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Sample records for particulate ecto-nucleotidase cd39

  1. Polyoxometalates--potent and selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Fiene, Amelie; Li, Wenjin; Hanck, Theodor; Brylev, Konstantin A; Fedorov, Vladimir E; Lecka, Joanna; Haider, Ali; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Sévigny, Jean; Kortz, Ulrich; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-15

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic cluster metal complexes that possess versatile biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiviral effects. Their mechanisms of action at the molecular level are largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that the inhibition of several enzyme families (e.g., phosphatases, protein kinases or ecto-nucleotidases) by POMs may contribute to their pharmacological properties. Ecto-nucleotidases are cell membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides thereby regulating purinergic (and pyrimidinergic) signaling. They comprise four distinct families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs), alkaline phosphatases (APs) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN). In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of a series of polyoxometalates as well as chalcogenide hexarhenium cluster complexes at a broad range of ecto-nucleotidases. [Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2](10-) (5, PSB-POM142) was discovered to be the most potent inhibitor of human NTPDase1 described so far (Ki: 3.88 nM). Other investigated POMs selectively inhibited human NPP1, [TiW11CoO40](8-) (4, PSB-POM141, Ki: 1.46 nM) and [NaSb9W21O86](18-) (6, PSB-POM143, Ki: 4.98 nM) representing the most potent and selective human NPP1 inhibitors described to date. [NaP5W30O110](14-) (8, PSB-POM144) strongly inhibited NTPDase1-3 and NPP1 and may therefore be used as a pan-inhibitor to block ATP hydrolysis. The polyoxoanionic compounds displayed a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition of NPPs and eN, but appeared to be competitive inhibitors of TNAP. Future in vivo studies with selected inhibitors identified in the current study are warranted. PMID:25449596

  2. Acidosis is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto-nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Millán, José L; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi ) to pyrophosphate (PPi ) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi , a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 1-6 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 >  alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P < 0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, P < 0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions.

  3. CD39/Adenosine Pathway Is Involved in AIDS Progression

    PubMed Central

    Limou, Sophie; Younas, Mehwish; Kök, Ayrin; Huë, Sophie; Seddiki, Nabila; Hulin, Anne; Delaneau, Olivier; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Herbeck, Joshua T.; Mullins, James I.; Muhtarova, Maria; Bensussan, Armand; Zagury, Jean-François; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Lévy, Yves

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is characterized by a chronic activation of the immune system and suppressed function of T lymphocytes. Regulatory CD4+ CD25high FoxP3+CD127low T cells (Treg) play a key role in both conditions. Here, we show that HIV-1 positive patients have a significant increase of Treg-associated expression of CD39/ENTPD1, an ectoenzyme which in concert with CD73 generates adenosine. We show in vitro that the CD39/adenosine axis is involved in Treg suppression in HIV infection. Treg inhibitory effects are relieved by CD39 down modulation and are reproduced by an adenosine-agonist in accordance with a higher expression of the adenosine A2A receptor on patients' T cells. Notably, the expansion of the Treg CD39+ correlates with the level of immune activation and lower CD4+ counts in HIV-1 infected patients. Finally, in a genetic association study performed in three different cohorts, we identified a CD39 gene polymorphism that was associated with down-modulated CD39 expression and a slower progression to AIDS. PMID:21750674

  4. CD39 and CD73 in immunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Luca; Pacher, Pál; Vizi, E. Sylvester; Haskó, György

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic activities of CD39 and CD73 play strategic roles in calibrating the duration, magnitude, and chemical nature of purinergic signals delivered to immune cells through the conversion of ADP/ATP to AMP and AMP to adenosine, respectively. This drives a shift from an ATP-driven proinflammatory environment to an anti-inflammatory milieu induced by adenosine. The CD39/CD73 pathway changes dynamically with the pathophysiological context in which it is embedded. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that altering this catabolic machinery can change the course or dictate the outcome of several pathophysiological events, such as AIDS, autoimmune diseases, infections, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer, suggesting these ecto-enzymes are novel therapeutic targets for managing a variety of disorders. PMID:23601906

  5. Self-regulation of inflammatory cell trafficking in mice by the leukocyte surface apyrase CD39

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Matthew C.; Petrovic-Djergovic, Danica; Visovatti, Scott H.; Liao, Hui; Yanamadala, Sunitha; Bouïs, Diane; Su, Enming J.; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Broekman, M. Johan; Marcus, Aaron J.; Pinsky, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Leukocyte and platelet accumulation at sites of cerebral ischemia exacerbate cerebral damage. The ectoenzyme CD39 on the plasmalemma of endothelial cells metabolizes ADP to suppress platelet accumulation in the ischemic brain. However, the role of leukocyte surface CD39 in regulating monocyte and neutrophil trafficking in this setting is not known. Here we have demonstrated in mice what we believe to be a novel mechanism by which CD39 on monocytes and neutrophils regulates their own sequestration into ischemic cerebral tissue, by catabolizing nucleotides released by injured cells, thereby inhibiting their chemotaxis, adhesion, and transmigration. Bone marrow reconstitution and provision of an apyrase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes nucleoside tri- and diphosphates, each normalized ischemic leukosequestration and cerebral infarction in CD39-deficient mice. Leukocytes purified from Cd39–/– mice had a markedly diminished capacity to phosphohydrolyze adenine nucleotides and regulate platelet reactivity, suggesting that leukocyte ectoapyrases modulate the ambient vascular nucleotide milieu. Dissipation of ATP by CD39 reduced P2X7 receptor stimulation and thereby suppressed baseline leukocyte αMβ2-integrin expression. As αMβ2-integrin blockade reversed the postischemic, inflammatory phenotype of Cd39–/– mice, these data suggest that phosphohydrolytic activity on the leukocyte surface suppresses cell-cell interactions that would otherwise promote thrombosis or inflammation. These studies indicate that CD39 on both endothelial cells and leukocytes reduces inflammatory cell trafficking and platelet reactivity, with a consequent reduction in tissue injury following cerebral ischemic challenge. PMID:19381014

  6. Expression of CD39 on Activated T Cells Impairs their Survival in Older Individuals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fengqin; Yu, Mingcan; Cavanagh, Mary M; Hutter Saunders, Jessica; Qi, Qian; Ye, Zhongde; Le Saux, Sabine; Sultan, William; Turgano, Emerson; Dekker, Cornelia L; Tian, Lu; Weyand, Cornelia M; Goronzy, Jörg J

    2016-02-01

    In an immune response, CD4(+) T cells expand into effector T cells and then contract to survive as long-lived memory cells. To identify age-associated defects in memory cell formation, we profiled activated CD4(+) T cells and found an increased induction of the ATPase CD39 with age. CD39(+) CD4(+) T cells resembled effector T cells with signs of metabolic stress and high susceptibility to undergo apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of ATPase activity dampened effector cell differentiation and improved survival, suggesting that CD39 activity influences T cell fate. Individuals carrying a low-expressing CD39 variant responded better to vaccination with an increase in vaccine-specific memory T cells. Increased inducibility of CD39 after activation may contribute to the impaired vaccine response with age. PMID:26832412

  7. Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 Directly Promotes Tumor Cell Growth by Scavenging Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate12

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5′-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X7 receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X7 expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management. PMID:21390184

  8. Regulated Catalysis of Extracellular Nucleotides by Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 Is Required for Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    BELDI, GUIDO; WU, YAN; SUN, XIAOFENG; IMAI, MASATO; ENJYOJI, KEIICHI; CSIZMADIA, EVA; CANDINAS, DANIEL; ERB, LAURIE; ROBSON, SIMON C.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known about how endothelial cells respond to injury, regulate hepatocyte turnover and reconstitute the hepatic vasculature. We aimed to determine the effects of the vascular ectonucleotidase CD39 on sinusoidal endothelial cell responses following partial hepatectomy and to dissect purinergic and growth factor interactions in this model. Methods Parameters of liver injury and regeneration, as well as the kinetics of hepatocellular and sinusoidal endothelial cell proliferation, were assessed following partial hepatectomy in mice that do not express CD39, that do not express ATP/UTP receptor P2Y2, and in controls. The effects of extracellular ATP on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin-6 responses were determined in vivo and in vitro. Phosphorylation of the endothelial VEGF receptor in response to extracellular nucleotides and growth factors was assessed in vitro. Results After partial hepatectomy, expression of the vascular ectonucleotidase CD39 increased on sinusoidal endothelial cells. Targeted disruption of CD39 impaired hepatocellular regeneration, reduced angiogenesis, and increased hepatic injury, resulting in pronounced vascular endothelial apoptosis, and decreased survival. Decreased HGF release by sinusoidal endothelial cells, despite high levels of VEGF, reduced paracrine stimulation of hepatocytes. Failure of VEGF receptor-2/KDR transactivation by extracellular nucleotides on CD39-null endothelial cells was associated with P2Y2 receptor desensitization. Conclusions Regulated phosphohydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides by CD39 coordinates both hepatocyte and endothelial cell proliferation following partial hepatectomy. Lack of CD39 activity is associated with decreased hepatic regeneration and failure of vascular reconstitution. PMID:18804472

  9. Overexpression of CD39 in hepatocellular carcinoma is an independent indicator of poor outcome after radical resection

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-Yan; Ni, Xiao-Chun; Yi, Yong; He, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Xing; Fu, Yi-Peng; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Jian; Cheng, Yun-Feng; Jin, Jian-Jun; Fan, Jia; Qiu, Shuang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (ENTPD1/CD39) is the rate-limiting enzyme in a cascade leading to the generation of immunosuppressive adenosine and plays an important role in tumor progression. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD39 and CD39+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and to determine their prognostic role in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radical resection. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double IHC were used to analyze CD39 expression or the expression of CD39 and Foxp3 in a cohort of 324 HCC patients who underwent curative resection. The quantification of CD39 expression levels was determined using a computerized image analysis system and was evaluated by mean optical density (MOD), which corresponded to the positive staining intensity of CD39. The number of positive Foxp3 cells and both CD39 and Foxp3 positive cells in each 1-mm-diameter cylinder were counted under high-power magnification (×400). The “minimum P value” approach was used to obtain the optimal cutoff value for the best separation between groups of patients in relation to time to recurrence (TTR) or overall survival (OS). The expression of CD39 in HCC cell lines with stepwise metastatic potential and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. The SPSS 17.0 statistical package was used for statistics. CD39 was principally expressed on vascular endothelial cells, macrophagocytes, Tregs, and tumor cells in HCC. Compared with paired peritumoral tissues, tumoral tissues had a significantly higher expression level of CD39 (P < 0.0001). Overexpression of tumoral CD39 was related to increased tumor recurrence and shortened overall survival. Furthermore, the expression level of peritumoral CD39 showed a prognostic role in TTR and OS. Double IHC showed that tumoral tissues had significantly higher Foxp3+Tregs and CD39+Foxp3+Tregs

  10. Fingolimod Increases CD39-Expressing Regulatory T Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muls, Nathalie; Dang, Hong Anh; Sindic, Christian J. M.; van Pesch, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) likely results from an imbalance between regulatory and inflammatory immune processes. CD39 is an ectoenzyme that cleaves ATP to AMP and has been suggested as a novel regulatory T cells (Treg) marker. As ATP has numerous proinflammatory effects, its degradation by CD39 has anti-inflammatory influence. The purpose of this study was to explore regulatory and inflammatory mechanisms activated in fingolimod treated MS patients. Methods and Findings Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from relapsing-remitting MS patients before starting fingolimod and three months after therapy start. mRNA expression was assessed in ex vivo PBMCs. The proportions of CD8, B cells, CD4 and CD39-expressing cells were analysed by flow cytometry. Treg proportion was quantified by flow cytometry and methylation-specific qPCR. Fingolimod treatment increased mRNA levels of CD39, AHR and CYP1B1 but decreased mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-22 and FOXP3 mRNA in PBMCs. B cells, CD4+ cells and Treg proportions were significantly reduced by this treatment, but remaining CD4+ T cells were enriched in FOXP3+ cells and in CD39-expressing Tregs. Conclusions In addition to the decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells, our findings highlight additional immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by fingolimod. PMID:25411844

  11. Vascular stasis, intestinal hemorrhage, and heightened vascular permeability complicate acute portal hypertension in cd39-null mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Cárdenas, Andrés; Wu, Yan; Enjyoji, Keichi; Robson, Simon C.

    2009-01-01

    Vasoactive factors that regulate splanchnic hemodynamics include nitric oxide, catecholamines, and possibly extracellular nucleosides/nucleotides (adenosine, ATP). CD39/ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1) is the major vascular ectonucleotidase that hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides. CD39 activity may be modulated by vascular injury, inflammation, and altered oxygen tension. Altered Cd39 expression by the murine hepatosplanchnic vasculature may impact hemodynamics and portal hypertension (PHT) in vivo. We noted that basal portal pressures (PPs) were comparable in wild-type and Cd39-null mice (n = 9). ATP infusions resulted in increments in PP in wild-type mice, but, in contrast, this significantly decreased in Cd39-null mice (n = 9) post-ATP in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. We then studied Cd39/NTPDase1 deletion in the regulation of portal hemodynamics, vascular integrity, and intestinal permeability in a murine model of PHT. Partial portal vein ligation (PPVL) was performed in Cd39-null (n = 44) and wild-type (n = 23) mice. Sequential measurements obtained after PPVL were indicative of comparable levels of PHT (ranges 14–29 mmHg) in both groups. There was one death in the wild-type group and eight in the Cd39-null group from intestinal bleeding (P = 0.024). Circulatory stasis in the absence of overt portal vein thrombosis, portal congestion, intestinal hemorrhage, and increased permeability were evident in all surviving Cd39-null mice. Deletion of Cd39 results in deleterious outcomes post-PPVL that are associated with significant microcirculatory derangements and major intestinal congestion with hemorrhage mimicking acute mesenteric occlusion. Absent Cd39/NTPDase1 and decreased generation of adenosine in the splanchnic circulation cause heightened vascular permeability and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in PPVL. PMID:19520738

  12. Induction of gut regulatory CD39+ T cells by teriflunomide protects against EAE

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Sara L.; Kircher, Christopher; Kasper, Eli J.; Telesford, Kiel M.; Begum-Haque, Sakhina; Pant, Anudeep; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether as an orally delivered treatment, teriflunomide, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase approved to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, could affect gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) immune responses functionally. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treated orally with teriflunomide and flow cytometric analysis of immune GALT cells performed ex vivo, and adoptive transfer experiments were used to test the protective effects of GALT regulatory T (Treg) cells. Results: Teriflunomide reduced the percentages of antigen-presenting cells of Peyer patches when compared to controls. Conversely, a significant increase of the relative frequency of CD39+ Treg cells was observed. In vivo, the protective effect of GALT-derived teriflunomide-induced CD39+ Treg cells was established by adoptive transfer into recipient experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. Conclusions: Our results identify specific GALT-derived CD39+ Treg cells as a mechanism of action that may contribute to the efficacy of teriflunomide during CNS inflammatory demyelination and as an oral therapeutic in relapsing multiple sclerosis. PMID:27766282

  13. Defective renal water handling in transgenic mice over-expressing human CD39/NTPDase1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Morris, Kaiya L; Sparrow, Shannon K; Dwyer, Karen M; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2012-08-01

    Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP. Previously, we showed that CD39 is expressed at several sites within the kidney and thus may impact the availability of type 2 purinergic receptor (P2-R) ligands. Because P2-Rs appear to regulate urinary concentrating ability, we have evaluated renal water handling in transgenic mice (TG) globally overexpressing hCD39. Under basal conditions, TG mice exhibited significantly impaired urinary concentration and decreased protein abundance of AQP2 in the kidney compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Urinary excretion of total nitrates/nitrites was significantly higher in TG mice, but the excretion of AVP or PGE(2) was equivalent to control WT mice. There were no significant differences in electrolyte-free water clearance or fractional excretion of sodium. Under stable hydrated conditions (gelled diet feeding), the differences between the WT and TG mice were negated, but the decrease in urine osmolality persisted. When water deprived, TG mice failed to adequately concentrate urine and exhibited impaired AVP responses. However, the increases in urinary osmolalities in response to subacute dDAVP or chronic AVP treatment were similar in TG and WT mice. These observations suggest that TG mice have impaired urinary concentrating ability despite normal AVP levels. We also note impaired AVP release in response to water deprivation but that TG kidneys are responsive to exogenous dDAVP or AVP. We infer that heightened nucleotide scavenging by increased levels of CD39 altered the release of endogenous AVP in response to dehydration. We propose that ectonucleotidases and modulated purinergic signaling impact urinary concentration and indicate potential utility of targeted therapy for the treatment of water balance disorders.

  14. CD39/CD73 and the imbalance of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Tang, Hua-Ping; Shi, Guo-Chao; Wan, Huan-Ying; Tang, Wei; Hou, Xiao-Xia; Pan, Li-Na; Shi, Bao-Yu; Tao, Lian-Qin

    2013-11-01

    In the immune system, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain self‑tolerance and Th17 cells mediate inflammatory responses. CD39 is expressed on the surface of a subset of naturally occurring human Tregs that are important in constraining pathogenic Th17 cells. Additional studies have shown that Tregs differentiate into interleukin‑17 (IL‑17)+Foxp3+ T cells. Our previous study indicated an imbalance of Th17 and Tregs in allergic asthma; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), CD39 and CD73 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the proportion of IL‑17+Foxp3+ T cells, and CD39 and CD73 expressed by CD4+ T cells and Tregs in the peripheral blood of the subjects. The results of the present study demonstrated an increased frequency of CD4+Foxp3+IL‑17+ T cells in moderate to severe asthma. A deficiency in CD39 expressed on the surface of CD4+ T cells and Tregs was observed in asthma patients. The expression of CD39 and CD73 on the surface of CD4+ T cells and Tregs was negatively correlated with the number of Th17 cells. These results indicated that the plasticity of Tregs transforming to IL‑17+Foxp3+CD4+ T cells, the reduced frequency of CD39+ Tregs and less effective suppression of IL‑17 production by residual CD39+ Tregs leads to an imbalance of Th17 and Tregs in asthma. Therefore, enhanced CD39 activity is hypothesized to prevent the progression of asthma.

  15. CD39 expression on Treg and Th17 cells is associated with metabolic factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Espinosa, Nancy; Cortés-Garcia, Juan Diego; Martínez-Leija, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Rivera, Jose Guillermo; Barajas-López, Carlos; González-Amaro, Roberto; Portales-Pérez, Diana Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Th17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases such as type two diabetes (T2D). CD39(+) Treg cells have been implicated as responsible for suppressing Th17 cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the number and function of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD39(+) Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from T2D patients and healthy control subjects. The Th17 cells were detected in PBMC under culture with human anti-CD3/CD28 and PMA/ionomycin and the levels of IL-17 were assessed by ELISA and qPCR. The T2D patients with obesity showed significantly lower percentages of CD39(+) Treg cells. A negative correlation between CD39(+) Treg cells and weight, and body mass index was detected. In contrast, the low levels of CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells in overweight and obese T2D patients showed a positive correlation with glucose and HbA1c. Additionally, we found a subpopulation of Th17 cells that express CD39 and were correlated with glucose and HbA1c. Our findings suggest that the expression of CD39 on Treg cells and also in CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells from T2D patients is related to hyperglycemia as well as to overweight and obesity and therefore may participate as a modulator of the effector capacity of Th17 cells.

  16. NADH oxidase-dependent CD39 expression by CD8(+) T cells modulates interferon gamma responses via generation of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Bai, Aiping; Moss, Alan; Rothweiler, Sonja; Longhi, Maria Serena; Wu, Yan; Junger, Wolfgang G; Robson, Simon C

    2015-11-09

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ)-producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc1) play important roles in immunological disease. We now report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8(+) T cells to generate Tc1 cells, not only increases IFNγ production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augments expression of CD39. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases or knockdown of gp91phox in CD8(+) T cells abrogates ROS generation, which in turn modulates JNK and NFκB signalling with decreases in both IFNγ levels and CD39 expression. CD39(+)CD8(+) T cells substantially inhibit IFNγ production by CD39(-)CD8(+) T cells via the paracrine generation of adenosine, which is operational via adenosine type 2A receptors. Increases in numbers of CD39(+)CD8(+) T cells and associated enhancements in ROS signal transduction are noted in cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Our findings provide insights into Tc1-mediated IFNγ responses and ROS generation and link these pathways to CD39/adenosine-mediated effects in immunological disease.

  17. Inhibition of Neutrophils by Hypertonic Saline Involves Pannexin-1, CD39, CD73, and Other Ectonucleotidases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Bao, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Woehrle, Tobias; Sumi, Yuka; Ledderose, Stephan; Li, Xiaoou; Ledderose, Carola; Junger, Wolfgang G

    2015-09-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation has been studied as a possible strategy to reduce polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation and tissue damage in trauma patients. Hypertonic saline blocks PMNs by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and stimulation of A2a adenosine receptors. Here, we studied the underlying mechanisms in search of possible reasons for the inconsistent results of recent clinical trials with HS resuscitation. Purified human PMNs or PMNs in whole blood were treated with HS to simulate hypertonicity levels found after HS resuscitation (40 mmol/L beyond isotonic levels). Adenosine triphosphate release was measured with a luciferase assay. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation was assessed by measuring oxidative burst. The pannexin-1 (panx1) inhibitor panx1 and the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) blocked ATP release from PMNs in purified and whole blood preparations, indicating that HS releases ATP via panx1 and gap junction channels. Hypertonic saline blocked N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-induced PMN activation by 40% in purified PMN preparations and by 60% in whole blood. These inhibitory effects were abolished by panx1 but only partially reduced by CBX, which indicates that panx1 has a central role in the immunomodulatory effects of HS. Inhibition of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 abolished the suppressive effect of HS on purified PMN cultures but only partially reduced the effect of HS in whole blood. These findings suggest redundant mechanisms in whole blood that may strengthen the immunomodulatory effect of HS in vivo. We conclude that HS resuscitation exerts anti-inflammatory effects that involve panx1, CD39, CD73, and other ectonucleotidases, which produce the adenosine that blocks PMNs by stimulating their A2a receptors. Our findings shed new light on the immunomodulatory mechanisms of HS and suggest possible new strategies to improve the clinical efficacy of hypertonic resuscitation.

  18. Inhibition of neutrophils by hypertonic saline involves pannexin-1, CD39, CD73, and other ectonucleotidases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Bao, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Woehrle, Tobias; Sumi, Yuka; Ledderose, Stephan; Li, Xiaoou; Ledderose, Carola; Junger, Wolfgang G.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation has been studied as a possible strategy to reduce PMN activation and tissue damage in trauma patients. HS blocks PMNs by ATP release and stimulation of A2a adenosine receptors. Here we studied the underlying mechanisms in search of possible reasons for the inconsistent results of recent clinical trials with HS resuscitation. Purified human PMNs or PMNs in whole blood were treated with HS to simulate hypertonicity levels found after HS resuscitation (40 mM beyond isotonic levels). ATP release was measured with a luciferase assay. PMN activation was assessed by measuring oxidative burst. The pannexin-1 (panx1) inhibitor 10panx1 and the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) blocked ATP release from PMNs in purified and whole blood preparations, indicating that HS releases ATP via panx1 and gap junction channels. HS blocked fMLP-induced PMN activation by 40% in purified PMN preparations and by 60% in whole blood. These inhibitory effects were abolished by 10panx1 but only partially reduced by CBX, which indicates that panx1 has a central role in the immunomodulatory effects of HS. Inhibition of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 abolished the suppressive effect of HS on purified PMN cultures but only partially reduced the effect of HS in whole blood. These findings suggest redundant mechanisms in whole blood that may strengthen the immunomodulatory effect of HS in vivo. We conclude that HS resuscitation exerts anti-inflammatory effects that involve panx1, CD39, CD73, and other ectonucleotidases, which produce the adenosine that blocks PMNs by stimulating their A2a receptors. Our findings shed new light on the immunomodulatory mechanisms of HS and suggest possible new strategies to improve the clinical efficacy of hypertonic resuscitation. PMID:26009814

  19. Red Wine Inhibits Aggregation and Increases ATP-diphosphohydrolase (CD39) Activity of Rat Platelets in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Tedesco, Idolo; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ialenti, Armando; Cicala, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been shown to exert a peculiar cardioprotective effect compared with other alcoholic beverages; inhibition of platelet aggregation seems to be one of the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect. CD39/ATP-diphosphohydrolase is an integral membrane glycoprotein metabolizing ATP and ADP to AMP; in concert with CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase, it contributes to extracellular adenosine accumulation. CD39 is considered a key modulator of thrombus formation; it inhibits platelet aggregation by promoting ADP hydrolysis. There is evidence that red wine consumption increases CD39 activity in platelets from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Here we show that two kinds of Aglianico red wines inhibit aggregation and increase ATP--and ADPase activity in rat platelets. PMID:27534113

  20. In vitro Study of a Novel Stent Coating Using Modified CD39 Messenger RNA to Potentially Reduce Stent Angioplasty-Associated Complications

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Meike-Kristin; Nolte, Andrea; Reus, Rebekka; Behring, Andreas; Zengerle, Diane; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Hohmann, Jan David; Peter, Karlheinz; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Krajewski, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Stent angioplasty provides a minimally invasive treatment for atherosclerotic vessels. However, no treatment option for atherosclerosis-associated endothelial dysfunction, which is accompanied by a loss of CD39, is available, and hence, adverse effects like thromboembolism and restenosis may occur. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapy represents a novel strategy, whereby de novo synthesis of a desired protein is achieved after delivery of a modified mRNA to the target cells. Methods and Findings Our study aimed to develop an innovative bioactive stent coating that induces overexpression of CD39 in the atherosclerotic vessel. Therefore, a modified CD39-encoding mRNA was produced by in vitro transcription. Different endothelial cells (ECs) were transfected with the mRNA, and CD39 expression and functionality were analyzed using various assays. Furthermore, CD39 mRNA was immobilized using poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA), and the transfection efficiency in ECs was analyzed. Our data show that ECs successfully translate in vitro-generated CD39 mRNA after transfection. The overexpressed CD39 protein is highly functional in hydrolyzing ADP and in preventing platelet activation. Furthermore, PLGA-immobilized CD39 mRNA can be delivered to ECs without losing its functionality. Summary In summary, we present a novel and promising concept for a stent coating for the treatment of atherosclerotic blood vessels, whereby patients could be protected against angioplasty-associated complications. PMID:26381750

  1. A bacterial ecto-triphosphate diphosphohydrolase similar to human CD39 is essential for intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Fiona M; Newton, Hayley J; Crikis, Sandra; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Cowan, Peter J; d'Apice, Anthony J F; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2007-08-01

    As part of its pathogenesis, Legionella pneumophila persists within human alveolar macrophages in non-acidified organelles that do not mature into phagolysosomes. Two L. pneumophila genes, lpg0971 and lpg1905, are predicted to encode ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (ecto-NTPDases) that share sequence similarity with human CD39/NTPDase1. The predicted products possess five apyrase conserved domains that are typical of eukaryotic ecto-NTPDases. In this study, we found that an lpg1905 mutant was recovered in lower numbers from macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells and the amoeba, Hartmannella vermiformis compared with wild-type L. pneumophila and an lpg0971 mutant. Similar to human CD39, recombinant purified Lpg1905 exhibited ATPase and ADPase activity and possessed the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Mutation of a conserved Glu159 residue that is essential for CD39 activity inhibited ATPase and ADPase activity of Lpg1905. In addition, enzyme activity was inhibited in the presence of the specific ecto-NTPDase inhibitor, ARL67156. The entry and replication defect of the lpg1905 mutant was reversed upon transcomplementation with lpg1905 but not lpg1905E159A encoding an enzymatically inactive form of the protein. Although several protozoan parasites exhibit ecto-NTPDase activity, including Toxoplasma gondii, Trichomonas vaginalis and Trypanosoma cruzi, this is the first time a bacterial ecto-NTPDase has been implicated in virulence.

  2. Sesamin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting CD39-adenosine-A2AR signal pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Gong, Xia; Kuang, Ge; Jiang, Rong; Wan, Jingyuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury with high morbidity and mortality due to limited therapy. Here, we examine whether sesamin attenuates renal IRI in an animal model and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male mice were subjected to right renal ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h with sesamin (100 mg/kg) during which the left kidney was removed. Renal damage and function were assessed subsequently. The results showed that sesamin reduced kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, as assessed by decreased serum creatinine (Scr) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alleviated tubular damage and apoptosis. In addition, sesamin inhibited neutrophils infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in IR-preformed kidney. Notably, sesamin promoted the expression of CD39, A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), and A2BAR mRNA and protein as well as adenosine production. Furthermore, CD39 inhibitor or A2AR antagonist abolished partly the protection of sesamin in kidney IRI. In conclusion, sesamin could effectively protect kidney from IRI by inhibiting inflammatory responses, which might be associated with promoting the adenosine-CD39-A2AR signaling pathway. PMID:27347331

  3. Altered E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and CD39 expression in platelets of sickle cell anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Lívia G; Doleski, Pedro H; Adefegha, Stephen A; Becker, Lara V; Ruchel, Jader B; Leal, Daniela B R

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolysis and vaso-occlusions caused by rigidly distorted red blood cells. Sickle cell crisis is associated with extracellular release of nucleotides and platelets, which are critical mediators of hemostasis participating actively in purinergic thromboregulatory enzymes system.This study aimed to investigate the activities of purinergic system ecto-enzymes present on the platelet surface as well as CD39 and CD73 expressions on platelets of SCA treated patients. Fifteen SCA treated patients and 30 health subjects (control group) were selected. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E-5'-NT) and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activities were measured in platelets isolated from these individuals. Results demonstrated an increase of 41 % in the E-NTPDase for ATP hydrolysis, 52% for ADP hydrolysis and 60 % in the E-ADA activity in SCA patients (P<0.05); however, a two folds decrease in the CD39 expression in platelets was observed in the same group (P<0.01). The increased E-NTPDase activity could be a compensatory mechanism associated with the low expression of CD39 in platelets. Besides, alteration of these enzymes activities suggests that the purinergic system could be involved in the thromboregulatory process in SCA patients. PMID:27044834

  4. Disordered purinergic signaling and abnormal cellular metabolism are associated with development of liver cancer in Cd39/Entpd1 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Han, Lihui; Seth, Pankaj; Bian, Shu; Li, Linglin; Csizmadia, Eva; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Schmelzle, Moritz; Usheva, Anny; Tapper, Elliot B.; Baffy, Gyorgy; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Wu, Yan; Robson, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Liver cancer is associated with chronic inflammation, which is linked to immune dysregulation, disordered metabolism and aberrant cell proliferation. CD39/ENTPD1 is an ectonucleotidase that regulates extracellular nucleotide/nucleoside concentrations by scavenging nucleotides to ultimately generate adenosine. These properties inhibit anti tumor immune responses and promote angiogenesis, being permissive for the growth of transplanted tumors. Here, we show Cd39 deletion promotes development of both induced and spontaneous autochthonous liver cancer in mice. Loss of Cd39 results in higher concentrations of extracellular nucleotides, which stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes, abrogate autophagy and disrupt glycolytic metabolism. Constitutive activation of Ras-MAPK and mTOR-S6K1 pathways occurs in both quiescent Cd39 null hepatocytes in vitro and liver tissues in vivo. Exogenous ATP boosts these signaling pathways, while rapamycin inhibits such aberrant responses in hepatocytes. Conclusions Deletion of Cd39 and resulting changes in disordered purinergic signaling perturb hepatocellular metabolic/proliferative responses, paradoxically resulting in malignant transformation. These findings might impact adjunctive therapies for cancer. Lastly, our studies indicate that the biology of autochthonous and transplanted tumors is quite distinct. PMID:22859060

  5. CD39/NTPDase-1 expression and activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells are differentially regulated by leaf extracts from Rubus caesius and Rubus idaeus.

    PubMed

    Dudzinska, Dominika; Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Sosnowska, Dorota; Podsedek, Anna; Watala, Cezary

    2014-09-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated the favorable biological activities of plants belonging to the genus Rubus, but little is known of the role of Rubus leaf extracts in the modulation of the surface membrane expression and activity of endothelial apyrase. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 1-15 μg/ml Rubus extracts on CD39 expression and enzymatic activity, and on the activation (ICAM-1 expression) and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The polyphenolic contents and antioxidative capacities of extracts from dewberry (R. caesius L.) and raspberry (R. idaeus L.) leaves were also investigated. The techniques applied were flow cytometry (endothelial surface membrane expression of ICAM-1 and CD39), malachite green assay (CD39 activity), HPLC-DAD (quantitative analysis of polyphenolic extract), ABTS, DPPH and FRAP spectrometric assays (antioxidant capacity), and the MTT test (cell viability). Significantly increased CD39 expressions and significantly decreased ATPDase activities were found in the cells treated with 15 μg/ml of either extract compared to the results for the controls. Neither of the extracts affected cell proliferation, but both significantly augmented endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression. The overall antioxidant capacities of the examined extracts remained relatively high and corresponded well to the determined total polyphenol contents. Overall, the results indicate that under in vitro conditions dewberry and raspberry leaf extracts have unfavorable impact on endothelial cells.

  6. IL-35 stimulation of CD39+ regulatory T cells confers protection against collagen II-induced arthritis via the production of IL-10.

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, Irina; Golden, Sarah; Holderness, Kathryn; Callis, Gayle; Pascual, David W

    2010-06-15

    IL-35 is produced by regulatory T cells, and this novel cytokine can downregulate Th17 cell development and inhibit autoimmune inflammation. In this work, an rIL-35, as a single-chain fusion between murine IL-12p35 and EBV-induced gene 3, was expressed in yeast. This rIL-35 inhibited OVA-specific cellular and Ab responses in OVA-challenged recipients of DO11.10 CD4+ T cells. Likewise, IL-35 inhibited clinical manifestation of collagen-induced arthritis or could cease further disease exacerbation upon initiation of IL-35 treatment. Exogenous IL-35 treatments suppressed Th1 and Th17 cells and promoted CD39 expression by CD4+ T cells. Sorted CD25-CD39+CD4+ T cells from IL-35-treated mice produced IL-10 and, upon adoptive transfer, were sufficiently potent to inhibit subsequent development of inflammation in mice with collagen-induced arthritis, whereas sorted CD25+CD39+CD4+ T cells showed reduced potency. IL-35 treatments of IL-10-/- mice failed to induce protective CD39+CD4+ T cells, demonstrating the effector role of IL-10 by IL-35 immunosuppression.

  7. IL‐12 and IL‐4 activate a CD39‐dependent intrinsic peripheral tolerance mechanism in CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Hema; Lovell, Andrew; Papaioannou, Eleftheria; Fairbanks, Lynette

    2016-01-01

    Immune responses to protein antigens involve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which follow distinct programs of differentiation. Naïve CD8 T cells rapidly develop cytotoxic T‐cell (CTL) activity after T‐cell receptor stimulation, and we have previously shown that this is accompanied by suppressive activity in the presence of specific cytokines, i.e. IL‐12 and IL‐4. Cytokine‐induced CD8+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are one of several Treg‐cell phenotypes and are Foxp3− IL‐10+ with contact‐dependent suppressive capacity. Here, we show they also express high level CD39, an ecto‐nucleotidase that degrades extracellular ATP, and this contributes to their suppressive activity. CD39 expression was found to be upregulated on CD8+ T cells during peripheral tolerance induction in vivo, accompanied by release of IL‐12 and IL‐10. CD39 was also upregulated during respiratory tolerance induction to inhaled allergen and on tumor‐infiltrating CD8+ T cells. Production of IL‐10 and expression of CD39 by CD8+ T cells was independently regulated, being respectively blocked by extracellular ATP and enhanced by an A2A adenosine receptor agonist. Our results suggest that any CTL can develop suppressive activity when exposed to specific cytokines in the absence of alarmins. Thus negative feedback controls CTL expansion under regulation from both nucleotide and cytokine environment within tissues. PMID:26990545

  8. Ectonucleotide Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-1 (CD39) Mediates Resistance to Occlusive Arterial Thrombus Formation after Vascular Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huttinger, Zachary M.; Milks, Michael W.; Nickoli, Michael S.; Aurand, William L.; Long, Lawrence C.; Wheeler, Debra G.; Dwyer, Karen M.; d'Apice, Anthony J.F.; Robson, Simon C.; Cowan, Peter J.; Gumina, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation of purinergic signaling, which is critical for vascular homeostasis and the response to vascular injury, is regulated by hydrolysis of proinflammatory ATP and/or ADP by ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD-1; CD39) to AMP, which then is hydrolyzed by ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) to adenosine. We report here that compared with littermate controls (wild type), transgenic mice expressing human ENTPDase-1 were resistant to the formation of an occlusive thrombus after FeCl3-induced carotid artery injury. Treatment of mice with the nonhydrolyzable ADP analog, adenosine-5′-0-(2-thiodiphosphate) trilithium salt, Ado-5′-PP[S], negated the protection from thrombosis, consistent with a role for ADP in platelet recruitment and thrombus formation. ENTPD-1 expression decreased whole-blood aggregation after stimulation by ADP, an effect negated by adenosine-5′-0-(2-thiodiphosphate) trilithium salt, Ado-5′-PP[S] stimulation, and limited the ability to maintain the platelet fibrinogen receptor, glycoprotein αIIb/β3, in a fully activated state, which is critical for thrombus formation. In vivo treatment with a CD73 antagonist, a nonselective adenosine-receptor antagonist, or a selective A2A or A2B adenosine-receptor antagonist, negated the resistance to thrombosis in transgenic mice expressing human ENTPD-1, suggesting a role for adenosine generation and engagement of adenosine receptors in conferring in vivo resistance to occlusive thrombosis in this model. In summary, our findings identify ENTPDase-1 modulation of purinergic signaling as a key determinant of the formation of an occlusive thrombus after vascular injury. PMID:22613024

  9. The ecto-ATPDase CD39 is involved in the acquisition of the immunoregulatory phenotype by M-CSF-macrophages and ovarian cancer tumor-associated macrophages: Regulatory role of IL-27.

    PubMed

    d'Almeida, Sènan M; Kauffenstein, Gilles; Roy, Charlotte; Basset, Laetitia; Papargyris, Loukas; Henrion, Daniel; Catros, Véronique; Ifrah, Norbert; Descamps, Philippe; Croue, Anne; Jeannin, Pascale; Grégoire, Marc; Delneste, Yves; Tabiasco, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are immunosuppressive cells that can massively accumulate in the tumor microenvironment. In patients with ovarian cancer, their density is correlated with poor prognosis. Targeting mediators that control the generation or the differentiation of immunoregulatory macrophages represents a therapeutic challenge to overcome tumor-associated immunosuppression. The ectonucleotidase CD39 hydrolyzes ATP into extracellular adenosine that exhibits potent immunosuppressive properties when signaling through the A2A adenosine receptor. We report here that CD14(+) CD163(+) TAM isolated from ovarian cancer patients and macrophages generated in vitro with M-CSF, express high levels of the membrane ectonucleotidase CD39 compared to classically activated macrophages. The CD39 inhibitor POM-1 and adenosine deaminase (ADA) diminished some of the immunosuppressive functions of CD14(high) CD163(high) CD39(high) macrophages, such as IL-10 secretion. We identified the cytokine IL-27, secreted by tumor-infiltrating neutrophils, located close to infiltrating CD163(+) macrophages, as a major rheostat of CD39 expression and consequently, on the acquisition of immunoregulatory properties by macrophages. Accordingly, the depletion of IL-27 downregulated CD39 and PD-L1 expression as well as IL-10 secretion by M-CSF-macrophages. Collectively, these data suggest that CD39, drived by IL-27 and CD115 ligands in ovarian cancer, maintains the immunosuppressive phenotype of TAM. This work brings new information on the acquisition of immunosuppressive properties by tumor-infiltrating macrophages. PMID:27622030

  10. Extract from Ribes nigrum leaves in vitro activates nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increases CD39 expression in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Dudzinska, Dominika; Rozalski, Marek; Krajewska, Urszula; Balcerczak, Ewa; Podsedek, Anna; Redzynia, Malgorzata; Watala, Cezary

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether blackcurrant leaf extract (BLE) modulates endothelium antithrombotic function, namely increases the expression/activity of ADPase (CD39) and augments the production of nitric oxide in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). It was found that BLE with proanthocyanidins (60 % of the total polyphenol content) increased the CD39-positive endothelial cell fraction (up to 10 % for 2.5 μg/ml, and up to 33 % for 15 μg/ml, p < 0.05 or less) in a concentration-dependent manner, and enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation (T495 phosphorylation decreased by 31 ± 6 % for 2.5 μg/ml and 48 ± 6 % for 15 μg/ml; S1177 phosphorylation increased by 13 ± 3 % for 2.5 μg/ml and 18 ± 7 % for 15 μg/ml, compared to untreated cells, p < 0.05 or less). Additionally, incubation for 24 or 48 h with BLE at a lower range of polyphenol concentrations, significantly increased cell viability with a maximal effect at 2.5 μg/ml (viability increased by 24.8 ± 1.0 % for 24 h and by 32.5 ± 2.7 % for 48-h time incubation, p < 0.0001). The increased CD39 expression and the increased eNOS activation in HUVEC can be regarded as the beneficial markers of the improvement of antiplatelet action of endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, these assumptions were not confirmed in the experimental model of platelet-endothelial cell interactions. These observations lead to the conclusion that BLE may improve endothelial cell viability at low physiological concentrations without affecting the antiplatelet action of endothelium. PMID:25407137

  11. Impaired natriuretic response to high-NaCl diet plus aldosterone infusion in mice overexpressing human CD39, an ectonucleotidase (NTPDase1)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Robson, Simon C.; Morris, Kaiya L.; Heiney, Kristina M.; Dwyer, Karen M.; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides acting through P2 receptors facilitate natriuresis. To define how purinergic mechanisms are involved in sodium homeostasis, we used transgenic (TG) mice that globally overexpress human CD39 (hCD39, NTPDase1), an ectonucleotidase that hydrolyzes extracellular ATP/ADP to AMP, resulting in an altered extracellular purine profile. On a high-sodium diet (HSD, 3.5% Na+), urine volume and serum sodium were significantly higher in TG mice but sodium excretion was unaltered. Furthermore, TG mice showed an attenuated fall in urine aldosterone with HSD. Western blot analysis revealed significantly lower densities (∼40%) of the β-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in medulla, and the major band (85-kDa) of γ-ENaC in TG mice cortex. To evaluate aldosterone-independent differences, in a second experiment, aldosterone was clamped by osmotic minipump at 20 μg/day, and mice were fed either an HSD or a low-sodium diet (LSD, 0.03% Na+). Here, no differences in urine volume or osmolality, or serum aldosterone were found, but TG mice showed a modest, yet significant impairment in late natriuresis (days 3 and 4). Several major sodium transporters or channel subunits were differentially expressed between the genotypes. HSD caused a downregulation of Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) in both genotypes; and had higher cortical levels of NCC, Na-K-ATPase (α-1 subunit), and α- and γ-ENaC. The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) was downregulated by HSD in wild-type mice, but it increased in TG mice. In summary, our data support the concept that extracellular nucleotides facilitate natriuresis; they also reveal an aldosterone-independent downregulation of major renal sodium transporters and channel subunits by purinergic signaling. PMID:25877509

  12. TCR usage, gene expression and function of two distinct FOXP3(+)Treg subsets within CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells identified by expression of CD39 and CD45RO.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingying; Goodall, Jane C; Zhang, Libin; Putintseva, Ekaterina V; Lam, Brian; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Wei; Yin, Jian; Lin, Li; Li, Ting; Wu, Xin; Yeo, Giles; Shugay, Mikhail; Chudakov, Dmitriy M; Gaston, Hill; Xu, Huji

    2016-03-01

    FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are indispensable for immune homeostasis, but their study in humans is complicated by heterogeneity within Treg, the difficulty in purifying Tregs using surface marker expression (e.g. CD25) and the transient expression of FOXP3 by activated effector cells. Here, we report that expression of CD39 and CD45RO distinguishes three sub-populations within human CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells. Initial phenotypic and functional analysis demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD39(+)CD45RO(+) cells had properties consistent with effector Treg, CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD39(-)CD45RO(-) cells were naïve Treg and CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD39(-)CD45RO(+) cells were predominantly non-Treg with effector T-cell function. Differences in these two newly identified Treg subsets were corroborated by studies of gene expression and TCR analysis. To apply this approach, we studied these two newly identified Treg subsets in ankylosing spondylitis, and showed impairment in both effector and naïve Treg. This work highlights the importance of discriminating Treg subsets to enable proper comparisons of immune regulatory capacity in healthy individuals and those with inflammatory disease.

  13. Milk-based nutraceutical for treating autoimmune arthritis via the stimulation of IL-10- and TGF-β-producing CD39+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Maddaloni, Massimo; Kochetkova, Irina; Jun, SangMu; Callis, Gayle; Thornburg, Theresa; Pascual, David W

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases arise from the loss of tolerance to self, and because the etiologies of such diseases are largely unknown, symptomatic treatments rely on anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Tolerogenic treatments that can reverse disease are preferred, but again, often thwarted by not knowing the responsible auto-antigens (auto-Ags). Hence, a viable alternative to stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) is to induce bystander tolerance. Colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) has been shown to evoke bystander immunity and to hasten Ag-specific Treg development independent of auto-Ag. To translate in treating human autoimmune diseases, the food-based Lactococcus was engineered to express CFA/I fimbriae, and Lactococcus-CFA/I fermented milk fed to arthritic mice proved highly efficacious. Protection occurred via CD39+ Tregs producing TGF-β and IL-10 to potently suppress TNF-α production and neutrophil influx into the joints. Thus, these data demonstrate the feasibility of oral nutraceuticals for treating arthritis, and potency of protection against arthritis was improved relative to that obtained with Salmonella-CFA/I. PMID:25629976

  14. Milk-Based Nutraceutical for Treating Autoimmune Arthritis via the Stimulation of IL-10- and TGF-β-producing CD39+ Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maddaloni, Massimo; Kochetkova, Irina; Jun, SangMu; Callis, Gayle; Thornburg, Theresa; Pascual, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases arise from the loss of tolerance to self, and because the etiologies of such diseases are largely unknown, symptomatic treatments rely on anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Tolerogenic treatments that can reverse disease are preferred, but again, often thwarted by not knowing the responsible auto-antigens (auto-Ags). Hence, a viable alternative to stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) is to induce bystander tolerance. Colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) has been shown to evoke bystander immunity and to hasten Ag-specific Treg development independent of auto-Ag. To translate in treating human autoimmune diseases, the food-based Lactococcus was engineered to express CFA/I fimbriae, and Lactococcus-CFA/I fermented milk fed to arthritic mice proved highly efficacious. Protection occurred via CD39+ Tregs producing TGF-β and IL-10 to potently suppress TNF-α production and neutrophil influx into the joints. Thus, these data demonstrate the feasibility of oral nutraceuticals for treating arthritis, and potency of protection against arthritis was improved relative to that obtained with Salmonella-CFA/I. PMID:25629976

  15. Low expression of CD39(+) /CD45RA(+) on regulatory T cells (Treg ) cells in type 1 diabetic children in contrast to high expression of CD101(+) /CD129(+) on Treg cells in children with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Åkesson, K; Tompa, A; Rydén, A; Faresjö, M

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and coeliac disease are both characterized by an autoimmune feature. As T1D and coeliac disease share the same risk genes, patients risk subsequently developing the other disease. This study aimed to investigate the expression of T helper (Th), T cytotoxic (Tc) and regulatory T cells (Treg ) in T1D and/or coeliac disease children in comparison to healthy children. Subgroups of T cells (Th : CD4(+) or Tc : CD8(+) ); naive (CD27(+) CD28(+) CD45RA(+) CCR7(+) ), central memory (CD27(+) CD28(+) CD45RA(-) CCR7(+) ), effector memory (early differentiated; CD27(+) CD28(+) CD45RA(-) CCR7(-) and late differentiated; CD27(-) CD28(-) CD45RA(-) CCR7(-) ), terminally differentiated effector cells (TEMRA; CD27(-) CD28(-) CD45RA(+) CCR7(-) ) and Treg (CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) CD127(-) ) cells, and their expression of CD39, CD45RA, CD101 and CD129, were studied by flow cytometry in T1D and/or coeliac disease children or without any of these diseases (reference group). Children diagnosed with both T1D and coeliac disease showed a higher percentage of TEMRA CD4(+) cells (P < 0·05), but lower percentages of both early and late effector memory CD8(+) cells (P < 0·05) compared to references. Children with exclusively T1D had lower median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) (P < 0·05) and also a lower percentage of CD39(+) and CD45RA(+) within the Treg population (CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) CD127(-) ) (P < 0·05). Children with exclusively coeliac disease had a higher MFI of CD101 (P < 0·01), as well as a higher percentage of CD129(+) (P < 0·05), in the CD4(+) CD25(hi) lymphocyte population, compared to references. In conclusion, children with combined T1D and coeliac disease have a higher percentage of differentiated CD4(+) cells compared to CD8(+) cells. T1D children show signs of low CD39(+) /CD45RA(+) Treg cells that may indicate loss of suppressive function. Conversely, children with coeliac disease

  16. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  17. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  18. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  19. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  20. Compact hybrid particulate collector

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    1991-06-18

    This paper describes a method for removing particulates from flue gas. It comprises: flowing the flue gas through an electrostatic precipitator for removing 90-99% of the particulates, and for imparting a residual electric charge on remaining particulates exhausted from the electrostatic precipitator ins aid flue gas; maintaining the residual electric charge on the remaining particulates while flowing the flue gas through a barrier filter placed downstream of the electrostatic precipitator at a high filtration velocity in the range of from 4.06-20.32 centimeters per second (8-40 feet per minute), the barrier filter collecting the charged particulates exhausted from the electrostatic precipitator in the flue gas before the residual electric charge substantially dissipates.

  1. South African Particulates

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. ... 2000 - Airborne particulates over South Africa. project:  MISR category:  gallery date:  ...

  2. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    A flexible whip suspended in a hopper is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  3. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  4. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph

    1999-04-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

  5. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Schelkoph; Stanley J. Miller

    1999-07-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

  6. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M.; Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  7. Analysis of microsize particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.

    1972-01-01

    Unique methods for analyzing individual particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 1000 micrometers have been developed for investigation of nature of cosmic dust. Methods are applicable to particulate aerosols and contaminants characteristically encountered in studies of air pollution and in experiments designed to abate pollution.

  8. Feeder for particulate material

    SciTech Connect

    Christofer, D.E.; Stock, A.J.

    1981-03-24

    Feeder apparatus for feeding at a controlled variable rate particulate solid material, such as coal, from a supply conduit located above a gravimetric feeder to a discharge chute located below the feeder. The particulate material flows to the feeder from the supply conduit along a path having a generally vertical center line and the discharge chute provides a flow path having a generally vertical center line closely laterally spaced relative to the center line of flow to the feeder. The feeder apparatus has a horizontally extending housing with an upwardly facing inlet through which the material flows to the feeder and a downwardly facing outlet forming part of the discharge chute through which the material flows from the feeder. Within the housing is a main feeder conveyor including an endless belt with a generally horizontal span adapted to receive at one end the particulate material flowing to the feeder and to convey in a layer a measured quantity of material a horizontal distance across weighing means to an exit zone at the opposite end of the belt, the horizontal distance being substantially greater than the spacing between the center lines of flow to the feeder and through such discharge chute. Associated with the main feeder conveyor is a gravimetric control system for controlling the amount of material deposited on the belt. Particulate material that drops off the main conveyor belt at the exit zone is received on a return belt conveyor and carried in a reverse direction a sufficient distance to bring the material to the discharge chute. Cooperation between the main feeder conveyor and the return conveyor permits gravimetric feeding of particulate material to the discharge chute that is closely laterally spaced to the flow path of material to the main conveyor by a distance that is substantially less than the length of travel of the material on the main conveyor.

  9. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  10. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Stuecker, John N.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Miller, James E.

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  11. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  12. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  13. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  14. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  15. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  16. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  17. Particulate erosion mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate damage and erosion of ductile metals are today plaguing design and field engineers in diverse fields of engineering and technology. It was found that too many models and theories were proposed leading to much speculation from debris analysis and failure mechanism postulations. Most theories of solid particle erosion are based on material removal models which do not fully represent the actual physical processes of material removal. The various mechanisms proposed thus far are: melting, low-cycle fatigue, extrusion, delamination, shear localization, adhesive material transfer, etc. The experimental data on different materials highlighting the observed failure modes of the deformation and cutting wear processes using optical and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The most important mechanisms proved from the experimental observations of the specimens exposed to both spherical and angular particles are addressed, and the validity of the earlier theories discussed. Both the initial stages of damage and advanced stages of erosion were studied to gain a fundamental understanding of the process.

  18. Micromechanics for particulate reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    1996-01-01

    A set of micromechanics equations for the analysis of particulate reinforced composites is developed using the mechanics of materials approach. Simplified equations are used to compute homogenized or equivalent thermal and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced composites in terms of the properties of the constituent materials. The microstress equations are also presented here to decompose the applied stresses on the overall composite to the microstresses in the constituent materials. The properties of a 'generic' particulate composite as well as those of a particle reinforced metal matrix composite are predicted and compared with other theories as well as some experimental data. The micromechanics predictions are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

  19. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  20. Compact hybrid particulate collector (COHPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a method for retrofit filtering of particulates in a flue gas from a combustion source having an existing conventional electrostatic precipitator connected thereto and a smoke stack connected to the precipitator. It comprises: removing at least one discharge electrode and collecting electrode from within the housing of the electrostatic precipitator; attaching a tubesheet within the housing; supporting a compact baghouse filter within the separate filter section by the tubesheet; whereby the remaining discharge electrodes and corresponding collecting electrodes in the electrostatis precipitator serve to remove a majority of particulates form the flue gas and impart a residual charge on remaining particulates discharged to the separate filter section, and the remaining particulates are collected by the baghouse filter before the residual electric charge substantially dissipates.

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  2. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  3. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  4. ITP Filter Particulate Decontamination Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1993-05-21

    A new test method was developed which showed the installed In- Tank Precipitation Filter Unit {number_sign}3 provided at least 40, 000 x decontamination of the precipitated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) during the cold chemical runs.This filter is expected to meet the needed 40,000 x hot cesium decontamination requirements, assuming that the cesium precipitate, CsTPB, behaves the same as KTPB. The new method permits cold chemicals field testing of installed filters to quantify particulate decontamination and verify filter integrity before going hot. The method involves a 1000 x concentration of fine particulate KTPB in the filtrate to allow direct analysis by counting for naturally radioactive isotope K-40 using the underground SRTC gamma spectroscopy facility. The particulate concentration was accomplished by ultra filtration at Rhone-Poulenc, NJ, using a small cross-flow bench facility, followed by collection of all suspended solids on a small filter disc for K analysis.

  5. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  6. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  7. MODELING PARTICULATE CHARGING IN ESPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In electrostatic precipitators there is a strong interaction between the particulate space charge and the operating voltage and current of an electrical section. Calculating either the space charge or the operating point when the other is fixed is not difficult, but calculating b...

  8. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  9. Process for particulate removal from coal liquids

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Gerald C.

    1983-01-01

    Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

  10. Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

  11. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  12. Material Instabilities in Particulate Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of a theoretical investigation of material (or constitutive) instability associated with shear induced particle migration in dense particulate suspensions or granular media. It is shown that one can obtain a fairly general linear-stability analysis, including the effects of shear-induced anisotropy in the base flow as well as Reynolds dilatancy. A criterion is presented here for simple shearing instability in the absence of inertia and dilatancy.

  13. Quasicrystalline particulate reinforced aluminum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Unal, O.

    1997-07-01

    Particulate reinforced aluminum and aluminum alloy composites are rapidly emerging as new commercial materials for aerospace, automotive, electronic packaging and other high performance applications. However, their low processing ductility and difficulty in recyclability have been the key concern. In this study, two composite systems having the same aluminum alloy matrix, one reinforced with quasicrystals and the other reinforced with the conventional SiC reinforcements were produced with identical processing routes. Their processing characteristics and tensile mechanical properties were compared.

  14. Thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one derivatives: Structure-activity relationships of selective nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 (NPP1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Perotti, Arianna; De Jonghe, Steven; Herdewijn, Piet; Hanck, Theodor; Müller, Christa E

    2016-07-15

    Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 (NPP1) is the most important member of the NPP family, which consists of seven closely related proteins (NPP1-NPP7). This glycoprotein is a membrane-associated or secreted enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of a wide range of phosphodiester bonds, e.g., in nucleoside triphosphates, dinucleotides and nucleotide sugars. NPP1 plays a crucial role in various physiological functions including bone mineralization, soft-tissue calcification, and insulin receptor signaling. Recently, an upregulated expression of NPP1 has been observed in astrocytic brain cancers. Therefore, NPP1 has been proposed as a novel drug target for the treatment of glioblastoma. Despite their therapeutic potential, only few NPP1 inhibitors have been reported to date, which are in most cases non- or only moderately selective. The best investigated NPP1 inhibitors so far are nucleotide derivatives and analogs, however they are not orally bioavailable due to their high polarity. We identified thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one derivatives as a new class of NPP1 inhibitors with drug-like properties. Among the 25 derivatives investigated in the present study, 2-[(5-iodo-2-furanyl)methylene]thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one (17) was found to be the most potent NPP1 inhibitor with a Ki value of 467nM versus ATP as a substrate and an un-competitive mechanism of inhibition. Compound 17 did not inhibit other human ecto-nucleotidases, including NTPDase1 (CD39), NTPDases2-3, NPP2, NPP3, tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN, CD73), and is thus highly selective for NPP1. PMID:27265686

  15. Downregulation of CD73 in 4T1 breast cancer cells through siRNA-loaded chitosan-lactate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Rastegari, Ali; Mollarazi, Esmail; Kiani, Melika; Razavi, Alireza; Yousefi, Mehdi; Kheshtchin, Nasim; Hassannia, Hadi; Hadjati, Jamshid; Shokri, Fazel

    2016-06-01

    The immunosuppressive factors in tumor microenvironment enhance tumor growth and suppress anti-tumor immune responses. Adenosine is an important immunosuppressive factor which can be secreted by both tumor and immune cells trough action of two cell surface ecto-nucleotidase molecules CD39 and CD73. Blocking the adenosine generating molecules has emerged as an effective immunotherapeutic approach for treatment of cancer. In this study, CD73-siRNA encapsulated into chitosan-lactate (ChLa) nanoparticles (NPs) was employed to suppress the expression of CD73 molecule on 4T1 breast tumor cells, in vitro. ChLa NPs were generated through ionic gelation of ChLa by tripolyphosphate (TPP). Small interfering RNA (SiRNA)-loaded NPs had about 100 nm size with a polydispersive index below 0.3 and a zeta potential about 13. Our results showed that ChLa NPs with Ch 50 kDa exhibit the best physicochemical features with the high siRNA encapsulation capacity. Synthesized NPs were able to fully bind with siRNA, protect them against serum and heparin degradation, and promote the transfection process. While the NPs exhibited low toxicity during 72 h cell culture, the transfection of Ch-plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein (pEGFP) NPs was efficient in 4T1 cells with a transfection rate of 53.6 % as detected by flow cytometry. In addition, CD73-siRNA-loaded ChLa NPs could efficiently suppress the expression of CD73 as assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. As a conclusion, CD73-siRNA-loaded ChLa NPs may be considered as a promising therapeutic tool for cancer therapy; however, further in vivo investigations are necessary.

  16. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  17. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  18. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  19. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  20. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  2. Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  4. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  5. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... filters; minimum requirements. 84.125 Section 84.125 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  6. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  7. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-10-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham study site during the July-September, 2000 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S sulfate monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. The report also presents some initial notes on our operating experience with the 8400S sulfate analyzer. As described in the previous quarterly report, some persistent daily trends are seen in the particulate data, superimposed on a seasonal trend toward higher concentrations in warmer months. The sulfate mass fraction shows a markedly different time of day pattern from the balance of the particle mass, confirming the independent origin of this major mass fraction. The time variability of the major mass-bearing size fractions, and of the light-scattering potential, do not allow for a clean separation of independent size fractions. However, when the particle number averages are examined, the stronger time of day dependence of the smaller size fractions becomes more apparent, consistent with periods of higher formation of sub-100nm particles in early morning and in afternoon-evening periods.

  8. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  9. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Zhuang, Ye; Almlie, Jay C.

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  10. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  12. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  13. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  14. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  15. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  16. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N.; Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H.; Loth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  17. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  18. New ESP additive controls particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

    1997-06-01

    This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

  19. Differential Spectroscopic Imaging of Particulate Explosives Residue

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    We present experimental results showing transmission and reflection imaging of approximately 100 microgram quantities of particulate explosives residue using a commercial uncooled microbolometer infrared camera and CO2 laser differential wavelength illumination.

  20. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  1. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  2. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  3. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  4. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  5. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  6. Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

  7. Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmire, A. L.; Boss, E.; Cowles, T. J.; Pegau, W. S.

    2007-05-01

    The spectral dependency of the particulate backscattering ratio is relevant in the fields of ocean color inversion, light field modeling, and inferring particle properties from optical measurements. Aside from theoretical predictions for spherical, homogeneous particles, we have very limited knowledge of the actual in situ spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio. This work presents results from five research cruises that were conducted over a three-year period. Water column profiles of physical and optical properties were conducted across diverse aquatic environments that offered a wide range of particle populations. The main objective of this research was to examine the behavior of the spectral particulate backscattering ratio in situ, both in terms of its absolute magnitude and its variability across visible wavelengths, using over nine thousand 1-meter binned data points for each of five wavelengths of the spectral particulate backscattering ratio. Our analysis reveals no spectral dependence of the particulate backscattering ratio within our measurement certainty, and a geometric mean value of 0.013 for this dataset. This is lower than the commonly used value of 0.0183 from Petzold’s integrated volume scattering data. Within the first optical depth of the water column, the mean particulate backscattering ratio was 0.010.

  8. Ecological effects of particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Grantz, D A; Garner, J H B; Johnson, D W

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a heterogeneous material. Though regulated as un-speciated mass, it exerts most effects on vegetation and ecosystems by virtue of the mass loading of its chemical constituents. As this varies temporally and spatially, prediction of regional impacts remains difficult. Deposition of PM to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of the particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. However, chemical loading of an ecosystem may be determined by the size distribution as different constituents dominate different size fractions. Coating with dust may cause abrasion and radiative heating, and may reduce the photosynthetically active photon flux reaching the photosynthetic tissues. Acidic and alkaline materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more likely route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. PM deposited directly to the soil can influence nutrient cycling, especially that of nitrogen, through its effects on the rhizosphere bacteria and fungi. Alkaline cation and aluminum availability are dependent upon the pH of the soil that may be altered dramatically by deposition of various classes of PM. A regional effect of PM on ecosystems is linked to climate change. Increased PM may reduce radiation interception by plant canopies and may reduce precipitation through a variety of physical effects. At the present time, evidence does not support large regional threats due to un-speciated PM, though site-specific and constituent-specific effects can be readily identified. Interactions of PM with other pollutants and with components of climate change remain important areas of research in assessment of challenges to ecosystem stability.

  9. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  10. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  11. Particulate abatement and environmental control system

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, J.C.; Leavens, J.E.; Wyatt, C.H.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a method of providing an improved temporary working environment during removal or encapsulation of hazardous particulate material from a working space substantially sealed from space exterior of the working space. It comprises: powering one or more portable air moving units for exhausting air including hazardous particulate material from the defined working space and maintaining a negative pressure within the working space with respect to the space external of the working space; monitoring the level of negative pressure within the working space; filtering the exhausted air to remove the hazardous particulate material; discharging a first portion of the exhausted air to the space exterior of the working space; powering a portable conditioning unit to condition a second portion of the exhausted air being defined by the exhausted air less the discharged air; returning the conditioned air to the working space; and regulating the amount of the first portion of the exhausted air in response to the monitored level of negative pressure.

  12. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R.; Cugini, Anthony V.

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  13. Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

    2007-03-01

    The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

  14. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  15. Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulate studies.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M Z; Evans, W H

    1980-10-01

    A unique polar nephelometer was designed and constructed for the measurement of atmospheric particulate characteristics. The nephelometer produces visible light from a self-contained laser to irradiate an air sample drawn into the instrument. The light scattered from the particulates and molecules in the sample is detected as a function of scattering angle for each of four different incident light polarizations. These measurements are used to determine the particulate scattering matrix which is a function of the size, shape, and index of refraction of the particles. The region of sensitivity for the measurements corresponds to the size range of particles that strongly affects visible radiative transfer in the atmosphere, which is the primary application for the derived information. PMID:20234624

  16. Contribution of organic particulates to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Matanoski, G; Fishbein, L; Redmond, C; Rosenkranz, H; Wallace, L

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents some of the issues that remain to be resolved in order to assess the risk of cancer related to exposure to organic particulates. Most reviews of the effects of organic particulates from the outdoor environment on the risk of lung cancer show that this source seems to play a minor role. However, as fuel use and chemical composition of air pollutants change, the contribution of outdoor pollution as a cause of cancer may also change. Indoor air pollution is a more important source of exposure to organic particulates than is outdoor exposure. Although there is clear evidence that in occupational settings organic particulates cause human cancer, there has been almost no study of exposure to these types of particulates within indoor settings. Previous research has focused on cigarette smoke as the major indoor pollutant, but more specific characterization of contaminants in both the workplace and the home is required. The health effects of the higher levels of some of these contaminants in the workplace should be evaluated and the results extrapolated to populations exposed to lower levels in the home. Extensive research is needed to characterize organic particulate mixtures appropriately and test them for carcinogenicity. Studies on the health risks of nitropolynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are reviewed, but their contribution to the overall burden of respiratory cancer in humans cannot be estimated at this time. Characterization of mixtures, assessment of exposures, and linkage of exposures to health effects are the objectives of the recommendations proposed for further research. PMID:3830112

  17. Particulate control for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sloat, D.G.; Gaikwad, R.P.

    1997-09-01

    As a response to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990, utilities will be faced with new emission limitations on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} that could have a major impact on their current particulate control equipment. Most of the plants affected already have electrostatic precipitators for particulate control. A large number of power plants will be switching to lower sulfur coals as part of the CAAA Title IV Phase 2 SO{sub 2} rules. The lower sulfur coal ash usually does not collect well in a small precipitator so the existing precipitator will need to be upgraded to continue to meet their current emission limitations. Title IV also requires plants to lower NO{sub x} emissions which is often accomplished by modifications to the boiler such as retrofitting low NO{sub x} burners. These boiler modifications can increase the amount of unburned carbon in the ash as well as reduce the size distribution of the fly ash. Both of these changes can negatively impact a precipitator`s performance. Finally, the CAAA Title III identifies 189 pollutants as hazardous air pollutants, also known as air toxics, which have been viewed as a risk to human health. This may result in further tightening of particulate regulations for power plants and place an increased burden on the existing particulate control equipment. This paper evaluates the technologies available to comply with these new and more stringent particulate control requirements. To demonstrate the retrofit alternatives available to meet these new particulate emission requirements, two hypothetical case studies are discussed.

  18. [Suspended particulates and lung health].

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns

    2004-01-01

    Based on several severe air pollution episodes, a temporal correlation between high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and SO2 pollution and acute increases in respiratory and cardiopulmonary mortality had been established in Vienna for the 1970's. After air pollution had decreased in Austria in the 1980's--as documented by data on SO2, and total suspended particles (TSP)--no such associations between day-to-day changes of SO2 and TSP and mortality have been documented any more, however, traffic related pollutants like fine particles and NO2 remained a problem. Therefore, short term effects of PM on lung function, morbidity and mortality were investigated in Vienna, Linz, Graz and a rural control area. Long-term exposure and chronic disease--even more important for public health--were studied in repeated cross-sectional, a mixed longitudinal and a birth cohort study on school children in the city of Linz. Lung function growth was found impaired from long-term exposure to air pollutants and improved in districts where ambient air pollution had decreased. Where only TSP and SO2 had decreased, no continuous improvement of small airway function was found and end-expiratory flow rates stayed impaired where NO2-reduction from technical improvements of cars and industry was counterbalanced by increase of motorized (diesel) traffic. Remaining acute effects of ambient air pollution in 2001 from PM, NO2 and co-pollutants found in a time series study also show that continuing efforts are necessary. Active surface of particles inhaled several hours to days before spirometry was found related to short-term reductions in forced vital capacity-FVC (p<0.01), forced expiratory volume in one second-FEV1 (p<0.01) and maximal expiratory flow rate at 50% of vital capacity-MEF50 (p<0.05). In pupils with asthma or previous airway obstruction 4-week-diaries proved that the following symptoms increased with acute exposure to higher active surface of particles: wheezing (p<0

  19. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  20. Much ado about dioxides and particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, F.P.

    1980-02-01

    Technical feature: The effect of carbon dioxide on climate is uncertain, and recent high CO2 levels may not persist. Worldwide warming trends since 1840 are outlined. There is no conclusive evidence that increased burning of fossil fuels has had or will have any ill effect on the climate. While there has been a slight increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere, the oxidation of humus and bogs rather than fossil fuels seems to be the main source of increased atmospheric CO2 and particulates. Increased plant growth and adsorption of CO2 and particulates by the oceans will maintain an even balance in the atmosphere. (17 references, 2 tables)

  1. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  2. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  3. Pipelining particulate solid material as stable foam slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.L.

    1980-04-29

    A method of transporting particulate solid material through a pipeline in the form of a stable foam slurry is described. A pumpable slurry is formed of the particulate solid material in a stable foam carrier medium and the slurry is flowed through the pipeline to a receiving point. A method of transporting particulate solid materials through a pipeline is described wherein a pumpable slurry is formed of the particulate solid material. The particulate material is present in the stable foam in an amount of at least 20% by volume based on the total volume of the stable foam slurry. The particulate solid material may be coal particles, other forms of particulate carbonaceous material, such as coke, lignite and pitch, ores, and still other particulate material which is insoluble in the stable foam. The foam may be formed from a liquid, usually water, gas, and a foam stabilizing agent, such as a soap or a surfactant. 4 claims.

  4. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  5. Atmospheric particulate measurements in Norfolk, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, R. W., Jr.; Sentell, R. J.; Woods, D. C.; Smith, J. R.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Characterization of atmospheric particulates was conducted at a site near the center of Norfolk, Virginia. Air quality was measured in terms of atmospheric mass loading, particle size distribution, and particulate elemental composition for a period of 2 weeks. The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a mean level of air quality and deviations about this mean, (2) to ascertain diurnal changes or special events in air quality, and (3) to evaluate instrumentation and sampling schedules. Simultaneous measurements were made with the following instruments: a quartz crystal microbalance particulate monitor, a light-scattering multirange particle counter, a high-volume air sampler, and polycarbonate membrane filters. To assess the impact of meteorological conditions on air quality variations, continuous data on temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction were recorded. Particulate elemental composition was obtained from neutron activation and scanning electron microscopy analyses of polycarbonate membrane filter samples. The measured average mass loading agrees reasonably well with the mass loadings determined by the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board. There are consistent diurnal increases in atmospheric mass loading in the early morning and a sample time resolution of 1/2 hour seems necessary to detect most of the significant events.

  6. Nonlinear elastic properties of particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chao; Jiang, Xiaohu

    1993-07-01

    A METHOD of computing effective elastic moduli of isotropic nonlinear composites is developed by using a perturbation scheme. It is demonstrated that only solutions from linear elasticity are needed in computing higher order moduli. As an application of the method, particulate composites of nonlinear elastic materials are analysed.

  7. Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

  8. Particulate abatement and environmental control system

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, J.C.; Leavens, J.E.; Wyatt, C.H.

    1991-04-02

    This patent describes a method of providing an improved temporary working environment during removal of hazardous particulate material or during the encapsulation of the hazardous particulate material. It comprises defining a working space substantially sealed from space exterior of the working space; powering a portable air moving unit for exhausting air including hazardous particulate material from the defined working space to maintain a negative pressure within the working space with respect to the space external of the working space; monitoring the level of negative pressure within the working space; filtering the exhausted air to remove the hazardous particulate material; discharging a minority portion of the exhausted air to the space exterior of the working space; powering a portable conditioning unit to condition a majority portion of the exhausted air, the majority portion of the exhausted air being defined by the exhausted air less the discharged air; returning the conditioned air to the working space; and regulating the ratio of the minority portion of the discharged air to the majority portion of the conditioned air in response to the monitored level of negative pressure.

  9. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  10. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  11. Particulate diesel-exhaust characterization study

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R.; Cooper, C.; Deye, G.; Ong, T.

    1983-01-01

    Several analyses were made of the diesel-exhaust particulates which were used in a study made to determine the effects of long-term exposure to coal dust and exhaust from diesel engines on laboratory animals. The diesel engine used was of a type used in underground-mining operations, and was equipped with a water scrubber in the exhaust line. Lipid chromatographic fluorescence detection of the solvent extracts of the diesel exhaust components showed fluorescing compounds covering a wide range of polarity to be present in the exhaust samples. Preparative fractions of solvent extracts of particulate diesel exhaust indicated that the majority of the mass recovered was in the nonpolar fraction. Sufficient quantities of nitroarenes were isolated for identification purposes; high-resolution mass spectroscopy with selected ion monitoring was used. 1-Nitropyrene and a nitrofluorene isomer were identified in several of the extract fractions. Both direct and enzyme-activated mutagens were present in the diesel particulate and scrubber water extract and the unextracted scrubber particulate. The authors conclude that the contents of the scrubber may represent a significant health hazard due to the presence of mutagens.

  12. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  13. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

  14. Development of Particulates and Aerosols Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Rivera, Monica

    2005-01-01

    During the past year several accomplishments were made for both the Particulate Matter Characterization and Measurement System, (PMCMS) and PAGEMS projects. The PAGEMS focus is to measure particulate emissions as a function of combustor parameters such as inlet temperature, inlet pressure and fuel air ratio. These measurements are used to evaluate combustor performance in hopes of correlating particulate emissions with engine conditions. These measurements have taken place at in-house NASA combustor facilities and off-site facilities. Ths work is unique because particulate measurements at high- pressure conditions are not commonly made. Some calibration of the PAGEMS instrumentation was done as well as minor modifications to the PAGEMS plumbing setup. These led to measurement improvements. The instrumentation and measurement process for PAGEMS was assessed and new instruments such as a thermodenuder, thermal mass flow meters and a cyclone separator were purchased to improve the PAGEMS instrumentation and measurement process. A worksheet was created to simulate varying inlet conditions to the DMA. This worksheet allows the user to assess the error in the measurements when certain conditions exist. Two technical papers were written with the PAGEMS team for the EXCAVATE field project. A paper was also reviewed for an in house publication. Also data was processed and analyzed for another field project (PAX) and will be part of a third PAGEMS paper. Accomplishments were also made with the PMCMS project. The calibration of the radial differential mobility analyzer, (RDMA) in the particle sizing system in the PMCMS was completed and provided satisfactory results. The voltages used for the RDMA depending on the particle of interest were corrected. The measurement capability of the PMCMS was increased by replacing the MetOne CPC with a TSI CPC. Lastly, assistance was provided to three college summer students with calibration of their particulate equipment and Monica Rivera

  15. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  16. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...) Vav = Actual volume of double diluted sample which passed through the particulate filter, cubic feet... be applied before Vsf is determined. (4) Pf = Mass of particulate on the sample filter (or sample...

  17. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  18. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended particulates persist. The biological and the chemical content of the suspended material may react..., pathogens, and viruses absorbed or adsorbed to fine-grained particulates in the material may become... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended particulates/turbidity....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  20. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  1. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  2. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  3. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  5. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  6. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  7. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  8. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  9. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  10. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  11. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  13. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  14. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  15. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  16. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  17. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  18. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  19. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  20. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  1. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  2. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  3. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  4. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  6. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  7. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  8. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  9. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  11. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  12. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  13. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  14. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  15. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  16. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  17. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  18. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  19. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  20. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  1. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  2. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  3. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  4. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  5. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  6. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  7. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  8. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  9. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  10. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  11. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  13. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  14. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  15. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  16. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  17. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  18. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  19. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  20. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  1. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  2. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  3. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  4. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  5. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  6. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  8. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  9. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  10. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  11. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  12. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  13. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  15. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  16. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  17. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  18. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  19. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  20. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  3. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  4. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  5. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  6. Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

  7. Particulate Concentration Levels in Chinatown, Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Yeung, A.; Yu, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Chinatown is located near the center of the busy business district of downtown Oakland, California. It is one of the most inhabited and congested areas in the City of Oakland, averaging 4,000 vehicles and 3,000 pedestrians per hour at a key intersection in the center of the neighborhood. Particles produced by automobiles and construction can settle into the bronchi of lungs and induce asthma attacks, irritate cardiovascular tissue, and possibly lead to lung cancer and death. Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Hence, evaluation of the air quality of the Chinatown neighborhood is important, because it helps to address issues that are of great concern to residents of the area. The primary goal of our project was to measure particulate concentration levels at various intersections in Oakland's Chinatown to determine if the air quality met U.S. EPA standards, and to take note of any trends that may occur over a period of months. We were primarily concerned with particles that are 2.5 micrometers diameter and smaller, as smaller particles are easily inhaled and directly affect the respiratory system. We were interested in identifying any intersections that may have had significantly higher levels than other intersections. Using a map of Chinatown, we chose 12 intersections and made measurements at these points over the course of six months, beginning in February and ending in July of 2007. Particulate matter measurements were made using a FLUKE 893 Particle Counter. Measurements recorded on the first day of our study, February 4, 2007, which was the day of an annual street festival, yielded the highest values for particulate matter concentration in our dataset. This was followed by a significant drop in concentration the following week, and then a gradual increase of concentration as the months progressed. No one location yielded values significantly higher than any other, and

  8. NTPDase1 (CD39) controls nucleotide-dependent vasoconstriction in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kauffenstein, Gilles; Drouin, Annick; Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Bachelard, Hélène; Robaye, Bernard; D’Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Marceau, François; Thorin, Éric; Sévigny, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Aims Extracellular nucleotides are vasoactive molecules. The concentrations of these molecules are regulated by ectonucleotidases. In this study, we investigated the role of the blood vessel ectonucleotidase NTPDase1, in the vasoconstrictor effect of nucleotides using Entpd1−/− mice. Methods and results Immunofluorescence, enzyme histochemistry, and HPLC analysis were used to evaluate both NTPDase expression and activity in arteries and isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Vascular reactivity was evaluated in vitro and mean arterial blood pressure was recorded in anesthetized mice after nucleotide i.v. infusion. Expression of nucleotide receptors in VSMCs was determined by RT–PCR. Entpd1−/− mice displayed a dramatic deficit of nucleotidase activity in blood vessel wall in situ and in VSMCs in comparison to control mice. In aortic rings from Entpd1−/− mice, UDP and UTP induced a potent and long-lasting constriction contrasting with the weak response obtained in wild-type rings. This constriction occurred through activation of P2Y6 receptor and was independent of other uracil nucleotide-responding receptors (P2Y2 and P2Y4). UDP infusion in vivo increased blood pressure and this effect was potentiated in Entpd1−/− mice. In addition, pressurized mesenteric arteries from Entpd1−/− mice displayed an enhanced myogenic response, consistent with higher local concentrations of endogenously released nucleotides. This effect was inhibited by the P2 receptor antagonist RB-2. Conclusion NTPDase1 is the major enzyme regulating nucleotide metabolism at the surface of VSMCs and thus contributes to the local regulation of vascular tone by nucleotides. PMID:19640930

  9. Continuous measurement of diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, S.; Black, F.; King, F.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of emerging diesel-particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity or light extinction properties of elemental carbon are described. The instrumentation provided adequate time resolution to observe the transient concentrations associated with typical automobile driving patterns. Accuracy and precision are evaluated by comparing integrated average results to measurements, using classical gravimetric filtration techniques. Emissions from two diesel passenger cars with substantially different chemical compositions are examined. Mass-specific extinction coefficients are developed using the Beer-Lambert Law and a simplified linear model that proved adequate for particulate concentrations typical of diluted passenger-car exhaust.

  10. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  11. Shock Wave Structure in Particulate Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauls, Michael; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2015-06-01

    Shock wave experiments are conducted on a particulate composite consisting of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix reinforced by glass beads. Such a composite with an impedance mismatch of 4.3 closely mimics heterogeneous solids of interest such as concrete and energetic materials. The composite samples are prepared using a compression molding process. The structure and particle velocity rise times of the shocks are examined using forward ballistic experiments. Reverse ballistic experiments are used to track how the interface density influences velocity overshoot above the steady state particle velocity. The effects of particle size (0.1 to 1 mm) and volume fraction of glass beads (30-40%) on the structure of the leading shock wave are investigated. It is observed that the rise time increases with increasing particle size and scales linearly for the range of particle sizes considered here. Results from numerical simulations using CTH are compared with experimental results to gain insights into wave propagation in heterogeneous particulate composites.

  12. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  13. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  14. Sensor Technologies for Particulate Detection and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    Planned Lunar missions have resulted in renewed attention to problems attributable to fine particulates. While the difficulties experienced during the sequence of Apollo missions did not prove critical in all cases, the comparatively long duration of impending missions may present a different situation. This situation creates the need for a spectrum of particulate sensing technologies. From a fundamental perspective, an improved understanding of the properties of the dust fraction is required. Described here is laboratory-based reference instrumentation for the measurement of fundamental particle size distribution (PSD) functions from 2.5 nanometers to 20 micrometers. Concomitant efforts for separating samples into fractional size bins are also presented. A requirement also exists for developing mission compatible sensors. Examples include provisions for air quality monitoring in spacecraft and remote habitation modules. Required sensor attributes such as low mass, volume, and power consumption, autonomy of operation, and extended reliability cannot be accommodated by existing technologies.

  15. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  16. Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Campbell, Arezoo; Miller, Mark R.; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2009-02-01

    Traffic generated ultrafine particulates may play a major role in the development of adverse health effects. However, little is known about harmful effects caused by recurring exposure. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to particulate matter results in adverse pulmonary and systemic toxic effects. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust resulted in signs of oxidative stress in the lung, impaired coagulation, and changes in the immune system. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in some regions of the brain but increased in the striatum implying that exposure to diesel engine exhaust may selectively aggravate neurological impairment. Data from these three studies suggest that exposure to traffic related PM can mediate changes in the vasculature and brain of healthy rats. To what extent these changes may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative or vascular diseases is at present unclear.

  17. Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.B.; Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

  18. Self-Cleaning Particulate Prefilter Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Olivia; Lalwani, San-jiv; Sharma, Anjal

    2012-01-01

    A long-term space mission requires efficient air revitalization performance to sustain the crew. Prefilter and particulate air filter media are susceptible to rapid fouling that adversely affects their performance and can lead to catastrophic failure of the air revitalization system, which may result in mission failure. For a long-term voyage, it is impractical to carry replacement particulate prefilter and filter modules due to the usual limitations in size, volume, and weight. The only solution to this problem is to reagentlessly regenerate prefilter and filter media in place. A method was developed to modify the particulate prefilter media to allow them to regenerate reagentlessly, and in place, by the application of modest thermocycled transverse or reversed airflows. The innovation may allow NASA to close the breathing air loop more efficiently, thereby sustaining the vision for manned space exploration missions of the future. A novel, self-cleaning coatings technology was developed for air filter media surfaces that allows reagentless in-place regeneration of the surface. The technology grafts thermoresponsive and nonspecific adhesion minimizing polymer nanolayer brush coatings from the prefilter media. These polymer nanolayer brush architectures can be triggered to contract and expand to generate a "pushing-off" force by the simple application of modestly thermocycled (i.e. cycling from ambient cabin temperature to 40 C) air streams. The nonspecific adhesion-minimizing properties of the coatings do not allow the particulate foulants to adhere strongly to the filter media, and thermocycled air streams applied to the media allow easy detachment and in-place regeneration of the media with minimal impact in system downtime or astronaut involvement in overseeing the process.

  19. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  20. Light extinction in polydisperse particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Casperson, L W

    1977-12-01

    Analytic methods are developed for determining the attenuation characteristics of light beams propagating through ensembles of scattering particles including those with complex index of refraction. The methods are applicable to a wide range of practical particulate systems, and the results are expressed explicitly in terms of elementary functions. Propagation through fog and clouds is considered as an example, and it is found that absorption by the liquid lengths. water in such ensembles affects strongly the extinction for ir wave-lengths.

  1. Upper Atmospheric Particulate Monitoring and Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell, Alan; Sohl, John E.

    2010-10-01

    H.A.R.B.O.R. (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a student-run program in which high-altitude balloon systems are designed, constructed, and flown by students conducting individual or group research projects. One area of interest is in the sampling of particles in the upper atmosphere. Collecting airborne particulates and studying them under an SEM can answer questions on the origins of airborne particulate matter. We could find explanations for climate change or directly measure pollution caused by smokestacks. The SEM has the capacity to capture images of particulates and determine their composition. I am building a system capable of sampling air up to 30km (100,000 ft). The system will contain a servo-controlled filter system for sampling air captured by the ascent of the balloon. Currently, filter types are being evaluated for capture rate and air flow resistance. A circuit has been built to test the mass throughput of the airflow as the balloon travels its course. A vacuum chamber is being built to simulate the nearspace environment. Testing and simulation should be complete in time to fly a finalized sample return mission in spring 2011.

  2. Cometary particulate analyzer design definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utterback, N. G.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for remotely determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates collected by a spacecraft was conducted with very encouraging results. The technique utilizes a short high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser-produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. A prototype analyzer system was designed, constructed, and tested. Results show that: (1) energy-time focus performs as predicted in improving resolution; (2) power densities sufficient to produce usable ionization efficiencies can be obtained; (3) complex alloys such as stainless steel can be analyzed; and (4) a tiny, simple and reliable laser used in the demonstration easily meets spacecraft power and mass limitations. A mass resolution of 150 was experimentally demonstrated at mass 108, and an analytical extrapolation predicts a resolution sufficient to separate masses 250 and 251.

  3. Prediction of particulate contamination on aperture window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Aleck L.; Fong, Michael C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis to predict the effects of light scattering by surface particles on the sensor window of a missile during ascent flight. The particulate contaminant distribution on the window is calculated by tallying the number of particles in a set of size ranges. The particulate contamination at the end of the mission is predicted by adding the contributions from the events of ground and flight operations. The surface particle redistributions caused by vibroacoustically induced surface acceleration was found to contribute the most of the particulate surface contamination. The analytical surface obscuration calculation with a set of particle counts was compared to the results of image analyzer measurement. The analytical results, which were calculated with a given function of particle shape depending on the size, were more conservative than the measurement. A scattering calculation using a verified BSDF model showed that the scattering was less than 0.001 at 20 off the direction of the incident light in the mid IR wavelength when the surfaces were at Level 300 initially.

  4. Hand calculator programs for stack particulate tests

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, W.A.; Jones, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    Those familiar with particulate stack testing understand that a great deal of number-crunching is necessary to generate end results. Two hand calculator programs, one designed for a Texas Instruments Programmable 57 and the other for a Hewlett-Packard 33E, have been developed to ease this workload and provide quick turnaround when results are required in a hurry. These two programs calculate all the variables surrounding a stack test except isokinetics. As such these programs are intended to be used as a supplement to, and not a replacement of, more advanced computer programs that calculate all the variables and provide hard copy documentation of raw data and end results. Each calculator program has been divided into two parts. The first part uses the equations presented in EPA's Reference Method 5-Determination of Particulate Emissions from Stationary Sources to calculate particulate concentration, dry and wet gas volumes and moisture content. The second part uses the results of the first part and equations presented in EPA Reference Method 2-Determination of Stack Gas Velocity and Volumetric Flow Rate to calculate volumetric flow rate, emission rate and velocity.

  5. Camellia sinensis Mediated Enhancement of Humoral Immunity to Particulate and Non-particulate Antigens.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan; Ali, Nafisa Hassan; Santercole, Viviana; Paglietti, Bianca; Rubino, Salvatore; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Farooqui, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The most common drinking beverage in large portion of the world is Camellia sinensis (green tea). In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of green tea and tea polyphenols to particulate and non-particulate antigens. BALB/c mice were immunized with particulate and non-particulate antigens. Modulation of immunoglobulin-secreting splenocytes, IgG-mediated and IgM-mediated immunity, was evaluated by hemolytic plaque assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Dose-dependent response of tea polyphenols was also assayed. Phenolic content was measured in crude preparations of green tea. We observed a stimulatory effect of green tea preparations on humoral immune response mediated by the increased number of antibody-secreted cells in spleen. A significant increase in IgM-mediated and IgG-mediated immune response to non-particulate antigen was also observed in green tea-treated animals. A dose-dependent adjuvant effect was seen in the case of tea polyphenols for a longer period of time compared with crude tea preparations. This study indicates polyphenols as major constituents responsible for the enhanced and sustained adjuvant activity of green tea. We suggest that tea polyphenols might be considered for real-life evaluation during adjuvant-mediated vaccination trial programs.

  6. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  7. Particulates generated from combustion of polymers (plastics).

    PubMed

    Shemwell, B E; Levendis, Y A

    2000-01-01

    This is an experimental study on the characterization of particulate (soot) emissions from burning polymers. Emissions of polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics were studied. Combustion took place in a laboratory-scale, electrically heated, drop-tube furnace at temperatures of 1300 and 1500 K, in air. The nominal bulk (global) equivalence ratio, phi, was varied in the range of 0.5-1.5, and the gas residence time in the nearly isothermal radiation zone of the furnace was approximately 1 sec. The particulate emissions were size-classified at the exit of the furnace, using a multi-stage inertial particle impactor. Results showed that both the yields and the size distributions of the emitted soot were remarkably different for the five plastics burned. Soot yields increased with an increasing bulk equivalence ratio. Combustion of PS yielded the highest amounts of soot (most highly agglomerated), several times more than the rest of the polymers. More soot was emitted from PS at 1500 than at 1300 K. Substantial amounts of soot agglomerates were larger than 9 microns. At 1500 and 1300 K, 35 and 29% of the soot mass, respectively, was PM2 (2 microns or smaller). Emissions from PE and PP were remarkably similar to each other. These polymers produced very low emissions at phi < or = 0.5, but emissions increased drastically with phi, and most of the soot was very fine (70-97% of the mass was PM2, depending on phi). Emissions from the combustion of PMMA were comparatively low and were the least influenced by the bulk phi, and 79-95% of the emissions were PM2. Combustion of PVC yielded the lowest amounts of soot; moreover, only 13-34% of the mass was PM2. On a comparative basis, at 1500 K, the following ranges of particulate yields were PM2: 19-75 mg/g of PS, 8-36 mg/g of PE, 1.5-47 mg/g of PP, 11-20 mg/g of PMMA, and 2-8 mg/g of PVC, depending on phi. These comparative results demonstrate

  8. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  9. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  10. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  11. Managing particulates in cell therapy: Guidance for best practice.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Dominic; Stanton, Jean; Powers, Donald; Karnieli, Ohad; Nahum, Sagi; Abraham, Eytan; Parisse, Jean-Sebastien; Oh, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The intent of this article is to provide guidance and recommendations to cell therapy product sponsors (including developers and manufacturers) and their suppliers in the cell therapy industry regarding particulate source, testing, monitoring and methods for control. This information is intended to help all parties characterize the processes that generate particulates, understand product impact and provide recommendations to control particulates generated during manufacturing of cell therapy products. PMID:27426934

  12. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  13. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  14. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  15. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62... Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 0.15 kg per metric ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln (0.30 lb per ton)....

  16. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  1. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  2. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  3. Dynamical constraint on particulate sizes for Saturn's B ring spokes

    SciTech Connect

    Eplee, R.E. Jr.; Smith, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    The exponential charge decay time for particulates constituting the spokes in Saturn's B ring is presently proposed as a dynamical time scale for their evolution. Mean particulate radius is determined to be 0.01 + or - 0.03 microns, on the basis of a consideration of solar UV photoemission as the charge decay mechanism which leads to the determination of a dynamical constraint that can be placed on the particulate sizes. 15 references.

  4. X-Ray Absorption Characterization of Diesel Exhaust Particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A J; Ferreira, J L; Reynolds, J G; Roos, J W

    1999-11-18

    We have characterized particulates from a 1993 11.1 Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine with electronic unit injectors operated using fuels with and without methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and overbased calcium sulfonate added. X-ray photoabsorption (XAS) spectroscopy was used to characterize the diesel particulates. Results reveal a mixture of primarily Mn-phosphate with some Mn-oxide, and Ca-sulfate on the surface of the filtered particulates from the diesel engine.

  5. Alveolar macrophage interaction with air pollution particulates.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, C A; Frevert, C; Imrich, A; Sioutas, C; Kobzik, L

    1997-09-01

    We applied flow cytometric analysis to characterize the in vitro response of alveolar macrophages (AM) to air pollution particulates. Normal hamster AM were incubated with varying concentrations of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or concentrated ambient air particulates (CAP). We found a dose-dependent increase in AM-associated right angle light scatter (RAS) after uptake of ROFA (e.g., mean channel number 149.4 +/- 6.5, 102.5 +/- 4.1, 75.8 +/- 3.5, and 61.0 +/- 4.6 at 200, 100, 50, and 25 mg/ml, respectively) or CAP. A role for scavenger-type receptors (SR) in AM uptake of components of ROFA and CAP was identified by marked inhibition of RAS increases in AM pretreated with the specific SR inhibitor polyinosinic acid. We combined measurement of particle uptake (RAS) with flow cytometric analysis of intracellular oxidation of dichlorofluorescin. Both ROFA and CAP caused a dose-related intracellular oxidant stress within AM, comparable to that seen with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (e.g., fold increase over control, 6.6 +/- 0.4, 3.6 +/- 0.4, 4.6 +/- 0.5, 200 mg/ml ROFA, 100 mg/ml ROFA, and 10(-7) M PMA, respectively). We conclude that flow cytometry of RAS increases provides a useful relative measurement of AM uptake of complex particulates within ROFA and CAP. Both ROFA and CAP cause substantial intracellular oxidant stress within AM, which may contribute to subsequent cell activation and production of proinflammatory mediators.

  6. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z; FINNEY, Charles E A; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.

  7. Flight prototype regenerative particulate filter system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. C.; Garber, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The effort to design, fabricate, and test a flight prototype Filter Regeneration Unit used to regenerate (clean) fluid particulate filter elements is reported. The design of the filter regeneration unit and the results of tests performed in both one-gravity and zero-gravity are discussed. The filter regeneration unit uses a backflush/jet impingement method of regenerating fluid filter elements that is highly efficient. A vortex particle separator and particle trap were designed for zero-gravity use, and the zero-gravity test results are discussed. The filter regeneration unit was designed for both inflight maintenance and ground refurbishment use on space shuttle and future space missions.

  8. Preliminary study of contaminant particulates around Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerman, D. W.; Weinberg, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques originally developed for the Skylab T025 contamination experiment were applied to S052 white-light coronagraph data in a preliminary study to investigate particulates around Skylab. Periods were selected which contained some contamination, even though there were no apparent dumps or vents during these periods. Velocity and size distributions were determined from optical data for particles within 200 meters of the spacecraft. Both photographic (61 particle tracks) and video (34 particles) observations yield an upper limit on particle radius of 100 micrometers. Selected photometric data from the S073 zodiacal light experiment during mission SL-2 were also examined for evidence of contamination.

  9. Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

    2012-06-01

    A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  12. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M.

    1998-11-19

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  13. The Effect of Viewing Order of Macroscopic and Particulate Visualizations on Students' Particulate Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie M.; Lane, Sarah M.; Gilbreath, Travis; Tasker, Roy; Ashkenazi, Guy; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    A prior study showed that students best make predictions about the outcome of opening a valve between two flasks containing a fluid or vacuum when they view both a demonstration video and a particulate animation, but the study showed no influence from the order in which these visualizations were used. The purpose of this current research was to…

  14. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  15. Field measurement of diesel particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Volkwein, Jon C; Mischler, Steven E; Davies, Brian; Ellis, Clive

    2008-03-01

    A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the filter with R(2) values >0.86. The relative standard deviation from replicate samples of DP and EC was 0.16 and 0.11, respectively. The method may also have applications beyond mining, where qualitative evaluation of engine emissions is desirable to determine if engine or control technology maintenance may be required.

  16. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  17. Instability and Turbulence of Propagating Particulate Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Propagation of particle-laden fluid into an ambient is a common fluid mechanical process that can be observed in many industrial and environmental applications. Sedimentation fronts, volcanic plumes, dust storms, powder snow avalanches, submarine turbidity currents, explosive powder dispersal and supernovae offer fascinating examples of advancing particulate fronts. The propagating interface can undergo Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and double-diffusive instabilities and result in the formation of lobes and clefts, spikes and bubbles, and particulate fingers. The interplay between suspended particles and turbulence is often complex due to interaction of competing mechanisms. In problems such as turbidity currents, turbulence controls sediment concentration through resuspension and settling of particles at the bed. Also, turbulent entrainment at the propagating front is observed to be influenced by the sediments. Stable stratification due to suspended sediment concentration can damp and even kill turbulence. This complex turbulence-sediment interaction offers possible explanation for massive sediment deposits observed in nature. The talk will also address challenges and recent advancements in the modeling and simulation of such particle-laden turbulent flows.

  18. Electromechanics and Electrical Breakdown of Particulate Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi, Bizhan G. R.

    A comprehensive theory of the electromechanics and electrical breakdown of a current-carrying particulate layer is developed, which takes into account its inhomogeneous nature and mode of compaction. The theory treates the general case of combined surface and volume conduction and takes account of self-compression of the layer due to electrical forces. The electromechanical theory predicts the existence of a remarkably large electrical cohesive stress in the layer due to a strong field enhancement in and around the contact regions. Furthermore, it shows a decrease in the apparent resistivity of the layer with increasing electric field as a result of self-compression. The analysis of electrical breakdown of current -carrying particulate layer predicts the onset of breakdown of the layer in the form of intermittent microsparks in the gap between the contacting particles when the electric field at the contact or in the surrounding gap exceeds the threshold breakdown value. An analysis of the behavior of the layer after breakdown in terms of a simplified equivalent lumped circuit predicts increases of sparking frequency and average current as the applied average field exceeds the threshold average field for the onset of breakdown. The results of measurements on layers of glass beads and fly-ash in a standard resistivity cell are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for the field-dependent resistivity characteristics. The work has particular significance for electrostatic precipitation and addresses the phenomenon of backdischarge and the questions of the retention, rapping, and reentrainment of precipitation ash layers.

  19. Rheological properties of asphalts with particulate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, N.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave asphalt binder specifications are performance-based specifications for purchasing asphalt binders for the construction of roads. This means that the asphalt is characterized by fundamental material (rheological) properties that relate to the distress modes of the pavements. The distress modes addressed are primarily rutting, fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. For example, G*/sin({delta}) is designed to predict the rutting potential of pavements, where G* is the magnitude of the complex shear modulus and 6 is the phase angle. The binder for a road that is situated in a certain climatic zone requires the binder to have a minimum G*/sin({delta}) of 2200 Pa at the highest consecutive 7-day average pavement temperature the road had experienced. Implicit in such a performance based specification is that the fundamental property, G*/sin({delta}), of the binder correlates with rutting potential of the pavement regardless of the nature of the binder. In other words, the specification is transparent to the fact that the binder can simply be an asphalt, or an asphalt modified by polymers, particulates and other materials that can form a two-phase mixture. This paper discusses the asphalt-particulate system.

  20. Mutagenic activity in diesel exhaust particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtman, J.P.; Xiao-bai, X.; Rappaport, S.M.; Talcott, R.E.; Wei, E.T.

    1981-10-01

    Chloroform eluates of diesel exhaust particulate extracts were mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of approximately 480 revertants/100 ..mu..g of extract/plate did not require liver enzymes for its expression. The addition of liver enzymes decreased mutagenic activity, an effect which has previously been shown to be non-specific binding of the mutagen to liver proteins. After reduction of the diesel exhaust extract with sodium borohydride, the S-9 independent activity was greatly diminished. Addition of S-9 to the reduced sample revealed the presence of S-9 dependent mutagenic activity. These results, although not conclusive, provide additional evidence for the presence of nitronarene mutagens in diesel exhaust particulates. If, for example, the samples contained nitrofluorene, nitronaphthalene or nitropyrene, the reduction reaction would have formed aminofluorene, aminonaphthalene, and aminopyrene, compounds which are mutagens requiring liver enzyme activation in the Ames test. Attempts to isolate the amine by acidic extraction were not successful, however, because of the weak mutagenic activity in the sample.

  1. Particulate distribution function evolution for ejecta transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, James Edward; Plohr, Bradley J

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of the ejecta distribution function in a gas is discussed in the context of the recent experiments of W. Buttler and M. Zellner for well characterized Sn surfaces. Evolution equations are derived for the particulate distribution function when the dominant gas-particle interaction in is particulate drag. In the approximation of separability of the distribution function in velocity and size, the solution for the time dependent distribution function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel is expressible in terms of the vacuum time dependent velocity distribution function measured with piezo probes or Asay foils. The solution of this equation in principle gives the size distribution function. We discuss the solution of this equation and the results of the Buttler - Zellner experiments. These suggest that correlations in velocity and size are necessary for a complete description of the transport dala. The solutions presented also represent an analytic test problem for the calculated distribution function in ejecta transport implementations.

  2. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., inside the dilution air filter box at EPA is very low. Pb will be assumed = 0, and background particulate.... 86.145-82 Section 86.145-82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... further defined in § 86.144. (3) P e = mass of particulate per test on the exhaust filter(s), grams....

  3. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., inside the dilution air filter box at EPA is very low. Pb will be assumed = 0, and background particulate.... 86.145-82 Section 86.145-82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... further defined in § 86.144. (3) P e = mass of particulate per test on the exhaust filter(s), grams....

  4. Experiments to investigate particulate materials in reduced gravity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M.; Eden, H. F.; Felsenthal, P.; Glaser, P. E.; Wechsler, A. E.

    1967-01-01

    Study investigates agglomeration and macroscopic behavior in reduced gravity fields of particles of known properties by measuring and correlating thermal and acoustical properties of particulate materials. Experiment evaluations provide a basis for a particle behavior theory and measure bulk properties of particulate materials in reduced gravity.

  5. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED WITH LOW FLOW PERSONAL SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory and the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) have conducted a particulate matter (PM) personal exposure study in Research Triangle Park, NC. Particulate carbon was sampled with pre-fired quartz filters using low flow PM2.5 samplers (2 L...

  6. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspended particulates/turbidity. 230.21 Section 230.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING.../turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1778-99 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; particulate emissions. 86.1778-99 Section 86.1778-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1778-99 Calculations; particulate emissions. The provisions of §...

  8. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  9. Production of particulate matter from the combustion of wood pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papučík, Štefan; Jandačka, Jozef; Chabadová, Jana; Pialát, Peter

    2015-05-01

    For production of particulate matters affect more aspects. One of the biggest affect is combustion air volume and iťs deviding on primary and secondary part. In this article is described experimental device, on which was investigated affect of combustion air volume on production particulate matters, measuring method, measured and analysed achieved results.

  10. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following rule and portions of the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and Missoula PM-10 SIPS. (b) Determination—EPA has determined...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter....

  14. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  15. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential..., usually smaller than silt, and organic particles. Suspended particulates may enter water bodies as a..., and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain suspended in the...

  16. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential..., usually smaller than silt, and organic particles. Suspended particulates may enter water bodies as a..., and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain suspended in the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... individual, enclosed storage bin is exempt from the applicable stack PM concentration limit (and...

  18. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... individual, enclosed storage bin is exempt from the applicable stack PM concentration limit (and...

  19. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... individual, enclosed storage bin is exempt from the applicable stack PM concentration limit (and...

  20. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  1. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  5. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  16. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  17. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  18. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  20. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  1. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  2. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  4. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  8. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  9. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  10. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  12. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  13. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  17. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  18. FEDERAL REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR MEASURING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the national ambient air quality standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Code of Federal Regulations, new standards were established for particulate matter on July 18, 1997. The new particulate matter standards specify mass concentration as the...

  19. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Particulate Matter; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  20. Particulate and solar radiation stable coating for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slemp, W. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A laminate thermal control coating for spacecraft comprising a layer of solar radiation stable film, a layer of particulate radiation stable film applied to the upper surface of the solar radiation stable film, and a layer of reflecting material applied to the lower surface of the solar radiation stable film was described. The coating experiences no increase in solar radiation absorptance (the proportion of radiant energy absorbed) upon exposure to particulate or solar radiation as the particulate radiation is substantially absorbed in the particulate radiation stable layer and the solar radiation partially absorbed by the particulate radiation stable layer is transmitted by the solar radiation stable film to the reflecting material which reflects it back through the laminate and into space.

  1. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  2. The Vega particulate shell - Comets or asteroids?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) science team has discovered a shell of particulate material around the star Vega. At the mean distance and temperature of the shell, the expected condensation products from a protostellar nebula would be dominated by frozen volatiles, in particular water ice. It is not possible to discriminate between dirty ice and silicate materials in the Vega shell on the basis of the IRAS data. The Vega shell is probably a ring of cometary bodies with an estimated minimum mass of 15 earth masses, analogous to one that has been hypothesized for the solar system. A possible hot inner shell around Vega may be an asteroid-like belt of material a few astronomical units from the star.

  3. Optical measurements of chemically heterogeneous particulate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, Nataliya; Gritsevich, Maria; Zubko, Evgenij; Hakala, Teemu; Peltoniemi, Jouni I.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally study light scattering by particulate surfaces consisting of two high-contrast materials. Using the Finnish Geodetic Institute field goniospectropolarimeter, reflectance and degree of linear polarization are measured in dark volcanic sand, bright salt (NaCl) and bright ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3); and in mixtures of bright and dark components. We found that the light-scattering response monotonically changes with volume ratio of dark and bright components. In contrast to previous finding, we do not detect an enhancement of the negative polarization amplitude in two-component high-contrast mixtures. Two-component mixtures reveal an inverse correlation between maximum of their linear polarization and reflectance near backscattering, the so-called Umov effect. In log-log scales this inverse correlation takes a linear form for the dark and moderate-dark samples, while for the brightest samples there is a noticeable deviation from the linear trend.

  4. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  5. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  6. Permanent disposal of radioactive particulate waste

    SciTech Connect

    Troy, M.

    1988-04-19

    A system for storage and encapsulation of radioactive particulate waste, is described comprising: a cartridge having a liquid impervious casing enclosing a waster storage region, a ferromagnetic waste storage matrix housed in the cartridge and occupying at least a major portion of the waste storage region, and an inlet conduit and at least one outlet conduit projecting from the cartridge and communicating with the waste storage region; means for establishing a magnetic field in the matrix; fluid handling means including a source of liquid containing the radioactive waste to be stored in the cartridge, a source of encapsulating material, and a receptacle for receiving flushing water; cartridge filling means including conduits releasably couplable to the conduits associated with the cartridge; and fluid flow control means including remotely controllable valves connected between the fluid handling means and the cartridge filling means.

  7. Linkage: from particulate to interactive genetics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Genetics was established on a strict particulate conception of heredity. Genetic linkage, the deviation from independent segregation of Mendelian factors, was conceived as a function of the material allocation of the factors to the chromosomes, rather than to the multiple effects (pleiotropy) of discrete factors. Although linkage maps were abstractions they provided strong support for the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Direct Cytogenetic evidence was scarce until X-ray induced major chromosomal rearrangements allowed direct correlation of genetic and cytological rearrangements. Only with the discovery of the polytenic giant chromosomes in Drosophila larvae in the 1930s were the virtual maps backed up by physical maps of the genetic loci. Genetic linkage became a pivotal experimental tool for the examination of the integration of genetic functions in development and in evolution. Genetic mapping has remained a hallmark of genetic analysis. The location of genes in DNA is a modern extension of the notion of genetic linkage.

  8. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental cleanup and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  9. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  10. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  11. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  12. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease.

  13. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boiler Houses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which currently comprises over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low- capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  14. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. the large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  15. The vega particulate shell: comets or asteroids?

    PubMed

    Weissman, P R

    1984-06-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) science team has discovered a shell of particulate material around the star Vega. At the mean distance and temperature of the shell, the expected condensation products from a protostellar nebula would be dominated by frozen volatiles, in particular water ice. It is not possible to discriminate between dirty ice and silicate materials in the Vega shell on the basis of the IRAS data. The Vega shell is probably a ring of cometary bodies with an estimated minimum mass of 15 earth masses, analogous to one that has been hypothesized for the solar system. A possible hot inner shell around Vega may be an asteroid-like belt of material a few astronomical units from the star. PMID:17731997

  16. Assessment of Internal Fabric of Particulate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibi, Khalid A.

    2000-01-01

    Particle arrangement and distribution within a soil matrix has long been recognized as having significant influence on the mechanical behavior of cohesionless soils. It is well known that two soil specimens having the same grain type (e.g., quartz, feldspar, etc.), same grain size distribution and relative density (or void ratio) can display completely different mechanical behavior. Because of the different fabric configurations in the otherwise similar specimens, they are likely to have different mechanical properties such as stress-strain response, anisotropy, dilatancy, etc. Soil Fabric is defined as the arrangement of particles, particle groups and associated pore space. In the literature, fabric analysis techniques are mainly classified as destructive (e.g., specimen stabilization, thin-sectioning, and microscopy), and nondestructive techniques (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonic testing, x-ray radiography, and computed tomography). Quantifying the void ratio and its distribution is the main parameter used to describe the fabric of particulate materials. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of fabric analysis techniques applied to particulate materials. In addition, the results of a comprehensive investigation to quantify void ratio of sand specimens will be presented and discussed. The sand used in the experiments in a natural, uniform rounded to sub-rounded silica sand known as F-75 banding sand with mean particle size of 0.22 mm. Uniform specimens and specimens subjected to different axial-strain levels tested under triaxial and biaxial conditions are examined to evaluate void ratio evolution and its distribution using destructive thin-sectioning and nondestructive Computed Tomography (CT) techniques. Details of a new innovative polygon generation technique called Voronoi tessellation used to quantify void ratio of microscopic images of sand grains will be presented and compared to classical Oda's method. Finally, frequency

  17. Autonomous Sensing of Particulate Inorganic Carbon Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, G. A.; Bishop, J. K.; Strubhar, W. D.; Wood, T.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) is produced by coccolithophore phytoplankton and shelled foraminifera and pterpod microzooplankton. These calcite and aragonite particles contribute to excess density of aggregate particles enabling carbon export from surface waters; they are sensitive to the effects of ocean acidification. Concentrations in surface waters range from below 100 nM in oligotrophic waters to 40 uM in the North Atlantic. Very limited ship observations in the Oyashio and subarctic NE Pacific show short term PIC variability of more than one order of magitude over 10 days and 3 months, respectively. At depth concentrations can drop to near zero in waters deeper than the carbonate saturation horizon. Seasonal variations of a factor of two or more at 1000 m depth have been observed. Near surface variability is impossible to follow from ships. We are working on the development of a robust PIC sensor capable of deployment on platforms ranging from CTD's to floats and thus address the gap in observations. The sensor, which uses cross polarized optics, detects the photons that have interacted with birefringent minerals (of which calcite dominates) in the water column. The detection of this very weak signal - which can be 10-6 of the primary beam energy is a daunting task. Here we report results from incomparison deployments of a 'next gen' and prototype sensor during recent expeditions to California coastal and offshore waters (NE Pacific Gyre, Santa Barbara Basin (June 2009); Santa Catalina Basin (October 2010), Santa Cruz Basin (May 2011), California Current and Coastal Waters (July 2011; September 2011). In addition we report calibrations the sensors based on particulate samples filtered from 1L samples and analyzed by HR-ICP-MS.

  18. Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J; Walker, Larry R; Yapaulo, Renato A; Orita, Tetsuo; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai; Foster, David; Akard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

  19. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Steubenville, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with daily mortality in London, England, both in the smog episodes of the 1950s and at the lower pollution levels of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Replicating these findings in the United States has been difficult, because particulates are usually sampled every sixth day. Replication, particularly with a gravimetric measure of particulates, is important in assessing the causality of the relation. Daily measurements of total suspended particulates by high volume gravimetric sampler are available for the Steubenville, Ohio, metropolitan area. These were matched to daily mortality counts from the detail mortality tapes of the National Center for Health Statistics. Deaths of residents which occurred outside the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were excluded. Because of the much smaller population, the average total number of deaths per day in the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area over the 11-year period 1974-1984 was about 1% of the deaths in a typical London winter. Despite this reduced statistical power, total suspended particulate count was significantly associated with increased daily mortality in Poisson regression analyses controlling for season and temperature. An increase in particulates of 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a 4% increase in mortality on the succeeding day. Associations with sulfur dioxide were not significant after adjustment for particulates. The relation appeared to continue at levels well below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

  20. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  1. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  2. Health effects of atmospheric particulates: a medical geology perspective.

    PubMed

    Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S

    2008-01-01

    In this review, atmospheric particulates as composite airborne earth materials often containing both natural and anthropogenic components were examined in the context of medical geology. Despite a vast number of both experimental and epidemiological studies confirming the direct and indirect links between atmospheric particulates and human health, the exact nature of mechanisms affecting the particulate-induced pathogenesis largely remains unexplored. Future in depth research on these areas would be most successful if potential mechanisms are examined with reference to the physical (e.g., size, shape and surface), chemical, mineralogical and source characteristics of particulate matters. The underlying goal of this review was to present the relevant terminology and processes proposed in the literature to explain the interfaces and interactions between atmospheric particles and human body within the framework of "atmospheric particle cycles." The complexities of the interactions were demonstrated through case studies focusing on particulate matter air pollution and malignant mesothelioma occurrences due to environmental exposure to erionite-a fibrous zeolite mineral. There is an urgent need for a standard protocol or speciation methods applicable to earth-materials to guide and streamline studies on etiology of mineral-induced diseases. This protocol or speciation methods should provide relevant procedures to determine the level and extent of physical, chemical and mineralogical heterogeneity of particulate matters as well as quantitative in-situ particulate characteristics.

  3. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides

  4. [Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1

  5. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides

  6. Repair of tegmen defect using cranial particulate bone graft.

    PubMed

    Greene, Arin K; Poe, Dennis S

    2015-01-01

    Bone paté is used to repair cranial bone defects. This material contains bone-dust collected during the high-speed burring of the cranium. Clinical and experimental studies of bone dust, however, have shown that it does not have biological activity and is resorbed. We describe the use of bone paté using particulate bone graft. Particulate graft is harvested with a hand-driven brace and 16mm bit; it is not subjected to thermal injury and its large size resists resorption. Bone paté containing particulate graft is much more likely than bone dust to contain viable osteoblasts capable of producing new bone.

  7. Propellant inefficiency due to particulates in a Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Spanjers, Gregory G.; Lotspeich, Jason S.; McFall, Keith A.; Spores, Ronald A.

    1997-01-10

    Propellant inefficiency resulting from the ejection of propellant material in particulate form is characterized in a Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT). Exhaust deposits are collected and analyzed using a combination of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX), and microscopic imaging. Teflon particulates are observed with sizes ranging from over 100 {mu}m down to less than 1 {mu}m. Estimates of the mass entrained in this form show that the particulates may account for up to 30% of the total propellant mass used, indicating that methods of ameliorating this loss mechanism would result in significant improvements in the PPT thrust efficiency.

  8. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-04-30

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  9. Particulate oxidative burden associated with firework activity.

    PubMed

    Godri, Krystal J; Green, David C; Fuller, Gary W; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Mudway, Ian S

    2010-11-01

    Firework events are capable of inducing particulate matter (PM) episodes that lead to exceedances of regulatory limit values. As short-term peaks in ambient PM concentration have been associated with negative impacts on respiratory and cardiovascular health, we performed a detailed study of the consequences of firework events in London on ambient air quality and PM composition. These changes were further related to the oxidative activity of daily PM samples by assessing their capacity to drive the oxidation of physiologically important lung antioxidants including ascorbate, glutathione and urate (oxidative potential, OP). Twenty-four hour ambient PM samples were collected at the Marylebone Road sampling site in Central London over a three week period, including two major festivals celebrated with pyrotechnic events: Guy Fawkes Night and Diwali. Pyrotechnic combustion events were characterized by increased gas phase pollutants levels (NO(x) and SO(2)), elevated PM mass concentrations, and trace metal concentrations (specifically Sr, Mg, K, Ba, and Pb). Relationships between NO(x), benzene, and PM(10) were used to apportion firework and traffic source fractions. A positive significant relationship was found between PM oxidative burden and individual trace metals associated with each of these apportioned source fractions. The level of exposure to each source fraction was significantly associated with the total OP. The firework contribution to PM total OP, on a unit mass basis, was greater than that associated with traffic sources: a 1 μg elevation in firework and traffic PM fraction concentration was associated with a 6.5 ± 1.5 OP(T) μg(-1) and 5.2 ± 1.4 OP(T) μg(-1) increase, respectively. In the case of glutathione depletion, firework particulate OP (3.5 ± 0.8 OP(GSH) μg(-1)) considerably exceeded that due to traffic particles (2.2 ± 0.8 OP(GSH) μg(-1)). Therefore, in light of the elevated PM concentrations caused by firework activity and the increased

  10. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  11. Sorption of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to particulate material

    SciTech Connect

    Dispirito, A.A.; Dugan, P.R.; Tuovinen, O.H.

    1983-04-01

    Iron-oxidizing thiobacilli oxidize many sulfide minerals. It has been suggested that one mechanism of the oxidation involves a mineral surface attack by the bacteria, thereby catalyzing chemical reactions that normally proceed at slow rates. Evidence for a direct surface attack by acidophilic thiobacilli has been obtained from scanning electron microscope studies in which organisms have been shown to colonize mineral surfaces, eventually resulting in pitting and corrosion of the substratum. Scanning electron microscopic characterization of bacterial-mineral interactions is limited in that the technique is not readily suitable to estimate the kinetics of the bacterial sorption to particles. In a search for suitable methods for evaluating bacterial sorption, autoradiographic techniques have been investigated; similarly, measurements of biomass have been used to examine the time course of bacterial sorption. In the present work, cell protein was used as a measure of monitoring the sorption of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to various fine-grain particulates. The materials chosen for the study include both oxidizable substrates and inert particles that were not chemically altered during their exposure to the bacteria suspensions. In the present communication, the term ''sorption'' is used without regard to the electrochemical properties, charge effects, and biological mechanism of attachment, all of which influence the bacterial sorption on solids.

  12. [Carbon in particulate matter in the air].

    PubMed

    Godec, Ranka

    2008-12-01

    Carbon in Particulate Matter in the AirCarbon (Latin carbo) in elemental form appears as diamond, graphite, fullerene, and black amorphous carbon. Black amorphous carbon can be found in atmospheric aerosols and its main forms are elemental (EC), organic (OC), and carbonate (CC) carbon. Atmospheric carbon particles are transmitted through more than 70 sources of air pollutants. Elemental carbon is the primary pollutant, which results from incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. It also appears as soot, in sediment, soil, and ice core. Many quantitative determinations of elemental carbon are based on its chemical inertness, thermal stability, and visual features. Organic carbon includes organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenylethers, and other organic pollutants are the products of combustion and formation of secondary organic aerosols.The aim of this paper was to describe different forms of carbon in the atmosphere, how they affect people, climate, and the atmosphere, and to give an overview of different methods for their determination. PMID:19064370

  13. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, Steven R. . E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-09-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

  14. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  15. Immersed boundary methods for viscoelastic particulate flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Viscoelastic particulate suspensions play key roles in many energy applications. Our goal is to develop a simulation-based tool for engineering such suspensions. This study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all flow scales associated with the particle motion are resolved. The present effort is based on Immersed Boundary methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry. In this approach, the conservation of momentum equations, which include both Newtonian and non-Newtonian stresses, are solved over the entire domain including the region occupied by the particles. The particles are defined on a separate Lagrangian mesh that is free to move over an underlying Eulerian grid. The development of an immersed boundary forcing technique for moving bodies within an unstructured-mesh, massively parallel, non-Newtonian flow solver is thus developed and described. The presentation will focus on the numerical algorithm and measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. Several validation test cases will be presented including sedimentation under orthogonal shear - a key flow in drilling muds and fracking fluids.

  16. Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1996-09-01

    As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

  17. Factors Controlling Liquid Particulate Matter in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, A. P.; Gong, Z.; de Sá, S. S.; Wernis, R. A.; Yee, L.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Castillo, P.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Alexander, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The hygroscopic response of particulate matter (PM) during GoAmazon 2014/5 was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. The hygroscopic response was measured online and in real-time using a custom designed impaction apparatus. The impaction apparatus was calibrated with respect to particle viscosity indicating a liquid state (viscosity <102 Pa s) for complete adherence (no particle rebound). By varying the PM water content and observing particle rebound as a function of RH (up to 98%), the hygroscopic response and phase state of the PM under investigation was determined. The hygroscopic response curves were categorized according to the rebound fraction at high RH (80 - 98%) bounded by two extremes. 1) Time periods that resemble pure SOM generated under controlled chamber conditions, where no particle rebound is observed above 80% RH. 2) Time periods that a large fraction (10 - 40%) of particles rebound at RH values >95%, an indication of hydrophobic particles. The role of anthropogenic and biogenic factors in controlling the hygroscopic response of PM in Amazonia is investigated through meteorological conditions and particle chemical composition.

  18. Achieving low particulate emissions with electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Mastropietro, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    A great deal of literature has been published in recent years maligning electrostatic precipitators (ESP) as not being effective in achieving low emissions, or as being less effective than fabric filters in collecting fine particulate. This observation is not valid, provided the ESP is properly sized. The misconception comes from comparing modern high efficiency fabric filters, with 1950-1970`s vintage ESP`s. ESP`s were sized much smaller in that era, basically just for {open_quotes}good-neighbor{close_quotes} policies. Figure 1 shows the historical sizing practices for coal-fired utility boilers. From this, it can be seen that ESP`s from the 50`s through the early 1970`s were only about one-fourth to one-half the size of modern ESP`s. These undersized ESP`s, often in the presence of a coal switch to low sulfur coal, sometimes perform poorly. When replaced with a fabric filter, the claim is made that the ESP did not work and that a fabric filter does work properly. Had the ESP been increased in size to modern standards, it too would work properly.

  19. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  20. Recent advances in magnetostrictive particulate composite technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, Wade J.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Carman, Gregory P.

    2002-07-01

    Recently, there have been significant advances in using magnetostrictive particles in a polymer matrix; finding uses in many applications, both as an active transducer and a passive damper. Termed magnetostrictive particulate composites (MPC), the material provides capabilities identical or superior to the monolithic material. Fortis Technologies has been pursuing improvements in the application and fabrication of this innovative material. The MPC technology provides a passive, broadband, large temperature range, high stiffness, dampling material to be used where current technologies fall short. Damping applications of this technology include sporting goods, power/hand tools, space launch and satellite design, noise abatement and vibration isolation. Energy absorption of the composites has been measured and is approaching that of the monolithic material. The material can also be actively controlled by a magnetic field, producing a transducer that can be used for sonar applications. The advantage of this technology over those currently in use is the large power density at relatively low frequencies and the ease of fabrication, allowing less expensive and more effective conformal arrays. Effective strain output and piezomagnetic coefficients have been measured, as have its dynamic properties. The results show significant improvement of the strain output and piezomagnetic coefficients, approaching the monolithic material.

  1. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  2. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

  3. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  4. The determination of particulate contamination in miniature ball bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1992-12-01

    A method is described for determining the particulate contamination in miniature ball bearings in which the bearing is flushed with a solvent that is then filtered. The particles that are collected on the filter are examined by optical microscopy.

  5. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  6. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  7. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  8. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  9. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  10. JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller

    2008-10-31

    The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

  11. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  12. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

  13. Settling Efficiency of Urban Particulate Matter Transported by Stormwater Runoff.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Penna, Nadia; Piro, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of control measures in urban areas is to retain particulate matter washed out by stormwater over impermeable surfaces. In stormwater control measures, particulate matter removal typically occurs via sedimentation. Settling column tests were performed to examine the settling efficiency of such units using monodisperse and heterodisperse particulate matter (for which the particle size distributions were measured and modelled by the cumulative gamma distribution). To investigate the dependence of settling efficiency from the particulate matter, a variant of the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), a Microsoft Excel function based on multi-objective EPR technique (EPR-MOGA), called EPR MOGA XL, was used as a data-mining strategy. The results from this study have shown that settling efficiency is a function of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) concentration and of the median diameter (d50 index), obtained from the particle size distributions (PSDs) of the samples.

  14. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  15. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  16. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

  17. Role of oxidative damage in toxicity of particulates.

    PubMed

    Møller, Peter; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Folkmann, Janne K; Danielsen, Pernille H; Mikkelsen, Lone; Hemmingsen, Jette G; Vesterdal, Lise K; Forchhammer, Lykke; Wallin, Håkan; Loft, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Particulates are small particles of solid or liquid suspended in liquid or air. In vitro studies show that particles generate reactive oxygen species, deplete endogenous antioxidants, alter mitochondrial function and produce oxidative damage to lipids and DNA. Surface area, reactivity and chemical composition play important roles in the oxidative potential of particulates. Studies in animal models indicate that particles from combustion processes (generated by combustion of wood or diesel oil), silicate, titanium dioxide and nanoparticles (C60 fullerenes and carbon nanotubes) produce elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products and oxidatively damaged DNA. Biomonitoring studies in humans have shown associations between exposure to air pollution and wood smoke particulates and oxidative damage to DNA, deoxynucleotides and lipids measured in leukocytes, plasma, urine and/or exhaled breath. The results indicate that oxidative stress and elevated levels of oxidatively altered biomolecules are important intermediate endpoints that may be useful markers in hazard characterization of particulates.

  18. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  19. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  20. Effective capture of respirable sized particulates using electrostatic precipitator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, K.R.; Sanyal, A.

    1999-11-01

    The electrostatic precipitator widely used for the prevention of particulate pollution from industrial sources, can also be effective, when correctly sized and operated, for the collection of respirable fine particulates. That is, those below some 2 micron diameter, particularly of heavy metals which tend to be cumulative and hence injurious to health. Following a review of the basic principles of operation of electrostatic precipitators, specifically addressed to the capture of fine particulates, an outline of the various types of equipment used for collecting solid and liquid (mist) particulates will be discussed. Finally some typical precipitator applications will be illustrated, together with suggestions as to how efficiencies can be further increased to meet compliance with any potential future changes in legislation.

  1. Plasma Aftertreatment for Simultaneous Control of NOx and Particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Pitz, W.J.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-10-28

    Plasma reactors can be operated as a particulate trap or as a NO{sub x} converter. The soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the trapped particulates can be utilized for the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The NO{sub 2} can then be used to non-thermally oxidize the carbon fraction of the particulates. This paper examines the energy density required for oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons and the fate of NO{sub 2} during the oxidation of the particulate carbon. The energy density required for complete oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons is shown to be unacceptably large. The reaction of NO{sub 2} with carbon is shown to lead mainly to backconversion of NO{sub 2} to NO. These results suggest that the use of a catalyst in combination with the plasma will be required to efficiently reduce the NO{sub x} and oxidize the SOF hydrocarbons.

  2. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

  3. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  4. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-05-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution.

  5. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 1994 edition of 30 CFR, parts 1 to 199) as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter; (ii... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate...

  6. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 1994 edition of 30 CFR, parts 1 to 199) as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter; (ii... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate...

  7. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1994 edition of 30 CFR, parts 1 to 199) as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter; (ii... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate...

  8. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 1994 edition of 30 CFR, parts 1 to 199) as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter; (ii... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate...

  9. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 1994 edition of 30 CFR, parts 1 to 199) as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter; (ii... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate...

  10. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators utilize the wearer's...

  11. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators utilize the wearer's...

  12. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators utilize the wearer's...

  13. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  14. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  15. Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Gas-particulate Flow around Breathing Human and Particulate Inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

    2006-05-01

    It is important to predict the environment around the breathing human because inhalation of virus (avian influenza, SARS) is recently severe worldwide problem, and air pollution caused by diesel emission particle (DEP) and asbestos attract a great deal of attention. In the present study, three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to predict unsteady flows around a breathing human and how suspended particulate matter (SPM, diameter˜1 μm) reaches the human nose in inhalation and exhalation. In the calculation, we find out smaller breathing angle and the closer distance between the human nose and pollutant region are effective in the inhalation of SPM.

  16. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  17. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W.; Goodstine, Stephen L.

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  18. Identification of 2-nitrofluorene in diesel exhaust particulates.

    PubMed

    Xu, X B; Nachtman, J P; Rappaport, S M; Wei, E T; Lewis, S; Burlingame, A L

    1981-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particulates contain mutagens which are direct-acting in the Ames test. A dichloromethane extract of these particulates was separated by liquid chromatography and analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). 2-Nitrofluorene, a known carcinogen and direct mutagen, was positively identified by comaxima of ion fragments and retention time on the gas chromatograph. PMID:6193162

  19. Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. )

    1993-10-01

    During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

  20. Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Makiko; Nakano, Tomio; Okuhara, Takaaki; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2011-11-01

    The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of Higashi-Osaka in Japan. The SPM sampler provides particle information about the concentrations of various SPMs (e.g., PM10 and PM2.5) separately. The AEROENT program is world wide ground based sunphotometric observation networks by NASA and provides the spectral information about aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent (α). Simultaneous measurements show that a linear correlation definitely exists between AOT and PM2.5. These results indicate that particulate matter can be estimated from AOT. However AOT represents integrated values of column aerosol amount retrieved from optical property, while particulate matter concentration presents in-situ aerosol loading on the surface. Then simple way using linear correlation brings the discrepancy between observed and estimated particulate matter. In this work, we use cluster information about aerosol type to reduce the discrepancy. Our improved method will be useful for retrieving particulate matter from satellite measurements.

  1. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber

    2006-12-15

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Size- and structure-dependent toxicity of silica particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Sanshiro; Miyaoi, Kenichi; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Inasawa, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Nano- and micro-particulates firmly attach with the surface of various biological systems. In some chronic pulmonary disease such as asbestosis and silicosis, causative particulates will induce chronic inflammatory disorder, followed by poor prognosis diseases. However, nano- and micro-scale specific toxicity of silica particulates is not well examined enough to recognize the risk of nano- and micro-particulates from the clinical aspect. To clarify the effect of the size and structure of silica particulates on the cellular damage and the biological response, we assessed the cytotoxicity of the various kinds of silica particles including amorphous and crystalline silica, in mouse alveolar macrophage culture, focusing on the fibrotic and inflammatory response. Our study showed that the cytotoxicity, which depends on the particle size and surface area, is correlated with their inflammatory response. By contrast, production of TGF-β, which is one of the fibrotic agents in lung, by addition of crystal silica was much higher than that of amorphous silica. We conclude that fibrosis and inflammation are induced at different phases and that the size- and structure-differences of silica particulates affect the both biological responses, caused by surface activity, radical species, and so on.

  3. PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

  4. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Weldon S.; Gonze, Eugene V.

    2008-12-30

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  5. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 2. BAGHOUSES AND PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR NEW APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. Overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furnac...

  6. Macrophage phagocytosis of polyethylene particulate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Voronov, I; Santerre, J P; Hinek, A; Callahan, J W; Sandhu, J; Boynton, E L

    1998-01-01

    In this study, an in vitro model has been developed to examine the interactions of macrophages with ultrahigh molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) particles. Polyethylene particles are the major constituent of the material debris formed as a result of orthopedic implant wear. However, the study of polyethylene particle interactions with cells has been limited. UHMWPE (18-20 microns) and HDPE (4-10 microns) were suspended in soluble collagen type I and subsequently solidified on glass coverslips. The particle chemistry was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mouse cell line macrophages (IC-21) were established on the collagen-particle substrata and maintained for up to 24 h. The response of the cells to the particles was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM), as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and compared to cells on control collagen surfaces without particles. Histological analysis of the samples revealed that the macrophages surrounded larger particles (18-20 microns) and the cells appeared to be attached to the surface of the particles, and the smaller particles (4-10 microns) had been phagocytosed within 2 h. Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6), lysosomal enzymes (beta-galactosidase and hexosaminidase), and prostaglandin E2 were released into the medium, and IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, PGE2, beta-galactosidase, and hexosaminidase levels were significantly increased over collagen control values. The results demonstrate active phagochemotaxis by macrophages for wear particulates and validate this model as a means of studying the specific in vitro interactions of polyethylene with cells. PMID:9429095

  7. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, Richard D.; Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  8. Particulate matter and early childhood body weight.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjeong; Park, Hyesook; Park, Eun Ae; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over adverse effects of air pollution on children's health have been rapidly rising. However, the effects of air pollution on childhood growth remain to be poorly studied. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight from birth to 60months of age. This birth cohort study evaluated 1129 mother-child pairs in South Korea. Children's weight was measured at birth and at six, 12, 24, 36, and 60months. The average levels of children's exposure to particulate matter up to 10μm in diameter (PM10) were estimated during pregnancy and during the period between each visit until 60months of age. Exposure to PM10 during pregnancy lowered children's weight at 12months. PM10 exposure from seven to 12months negatively affected weight at 12, 36, and 60months. Repeated measures of PM10 and weight from 12 to 60months revealed a negative association between postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight. Children continuously exposed to a high level of PM10 (>50μg/m(3)) from pregnancy to 24months of age had weight z-scores of 60 that were 0.44 times lower than in children constantly exposed to a lower level of PM10 (≤50μg/m(3)) for the same period. Furthermore, growth was more vulnerable to PM10 exposure in children with birth weight <3.3kg than in children with birth weight >3.3kg. Air pollution may delay growth in early childhood and exposure to air pollution may be more harmful to children when their birth weight is low. PMID:27344372

  9. [Effect of particulate size and composition on the biodegradation of PAHS in nature waters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xia, Xing-hui; Meng, Li-hong

    2006-05-01

    Effect of particulate size and composition on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in nature waters was examined. Experimental study was carried out for the Yellow River. The results showed that the biodegradation of benzo[a] pyrene and chrysene in water system could be fitted with one-order kinetics and the existence of particulates promoted the biodegradation. When the particulate content was 4 g/L, the sequence of increasing trend in the PAH biodegradation rates was: water system with middle size particulates (7-25 microm) > water system with small size particulates (<7 microm) > water system with large size particulates (>25 microm). The biodegradation rate constants for benzo[a]pyrene in water systems with middle, small and large size particulates were 0.0248 d(-1), 0.0212 d(-1), 0.0192 d(-1), respectively, and that for chrysene were 0.0288 d(-1), 0.0261 d(-1), 0.0218 d(-1), respectively. The mechanisms regarding the effects of particulate size on the biodegradation of PAHs include several aspects. First, the particulate size and composition affected the PAHs degraders level in water system as well as the distribution of PAHs degraders in water and particulate phases. The population of PAHs-degraders in water systems with middle and small size particulates was higher than that with large size particulates. Second, PAHs tended to be sorbed on the particulate phase, and the desorption of PAHs from the particulate phase would lead to a higher concentration of PAHs in the interface between water and particulate phases. Since the PAHs-degraders also tended to grow in the interface between water and particulate phases, this would result in a higher contact chances for PAHs and PAHs-degraders. Therefore, the existence of particulates stimulated the biodegradation of PAHs in water system. Third, the sorption capacity of PAHs and PAHs-degraders on the middle and small size particulates was higher than that on the large size particulates

  10. On-road particulate emission measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio

    Particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere has harmful health effects, contributes to visibility impairment, and affects atmospheric radiative transfer, thereby contributing to global change. Vehicles contribute substantially to the ambient PM concentration in urban areas, yet the fraction of ambient PM originating from vehicle emissions is poorly characterized because suitable measurement methods have not been available. This dissertation describes the development and the use of a new vehicle emission remote sensing system (VERSS) for the on-road measurement of PM emission factors for vehicles. The PM VERSS measures PM by ultraviolet backscattering and transmission. PM backscattering and transmission mass efficiencies have been calculated from Mie theory based on an homogeneous spherical model for gasoline particles and on a two-layers, spherical model for diesel particles. The VERSS was used in a large-scale study in Las Vegas, NV. A commercial gaseous VERSS was used for the measurement of gaseous emission factors (i.e., carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide). Speed and acceleration were also measured for each vehicle. A video image of each vehicle's rear license plate was acquired and license plate numbers were matched with the Clark County department of motor vehicle database to retrieve vehicle information such as model year, vehicle weight category and engine ignition type. PM VERSS has precisely estimated PM fleet average emission factors and clearly shown the dependence of PM emission factors on vehicle model year. Under mostly hot-stabilized operation, diesel vehicle PM emission factors are about 25 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles. Furthermore, the fleet frequency distributions of PM emission factors are highly skewed, meaning that most of the fleet emission factor is accounted for by a small portion of the fleet. The PM VERSS can measure PM emission factors for these high emitting vehicles on an individual basis. PM

  11. Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.E.

    2000-08-20

    Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration

  12. Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 μg/m(3) and 60 μg/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 μg/m(3), 38.1μg/m(3) and 52.5 μg/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ≤ 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality.

  13. Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

  14. Gastric emptying of multi-particulate dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Newton, J Michael

    2010-08-16

    The evidence in the literature for the concept that multi-particulate dosage forms below a specific size empty from the stomach as if they were liquids and hence have the potential to provide the best solution to the formulation of controlled release oral dosage forms, has been considered. There is some evidence that particles less than 1.0mm provide a more rapid response than larger size particles but there is also evidence that this is not always the case and that rapid and reproducible gastric emptying of small particles does not always occur when they are administered. There is strong evidence that food can delay the gastric emptying of multi-particulate systems. Some of the misconception for gastric emptying performance of multi-particulate system is shown to be related to the limitation of the study design and limitation of the way the data is processed. Nevertheless, there is clear evidence that multi-particulate systems can provide effective oral controlled release dosage forms. There is still some way to go with experimental techniques which would allow a definitive answer to the issue of how the variability of the gastric emptying of multi-particulate systems of less than 2.0mm arises.

  15. Therapeutic potentials of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and alkaline phosphatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    al-Rashida, Mariya; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-07-01

    The modulatory role of extracellular nucleotides and adenosine in relevance to purinergic cell signaling mechanisms has long been known and is an object of much research worldwide. These extracellular nucleotides are released by a variety of cell types either innately or as a response to patho-physiological stress or injury. A variety of surface-located ecto-nucleotidases (of four major types; nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases or NTPDases, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases or NPPs, alkaline phosphatases APs or ALPs, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase or e5NT) are responsible for meticulously controlling the availability of these important signaling molecules (at their respective receptors) in extracellular environment and are therefore crucial for maintaining the integrity of normal cell functioning. Overexpression of many of these ubiquitous ecto-enzymes has been implicated in a variety of disorders including cell adhesion, activation, proliferation, apoptosis, and degenerative neurological and immunological responses. Selective inhibition of these ecto-enzymes is an area that is currently being explored with great interest and hopes remain high that development of selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors will prove to have many beneficial therapeutic implications. The aim of this review is to emphasize and focus on recent developments made in the field of inhibitors of ecto-nucleotidases and to highlight their structure activity relationships wherever possible. Most recent and significant advances in field of NTPDase, NPP, AP, and e5NT inhibitors is being discussed in detail in anticipation of providing prolific leads and relevant background for research groups interested in synthesis of selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.

  16. Cometary particulate analyzer. [mass spectrometry of laser plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Miller, D. J.; Utterback, N. G.

    1979-01-01

    A concept for determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates was evaluated. The technique utilizes a short, high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. Critical aspects of the development of this system are determining the ionization efficiencies for various atomic species and achieving adequate mass resolution. A technique called energy-time focus, which utilizes static electric fields to alter the length of the ion flight path in proportion to the ion initial energy, was used which results in a corresponding compression to the range of ion flight times which effectively improves the inherent resolution. Sufficient data were acquired to develop preliminary specifications for a flight experiment.

  17. Spatial statistics of atmospheric particulate matter in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shenghui; Wang, Yangjun; Huang, Yongxiang; Zhou, Quan; Lu, Zhiming; Shi, Xiang; Liu, Yulu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the spatial dynamics of the atmospheric particulate matters (resp. PM10 and PM2.5) are studied using turbulence methodologies. It is found experimentally that the spatial correlation function ρ(r) shows a log-law on the mesoscale range, i.e., 50 ≤ r ≤ 500 km, with an experimental scaling exponent β = 0.45. The spatial structure function shows a power-law behavior on the mesoscale range 90 ≤ r ≤ 500 km. The experimental scaling exponent ζ(q) is convex, showing that the intermittent correction is relevant in characterizing the spatial dynamic of particulate matter. The measured singularity spectrum f(α) also shows its multifractal nature. Experimentally, the particulate matter is more intermittent than the passive scalar, which could be partially due to the mesoscale movements of the atmosphere, and also due to local sources, such as local industry activities.

  18. Problems in comparing particulate spectrometer and visibility meter data.

    PubMed

    Loveland, R B; Lindberg, J D

    1988-10-15

    During the course of a study of vertical profiles of aerosol properties in low stratus clouds, data were acquired simultaneously with particulate spectrometers and with a visibility meter. Calculations made from the particulate data using Mie theory did not agree with extinction as inferred from the visibility meter data when the aerosol extinction was very high or very low. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy were investigated. It was found that the limited acceptance angle of the visibility meter, a form of integrating nephelometer, can contribute to the problem at high extinction values. In low extinction conditions a peculiarity of the electrooptical design of the particulate spectrometer may cause it to lead to serious errors in estimates of aerosol density.

  19. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material and product thereof

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R.; Cugini, Anthony V.

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  20. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  1. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  2. Particulate extraction arrangement for automotive turbocharger or the like

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, N.; Kato, N.; Kawamura, M.

    1988-08-16

    This patent describes an engine system including an exhaust manifold; a turbocharger having a scroll into which exhaust gas from the engine is introduced; a valve for selectively by-passing exhaust gases from the manifold around the scroll into an exhaust conduit; and a particulate separation device operatively interposed between the exhaust manifold, the scroll and the valve, the separation device comprising; a chamber; a first port which establishes fluid communication between the chamber and the manifold; a second port, the second port establishing fluid communication between the chamber and the scroll; and a third port, the third port establishing fluid communication between the chamber and the exhaust conduit via the valve; the chamber including means for inducing particulate matter which is carried thereinto from the manifold through the first port to separate from the exhaust gases and gravitate toward the third port and for inducing particulate matter free exhaust gases to pass through the second port.

  3. Development of microwave-heated diesel particulate filters

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D.; Haberkamp, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    Diesel engines are a prime mover of freight in the United States. Because of legislated reductions in diesel engine emissions, considerable research has been focused on the reduction of these emissions while maintaining the durability, reliability, and fuel economy of diesel engines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that particulate exhaust from diesel powered vehicles represents a potential health hazard. As a result, regulations have been promulgated limiting the allowable amounts of particulate from those vehicles. The 0.1 g/bhp/hr (gram per brake horsepower per hour) particulate standard that applies to heavy-duty diesels became effective in 1994. Engine manufacturers have met those requirements with engine modifications and/or oxidation catalysts. EPA has established more stringent standards for diesel-powered urban buses because of health concerns in densely populated urban areas.

  4. Metals in Particulate Pollutants Affect Peak Expiratory Flow of Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yun-Chul; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Dae-Seon

    2007-01-01

    Background The contribution of the metal components of particulate pollutants to acute respiratory effects has not been adequately evaluated. Moreover, little is known about the effects of genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolism on pulmonary function. Objectives This study was conducted to assess lung function decrement associated with metal components in particulate pollutants and genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1. Methods We studied 43 schoolchildren who were in the 3rd to 6th grades. Each student measured peak expiratory flow rate three times a day for 42 days. Particulate air concentrations were monitored every day, and the concentrations of iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and aluminum in the particles were measured. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms were determined using DNA extracted from participant buccal washings. We used a mixed linear regression model to estimate the association between peak expiratory flow rate and particulate air pollutants. Results We found significant reduction in the peak expiratory flow rate after the children’s exposure to particulate pollutants. The effect was shown most significantly 1 day after exposure to the ambient particles. Manganese and lead in the particles also reduced the peak expiratory flow rate. Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 did not significantly affect peak expiratory flow rate. Conclusions This study demonstrated that particulate pollutants and metals such as manganese and lead in the particles are associated with a decrement of peak expiratory flow rate. These effects were robust even with consideration of genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase. PMID:17431494

  5. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  6. A Review of Discrete Element Method Research on Particulate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, A. A.; Elektorowicz, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes research done using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and explores new trends in its use on Particulate systems. The rationale for using DEM versus the traditional continuum-based approach is explained first. Then, DEM application is explored in terms of geotechnical engineering and mining engineering materials, since particulate media are mostly associated with these two disciplines. It is concluded that no research to date had addressed the issue of using the DEM to model the strength and weathering characteristics of peaty soil-slag-Portland cement-fly ash combinations.

  7. Research priorities for airborne particulates matter in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.; Wassle, R.; Holmes, K.J.; Abt, E.; Bakshi, K.

    2005-07-15

    Despite substantial progress in reducing air pollution over the past 30 years, particulates remain a poorly understood health concern that requires further study. The article provides a brief overview of the work of an independent National Research Council (NRC) Committee on particulate matter (PM). It highlights the committee's process for developing during its deliberations. It reflects on the committee as a potential model to provide guidance on a broad research area in which findings may have significant policy implications. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Sensitive determination of total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus in seawater using liquid waveguide spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ehama, Makoto; Hashihama, Fuminori; Kinouchi, Shinko; Kanda, Jota; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Determining the total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) in oligotrophic oceanic water generally requires the filtration of a large amount of water sample. This paper describes methods that require small filtration volumes for determining the TPP and PIP concentrations. The methods were devised by validating or improving conventional sample processing and by applying highly sensitive liquid waveguide spectrophotometry to the measurements of oxidized or acid-extracted phosphate from TPP and PIP, respectively. The oxidation of TPP was performed by a chemical wet oxidation method using 3% potassium persulfate. The acid extraction of PIP was initially carried out based on the conventional extraction methodology, which requires 1M HCl, followed by the procedure for decreasing acidity. While the conventional procedure for acid removal requires a ten-fold dilution of the 1M HCl extract with purified water, the improved procedure proposed in this study uses 8M NaOH solution for neutralizing 1M HCl extract in order to reduce the dilution effect. An experiment for comparing the absorbances of the phosphate standard dissolved in 0.1M HCl and of that dissolved in a neutralized solution [1M HCl: 8M NaOH=8:1 (v:v)] exhibited a higher absorbance in the neutralized solution. This indicated that the improved procedure completely removed the acid effect, which reduces the sensitivity of the phosphate measurement. Application to an ultraoligotrophic water sample showed that the TPP concentration in a 1075mL-filtered sample was 8.4nM with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% and the PIP concentration in a 2300mL-filtered sample was 1.3nM with a CV of 6.1%. Based on the detection limit (3nM) of the sensitive phosphate measurement and the ambient TPP and PIP concentrations of the ultraoligotrophic water, the minimum filtration volumes required for the detection of TPP and PIP were estimated to be 15 and 52mL, respectively.

  9. Sensitive determination of total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus in seawater using liquid waveguide spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ehama, Makoto; Hashihama, Fuminori; Kinouchi, Shinko; Kanda, Jota; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Determining the total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) in oligotrophic oceanic water generally requires the filtration of a large amount of water sample. This paper describes methods that require small filtration volumes for determining the TPP and PIP concentrations. The methods were devised by validating or improving conventional sample processing and by applying highly sensitive liquid waveguide spectrophotometry to the measurements of oxidized or acid-extracted phosphate from TPP and PIP, respectively. The oxidation of TPP was performed by a chemical wet oxidation method using 3% potassium persulfate. The acid extraction of PIP was initially carried out based on the conventional extraction methodology, which requires 1M HCl, followed by the procedure for decreasing acidity. While the conventional procedure for acid removal requires a ten-fold dilution of the 1M HCl extract with purified water, the improved procedure proposed in this study uses 8M NaOH solution for neutralizing 1M HCl extract in order to reduce the dilution effect. An experiment for comparing the absorbances of the phosphate standard dissolved in 0.1M HCl and of that dissolved in a neutralized solution [1M HCl: 8M NaOH=8:1 (v:v)] exhibited a higher absorbance in the neutralized solution. This indicated that the improved procedure completely removed the acid effect, which reduces the sensitivity of the phosphate measurement. Application to an ultraoligotrophic water sample showed that the TPP concentration in a 1075mL-filtered sample was 8.4nM with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% and the PIP concentration in a 2300mL-filtered sample was 1.3nM with a CV of 6.1%. Based on the detection limit (3nM) of the sensitive phosphate measurement and the ambient TPP and PIP concentrations of the ultraoligotrophic water, the minimum filtration volumes required for the detection of TPP and PIP were estimated to be 15 and 52mL, respectively. PMID:27130091

  10. 77 FR 12526 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base...

  11. STATUS AND PROGRESS IN PARTICULATE MATTER FORECASTING: INITIAL APPLICATION OF THE ETA- CMAQ FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews the status and progress in forecasting particulate matter distributions. The shortcomings in representation of particulate matter formation in current atmospheric chemistry/transport models are presented based on analyses and detailed comparisons with me...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... filters; performance requirements; general. 84.1157 Section 84.1157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... with particulate filters; performance requirements; general. Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters and the individual components of each such device shall, as appropriate, meet...

  13. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction ha...

  14. 77 FR 50446 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 )...

  15. COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

  16. Worker exposure to chemical agents in the manufacture of rubber tires and tubes: particulates.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Harris, R L; Arp, E W; Symons, M J; Van Ert, M D

    1980-03-01

    The Occupational Health Studies Group industrial hygiene studies at a group of 14 tire and tube manufacturing plants chosen to represent a cross-section of the industry include numerous evaluations of potential exposure to airborne particulate matter. Results of these environmental particulate sampling studies are reported by plant and by occupational groups within plants. High volume, open face and cyclone samplers were employed to evaluate both personnel and area particulate concentrations. The concentrations of particulates yielded by high volume and open face total particulate samplers are compared with those of comparison samples of respirable material. Personnel samples of particulates are compared with general air samples taken in the same work areas. An overall review and comparison is given of particulate exposures to workers in various occupational title groups where particulate materials are released to the air from processes or operations.

  17. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 1. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. Overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furnac...

  18. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  19. AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTEIN MASS OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of ambient particulate matter mass concentrations with the total protein mass concentration has not been performed previously for North Carolina and was the goal of this study. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all inclusive indicator of biologically ...

  20. 40 CFR 92.128 - Particulate handling and weighing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....128 Section 92.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.128 Particulate handling and weighing. (a) At least 1 hour before the test, place each filter in a closed...

  1. 40 CFR 92.128 - Particulate handling and weighing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....128 Section 92.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.128 Particulate handling and weighing. (a) At least 1 hour before the test, place each filter in a closed...

  2. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

  3. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

  4. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    SciTech Connect

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  5. Distribution of toxic and radiation components in air particulates.

    PubMed

    Rausch, H; Sziklai, I L; Borossay, J; Torkos, K; Rikker, T; Zemplén-Papp, E

    1995-12-01

    The concentrations of several toxic heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various types of Hungarian fly-ash fine particulates were investigated by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. Within a power station, particulate samples were taken from the boiler zone (BO), from the electrostatic dust filter chamber (FI) and from the flue-gas at the top of the stack (ST). Enrichment rates of the toxic metals both in FI and ST particulate fractions related to the BO concentrations were calculated to enable the temperature dependence on the adsorption of the toxic components to be studied. In addition, both the total amounts of the VOCs and their partial distributions in accordance with the number of carbon atoms were also studied in fly-ash particulates. From them, 31 organic species were identified and determined. Since Hungarian brown coals have high uranium and thorium contents, the specific radioactivities of the daughter isotopes of both the 232Th and 238U decay series were also measured and are discussed.

  6. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not... standard cubic foot) after correction to a stack gas concentration of 7% oxygen, using...

  7. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not... standard cubic foot) after correction to a stack gas concentration of 7% oxygen, using...

  8. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not... standard cubic foot) after correction to a stack gas concentration of 7% oxygen, using...

  9. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not... standard cubic foot) after correction to a stack gas concentration of 7% oxygen, using...

  10. Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Particulate Matter (2006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) is currently underway. The Criteria Document was completed in October 2004, and a proposed decision to revise the PM NAAQS was published in January 2006. The final decision is to be signe...

  11. Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

  12. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section 60.672 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... affected facility is enclosed in a building, then each enclosed affected facility must comply with...

  13. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section 60.672 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... affected facility is enclosed in a building, then each enclosed affected facility must comply with...

  14. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or greater....

  15. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or greater....

  16. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or greater....

  17. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2... shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which...

  18. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or greater....

  19. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or greater....

  20. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2... shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which...

  1. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2... shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which...

  2. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2... shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which...

  3. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2... shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which...

  4. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  5. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  6. Turkish Primary Students' Conceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter in daily-life events. Five questions were asked of students and interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were conducted with 12 students, four students from each grade, after they finished the formal…

  7. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  8. BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL MODELING OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the US EPA's 1998 Baltimore Epidemiology-Exposure Panel Study, a group of 21 residents of a single building retirement community wore personal monitors recording personal fine particulate air pollution concentrations (PM2.5) for 27 days, while other monitors recorde...

  9. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  10. Mineralogy and geochemistry of atmospheric particulates in western Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; Mirnejad, Hassan; Feiznia, Sadat; McQueen, Ken G.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the mineralogy and physico-chemical properties of atmospheric particulates collected at Abadan (southwestern Iran) near the Persian Gulf coast and Urmia (northwestern Iran) during ambient and dust events over 6 months (winter 2011; spring 2012). Particle sizes collected were: TSP (total suspended particulates); PM10 (particulates <10 μm); and PM2.5 (particulates <2.5 μm). Minerals were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD); particle morphology and composition were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Major minerals detected are calcite, quartz, clay minerals and gypsum, with relative abundance related to sampling site, collection period, wind direction, sampling head, and total sample amount. The anomalously high calcite content appears a characteristic feature originated from calcareous soils of the region. SEM observations indicated a wide range of particle morphologies over the 1-50 μm size range, with spherical, platy, cubic, elongate and prismatic shapes and rounding from angular to rounded. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of TSP samples from both sites for non-dusty periods indicated that the sampled mineral suite contained Al, Mg, Na, Cl, P, S, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, and Si, mostly reflecting calcite, quartz, aluminosilicates, clays, gypsum and halite. Additionally, As, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sc, Nd, W, Ce, La, Ba and Ni were detected in TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected during dust events.

  11. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied the... provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of Minnesota submitted a committal...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  17. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for <span class=Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...

  18. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  19. 40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the use of an equivalent method without review and approval of that method. Any source subject to Rule 203(f) which chooses to use an equivalent method must have that equivalent method submitted to U.S...) which regulate the control of particulate matter from specific sources within the iron and...

  20. Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…