voltage thermionic NPP have been shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Thermal performance of a hot-air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Report contains procedures and results of thermal-performance tests on double-glazed air solar collector. Four types of tests were carried out including thermal-efficiency and stagnation tests, collector time-constant tests to assess effects of transients, and incident-angle modifier tests. Data are presented in tables and as graphs and are discussed and analyzed.

  19. Development of prototype air/liquid solar collector subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the evacuated tubular air collector in conjunction with air/liquid heat exchange and liquid storage elements was completed. Test results emphasize matching of heat exchanger and collector characteristics with specific attention to the dynamic response of each of the elements.

  20. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  1. 52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  4. Libbey-Owens-Ford solar collector static load test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test article is a flat plate solar collector that uses liquid as the heat transfer medium. The absorber plate is copper and has a double tempered glass cover. Test requirements and procedures are described and results are presented in a table. Results demonstrate that the collector performed satisfactorily.

  5. Theory of the geyser-pump solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.

    1985-01-01

    The geyser-pump solar collector is a self-controlling, self-pumping active collector having no moving or electronic parts, drawing its mechanical pump energy from boiling in the collector's risers. The only use of the geyser-pump principle reported in patents and the open literature is only for circulating the fluid in the collector plate. Computer simulations show that most design and algorithm parameters have only negligible impact on solar fraction, F. The only parameter which affects F is the length of the storage heat exchanger. Episodic cloud cover does not hamper the geyser-pump collector's ability to restart. Daylong simulations show that the energy cost of geyser-pumping is only about 3% of the absorbed insolation. The geyser-pump collector is found to be as efficient as an electrically pumped collector. Initial costs are estimated to be about the same for the geyser-pump and conventional collectors, but lifetime costs of the geyser-pump are substantially lower, perhaps only half, because of low maintenance.

  6. Design and performance verification of advanced multistage depressed collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Ramins, P.

    1975-01-01

    Design and performance of a small size, 4 stage depressed collector are discussed. The collector and a spent beam refocusing section preceding it are intended for efficiency enhancement of octave bandwidth, high CW power traveling wave tubes for use in ECM.

  7. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction tube.... Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from premarket notification procedures in subpart E...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction tube.... Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from premarket notification procedures in subpart E...

  9. Preliminary design package for solar collector and solar pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A solar-operated pump using an existing solar collector, for use on solar heating and cooling and hot water systems is described. Preliminary design criteria of the collector and solar-powered pump is given including: design drawings, verification plans, and hazard analysis.

  10. Design and fabrication considerations of EUVL collectors for HVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianucci, G.; Cassol, G. L.; Kools, J.; Prea, M.; Salmaso, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Zocchi, F. E.; Bolshukhin, D.; Schürmann, M.; Schriever, G.; Mader, A.; Zink, P.

    2009-03-01

    The power roadmap for EUVL high volume manufacturing (HVM) exceeds the 200W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus, thus posing more demanding requirements on HVM sources, debris suppression systems and collectors. Starting from the lessons learned in the design and fabrication of the grazing incidence collectors for the Alpha EUVL scanners, Media Lario Technologies is developing HVM optical solutions that enable designed-in lifetime improvements, such as larger source-collector distances, optimized collection efficiency through larger collected solid angles, and customized EUV reflective layers. The optical design of an HVM collector is described together with the selection of the sacrificial ruthenium reflective layer. The water cooling layout of the collector is evolved from the integrated cooling technology developed at Alpha level into an innovative cooling layout that minimizes the thermal gradients across the mirrors and allows controlling the optical performance at the far-field plane. Finally, the evolution of the collector's manufacturing technologies for HVM is discussed. XTREME technologies and Philips Extreme UV support this work by integrating the collector in the complete source collector module (SoCoMo). At system level, each component of the SoCoMo is part of a development and improvement plan leading to a comprehensive system that will fulfill the 200+ W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus.

  11. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector...

  13. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  14. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  15. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  16. Design wind and sandstorm loads on trough collectors in fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bo; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Zeyu

    2017-06-01

    Trough collectors are laid out in rows in a field withrow spacing. Wind and sandstorm loads on the collectors will be influenced by surrounding collectors. This paper presents analyzed results from a combined wind tunnel and sandstorm tunnel study on a trough collector field with seven rows and five spans. In wind tunneltests, the measured model with pressure taps was installed in the field to measure wind pressures on the surfaces. Mean and fluctuating pressures on the model were measured by the synchronous multi-pressure sensing system under typical boundary layer wind flow field. In sandstorm tunneltests,a isolated trough collector model was measured by the high-frequency force balance technique under wind-blown sand flow field.

  17. Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.

  18. Optical performance of fluorescent collectors integrated with microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damrongsak, Pattareeya; Locharoenrat, Kitsakorn

    2017-09-01

    Fluorescent collectors have been considered for being used as a light concentrator in photovoltaic applications. It is able to replace the expensive area of solar cells in order to minimize the energy cost. In this study, fluorescent collectors integrated with microlens arrays were developed in order to improve the collection efficiency. Fluorescent collectors were prepared by casting an epoxy resin solution containing Rhodamine 6G dye in the polydimethylsiloxane master mold. Polydimethylsiloxane-based microlens arrays with actual diameters of 804.06–1008.02 µm were fabricated using a replica molding technique. The microlens arrays were then integrated with the fluorescent collectors with various dye concentrations from 2.5  ×  10‑4 to 4.5  ×  10‑4 Molar. Experimental results were demonstrated that the implementation of polydimethylsiloxane microlens arrays on the top of fluorescent collectors was improved for both light absorption and fluorescent intensity.

  19. Photovoltaic device with specially arranged luminescent collector and cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yerkes, J. W.

    1981-02-17

    A photovoltaic device for collecting solar radiation and converting it to electrical energy has a luminescent collector shaped in a way that maintains collecting area efficiency while allowing the photovoltaic cell to be entirely shadowed or protected from the direct rays of solar energy. The shape of the luminescent collector is also especially suited to air cooling and to placement of insulation between the collector surface and the cell. The collector has a first extension which receives and absorbs the light energy and at least one side extension which extends away from the sun collecting part of the collector. The side extension or extensions conduct the collected light energy to the protected cell or cells. For example, the luminescent collector may have an inverted u-shape or l-shape. A photovoltaic cell is coupled to the side extension, preferably at the end surface of the side extension. Each cell is placed entirely away from surfaces directly heated by the rays of the sun and is entirely shadowed from radiant heating by a part of the photovoltaic device. The underside of the collector may be shaped to form a channel. The channel may be used for air cooling, thermal insulation, or a combination of air cooling and thermal insulation of the sun-receiving part of the collector. The upper outer surface of the collector may be protected by a protective, radiation transmissive cover. Light emissive areas of the edge and lower surfaces of the collector not covered by photovoltaic cells may also be covered by a reflective material.

  20. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, S.H.

    1997-05-09

    This report supports the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. All data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those detailed in this support. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater data and NPDES. There were none for air, surface water or springs. A brief summary is presented of the data that met the above normal criteria merged during the first quarter and updates on past reported above normal data.

  1. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 56, 1st Quarter, January 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    between single - and double-loop learning.17 The contrast pertains to knowledge about improving what one is already doing based on a given set of...how they should be developed, and why many recent attempts at theories are really shallow approaches based on a single governing idea, ignor...Quarterly should be acknowledged whenever material is quoted from or based on its content. COMMUNICATIONS Please visit NDU Press and Joint Force Quarterly

  2. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  3. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  4. Comparison of Proportional and On/Off Solar Collector Loop Control Strategies Using a Dynamic Collector Model

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Warren, Mashuri L.; Auslander, David M.

    1980-11-01

    In this paper, common control strategies used to regulate the flow of liquid through flat-plate solar collectors are discussed and evaluated using a dynamic collector model. Performance of all strategies is compared using different set points, flow rates, insolation levels and patterns, and ambient temperature conditions. The unique characteristic of the dynamic collector model is that it includes the effect of collector capacitance. Short term temperature response and the energy-storage capability of collector capacitance are shown to play significant roles in comparing on/off and proportional controllers. Inclusion of these effects has produced considerably more realistic simulations than any generated by steady-state models. Finally, simulations indicate relative advantages and disadvantages of both types of controllers, conditions under which each performs better, and the importance of pump cycling and controller set points on total energy collection.

  5. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  6. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  7. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  8. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  9. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  10. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

    1983-09-26

    Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

  11. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  12. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOEpatents

    Bregoli, Lawrence J.

    1985-10-22

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  13. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOEpatents

    Bregoli, L.J.

    1984-10-17

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  14. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  15. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-08-31

    This is the fifteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data bank of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on May 18 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) and a particulate sample collected in the Westinghouse filter at Sierra Pacific Power Company's Piñon Pine Power Project. Analysis of this Piñon Pine sample is ongoing: however, this report contains the results of analyses completed to date. Significant accomplishments were achieved on the HGCU data bank during this reporting quarter. The data bank was prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems 98 Conference scheduled for July, 1998. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of testing two Dupont PRD-66C candle filters, one McDermott ceramic composite candle filter, one Blasch 4-270 candle filter, and one Specific Surface cordierite candle filter. Tensile and thermal expansion testing is complete and the rest of the testing is in progress. Also, some 20-inch long Dupont

  16. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Stuecker, John N.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Miller, James E.

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  17. Modeling of Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    vaporization CxHy H H2 C2H2 Alkylated- aromatics naphthenes Gas-phase kinetics PAH C2H2 . .... CO inception Surface growth & coalescence ageing...coagulation oxidation.... carbonization 14 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Formation Kinetics 2 1016 1 ]HC[kdt dS = Inception: Dimerization of...pyrene (and other 202 amu species), after Appel, et al, 2000. (Full detailed kinetics required!) Surface Growth: Mass growth (via acetylene addition

  18. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  19. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  20. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Vansant, J.H.

    1984-10-02

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  1. Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Cataloging Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, P.J.; Rodriguez, M.C.; Calaway, M.C.; Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Genesis solar wind array collectors were fractured upon landing hard in Utah in 2004. The fragments were retrieved from the damaged canister, imaged, repackaged and shipped to the Johnson Space Center curatorial facility [1]. As of January 2009, the collection consists of 3460 samples. Of these, 442 are comprised into "multiple" sample groupings, either affixed to adhesive paper (177) or collected in jars (17), culture trays (87), or sets of polystyrene vials (161). A focused characterization task was initiated in May 2008 to document the largest samples in the collection. The task consisted of two goals: to document sapphire based fragments greater than 2 cm in one dimension, and to document silicon based fragments greater than 1 cm in one direction.

  2. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOEpatents

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  3. Use of Membrane Collectors in Electrostatic Precipitators.

    PubMed

    Bayless, David J; Pasic, Hajrudin; Alam, M Khairul; Shi, Liming; Haynes, Brian; Cochran, Joe; Khan, Wajahat

    2001-10-01

    Membrane collection surfaces, developed and patented by researchers at Ohio University, were used to replace steel plates in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Such replacement facilitates tension-based rapping, which shears the adhered particle layer from the collector surface more effectively than hammer-based rapping. Tests were performed to measure the collection efficiency of the membranes and to quantify the potential improvements of this novel cleaning technique with respect to re-entrainment. Results indicate that even semiconductor materials (e.g., carbon fibers) collect ash nearly as efficiently as steel plates, potentially indicating that collection surface resistivity is primarily dictated by the accumulated ash layer and not by the underlying plate conductivity. In addition, virtually all sheared particles separated from the collecting membranes fell within the boundary layer of the membrane, indicating extremely low potential for re-entrainment.

  4. Use of membrane collectors in electrostatic precipitators.

    PubMed

    Bayless, D J; Pasic, H; Alam, M K; Shi, L; Haynes, B; Cochran, J; Khan, W

    2001-10-01

    Membrane collection surfaces, developed and patented by researchers at Ohio University, were used to replace steel plates in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Such replacement facilitates tension-based rapping, which shears the adhered particle layer from the collector surface more effectively than hammer-based rapping. Tests were performed to measure the collection efficiency of the membranes and to quantify the potential improvements of this novel cleaning technique with respect to re-entrainment. Results indicate that even semiconductor materials (e.g., carbon fibers) collect ash nearly as efficiently as steel plates, potentially indicating that collection surface resistivity is primarily dictated by the accumulated ash layer and not by the underlying plate conductivity. In addition, virtually all sheared particles separated from the collecting membranes fell within the boundary layer of the membrane, indicating extremely low potential for re-entrainment.

  5. Power Systems Development Facility. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a fimction of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and hot gas cleanup units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is nearing completion. Nearly all equipment are set in its place and the FW equipment and the PCDs are being set in the structure.

  6. Predicting collector well yields with MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Kelson, Vic

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater flow models are commonly used to design new wells and wellfields. As the spatial scale of the problem is large and much local-scale detail is not needed, modelers often utilize two-dimensional (2D) or quasi three-dimensional models based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption. Dupuit models offer a robust set of tools for simulating regional groundwater flow including interactions with surface waters, the potential for well interference, and varying aquifer properties and recharge rates. However, given an assumed operating water level or drawdown at a well screen, Dupuit models systematically overpredict well yields. For design purposes, this discrepancy is unacceptable, and a method for predicting accurate well yields is needed. While published methods exist for vertical wells, little guidance is available for predicting yields in horizontal screens or collector wells. In plan view, a horizontal screen has a linear geometry, and will likely extend over several neighboring cells that may not align with rows or columns in a numerical model. Furthermore, the model must account for the effects of converging three-dimensional (3D) flow to the well screens and hydraulic interference among the well screens; these all depend on the design of a specific well. This paper presents a new method for simulating the yield of angled or horizontal well screens in numerical groundwater flow models, specifically using the USGS code MODFLOW. The new method is compared to a detailed, 3D analytic element model of a collector well in a field of uniform flow. © 2012, Layne Christensen Co. Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  8. Characterization of multiphase fluid flow during air-sparged hydrocyclone flotation by x-ray CT. Twelfth quarterly report, 14 May--13 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1993-08-13

    During this quarter some experiments from the previous set were repeated to check the reproducibility of the results. Also, a new set of experiments was carried out to study the effects of (1) collector dosage, (2) Q* -- the nondimensional ratio of air flow rate to slurry flow rate, and (3) slurry pressure on the flow characteristics. Four different Q* values with hydrophobic particles in the feed slurry were studied. The value of A*, the dimensionless ratio of overflow opening area to underflow opening area, was maintained at the same level (A* 1.00). Quartz particles of size {sup {minus}}100 {sup +}200 mesh were used for this study rather than coal particles because they did not abrade and were of a higher density. The reagents used were 40 ppM (water basis) of MIBC frother and 800 g of dodecyl amine collector per ton of dry solids in the suspension. In other experiments with no solids in the feed suspension, collector level in the water was varied at 0, 10 and 20 ppM. At room temperature, quartz is intrinsically hydrophilic while addition of the amine collector renders the quartz particles hydrophobic. The absence of collector will be referred to as the hydrophilic case and the presence of collector will be referred to as the hydrophobic case.

  9. A high performance porous flat-plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Clarke, V.; Reynolds, R.

    1979-01-01

    A solar collector employing a porous matrix as a solar absorber and heat exchanger is presented and its application in solar air heaters is discussed. The collector is composed of a metallic matrix with a porous surface which acts as a large set of cavity radiators; cold air flows through the matrix plate and exchanges heat with the thermally stratified layers of the matrix. A steady-state thermal analysis of the collector is used to determine collector temperature distributions for the cases of an opaque surface matrix with total absorption of solar energy at the surface, and a diathermanous matrix with successive solar energy absorption at each depth. The theoretical performance of the porous flat plate collector is shown to exceed greatly that of a solid flat plate collector using air as the working medium for any given set of operational conditions. An experimental collector constructed using commercially available, low cost steel wool as the matrix has been found to have thermal efficiencies from 73 to 86%.

  10. Pathways toward a low cost evacuated collector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.; Ogallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    The goal of widespread use of solar thermal collectors will only be achieved when they are proven to be economically superior to competing energy sources. Evacuated tubular collectors appear to have the potential to achieve this goal. An advanced evacuated collector using nonimaging concentration under development at the University of Chicago and Argonne can achieve a 50% seasonal efficiency at heat delivery temperatures in excess of 170C. The same collector has an optical efficiency so that low temperature performance is also excellent. In this advanced collector design all of the critical components are enclosed in the vacuum, and the collector has an inherently long lifetime. The current cost of evacuated systems is too high, mainly because the volume of production has been too low to realize economies of mass production. It appears that certain design features of evacuated collectors can be changed (e.g., use of heat pipe absorbers) so as to introduce new system design and market strategy options that can reduce the balance of system cost.

  11. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the first quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the first quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base, and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES&H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} data occur. All data received and verified during the first quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those detailed below. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were none for springs or surface water. The following discussion offers a brief summary of the data merged during the first quarter that exceeded the above normal criteria and updates on past reported above normal data. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the data base during the first quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs. Graphs showing concentrations of selected contaminants of concern at some of the critical locations have also been included in this QEDS. The graphs are discussed in the separate sections.

  12. Subpilot-scale testing of acoustically enhanced cyclone collectors. Final report, September 1988--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Galica, M.A.; Campbell, A.H.; Rawlins, D.C.

    1994-08-01

    Gas turbines are used to recover energy from high temperature exhaust gases in coal-fired pressurized-fluidized bed, combined-cycle power generation systems. However, prior to entering the turbine hot-section, the majority of the fly ash must be removed in order to protect the turbine components from erosion, corrosion, and deposition of the ash. The U.S. Department of Energy under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsored the development of an acoustically enhanced cyclone collector which offers the potential of achieving environmental control standards under Pressurized Fluid Bed Combustors (PFBC) conditions without the need for post-turbine particulate control. Pulse combustors developed by Manufacturing and Technology Conversation International, Inc. (MTCI) produced the acoustic power necessary to agglomerate ash particles into sizes large enough to be collected in a conventional cyclone system. A hot gas cleanup system that meets both turbine protection and emissions requirements without post-turbine particulate controls would also have improved overall system economics.

  13. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... level of significant digits as the emission standard (one-tenth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for NOX plus NMHC emissions and one-hundredth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for particulate... emission credits (positive or negative) based on quarterly production projections for each...

  14. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... level of significant digits as the emission standard (one-tenth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for NOX plus NMHC emissions and one-hundredth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for particulate... emission credits (positive or negative) based on quarterly production projections for each...

  15. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... level of significant digits as the emission standard (one-tenth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for NOX plus NMHC emissions and one-hundredth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for particulate... emission credits (positive or negative) based on quarterly production projections for each...

  16. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... level of significant digits as the emission standard (one-tenth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for NOX plus NMHC emissions and one-hundredth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for particulate... emission credits (positive or negative) based on quarterly production projections for each...

  17. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level of significant digits as the emission standard (one-tenth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for NOX plus NMHC emissions and one-hundredth of a gram per brake horsepower-hour for particulate... emission credits (positive or negative) based on quarterly production projections for each...

  18. Ray tracing study for non-imaging daylight collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wittkopf, Stephen; Oliver Grobe, Lars; Geisler-Moroder, David; Compagnon, Raphael; Kaempf, Jerome; Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a novel method to study how well non-imaging daylight collectors pipe diffuse daylight into long horizontal funnels for illuminating deep buildings. Forward ray tracing is used to derive luminous intensity distributions curves (LIDC) of such collectors centered in an arc-shaped light source representing daylight. New photometric characteristics such as 2D flux, angular spread and horizontal offset are introduced as a function of such LIDC. They are applied for quantifying and thus comparing different collector contours. (author)

  19. Development of flat - plate solar plate collector - evaporator. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Abramzon, B.; Yaron, I.

    1981-11-01

    In the present study the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector is analyzed theoretically for the case in which the working fluid may undergo a phase change within the tubes of the collector. In addition to the common domestic applications, such a collector - evaporator may be used as a generator of vapors for the production of mechanical or electrical energy, e.g. solar water pumps, solar power stations, etc., as well as for solar - powered absorption refrigeration machines, distillation installations, etc.

  20. On optimizing solar collectors orientation under daily nonrandom cloudiness conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R.A.; Ookouchi, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Seasonal daily nonrandom cloudiness is typical in many geographical locations. Optimization of flat-plate solar collectors orientation in such situations requires azimuth and tilt modifications from those when daily cloudiness is random. The present study evaluates the significance of optimizing solar radiation gains, while considerating an illustrative case of nonrandom afternoon-morning cloudiness. Results suggest that for fixed flat-plate collectors the related gain in solar energy is practically insignificant. For nonfixed collectors the solar energy gains can be improved on a monthly basis by up to --6 percent.

  1. Sigmoidal current collector for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J.; Wu, Dengguo; Fan, Jiang; Lu, Weiyi; Qiao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated sigmoidal current collector in lithium-ion battery (LIB). Traditionally, the active material in an LIB electrode is coated on a flat current collector. By rendering the current collector sigmoidal-shaped, cracking and debonding of active material layer could be promoted, which would considerably increase the internal impedance, as the LIB is mechanically abused, beneficial to thermal-runaway mitigation. The energy absorption capacity is also improved, enabling multifunctional LIB cell design. This technique has important relevance to large-sized LIB systems, for which cell robustness and fire safety are prioritized.

  2. Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, Raphael A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

  3. Mitigating project risk by use of high performance collector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Timo; Riffelmann, Klaus-Jürgen; Nava, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Collectors with a high optical quality are generally valued for their additional performance, i.e. the expected additional output due to the performance gain compared to a lower quality reference collector. However, high-performance collectors additionally have a lower sensitivity to additional optical errors and, thus not only perform better nominally, but are also more likely to reach their nominal performance even when project uncertainties (e.g. increased sun-shape) or quality issues (e.g. increased component optical error) degrade their performance. This has physical reasons, whose cause and effect will be described and quantified within this paper.

  4. Analytical model and performance data for a cylindrical parabolic collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, F.M.; Stewart, W.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrating solar collectors provide higher fluid temperatures than flat-plate, an important advantage in many applications. The parabolic cylinder is one of the most popular types of concentrating collectors because of its relatively simple construction and tracking configuration. A mathematical model was developed for one such collector in order to predict thermal efficiency as a function of solar insolation. An experiment was then devised in an attempt to verify this model. Discrepancies between predicted and observed values are discussed, and suggestions are made for improving the model and the experimental procedure.

  5. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Braun, James C.

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  7. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  8. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  9. Particulate emission reduction using additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rising, B.

    1998-07-01

    A particulate emission reduction study using a large industrial combustion turbine was undertaken. With heavy oil, both the mass particulate rate and smoke emissions exceeded original emission projections. Extensive particulate (gravimetric) emission tests were conducted to define the problem, and to assess specific corrective actions. Physical characterization of the particulate emissions revealed that the particulates from heavy oil were much larger than those found from lighter distillates. A review of the available literature on the subject was undertaken. Methods that were found to be effective at reducing smoke emissions were selected as a starting point. From this information, various techniques, including water injection, emulsification, and additive injection were evaluated to address both the visible smoke emissions and the particulate emission. Only the use of metal based fuel additives was found to be effective in reducing both visible smoke emissions and particulates. From vendor information, different additive time was selected for evaluation. Because of the complex chemistry of the fuel and additive mixtures, the vendor was required to optimize the additive carrier. Additives reduced particulates produced from the burning of heavy oil, but were found to be relatively ineffective with lighter distillate oils. Extensive chemical and physical characterization of the particulates were undertaken. From heavy oil, the particulates were found to be physically larger, greater than 5 microns. The additive was most effective on the heavy oils, but did not appear to alter the particulate size distribution. Additives did not appear to have any impact on the conversion of fuel bond sulfur into sulfuric acid mist. Additive dosage ratios were found which reduced the total particulate emission signature to meet current environmental requirements, while also nearly eliminating the plume visibility issues.

  10. Space station particulate contamination environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.; Clifton, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of particulate contamination on the Space Station will mostly be from pre-launch operations. The adherence and subsequent release of these particles during space flight are discussed. Particle size, release velocity, and release direction are important in determining particle behavior in the vicinity of the vehicle. The particulate environment at the principal science instrument locations is compared to the space shuttle bay environment. Recommendations for possibly decreasing the particulate contamination are presented.

  11. Owens-Illinois subsystem design package for the SEC-601 air-cooled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The subsystem design of the SEC-601 solar collector was evaluated. The collector is of modular design and is approximately 12 feet three inches wide and eight feet seven inches tall. It contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. Included in this report are the subsystem performance specifications and the assembly and installation drawings of the solar collectors and manifold.

  12. Performance of wood in a do-it-yourself solar collector

    Treesearch

    G. E. Sherwood; W. A. Gatz

    1979-01-01

    Six variations of a do-it-yourself solar collector design were constructed and exposed under stagnation conditions for 1 year; collectors were basically closed boxes without air circulation. Temperature in each collector was recorded throughout the test period and the effect of these temperatures on the wood framing and plywood in the collectors was estimated...

  13. Status of the NASA-Lewis flat-plate collector tests with a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    Simulator test results of 15 collector types are reported. Collectors are given performance ratings according to their use for pool heating, hot water, absorption A/C or heating and solar Rankine machines. Collectors found to be good performers in the above categories, except for pool heating, were a black nickel coated, 2 glass collector, and a black paint 2 glass collector containing a mylar honeycomb. For pool heating, a black paint, one glass collector was found to be the best performer. Collector performance parameters of 5 collector types were determined to aid in explaining the factors that govern performance. The two factors that had the greatest effect on collector performance were the collector heat loss and the coating absorptivity.

  14. Status of the NASA-Lewis flat-plate collector tests with a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    Simulator test results of 15 collector types are presented. Collectors are given performance ratings according to their use for pool heating, hot water, absorption A/C or heating, and solar Rankine machines. Collectors found to be good performers in the above categories, except for pool heating, were a black nickel coated, 2 glass collector, and a black paint 2 glass collector containing a mylar honeycomb. For pool heating, a black paint, one glass collector was found to be the best performer. Collector performance parameters of 5 collector types were determined to aid in explaining the factors that govern performance. The two factors that had the greatest effect on collector performance were the collector heat loss and the coating absorptivity.

  15. Owens-Illinois liquid solar collector materials assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    From the beginning, it was noted that the baseline drawings for the liquid solar collector exhibited a distinct weakness concerning materials specification where elastomers, plastics, and foam insulation materials were utilized. A relatively small effort by a competent design organization would alleviate this deficiency. Based on results obtained from boilout and stagnation tests on the solar simulator, it was concluded that proof testing of the collector tubes prior to use helps to predict their performance for limited service life. Fracture mechanics data are desirable for predicting extended service life and establishing a minimum proof pressure level requirement. The temperature capability of this collector system was increased as the design matured and the coating efficiency improved. This higher temperature demands the use of higher temperature materials at critical locations in the collector.

  16. Evaluation of solar collectors for heat pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skartvedt, G.; Pedreyra, D.; McMordie, R.; Kidd, J.; Anderson, J.; Jones, R.

    1980-08-01

    The potential utility of very low cost (possibly unglazed and uninsulated) solar collectors to serve as both heat collection and rejection devices for a liquid source heat pump was evaluated. The approach consisted of exercising a detailed analytical simulation of the complete heat pump/solar collector/storage system against heating and cooling loads derived for typical single family residences in eight US cities. The performance of each system was measured against that of a conventional air to air heat pump operating against the same loads. In addition to evaluation of solar collector options, water tanks and buried pipe grids to provide thermal storage was considered. A determination of night sky temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients for surfaces with dimensions typical of solar collectors was included. The experiments were conducted in situ by placing the test apparatus on the roofs of houses in the Denver, Colorado, area.

  17. Flat plate solar collector with a cantilevered mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.; Larson, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The use of flat booster mirrors with flat plate collectors provides moderate solar flux concentration and enhanced performance especially when the mirrors are seasonally adjusted. Curved mirrors provide higher flux concentration and a practical system has been developed where the booster mirror is bent elastically. The system employs a single cantilever mirror which is located below a conventional flat plate collector. The mirror is clamped at the base of the collector panel and its free end is deflected upward; a smaller deflection is used in the fall and winter than in the spring and summer. The prototype system consists of a 0.9 by 2.5 m collector panel mounted on its side (horizontal fluid flow) and a 2.7 by 2.5 m elastic mirror. The mirror is made with aluminum sheet with an adherent aluminized acrylic film. The system has been designed for mounting on horizontal surfaces at latitudes of 10 to 50/sup 0/.

  18. Investigation of a hybrid PVT air collector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, S.; Touafek, K.; Mordjaoui, M.; Khelifa, A.; Tabet, I.

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic thermal hybrid (PVT) collectors, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat, are an alternative to photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors installed separately. Indeed, the heat extracted from the solar cell is used to heat water or air, thereby cooling the cell, and thus increasing its energy efficiency. This paper deals with a hybrid PVT air collector in which a new design has been proposed and tested. Its principle is based on the return of the preheating air to a second heating. The air thus passes twice under the solar cells before being evacuated to the outside of the collector (for space heating). The system is modular and expandable to cover large spaces to be heated. The experimental results of this novel design are presented and discussed under both normal and forced circulation. This technique of air return shows favorable results in terms of the quality of the heated air and electric power generation.

  19. Development and testing of a hot-air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudle, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Summarized report on development and testing of hot-air flat-plate solar collector includes structural details, coating selection, and spacing between coating and glass plate. Report gives complete performance specifications and extensive certifications test report.

  20. Thermal Performance of an Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Hornacek, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    A solar collector having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity is needed for applications where solar energy is to be absorbed and transported for use in minisatellites. Such a solar collector may be used with a low temperature differential heat engine to provide power or with a thermal bus for thermal switching applications. One concept being considered for the solar collector is an Al2O3 cermet coating applied to a thermal conductivity enhanced polished aluminum substrate. The cermet coating provides high solar absorptance and the polished aluminum provides low infrared emittance. Annealed pyrolytic graphite embedded in the aluminum substrate provides enhanced thermal conductivity. The as-measured thermal performance of an annealed pyrolytic graphite thermal conductivity enhanced polished aluminum solar collector, coated with a cermet coating, will be presented.

  1. Outdoor thermal efficiency evaluation of the Ying solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedure used and the test results obtained during an evaluation test program to obtain thermal efficiency performance data are presented. The flat plate collector used water/prestone antifreeze solution as the working fluid.

  2. Weathering of a liquid-filled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes procedures and results of tests for effects of weathering on flat-plate liquid solar collector. Thermal performance was measured before and after natural weathering for 15-1/2 months by using Marshall Space Flight solar simulator.

  3. Preliminary Examination of the Interstellar Collector of Stardust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J. C.; Brownlee, D. E.; Butterworth, A. L.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gruen, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A. T.; Leroux, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Sandford, S. A.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE), which will use non-destructive, non-invasive techniques to identify and characterize candidate interstellar impacts in the Stardust aerogel and foil collectors.

  4. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  5. Optical, Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of Parabolic Trough Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, Öztürk; Nalan Çiçek, Bezir; Nuri, Özek

    2007-07-01

    Parabolic trough collectors generate thermal energy from solar energy. Especially, they are very convenient for applications in high temperature solar power systems. To determine the design parameters, parabolic trough collectors must be analysed with optical analysis. In addition, thermodynamics (energy and exergy) analysis in the development of an energy efficient system must be achieved. Solar radiation passes through Earth's atmosphere until it reaches on Earth's surface and is focused from the parabolic trough collector to the tube receiver with a transparent insulated envelope. All of them constitute a complex mechanism. We investigate the geometry of parabolic trough reflector and characteristics of solar radiation to the reflecting surface through Earth's atmosphere, and calculate the collecting total energy in the receiver. The parabolic trough collector, of which design parameters are given, is analysed in regard to the energy and exergy analysis considering the meteorological specification in May, June, July and August in Isparta/Turkey, and the results are presented.

  6. Integrated function nonimaging concentrating collector tubes for solar thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1982-09-01

    A substantial improvement in optical efficiency over contemporary external reflector evacuated tube collectors has been achieved by integrating the reflector surface into the outer glass envelope. Described are the design fabrication and test results for a prototype collector based on this concept. A comprehensive test program to measure performance and operational characteristics of a 2 sq m panel (45 tubes) has been completed. Efficiencies above 50% relative to beam at 200 C have been repeatedly demonstrated. Both the instantaneous and long term average performance of this totally stationary solar collector are comparable to those for tracking line focus parabolic troughs. The yield, reliability and stability of performance achieved have been excellent. Subcomponent assemblies and fabrication procedures have been used which are expected to be compatible with high volume production. The collector has a wide variety of applications in the 100 to 300 C range including industrial progress heat, air conditioning and Rankine engine operation.

  7. Critics, Collectors, and Cheerleaders: Resources for Teaching about Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James

    1980-01-01

    Reviews a variety of resources for media courses teaching about advertising. Divides the material into three categories: assaults on unannounced values (critics), thoughtful thematic compilations (collectors), and semiapproving rhapsodies on the medium's formal brilliance (cheerleaders). (TJ)

  8. Critics, Collectors, and Cheerleaders: Resources for Teaching about Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James

    1980-01-01

    Reviews a variety of resources for media courses teaching about advertising. Divides the material into three categories: assaults on unannounced values (critics), thoughtful thematic compilations (collectors), and semiapproving rhapsodies on the medium's formal brilliance (cheerleaders). (TJ)

  9. Glycol/water evacuated-tube solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes performance of 8 tube and 10 tube commercially produced solar collectors. Tests include thermal efficiency, time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut, change in efficiency with Sun angle, and temperature rise if circulation is stopped.

  10. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  11. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  12. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  14. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  15. Parabolic trough collectors for industrial and commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    Industrial Solar Technology Corporation (IST) manufactures and installs parabolic trough solar energy systems for large-scale commercial and industrial applications. Parabolic trough collectors have advanced significantly over the last fifteen years and are the most developed and widely deployed type of solar concentrator. Collector efficiency has increased, installed costs have decreased, and system reliability has improved. These positive trends have moved parabolic trough technology to commercial viability in niche markets where energy costs are high and sunlight is abundant.

  16. Analysis and performance of flat-plate solar collector arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.A.; Wu, L.G. )

    1990-01-01

    A new discrete numerical model is proposed to calculate the flow and temperature distribution in solar collector arrays. The flow nonuniformity, the longitudinal heat conduction, and the buoyancy effect are all taken into account in the analysis. The numerical results of pressure and temperature distribution are found in agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the flow nonuniformity has detrimental effect on the thermal performance of collector array.

  17. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  18. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  19. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  20. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  1. Stereomicroscope Inspection of Polished Aluminum Collector 50684.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Allton, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The Genesis polished aluminum "kidney" collector was damaged during the hard landing of the capsule on September 8, 2004 in the Utah desert. The kidney was introduced into the Genesis (ISO class 4) cleanroom laboratory on November 4, 2004 and stored under nitrogen cover gas. The collector is currently fastened to a highly polished stainless steel plate for secure handling. Curatorial work at JSC has made successful subdivision and subsequent allocation of samples from the kidney.

  2. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  3. The transient thermal response of a tubular solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1976-01-01

    A special analytical solution is provided for the timewise response of the circulating fluid temperatures when a sudden step change of the input solar radiation is imposed and remains constant thereafter. An example which demonstrates the transient temperatures at the exit section of a single collector with two different flow patterns is presented. This study is used to supplement some numerical solutions to provide a fairly complete coverage for this type of solar collector.

  4. Size Distribution of Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Fragments Recovered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    Genesis launched in 2001 with 271 whole and 30 half hexagonally-shaped collectors mounted on 5 arrays, comprised of 9 materials described in [1]. The array collectors were damaged during re-entry impact in Utah in 2004 [2], breaking into many smaller pieces and dust. A compilation of the number and approximate size of the fragments recovered was compiled from notes made during the field packaging performed in the Class 10,000 cleanroom at Utah Test and Training Range [3].

  5. Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulate bubble flotation of fine coal. Technical progress report for the thirteenth quarter, October 1--December 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.

    1993-12-31

    Gasified collector and liquid collector addition techniques were applied in the column flotation to demonstrate the selectivity of utilizing the hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubbles in the fine coal flotation process. A 3-in. flotation column was used to evaluate two modes of collector dispersion and addition techniques on the recovery and grade of fine coals using various ranks of coal. Five different coal samples were used in the column flotation test program. They are Mammoth, Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Illinois No. 6 seam coals, which correspond to anthracite-, low volatile-, medium volatile-, and high volatile-seam coals, respectively. In this quarterly report, the test results for the Illinois No. 6 seam coal are reported.

  6. Performance testing of the Acurex solar-collector Model 3001-03

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    Results are summarized of tests conducted at the Collector Module Test Facility on an Acurex Model 3001-03 Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Collector. Test temperaure range was 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C. Tests were conducted with the collector axis oriented east-west and again with the collector axis oriented north-south. Three collectors were tested: one using polished aluminum mirrors, one using glass mirrors, and another using an aluminized acrylic film mirror.

  7. Baseline performance of solar collectors for NASA Langley solar building test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Johnson, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    The solar collector field contains seven collector designs. Before operation in the field, the experimental performances (thermal efficiencies) of the seven collector designs were measured in an indoor solar simulator. The resulting data provided a baseline for later comparison with actual field test data. The simulator test results are presented for the collectors as received, and after several weeks of outdoor exposure with no coolant (dry operation). Six of the seven collector designs tested showed substantial reductions in thermal efficiency after dry operation.

  8. State-of-the-art review of low-cost collector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, W. A.

    1981-06-01

    A brief but concise review is provided of low-cost solar collector technologies and their potential for application within the military. Low-cost, light-weight concepts for flat-plate collectors, parabolic trough collectors, heliostats and parabolic dish collectors are covered. In addition, several criteria are evaluated with respect to low-cost collector technologies. These include reliability, maintainability, survivability, motility/erectibility, environmental impact and economics. Research and development requirements and ongoing activities are also summarized.

  9. Power Systems Development Facility. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the third quarter of a project entitled Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phase expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  10. Particulate technology issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-12-01

    Advanced systems for power generation based on coal combustion or gasification will require effective particulate control both for protection of equipment in the gas stream and for compliance with environmental regulations. These new classes of systems will require efficient removal of particles from gas streams at high temperature and high pressure. Primary candidates for particulate control are various types of ceramic filter systems; however, the long-term effects of hot gases and fine particles on the structure and filtration effectiveness of potential filter materials require further study. Thermal gradients induced by pulse cleaning are also of concern. Long-term ``patch tests`` will be conducted on ceramic disks of the same materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic crossflow filters. The primary issues to be addressed in these tests are the long-term physical, thermal, and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible blinding of filter elements; and long term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube sheet and pulse cleaning systems. Each long-term patch test will require about 3 to 4 months of nearly continuous operation.

  11. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  12. NBS solar collector durability/reliability test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waksman, D.; Thomas, W. C.; Streed, E. R.

    1984-09-01

    Efforts in the development of reliability/durability tests for solar collectors and their materials have been hampered by the lack of real time conditions. Research undertaken at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) to help generate the data required to develop methods for predicting the long term durability and reliability of flat plate solar collectors and their materials is discussed. Eight different types of flat plate solar collectors were exposed outdoors at four sites located in different climatic regions. Small scale cover and absorbed materials coupon specimens consisting of samples taken from a collector of each of the eight types used and a number of additional materials were exposed concurrently with the full size collectors. Periodic measurements were made of collector and materials performance as a function of outdoor exposure time. Indoor laboratory aging tests were conducted concurrently on specimens of the same materials to provide a basis for comparison with the outdoor exposure tests. The results obtained in this test program are presented.

  13. Researcher and Mechanic with Solar Collector in Solar Simulator Cell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-08-21

    Researcher Susan Johnson and a mechanic examine a flat-plate solar collector in the Solar Simulator Cell in the High Temperature Composites Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The Solar Simulator Cell allowed the researchers to control the radiation levels, air temperature, airflow, and fluid flow. The flat-plate collector, seen in a horizontal position here, was directed at the solar simulator, seen above Johnson, during the tests. Lewis researchers were studying the efficiency of various flat- plate solar collector designs in the 1970s for temperature control systems in buildings. The collectors consisted of a cover material, absorber plate, and parallel flow configuration. The collector’s absorber material and coating, covers, honeycomb material, mirrors, vacuum, and tube attachment could all be modified. Johnson’s study analyzed 35 collectors. Johnson, a lifelong pilot, joined NASA Lewis in 1974. The flat-plate solar collectors, seen here, were her first research project. Johnson also investigated advanced heat engines for general aviation and evaluated variable geometry combustors and liners. Johnson earned the Cleveland Technical Society’s Technical Achievement Award in 1984.

  14. Wire mesh current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Naveen K.; Thombre, Shashikant B.; Motghare, Ramani V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of the stainless steel wire mesh as current collector in the passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFCs-W). A novel single cell fixture is designed and fabricated. The cell performance is evaluated and compared with five different wire mesh current collectors. The supporting plates are optimized for every mesh. The performance of DMFCs-W is compared with the conventional passive DMFC which uses perforated metal plate as current collector (DMFC-P). The polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are performed to investigate the different aspects of the cell performance. The results reveal that the DMFCs-W yield better performance than the DMFC-P. Also, more uniform fuel distribution at catalyst layer and higher cell temperature is achieved with wire mesh current collectors. It is found that the wire mesh geometry has significant effect on the cell performance and the mesh made of relatively thick wires gives better cell performance. This study identifies the stainless steel wire mesh as promising material to be used as current collector and potential substitute to the perforated plate current collectors in the passive DMFC.

  15. Thermographic techniques applied to solar collector systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, A.

    1980-02-01

    The use of thermography to analyze large solar collector array systems under dynamic operating conditions is discussed. The research at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in this area has focused on thermographic techniques and equipment to determine temperature distributions, flow patterns, and air blockages in solar collectors. The results of this extensive study, covering many sites and types of collectors, illustrate the capabilities of infrared (IR) analysis as a qualitative analysis tool and operation and maintenance procedure when applied to large arrays. Thermographic analysis of most collector systems qualitatively showed relative temperature distributions that indicated balanced flow patterns. In three significant cases, blocked or broken collector arrays, which previously had gone undetected, were discovered. Using this analysis, validation studies of large computer codes could examine collector arrays for flow patterns or blockages that could cause disagreement between actual and predicted performance. Initial operation and balancing of large systems could be accomplished without complicated sensor systems not needed for normal operations. Maintenance personnel could quickly check their systems without climbing onto the roof and without complicated sensor systems.

  16. Ray-tracing software comparison for linear focusing solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Tiago; Horta, Pedro; Larcher, Marco; Pujol-Nadal, Ramón; Hertel, Julian; van Rooyen, De Wet; Heimsath, Anna; Schneider, Simon; Benitez, Daniel; Frein, Antoine; Denarie, Alice

    2016-05-01

    Ray-Tracing software tools have been widely used in the optical design of solar concentrating collectors. In spite of the ability of these tools to assess the geometrical and material aspects impacting the optical performance of concentrators, their use in combination with experimental measurements in the framework of collector testing procedures as not been implemented, to the date, in none of the current solar collector testing standards. In the latest revision of ISO9806 an effort was made to include linear focusing concentrating collectors but some practical and theoretical difficulties emerged. A Ray-Tracing analysis could provide important contributions to overcome these issues, complementing the experimental results obtained through thermal testing and allowing the achievement of more thorough testing outputs with lower experimental requirements. In order to evaluate different available software tools a comparison study was conducted. Taking as representative technologies for line-focus concentrators the Parabolic Trough Collector and the Linear Fresnel Reflector Collector, two exemplary cases with predefined conditions - geometry, sun model and material properties - were simulated with different software tools. This work was carried out within IEA/SHC Task 49 "Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes".

  17. Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.; Rausch, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    A development program was conducted to investigate the design and performance parameters of a novel, dual curvature, concentrating solar collector. The reflector of the solar collector is achieved with a stretched-film reflective surface that approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid and is capable of line-focusing at concentration ratios ranging from 10 to 20X. A prototype collector was designed based on analytical and experimental component trade-off activities as well as economic analyses of solar thermal heating and cooling systems incorporating this type of collector. A prototype collector incorporating six 0.66 x 1.22 m (2 x 4 ft) was fabricated and subjected to a limited thermal efficiency test program. A peak efficiency of 36% at 121/sup 0/C (250/sup 0/F) was achieved based upon the gross aperture area. Commercialization activities were conducted, including estimated production costs of $134.44/m/sup 2/ ($12.49/ft/sup 2/) for the collector assembly (including a local suntracker and controls) and $24.33/m/sup 2/ ($2.26/ft/sup 2/) for the reflector subassembly.

  18. Conceptual design of an orbital debris collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Peter (Editor); Brenton, Brian; Chambers, Ernest; Schwind, Thomas; Swanhart, Christopher; Williams, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The current Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) environment has become overly crowded with space debris. An evaluation of types of debris is presented in order to determine which debris poses the greatest threat to operation in space, and would therefore provide a feasible target for removal. A target meeting these functional requirements was found in the Cosmos C-1B Rocket Body. These launchers are spent space transporters which constitute a very grave risk of collision and fragmentation in LEO. The motion and physical characteristics of these rocket bodies have determined the most feasible method of removal. The proposed Orbital Debris Collector (ODC) device is designed to attach to the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), which provides all propulsion, tracking, and power systems. The OMV/ODC combination, the Rocket Body Retrieval Vehicle (RBRV), will match orbits with the rocket body, use a spin table to match the rotational motion of the debris, capture it, despin it, and remove it from orbit by allowing it to fall into the Earth's atmosphere. A disposal analysis is presented to show how the debris will be deorbited into the Earth's atmosphere. The conceptual means of operation of a sample mission is described.

  19. [Naturalists, collectors and theoreticians of museology].

    PubMed

    Arabas, Iwona

    2009-01-01

    The origins of the contemporary collectorship dates from times when the sameness of art and science was commonly accepted. In those days relics of the ancient past and natural individuals of newly discovered lands were presented at the same time. Cosmological character of the collections manifested the tenacity of recognition and representation of the surrounding reality. A great impact on completion of collections of curiosities in Europe had Netherlands, and in the basin of Baltic Sea a remarkable significance was gained by Hanseatic Gdańsk. Collections of Jakub Breyn, Jakub Klein and Gotfryd Reyger became famous then. In the same way were imported individuals for Anna Jabłonowska that composed one of the most interesting European collections. In course of time merging such a great multiplicity of collections was beyond collectors' power and museum pieces from collections of curiosities were parcelled out. It was a real beginning of specialistic museums. A role of museum for science results from its function of methodical organizing collections that can be used by research workers. However, although the aims of scientific and museum centres are different, they come together on the occasion of museum recognition works when museums' workers borrow essential knowledge and methods from resources of science, and scientists search for useful research materials in museum resources.

  20. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  1. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  2. Effect of openings collectors and solar irradiance on the thermal efficiency of flat plate-finned collector for indirect-type passive solar dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Dina, Sari Farah; Klaudia Kathryn Y., M.; Turmuzi, M.; Siregar, Fitri; Panjaitan, Nora

    2017-06-01

    Research on the effect of openings solar collector and solar irradiance to thermal efficiency has been done. Solar collector by flat plate-finned type consists of 3 ply insulator namely wood, Styrofoam and Rockwool with thickness respectively are 10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm. Absorber plate made of aluminum sheet with thickness of 0.30 mm, painted by black-doff. Installation of 19 units fins (length x height x thickness: 1000x20x10 mm) on the collector will increase surface area of absorber so it can receive much more solar energy. The solar collector cover is made of glass (thickness of 5 mm). During the research, the solar irradiance and temperature of collector are measured and recorded every five minutes. Temperature measurement performed on the surface of the absorber plate, inside of collector, surface cover and the outer side insulator (plywood). This data is used to calculate the heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation on the collector. Openings of collectors vary as follows: 100%, 75%, 15% and 0% (total enclosed). The data collecting was conducted from 09.00 am to 17.00 pm and triplicates. The collector thermal efficiency calculated based on the ratio of the amount of heat received to the solar irradiance absorbed. The results show that each of openings solar collector has different solar irradiance (because it was done on a different day) which is in units of W/m2: 390 (100% open), 376 (75% open), 429 (15% open), and 359 (totally enclosed). The highest thermal efficiency is in openings variation of 15% opened. These results indicate that the efficiency of the collector is influenced by the solar irradiance received by the collector and the temperature on the collector plate. The highest thermal efficiency is in variation of openings 15%. These indicate that the efficiency of the collector was influenced by solar irradiance received by the collector and openings of the collector plate.

  3. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  4. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  5. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  7. 49 CFR 573.7 - Quarterly reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; (2) For the second calendar quarter (April 1 through June 30), on or before July 30; (3) For the third calendar quarter (July 1 through September 30), on or before October 30; and (4) For the fourth...

  8. 49 CFR 573.7 - Quarterly reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; (2) For the second calendar quarter (April 1 through June 30), on or before July 30; (3) For the third calendar quarter (July 1 through September 30), on or before October 30; and (4) For the fourth...

  9. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  10. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  11. Pressure driven particulate flows

    SciTech Connect

    Ingher, M.S.; Mondy, L.A.

    1996-03-01

    Numerical simulations of pressure-driven particulate Stokes flows are performed in cylindrical and rectangular conduits using a parallel boundary element code. Spherical particles are randomly placed in the conduits and a pressure drop between the ends of the conduits is imposed by the boundary conditions to induce a Poiseuille-like flow field. The instantaneous velocities of the particles are then calculated, as well as the additional pressure drop necessary to maintain a constant flow rate. Because the results depend on the spatial distribution of the particles, several random configurations of particles are examined for each case. Depending on two different interpretations of the numerical results, the solid phase can be represented as either leading or lagging the fluid phase. Both of the analyses and interpretations are presented.

  12. Particulate erosion mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate damage and erosion of ductile metals are today plaguing design and field engineers in diverse fields of engineering and technology. It was found that too many models and theories were proposed leading to much speculation from debris analysis and failure mechanism postulations. Most theories of solid particle erosion are based on material removal models which do not fully represent the actual physical processes of material removal. The various mechanisms proposed thus far are: melting, low-cycle fatigue, extrusion, delamination, shear localization, adhesive material transfer, etc. The experimental data on different materials highlighting the observed failure modes of the deformation and cutting wear processes using optical and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The most important mechanisms proved from the experimental observations of the specimens exposed to both spherical and angular particles are addressed, and the validity of the earlier theories discussed. Both the initial stages of damage and advanced stages of erosion were studied to gain a fundamental understanding of the process.

  13. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  14. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  15. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Human Dermal Lymphatic Collectors

    PubMed Central

    Buttler, Kerstin; Ströbel, Philipp; Becker, Jürgen; Aung, Thiha; Felmerer, Gunther; Wilting, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Millions of patients suffer from lymphedema worldwide. Supporting the contractility of lymphatic collectors is an attractive target for pharmacological therapy of lymphedema. However, lymphatics have mostly been studied in animals, while the cellular and molecular characteristics of human lymphatic collectors are largely unknown. We studied epifascial lymphatic collectors of the thigh, which were isolated for autologous transplantations. Our immunohistological studies identify additional markers for LECs (vimentin, CCBE1). We show and confirm differences between initial and collecting lymphatics concerning the markers ESAM1, D2-40 and LYVE-1. Our transmission electron microscopic studies reveal two types of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media of the collectors with dark and light cytoplasm. We observed vasa vasorum in the media of the largest collectors, as well as interstitial Cajal-like cells, which are highly ramified cells with long processes, caveolae, and lacking a basal lamina. They are in close contact with SMCs, which possess multiple caveolae at the contact sites. Immunohistologically we identified such cells with antibodies against vimentin and PDGFRα, but not CD34 and cKIT. With Next Generation Sequencing we searched for highly expressed genes in the media of lymphatic collectors, and found therapeutic targets, suitable for acceleration of lymphatic contractility, such as neuropeptide Y receptors 1, and 5; tachykinin receptors 1, and 2; purinergic receptors P2RX1, and 6, P2RY12, 13, and 14; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors HTR2B, and 3C; and adrenoceptors α2A,B,C. Our studies represent the first comprehensive characterization of human epifascial lymphatic collectors, as a prerequisite for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27764183

  16. Collector optic cleaning by in-situ hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elg, Daniel T.; Panici, Gianluca A.; Srivastava, Shailendra N.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography sources produce EUV photons by means of a hot, dense, highly-ionized Sn plasma. This plasma expels high-energy Sn ions and neutrals, which deposit on the collector optic used to focus the EUV light. This Sn deposition lowers the reflectivity of the collector optic, necessitating downtime for collector cleaning and replacement. A method is being developed to clean the collector with an in-situ hydrogen plasma, which provides hydrogen radicals that etch the Sn by forming gaseous SnH4. This method has the potential to significantly reduce collector-related source downtime. EUV reflectivity restoration and Sn cleaning have been demonstrated on multilayer mirror samples attached to a Sn-coated 300mm-diameter steel dummy collector driven at 300W RF power with 500sccm H2 and a pressure of 260mTorr. Use of the in-situ cleaning method is also being studied at industriallyapplicable high pressure (1.3 Torr). Plasma creation across the dummy collector surface has been demonstrated at 1.3 Torr with 1000sccm H2 flow, and etch rates have been measured. Additionally, etching has been demonstrated at higher flow rates up to 3200sccm. A catalytic probe has been used to measure radical density at various pressures and flows. The results lend further credence to the hypothesis that Sn removal is limited not by radical creation but by the removal of SnH4 from the plasma. Additionally, further progress has been made in an attempt to model the physical processes behind Sn removal.

  17. Low cost anti-soiling coatings for CSP collector mirrors and heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Scott R.; Smith, D. Barton; Polizos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A.; Lee, Dominic F.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2014-10-01

    Most concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities in the USA are located in the desert southwest where open land and sunshine are abundant, but airborne dust is prevalent. The accumulation of dust, sand and other natural pollutants on collector mirrors and heliostats presents a significant operational problem and M&O cost for the CSP facilities in this region. The optical performance of the CSP collectors is key to achieving low electricity costs, where a 1% decrease in reflectance directly leads to a 1% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) generated by these facilities. In this paper we describe the development of low cost, easy to apply anti-soiling coatings based on superhydrophobic (SH) functionalized nano silica materials and polymer binders that possess the key requirements necessary to inhibit particulate deposition on, and adhesion to, CSP mirror surfaces, and thereby significantly reducing mirror cleaning costs and facility downtime. The key requirements for these coatings are excellent optical clarity with minimal diffuse reflectance, and coating mechanical and exposure durability in harsh desert environments while maintaining SH and dirt shedding properties. The coatings developed to date have excellent SH properties with water contact angles >165° and rolling angles <5°. The solar weighted optical reflectance of the anti-soiling coating over the wavelength range 250 nm to 3μm is >99% that of uncoated mirror surfaces with coating diffuse reflectance being <1% over this wavelength range. Ongoing mechanical and accelerated solar UVA exposures also indicate these coatings will meet the required durability goals.

  18. Education Statistics Quarterly, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The "Education Statistics Quarterly" gives a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications and data products released during a 3-month period. Each message also contains a…

  19. Trustee Quarterly, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This document contains 4 issues of the Trustee Quarterly: fall 2000, spring 2001, summer 2001, and fall 2001. The fall 2000 issue contains seven features and six departments. Among the features are: "The New Economy: Who Will Lead the Education Movement," by Rucker; "Community Colleges Tackle IT Staffing Challenges," by Matina; and "Looking at…

  20. JLTN Quarterly, 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JLTN Quarterly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the "JLTN Quarterly" issued from December 1995 to October 1996. This journal for high school Japanese language teachers contain articles on class activities and classroom teaching techniques. These include: exercises in interpretation of a Toys "R" Us store map and advertising; a weather discussion…