Science.gov

Sample records for particulate emission abatement

  1. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  2. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental cleanup and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  3. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boiler Houses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which currently comprises over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low- capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  4. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. the large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  5. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  6. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-04-30

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  7. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  8. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  9. Particulate abatement and environmental control system

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, J.C.; Leavens, J.E.; Wyatt, C.H.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a method of providing an improved temporary working environment during removal or encapsulation of hazardous particulate material from a working space substantially sealed from space exterior of the working space. It comprises: powering one or more portable air moving units for exhausting air including hazardous particulate material from the defined working space and maintaining a negative pressure within the working space with respect to the space external of the working space; monitoring the level of negative pressure within the working space; filtering the exhausted air to remove the hazardous particulate material; discharging a first portion of the exhausted air to the space exterior of the working space; powering a portable conditioning unit to condition a second portion of the exhausted air being defined by the exhausted air less the discharged air; returning the conditioned air to the working space; and regulating the amount of the first portion of the exhausted air in response to the monitored level of negative pressure.

  10. Particulate abatement and environmental control system

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, J.C.; Leavens, J.E.; Wyatt, C.H.

    1991-04-02

    This patent describes a method of providing an improved temporary working environment during removal of hazardous particulate material or during the encapsulation of the hazardous particulate material. It comprises defining a working space substantially sealed from space exterior of the working space; powering a portable air moving unit for exhausting air including hazardous particulate material from the defined working space to maintain a negative pressure within the working space with respect to the space external of the working space; monitoring the level of negative pressure within the working space; filtering the exhausted air to remove the hazardous particulate material; discharging a minority portion of the exhausted air to the space exterior of the working space; powering a portable conditioning unit to condition a majority portion of the exhausted air, the majority portion of the exhausted air being defined by the exhausted air less the discharged air; returning the conditioned air to the working space; and regulating the ratio of the minority portion of the discharged air to the majority portion of the conditioned air in response to the monitored level of negative pressure.

  11. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, S.R.; Surowka, J.

    1995-11-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered top priorities in Poland. The magnitude of environmental problems and public awareness of it has forced the Polish government to implement more aggressive regulatory controls. The extent of this condition has in fact prompted the government to designate pollution control a a top priority for foreign investment. During the past five years, Poland has also made significant progress in reorienting its central-planned economy to one based on open market principals. Efforts to decentralize has led to the privatization of many government-owned businesses with a concomitant shift in buying decisions to privately-owned enterprises. This movement toward privatizing the economy along with cleaning and protecting the environment has created numerous business opportunities for both Polish and foreign companies. As a result, there has been a drastic downsizing of large formerly state-owned companies. And, new startups and small businesses have become the main hope in reviving the Polish economy.

  12. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  13. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  14. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  15. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  16. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25588032

  17. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Electrostatic Spray Wet Scrubber to Control Particulate Matter Emissions from Poultry Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant emitted from animal production and has significant impacts on health and the environment. Abatement of PM emissions is imperative and effective PM control technologies are strongly needed. In this work, an electrostatic spray wet scrubber (ESWS) techn...

  19. Abatement of gaseous and particulate contamination in a space instrument application to a solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods to prevent the ingestion of external contaminants into the instrument and to limit the effect of the self-generated contaminants during ground, launch, orbiting and landing phases of flight were investigated. It is proposed that a positive pressure and purging flow of clean gas inside the instrument be maintained while on the ground, during launch, and for a period of time in orbit. The pressure to be maintained and the required purging flow are examined in terms of the effectiveness in preventing gaseous and particulate contaminants ingestion and the abatement of the self-generated contaminants. Considerations have been given to the venting requirements for the structural integrity of the instrument during launch, the limitations on the volume and the pressure of the purging gas to be carried along in orbit, and the required venting area is established based on the internal volume of the instrument, the allowable pressure differential, and the rate of external pressure change during launch.

  20. Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

  1. Diesel particulate abatement via wall-flow traps based on perovskite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Fino, Debora; Russo, Nunzio; Saracco, Guido; Specchia, Vito

    2003-01-01

    It is probably redundant to stress how extensive are nowadays the attempts to reduce the diesel particulate emissions from automotive and stationary sources. The present paper looks into a technology relied on a catalytic trap based on a SiC wall-flow monolith lined with suitable catalysts for the sake of promoting a more complete and faster regeneration after particulate capture. All the major steps of the catalytic filter preparation are dealt with, including: the synthesis and choice of the proper catalyst and trap materials, the development of an in situ catalyst deposition technique, the bench testing of the derived catalytic wall-flow. The best catalyst selected was the perovskite La0.9K0.1Cr0.9O3-delta. The filtration efficiency and the pressure drop of the catalytic and non-catalytic monoliths were evaluated on a diesel engine bench under various operating conditions.

  2. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  3. PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although it has long been recognized that road and building construction activity constitutes an important source of PM emissions throughout the United States, until recently only limited research has been directed to its characterization. This paper presents the results of PM10...

  4. Continuous measurement of diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, S.; Black, F.; King, F.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of emerging diesel-particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity or light extinction properties of elemental carbon are described. The instrumentation provided adequate time resolution to observe the transient concentrations associated with typical automobile driving patterns. Accuracy and precision are evaluated by comparing integrated average results to measurements, using classical gravimetric filtration techniques. Emissions from two diesel passenger cars with substantially different chemical compositions are examined. Mass-specific extinction coefficients are developed using the Beer-Lambert Law and a simplified linear model that proved adequate for particulate concentrations typical of diluted passenger-car exhaust.

  5. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand.

  6. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand. PMID:27421853

  7. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  8. Input quality, trade liberalization, and abatement of carbon-dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, M.; Zilberman, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper introduces a methodology to derive the incentives provided by two alternative policies--an emissions tax vs. liberalization of trade in higher quality coal--for increasing conversion-efficiency of electricity generation and for analyzing their impact on carbon emissions as well as on output of electricity. This methodology is applied empirically to examine the potential for abatement of carbon emissions from existing coal-based plants in the thermal power sector in India through the adoption of higher qualities of coal. The paper provides strong empirical support for achieving a complementarity between the goals of abatement and increased output, through policies which remove distortions in domestic and trade policies. It also demonstrates that abatement induced by an emissions-tax alone leads to a conflict between these goals. The authors examine a situation where the availability of higher quality coal is constrained by domestic and trade barriers. The role of coal quality in improving conversion-efficiency is analyzed when microunits are heterogeneous and have putty-clay technologies. The framework developed here juxtaposes engineering relationships governing plant performance and stylized features of electricity-generating technologies with a behavioral economic model.

  9. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  10. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    SciTech Connect

    Katerina Dobesova; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. The authors examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, mercury, and CO{sub 2}. The focus is on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO{sub 2}. The private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS is compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions. It was found that society paid about 5.7 cents/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cents/kWh in reduced SO{sub 2}, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO{sub 2} emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. 35 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    PubMed

    Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. PMID:16323750

  12. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    PubMed

    Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS.

  13. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  14. Field measurement of diesel particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Volkwein, Jon C; Mischler, Steven E; Davies, Brian; Ellis, Clive

    2008-03-01

    A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the filter with R(2) values >0.86. The relative standard deviation from replicate samples of DP and EC was 0.16 and 0.11, respectively. The method may also have applications beyond mining, where qualitative evaluation of engine emissions is desirable to determine if engine or control technology maintenance may be required.

  15. The hydrogen sulfide emissions abatement program at the Geysers Geothermal Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. W.; Mccluer, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    The scope of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abatement program at The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant and the measures currently under way to reduce these emissions are discussed. The Geysers steam averages 223 ppm H2S by weight and after passing through the turbines leaves the plant both through the gas ejector system and by air-stripping in the cooling towers. The sulfide dissolved in the cooling water is controlled by the use of an oxidation catalyst such as an iron salt. The H2S in the low Btu ejector off gases may be burned to sulfur dioxide and scrubbed directly into the circulating water and reinjected into the steam field with the excess condensate. Details are included concerning the disposal of the impure sulfur, design requirements for retrofitting existing plants and modified plant operating procedures. Discussion of future research aimed at improving the H2S abatement system is also included.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...) Vav = Actual volume of double diluted sample which passed through the particulate filter, cubic feet... be applied before Vsf is determined. (4) Pf = Mass of particulate on the sample filter (or sample...

  17. On-road particulate emission measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio

    Particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere has harmful health effects, contributes to visibility impairment, and affects atmospheric radiative transfer, thereby contributing to global change. Vehicles contribute substantially to the ambient PM concentration in urban areas, yet the fraction of ambient PM originating from vehicle emissions is poorly characterized because suitable measurement methods have not been available. This dissertation describes the development and the use of a new vehicle emission remote sensing system (VERSS) for the on-road measurement of PM emission factors for vehicles. The PM VERSS measures PM by ultraviolet backscattering and transmission. PM backscattering and transmission mass efficiencies have been calculated from Mie theory based on an homogeneous spherical model for gasoline particles and on a two-layers, spherical model for diesel particles. The VERSS was used in a large-scale study in Las Vegas, NV. A commercial gaseous VERSS was used for the measurement of gaseous emission factors (i.e., carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide). Speed and acceleration were also measured for each vehicle. A video image of each vehicle's rear license plate was acquired and license plate numbers were matched with the Clark County department of motor vehicle database to retrieve vehicle information such as model year, vehicle weight category and engine ignition type. PM VERSS has precisely estimated PM fleet average emission factors and clearly shown the dependence of PM emission factors on vehicle model year. Under mostly hot-stabilized operation, diesel vehicle PM emission factors are about 25 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles. Furthermore, the fleet frequency distributions of PM emission factors are highly skewed, meaning that most of the fleet emission factor is accounted for by a small portion of the fleet. The PM VERSS can measure PM emission factors for these high emitting vehicles on an individual basis. PM

  18. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M.

    1998-11-19

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1778-99 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; particulate emissions. 86.1778-99 Section 86.1778-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1778-99 Calculations; particulate emissions. The provisions of §...

  20. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: feasibility of abatement strategies.

    PubMed

    Carew, Richard

    2010-08-01

    An updated national ammonia (NH(3)) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH(3) emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH(3) emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Québec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH(3) emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods.

  1. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

    2014-07-15

    The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies. PMID:24887128

  2. Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

  3. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  4. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  5. Achieving low particulate emissions with electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Mastropietro, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    A great deal of literature has been published in recent years maligning electrostatic precipitators (ESP) as not being effective in achieving low emissions, or as being less effective than fabric filters in collecting fine particulate. This observation is not valid, provided the ESP is properly sized. The misconception comes from comparing modern high efficiency fabric filters, with 1950-1970`s vintage ESP`s. ESP`s were sized much smaller in that era, basically just for {open_quotes}good-neighbor{close_quotes} policies. Figure 1 shows the historical sizing practices for coal-fired utility boilers. From this, it can be seen that ESP`s from the 50`s through the early 1970`s were only about one-fourth to one-half the size of modern ESP`s. These undersized ESP`s, often in the presence of a coal switch to low sulfur coal, sometimes perform poorly. When replaced with a fabric filter, the claim is made that the ESP did not work and that a fabric filter does work properly. Had the ESP been increased in size to modern standards, it too would work properly.

  6. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  7. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production

    PubMed Central

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C.; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  8. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  9. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration.

  10. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  11. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  12. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  13. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted. Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions. Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  14. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  15. Management of space heating emissions for effective abatement of urban smoke and SO 2 pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economopoulos, Alexander P.

    The results from recent health studies reveal the necessity of more stringent short-term standards for fine particulates and SO 2, thus placing increased emphasis on the regulation of space heating boilers. In view of this situation, management approaches that combine well-known measures, such as the boiler Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) programs, with powerful new ones, such as the rationalization of the boiler operating hours, are examined. Emission inventory and air quality models are employed for analyzing the environmental and energy impacts of the above measures, while new highly computerized methods are considered for enhancing their implementation potential. The above analysis is performed against the background of the Metropolitan Athens Area so as to allow quantification of the environmental and energy impacts, offering thus a realistic presentation of the very significant, and often overlooked, potential of the proposed measures.

  16. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  17. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  18. Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Qiu, Guowang

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has long been recognized as an air pollutant due to its adverse health and environmental impacts. As emission of PM from agricultural operations is an emerging air quality issue, the Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions Indicator (APMEI) has been developed to estimate the primary PM contribution to the atmosphere from agricultural operations on Census years and to assess the impact of practices adopted to mitigate these emissions at the soil landscape polygon scale as part of the agri-environmental indicator report series produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. In the APMEI, PM emissions from animal feeding operations, wind erosion, land preparation, crop harvest, fertilizer and chemical application, grain handling, and pollen were calculated and compared for the Census years of 1981-2006. In this study, we present the results for PM10 and PM2.5, which exclude chemical application and pollen sources as they only contribute to total suspended particles. In 2006, PM emissions from agricultural operations were estimated to be 652.6 kt for PM10 and 158.1 kt for PM2.5. PM emissions from wind erosion and land preparation account for most of PM emissions from agricultural operations in Canada, contributing 82% of PM10 and 76% of PM2.5 in 2006. Results from the APMEI show a strong reduction in PM emissions from agricultural operations between 1981 and 2006, with a decrease of 40% (442.8 kt) for PM10 and 47% (137.7 kt) for PM2.5. This emission reduction is mainly attributed to the adoption of conservation tillage and no-till practices and the reduction in the area of summer fallow land.

  19. Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Qiu, Guowang

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has long been recognized as an air pollutant due to its adverse health and environmental impacts. As emission of PM from agricultural operations is an emerging air quality issue, the Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions Indicator (APMEI) has been developed to estimate the primary PM contribution to the atmosphere from agricultural operations on Census years and to assess the impact of practices adopted to mitigate these emissions at the soil landscape polygon scale as part of the agri-environmental indicator report series produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. In the APMEI, PM emissions from animal feeding operations, wind erosion, land preparation, crop harvest, fertilizer and chemical application, grain handling, and pollen were calculated and compared for the Census years of 1981-2006. In this study, we present the results for PM10 and PM2.5, which exclude chemical application and pollen sources as they only contribute to total suspended particles. In 2006, PM emissions from agricultural operations were estimated to be 652.6 kt for PM10 and 158.1 kt for PM2.5. PM emissions from wind erosion and land preparation account for most of PM emissions from agricultural operations in Canada, contributing 82% of PM10 and 76% of PM2.5 in 2006. Results from the APMEI show a strong reduction in PM emissions from agricultural operations between 1981 and 2006, with a decrease of 40% (442.8 kt) for PM10 and 47% (137.7 kt) for PM2.5. This emission reduction is mainly attributed to the adoption of conservation tillage and no-till practices and the reduction in the area of summer fallow land. PMID:22866575

  20. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  1. Estimation of the seasonal variation of particulate nitrate and sensitivity to the emission changes in the greater Seoul area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sihye; Ghim, Young Sung; Kim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Jin Young

    Seasonal variation of fine particulate nitrate and sensitivity of fine particle mass concentration to the emission changes of VOCs and NO x were estimated in the greater Seoul area. SBOX, a photochemical box model was used to obtain the total nitric acid (HNO 3T) concentration, and SCAPE2, a gas/particle equilibrium model was used to determine the partitioning of nitric acid/nitrate and particulate water content. Most HNO 3T existed as nitrate except in summer (˜60%) since there was enough ammonia to form particulate ammonium nitrate. In summer, high temperature was favorable to gaseous nitric acid. Also, because of average relative humidity (RH) higher than the deliquescence points of most salts, water content in summer was higher than those in other seasons by a factor of two. For all seasons, fine particle mass concentration (the sum of ion concentrations and water content) increased until considerable amount of NO x emissions was reduced. This phenomenon is a typical example of the so-called 'NO x disbenefits' that has been discussed in relation to the abatement of ozone pollution.

  2. Fugitive dust emission source profiles and assessment of selected control strategies for particulate matter at gravel processing sites in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chang, Yu-Min; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Wu, Ming-Ching

    2010-10-01

    Particles emitted from gravel processing sites are one contributor to worsening air quality in Taiwan. Major pollution sources at gravel processing sites include gravel and sand piles, unpaved roads, material crushers, and bare ground. This study analyzed fugitive dust emission characteristics at each pollution source using several types of particle samplers, including total suspended particulates (TSP), suspended particulate (PM10), fine suspended particulate (PM2.5), particulate sizer, and dust-fall collectors. Furthermore, silt content and moisture in the gravel were measured to develop particulate emission factors. The results showed that TSP (< 100 microm) concentrations at the boundary of gravel sites ranged from 280 to 1290 microg/m3, which clearly exceeds the Taiwan hourly air quality standard of 500 microg/m3. Moreover, PM10 concentrations, ranging from 135 to 550 microg/m3, were also above the daily air quality standard of 125 microg/m3 and approximately 1.2 and 1.5 times the PM2.5 concentrations, ranging from 105 to 470 microg/m3. The size distribution analysis reveals that mass mean diameter and geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.2 to 5.7 microm and from 2.82 to 5.51, respectively. In this study, spraying surfactant was the most effective control strategy to abate windblown dust from unpaved roads, having a control efficiency of approximately 93%, which is significantly higher than using paved road strategies with a control efficiency of approximately 45%. For paved roads, wet suppression provided the best dust control efficiencies ranging from 50 to 83%. Re-vegetation of disturbed ground had dust control efficiencies ranging from 48 to 64%.

  3. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter.

    PubMed

    Overcamp, Thomas J; Speer, Matthew P; Griner, Stewart J; Cash, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    Tests treating soils contaminated with metal compounds and radionuclide surrogates were conducted in a DC arc melter. The soil melted, and glassy or ceramic waste forms with a separate metal phase were produced. Tests were run in the melter plenum with either air or N2 purge gases. In addition to nitrogen, the primary emissions of gases were CO2, CO, oxygen, methane, and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). Although the gas flow through the melter was low, the particulate concentrations ranged from 32 to 145 g/m3. Cerium, a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium and uranium, was not enriched in the particulate matter (PM). The PM was enriched in cesium and highly enriched in lead. PMID:12568249

  4. Modeling particulate matter emissions during mineral loading process under weak wind simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Chen, Weiping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shuifen

    2013-04-01

    The quantification of particulate matter emissions from mineral handling is an important problem for the quantification of global emissions on industrial sites. Mineral particulate matter emissions could adversely impact environmental quality in mining regions, transport regions, and even on a global scale. Mineral loading is an important process contributing to mineral particulate matter emissions, especially under weak wind conditions. Mathematical models are effective ways to evaluate particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process. The currently used empirical models based on the form of a power function do not predict particulate matter emissions accurately under weak wind conditions. At low particulate matter emissions, the models overestimated, and at high particulate matter emissions, the models underestimated emission factors. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to evaluate the particulate matter emission factors for the mineral loading process. A new approach based on the mathematical form of a logistical function was developed and tested. It provided a realistic depiction of the particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process, accounting for fractions of fine mineral particles, dropping height, and wind velocity.

  5. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MICROFACPM: A MICROSCALE MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microscale emission factor model (MicroFacPM) for predicting real-time site-specific motor vehicle particulate matter emissions was presented in the companion paper entitled "Development of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter (MicroFacPM) for Predicting Re...

  6. Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

  7. Filtration of Carbon Particulate Emissions from a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Green, Robert; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon; Greenwood, Zach; Abney, Morgan; Peterson, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    NASA is investigating plasma pyrolysis as a candidate technology that will enable the recovery of hydrogen from the methane produced by the ISS Sabatier Reactor. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) is the current prototype of this technology which converts the methane product from the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) to acetylene and hydrogen with 90% or greater conversion efficiency. A small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on several options for filtering out the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream. The filtration technologies and concepts investigated range from fibrous media to monolithic ceramic and sintered metal media. This paper describes the different developed filter prototypes and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC. In addition, characterization data on the generated carbon particulates, that help to define filter requirements, are also presented.

  8. Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.

  9. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    SciTech Connect

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art

  10. Gaseous and particulate emission profiles during controlled rice straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, E.; Ferrer, M.; Calvet, S.; Coscollà, C.; Yusà, V.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of rice straw can emit considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants. We evaluated the effect of rice straw moisture content (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and on the organic and inorganic constituents of released particulate matter (PM): dioxins, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four burning tests were conducted per moisture treatment using the open chamber method. Additionally, combustion characteristics, including burning stages, durations, temperature, and relative humidity, were recorded. Burning tests showed flaming and smoldering stages were significantly longer in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the rest. The amount of burned straw and ashes decreased with increasing straw moisture content (P < 0.001). Carbon dioxide was the main product obtained during combustion with emission values ranging from 692 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (10% moisture content) to 835 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (20% moisture content). Emission factors for PM were the highest in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.005). Fine PM (PM2.5) accounted for more than 60% of total PM mass. Emission factors for dioxins increased with straw moisture content, being the highest in 20% moisture treatment, although showing a wide variability among burning tests (P > 0.05). Emissions factors for heavy metals were low and similar among moisture treatments (P > 0.05). Emission factors for individual PAHs were generally higher in 20% moisture treatment. Overall, emission factors of atmospheric pollutants measured in our study were higher in the 20% moisture content. This difference could be attributed to the incomplete combustion at higher levels of rice straw moisture content. According to our results, rice straw burning should be done after straw drying and under minimal moisture conditions to lower pollutant emission levels.

  11. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation. PMID:24937461

  12. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  13. Abatement Cost of GHG Emissions for Wood-Based Electricity and Ethanol at Production and Consumption Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ−1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km−1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e−1 and $30 Mg CO2e−1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation. PMID:24937461

  14. Life cycle of meats: an opportunity to abate the greenhouse gas emission from meat industry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Thammawong, Manasikan; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Xu, Qingyi; Shiina, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The food industry is one of the world's largest industrial sectors, hence a large contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) which cause global warming. This study evaluates the life cycle of various types of meat to determine if the GHG emission from the meat industry in Japan could be reduced if the population makes different dietary choices. It was confirmed that the GHG emission of beef was greater than that of pork or chicken. The GHG emission from meat in general also depends on the per capita caloric intake (if meat supplies the recommended animal protein or contributes to it at the present rate). In a healthy and balanced diet (9.2 MJ i.e., 2200 kcal in total, where either mixed meat or chicken or pork or beef contributes 2.2%), the GHG emission is estimated to be 0.28 or 0.17 or 0.15 or 0.77 kg CO₂ eq/person/day, respectively. A change in consumption patterns (from beef to chicken or pork) and the adoption of a healthy and balanced diet would help to abate about 2.5-54.0 million tons (CO₂ eq) produced by the meat industry each year in Japan.

  15. ElectroCore separator for particulate air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.; Altman, R.F.; Olen, K.R.

    1998-07-01

    Coal combustion in fossil energy power systems releases trace amounts of chemical elements identified in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Most HAPs exist as solid phase particulate matter and are emitted to the atmosphere in this form. To reduce the emissions of these HAPs, a novel, high efficiency particle collection system known as the ElectroCore is being developed. The concept involves placing a high efficiency particle separator downstream of an underperforming electrostatic precipitator (ESP) that strips the particles from the incoming flow and returns them, along with a small amount of recirculation flow, back to the inlet of the ESP. The main component of the system is the ElectroCore separator. Its design is based on the mechanical Core Separator developed by LSR as a high efficiency centrifugal separator. Enhancing the Core Separator by adding an electrical field improves the separation efficiency of particles in the sub-micron range which is the range where centrifugal separation is ineffective. In the combined system, the centrifugal forces operating on the particles augmented by electrostatic forces so that the ElectroCore has high separation efficiency for particles of all sizes. Field tests have shown that the ElectroCore operating downstream of an underperforming ESP can reduce the particulate emission rate to below 4.3 ng/J (0.01 lb{sub m}/million Btu) even for ESPs with emission rates as high as 260 ng/J (0.6 lb{sub m}/million Btu). The ElectroCore system can perform with most all coal ranks or residual fuel oils (RFO) and has a potentially low capital cost.

  16. TRANSIENT, REAL-TIME, PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS IN DIESEL ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S; Shih, J; Hillman, G; sekar, R; Graze, R; Shimpi, S; Martin, W; Pier, D

    2003-08-24

    This paper reports our efforts to develop an instrument, TG-1, to measure particulate emissions from diesel engines in real-time. TG-1 while based on laser-induced incandescence allows measurements at 10 Hz on typical engine exhausts. Using such an instrument, measurements were performed in the exhaust of a 1.7L Mercedes Benz engine coupled to a low inertia dynamometer. Comparative measurements performed under engine steady state conditions showed the instrument to agree within {+-}12% of measurements performed with an SMPS. Moreover, the instrument had far better time response and time resolution than a TEOM{reg_sign} 1105. Also, TG-1 appears to surpass the shortcomings of the TEOM instrument, i.e., of yielding negative values under certain engine conditions and, being sensitive to external vibration.

  17. Particulate emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed chaparral fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Winstead, Edward L.; Riggin, Philip J.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1988-01-01

    Particulate emission from a 400-acre prescribed chaparral fire in the San Dimas Experimental Forest was investigated by collecting smoke aerosol on Teflon and glass-fiber filters from a helicopter, and using SEM and EDAX to study the features of the particles. Aerosol particles ranged in size from about 0.1 to 100 microns, with carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, calcium, and iron as the primary elements. The results of ion chromatographic analysis of aerosol-particle extracts (in water-methanol) revealed the presence of significant levels of NO2(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), PO4(3-), C2O4(2-), Na(+), NH4(+), and K(+). The soluble ionic portion of the aerosol was estimated to be about 2 percent by weight.

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of vegetative environmental buffers in mitigating particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from animal operations have been identified as a major air pollutant source with health and environmental impacts. Nearly 600 million broilers are produced annually on the Delmarva Peninsula, making it a hot spot for particulate matter emissions from poultry houses....

  19. The cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens in Harris County by a abating chemical plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.H. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The work examines the engineering reasonableness and the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens n ambient air by abating emissions of organic chemicals in waste gas streams from chemical plants in Harris County, Texas, which contains the large chemical manufacturing complex in the Houston ship channel areas. The work also examined the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure through changing the way vent streams are released to the atmosphere. The achievable exposure reductions are estimated by use of 1980 census data and of ambient concentration estimates. The ambient concentration estimates are calculated using the Texas Climatological Model Version 2 (TCM-2) and publicly available emissions inventory collected by the Texas Air Control Board. The TCM-2 is based on the steady state Gaussian plume hypothesis, Briggs plume rise formations, Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficient approximations, and first order pollutant decay. The cost estimates rely on published studies and on the waste gas stream parameters of the chemical plant vents. The cost effectiveness results are compared with the cost effectiveness of controls typically applied to new sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are controlled because of their contribution to ozone air pollution, not because of the carcinogenicity of their emissions.

  20. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  1. Removal of Sulfur from Natural Gas to Reduce Particulate Matter Emission from a Turbine Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Brent Loren

    The present work investigates the effect of natural gas fuel sulfur on particulate emissions from stationary gas turbine engines used for electricity generation. Fuel sulfur from standard line gas was scrubbed using a system of fluidized reactor beds containing a specially designed activated carbon purpose built for sulfur absorption. A sulfur injection system using sonic orifices was designed and constructed to inject methyl mercaptan into the scrubbed gas stream at varying concentrations. Using these systems, particulate emissions created by various fuel sulfur levels between 0 and 8.3 ppmv were investigated. Particulate samples were collected from a Capstone C65 microturbine generator system using a Horiba MDLT-1302TA micro dilution tunnel and analyzed using a Horiba MEXA-1370PM particulate analyzer. In addition, ambient air samples were collected to determine incoming particulate levels in the combustion air. The Capstone C65 engine air filter was also tested for particulate removal efficiency by sampling downstream of the filter. To further differentiate the particulate entering the engine in the combustion air from particulate being emitted from the exhaust stack, two high efficiency HEPA filters were installed to eliminate a large portion of incoming particulate. Variable fuel sulfur testing showed that there was a strong correlation between total particulate emission factor and fuel sulfur concentration. Using eleven variable sulfur tests, it was determined that an increase of 1 ppmv fuel sulfur will produce an increase of approximately 3.2 microg/m3 total particulate. Also, the correlation also predicted that, for this particular engine, the total particulate emission factor for zero fuel sulfur was approximately 19.1 microg/m3. With the EC and OC data removed, the correlation became 3.1 microg/m3 of sulfur particulate produced for each ppmv of fuel sulfur. The correlation also predicted that with no fuel sulfur present, 6.6 microg/m3 of particulate will

  2. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  3. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  4. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  5. Particulate emissions from different types of biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Obrist, Daniel; Zielinska, Barbara; Gertler, Alan

    2013-06-01

    Biomass burning is a significant emission source of PM2.5(i.e., particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm), but few studies addressed the chemical composition of PM2.5 emissions from various types of fires. Here, we present results from a sampling campaign to quantify PM2.5 emissions from various types of prescribed burning activities using analysis of carbon (elemental carbon: EC; organic carbon: OC; and total carbon: TC); polar organic compounds (12 different compounds and four functional classes); water-soluble potassium (K+); and particle-bound mercury (PHg). Emissions were characterized for a series of prescribed burns in the Lake Tahoe basin in the western United States, along with controlled biomass combustion in a wood stove. In the field, emissions were collected from: (i) landscape underburns, consisting of wooden tissues, foliage, branches, and surface duff; (ii) pile burns, consisting mainly of wooden tissues stacked up to piles; (iii) mixed underburn/pile burns which consisted of a mix of the above; in a wood stove, burns included different fuel types collected from the Lake Tahoe basin, specifically (iv) wooden logs mainly of pine; (v) green foliage and branches from two dominant shrubs (manzanita and bitterbrush); and (vi) surface duff, mostly consisting of pine needle litter.Our data showed higher ratios of organic to elemental carbon in green fuels (19.2 ± 4.2) compared to dry, wooden logs (7.3 ± 1.9) both in prescribed burns in the field and in controlled stove combustion, indicating that more moisture in green biomass resulted in more smoldering-phase combustion. Further, OC/EC ratios were lower in wood stove burns compared to prescribed burns in the field, which we attribute to higher combustion temperatures in wood stove burns. The suite of 12 select polar organic compounds showed that the most prevalent compounds emitted across all burns were levoglucosan, mannosan, and resin acids (dehydroabietic, pimaric, and

  6. New high efficiency mixed cycles with air-blown combustion for CO{sub 2} emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Gambini, M.; Guizzi, G.L.; Vellini, M.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper a new advanced mixed cycle (AMC) for CO{sub 2} emission abatement with high conversion efficiency is presented. The AMC plant lay-out consists of a reheat gas turbine with steam injection in the first combustion chamber, a steam turbine for steam expansion before its injection, a heat recovery boiler for superheated and resuperheated steam generation and an atmospheric separator for water recovery from exhaust gas mixture. The steam recirculation in the cycle allows to reduce the excess of air to limit the turbine inlet temperature and then to enrich the exhaust gas by CO{sub 2}, as it occurs in combined cycle provided with exhaust gas recirculation at the compressor inlet. This involves a stack flow rate much lower than in conventional cycle configuration sot that exhaust gas treatment for CO{sub 2} removal may be usefully applied. In this work the chemical absorption technique for CO{sub 2} removal has been considered. The thermodynamic performance of the proposed AMC plant has been investigated in comparison with that attainable by combined cycle power plants (CC). This comparison has been developed pointing out the efficiency decrease involved by the CO{sub 2} removal systems and by the unit for the liquefaction of the removed carbon dioxide. The main result of the performed investigation is that while the two plants attain the same efficiency level without CO{sub 2} removal (about 56% for AMC and 55.8% for CC) the AMC plant achieves a net electric efficiency of about 50% with CO{sub 2} removal and liquefaction units: it's over 2 points higher than the efficiency evaluated for the Cc equipped with the same CO{sub 2} units (about 47.7%). The final carbon dioxide emissions are about 0.04 kg/kWh for AMC and CC, while the emissions of the plants without CO{sub 2} removal systems are about 0.36 kg/kWh.

  7. Lidar Approach in Estimating Particulate Mass Emissions from a Poultry Production Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J.

    2009-12-01

    The current conventional particulate and mass emission measurements from livestock facilities rely primarily on point indoor/outdoor measurements. These measurements combined with assumed outflow rates from a building lead to emission rates and emission factors from the building. This approach, well established in the literature, poses accuracy and representation issues. To overcome the limitations of point measurement emission estimates, a new remote sensing approach is proposed. A scanning elastic lidar was used to estimate the spatially resolved extinction coefficient associated with particulates originating from a poultry production building. Particulate size distribution and wind co-measurements were combined with the lidar extinction coefficient data to estimate particulate mass fluxes and the emission factor from the building. The particulate size distribution was measured continuously since the size distribution changes significantly during the day. Assumptions of constant size distributions may result in errors of a factor of two in derived quantities. The data analysis from the study showed that the average particulate mass emission value from the poultry production building was 0.13±0.04 g/s (460±150 g/h) and the respective emission factor was 3.0±1.0 g/h AU (per animal unit, 500 kg live weight). The lidar estimated values are lower than the values found in the literature from point measurement studies. The study demonstrates a new innovative method in measuring emissions using scanning lidar technique. As presented in the study, the method can successfully address the need for a better tool for emission measurements in agricultural applications. The outlined measurement approach can be also applied, with careful considerations, to any non-point particulate emissions measurement needs in industry or in urban environment. Lidar, particle sizer and wind anemometer data processing flowchart leading to the particulate mass emission estimates

  8. Response of surface water acidification in upper Yangtze River to SO2 emissions abatement in China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Larssen, Thorjørn; Mulder, Jan; Hao, Jiming

    2011-04-15

    Surface waters in Europe and North America are slowly recovering from acidification following major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) since the 1980s. In contrast, regions affected by acid rain have been reported to be growing in China. Here we show that the rapid change in surface water chemistry in the 1990s in large areas in Southwestern China, specifically the tributary rivers of the Upper Yangtze River, caused by increasing SO(2) emissions, has leveled off. During the 1990s the sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) concentrations in river water increased rapidly and, on average, doubled in only eight years. Simultaneously, calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations increased, while pH values decreased. In the following decade (2000s), SO(2) emissions stabilized, causing a subsequent stop to the increasing SO(4)(2-) concentrations and pH decline in river water. Although a rapid response to future reduction in SO(2) emissions can be expected, a rapid increase of nitrogen (N) emissions could lead to increases in N leaching and delay recovery.

  9. Response of surface water acidification in upper Yangtze River to SO2 emissions abatement in China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Larssen, Thorjørn; Mulder, Jan; Hao, Jiming

    2011-04-15

    Surface waters in Europe and North America are slowly recovering from acidification following major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) since the 1980s. In contrast, regions affected by acid rain have been reported to be growing in China. Here we show that the rapid change in surface water chemistry in the 1990s in large areas in Southwestern China, specifically the tributary rivers of the Upper Yangtze River, caused by increasing SO(2) emissions, has leveled off. During the 1990s the sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) concentrations in river water increased rapidly and, on average, doubled in only eight years. Simultaneously, calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations increased, while pH values decreased. In the following decade (2000s), SO(2) emissions stabilized, causing a subsequent stop to the increasing SO(4)(2-) concentrations and pH decline in river water. Although a rapid response to future reduction in SO(2) emissions can be expected, a rapid increase of nitrogen (N) emissions could lead to increases in N leaching and delay recovery. PMID:21449576

  10. Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2011-09-01

    We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels. We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission

  11. Abatement of ammonia emissions from swine lagoons using polymer enhanced solid-liquid separation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of solid-liquid separation of liquid swine manure on ammonia emissions from lagoons. This determination was done at full-scale in two contiguous swine production units that had similar animal production management. One of these units was maintained as a...

  12. Abatement of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from dairy farms using milk urea N (MUN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary urea N (UUN) excreted by dairy cows is the principal nitrogen (N) source that controls emissions of ammonia (which can be hazardous to human and ecosystem health) and nitrous oxide (the most potent agricultural greenhouse gas) from dairy manure. The objectives of this study were (1) to inves...

  13. ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN CANDLE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS BY XRF USING UNIQUANT 4

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an extensive program to study the small combustion sources of indoor fine particulate matter (PM), candles with lead-core wicks were burned in a 46-L glass flow- through chamber. The particulate emissions with aerodynamic diameters <10 micrometers (PM10) were captured ...

  14. Battery condenser system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  15. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote trash system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  16. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  17. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  18. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cleaner system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  19. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  20. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin master trash system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  1. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin overflow system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  2. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  3. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin battery condenser system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  4. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin unloading system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  5. Master trash system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or ...

  6. Mote trash system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  7. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  8. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  9. TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (MICROFACPM) FOR PREDICTING REAL TIME MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health risk evaluation needs precise measurement and modeling of human exposures in microenvironments to support review of current air quality standards. The particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles are a major component of human exposures in urban microenvironments. Cu...

  11. Energy technology and emissions control for acid rain abatement in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    After more than ten years of research, acid rain is a sufficiently serious problem in North America to warrant control action. The acid rain problem has become a threat to the Asian continent as well. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are already high and announces plans for increases in coal use by countries in the region imply a major increase in emissions in the future. This will inevitably lead to greater incidence of acid rain and probably significant environmental damage in some locations. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the issues relating to acid-rain-control technology in Asia and to suggest ways to include technology options in integrated simulation models of acid rain in Asia. 14 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs. (FL)

  12. Deleterious Emission Abatement through Structured Energy Use Pattern: A North Central Nigeria Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi-Banji, Ademola; Omotosho, Olayinka; Amori, Anthony; Alao, Damilola; Igbode, Imoisime; Abimbola, Olufemi

    2016-05-01

    Holistic view of household energy consumption based on greenhouse gas emissions in the North Central cities of Nigeria was examined in this study. Scenarios considered were based on income level of energy users (low and high) and energy metering system (i.e. pre-paid and post-paid energy billing systems). Strong direct nexus was observed between energy use and emissions pattern. Energy utilization by post-paid category had higher weekly average value of 35.09 and 41.70 kWh as against 23.18 and 33.38 kWh for low and high income pre-paid consumers respectively. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from both classification followed similar trend. Data obtained and analysed in the study show that global warming and acidification potentials could be reduced by 33.94 and 19.95 % for low and high income category consumers when pre-paid meters are in place. Conclusively, energy system users with pre-paid metering system displayed reasonable level of management decisions that reduce energy wastage and consequently environmental negative impacts.

  13. Characterization and biological abatement of diffuse methane emissions and odour in an innovative wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Barcón, Tamara; Hernández, Jerónimo; Gómez-Cuervo, Santiago; Garrido, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An innovative and patented process for medium-high strength sewage which comprises an anaerobic step followed by a hybrid anoxic-aerobic chamber and a final ultrafiltration stage was characterized in terms of methane fugitive emissions as well as odours. The operation at ambient temperature implies higher methane content in the liquid anaerobic effluent, which finally causes concentrations around 0.01-2.4% in the off-gas released in the anoxic-aerobic chamber (1.25% average). Mass balances indicate that these emissions account for up to 30-35% of the total methane generated in the anaerobic reactor. A conventional biofilter (BF) operated at an empty bed residence time of 4 min was used to treat these emissions for 70 d. In spite of the fluctuations in the methane inlet concentrations derived from the operation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), it was possible to operate at pseudo-steady-state conditions, achieving average removal efficiencies of 76.5% and maximum elimination capacities of 30.1 g m(-3) h(-1). Odour removal was quantified as 99.1%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes as well as metabolic activity assays demonstrated the suitability of the biomass developed in the WWTP as inoculum to start up the BF due to the presence of methanotrophic bacteria.

  14. A two-period model of emission abatement and allowance banking under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO{sub 2} emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide about twice as many SO{sub 2} allowances to be issued per year in Phase I (1995--1999) than in Phase II. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase I, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase II. Allowance prices may increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments with allowances being banked only by risk averse electric utilities. Speculators are likely to be willing to set allowances in forward markets, which will lower current market prices of allowances relative to a situation with only risk averse utilities in the market. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO{sub 2} allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions.

  15. A two-period model of emission abatement and allowance banking under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO{sub 2} emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide about twice as many SO{sub 2} allowances to be issued per year in Phase I (1995--1999) than in Phase II. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase I, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase II. Allowance prices may increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments with allowances being banked only by risk averse electric utilities. Speculators are likely to be willing to set allowances in forward markets, which will lower current market prices of allowances relative to a situation with only risk averse utilities in the market. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO{sub 2} allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions.

  16. Bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine.

    PubMed

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Prati, M Vittoria; Costagliola, M Antonietta; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst-equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in at percentages (10, 15, and 20% v/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate matter was characterized in terms of total mass collected on filters and total number ofparticles in the range 7 nm-10 microm measured by electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions were evaluated to assess the health impact of the emitted particulate. Finally, an accurate morphological analysis was performed on the particulate by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a digital image-processing/data-acquisition system. In general, CO emission reductions of 60-70% were obtained with 15 and 20% v/v ethanol blends, while the ethanol use did not reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions. No evident effect of ethanol on the particulate mass emissions and associated PAHs emissions was observed. Twenty-one PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase with emissions ranging from 26 to 35 microg/km and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors from 2.2 to 4.1 microg/km. Both particulate matter and associated PAHs with higher carcinogenic risk were mainly emitted in the submicrometer size range (<0.1 microm). On the basis of the TEM observations, no relevant effect of the ethanol use on the particulate morphology was evidenced, showing aggregates composed ofprimary particles with mean diameters in the range 17.5-32.5 nm. PMID:22916436

  17. Bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine.

    PubMed

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Prati, M Vittoria; Costagliola, M Antonietta; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst-equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in at percentages (10, 15, and 20% v/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate matter was characterized in terms of total mass collected on filters and total number ofparticles in the range 7 nm-10 microm measured by electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions were evaluated to assess the health impact of the emitted particulate. Finally, an accurate morphological analysis was performed on the particulate by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a digital image-processing/data-acquisition system. In general, CO emission reductions of 60-70% were obtained with 15 and 20% v/v ethanol blends, while the ethanol use did not reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions. No evident effect of ethanol on the particulate mass emissions and associated PAHs emissions was observed. Twenty-one PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase with emissions ranging from 26 to 35 microg/km and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors from 2.2 to 4.1 microg/km. Both particulate matter and associated PAHs with higher carcinogenic risk were mainly emitted in the submicrometer size range (<0.1 microm). On the basis of the TEM observations, no relevant effect of the ethanol use on the particulate morphology was evidenced, showing aggregates composed ofprimary particles with mean diameters in the range 17.5-32.5 nm.

  18. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., inside the dilution air filter box at EPA is very low. Pb will be assumed = 0, and background particulate.... 86.145-82 Section 86.145-82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... further defined in § 86.144. (3) P e = mass of particulate per test on the exhaust filter(s), grams....

  19. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., inside the dilution air filter box at EPA is very low. Pb will be assumed = 0, and background particulate.... 86.145-82 Section 86.145-82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... further defined in § 86.144. (3) P e = mass of particulate per test on the exhaust filter(s), grams....

  20. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bronn, Nicholas T. Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M.; Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A.

    2015-10-26

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.

  1. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... PM10 emissions from wood particle dryers must not exceed a total of 0.4 pounds per 1000 square feet of... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a) What is...

  2. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operation. PM10 emissions from wood particle dryers must not exceed a total of 0.4 pounds per 1000 square... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  3. Trace gas and particulate emissions from biomass burning in temperate ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Stocks, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    Emissions measured from fires in graminoid wetlands, Mediterranean chaparrals, and boreal forests, suggest that such ecosystemic parameters as fuel size influence combustion emissions in ways that are broadly predictable. The degree of predictability is most noticeable when wetland fire-related results are compared with boreal forest emissions; the inorganic fraction of the particulate emissions is close in composition irrespective of the ecosystem. It is found that both aerosol and trace gas emissions are influenced by the phase of combustion.

  4. Particulate emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed chaparral fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Levine, Joel S.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Winstead, Edward L.; Riggin, Philip J.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1988-05-01

    Smoke aerosol was collected on filters from a helicopter during a 400-acre (1.62 km2) prescribed chaparral burn in the San Dimas Experimental Forest on December 12, 1986. Hi-VoI samplers were used to collect particles on both Teflon and glass fiber filters. Scanning electron microscopy of the filters revealed particles that ranged in size from about 0.1 to 100 μm. Many of the large particles (>10 μm) that appeared irregularly shaped at low magnifications were found at higher magnification to be highly agglomerated smaller spheres, often showing signs of partial coalescence. Energy dispersive analysis of X rays (EDAX) revealed carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, calcium, and iron as the primary elemental composition of the aerosols. Extractions of aerosol components in water/methanol mixtures, followed by ion Chromatographic analysis, indicated that significant levels of nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO4=), chloride (Cl-), phosphate (PO4≡), oxylate (C2O4=), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), and potassium (K+) were associated with the particles. The proportions of NO3-, NO2-, PO4≡, Na+, and C2O4 = leached from the aerosol appeared to remain relatively constant in the smoke plume collections. Analysis of soluble NH4 +, Cl-, K +, and SO4 = ions, however, suggested that either possible changes in the nature of the emissions had occurred during different stages of combustion, or that ongoing smoke plume chemistry might have influenced the levels of these ions, or both. The soluble ionic portion of the aerosol was estimated to be about 2% by weight. The first known determinations of phosphate anion from particulates collected in a biomass burn plume are reported.

  5. Characteristics of particulate carbon emissions from real-world Chinese coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yuanxun Zhang; James Jay Schauer; Yuanhang Zhang; Limin Zeng; Yongjie Wei; Yuan Liu; Min Shao

    2008-07-15

    Particulate matter emissions from a series of different Chinese coal combustion systems were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), and molecular markers. Emissions from both industrial boilers and residential stoves were investigated. The coal used in this study included anthracite, bituminite, and brown coal, as well as commonly used coal briquettes produced in China for residential coal combustion. Results show significant differences in the contribution of carbonaceous species to particulate mass emissions. Industrial boilers had much higher burn out of carbon yielding particulate matter emissions with much lower levels of OC, EC, and speciated organic compounds, while residential stoves had significantly higher emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter with emission rates of approximately 100 times higher than that of industrial boilers. Quantified organic compounds emitted from industrial boilers were dominated by oxygenated compounds, of which 46-68% were organic acids, whereas the dominate species quantified in the emissions from residential stoves were PAHs (38%) and n-alkanes (20%). An important observation was the fact that emission factors of PAHs and the distribution of hopanoids were different among the emissions from industrial and residential coal combustion even using the same coal for combustion. Although particulate matter emissions from industrial and residential combustion were different in many regards, picene was detected in all samples with detectable OC mass concentrations, which supports the use of this organic tracer for OC from all types of coal combustion. 17{alpha}(H),21{beta}(H)-29-norhopane was the predominant hopanoid in coal combustion emissions, which is different from mobile source emissions and may be used to distinguish emissions from these different fossil fuel sources. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Odón R; Ynoue, Rita Y; Martins, Leila D; Astolfo, Rosana; Miranda, Regina M; Freitas, Edmilson D; Borges, Alessandro S; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Freitas, Helber; Moreira, Andréa; Andrade, Maria F

    2009-02-01

    In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can provide information about emission factors of in-use vehicles. Emission factors are used to estimate vehicular emissions and are described as the amount of species emitted per vehicle distance driven or per volume of fuel consumed. This study presents emission factor data for fine particles, coarse particles, inhalable particulate matter and black carbon, as well as size distribution data for inhalable particulate matter, as measured in March and May of 2004, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros and Maria Maluf road tunnels, both located in São Paulo. The Jânio Quadros tunnel carries mainly light-duty vehicles, whereas the Maria Maluf tunnel carries light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. In the Jânio Quadros tunnel, the estimated light-duty vehicle emission factors for the trace elements copper and bromine were 261 and 220 microg km(-1), respectively, and 16, 197, 127 and 92 mg km(-1), respectively, for black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles. The mean contribution of heavy-duty vehicles to the emissions of black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles was, respectively 29, 4, 6 and 6 times higher than that of light-duty vehicles. The inhalable particulate matter emission factor for heavy-duty vehicles was 1.2 times higher than that found during dynamometer testing. In general, the particle emissions in São Paulo tunnels are higher than those found in other cities of the world. PMID:18228152

  7. Further theoretical studies of modified cyclone separator as a diesel soot particulate emission arrester.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, N; Bose, P K

    2009-10-01

    Soot particulate emission reduction from diesel engine is one of the most emerging problems associated with the exhaust pollution. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) hold out the prospects of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions but the question of the reliable regeneration of filters still remains a difficult hurdle to overcome. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from design complexity, cost, regeneration problem and energy demands. This study presents a computer aided theoretical analysis for controlling diesel soot particulate emission by cyclone separator--a non contact type particulate removal system considering outer vortex flow, inner vortex flow and packed ceramic fiber filter at the end of vortex finder tube. Cyclone separator with low initial cost, simple construction produces low back pressure and reasonably high collection efficiencies with reduced regeneration problems. Cyclone separator is modified by placing a continuous ceramic packed fiber filter placed at the end of the vortex finder tube. In this work, the grade efficiency model of diesel soot particulate emission is proposed considering outer vortex, inner vortex and the continuous ceramic packed fiber filter. Pressure drop model is also proposed considering the effect of the ceramic fiber filter. Proposed model gives reasonably good collection efficiency with permissible pressure drop limit of diesel engine operation. Theoretical approach is predicted for calculating the cut size diameter considering the effect of Cunningham molecular slip correction factor. The result shows good agreements with existing cyclone and DPF flow characteristics.

  8. Particulate, carbon monoxide, and acid emission factors for residential wood burn stoves

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, P.G.; Edmisten, N.G.; Tiegs, P.E.; Houck, J.E.; Yoder, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    Emissions from residential wood burning stoves are of increasing concern in many areas. This concern is due to the magnitude of the emissions and the toxic and chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Recent testing of standard and new technology woodstoves has provided data for developing a family of particulate and carbon monoxide emission factor curves. This testing has also provided data illustrating the acidity of woodstove emissions. The particulate and carbon monoxide curves relate the actual stove emissions to the stove size and operating parameters of burn rate, fuel loading, and fuel moisture. Curves relating stove types to the acidity of emissions have also been constructed. Test data show actual emissions vary from 3 to 50 grams per kilogram for particles and from 50 to 300 grams per kilogram for carbon monoxide. Since woodstove emissions are the largest single category of particulate emissions in many area, it is essential that these emissions be quantified specifically for geographic regions, allowing meaningful impact analysis modeling to be accomplished. Emission factors for particles and carbon monoxide are presented from several stove sizes and burn rates. The acidic nature of woodstove emissions has been clearly demonstrated. Tests indicate woodstove flue gas condensate solutions to be predominantly in the 2.8 to 4.2 pH range. Condensate solutions from conventional woodstoves exhibited the characteristic buffering capacity of carboxylic acids when titrations were performed with a strong base. The environmental impact of buffered acidic woodstove emissions is not currently well understood; however, it is possible with the data presented here to make semi-quantitative estimates of acid emission from particulate and carbon monoxide emission factors and wood use inventories.

  9. Noise Abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  10. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL EMISSIONS FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES: DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS AND DOMESTIC WASTE OPEN BURN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from combustion sources are poorly characterized due to the large number of compounds present in the emissions, the complexity of the analytical separations required, and the uncertainty regarding identification of chemicals with...

  11. Control of NOx and particulate emissions from spreader-stokers fired with hogged wood

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.M.; Bradshaw, F.W.; Pershing, D.W.

    1987-06-01

    The formation and emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate carry-over were studied from spreader-stoker combustion of nogged Douglas-fir, with a focus on optimizing the combustion conditions in each of the two distinct combustion zones, the bed phase and the suspension phase. Local oxygen availability was the controlling parameter for nitric oxide formation. Minimum nitric oxide emissions were found when local air: fuel stoichiometric ratios were held at 0.70-0.85, with emissions reduced as much as 39%. Long first-stage residence times allowed intermediate nitrogenous species to decay to molecular nitrogen, if there was sufficient oxygen for first-stage formation of nitric oxide. Entrainment of large particulates was a function of furnace gas velocities in the bed zone. Operation of the furnace at low stoichiometric ratios (fuel rich) in the bed zone reduced these gas velocities and thus reduced particulate emissions. (Refs. 12).

  12. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... methods is found in appendix M of 40 CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  13. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... methods is found in appendix M of 40 CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  14. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... methods is found in appendix M of 40 CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  15. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... matter emissions from a wood-fired boiler stack must not exceed an average of 0.46 grams per dry standard... woodwaste burners, furnaces and boilers used exclusively for space heating with a rated heat input capacity... pollution sources? (1) Particulate matter emissions from a combustion source stack (except for...

  16. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... matter emissions from a wood-fired boiler stack must not exceed an average of 0.46 grams per dry standard... woodwaste burners, furnaces and boilers used exclusively for space heating with a rated heat input capacity... pollution sources? (1) Particulate matter emissions from a combustion source stack (except for...

  17. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter emissions from a wood-fired boiler stack must not exceed an average of 0.46 grams per dry standard... woodwaste burners, furnaces and boilers used exclusively for space heating with a rated heat input capacity... pollution sources? (1) Particulate matter emissions from a combustion source stack (except for...

  18. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... matter emissions from a wood-fired boiler stack must not exceed an average of 0.46 grams per dry standard... woodwaste burners, furnaces and boilers used exclusively for space heating with a rated heat input capacity... pollution sources? (1) Particulate matter emissions from a combustion source stack (except for...

  19. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  20. 40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for particulate... emission rates of 26 ng/J (0.060 lb/MMBtu) heat input or less and that do not use a post-combustion... by the CO CEMS times the corresponding average hourly flue gas flow rate and divided by...

  1. 40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for particulate... emission rates of 26 ng/J (0.060 lb/MMBtu) heat input or less and that do not use a post-combustion... by the CO CEMS times the corresponding average hourly flue gas flow rate and divided by...

  2. Determination of particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots using windtrax and flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large commercial cattle feedlots are significant sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions. This research compared WindTrax and the flux-gradient technique in estimating emissions of PM with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) from cattle feedlots. Meteorological conditions were measured and PM10...

  3. Particulate matter emissions for fires in the palmetto-gallberry fuel type

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.E.

    1983-12-01

    Fire management specialists in the southeastern United States needing guides for predicting or assessing particulate matter emission factors, emission rates, and heat release rate can use the models presented in this paper for making these predictions as a function of flame length in the palmetto-gallberry fuel type.

  4. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

  5. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

  6. Gaseous and particulate emissions from rural vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin

    2011-06-01

    Rural vehicles (RVs) could contribute significantly to air pollutant emissions throughout Asia due to their considerable population, extensive usage, and high emission rates, but their emissions have not been measured before and have become a major concern for the accuracy of regional and global emission inventories. In this study, we measured CO, HC, NO x and PM emissions of RVs using a combined on-board emission measurement system on real roads in China. We also compared the emission levels of the twenty RVs to those of nineteen Euro II light-duty diesel trucks (LDDTs) that we measured for previous studies. The results show that one-cylinder RVs have lower distance-based emission factors compared to LDDTs because of their smaller weight and engine power, but they have significantly higher fuel-based PM emission factors than LDDTs. Four-cylinder RVs have equivalent emission levels to LDDTs. Based on the emission factors and the activity data obtained, we estimate that the total emissions of RVs in China in 2006 were 1049 Gg of CO, 332 Gg of HC, 933 Gg of NO x, and 54 Gg of PM, contributing over 40% to national on-road diesel CO, NO x, and PM emissions. As RVs are a significant contributor to national emissions, further research work is needed to improve the accuracy of inventories at all levels, and the government should strengthen the management of RVs to facilitate both policy making and research work.

  7. Nonferrous industry particulate emissions: source category report. Final report, June 1983-August 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, M.; Minden, A.

    1986-12-01

    The report gives results of the development of particulate-emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the nonferrous industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from nonferrous plants, the data were summarized and rated in terms of reliability. Size-specific emission factors were developed from these data for the major processes used in the manufacture of nonferrous metals. A detailed process description is presented with emphasis on factors affecting the generation of emissions. There were replacements for Sections 7.1 (Primary Aluminum Production), 7.3 (Primary Copper Smelting), 7.6 (Primary Lead Smelting), 7.7 (Primary Zinc Smelting), and 7.11 (Secondary Lead Smelting) of EPA report AP-42. A Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, was prepared, containing the size-specific emission factors developed during the program.

  8. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determined from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase. (See § 86.110-82(c)(1... particulate determined from the “transient” phase of the hot start test, in grams per test phase. (See § 86.110-82(c)(1) for determination). (4) Dct = The measured driving distance from the “transient” phase...

  9. Reductions in particulate and NO(x) emissions by diesel engine parameter adjustments with HVO fuel.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Matti; Heikkilä, Juha; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-06-01

    Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel fuel is a promising biofuel candidate that can complement or substitute traditional diesel fuel in engines. It has been already reported that by changing the fuel from conventional EN590 diesel to HVO decreases exhaust emissions. However, as the fuels have certain chemical and physical differences, it is clear that the full advantage of HVO cannot be realized unless the engine is optimized for the new fuel. In this article, we studied how much exhaust emissions can be reduced by adjusting engine parameters for HVO. The results indicate that, with all the studied loads (50%, 75%, and 100%), particulate mass and NO(x) can both be reduced over 25% by engine parameter adjustments. Further, the emission reduction was even higher when the target for adjusting engine parameters was to exclusively reduce either particulates or NO(x). In addition to particulate mass, different indicators of particulate emissions were also compared. These indicators included filter smoke number (FSN), total particle number, total particle surface area, and geometric mean diameter of the emitted particle size distribution. As a result of this comparison, a linear correlation between FSN and total particulate surface area at low FSN region was found.

  10. Experimental study on the nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter emissions from diesel engine retrofitted with particulate oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin

    2014-02-15

    A particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) was employed to perform experiments on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engine. The engine exhaust was sampled from both upstream and downstream of the POC. The results showed that the POC increased the ratios of NO2/NOx significantly in the middle and high loads, the ratio of NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased 4.5 times on average under all experiment modes with the POC. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used to study the particle number-weighted size distributions and the abnormal particle emissions with the POC. The results indicated that the average reduction rate of particle number (PN) was 61% in the operating range of the diesel engine. At the engine speed of 1,400 r/min, the reduction rates of PN tended to decrease with the larger particle size. In the long time run under the steady mode (520 Nm, 1,200 r/min), abnormal particle emissions after the POC happened seven times in the first hour, and the average PN concentration of these abnormal emission peaks was much higher than that in normal state. The particle emissions of peaks 1-5 equaled the particles emitted downstream of the POC in normal state for 1.9h in number concentration, and for 3.6h in mass concentration. The PN concentrations tended to increase over time in 5h under the steady engine mode and the increase of the PN in the size range of 6.04-14.3 nm was more evident.

  11. An evaluation of the tapered element oscillating microbalance method for measuring diesel particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nelson A; Morgan, Chris

    2002-12-01

    We determined the usefulness of tapered element oscillating microbalances (TEOMs) for researchers and engineers involved with measuring diesel particulate mass. Two different test facilities were used for generating diesel particulates and comparing the TEOM to the commonly used U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) manual filter method. The EPA method is very labor-intensive and requires long periods of time to complete. The TEOM is an attractive approach because it has the potential to reduce the amount of time and labor required in diesel testing, as well as to provide real-time particulate-mass data that are not obtainable with the EPA method. It was found that the TEOM was a precise and easy-to-operate instrument that could measure the mass concentration (MC) of diesel particulate emissions in real time. Although the TEOM diesel particulate MC measurements were highly correlated with the manual filter measurements, the two techniques were not equivalent because the TEOM consistently reported MC results that were 20-25% lower than those obtained using the manual filter technique. In conclusion, the TEOM can be used to increase test-cell throughput and to measure transient values of diesel particulate emissions at sites performing diesel-engine testing. However, unless EPA is able to certify the TEOM as an equivalent method, it cannot replace the manual filter method for diesel certification work.

  12. Climate-relevant properties of diesel particulate emissions: results from a piggyback study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Paw-armart, Ittipol; Duleep, K G

    2009-06-01

    A "piggyback" approach is used to characterize aerosol emissions to obtain input for large-scale models of atmospheric transport. Particulate and gaseous emissions from diesel trucks, light-duty vehicles, and buses were measured by the Bangkok Pollution Control Department as part of the Developing Integrated Emissions Strategies for Existing Land Transport (DIESEL) project. We added filter-based measurements of carbonaceous composition, particulate light absorption, and water uptake. For 88 "normal" diesel vehicles (PM emission rate < 4.7 g/kg), our best estimate of the average PM2.5 emission rate is 2.2 +/- 0.5 g/kg, whereas for 15 high emitters, it is 8.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg. The effect of Euro standards on PM emission rates was apparent for heavy-duty vehicles, but not for light-duty vehicles. Carbonaceous composition appears relatively consistent, with particulate (artifact-corrected) OC at 17 +/- 1% and EC at 40 +/- 8% of PM for 103 pickups, vans, heavy-duty trucks and buses. The median absorption cross-section for EC is 10.5 m2/g at 532 nm. The history of average emission rate and chemical composition during the project suggests that about 25 vehicles can provide a regional PM emission rate for normal vehicles. Other studies such as remote sensing measurements will be required to estimate the important contribution of high-emitting vehicles.

  13. Assessing the impacts of ethanol and isobutanol on gaseous and particulate emissions from flexible fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Short, Daniel; Russell, Robert L; Jung, Heejung; Johnson, Kent C; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Durbin, Thomas D

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of higher ethanol blends and an isobutanol blend on the criteria emissions, fuel economy, gaseous toxic pollutants, and particulate emissions from two flexible-fuel vehicles equipped with spark ignition engines, with one wall-guided direct injection and one port fuel injection configuration. Both vehicles were tested over triplicate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and Unified Cycles (UC) using a chassis dynamometer. Emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) showed some statistically significant reductions with higher alcohol fuels, while total hydrocarbons (THC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) did not show strong fuel effects. Acetaldehyde emissions exhibited sharp increases with higher ethanol blends for both vehicles, whereas butyraldehyde emissions showed higher emissions for the butanol blend relative to the ethanol blends at a statistically significant level. Particulate matter (PM) mass, number, and soot mass emissions showed strong reductions with increasing alcohol content in gasoline. Particulate emissions were found to be clearly influenced by certain fuel parameters including oxygen content, hydrogen content, and aromatics content.

  14. Climate-relevant properties of diesel particulate emissions: results from a piggyback study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Paw-armart, Ittipol; Duleep, K G

    2009-06-01

    A "piggyback" approach is used to characterize aerosol emissions to obtain input for large-scale models of atmospheric transport. Particulate and gaseous emissions from diesel trucks, light-duty vehicles, and buses were measured by the Bangkok Pollution Control Department as part of the Developing Integrated Emissions Strategies for Existing Land Transport (DIESEL) project. We added filter-based measurements of carbonaceous composition, particulate light absorption, and water uptake. For 88 "normal" diesel vehicles (PM emission rate < 4.7 g/kg), our best estimate of the average PM2.5 emission rate is 2.2 +/- 0.5 g/kg, whereas for 15 high emitters, it is 8.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg. The effect of Euro standards on PM emission rates was apparent for heavy-duty vehicles, but not for light-duty vehicles. Carbonaceous composition appears relatively consistent, with particulate (artifact-corrected) OC at 17 +/- 1% and EC at 40 +/- 8% of PM for 103 pickups, vans, heavy-duty trucks and buses. The median absorption cross-section for EC is 10.5 m2/g at 532 nm. The history of average emission rate and chemical composition during the project suggests that about 25 vehicles can provide a regional PM emission rate for normal vehicles. Other studies such as remote sensing measurements will be required to estimate the important contribution of high-emitting vehicles. PMID:19569354

  15. Emission estimates of particulate matter and heavy metals from mobile sources in Delhi (India).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Ragini; Attri, Arun K; Panis, Luc Int; Gurjar, B R

    2013-04-01

    An attempt has been made to make a comprehensive emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) of various size fractions and also of heavy metals (HMs) emitted from mobile sources (both exhaust and non-exhaust) from the road transport of Delhi, India (1991-2006). COPERT-III and 4 models were mainly used toestimate these emissions. Results show that the annual exhaust emission of PM of size upto 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) has increased from 3Gg to 4.5Gg during 1991-2006 irrespective of'improvement in vehicle-technology and fuel use. PM emission from exhaust and non-exhaust sources in general has increased. Heavy commercial vehicles-need attention to control particulate emission as it emerged as a predominant source of PM emissions. Among non-exhaust emissions of total suspended particulate matter (TSP), road-surface wear (~49%) has the prime contribution. As a result of-introduction of unleaded gasoline Pb has significantly reduced (~8 fold) whereas share of Cu and Zn are still considerable. Among non-exhaust sources, Pb release was the most significant one from tyre-wear whereas from break-wear, Cu release was found to be the most significant followed by Pb and Cr + Zn. Because of public health concerns further policies need to be developed to reduce emissions of PM and HMs from the road transport of megacity Delhi. PMID:25464689

  16. Emission estimates of particulate matter and heavy metals from mobile sources in Delhi (India).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Ragini; Attri, Arun K; Panis, Luc Int; Gurjar, B R

    2013-04-01

    An attempt has been made to make a comprehensive emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) of various size fractions and also of heavy metals (HMs) emitted from mobile sources (both exhaust and non-exhaust) from the road transport of Delhi, India (1991-2006). COPERT-III and 4 models were mainly used toestimate these emissions. Results show that the annual exhaust emission of PM of size upto 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) has increased from 3Gg to 4.5Gg during 1991-2006 irrespective of'improvement in vehicle-technology and fuel use. PM emission from exhaust and non-exhaust sources in general has increased. Heavy commercial vehicles-need attention to control particulate emission as it emerged as a predominant source of PM emissions. Among non-exhaust emissions of total suspended particulate matter (TSP), road-surface wear (~49%) has the prime contribution. As a result of-introduction of unleaded gasoline Pb has significantly reduced (~8 fold) whereas share of Cu and Zn are still considerable. Among non-exhaust sources, Pb release was the most significant one from tyre-wear whereas from break-wear, Cu release was found to be the most significant followed by Pb and Cr + Zn. Because of public health concerns further policies need to be developed to reduce emissions of PM and HMs from the road transport of megacity Delhi. PMID:25508320

  17. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. PMID:26147156

  18. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services.

  19. Diesel fuel containing wax oxidates to reduce particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, H.G.; Sweeney, W.M.

    1980-09-16

    Addition of 0.1 to 1.5 percent by weight of wax oxidates to a diesel fuel is found to reduce the amount of soot and invisible particles produced when the fuel is used in a diesel engine. The wax oxidates act synergistically with fuel-soluble organometallic compounds such as alkyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl complex salts in reducing particulates. The wax oxidates used have a ratio of neutralization number to saponification number below about 0.40 and a saybolt universal viscosity at 210* F. Higher than 1600.

  20. Electrostatic precipitator for metal and particulate emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.L.; Beltran, M.

    2000-03-01

    Improving air pollution control systems is crucial for incinerators to be an option for sewage sludge disposal. Combinations of venturi and tray tower scrubbers are the most popular air pollution control system for sewage sludge incinerators. Recently wet electrostatic precipitators have been installed downstream of the scrubbing system to ensure the compliance of new regulations. Performance and stack tests were conducted on sludge incinerators at Somerset Raritan Valley Sewage Authority and New England Treatment Company. Efficiencies in terms of heavy metal and particulate removals are presented. This paper also describes sewage sludge incinerators, existing air pollution control systems, design considerations of the wet electrostatic precipitator, as well as sampling and analysis methods.

  1. Particulate matter, gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban traffic tunnel of China: Emission from on-road vehicles and gas-particle partitioning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Gao, Yi; Yu, Na; Zhang, Chenkai; Wang, Siyao; Ma, Limin; Zhao, Jianfu; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Traffic vehicles are a main source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in urban area. It is vital to understand PAH gas-particle partitioning in real traffic environment and assess PAH vehicular emission factors in developing China. Concentrations of particulate matter, carbonaceous products, gaseous and particulate PAHs were measured during 2011-2012 in a road tunnel of Shanghai, China. Time variation of them reflected basic traffic operation of the tunnel. PAHs approached equilibrium between gas and particle phases and the partitioning was predicted better by a dual sorption model combining absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto black carbon. The influence of black carbon adsorption on the partitioning behavior of PAHs was important. The difference in isomer ratios of gaseous and particulate PAHs was attributed to PAH contributions from different traffic-related PAHs sources. Real-world vehicle emission factors of gaseous and particulate PAHs were quantified based on fuel burned model and vehicle kilometer traveled model. PMID:25911047

  2. Gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different technologies.

    PubMed

    Athar, Makshoof; Ali, Mahboob; Khan, Misbahul Ain

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the assessment of gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different combustion technologies. Four thermal power plants operating on heavy furnace oil were selected for the study, among which three were based on diesel engine technology, while the fourth plant was based on oil-fired steam turbine technology. The stack emissions were monitored for critical air pollutants carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, lead, and mercury. The pollutant emissions were measured at optimum load conditions for a period of 6 months with an interval of 1 month. The results of stack emissions were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan and World Bank guidelines for thermal power plants, and few parameters were found higher than the permissible limits of emissions. It was observed that the emissions carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matters from diesel engine-based power plants were comparatively higher than the turbine-based power plants. The emissions of sulfur dioxide were high in all the plants, even the plants with different technologies, which was mainly due to high sulfur contents in fuel. PMID:19533397

  3. Gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different technologies.

    PubMed

    Athar, Makshoof; Ali, Mahboob; Khan, Misbahul Ain

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the assessment of gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different combustion technologies. Four thermal power plants operating on heavy furnace oil were selected for the study, among which three were based on diesel engine technology, while the fourth plant was based on oil-fired steam turbine technology. The stack emissions were monitored for critical air pollutants carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, lead, and mercury. The pollutant emissions were measured at optimum load conditions for a period of 6 months with an interval of 1 month. The results of stack emissions were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan and World Bank guidelines for thermal power plants, and few parameters were found higher than the permissible limits of emissions. It was observed that the emissions carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matters from diesel engine-based power plants were comparatively higher than the turbine-based power plants. The emissions of sulfur dioxide were high in all the plants, even the plants with different technologies, which was mainly due to high sulfur contents in fuel.

  4. Development and preliminary evaluation of a particulate matter emission factor model for European motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Singh, R B; Colls, J J

    2000-10-01

    Although modeling of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles is now quite advanced, prediction of particulate emissions is still at an unsophisticated stage. Emission factors for gasoline vehicles are not reliably available, since gasoline vehicles are not included in the European Union (EU) emission test procedure. Regarding diesel vehicles, emission factors are available for different driving cycles but give little information about change of emissions with speed or engine load. We have developed size-specific speed-dependent emission factors for gasoline and diesel vehicles. Other vehicle-generated emission factors are also considered and the empirical equation for re-entrained road dust is modified to include humidity effects. A methodology is proposed to calculate modal (accelerating, cruising, or idling) emission factors. The emission factors cover particle size ranges up to 10 microns, either from published data or from user-defined size distributions. A particulate matter emission factor model (PMFAC), which incorporates virtually all the available information on particulate emissions for European motor vehicles, has been developed. PMFAC calculates the emission factors for five particle size ranges [i.e., total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM5, PM2.5, and PM1] from both vehicle exhaust and nonexhaust emissions, such as tire wear, brake wear, and re-entrained road dust. The model can be used for an unlimited number of roads and lanes, and to calculate emission factors near an intersection in user-defined elements of the lane. PMFAC can be used for a variety of fleet structures. Hot emission factors at the user-defined speed can be calculated for individual vehicles, along with relative cold-to-hot emission factors. The model accounts for the proportions of distance driven with cold engines as a function of ambient temperature and road type (i.e., urban, rural, or motorway). A preliminary evaluation of PMFAC with an available dispersion model to predict

  5. Characterization of gaseous pollutant and particulate matter emission rates from a commercial broiler operation part II: Correlated emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumeliotis, Taylor S.; Dixon, Brad J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2010-10-01

    Emission rates of ammonia, acid gases, inorganic aerosols, methane, and size fractionated particulate matter were measured from a commercial broiler facility. This paper discusses the statistically influential parameters on numerous pollutants' emission from a broiler chicken facility and generates emission correlations to fill data gaps and develop averaged emission factors. Live mass of the birds was commonly a significant variable to each pollutant's emission. Some variables significantly impacted the pollutants' emissions, such as litter moisture content, but were measured discretely and cannot be used for filling in data gaps. House parameter correlations were, therefore, developed using parameters measured at the facility, such as indoor temperature, relative humidity, and the live mass of the birds, and relied on the mutual behaviour of discretely measured explanatory parameters and continuously monitored confounding variables. The live mass and the difference in the indoor temperature and the house set-point temperature were the most significant variables in each pollutant's correlation. The correlations predicted each pollutants emission to within 20% (total mass basis) over most broiler production cycles. Their validation on independent datasets also successfully estimated the flocks' emissions to within 3%. Emission factors (EFs) were developed for methane, ammonia, and size fractionated particulate matter using measured data and correlated emissions to fill in data gaps. PM 10 (particulate matter ≤10 microns) EFs were estimated to be 4.6 and 5.9 g d -1 [Animal Unit, AU] -1 for five and six week production cycles, respectively. PM 2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5 microns) EFs were 0.8 and 1.4 g d -1 AU -1 for five and six week cycles, respectively. Ammonia and methane emission factors were estimated at 120.8 and 197.0 g d -1 AU -1, respectively for a five week production cycle.

  6. Particulate Matter Stack Emission Compliance Test Procedure for Fuel Burning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission, Charleston.

    This publication details the particulate matter emissions test procedure that is applicable for conducting compliance tests for fuel burning units required to be tested under Sub-section 7 of Regulation II (1972) as established by the state of West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission. The testing procedure is divided into five parts:…

  7. Emissions calculated from particulate matter and gaseous ammonia measurements from a commercial dairy in California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission rates and factors for particulate matter (PM) and gaseous ammonia (NH3) were estimated from measurements taken at a dairy in California, USA in June 2008. Concentration measurements were made using both point and remote sensors. Filter-based PM samplers and OPCs characterized aerodynamic an...

  8. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  9. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  10. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  11. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES: MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a field study of PM-2.5 and PM-10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 and 10 micrometers, respectively) emissions from a public paved road in Overland Park, Kansas, adjacent to a 200-acre construction site which will ultimately have 4 ...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a research program which directly determined mud/dirt carryout emission factors for both particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of 10 micrometers or less (PM10) and PM with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5). The research was ...

  14. Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Total Particulate Matter Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first progress report of a study to evaluate two different condensation devices for the measurement of the total (volatile + non-volatile) particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines by direct sampling at the engine exit. The characteristics of th...

  15. Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.D.; Chen, S.L.; Kramlich, J.C.; Newton, G.H.; Ruth, L.A. ); Samuelsen, G.S. )

    1988-04-01

    Efforts in this period focused on refining the plans for engineering analysis and fundamental experiments based on the results of a literature review, and modifying the Malvern laser diffraction particle sizer to operate at particle sizes down to 0.5 microns. The engineering analysis plan is to concentrate on development of new models and adaptation of existing models for fine particulate formation by three categories of mechanisms: particle breakup/ash coalescence; direct passage, fragmentation, or agglomeration of extraneous mineral matter; and bubble formation/breakup. The plan for fundamental experiments is to develop a fast, online, optical particle sizing technique which will span the 0.5 to 10 micron size range of interest; to perform global experiments to identify the important parameters affecting fine particle formation; and to perform mechanistic experiments to test specific hypotheses about the mechanisms which control fine particle formation in coal combustion.

  16. [Current status and future prospects of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions in China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chu-Ying; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-07-15

    The emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) in 2000 and 2005 were established based on the activity data and emission factors of power, industrial, residential and transportation sectors in China. Future emissions from 2010 to 2030 were projected under different scenarios of energy consumption and PM emission control policies. The emissions of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 in 2005 were 29.98 Mt, 15.30 Mt and 9.79 Mt respectively, and the annual increasing rates were 3.4%, 4.7% and 5.4% during 2000 to 2005. By 2030, the emissions of TSP and PM2.5 would be 23.06 Mt and 10.59 Mt under reference scenario, of which industrial boilers are the largest contributor. With improvement of energy efficiency, the emissions of TSP and PM2.5 would be reduced by 15% and 16% respectively in 2030 compared with that under reference scenario. By intensifying the enforcement of legislation, 25% of TSP and 10% of PM2.5 can be further reduced in 2015. By tightening the emission standard and promoting high-efficiency dust collector after 2015, 21% of TSP and 19% of PM2.5 can be further reduced in 2030 and the emissions can become 13.81 Mt and 6.88 Mt separately. The control of particulate matter shall cover power, industrial and residential sectors. Actions shall include improving energy efficiency, enforcing legislation and tightening control policies.

  17. The particulate-related health benefits of reducing power plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.

    2000-10-01

    The report estimates the adverse human health effects due to exposure to particulate matter from power plants. Power plants are significant emitters of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In many parts of the U.S., especially the Midwest, power plants are the largest contributors. These gases are harmful themselves, and they contribute to the formation of acid rain and particulate matter. Particulate matter reduces visibility, often producing a milky haze that blankets wide regions, and it is a serious public health problem. Over the past decade and more, numerous studies have linked particulate matter to a wide range of adverse health effects in people of all ages. Epidemiologists have consistently linked particulate matter with effects ranging from premature death, hospital admissions and asthma attacks to chronic bronchitis. This study documents the health impacts from power plant air pollution emissions. Using the best available emissions and air quality modeling programs, the stud y forecasts ambient air quality for a business-as-usual baseline scenario for 2007, assuming full implementation of the Acid Rain program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Summer Smog rule (the 1999 NO{sub x} SIP Call). The study then estimates the attributable health impacts from all power plant emissions. Finally, the study estimates air quality for a specific policy alternative: reducing total power plant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} 75 percent form the levels emitted in 1997. The difference between this '75 percent reduction scenario' and the baseline provides an estimate of the health effects that would be avoided by this reduction in power plant emissions. In addition to the policy scenario, the work involved performing sensitivity analyses to examine alternative emission reductions and forecast ambient air quality using a second air quality model. EPA uses both air quality models extensively, and both suggest that power plants make a large

  18. Spectral Emissions and Dosimetry of Metal Tritide Particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stewart, Robert D.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2002-01-01

    Inference of intakes and doses from inhalation of metal tritide particles has come under scrutiny because of decommissioning and decontamination of U.S. Department of Energy facilities. Since self-absorption of radiation is very significant for larger particles, interpretation of counting results of metal tritide particles by liquid scintillation requires information about emission spectra. Similarly, inference of dose requires knowledge of charged particle and photon spectra. Using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code, we calculated various dosimetric, microdosimetric and spectral emissions from tritides of Sc, Ti, Zr, Er, and Hf. For metal tritide particles with physical diameters in the range from about 0.01 mm to 25 mm, we present energy emission fractions, distributions of microdosimetric quantities, and the emitted spectra of electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. Results characterizing the effects of uncertainties associated with the composition and density of the tritides are also presented. Emission spectra are used to illustrate trends in the relationship between "apparent" and "observed" activity as a function of particle type and size. Emissions from metal tritide particles are weakly penetrating, and the emission spectra tend to "harden" as the particle size increases. Microdosimetric considerations suggest that the radiation emitted by metal tritides can be classified as a low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation source. For cells less than about 7 mm away from the surface of a metal tritide, the primary dose component is due to electrons. However, bremsstrahlung radiation may deposit some energy tens, hundreds or even thousands of micrometers away from the surface of a tritide particle.

  19. Emissions factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.; Li, J.; Zhang, G.; Matthias, V.

    2015-09-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbor districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel engine power offshore vessels in China were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emissions factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emissions factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low engine power vessel than for the two higher engine power vessels. Fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low engine power engineering vessel were significantly higher than that of the previous studies, while for the two higher engine power vessels, the fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies. The fuel-based average emissions factor for nitrogen oxides for the small engine power vessel was more than twice the International Maritime Organization standard, while those for the other two vessels were below the standard. Emissions factors for all three vessels were significantly different during different operating modes. Organic carbon and elemental carbon were the main components of particulate matter, while water-soluble ions and elements were present in trace amounts. Best-fit engine speeds

  20. Novel cyclone empirical pressure drop and emissions with heterogeneous particulate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New cyclone designs equally effective at controlling emissions that have smaller pressure losses would reduce both the financial and the environmental cost of procuring electricity. Tests were conducted with novel and industry standard 30.5 cm diameter cyclones at inlet velocities from 8 to 18 m s-...

  1. Coarse particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots in Australia.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Flesch, T K; Chen, D; Crenna, B; Denmead, O T; Naylor, T; Rowell, D

    2010-01-01

    Open cattle feedlots are a source of air pollutants that include particular matter (PM). Over 24 h, exposure to ambient concentrations of 50 microg m(-3) of the coarse-sized fraction PM (aerodynamic diameter <10 microm [PM(10)]) is recognized as a health concern for humans. The objective of our study was to document PM(10) concentration and emissions at two cattle feedlots in Australia over several days in summer. Two automated samplers were used to monitor the background and in-feedlot PM(10) concentrations. At the in-feedlot location, the PM(10) emission was calculated using a dispersion model. Our measurements revealed that the 24-h PM(10) concentrations on some of the days approached or exceeded the health criteria threshold of 50 microg m(-3) used in Australia. A key factor responsible for the generation of PM(10) was the increased activity of cattle in the evening that coincided with peak concentrations of PM(10) (maximum, 792 microg m(-3)) between 1930 and 2000 h. Rain coincided with a severe decline in PM(10) concentration and emission. A dispersion model used in our study estimated the emission of PM(10) between 31 and 60 g animal(-1) d(-1). These data contribute to needed information on PM(10) associated with livestock to develop results-based environmental policy.

  2. CENTRAL CAROLINA VEHICLE PARTICULATE EMISSION STUDY (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study to characterize the exhaust emissions from a light-duty fleet of in-use vehicles representative of central North Carolina was conducted in 1999 during both a winter phase (February) and a summer phase (June - July). Summer temperatures averaged 78 F, while the winter te...

  3. Effect of oxygenated fuels on physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of diesel particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-12-16

    A systematic study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation of the effects of blending five different oxygenates (diglyme (DGM), palm oil methyl ester (PME), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl adipate (DEA), and butanol (Bu)) with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) at 2% and 4% oxygen levels on physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from a nonroad diesel engine. All blended fuels led to an overall decrease in the particulate mass concentration and elemental carbon (EC) emissions, which was strongly associated with the oxygen content in fuels and the specific type of fuels used. In general, the proportion of particulate-bound organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) increased while using oxygenated fuel blends. Compared to ULSD, all fuel blends showed different emission factors of particle-phase PAHs and n-alkanes, slight alterations in soot nanostructure, lower soot ignition temperature, and lower activation energy. The total counts of particles (≤ 560 nm diameter) emitted decreased gradually for ULSD blended with DMC, DEA, and Bu, while they increased significantly for other fuel blends. The in vitro toxicity of particulates significantly increased with ULSD blended with DMC and DEA, while it decreased when ULSD was blended with PME, DGM, and Bu. PMID:25383974

  4. Comparison of the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from the combustion of agricultural and forest biomasses.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Patrick; Palacios, Joahnn H; Godbout, Stéphane; Bussières, Denis; Lagacé, Robert; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from the combustion of agricultural (switchgrass, fast-growing willow and the dried solid fraction of pig manure) and forest (wood mixture of Black Spruce and Jack Pine) biomasses in a small-scale unit (17.58kW). Concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, NO2, NH3, N2O, SO2, HCl, and H2O were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and converted into emission rates. Opacity was also evaluated and particulates were sampled. Results showed significantly higher emissions of SO2, NO2 and PM with the combustion of agricultural biomass compared to the forest biomass. However, further studies should be carried out so regulations can be adapted in order to permit the combustion of agricultural biomass in small-scale combustion units.

  5. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  6. The methodologies and instruments of vehicle particulate emission measurement for current and future legislative regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuki, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Arai, Masataka; Xu, Min

    2015-09-01

    Since the health risks associated with fine particles whose aerodynamic diameters are smaller than 2.5 μm was first proven, regulations restricting particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from internal combustion engines have become increasingly severe. Accordingly, the gravimetric method of PM mass measurement is facing its lower limit of detection as the emissions from vehicles are further reduced. For example, the variation in the adsorption of gaseous components such as hydrocarbons from unburned fuel and lubricant oil and the presence of agglomerated particles, which are not directly generated in engine combustion but re-entrainment particulates from walls of sampling pipes, can cause uncertainty in measurement. The PM mass measurement systems and methodologies have been continuously refined in order to improve measurement accuracy. As an alternative metric, the particle measurement programme (PMP) within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) developed a solid particle number measurement method in order to improve the sensitivity of particulate emission measurement from vehicles. Consequently, particle number (PN) limits were implemented into the regulations in Europe from 2011. Recently, portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for in-use vehicle emission measurements are also attracting attention, currently in North America and Europe, and real-time PM mass and PN instruments are under evaluation.

  7. Particulate and gaseous emissions when welding aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Cole, Homer; Epstein, Seymour; Peace, Jon

    2007-09-01

    Fabrication and repair of aluminum components and structures commonly involves the use of electric arc welding. The interaction of the arc and the metal being welded generates ultraviolet radiation, metallic oxides, fumes, and gases. Aluminum is seldom used as the pure metal but is often alloyed with other metals to improve strength and other physical properties. Therefore, the exact composition of any emissions will depend on the welding process and the particular aluminum alloy being welded. To quantify such emissions, The Aluminum Association sponsored several studies to characterize arc welding emissions by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes for various combinations of base and filler alloys. In all cases, the tests were conducted under conditions that could be found in a production weld shop without forced ventilation. The concentrations of each analyte that a welder could be exposed to were greatly affected by the welding process, the composition of the base and filler alloys, the position of the welder, and the welding helmet. The results obtained can be used by employers to identify and control potential hazards associated with the welding of aluminum alloys and can provide the basis for hazard communication to employees involved in the welding of these alloys.

  8. Characterization of gaseous pollutant and particulate matter emission rates from a commercial broiler operation part I: Observed trends in emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumeliotis, Taylor S.; Dixon, Brad J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2010-10-01

    This paper characterizes the emission rates of size fractionated particulate matter, inorganic aerosols, acid gases, ammonia and methane measured over four flocks at a commercial broiler chicken facility. Mean emission rates of each pollutant, along with sampling notes, were reported in this paper, the first in a series of two. Sampling notes were needed because inherent gaps in data may bias the mean emission rates. The mean emission rates of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were 5.0 and 0.78 g day -1 [Animal Unit, AU] -1, respectively, while inorganic aerosols mean emission rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.46 g day -1 AU -1 depending on the season. The average total acid gas emission rate was 0.43 g day -1 AU -1 with the greatest contribution from nitrous and nitric acids and little contribution from sulfuric acid (as SO 2). Ammonia emissions were seasonally dependent, with a mean emission rate of 66.0 g day -1 AU -1 in the cooler seasons and 94.5 g day -1 AU -1 during the warmer seasons. Methane emissions were relatively consistent with a mean emission rate of 208 g day -1 AU -1. The diurnal pattern in each pollutant's emission rate was relatively consistent after normalizing the hourly emissions according to each daily mean emission rate. Over the duration of a production cycle, all the measured pollutants' emissions increased proportionally to the total live mass of birds in the house, with the exception of ammonia. Interrelationships between pollutants provide evidence of mutually dependent release mechanisms, which suggests that it may be possible to fill data gaps with minimal data requirements. In the second paper (Roumeliotis, T.S., Dixon, B.J., Van Heyst, B.J. Characterization of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter emission rates from a commercial broiler operation part II: correlated emission rates. Atmospheric Environment, 2010.), regression correlations are developed to estimate daily mean emission rates for data gaps and, using the normalized hourly diurnal

  9. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms–the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs. PMID:27782159

  10. Characterization of Particulate Ship Emissions during CalNex 2010 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Mellon, D.; Lack, D. A.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Onasch, T. B.; Massoli, P.; Coffman, D. J.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Nuaaman, I.; Li, S.; Hayden, K.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    An important and under-characterized source of particulate matter is emissions from ships, and in particular, ocean going vessels. For example, emissions from commercial shipping operations are thought to be ca. 8% of primary organic emissions from fossil and bio fuels and 2% of the global black carbon (BC) emissions. Although nominally a small contribution, ship emissions often occur in either pristine marine environments or concentrated near large population centers making the impacts potentially much more important than such numbers would tacitly suggest. During CalNex 2010, particulate emissions from numerous ships were directly characterized and quantified from measurements made on board the R/V Atlantis and the NOAA P3 aircraft. In this talk, first results from these measurements will be discussed, with a particular emphasis on emissions of black carbon (BC). On board the R/V Altlantis, BC emissions were characterized at high time resolution using a variety of methods and techniques: light absorption (via PAS and PSAP), SP2, SP-AMS and ATOFMS. On the NOAA P3, BC was characterized using an SP2 and PAS. In addition to these BC-focused techniques, a wide range of other techniques were employed to determine emissions factors of co-emitted pollutants. Specific discussion will focus on two case studies: emissions from a single ship operating at different engine loads and emissions from a single ship as it changed from a high sulfur to low sulfur fuel type. The results from this study have implications for impending US and global regulations that mandate lower sulfur fuel and an industry wide push to slow steaming which reduces fuel consumption.

  11. THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL ON THE CONTROL OF OTHER MWC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 20, 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revised new source performance standards for new municipal waste combustion (MWC) units and guidelines for existing sources. The proposed national regulations require tighter particulate matter control and a...

  12. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  13. Power plant emissions: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative emission reduction scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.

    2004-06-15

    This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total emissions from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the emissions inventory estimates, and the changes in the emissions associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.

  14. Tracking Petroleum Refinery Emission Events Using Lanthanum and Lanthanides as Elemental Markers for Fine Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation reports the development and application of an analytical method to quantify the rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric particulate matter and emissions of catalyst material from the petroleum refining industry. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry following high temperature/high pressure microwave digestion has been used to study the REE composition of several fresh and spent catalysts used in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units in petroleum refineries as well as in ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX. The results show that the routine emissions from local FCC units in Houston contribute a constant and low amount to ambient PM2.5 of ~0.1 micrograms per cubic meter. However, a significant (33 - 106 fold) increase in the contributions of FCC emissions to PM2.5 is quantified during an upset emission event compared with background levels associated with routine operation. The impact of emissions from the local refinery that reported the emission event was tracked to a site approximately 50 km downwind from the source, illustrating the potential exposure of humans over a large geographical area through the long-range transport of atmospheric fine particles as well as the power of elemental signatures to understand the sources of fine particles.

  15. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin third stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  16. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  17. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  18. Unregulated emissions from diesel engine with particulate filter using Fe-based fuel borne catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Zhang, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jipeng; Tan, Jianwei; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-10-01

    The alteration and formation of toxic compounds and potential changes in the toxicity of emissions when using after-treatment technologies have gained wide attention. Volatile organic compound (VOC), carbonyl compound and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were tested at European Steady State Cycle (ESC) to study unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with a fuel-borne catalyst and diesel particulate filter (FBC-DPF). An Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst was used for this study. According to the results, brake specific emissions of total VOCs without and with DPF were 4.7 and 4.9mg/kWh, respectively, showing a 4.3% increase. Benzene and n-undecane emissions increased and toluene emission decreased, while other individual VOC emissions basically had no change. When retrofitted with the FBC-DPF, total carbonyl compound emission decreased 15.7%, from 25.8 to 21.8mg/kWh. The two highest carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were reduced from 20.0 and 3.7 to 16.5 and 3.3mg/kWh respectively. The specific reactivity (SR) with DPF was reduced from 6.68 to 6.64mg/kWh. Total particle-phase PAH emissions decreased 66.4% with DPF compared to that without DPF. However, the Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) with DPF had increased from 0.016 to 0.030mg/kWh. Fluoranthene and Pyrene had the greatest decrease, 91.1% and 88.4% respectively. The increase of two- and three-ring PAHs with DPF indicates that the fuel-borne catalyst caused some gas-phase PAHs to adsorb on particles. The results of this study expand the knowledge of the effects of using a particulate filter and a Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst on diesel engine unregulated emissions.

  19. Unregulated emissions from diesel engine with particulate filter using Fe-based fuel borne catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Zhang, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jipeng; Tan, Jianwei; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-10-01

    The alteration and formation of toxic compounds and potential changes in the toxicity of emissions when using after-treatment technologies have gained wide attention. Volatile organic compound (VOC), carbonyl compound and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were tested at European Steady State Cycle (ESC) to study unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with a fuel-borne catalyst and diesel particulate filter (FBC-DPF). An Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst was used for this study. According to the results, brake specific emissions of total VOCs without and with DPF were 4.7 and 4.9mg/kWh, respectively, showing a 4.3% increase. Benzene and n-undecane emissions increased and toluene emission decreased, while other individual VOC emissions basically had no change. When retrofitted with the FBC-DPF, total carbonyl compound emission decreased 15.7%, from 25.8 to 21.8mg/kWh. The two highest carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were reduced from 20.0 and 3.7 to 16.5 and 3.3mg/kWh respectively. The specific reactivity (SR) with DPF was reduced from 6.68 to 6.64mg/kWh. Total particle-phase PAH emissions decreased 66.4% with DPF compared to that without DPF. However, the Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) with DPF had increased from 0.016 to 0.030mg/kWh. Fluoranthene and Pyrene had the greatest decrease, 91.1% and 88.4% respectively. The increase of two- and three-ring PAHs with DPF indicates that the fuel-borne catalyst caused some gas-phase PAHs to adsorb on particles. The results of this study expand the knowledge of the effects of using a particulate filter and a Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst on diesel engine unregulated emissions. PMID:25288546

  20. Laboratory and field investigations of particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from traditional and improved cookstoves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Christoph A.; Bond, Tami C.; Conway, Stuart; Osorto Pinel, Anibal Benjamin; MacCarty, Nordica; Still, Dean

    We implemented a program in which emission characterization is enabled through collaborations between academic, US and international non-governmental entities that focus on evaluation, dissemination, and in-use testing, of improved cookstoves. This effort resulted in a study of field and laboratory emissions from traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves. We found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking average three times those measured during simulated cooking in the laboratory. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in laboratory settings. The single scattering albedo (SSA) of the emissions was very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. Over the course of three summers in Honduras, we measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. We found that well-designed improved cookstoves can significantly reduce PM and CO emission factors below traditional cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.2 g kg -1 - significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 6.6 g kg -1 and 4.5 g kg -1, respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories.

  1. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment. PMID:2473105

  2. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment.

  3. Ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as gasoline components in relation to gaseous emissions and particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Aakko-Saksa, Päivi T; Rantanen-Kolehmainen, Leena; Skyttä, Eija

    2014-09-01

    The exhaust emissions of three cars using different biofuels were explored at a temperature of -7 °C. The biofuels studied contained both low- and high-concentration ethanol blends, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons. A multipoint fuel injection car (MPFI), direct-injection spark-ignition car (DISI), and flex-fuel car (FFV) represented three different spark-ignition-car technologies. At -7 °C, substantial emissions were observed for the three cars, and differences were found among ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as fuel components. For example, E85 resulted in high acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, ethene, and acetylene emissions when compared to E30 or lower ethanol concentrations. Isobutanol-containing fuel showed elevated butyraldehyde, methacrolein, and isobutanol emissions. The highest particulate matter (PM) emissions, associated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and indirect mutagenicity emissions were detected with the DISI car. Oxygenated fuels reduced PM emissions and associated priority PAH emissions in the DISI car. PM and PAH emissions from the MPFI and FFV cars were generally low. A combination of 10% ethanol and biohydrocarbon components did not change emissions significantly when compared to ethanol-only-containing E10 gasoline. Therefore, a combination of ethanol or isobutanol with biohydrocarbon components offers an option to reach high gasoline bioenergy content for E10-compatible cars. PMID:25075876

  4. Ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as gasoline components in relation to gaseous emissions and particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Aakko-Saksa, Päivi T; Rantanen-Kolehmainen, Leena; Skyttä, Eija

    2014-09-01

    The exhaust emissions of three cars using different biofuels were explored at a temperature of -7 °C. The biofuels studied contained both low- and high-concentration ethanol blends, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons. A multipoint fuel injection car (MPFI), direct-injection spark-ignition car (DISI), and flex-fuel car (FFV) represented three different spark-ignition-car technologies. At -7 °C, substantial emissions were observed for the three cars, and differences were found among ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as fuel components. For example, E85 resulted in high acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, ethene, and acetylene emissions when compared to E30 or lower ethanol concentrations. Isobutanol-containing fuel showed elevated butyraldehyde, methacrolein, and isobutanol emissions. The highest particulate matter (PM) emissions, associated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and indirect mutagenicity emissions were detected with the DISI car. Oxygenated fuels reduced PM emissions and associated priority PAH emissions in the DISI car. PM and PAH emissions from the MPFI and FFV cars were generally low. A combination of 10% ethanol and biohydrocarbon components did not change emissions significantly when compared to ethanol-only-containing E10 gasoline. Therefore, a combination of ethanol or isobutanol with biohydrocarbon components offers an option to reach high gasoline bioenergy content for E10-compatible cars.

  5. Measuring the Effect of Fuel Chemical Structure on Particulate and Gaseous Emissions using Isotope Tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Martin, G C; Upatnicks, A; Dibble, R W; Cheng, S

    2003-09-11

    Using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique initially developed for radiocarbon dating and recently applied to internal combustion engines, carbon atoms within specific fuel molecules can be labeled and followed in particulate or gaseous emissions. In addition to examining the effect of fuel chemical structure on emissions, the specific source of carbon for PM can be identified if an isotope label exists in the appropriate fuel source. Existing work has focused on diesel engines, but the samples (soot collected on quartz filters or combustion gases captured in bombs or bags) are readily collected from large industrial combustors as well.

  6. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  7. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  8. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    PubMed

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer.

  9. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    PubMed

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer. PMID:24582651

  10. Fracto-emission from fiber-reinforced and particulate filled composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. T.; Jahan-Latibari, A.; Jensen, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    Fracto-emission (FE) in the emission of particles and photons during and following crack propagation. The types of particles observed include electrons (EE), positive ions (PIE), photons (phE), and excited and ground state neutral emission (NE). In this paper work is presented on the characterization of the various FE components and measurements relating FE to the fracture events and material properties involved. FE characteristics measured include total emission, time dependence relative to crack propagation, species of neutral and ionic components, energy of charged species, and time correlations between pairs of FE components. Experiments on fracture of epoxy, single fibers, fiber/epoxy strands, particulate filled epoxy, and multi-ply fiber/epoxy systems will be presented.

  11. Catalytic Control of Typical Particulate Matters and Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Simulated Biomass Burning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaxin; Tian, Guangkai; Zhou, Meijuan; Huang, Zhiwei; Lu, Chenxi; Hu, Pingping; Gao, Jiayi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Tang, Xingfu

    2016-06-01

    Emissions of particulate matters (PMs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from open burning of biomass often cause severe air pollution; a viable approach is to allow biomass to burn in a furnace to collectively control these emissions, but practical control technologies for this purpose are lacking. Here, we report a hollandite manganese oxide (HMO) catalyst that can efficiently control both typical PMs and VOCs emissions from biomass burning. The results reveal that typical alkali-rich PMs such as KCl particles are disintegrated and the K(+) ions are trapped in the HMO "single-walled" tunnels with a great trapping capacity. The K(+)-trapping HMO increases the electron density of the lattice oxygen and the redox ability, thus promoting the combustion of soot PMs and the oxidation of typical VOCs such as aldehydes and acetylates. This could pave a way to control emissions from biomass burning concomitant with its utilization for energy or heat generation. PMID:27128185

  12. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  13. Temporalization of peak electric generation particulate matter emissions during high energy demand days.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Baker, Kirk R; Rodgers, Mark; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2015-04-01

    Underprediction of peak ambient pollution by air quality models hinders development of effective strategies to protect health and welfare. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model routinely underpredicts peak ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. Temporal misallocation of electricity sector emissions contributes to this modeling deficiency. Hourly emissions are created for CMAQ by use of temporal profiles applied to annual emission totals unless a source is matched to a continuous emissions monitor (CEM) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). More than 53% of CEMs in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and 45% nationally are unmatched in the 2008 NEI. For July 2006, a United States heat wave with high electricity demand, peak electric sector emissions, and elevated ambient PM2.5 mass, we match hourly emissions for 267 CEM/NEI pairs in PJM (approximately 49% and 12% of unmatched CEMs in PJM and nationwide) using state permits, electricity dispatch modeling and CEMs. Hourly emissions for individual facilities can differ up to 154% during the simulation when measurement data is used rather than default temporalization values. Maximum CMAQ PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and elemental carbon predictions increase up to 83%, 103%, and 310%, at the surface and 51%, 75%, and 38% aloft (800 mb), respectively. PMID:25705922

  14. High NO2/NOx emissions downstream of the catalytic diesel particulate filter: An influencing factor study.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Li, Jiaqiang; Ma, Zhilei; Tan, Jianwei; Zhao, Longqing

    2015-09-01

    Diesel vehicles are responsible for most of the traffic-related nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, including nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The use of after-treatment devices increases the risk of high NO2/NOx emissions from diesel engines. In order to investigate the factors influencing NO2/NOx emissions, an emission experiment was carried out on a high pressure common-rail, turbocharged diesel engine with a catalytic diesel particulate filter (CDPF). NO2 was measured by a non-dispersive ultraviolet analyzer with raw exhaust sampling. The experimental results show that the NO2/NOx ratios downstream of the CDPF range around 20%-83%, which are significantly higher than those upstream of the CDPF. The exhaust temperature is a decisive factor influencing the NO2/NOx emissions. The maximum NO2/NOx emission appears at the exhaust temperature of 350°C. The space velocity, engine-out PM/NOx ratio (mass based) and CO conversion ratio are secondary factors. At a constant exhaust temperature, the NO2/NOx emissions decreased with increasing space velocity and engine-out PM/NOx ratio. When the CO conversion ratios range from 80% to 90%, the NO2/NOx emissions remain at a high level.

  15. High NO2/NOx emissions downstream of the catalytic diesel particulate filter: An influencing factor study.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Li, Jiaqiang; Ma, Zhilei; Tan, Jianwei; Zhao, Longqing

    2015-09-01

    Diesel vehicles are responsible for most of the traffic-related nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, including nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The use of after-treatment devices increases the risk of high NO2/NOx emissions from diesel engines. In order to investigate the factors influencing NO2/NOx emissions, an emission experiment was carried out on a high pressure common-rail, turbocharged diesel engine with a catalytic diesel particulate filter (CDPF). NO2 was measured by a non-dispersive ultraviolet analyzer with raw exhaust sampling. The experimental results show that the NO2/NOx ratios downstream of the CDPF range around 20%-83%, which are significantly higher than those upstream of the CDPF. The exhaust temperature is a decisive factor influencing the NO2/NOx emissions. The maximum NO2/NOx emission appears at the exhaust temperature of 350°C. The space velocity, engine-out PM/NOx ratio (mass based) and CO conversion ratio are secondary factors. At a constant exhaust temperature, the NO2/NOx emissions decreased with increasing space velocity and engine-out PM/NOx ratio. When the CO conversion ratios range from 80% to 90%, the NO2/NOx emissions remain at a high level. PMID:26354692

  16. Chemical characteristics and oxidative potential of particulate matter emissions from gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel cars.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ka Lam; Polidori, Andrea; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Samaras, Zissis; Cassee, Flemming R; Gerlofs, Miriam; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-08-15

    Three light-duty vehicles in five different configurations [a Honda Accord operating with diesel with a closed-coupled oxidation catalyst and an underfloor catalyst replaced in some tests with a diesel particle filter (DPF), a Toyota Corolla operating with gasoline, and a VW Golf alternatively operating with petrodiesel or biodiesel] were tested in a dynamometer facility to develop an improved understanding of the factors affecting the toxicity of particulate exhaust emissions. The vehicles were tested using a variety of real-world driving cycles, more than the certification test (New European Driving Cycle). Particle samples were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC, respectively), water soluble and water insoluble organic carbon (WSOC and WISOC, respectively), and inorganic ions, and the emission rates (mg/km) for each vehicle/configuration were determined. A dithiothreitol (DTT) assay was used to assess the oxidative potential of the particulate matter (PM) samples. The DPF-equipped diesel and gasoline vehicles were characterized by the lowest overall PM mass emissions, while the diesel and biodiesel cars produced the most potent exhaust in terms of oxidative activity. When the DPF was fitted on the Honda Accord diesel vehicle, the mass emission rates and distance-based oxidative potential were both decreased by 98%, compared to the original configuration. Correlation analysis showed that the DTT consumption rate was highly associated with WSOC, WISOC, and OC (R = 0.98, 0.93, and 0.94, respectively), consistent with previous findings.

  17. Developing particulate thin filter using coconut fiber for motor vehicle emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardoyo, A. Y. P.; Juswono, U. P.; Riyanto, S.

    2016-03-01

    Amounts of motor vehicles in Indonesia have been recognized a sharply increase from year to year with the increment reaching to 22 % per annum. Meanwhile motor vehicles produce particulate emissions in different sizes with high concentrations depending on type of vehicles, fuels, and engine capacity. Motor Particle emissions are not only to significantly contribute the atmosphric particles but also adverse to human health. In order to reduce the particle emission, it is needed a filter. This study was aimed to develop a thin filter using coconut fiber to reduce particulate emissions for motor vehicles. The filter was made of coconut fibers that were grinded into power and mixed with glues. The filter was tested by the measurements of particle concentrations coming out from the vehicle exhaust directly and the particle concentrations after passing through the filter. The efficiency of the filter was calculated by ratio of the particle concentrations before comming in the filter to the particle conentrations after passing through the filter. The results showed that the efficiency of the filter obtained more than 30 %. The efficiency increases sharply when a number of the filters are arranged paralelly.

  18. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  19. On-Road measurement of particulate matter emissions from vehicles: particle concentration, size distribution and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, N.; China, S.; Cook, J.; Kuhns, H. D.; Moosmuller, H.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2010-12-01

    During summer 2010, we conducted a field experiment in Southern Michigan to measure on-road vehicle emissions. During the campaign, particulate matter (PM) concentrations were monitored with a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) and transmissometer system. The Lidar and transmissometer system measures PM mass concentration of vehicle exhaust using backscatter and extinction of an ultraviolet laser beam directed across the road. Collocated with the Lidar system we deployed an extractive system inclusive of a LiCor 840 to monitor CO2 concentrations, a laser aerosol spectrometer to measure particle size distributions for PM with diameter larger than 0.1 µm, and a portable condensation particle counter to estimate the total particle number concentration for particles with diameters between~30nm and 1 µm. In addition, road-side vehicle exhaust particles were collected on nuclepore filters for scanning electron microscopy analysis during selected periods of time. In this study we analyze fuel-based mass and number PM emission factors from passing vehicles. The emission factors are estimated normalizing the PM data by the CO2 concentration. The morphology of the particulates is also investigated with electron microscopy analysis. Type of vehicles and traffic counts were recorded by one of the researchers during the sampling period to evaluate the influence on particle morphology due to traffic volume and fuel type. Image processing and fractal geometry are used to estimate various morphological parameters and fractal dimension. Diurnal variation of particle morphology descriptors and fractal dimension of soot particles are investigated and compared with CO2 emissions, particle size distribution and particle number concentration for selected subsets of the data. Variations of PM emission factors and PM morphology are also investigated for different traffic conditions and days of the week. The analysis of the PM data is of particular importance in monitoring vehicle

  20. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine: the influence of biodiesel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Elbagir, S; Stevanovic, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-12-15

    This study undertook a physicochemical characterization of particle emissions from a single compression ignition engine operated at one test mode with 3 biodiesel fuels made from 3 different feedstocks (i.e., soy, tallow, and canola) at 4 different blend percentages (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) to gain insights into their particle-related health effects. Particle physical properties were inferred by measuring particle number size distributions both with and without heating within a thermodenuder (TD) and also by measuring particulate matter (PM) emission factors with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)). The chemical properties of particulates were investigated by measuring particle and vapor phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentrations. The particle number size distributions showed strong dependency on feedstock and blend percentage with some fuel types showing increased particle number emissions, while others showed particle number reductions. In addition, the median particle diameter decreased as the blend percentage was increased. Particle and vapor phase PAHs were generally reduced with biodiesel, with the results being relatively independent of the blend percentage. The ROS concentrations increased monotonically with biodiesel blend percentage but did not exhibit strong feedstock variability. Furthermore, the ROS concentrations correlated quite well with the organic volume percentage of particles - a quantity which increased with increasing blend percentage. At higher blend percentages, the particle surface area was significantly reduced, but the particles were internally mixed with a greater organic volume percentage (containing ROS) which has implications for using surface area as a regulatory metric for diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions. PMID:22039912

  1. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 4: Diesel Particulate Filters -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    2000-01-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This is the fourth and final report for the DPF test program and covers the effect of diesel sulfur level on: a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF).

  2. Carbon-centered free radicals in particulate matter emissions from wood and coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Linwei Tian; Catherine P. Koshland; Junko Yano; Vittal K. Yachandra; Ignatius T.S. Yu; S.C. Lee; Donald Lucas

    2009-05-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the free radicals in the particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and coal combustion. The intensity of radicals in PM dropped linearly within two months of sample storage and stabilized after that. This factor of storage time was adjusted when comparing radical intensities among different PM samples. An inverse relationship between coal rank and free radical intensities in PM emissions was observed, which was in contrast with the pattern of radical intensities in the source coals. The strong correlation between intensities of free radical and elemental carbon in PM emissions suggests that the radical species may be carbon-centered. The increased g-factors, 2.0029-2.0039, over that of purely carbon-centered radicals may indicate the presence of vicinal oxygen heteroatom. The redox and biology activities of these carbon-centered radicals are worthy of evaluation. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Insect abatement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  4. Emission characteristics of particulate matter and heavy metals from small incinerators and boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Heon; Jang, Ha-Na; Seo, Yong-Chil; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Jang, Min

    The characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emission such as the estimation of emission factors, size distributions and of heavy metal emission from small-size incinerators and boilers have been investigated. In PM-10 emission, a fine mode was found in the formation of sub-micron PM by growth of nucleated aerosol of metal vapor, having a bimodal particle size distribution in overall size range. The emission ratios of PM-10 to TPM (total PM) from boilers and incinerators ranged from 29% to 62% and 10% to 84%, respectively, which resulted in more and larger sized PM emission due to poorer combustion from solid waste incinerators than boilers. The targeted metals were copper, cadmium, manganese, chromium, magnesium, lead, zinc and copper, and their contents in bottom ash, fly ash and dust (PM) were compared. More volatile metals such as cadmium, lead and zinc showed higher enrichment in PM emitted through stack than bottom ashes. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on the fine PM under 2.5 μm accounted for approximately 90% of the total mass of each metal in PM-10. The effects of chlorine concentration and temperature on such metals emission were also observed due to their volatility changes.

  5. Particulate matter emission rates from beef cattle feedlots in Kansas-reverse dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Auvermann, Brent W; Razote, Edna B; Murphy, James P; Harner, Joseph P

    2012-03-01

    Open beef cattle feedlots emit various air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm or less (PM10); however limited research has quantified PM10 emission rates from feedlots. This research was conducted to determine emission rates of PM10 from large cattle feedlots in Kansas. Concentrations of PM10 at the downwind and upwind edges of two large cattle feedlots (KS1 and KS2) in Kansas were measured with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM10 monitors from January 2007 to December 2008. Weather conditions at the feedlots were also monitored. From measured PM10 concentrations and weather conditions, PM10 emission rates were determined using reverse modeling with the American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD). The two feedlots differed significantly in median PM10 emission flux (1.60 g/m2-day for KS1 vs. 1.10 g/m2-day for KS2) but not in PM10 emission factor (27 kg/1000 head-day for KS1 and 30 kg/1000 head-day KS2). These emission factors were smaller than published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission factor for cattle feedlots.

  6. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; May, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Lipsky, E. M.; Donahue, N. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    The effects of photochemical aging on emissions from 15 light-duty gasoline vehicles were investigated using a smog chamber to probe the critical link between the tailpipe and ambient atmosphere. The vehicles were recruited from the California in-use fleet; they represent a wide range of model years (1987 to 2011), vehicle types and emission control technologies. Each vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer using the unified cycle. Dilute emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and then photochemically aged under urban-like conditions. For every vehicle, substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurred during cold-start tests, with the emissions from some vehicles generating as much as 6 times the amount of SOA as primary particulate matter after three hours of oxidation inside the chamber at typical atmospheric oxidant levels. Therefore, the contribution of light duty gasoline vehicle exhaust to ambient PM levels is likely dominated by secondary PM production (SOA and nitrate). Emissions from hot-start tests formed about a factor of 3-7 less SOA than cold-start tests. Therefore, catalyst warm-up appears to be an important factor in controlling SOA precursor emissions. The mass of SOA generated by photo-oxidizing exhaust from newer (LEV1 and LEV2) vehicles was only modestly lower (38%) than that formed from exhaust emitted by older (pre-LEV) vehicles, despite much larger reductions in non-methane organic gas emissions. These data suggest that a complex and non-linear relationship exists between organic gas emissions and SOA formation, which is not surprising since SOA precursors are only one component of the exhaust. Except for the oldest (pre-LEV) vehicles, the SOA production could not be fully explained by the measured oxidation of speciated (traditional) SOA precursors. Over the time scale of these experiments, the mixture of organic vapors emitted by newer vehicles appear to be more efficient (higher yielding) in producing SOA than

  7. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-06-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions of 84% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (64%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g. at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the feedstock. As the plume cools downwind of the engine, nucleation-mode aerosols form. For the pure FT fuels, reductions (94% averaged over all powers) in downwind particle number emissions were similar to those measured at the exhaust plane (84

  8. Air pollution caused by opencast mining and its abatement measures in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, M K; Majee, S R

    2001-10-01

    Opencast mining dominates coal production in India. A survey was conducted to evaluate its local atmospheric impact. Emissions data were utilised to compute dust generation due to different mining activities. Work zone air quality, ambient air quality and seasonal variations are described revealing high pollution potential due to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and consequent impact on human health. Air pollution control measures involve planning and implementing a series of preventive and suppressive measures in addition to dust extraction systems. Different abatement measures are enumerated. Pollution control by trees, the tolerance of trees to different air pollutants and plant species useful for controlling pollution are also discussed. There is a need for wider application of dust control chemicals on haul roads. Sustainable management of pollution can be achieved by the proper implementation of suggested abatement measures.

  9. Air pollution caused by opencast mining and its abatement measures in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, M K; Majee, S R

    2001-10-01

    Opencast mining dominates coal production in India. A survey was conducted to evaluate its local atmospheric impact. Emissions data were utilised to compute dust generation due to different mining activities. Work zone air quality, ambient air quality and seasonal variations are described revealing high pollution potential due to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and consequent impact on human health. Air pollution control measures involve planning and implementing a series of preventive and suppressive measures in addition to dust extraction systems. Different abatement measures are enumerated. Pollution control by trees, the tolerance of trees to different air pollutants and plant species useful for controlling pollution are also discussed. There is a need for wider application of dust control chemicals on haul roads. Sustainable management of pollution can be achieved by the proper implementation of suggested abatement measures. PMID:11721598

  10. Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NOx (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NOx, our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions. PMID:24144266

  11. Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2013-11-19

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.

  12. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill - Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Simmons, Donald L.; Wels, Brian R.; Spak, Scott N.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles O.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies' findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg-1), particle number (3.5 × 1016 kg-1), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg-1), EC (2.37 g kg-1), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg-1). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85 to 0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided.

  13. Particulate emissions calculations from fall tillage operations using point and remote sensors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kori D; Wojcik, Michael D; Martin, Randal S; Marchant, Christian C; Bingham, Gail E; Pfeiffer, Richard L; Prueger, John H; Hatfield, Jerry L

    2013-07-01

    Soil preparation for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Efforts to reduce PM emissions from tillage through a variety of conservation management practices (CMPs) have been made, but the reductions from many of these practices have not been measured in the field. A study was conducted in California's San Joaquin Valley to quantify emissions reductions from fall tillage CMP. Emissions were measured from conventional tillage methods and from a "combined operations" CMP, which combines several implements to reduce tractor passes. Measurements were made of soil moisture, bulk density, meteorological profiles, filter-based total suspended PM (TSP), concentrations of PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) and PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM), and aerosol size distribution. A mass-calibrated, scanning, three-wavelength light detection and ranging (LIDAR) procedure estimated PM through a series of algorithms. Emissions were calculated via inverse modeling with mass concentration measurements and applying a mass balance to LIDAR data. Inverse modeling emission estimates were higher, often with statistically significant differences. Derived PM emissions for conventional operations generally agree with literature values. Sampling irregularities with a few filter-based samples prevented calculation of a complete set of emissions through inverse modeling; however, the LIDAR-based emissions dataset was complete. The CMP control effectiveness was calculated based on LIDAR-derived emissions to be 29 ± 2%, 60 ± 1%, and 25 ± 1% for PM, PM, and TSP size fractions, respectively. Implementation of this CMP provides an effective method for the reduction of PM emissions. PMID:24216354

  14. DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR THE ABATEMENT OF NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSIONS USING REBURN TECHNOLOGY FOR COGENERATION PLANTS IN TAIWAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the key technical results of a joint demonstration project between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The project demonstrated that coal reburning can be used to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOX) emiss...

  15. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Emissions of particulate-bound elements from stationary diesel engine: Characterization and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the emissions of airborne particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines because of their close association with adverse health and environmental impacts. Among the alternative fuels being considered, biodiesel made by the transesterification of waste cooking oil has received wide attention in recent years because of its low cost and the added advantage of reducing waste oil disposal. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation of the particulate-bound elements emitted from ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel (B100) and a blend of both the fuels (B50). It was observed that the PM mass concentrations were reduced by about 36% when B100 was used. Crustal elements such as Mg, K and Al were found to be in higher concentrations compared to other elements emitted from both B100 and ULSD. Zn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Ba, K were found to be higher in the biodiesel exhaust while Co, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr, and As were found to be higher in the ULSD exhaust. To evaluate the potential health risk due to inhalation of PM emitted from diesel engines running on ULSD and B100, health risk estimates based on exposure and dose-response assessments of particulate-bound elements were calculated assuming exposure for 24 h. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to ULSD.

  17. [Emission of particulates from a pig farm with central air exhaust in the pig stall].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J; Seedorf, J; Trickl, T; Gronauer, H

    1998-06-01

    There is increasing concern that airborne dust and particulates from animal enterprises which are emitted into the environment may impair the health of people living in nearby residential areas. Investigations were carried out to trace the distribution of particulate emissions from a piggery in the vicinity by means of an aerosol lidar. Additionally, dust was sampled with a high volume impactor (HVS) at two places downwind (50 m, 115 m) and at a reference point 50 m upwind the piggery. The total dust concentraction in the animal house air varied between 0.2 and 1.0 mg/m3 within 24 hours. 50 m downwind the building 0.08 mg/m3 dust was measured by means of the HVS. At a distance of 115 m downwind the same concentrations (0.037 mg/m3) as the reference point (0.037 mg/m3 upwind the animal house were found. The endotoxin concentrations were 60 ng/m3 (50 m downwind), 15 ng/m3 (115 m downwind) and 9 ng/m3 (50 m upwind). The lidar signals discriminated clearly between the density of the air directly above the exhaust chimney and the 115 m downwind position. It seems that the lidar technique in combination with high volume impaction form an useful tool to describe the distribution distance of particulate pollutants farm animal housing. PMID:9693460

  18. A Mid-Infrared Emission and Reflectance Library of Meteorites and Fine Particulate Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have acquired middle infrared (MIR) emission and reflectance spectra of fine particulate minerals and solid and fine particulate meteorite samples under ambient conditions. This dataset is intended to help expand our ability to interpret the MIR spectra of asteroids, possible extinct comets, and other rocky bodies, which contain a record of processes that are key to understanding the formation of our solar system 4.6 G.y. ago. Non-destructive MIR spectra of all samples in this study were collected in the spectroscopy laboratory at Southwest Research Institute [Hamilton and Lucey, 2005, LPSC XXXVI]. We measured the MIR spectra of fine particulate meteorite samples with the objective of providing the planetary community a dataset that can be used for qualitative comparison to asteroid spectra. The current library [Salisbury et al., 1991, Icarus] that is used for comparison to asteroid emissivity spectra represents particle size fractions of < 75 μm. However, several studies have demonstrated that this may be too large a size fraction to be analogous to low inertia asteroid regoliths [e.g., Barucci et al. 2002, Icarus; Emery et al. 2006, Icarus]. Therefore, our MIR spectral library includes a series of meteorite powders having smaller size fractions that may be more analogous to the regoliths of large, low inertia asteroids and will be beneficial for qualitative comparisons. The Smithsonian Institute's analyzed Meteorite Powered Collections (USNM 7073) provided particulate meteorite samples. At this time we have focused on chondritic and a few achondrite samples with particle size fractions < 25 μm. The samples chosen represent many of the samples that were originally measured by Salisbury et al. [1991, Icarus], providing continuity with the existing larger particle size spectral dataset. Furthermore, this work is the first to obtain spectral data of meteorites at wavelengths greater than 13.5 μm, which contain diagnostic features in silicates, carbonates, and

  19. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  20. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  1. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  2. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  3. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  4. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States were measured and compared to emissions from laboratory burns with fuels collected from the site. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, and aerosol light scattering and absorption were characte...

  5. Emission characteristics of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds in cow dung combustion.

    PubMed

    Park, Duckshin; Barabad, Mona L; Lee, Gwangjae; Kwon, Soon-Bark; Cho, Youngmin; Lee, Duckhee; Cho, Kichul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2013-11-19

    Biomass fuel is used for cooking and heating, especially in developing countries. Combustion of biomass fuel can generate high levels of indoor air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study characterized PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion in a controlled experiment. Dung from grass-fed cows was dried and combusted using a dual-cone calorimeter. Heat fluxes of 10, 25, and 50 kW/m(2) were applied. The concentrations of PM and VOCs were determined using a dust spectrometer and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. PM and VOC emission factors were much higher for the lower heat flux, implying a fire ignition stage. When the heat flux was 50 kW/m(2), the CO2 emission factor was highest and the PM and VOC emission factors were lowest. Particle concentrations were highest in the 0.23-0.3 μm size range at heat fluxes of 25 and 50 kW/m(2). Various toxic VOCs, including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene, and toluene, were detected at high concentrations. Although PM and VOC emission factors at 50 kW/m(2) were lower, they were high enough to cause extremely high indoor air pollution. The characteristics of PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion indicated potential health effects of indoor air pollution in developing countries. PMID:24180364

  6. Implications of ammonia emissions from post-combustion carbon capture for airborne particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinhyok; McCoy, Sean T; Adams, Peter J

    2015-04-21

    Amine scrubbing, a mature post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, could increase ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to its ammonia emissions. To capture 2.0 Gt CO2/year, for example, it could emit 32 Gg NH3/year in the United States given current design targets or 15 times higher (480 Gg NH3/year) at rates typical of current pilot plants. Employing a chemical transport model, we found that the latter emission rate would cause an increase of 2.0 μg PM2.5/m(3) in nonattainment areas during wintertime, which would be troublesome for PM2.5-burdened areas, and much lower increases during other seasons. Wintertime PM2.5 increases in nonattainment areas were fairly linear at a rate of 3.4 μg PM2.5/m(3) per 1 Tg NH3, allowing these results to be applied to other CCS emissions scenarios. The PM2.5 impacts are modestly uncertain (±20%) depending on future emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3. The public health costs of CCS NH3 emissions were valued at $31-68 per tonne CO2 captured, comparable to the social cost of carbon itself. Because the costs of solvent loss to CCS operators are lower than the social costs of CCS ammonia, there is a regulatory interest to limit ammonia emissions from CCS.

  7. Sampling and analysis of particulate matter by glow discharge atomic emission and mass spectrometries.

    PubMed

    Marcus, R K; Dempster, M A; Gibeau, T E; Reynolds, E M

    1999-08-01

    The direct introduction of particulate matter into glow discharge atomic emission and mass spectrometry sources through a particle beam/momentum separator apparatus is described. Vacuum action through a narrow (0.0625 in. i.d.) stainless steel tube allows the introduction of discrete samples of NIST SRM 1648 urban particulate matter (UPM) and caffeine in powder form. Introduction of "ambient" airborne particulate matter is also possible. Particles passing through the aerodynamic momentum separator impinge on the heated (∼200-250 °C) inner surface of the glow discharge plasma volume and are flash-vaporized. The resultant atoms/molecules are subjected to excitation/ionization collisions within the low-pressure (0.5-5 Torr of He or Ar) plasma, producing characteristic photon emission and/or signature ionic species. In this way, atomic emission and mass spectrometry identification of particle constituents is possible. Basic design aspects of the apparatus are presented, and demonstrations of atomic emission detection of the constituents in the NIST SRM illustrate the general characteristics of the approach. Transient atomic emission signals are captured for the introduction of preweighed, discrete samples, with the integrated areas used to construct analytical response curves. Limits of detection using this relatively simple atomic emission system are on the order of tens of nanograms for sample masses of ∼50 μg. Mass spectrometric monitoring of introduced caffeine particles and a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) illustrates the ability of the glow discharge plasma to produce high-quality, library (electron impact) searchable mass spectra of molecular species while also yielding isotopic identification of elemental components of the UPM. Limits of detection for Fe in the NIST SRM are on the order of 175 ng of material, equivalent to ∼7 ng of analyte Fe. It is believed that the small size, low power consumption, ease of operation, and multimode

  8. Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman

    2002-08-15

    The global carbon cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and management of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and management to alter the magnitude of forest-carbon stocks and the direction of forest-carbon fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as carbon 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing carbon offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including carbon sinks in efforts to address global warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of carbon sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. Carbon sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals. PMID:12460486

  9. Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman

    2002-08-15

    The global carbon cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and management of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and management to alter the magnitude of forest-carbon stocks and the direction of forest-carbon fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as carbon 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing carbon offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including carbon sinks in efforts to address global warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of carbon sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. Carbon sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals.

  10. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F; Duling, Matthew G; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m(3) chamber and in a small room (32.7 m(3)) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color.

  11. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F; Duling, Matthew G; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m(3) chamber and in a small room (32.7 m(3)) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color. PMID:27196745

  12. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, Sandro; Mohr, Martin; Grob, Koni; Neukom, Hans Peter

    In this study we determined particle-bound paraffins in the exhaust of six light-duty diesel vehicles on a chassis dynamometer for different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. The filters containing particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus, and the paraffin analysis was performed using two-dimensional normal phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The different molecular mass of lubricant and diesel paraffins facilitated the distinction between diesel and lubricant contribution to the emission. Although all vehicles were certified according to the same emission class, there were considerable variations between vehicles. The study showed that under cold-start conditions the organic mass fraction ranged from 10% to 30% with respect to particle mass and the paraffins from 30% to 60% with respect to the organic mass. With cold engine, falling ambient temperature increased the emission of unburned diesel fuel, whereas that from unburned lubricating oil was less affected. Under warm-start conditions, the ambient temperature had less impact on the emission of paraffins. The emissions were also affected by the operating conditions of the engine: driving cycles with higher mean load tend towards higher emissions of lubricant. The operating conditions also affected the distribution of paraffins: the emission of light paraffins seemed to be lower with higher load in the driving cycle. With an urban and a highway cycle, roughly 40% and 80% w/w, respectively, of unburned paraffins were contributed by the lubricant. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lubricating oil showed lubricant to be a sink for PAHs. As lubricant significantly contributes to the organic emission, as shown in this study, it can be assumed that it is also a significant source of PAH emissions.

  13. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Duling, Matthew G.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M. Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m3 chamber and in a small room (32.7 m3) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color. PMID:27196745

  14. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  15. Particulate and gaseous emissions from the combustion of different biofuels in a pellet stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, E. D.; Duarte, M. A.; Tarelho, L. A. C.; Nunes, T. F.; Amato, F.; Querol, X.; Colombi, C.; Gianelle, V.; Alves, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    Seven fuels (four types of wood pellets and three agro-fuels) were tested in an automatic pellet stove (9.5 kWth) in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of gaseous compounds, such as carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total organic carbon (TOC). Particulate matter (PM10) EFs and the corresponding chemical compositions for each fuel were also obtained. Samples were analysed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), anhydrosugars and 57 chemical elements. The fuel type clearly affected the gaseous and particulate emissions. The CO EFs ranged from 90.9 ± 19.3 (pellets type IV) to 1480 ± 125 mg MJ-1 (olive pit). Wood pellets presented the lowest TOC emission factor among all fuels. HCHO and CH4 EFs ranged from 1.01 ± 0.11 to 36.9 ± 6.3 mg MJ-1 and from 0.23 ± 0.03 to 28.7 ± 5.7 mg MJ-1, respectively. Olive pit was the fuel with highest emissions of these volatile organic compounds. The PM10 EFs ranged from 26.6 ± 3.14 to 169 ± 23.6 mg MJ-1. The lowest PM10 emission factor was found for wood pellets type I (fuel with low ash content), whist the highest was observed during the combustion of an agricultural fuel (olive pit). The OC content of PM10 ranged from 8 wt.% (pellets type III) to 29 wt.% (olive pit). Variable EC particle mass fractions, ranging from 3 wt.% (olive pit) to 47 wt.% (shell of pine nuts), were also observed. The carbonaceous content of particulate matter was lower than that reported previously during the combustion of several wood fuels in traditional woodstoves and fireplaces. Levoglucosan was the most abundant anhydrosugar, comprising 0.02-3.03 wt.% of the particle mass. Mannosan and galactosan were not detected in almost all samples. Elements represented 11-32 wt.% of the PM10 mass emitted, showing great variability depending on the type of biofuel used.

  16. Fire environment effects on particulate matter emission factors in southeastern U.S. pine-grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Kevin M.; Hsieh, Yuch P.; Bugna, Glynnis C.

    2014-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFPM), which predict particulate emissions per biomass consumed, have a strong influence on event-based and regional PM emission estimates and inventories. PM < 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), regulated for its impacts to human health and visibility, is of special concern. Although wildland fires vary widely in their fuel conditions, meteorology, and fire behavior which might influence combustion reactions, the EFPM2.5 component of emission estimates is typically a constant for the region or general fuel type being assessed. The goal of this study was to use structural equation modeling (SEM) to identify and measure effects of fire environment variables on EFPM2.5 in U.S. pine-grasslands, which contribute disproportionately to total U.S. PM2.5 emissions. A hypothetical model was developed from past literature and tested using 41 prescribed burns in northern Florida and southern Georgia, USA with varying years since previous fire, season of burn, and fire direction of spread. Measurements focused on EFPM2.5 from flaming combustion, although a subset of data considered MCE and smoldering combustion. The final SEM after adjustment showed EFPM2.5 to be higher in burns conducted at higher ambient temperatures, corresponding to later dates during the period from winter to summer and increases in live herbaceous vegetation and ambient humidity, but not total fine fuel moisture content. Percentage of fine fuel composed of pine needles had the strongest positive effect on EFPM2.5, suggesting that pine timber stand volume may significantly influence PM2.5 emissions. Also, percentage of fine fuel composed of grass showed a negative effect on EFPM2.5, consistent with past studies. Results of the study suggest that timber thinning and frequent prescribed fire minimize EFPM2.5 and total PM2.5 emissions on a per burn basis, and that further development of PM emission models should consider adjusting EFPM2.5 as a function of common

  17. Emissions of Fine Particulate Matter From Motor Vehicles: A Tunnel study in Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this research is to identify individual organic compounds and trace metals emitted as PM2.5 from motor vehicles that can serve as tracers in order to quantify the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline engines to PM2.5 emissions in the Houston, TX area. We report results from a systematic analysis of PM2.5 emitted from vehicles in a highway tunnel in Houston, TX, viz. Washburn tunnel. PM2.5 emissions were speciated in terms of individual organic compounds including 14 n-alkanes, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 9 petroleum biomarkers using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry as well as 16 metals using Inductively Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). PM2.5 samples were digested using a technique developed by us that eliminates direct handling of hydrofluoric acid. HF was first generated in situ at high temperature and pressure in closed Teflon liners by heating a mixture of NaF, HNO3, and sample and then complexing any remaining HF using H3BO3. We have recently reported that this method is capable of completely extracting trace elements from airborne particulate matter prior to analysis using ICP-MS. Potential tracers were first identified using an exploratory multivariate dimensionality reduction technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA results were also physically interpreted by calculating emission indices. Among the possible marker compounds identified by PCA for use in separating diesel and gasoline fine particulate matter, emission indices of 5 n-alkanes, (n-heneicosane, n-docosane, n-tricosane, n-tetracosane, and n-pentacosane), and 2 PAHs, (fluoranthene and pyrene) were strongly and positively correlated with the amount of carbon emanating from diesel vehicles. This suggests that these compounds can be used as molecular markers for diesel engine emissions. PCA of trace metal concentrations showed that Zn, Cu, and Ba can be attributed to direct vehicle emissions. However, emission index

  18. Air quality modelling : effects of emission reductions on concentrations of particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, L.; Roustan, Y.; Seigneur, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has adverse effects on human health. PM acts primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular (due to their small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs), but they are also known effects on the skin. In France, the "Particulate Plan" - developed as part of the second National Environmental Health Plan - aims to reduce by 30% fine PM (noted PM2.5because these particles have an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) by 2015. A recent study by Airparif (the organization in charge of monitoring air quality in the Paris region, the Île-de-France) and LSCE (Laboratory of climate and the environmental science, France) has allowed, through a large measurement campaign conducted between 2009 and 2011, to quantify the proportion of PM produced in Île-de-France and those transported from the surrounding areas. The study by numerical modelling of air pollution presented here complements these results by investigating future emission scenarios. The CEREA develops and uses an air quality model which simulates the concentrations of pollutants from an emission inventory, meteorological data and boundary conditions of the area studied. After an evaluation of simulation results for the year 2005, the model is used to assess the effects of various scenarios of reductions in NOx and NH3 emissions on the concentrations of PM2.5in Île-de-France. The effects of the controls on the local pollution and the long-range pollution are considered separately. For each emitted species, three scenarios of emission reductions are identified: an emission reduction at the local level (Île-de-France), a reduction at the regional scale (France) and a reduction at the continental scale (across Europe). In each case, a 15% reduction is applied. The comparison of the results allows us to assess the respective contributions of local emissions and long-range transport to PM2.5 concentrations. For instance, the reduction of NOx emissions in Europe leads to a

  19. Reduction of particulate matter emissions from diesel backup generators equipped with four different exhaust aftertreatment devices.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sandip D; Cocker, David R; Johnson, Kent C; Lee, John M; Soriano, Bonnie L; Miller, J Wayne

    2007-07-15

    Diesel particulate matter (PM) reduction efficiencies for backup generators (BUGs) (> 300 kW) equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), DOC+fuel-borne catalyst additive combination (DOC+FBC), passive diesel particulate filter (DPF), and an active DPF were measured. Overall, the DOC and DOC+FBC technologies were found to be effective in reducing mainly organic carbon (OC) emissions (56-77%) while both DPFs showed excellent performance in reducing both elemental carbon (EC) and OC emissions (> 90%). These findings demonstrate the potential for applying DOCs to older engines where PM is dominated by the OC fraction. In most modern engine applications, where the PM consists of mainly EC, the DOC will be largely ineffective. Alternatively, passive and active DPFs are expected to be efficient for most engine technologies. Measurements of particle size distributions provided evidence of the high temperature formation of sulfate nanoparticles across the control technologies despite the use of ultralow sulfur diesel. Changes in the particle size distribution and the organic fraction of PM indicate that the OC component of PM is primarily found in the smaller sized particles.

  20. Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter and NO(x) emissions using 4-way catalyzed filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jacob J; Watts, Winthrop F; Newman, Robert A; Ziebarth, Robin R; Kittelson, David B

    2013-05-01

    The next generation of diesel emission control devices includes 4-way catalyzed filtration systems (4WCFS) consisting of both NOx and diesel particulate matter (DPM) control. A methodology was developed to simultaneously evaluate the NOx and DPM control performance of miniature 4WCFS made from acicular mullite, an advanced ceramic material (ACM), that were challenged with diesel exhaust. The impact of catalyst loading and substrate porosity on catalytic performance of the NOx trap was evaluated. Simultaneously with NOx measurements, the real-time solid particle filtration performance of catalyst-coated standard and high porosity filters was determined for steady-state and regenerative conditions. The use of high porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 99% and solid and total particulate matter by 95% when averaged over 10 regeneration cycles. A "regeneration cycle" refers to an oxidizing ("lean") exhaust condition followed by a reducing ("rich") exhaust condition resulting in NOx storage and NOx reduction (i.e., trap "regeneration"), respectively. Standard porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 60-75% and exhibited 99.9% filtration efficiency. The rich/lean cycling used to regenerate the filter had almost no impact on solid particle filtration efficiency but impacted NOx control. Cycling resulted in the formation of very low concentrations of semivolatile nucleation mode particles for some 4WCFS formulations. Overall, 4WCFS show promise for significantly reducing diesel emissions into the atmosphere in a single control device.

  1. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lou, Diming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Matthias, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh-1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh-1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg-1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg-1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg-1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was

  2. Climate-relevant properties of primary particulate emissions from oil and natural gas combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Tami C.; Wehner, Birgit; Plewka, Antje; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Heintzenberg, Jost; Charlson, Robert J.

    We report emissions of mass, light absorption, particle number, chemical composition and size-resolved organic species from an industrial boiler that burned natural gas and residual oil. Organic compounds detected from oil combustion are mainly alkanes; it is not a major source of identifiable polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) make up approximately 38% and 15% of the particles from oil burning, respectively. Mass emissions from natural gas were below detection limits. A number peak of ultrafine aerosol (diameters lower than 10 nm) was always associated with oil burning. Burning at full power produced the greatest number of particles in the accumulation mode. Natural gas also produced fine particles, but at a much lower rate. The emission rate of light-absorbing particles from this relatively new boiler is lower than that in current emission inventories. However, real-time measurements show a large contribution to emitted light absorption from boiler warm-up and transients, even those with very short durations. The measured absorption is best explained with a constant absorption cross-section for EC, rather than predictions based on size distribution or mixed aerosol; this finding is consistent with EC in fractal-aggregate form. We compare the emissions with those of a lignite stoker, which this boiler replaced during environmental cleanup in the mid-1990s. Emissions of mass, light absorption and particles are lowest from natural gas, but the oil boiler is also a substantial improvement: emissions of particulate matter are 100 times lower, and emitted absorption is three times lower. However, the oil-burning emissions have a greater net warming effect per mass than those of the lignite plant.

  3. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, Michael D; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lee, Doh-Won; Huff, Shean P; Storey, John Morse; Swartz, Matthew M; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  4. Characterization of particulate matter and gaseous emissions of a C-130H aircraft.

    PubMed

    Corporan, Edwin; Quick, Adam; DeWitt, Matthew J

    2008-04-01

    The gaseous and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) emissions of two T56-A-15 turboprop engines of a C-130H aircraft stationed at the 123rd Airlift Wing in the Kentucky Air National Guard were characterized. The emissions campaign supports the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project WP-1401 to determine emissions factors from military aircraft. The purpose of the project is to develop a comprehensive emissions measurement program using both conventional and advanced techniques to determine emissions factors of pollutants, and to investigate the spatial and temporal evolutions of the exhaust plumes from fixed and rotating wing military aircraft. Standard practices for the measurement of gaseous emissions from aircraft have been well established; however, there is no certified methodology for the measurement of aircraft PM emissions. In this study, several conventional instruments were used to physically characterize and quantify the PM emissions from the two turboprop engines. Emissions samples were extracted from the engine exit plane and transported to the analytical instrumentation via heated lines. Multiple sampling probes were used to assess the spatial variation and obtain a representative average of the engine emissions. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and mass emissions were measured using commercially available aerosol instruments. Engine smoke numbers were determined using established Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) practices, and gaseous species were quantified via a Fourier-transform infrared-based gas analyzer. The engines were tested at five power settings, from idle to take-off power, to cover a wide range of operating conditions. Average corrected particle numbers (PNs) of (6.4-14.3) x 10(7) particles per cm3 and PN emission indices (EI) from 3.5 x 10(15) to 10.0 x 10(15) particles per kg-fuel were observed. The highest PN EI were observed for the idle power conditions. The mean particle diameter

  5. Organic particulate emissions from field burning of garden and agriculture residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Monteiro, Cristina; Pio, Casimiro; Tomé, Mário

    2011-08-01

    To assess the particulate matter (PM) composition, the smoke from three different agriculture and garden residues, commonly subjected to open field burning in Northern Portugal (potato haulm (A), arable weed vegetation (B) and collard greens stalks/pruned green leafy-twigs (C)) have been sampled into 3 different size fractions (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 ). To replicate another frequent practise of reducing or dispose agriculture/garden debris, residue C was complementarily burned in a metal container with addition of used lubricant oil. The size-segregated aerosol samples were analysed for elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon by a thermal-optical transmission technique. The organosoluble OC was fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Burning of residue C produced the highest PM emissions. OC was the dominant carbonaceous component in all aerosol samples, contributing to about 98% of total carbon (TC). The detailed chemical profiles of particulate emissions, including organic tracer compounds, have been assessed. The contribution of phenolics (0.2-39% OC, w/w) and organic acids (1.5-13% OC, w/w) to OC was always predominant over other organic compounds, whose distribution patterns were found to vary from one residue to another. The polyphenols, as the guaiacyl derivatives, were particularly abundant in PM from the residue C burning, but anthropogenic constituents completely superimposed the emission profiles after addition of used lubricant oil. It was shown that the prevailing ambient conditions (such as high humidity) likely contributed to atmospheric processes (e.g. coagulation and hygroscopic growth), which influenced the particle size characteristics of the smoke tracers, shifting their distribution to larger diameters. Since it was shown that the relative contribution of different carbon forms and organic compounds may strongly depend on the size of the particulate matter, the barely

  6. Particulate emissions from U.S. Department of Defense artillery backblast testing.

    PubMed

    Gillies, John A; Kuhns, Hampden; Engelbrecht, Johann P; Uppapalli, Sebastian; Etyemezian, Vicken; Nikolich, George

    2007-05-01

    There is a dearth of information on dust emissions from sources that are unique to the U.S. Department of Defense testing and training activities. However, accurate emissions factors are needed for these sources so that military installations can prepare accurate particulate matter (PM) emission inventories. One such source, coarse and fine PM (PM10 and PM2.5) emissions from artillery backblast testing on improved gun positions, was characterized at the Yuma Proving Ground near Yuma, AZ, in October 2005. Fugitive emissions are created by the shockwave from artillery pieces, which ejects dust from the surface on which the artillery is resting. Other contributions of PM can be attributed to the combustion of the propellants. For a 155-mm howitzer firing a range of propellant charges or zones, amounts of emitted PM10 ranged from -19 g of PM10 per firing event for a zone 1 charge to 92 g of PM10 per firing event for a zone 5. The corresponding rates for PM2.5 were approximately 9 g of PM2.5 and 49 g of PM2.5 per firing. The average measured emission rates for PM1o and PM2.5 appear to scale with the zone charge value. The measurements show that the estimated annual contributions of PM10 (52.2 t) and PM2.5 (28.5 t) from artillery backblast are insignificant in the context of the 2002 U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) PM emission inventory. Using national-level activity data for artillery fire, the most conservative estimate is that backblast would contribute the equivalent of 5 x 10(-4) % and 1.6 x 10(-3)% of the annual total PM10 and PM2.5 fugitive dust contributions, respectively, based on 2002 EPA inventory data.

  7. Black carbon particulate matter emission factors for buoyancy-driven associated gas flares.

    PubMed

    McEwen, James D N; Johnson, Matthew R

    2012-03-01

    Flaring is a technique used extensively in the oil and gas industry to burn unwanted flammable gases. Oxidation of the gas can preclude emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas); however, flaring creates other pollutant emissions such as particulate matter (PM) in the form of soot or black carbon (BC). Currently available PM emissionfactors for flares were reviewed and found to be questionably accurate, or based on measurements not directly relevant to open-atmosphere flares. In addition, most previous studies of soot emissions from turbulent diffusion flames considered alkene or alkyne based gaseous fuels, and few considered mixed fuels in detail and/or lower sooting propensity fuels such as methane, which is the predominant constituent of gas flared in the upstream oil and gas industry. Quantitative emission measurements were performed on laboratory-scale flares for a range of burner diameters, exit velocities, and fuel compositions. Drawing from established standards, a sampling protocol was developed that employed both gravimetric analysis of filter samples and real-time measurements of soot volume fraction using a laser-induced incandescence (LII) system. For the full range of conditions tested (burner inner diameter [ID] of 12.7-76.2 mm, exit velocity 0.1-2.2 m/sec, 4- and 6-component methane-based fuel mixtures representative of associated gas in the upstream oil industry), measured soot emission factors were less than 0.84 kg soot/10(3) m3 fuel. A simple empirical relationship is presented to estimate the PM emission factor as a function of the fuel heating value for a range of conditions, which, although still limited, is an improvement over currently available emission factors. PMID:22482289

  8. Emission rates of particulate matter and elemental and organic carbon from in-use diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sandip D; Cocker, David R; Miller, J Wayne; Norbeck, Joseph M

    2004-05-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) emission rates are reported for a number of heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs) and back-up generators (BUGs) operating under real-world conditions. Emission rates were determined using a unique mobile emissions laboratory (MEL) equipped with a total capture full-scale dilution tunnel connected directly to the diesel engine via a snorkel. This paper shows that PM, EC, and OC emission rates are strongly dependent on the mode of vehicle operation; highway, arterial, congested, and idling conditions were simulated by following the speed trace from the California Air Resources Board HHDDT cycle. Emission rates for BUGs are reported as a function of engine load at constant speed using the ISO 8178B Cycle D2. The EC, OC, and PM emission rates were determined to be highly variable for the HHDDTs. It was determined that the per mile emission rate of OC from a HHDDT in congested traffic is 8.1 times higher than that of an HHDDT in cruise or highway speed conditions and 1.9 times higher for EC. EC/OC ratios for BUGs (which generally operate at steady states) and HHDDTs show marked differences, indicating that the transient nature of engine operation dictates the EC/OC ratio. Overall, this research shows that the EC/OC ratio varies widely for diesel engines in trucks and BUGs and depends strongly on the operating cycle. The findings reported here have significant implications in the application of chemical mass balance modeling, diesel risk assessment, and control strategies such as the Diesel Risk Reduction Program. PMID:15180049

  9. Particulate and gaseous emissions from manually and automatically fired small scale combustion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidl, Christoph; Luisser, Markus; Padouvas, Emmanuel; Lasselsberger, Leopold; Rzaca, Magdalena; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Handler, Markus; Peng, Ge; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2011-12-01

    In an extensive wood combustion source test series 2 automatically and 2 manually fired appliances, and 8 fuel types were investigated with respect to their particulate (PM10) and gaseous emissions. Softwood briquettes, beech, oak and spruce logs, wood pellets as well as further biogenic fuels: wood chips, miscanthus (elephant grass) pellets and triticale ("energy crop") pellets were tested. Gaseous emissions were measured continuously while PM10 was sampled with a dilution system and averaged over standard test cycles. Manually fired stoves exhibited highly variable emissions resulting in an uncertainty of 30% for most measured compounds, determined in a series of replicate experiments. Average PM10 emissions from manually fired appliances were around 130 mg m -3 (standard conditions for temperature and pressure (STP), 13%O 2, dry gas), equivalent to 90 mg MJ -1. Wood pellets and chips combustion under full load operation with automatically fired appliances emit almost one order of magnitude less PM10, respectively: 12-21 mg m -3 (STP, 13%O 2, dry gas), or 8-14 mg MJ -1. Around 30% of total particle mass from manually fired systems account for elemental carbon and 30-40% for organic carbon, resulting in carbonaceous fraction content of around 90%. On average around 5% of PM10 emitted by manually fired stoves consisted of levoglucosan while this anhydrous sugar was below detection limit in full- and part load operation of automatically fired systems. Generally, emissions from automated systems were relatively constant for the same fuel type predominantly consisting of inorganic constituents. Emissions are mainly influenced by the mode of operation, start-up, full load or part load for a given fuel type. Surprisingly high emissions were observed for triticale pellets: 184 mg m -3 (125 mg MJ -1,) PM10 and 466 mg m -3 (395 mg MJ -1) NO x, (under full load operation, STP, 13%O 2, dry gas), originating from high chlorine and nitrogen contents of the fuel.

  10. An optimization study on the control of NOx and particulate emissions from diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, C.; Oey, F.; Levendis, Y.A.

    1996-09-01

    This is an optimization study on the use of filtered exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the NO emissions of diesel engines. Control of the particulate emissions and provisions for filtered EGR were achieved by an Aerodynamically Regenerated Trap (ART) with collection efficiencies in the order of 99%. The amount of EGR was regulated to provide for substantial NO reduction, without unacceptably decreasing the thermal efficiency of the engine or increasing the CO emissions. EGR regulation was accomplished by monitoring the injection pump setting which was correlated to the fuel flow rate, the speed of the engine, the amount of EGR flow, and the ambient air temperature. Through these parameters, the mixture strength expressed as the equivalence ratio {phi} was calculated and related to the power output of the engine. Thus, a map of engine performance parameters was generated and related to measured NO and CO emissions. A series of road tests showed that EGR most effectively reduces NO emissions at high {phi}`s (by a factor of two at 20% EGR) which, however, is accompanied by an increase in CO emissions by a factor of two, and a penalty in fuel economy by 8%. Benefits and losses can be optimized by automatically varying the level of EGR, using feedback from the aforementioned engine parameters. An algorithm was developed to govern the electrically controlled EGR valve and tests showed that the NO levels decreased by 30%, while the CO increased by 30%, showing no penalty in fuel economy. The resulting specific NO and CO emissions were well within the current US EPA standards.

  11. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  12. Real-Time Characterization of Particle and Gas Phase Diesel Emissions - Understanding the Influence of a Diesel Particulate Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Sappok, A.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E.; Jayne, J.; Wong, V.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Diesel engine emissions constitute an important source of particulate black carbon (BC) and gas phase organics in the atmosphere. Particles composed of black carbon absorb incoming solar radiation having a net positive radiative forcing effect on the climate. Black carbon also has major air quality implications as BC particles from combustion sources are often coated with poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and are generally emitted in higher concentrations close to population centers. Regulations of diesel emissions target the mass of particulate matter (PM) and concentration of volatile gas phase organic compounds (VOC) produced. A third, potentially important component of diesel exhaust, is low volatility organic compounds (LVOC). Both the VOCs and LVOCs can lead to the formation of ultrafine particles (via homogeneous nucleation) and secondary organic aerosols (via oxidation). Recent development of mass spectrometric techniques to measure particulate black carbon and gas phase organics provide the opportunity to quantify and chemically characterize diesel emissions in real-time. Measurements of both the particulate and gas phase emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine will be presented. The experimental apparatus includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) integrated in the exhaust line, which is a requirement for all 2007 and newer on-road diesel engines in the U.S. Measurements taken over the regeneration cycle of the DPF provide insight into how this after-treatment technology influences the gas phase and particle phase composition of the emissions. Gas phase measurements were made with a newly developed Total Gas-Phase Organic (TGO) instrument. Particulate species were characterized with a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS). The combined utility of the TGO and SP-AMS instruments for emissions characterization studies will be demonstrated.

  13. Analysis of particulate emissions from tropical biomass burning using a global aerosol model and long-term surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddington, Carly L.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Artaxo, Paulo; Ridley, David A.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Arana, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    We use the GLOMAP global aerosol model evaluated against observations of surface particulate matter (PM2.5) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) to better understand the impacts of biomass burning on tropical aerosol over the period 2003 to 2011. Previous studies report a large underestimation of AOD over regions impacted by tropical biomass burning, scaling particulate emissions from fire by up to a factor of 6 to enable the models to simulate observed AOD. To explore the uncertainty in emissions we use three satellite-derived fire emission datasets (GFED3, GFAS1 and FINN1). In these datasets the tropics account for 66-84 % of global particulate emissions from fire. With all emission datasets GLOMAP underestimates dry season PM2.5 concentrations in regions of high fire activity in South America and underestimates AOD over South America, Africa and Southeast Asia. When we assume an upper estimate of aerosol hygroscopicity, underestimation of AOD over tropical regions impacted by biomass burning is reduced relative to previous studies. Where coincident observations of surface PM2.5 and AOD are available we find a greater model underestimation of AOD than PM2.5, even when we assume an upper estimate of aerosol hygroscopicity. Increasing particulate emissions to improve simulation of AOD can therefore lead to overestimation of surface PM2.5 concentrations. We find that scaling FINN1 emissions by a factor of 1.5 prevents underestimation of AOD and surface PM2.5 in most tropical locations except Africa. GFAS1 requires emission scaling factor of 3.4 in most locations with the exception of equatorial Asia where a scaling factor of 1.5 is adequate. Scaling GFED3 emissions by a factor of 1.5 is sufficient in active deforestation regions of South America and equatorial Asia, but a larger scaling factor is required elsewhere. The model with GFED3 emissions poorly simulates observed seasonal variability in surface PM2.5 and AOD in regions where small fires dominate, providing

  14. In-use gaseous and particulate matter emissions from a modern ocean going container vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Harshit; Malloy, Quentin G. J.; Welch, William A.; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    Ocean going vessels are one of the largest uncontrolled sources of pollutants and the emissions data from these sources are scarce. This paper provides the emission measurements of gases, particulate matter (PM), metals, ions, elemental and organic carbon, conducted from the main engine of an ocean going PanaMax class container vessel, at certification cycle and at vessel speed reduction mode, during actual operation at sea. The weighted emission factor (g kW -1 h -1) of PM and NO x were 1.64 and 18.2, respectively, for the main engine operating on a 2.05 wt% sulfur heavy fuel oil (HFO). The NO x emissions at the vessel speed reduction mode (8% of full load) are 30% higher than at 52% engine power, the normal cruise speed. The composition of PM, from main engine is dominated by sulfate and water bound with sulfate (about 80% of total PM) and organic carbon constitutes about 15% of the PM. Sulfur, vanadium and nickel are the significant elements in the exhaust from the engine running on the HFO. At the point of sampling 3.7-5.0% of the fuel sulfur was converted to sulfate.

  15. MECHANISTIC STUDIES AND DESIGN OF HIGHLY ACTIVE CUPRATE CATALYSTS FOR THE DIRECT DECOMPOSITION AND SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE AND HYDROCARBONS TO NITROGEN FOR ABATEMENT OF STACK EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-30

    A flow trough type catalytic reactor system was adequately modified for NO related catalytic and adsorption measurements, including the on-line connection of a digital chemiluminescent NO-NO{sub x} analyzer to the reactor outlet system. Moreover, we have largely completed the installation of an FTIR coupled catalytic system containing a HTEC cell for high temperature DRIFT studies. Three different barium cuprate samples, Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 3}, BaCuO{sub 2}, and Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 5} were synthesized and characterized by powder XRD for catalytic tests. Prior to catalytic studies over these cuprates, a new, liquid indium based supported molten metal catalyst (In-SMMC) was tested in the reduction of NO by various reductants. In the presence of excess O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, the In-SMMC proved to be more active for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO to N{sub 2} by ethanol than most other catalysts. Using C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols as reductants, self sustained periodic oscillations observed in the NO{sub x} concentrations of reactor effluents indicated the first time that radical intermediates can be involved in the SCR of NO by alcohols. Further, In-SMMC is the only effective and water tolerant SCR catalyst reported thus far which contains SiO{sub 2} support. Thus, this novel catalyst opens up a promising new alternative for developing an effective and durable catalyst for NO{sub x} abatement in stack emission.

  16. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  17. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C). PMID:24758145

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; May, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Lipsky, E. M.; Donahue, N. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    The effects of photochemical aging on emissions from 15 light-duty gasoline vehicles were investigated using a smog chamber to probe the critical link between the tailpipe and ambient atmosphere. The vehicles were recruited from the California in-use fleet; they represent a wide range of model years (1987 to 2011), vehicle types and emission control technologies. Each vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer using the unified cycle. Dilute emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and then photochemically aged under urban-like conditions. For every vehicle, substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurred during cold-start tests, with the emissions from some vehicles generating as much as 6 times the amount of SOA as primary particulate matter (PM) after 3 h of oxidation inside the chamber at typical atmospheric oxidant levels (and 5 times the amount of SOA as primary PM after 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h of OH exposure). Therefore, the contribution of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhaust to ambient PM levels is likely dominated by secondary PM production (SOA and nitrate). Emissions from hot-start tests formed about a factor of 3-7 less SOA than cold-start tests. Therefore, catalyst warm-up appears to be an important factor in controlling SOA precursor emissions. The mass of SOA generated by photooxidizing exhaust from newer (LEV2) vehicles was a factor of 3 lower than that formed from exhaust emitted by older (pre-LEV) vehicles, despite much larger reductions (a factor of 11-15) in nonmethane organic gas emissions. These data suggest that a complex and nonlinear relationship exists between organic gas emissions and SOA formation, which is not surprising since SOA precursors are only one component of the exhaust. Except for the oldest (pre-LEV) vehicles, the SOA production could not be fully explained by the measured oxidation of speciated (traditional) SOA precursors. Over the timescale of these experiments, the mixture of organic vapors

  19. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  20. Physical properties of particulate matter from animal houses-empirical studies to improve emission modelling.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ehab; Nannen, Christoph; Henseler, Jessica; Diekmann, Bernd; Gates, Richard; Buescher, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining and preserving the environment from pollutants are of utmost importance. Particulate matter (PM) is considered one of the main air pollutants. In addition to the harmful effects of PM in the environment, it has also a negative indoor impact on human and animal health. The specific forms of damage of particulate emission from livestock buildings depend on its physical properties. The physical properties of particulates from livestock facilities are largely unknown. Most studies assume the livestock particles to be spherical with a constant density which can result in biased estimations, leading to inaccurate results and errors in the calculation of particle mass concentration in livestock buildings. The physical properties of PM, including difference in density as a function of particle size and shape, can have a significant impact on the predictions of particles' behaviour. The aim of this research was to characterize the physical properties of PM from different animal houses and consequently determine PM mass concentration. The mean densities of collected PM from laying hens, dairy cows and pig barns were 1450, 1520 and 2030 kg m(-3), respectively, whilst the mass factors were 2.17 × 10(-3), 2.18 × 10(-3) and 5.36 × 10(-3) μm, respectively. The highest mass concentration was observed in pig barns generally followed by laying hen barns, and the lowest concentration was in dairy cow buildings. Results are presented in such a way that they can be used in subsequent research for simulation purposes and to form the basis for a data set of PM physical properties. PMID:26976010

  1. Physical properties of particulate matter from animal houses-empirical studies to improve emission modelling.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ehab; Nannen, Christoph; Henseler, Jessica; Diekmann, Bernd; Gates, Richard; Buescher, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining and preserving the environment from pollutants are of utmost importance. Particulate matter (PM) is considered one of the main air pollutants. In addition to the harmful effects of PM in the environment, it has also a negative indoor impact on human and animal health. The specific forms of damage of particulate emission from livestock buildings depend on its physical properties. The physical properties of particulates from livestock facilities are largely unknown. Most studies assume the livestock particles to be spherical with a constant density which can result in biased estimations, leading to inaccurate results and errors in the calculation of particle mass concentration in livestock buildings. The physical properties of PM, including difference in density as a function of particle size and shape, can have a significant impact on the predictions of particles' behaviour. The aim of this research was to characterize the physical properties of PM from different animal houses and consequently determine PM mass concentration. The mean densities of collected PM from laying hens, dairy cows and pig barns were 1450, 1520 and 2030 kg m(-3), respectively, whilst the mass factors were 2.17 × 10(-3), 2.18 × 10(-3) and 5.36 × 10(-3) μm, respectively. The highest mass concentration was observed in pig barns generally followed by laying hen barns, and the lowest concentration was in dairy cow buildings. Results are presented in such a way that they can be used in subsequent research for simulation purposes and to form the basis for a data set of PM physical properties.

  2. Modeling Particulate Matter Plumes from 2007 California Wildland Fires Using a Coupled Emissions-Transport System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziol, B. W.; Owen, R. C.; Erickson, T. A.; French, N. H.

    2010-12-01

    Transport of particulate matter (PM) emissions from 2007 wildland fires in San Diego County were modeled using the HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model). Fire PM sources (2.5 and 10) were estimated using a statistical, empirically-based fuel consumption and emission model (CONSUME) parameterized using weather data and fuel loadings from the Fuel Characteristics Classification System (FCCS). Using vectorized temporal burn perimeters derived from geostatistical interpolation of fire progression remote sensing images and local physiographic indicators, CONSUME emissions outputs were generated for the daily burned area and entered into HYSPLIT for the transport component. Total daily PM fire emissions were equally distributed over a 24-hour time period. Emissions are then transported in the model for three days. This poster describes the modeling system and reports on calibration and validation methods as well as results for the 2007 PM concentration time series. We evaluate the effectiveness of HYSPLIT’s fully 3-D particle plume scheme and its combined Gaussian-horizontal puff and vertical particle plume scheme. The primary source of calibration data are atmospheric monitoring stations located in the San Diego region. Also detailed are effects of fuel model spatial resolution (30-meter and 1-kilometer fuel beds modeled as separate CONSUME/HYSPLIT scenarios) and influential CONSUME parameters on modeled HYSPLIT concentrations at receptor locations. In addition, potential methods to identify the PM “signal” associated with fire v. anthropogenic emissions are discussed. These methods involve time series comparisons of modeled and in situ PM data in association with HYSPLIT-modeled anthropogenic PM source inventories. PM concentrations estimates from this coupled transport system will be used in a larger project assessing acute respiratory health impacts of fire-emitted pollutants in San Diego County.

  3. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion in Europe - revised estimates and an evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Bergström, R.; Fountoukis, C.; Johansson, C.; Pandis, S. N.; Simpson, D.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.

    2015-06-01

    Currently residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because of rising fossil fuel prices but also due to climate change mitigation policies. However, especially in small-scale applications, RWC may cause high emissions of particulate matter (PM). Recently we have developed a new high-resolution (7 × 7 km) anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory for Europe. The inventory indicated that about half of the total PM2.5 emission in Europe is carbonaceous aerosol and identified RWC as the largest organic aerosol source in Europe. The inventory was partly based on national reported PM emissions. Use of this organic aerosol inventory as input for two chemical transport models (CTMs), PMCAMx and EMEP MSC-W, revealed major underestimations of organic aerosol in winter time, especially for regions dominated by RWC. Interestingly, this was not universal but appeared to differ by country. In the present study we constructed a revised bottom-up emission inventory for RWC accounting for the semivolatile components of the emissions. The revised RWC emissions are higher than those in the previous inventory by a factor of 2-3 but with substantial inter-country variation. The new emission inventory served as input for the CTMs and a substantially improved agreement between measured and predicted organic aerosol was found. The revised RWC inventory improves the model-calculated organic aerosol significantly. Comparisons to Scandinavian source apportionment studies also indicate substantial improvements in the modelled wood-burning component of organic aerosol. This suggests that primary organic aerosol emission inventories need to be revised to include the semivolatile organic aerosol that is formed almost instantaneously due to dilution and cooling of the flue gas or exhaust. Since RWC is a key source of fine PM in Europe, a major revision of the emission estimates as proposed here is likely to influence source-receptor matrices and modelled source

  4. The Level of Particulate Matter on Foliage Depends on the Distance from the Source of Emission.

    PubMed

    Popek, Robert; Gawrońska, Helena; Gawroński, Stanislaw W

    2015-01-01

    One of the most dangerous inhaled pollutants is particulate matter (PM). PM in inhaled air have a negative impact on human wellbeing and health, and may even cause deaths. Where pollutants have been emitted into the outdoor atmosphere, the only possible method for cleaning the air is through phytoremediation, a form of environmental biotechnology, where plants act as biological filters for pollutants. This study compared PM levels on the leaves of Tilia cordata Mill. trees growing in locations at increasing distances from the source of the PM emission. Significant differences between individual trees growing at a distance of between 3 m and 500 m from the road edge were found in: (i) the mass of PM that accumulated on leaves (total, surface, in-wax and the three determined size fractions) and (ii) the amount of waxes deposited on leaves.

  5. CRADA final report for CRADA number Y1294-0296: Optical particulate emission monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C. Jr.; Bernacki, E.; Nuspliger, R.J.

    1995-10-15

    The Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology (ORCMT) and Environmental Systems Corporation (ESC) have collaborated on an effort to develop the optical system for an enhanced particulate emission monitor. The purpose of this effort was to assist a small East Tennessee company in perfecting an instrument that would meet or exceed the performance of competing foreign instruments and provide measurement capabilities necessary to assure compliance of Department of Energy facilities and other industrial facilities with expected EPA regulations. The two parties collaborated on design, assembly, and bench testing of the prototype instrument. The prototype system was targeted to have the capability for measuring micron size particles in concentrations as low as 10 micrograms per cubic meter and to have the added benefit of improving sampling statistics (i.e. measurements will be made over larger regions of the stack) over current instruments. Project deliverables were a prototype optical system and characterization data.

  6. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil Carbon to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W; Rich, D; Cheng, A S

    2003-01-31

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) at 1600 rpm) used 100% biodiesel fuel (8100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C mg C. The {sup 14}C concentration of the exhaust CO{sub 2} and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in {sup 14}C content in the CO, and PM are due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions.

  7. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A S; Rich, D; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A

    2002-12-06

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) 1600 m) used 100% biodiesel fuel (B100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C/ mg C. The C concentration of the exhaust C02 and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in I4C content in the PM is due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions. The slight depression in CO{sub 2} isotope content could be attributed to ambient CO{sub 2} levels and measurement uncertainty.

  8. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Particulate Emissions on Major Highways in Southern California: Lagrangian Approach Using Mobile Monitoring System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Grady, M.; Pham, L.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010 CARB reported 9,000 people in California die prematurely each year as a result of exposure to particulate emissions. Public's exposure to particulate emissions is known to be highest on highway during daily commute. Total particle concentrations vary temporarily and spatially due to many reasons including particle nucleation, traffic, and meteorological conditions. The stationary ambient monitoring sites are too sparsely located to measure these variations on highway. Also, emissions from highways can be included in the emission inventory which can improve modeler capability to predict at much finer scale. Emissions from highways are vary temporally and spatially. This study used a mobile platform to measure total particle number, total particle surface area and average particle diameter in Lagrangian approach. The study will report occurrence and frequency of hot spots for particle nucleation on highway and temporal/ spatial variations of particle concentrations on highway. This will enable better assessment of public's exposure to particulate emissions on highway by transportation and propose a methodology how to obtain emission inventory for major highways.

  9. Evaluation of methods for measuring particulate matter emissions from gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Andreas; Marsh, Richard; Johnson, Mark; Miller, Michael; Sevcenco, Yura; Delhaye, David; Ibrahim, Amir; Williams, Paul; Bauer, Heidi; Crayford, Andrew; Bachalo, William D; Raper, David

    2011-04-15

    The project SAMPLE evaluated methods for measuring particle properties in the exhaust of aircraft engines with respect to the development of standardized operation procedures for particulate matter measurement in aviation industry. Filter-based off-line mass methods included gravimetry and chemical analysis of carbonaceous species by combustion methods. Online mass methods were based on light absorption measurement or used size distribution measurements obtained from an electrical mobility analyzer approach. Number concentrations were determined using different condensation particle counters (CPC). Total mass from filter-based methods balanced gravimetric mass within 8% error. Carbonaceous matter accounted for 70% of gravimetric mass while the remaining 30% were attributed to hydrated sulfate and noncarbonaceous organic matter fractions. Online methods were closely correlated over the entire range of emission levels studied in the tests. Elemental carbon from combustion methods and black carbon from optical methods deviated by maximum 5% with respect to mass for low to medium emission levels, whereas for high emission levels a systematic deviation between online methods and filter based methods was found which is attributed to sampling effects. CPC based instruments proved highly reproducible for number concentration measurements with a maximum interinstrument standard deviation of 7.5%.

  10. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability, and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions in mass of 86% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (66%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. At 7% power, this corresponds to a reduction from 7.6 mg kg-1 for JP-8 to 1.2 mg kg-1 for the natural gas FT fuel. At full power, soot emissions were reduced from 103 to 24 mg kg-1 (JP-8 and natural gas FT, respectively). The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g., at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the natural gas FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the

  11. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

  12. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process.

  13. Quality-assured measurements of animal building emissions: particulate matter concentrations.

    PubMed

    Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Ni, Ji-Qin; Tao, Pei-Chun; Schmidt, Amy M; Koziel, Jacek A; Hoff, Steven J; Jacobson, Larry D; Zhang, Yuanhui; Baughman, Gerald B

    2006-12-01

    Federally funded, multistate field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP), ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and odor from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States. This paper describes the use of a continuous PM analyzer based on the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). In these studies, the TEOM was used to measure PM emissions at identical locations in paired barns. Measuring PM concentrations in swine and poultry barns, compared with measuring PM in ambient air, required more frequent maintenance of the TEOM. External screens were used to prevent rapid plugging of the insect screen in the PM10 preseparator inlet. Minute means of mass concentrations exhibited a sinusoidal pattern that followed the variation of relative humidity, indicating that mass concentration measurements were affected by water vapor condensation onto and evaporation of moisture from the TEOM filter. Filter loading increased the humidity effect, most likely because of increased water vapor adsorption capacity of added PM. In a single layer barn study, collocated TEOMs, equipped with TSP and PM10 inlets, corresponded well when placed near the inlets of exhaust fans in a layer barn. Initial data showed that average daily mean concentrations of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations at a layer barn were 1440 +/- 182 microg/m3 (n = 2), 553 +/- 79 microg/m3 (n = 4), and 33 +/- 75 microg/m3 (n = 1), respectively. The daily mean TSP concentration (n = 1) of a swine barn sprinkled with soybean oil was 67% lower than an untreated swine barn, which had a daily mean TSP concentration of 1143 +/- 619 microg/m3. The daily mean ambient TSP concentration (n = 1) near the swine barns was 25 +/- 8 microg/m3. Concentrations of PM inside the swine barns were correlated to pig activity. PMID:17195483

  14. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.210-08 Section 86.210-08 Protection... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle...

  15. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.210-08 Section 86.210-08 Protection... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle...

  16. USERS GUIDE FOR THE CONVERSION OF NAVY PAINT SPRAY BOOTH PARTICULATE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS FROM WET TO DRY OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a guide or convrting U.S. Navy paint spray booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air pollution control of paint spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid waste pol-lution from industria...

  17. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  18. Size and composition distributions of particulate matter emissions: part 2--heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Robert, Michael A; Kleeman, Michael J; Jakober, Christopher A

    2007-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) were collected using a chassis dynamometer/dilution sampling system that employed filter-based samplers, cascade impactors, and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements. Four diesel vehicles with different engine and emission control technologies were tested using the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) 5 mode driving cycle. Vehicles were tested using a simulated inertial weight of either 56,000 or 66,000 lb. Exhaust particles were then analyzed for total carbon, elemental carbon (EC), organic matter (OM), and water-soluble ions. HDDV fine (< or =1.8 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM1.8) and ultrafine (0.056-0.1 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM0.1) PM emission rates ranged from 181-581 mg/km and 25-72 mg/km, respectively, with the highest emission rates in both size fractions associated with the oldest vehicle tested. Older diesel vehicles produced fine and ultrafine exhaust particles with higher EC/OM ratios than newer vehicles. Transient modes produced very high EC/OM ratios whereas idle and creep modes produced very low EC/OM ratios. Calcium was the most abundant water-soluble ion with smaller amounts of magnesium, sodium, ammonium ion, and sulfate also detected. Particle mass distributions emitted during the full 5-mode HDDV tests peaked between 100-180 nm and their shapes were not a function of vehicle age. In contrast, particle mass distributions emitted during the idle and creep driving modes from the newest diesel vehicle had a peak diameter of approximately 70 nm, whereas mass distributions emitted from older vehicles had a peak diameter larger than 100 nm for both the idle and creep modes. Increasing inertial loads reduced the OM emissions, causing the residual EC emissions to shift to smaller sizes. The same HDDV tested at 56,000 and 66,000 lb had higher PM0.1 EC emissions (+22%) and lower PM0.1 OM emissions (-38%) at the higher load

  19. Fuel-based fine particulate and black carbon emission factors from a railyard area in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Mike; Russell, Armistead

    2013-06-01

    Railyards have the potential to influence localfine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm; PM2.5) concentrations through emissions from diesel locomotives and supporting activities. This is of concern in urban regions where railyards are in proximity to residential areas. Northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, Inman and Tilford railyards are located beside residential neighborhoods, industries, and schools. The PM2.5 concentrations near the railyards is the highest measured amongst the state-run monitoring sites (Georgia Environmental Protection Division, 2012; http://www.georgiaair.org/amp/report.php). The authors estimated fuel-based black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 emission factors for these railyards in order to help determine the impact of railyard activities on PM2.5 concentrations, and for assessing the potential benefits of replacing current locomotive engines with cleaner technologies. High-time-resolution measurements of BC, PM2.5, CO2, and wind speed and direction were made at two locations, north and south of the railyards. Emissions factors (i.e., the mass of BC or PM2.5 per gallon of fuel burned) were estimated by using the downwind/upwind difference in concentrations, wavelet analysis, and an event-based approach. By the authors' estimates, diesel-electric engines used in the railyards have average emission factors of 2.8 +/- 0.2 g of BC and 6.0 +/- 0.5 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. A broader mix of railyard supporting activities appear to lead to average emission factors of 0.7 +/- 0.03 g of BC and 1.5 +/- 0.1 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. Railyard emissions appear to lead to average enhancements of approximately 1.7 +/- 0.1 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and approximately 0.8 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 of BC in neighboring areas on an annual average basis. Uncertainty not quantified in these results could arise mainly from variability in downwind/upwind differences, differences in emissions of the diverse zones within the

  20. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  1. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  2. Particulate emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Trabue, Steven L; McConnell, Laura L; Prueger, John H; Razote, Edna B

    2014-07-01

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle () feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine fluxes of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely used micrometeorological method for air emissions from open sources. Vertical PM concentration profiles and micrometeorological parameters were measured at the feedlot using tapered element oscillating microbalance PM samplers and eddy covariance instrumentations (i.e., sonic anemometer and infrared hygrometer), respectively, from May 2010 through September 2011, representing feedlot conditions with air temperatures ranging from -24 to 39°C. Calculated hourly PM fluxes varied diurnally and seasonally, ranging up to 272 mg m h, with an overall median of 36 mg m h. For warm conditions (air temperature of 21 ± 10°C), the highest hourly PM fluxes (range 116-146 mg m h) were observed during the early evening period, from 2000 to 2100 h. For cold conditions (air temperature of -2 ± 8°C), the highest PM fluxes (range 14-27 mg m h) were observed in the afternoon, from 1100 to 1500 h. Changes in the hourly trend of PM fluxes coincided with changes in friction velocity, air temperature, sensible heat flux, and surface roughness. The PM emission was also affected by the pen surface water content, where a water content of at least 20% (wet basis) would be sufficient to effectively reduce PM emissions from pens by as much as 60%.

  3. Particulate emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Trabue, Steven L; McConnell, Laura L; Prueger, John H; Razote, Edna B

    2013-09-01

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle () feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine fluxes of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely used micrometeorological method for air emissions from open sources. Vertical PM concentration profiles and micrometeorological parameters were measured at the feedlot using tapered element oscillating microbalance PM samplers and eddy covariance instrumentations (i.e., sonic anemometer and infrared hygrometer), respectively, from May 2010 through September 2011, representing feedlot conditions with air temperatures ranging from -24 to 39°C. Calculated hourly PM fluxes varied diurnally and seasonally, ranging up to 272 mg m h, with an overall median of 36 mg m h. For warm conditions (air temperature of 21 ± 10°C), the highest hourly PM fluxes (range 116-146 mg m h) were observed during the early evening period, from 2000 to 2100 h. For cold conditions (air temperature of -2 ± 8°C), the highest PM fluxes (range 14-27 mg m h) were observed in the afternoon, from 1100 to 1500 h. Changes in the hourly trend of PM fluxes coincided with changes in friction velocity, air temperature, sensible heat flux, and surface roughness. The PM emission was also affected by the pen surface water content, where a water content of at least 20% (wet basis) would be sufficient to effectively reduce PM emissions from pens by as much as 60%.

  4. Number size distribution of particulate emissions of heavy-duty engines in real world test cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Urs; Mohr, Martin; Schweizer, Thomas; Rütter, Josef

    Five in-service engines in heavy-duty trucks complying with Euro II emission standards were measured on a dynamic engine test bench at EMPA. The particulate matter (PM) emissions of these engines were investigated by number and mass measurements. The mass of the total PM was evaluated using the standard gravimetric measurement method, the total number concentration and the number size distribution were measured by a Condensation Particle Counter (lower particle size cut-off: 7 nm) and an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (lower particle size: 32 nm), respectively. The transient test cycles used represent either driving behaviour on the road (real-world test cycles) or a type approval procedure. They are characterised by the cycle power, the average cycle power and by a parameter for the cycle dynamics. In addition, the particle number size distribution was determined at two steady-state operating modes of the engine using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. For quality control, each measurement was repeated at least three times under controlled conditions. It was found that the number size distributions as well as the total number concentration of emitted particles could be measured with a good repeatability. Total number concentration was between 9×10 11 and 1×10 13 particles/s (3×10 13-7×10 14 p/kWh) and mass concentration was between 0.09 and 0.48 g/kWh. For all transient cycles, the number mean diameter of the distributions lay typically at about 120 nm for aerodynamic particle diameter and did not vary significantly. In general, the various particle measurement devices used reveal the same trends in particle emissions. We looked at the correlation between specific gravimetric mass emission (PM) and total particle number concentration. The correlation tends to be influenced more by the different engines than by the test cycles.

  5. HFC-23 (CHF3) emission trend response to HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production and recent HFC-23 emission abatement measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. R.; Rigby, M.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Leist, M.; Fraser, P. J.; McCulloch, A.; Harth, C.; Salameh, P.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; Wang, R. H. J.; O'Doherty, S.; Greally, B. R.; Simmonds, P. G.

    2010-08-01

    HFC-23 (also known as CHF3, fluoroform or trifluoromethane) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), with a global warming potential (GWP) of 14 800 for a 100-year time horizon. It is an unavoidable by-product of HCFC-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane) production. HCFC-22, an ozone depleting substance (ODS), is used extensively in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning, in the extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam industries (dispersive applications) and also as a feedstock in fluoropolymer manufacture (a non-dispersive use). Aside from small markets in specialty uses, HFC-23 has historically been considered a waste gas that was, and often still is, simply vented to the atmosphere. Efforts have been made in the past two decades to reduce HFC-23 emissions, including destruction (incineration) in facilities in developing countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and by process optimization and/or voluntary incineration by most producers in developed countries. We present observations of lower-tropospheric mole fractions of HFC-23 measured by "Medusa" GC/MSD instruments from ambient air sampled in situ at the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network of five remote sites (2007-2009) and in Cape Grim air archive (CGAA) samples (1978-2009) from Tasmania, Australia. These observations are used with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and an inverse method to produce model mole fractions and a "top-down" HFC-23 emission history. The model 2009 annual mean global lower-tropospheric background abundance is 22.6 (±0.2) pmol mol-1. The derived HFC-23 emissions show a "plateau" during 1997-2003, followed by a rapid ~50% increase to a peak of 15.0 (+1.3/-1.2) Gg/yr in 2006. Following this peak, emissions of HFC-23 declined rapidly to 8.6 (+0.9/-1.0) Gg/yr in 2009, the lowest annual emission of the past 15 years. We derive a 1990-2008 "bottom-up" HFC-23 emission history using data from

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSION FROM OPEN BURNING OF RICE STRAW

    PubMed Central

    Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manadhar, Bhai R.; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Liu, L-J Sally

    2010-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003–2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EFs varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EFs were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20±8 g kg−1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7±2.2 g kg−1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM2.5 with EF of 5.1±0.7 g m−2 or 8.3±2.7 g kg−1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM10 (9.4±3.5 g kg−1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from <0.4 μm to >9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM1.1. The most significant components in PM2.5 and PM10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration, an

  7. Application of a Backwards Lagrangian Stochastic Model to Estimate Particulate Matter Emissions from Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K. D.; Wojcik, M.; Martin, R. S.; Pfeiffer, R.; Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J.

    2013-12-01

    Advancements in elastic light detection and ranging (Lidar) data analysis have made possible the conversion of return signals due to scattering by aerosols to particulate matter (PM) concentrations. This has enabled the use of Lidar systems in PM emissions calculation. Bingham et al. (2009, J. Appl. Rem. Sens., 033510) describes the application of a mass balance technique to estimate emissions from a facility or operation. Additional techniques that utilize the PM calibrated Lidar data are being investigated for use in non-ideal measurement situations, such as limitations on scanning due to physical constraints and obstacles or U.S. Federal Aviation Authority restrictions. The authors are investigating the application of inverse modeling, which uses measured pollutant concentrations resulting from the activity (downwind minus upwind) and an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate the emission rate input into the model that results in the best fit between measured and modeled concentration impacts. Lagrangian stochastic (LS) models, or random flight models, have been shown to simulate atmospheric dispersion and transport fairly well in the surface layer of the atmosphere. A LS model simulates the motion of numerous particles (marked fluid elements or particles) in a fluid based on the fluid's transport and dispersion characteristics plus randomized variations. Several gaseous air pollutant emissions studies have used LS models in inverse modeling in agricultural settings over the past decade. Unlike most gases, particles may have significant settling and deposition due to gravitation forces depending on particle size and density. This may be an important factor, especially in plumes initially dominated by large particles (>~2 μm in diameter), such as in agriculture. Estimates of PM emissions, therefore, should account for particle deposition velocity (vs). In this work we will convert a forward LS model given by Wang et al. (2008, Trans. ASABE, 1763-1774) that

  8. Analysis of microsize particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.

    1972-01-01

    Unique methods for analyzing individual particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 1000 micrometers have been developed for investigation of nature of cosmic dust. Methods are applicable to particulate aerosols and contaminants characteristically encountered in studies of air pollution and in experiments designed to abate pollution.

  9. HFC-23 (CHF3) emission trend response to HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production and recent HFC-23 emission abatement measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. R.; Rigby, M.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Leist, M.; Fraser, P. J.; McCulloch, A.; Harth, C.; Salameh, P.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; Wang, R. H. J.; O'Doherty, S.; Greally, B. R.; Simmonds, P. G.

    2010-05-01

    HFC-23 (also known as CHF3, fluoroform or trifluoromethane) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), with a global warming potential (GWP) of 14 800 for a 100-year time horizon. It is an unavoidable by-product of HCFC-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane) production. HCFC-22, an ozone depleting substance (ODS), is used extensively in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning, in the extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam industries (dispersive applications) and also as a feedstock in fluoropolymer manufacture (a non-dispersive use). Aside from small markets in specialty uses, HFC-23 has historically been considered a waste gas that was, and often still is, simply vented to the atmosphere. Efforts have been made in the past two decades to reduce HFC-23 emissions, including destruction (incineration) in facilities in developing countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and by process optimization and/or voluntary incineration by most producers in developed countries. We present observations of lower-tropospheric mole fractions of HFC-23 measured by "Medusa" GC/MSD instruments from ambient air sampled in situ at the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network of five remote sites and in Cape Grim air archive (CGAA) samples (1978-2009) from Tasmania, Australia. These observations are used with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and an inverse method to produce model mole fractions and a "top-down" HFC-23 emission history. The model 2009 annual mean global lower-tropospheric background abundance is 22.8 (±0.2) pmol mol-1. The derived HFC-23 emissions show a "plateau" during 1997-2003, followed by a rapid ~50% increase to a peak of 15.0 (+1.3/-1.2) Gg/yr in 2006. Following this peak, emissions of HFC-23 declined rapidly to 8.6 (+0.9/-1.0) Gg/yr in 2009, the lowest annual emission of the past 15 years. We derive a 1990-2008 "bottom-up" HFC-23 emission history using data from the United

  10. Greenhouse Gas and Particulate Emissions and Impacts from Cooking Technologies in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, D. M.; Bailis, R.; Kituyi, E.; Ezzati, M.

    2003-12-01

    In much of Africa, the largest fraction of energy consumption occurs within the residential sector and is derived primarily from woodfuels burned in simple stoves with poor combustion characteristics. Many of the products of incomplete combustion (PICs) are damaging to human health, particularly when they are concentrated in poorly ventilated indoor environments. Incomplete combustion also has potentially harmful impacts on the climate. Prevalent PICs include methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is among the pollutants subject to controls under the Kyoto Protocol as well as carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulate matter (PM), which can all have an effect on climate, but are not subject to controls under Kyoto. In addition, when woodfuels are used at a rate that reduces standing stocks of trees over the medium or long term, the CO2 released by combustion also has an impact. The choice of stove and fuel technology can have a significant impact on the emission of GHGs as well as on human exposure to health damaging pollutants. In this paper we analyze the emissions of different household energy technologies on a life-cycle basis. We use emission factors to estimate the emissions associated with production, distribution and end-use of common household fuels and assess the likely impacts of these emissions on public health and the global environment. We focus largely on charcoal, a popular fuel in many sub-Saharan African countries. Charcoal is produced by heating wood in the absence of sufficient air for complete combustion to occur. This process removes moisture and most of the volatile compounds. The compounds driven off in the process consist of condensable tars as well as many gaseous hydrocarbons, including ~40 g CH4 per kg of charcoal produced. Combining upstream and end-use emissions, every meal cooked with charcoal has 2-10 times the global warming effect of cooking the same meal with firewood and 5-12 times the effect of

  11. Measuring Particulate Emissions of Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Using Integrated Particle Size Distribution (IPSD).

    PubMed

    Quiros, David C; Zhang, Sherry; Sardar, Satya; Kamboures, Michael A; Eiges, David; Zhang, Mang; Jung, Heejung S; Mccarthy, Michael J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Ayala, Alberto; Zhu, Yifang; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2015-05-01

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) adopted the low emission vehicle (LEV) III particulate matter (PM) standards in January 2012, which require, among other limits, vehicles to meet 1 mg/mi over the federal test procedure (FTP). One possible alternative measurement approach evaluated to support the implementation of the LEV III standards is integrated particle size distribution (IPSD), which reports real-time PM mass using size distribution and effective density. The IPSD method was evaluated using TSI's engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, 5.6-560 nm) and gravimetric filter data from more than 250 tests and 34 vehicles at ARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL). IPSD mass was persistently lower than gravimetric mass by 56-75% over the FTP tests and by 81-84% over the supplemental FTP (US06) tests. Strong covariance between the methods suggests test-to-test variability originates from actual vehicle emission differences rather than measurement accuracy, where IPSD offered no statistical improvement over gravimetric measurement variability. PMID:25880018

  12. Emission, Dispersion, Transformation, and Deposition of Asian Particulates Over the Western Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, Richard P.

    2005-02-28

    In this project we developed and applied a coupled three-dimensional meteorology/chemistry/microphysics model to study the patterns of aerosol dispersion and deposition in the western Pacific area; carried out a series of detailed regional aerosol simulations to test the ability of models to treat emission, dispersion and removal processes prior to long-range transport; calculated and analyzed trajectories that originate in Asian dust source regions and reach the Pacific Basin; performed detailed simulations of regional and trans-Pacific transport, as well as the microphysical and chemical properties, of aerosols in the Asia-Pacific region to quantify processes that control the emission, dispersion and removal of particles; and assessed the contributions of regional-scale Asian particulate sources to the deposition of pollutants onto surface waters. The transport and deposition of aerosols and vapors were found to be strongly controlled by large and synoptic scale meteorology, convection, turbulence, and precipitation, as well as strong interactions between surface conditions and topographical features. The present analysis suggests that accurate representations of aerosol sources, transport and deposition can be obtained using a comprehensive modeling approach.

  13. Control of diesel soot and NOx emissions with a particulate trap and EGR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-xiang; Gao, Xi-yan; Yang, De-sheng; Xu, Xiao-guang

    2005-01-01

    The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), coupled with a high-collection efficiency particulate trap to simultaneously control smoke and NOx emissions from diesel engines were studied. This ceramic trap developed previously provided the soot cleaning efficiency of 99%, the regeneration efficiency reaches 80% and the ratio of success reaches 97%, which make EGR used in diesel possible. At the presence of EGR, opening of the regeneration control valve of the trap was over again optimized to compensate for the decrease of the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas resulted from EGR. The results indicated the cleaning efficiency and regeneration performance of the trap were maintained at the same level except that the back pressure increased faster. A new EGR system was developed, which is based on a wide range oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Experiments were carried out under steady state conditions while maintaining the engine speed at 1600 r/min, setting the engine loads at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively. Throughout each test the EGR rate was kept at nine different settings and data were taken with the gas analyzer and UEGO sensor. Then, the EGR rate and engine load maps, which showed the tendencies of NOx, CO and HC emissions from diesel engine, were made using the measured data. Using the maps, the author set up the EGR regulation, the relationship between the optimal amounts of EGR flow and the equivalence ratio, sigma, where sigma = 14.5/AFR.

  14. Emission Factors of Greenhouse Gases and Particulates from Australian Savanna Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desservettaz, M.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Kettlewell, G.; Wilson, S. R.; Keywood, M. D.; van der Schoot, M. V.; Selleck, P. W.; Ward, J.; Harnwell, J.; Reisen, F.; Lawson, S. J.; Ristovski, Z.; Mallet, M.; Miljevic, B.; Atkinson, B.; Milic, A.

    2015-12-01

    In June 2014 a measurement campaign took place at Gunn Point in the Northern Territory, Australia, aimed at characterising the emissions from early dry season savanna fires. The campaign was especially focused on understanding aerosol composition and size distribution. Equipment deployed to measure aerosol properties included a multi-angle absorption photometer, a nephelometer, a cloud condensation nuclei counter, a condensation particle counter, two scanning mobility particle sizer, two aerosol mass spectrometers (one a time of flight instrument) , a multi-axis differential optical absorption spectrometer, a volatility-humidity tandem differential mobility analyser and two high volume aerosol samplers (one PM10 and one MOUDI). In addition there were measurements of mercury in both gas and aerosol phase. Complementary measurements of trace gases were provided by a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, a volatile organic compounds sequencer, a Fourier transform spectrometer, an ozone analyser and a nitrogen oxides monitor. This presentation will present results from the Fourier transform spectrometer, the scanning mobility particulate sizer, the beta attenuation monitor and the aerosol mass spectrometer. In particular individual fire events have been identified and emission factors calculated for CO2, CO, CH4 N2O and aerosols (PM1, PM10, Aitken and Accumulation mode).

  15. Measuring Particulate Emissions of Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Using Integrated Particle Size Distribution (IPSD).

    PubMed

    Quiros, David C; Zhang, Sherry; Sardar, Satya; Kamboures, Michael A; Eiges, David; Zhang, Mang; Jung, Heejung S; Mccarthy, Michael J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Ayala, Alberto; Zhu, Yifang; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2015-05-01

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) adopted the low emission vehicle (LEV) III particulate matter (PM) standards in January 2012, which require, among other limits, vehicles to meet 1 mg/mi over the federal test procedure (FTP). One possible alternative measurement approach evaluated to support the implementation of the LEV III standards is integrated particle size distribution (IPSD), which reports real-time PM mass using size distribution and effective density. The IPSD method was evaluated using TSI's engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, 5.6-560 nm) and gravimetric filter data from more than 250 tests and 34 vehicles at ARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL). IPSD mass was persistently lower than gravimetric mass by 56-75% over the FTP tests and by 81-84% over the supplemental FTP (US06) tests. Strong covariance between the methods suggests test-to-test variability originates from actual vehicle emission differences rather than measurement accuracy, where IPSD offered no statistical improvement over gravimetric measurement variability.

  16. Emission factors, size distributions, and emission inventories of carbonaceous particulate matter from residential wood combustion in rural China.

    PubMed

    Guofeng, Shen; Siye, Wei; Wen, Wei; Yanyan, Zhang; Yujia, Min; Bin, Wang; Rong, Wang; Wei, Li; Huizhong, Shen; Ye, Huang; Yifeng, Yang; Wei, Wang; Xilong, Wang; Xuejun, Wang; Shu, Tao

    2012-04-01

    Published emission factors (EFs) often vary significantly, leading to high uncertainties in emission estimations. There are few reliable EFs from field measurements of residential wood combustion in China. In this study, 17 wood fuels and one bamboo were combusted in a typical residential stove in rural China to measure realistic EFs of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC), as well as to investigate the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions on the EFs. Measured EFs of PM, OC, and EC (EF(PM), EF(OC), and EF(EC), respectively) were in the range of 0.38-6.4, 0.024-3.0, and 0.039-3.9 g/kg (dry basis), with means and standard derivation of 2.2 ± 1.2, 0.62 ± 0.64, and 0.83 ± 0.69 g/kg, respectively. Shrubby biomass combustion produced higher EFs than tree woods, and both species had lower EFs than those of indoor crop residue burning (p < 0.05). Significant correlations between EF(PM), EF(OC), and EF(EC) were expected. By using a nine-stage cascade impactor, it was shown that size distributions of PM emitted from tree biomass combustions were unimodal with peaks at a diameter less than 0.4 μm (PM(0.4)), much finer than the PM from indoor crop residue burning. Approximately 79.4% of the total PM from tree wood combustion was PM with a diameter less than 2.1 μm (PM(2.1)). PM size distributions for shrubby biomasses were slightly different from those for tree fuels. On the basis of the measured EFs, total emissions of PM, OC, and EC from residential wood combustion in rural China in 2007 were estimated at about 303, 75.7, and 92.0 Gg. PMID:22380753

  17. Semi-Volatile and Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons inEnvironmental Tobacco Smoke: Cleanup, Speciation and EmissionsFactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, L.A.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    Studies of phase distributions and emission factors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) require collection and analysis of very small samples. To achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity, a method has been devised and tested for extraction and cleanup of gas- and particulate-phase ETS samples. Gas-phase species were trapped by polymeric sorbents, and particles were trapped on filters. The samples were extracted with hot cyclohexane, concentrated and passed through silica solid-phase extraction columns for cleanup. After solvent change, the PAH were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with two programmed fluorescence detectors. PAH concentrations in 15-mg aliquots of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material SRM 1649 (Urban DustIOrganics) agreed well with published values. Relative precision at the 95% confidence level was 8% for SRM 1649 and 20% for replicate samples (5 mg) of ETS particles. Emission factors have been measured for a range of gas- and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ETS. The emission factors per cigarette were 13.0{+-}0.5 mg particulate matter, 11.2{+-}0.9 pg for gas-phase naphthalene and 74{+-}10 {micro}g for particulate benzo(a)pyrene.

  18. Positron emission tomography in the quantification of cellular and biochemical responses to intrapulmonary particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Hazel A. . E-mail: hazel.jones@imperial.ac.uk; Hamacher, Kurt; Clark, John C.; Schofield, John B.; Krausz, Thomas; Haslett, Christopher; Boobis, Alan R.

    2005-09-01

    Inhaled mineral dusts and fibres can cause chronic pulmonary inflammation, often leading to permanent scarring with loss of function, but the mechanisms involved remain obscure. There are currently no good methods for monitoring inflammatory processes in situ. Positron emission tomography (PET) of suitable intravenously injected radiolabelled markers provides non-invasive and repeatable methods of quantifying biochemical and cellular responses. We have developed animal models of fibrotic and non-fibrotic pulmonary response to particulate instillation and characterised these by histology. Different components of the inflammatory response have been investigated by PET: (1) [{sup 18}F]-labelled fluoro-deoxyglucose, a positron emitting glucose analogue, accumulates in cells in proportion to their glucose uptake; ex vivo microautoradiography indicates that neutrophils are the cells responsible for an increased signal during pulmonary inflammation; a persistently high uptake is associated with lung scarring. (2) The radioligand [{sup 11}C]-R-PK11195 binds to benzodiazepine-like receptors abundant in macrophages; following particulate instillation, the [{sup 11}C]-R-PK11195 PET signal tracks with lung macrophage accumulation and also localises to regions consistent with macrophage clearance; poor macrophage clearance is associated with fibrosis. (3) [{sup 18}F]-fluoroproline is likely a substrate for extracellular matrix production, especially proline-rich collagen; during active scarring, the rate of lung uptake of fluoroproline is elevated. Localisation of radioactivity in the lung has been validated ex vivo by microautoradiography of tritium analogues of each of the positron emitting tracers. The use of PET to monitor different inflammatory processes by repeated scanning of the same animal or individual is helping to identify key events in the fibrotic process.

  19. Evolution of particulate emissions from a coal-fired power plant. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Buckholtz, H.T.Y.

    1980-08-15

    A numerical model has been developed for the dispersal of aerosols downwind from a coal-fired power plant. The main goals were to evaluate with a mathematical simulation the evolution of the spatial extent and particle size distribution of the aerosol material and to predict settling rates affecting the surface environment in the downwind path. The hot air plume coming out of the power plant stack includes a large quantity of aerosol particles. The plume rises with initial upward emission speed until it reaches thermal and kinetic equilibria with the ambient air, then it is transported by the wind current. The plume disperses vertically and horizontally by wind turbulence. In the model particulate coagulation is mathematically described by Timiskii's equation. The relevant semi-empirical work of Smirnov is incorporated to provide the coagulation constant. Because of coagulation, the concentrations of different sizes of aerosol particles in the plume are changed. The numerical simulation studies the importance of particulate coagulation and turbulent dispersion on the downwind plume profile. The downwind transport of the aerosol particles is described by Fick's diffusion equation with the Brownian diffusion coefficient replaced by the turbulent diffusion coefficient. Particle sedimentation is incorporated into the diffusion equation as a first-order differential term. The transport equation is solved by an unconditionally stable finite difference method. At 20 miles downwind, most of the particles with diameter larger than 10 ..mu..m have settled to the ground. The size distribution is still bimodal. The distribution of larger particles remains almost unchanged, except for the departure of the super-micronic particles, because coagulation losses are approximately balanced by coagulation gains.

  20. Global Air Quality Predictions of Particulate Matter in the Middle East and Sensitivity to Future Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzo, E. A.; Holmes, C. D.; Paltsev, S.; Alawad, A.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the influence of natural and anthropogenic drivers of future PM in the Middle East region using two future emissions scenarios to drive the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model. The Arabian Peninsula is a major source of windblown dust as well as anthropogenic aerosols. Future emissions - driven jointly and individually by climate change and anthropogenic emissions from this rapidly growing region - will play an important role in both climate forcing and human health impacts from particulate matter. We use two scenarios to compare their climate and air quality implications. First, we use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for four radiative forcing cases. Second, we develop a consistent future greenhouse gas and conventional pollutant emission inventory using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, which is a general equilibrium model of the global economy that calculates how economic growth and anthropogenic emissions change as a result of policies and other stressors. With EPPA, we examine three emissions cases, a business-as-usual case and two stabilization cases leading to anthropogenic radiative forcings of 3.7 W/m2 and 4.5 W/m2. We use these scenarios to drive GEOS-Chem for present and future climate, assessing changes in chemical composition of aerosol and drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, out to 2050. We find that projected anthropogenic emissions are strong determinants of future particulate matter air quality in the Middle East region.

  1. Online characterization of regulated and unregulated gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from two-stroke mopeds: a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Clairotte, M; Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Giechaskiel, B; Manfredi, U; Elsasser, M; Sklorz, M; DeCarlo, P F; Heringa, M F; Zimmermann, R; Martini, G; Krasenbrink, A; Vicet, A; Tournié, E; Prévôt, A S H; Astorga, C

    2012-03-01

    Two-stroke mopeds are a popular and convenient mean of transport in particular in the highly populated cities. These vehicles can emit potentially toxic gaseous and aerosol pollutants due to their engine technology. The legislative measurements of moped emissions are based on offline methods; however, the online characterization of gas and particulate phases offers great possibilities to understand aerosol formation mechanism and to adapt future emission standards. The purpose of this work was to study the emission behavior of two mopeds complying with different European emission standards (EURO-1 and EURO-2). A sophisticated set of online analyzers was applied to simultaneously monitor the gas phase and particulate phase of exhaust on a real time basis. The gaseous emission was analyzed with a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR; nitrogen species) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-ToF-MS; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: PAH), whereas the particulate phase was chemically characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS; organic, nitrate and chloride aerosol) and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon). The physical characterization of the aerosol was carried out with a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number concentration) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS; size distribution in real time). In order to extract underlying correlation between gas and solid emissions, principal component analysis was applied to the comprehensive online dataset. Multivariate analysis highlighted the considerable effect of the exhaust temperature on the particles and heavy PAH emissions. The results showed that the after-treatment used to comply with the latest EURO-2 emission standard may be responsible for the production of more potentially harmful particles compared to the EURO-1 moped emissions. PMID:22304813

  2. Online characterization of regulated and unregulated gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from two-stroke mopeds: a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Clairotte, M; Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Giechaskiel, B; Manfredi, U; Elsasser, M; Sklorz, M; DeCarlo, P F; Heringa, M F; Zimmermann, R; Martini, G; Krasenbrink, A; Vicet, A; Tournié, E; Prévôt, A S H; Astorga, C

    2012-03-01

    Two-stroke mopeds are a popular and convenient mean of transport in particular in the highly populated cities. These vehicles can emit potentially toxic gaseous and aerosol pollutants due to their engine technology. The legislative measurements of moped emissions are based on offline methods; however, the online characterization of gas and particulate phases offers great possibilities to understand aerosol formation mechanism and to adapt future emission standards. The purpose of this work was to study the emission behavior of two mopeds complying with different European emission standards (EURO-1 and EURO-2). A sophisticated set of online analyzers was applied to simultaneously monitor the gas phase and particulate phase of exhaust on a real time basis. The gaseous emission was analyzed with a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR; nitrogen species) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-ToF-MS; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: PAH), whereas the particulate phase was chemically characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS; organic, nitrate and chloride aerosol) and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon). The physical characterization of the aerosol was carried out with a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number concentration) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS; size distribution in real time). In order to extract underlying correlation between gas and solid emissions, principal component analysis was applied to the comprehensive online dataset. Multivariate analysis highlighted the considerable effect of the exhaust temperature on the particles and heavy PAH emissions. The results showed that the after-treatment used to comply with the latest EURO-2 emission standard may be responsible for the production of more potentially harmful particles compared to the EURO-1 moped emissions.

  3. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  4. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  5. Flux estimation of fugitive particulate matter emissions from loose Calcisols at construction sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Hala A.; Kumar, Prashant; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.

    2016-09-01

    A major source of airborne pollution in arid and semi-arid environments (i.e. North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, and Australia) is the fugitive particulate matter (fPM), which is a frequent product of wind erosion. However, accurate determination of fPM is an ongoing scientific challenge. The objective of this study is to examine fPM emissions from the loose Calcisols (i.e. soils with a substantial accumulation of secondary carbonates), owing to construction activities that can be frequently seen nowadays in arid urbanizing regions such as the Middle East. A two months field campaign was conducted at a construction site, at rest, within the city of Doha (Qatar) to measure number concentrations of PM over a size range of 0.25-32 μm using light scattering based monitoring stations. The fPM emission fluxes were calculated using the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) in an iterative manner and were fitted to a power function, which expresses the wind velocity dependence. The power factors were estimated as 1.87, 1.65, 2.70 and 2.06 for the four different size classes of particles ≤2.5, 2.5-6, 6-10 and ≤10 μm, respectively. Fitted power function was considered acceptable given that adjusted R2 values varied from 0.13 for the smaller particles and up to 0.69 for the larger ones. These power factors are in the same range of those reported in the literature for similar sources. The outcome of this study is expected to contribute to the improvement of PM emission inventories by focusing on an overlooked but significant pollution source, especially in dry and arid regions, and often located very close to residential areas and sensitive population groups. Further campaigns are recommended to reduce the uncertainty and include more fPM sources (e.g. earthworks) and other types of soil.

  6. Controlling fine particulate and acid mist emissions from a residual oil fired utility boiler with an EDV{trademark} system

    SciTech Connect

    Olen, K.R.; Vincent, H.B.; Jones, G.

    1995-06-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Belco Technologies Corporation, evaluated the performance of an EDV system to remove fine particulate and acid mist from untreated flue gas from a residual oil-fired utility boiler. The cosponsored project was carried out using a full-scale EDV module in a slip stream from one of the 400 MW wall-fired boilers at FPL`s Sanford Plant. Particulate, acid gas and chemical analytical data are presented, and used to illustrate the effects of operating variables on EDV performance. EDV system efficiencies of 90% were achieved, which resulted in controlled particulate and SO{sub 3} emissions of less than 10 mg/Nm{sup 3} (0.0065 lbs/10{sup 6}Btu) and 1 ppmv, respectively.

  7. Investigation on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethyl carbonate blends.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C S; Zhu, Ruijun; Huang, Zuohua

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a diesel engine was investigated using Euro V diesel fuel blended with different proportions of DMC. Combustion analysis shows that, with the blended fuel, the ignition delay and the heat release rate in the premixed combustion phase increase, while the total combustion duration and the fuel consumed in the diffusion combustion phase decrease. Compared with diesel fuel, with an increase of DMC in the blended fuel, the brake thermal efficiency is slightly improved but the brake specific fuel consumption increases. On the emission side, CO increases significantly at low engine load but decreases at high engine load while HC decreases slightly. NO(x) reduces slightly but the reduction is not statistically significant, while NO(2) increases slightly. Particulate mass and number concentrations decrease upon using the blended fuel while the geometric mean diameter of the particles shifts towards smaller size. Overall speaking, diesel-DMC blends lead to significant improvement in particulate emissions while the impact on CO, HC and NO(x) emissions is small.

  8. Using aerosol light absorption measurements for the quantitative determination of wood burning and traffic emission contributions to particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Sandradewi, Jisca; Prévôt, Andre S H; Szidat, Sönke; Perron, Nolwenn; Alfarra, M Rami; Lanz, Valentin A; Weingartner, Ernest; Baltensperger, Urs

    2008-05-01

    A source apportionment study was performed for particulate matter in the small village of Roveredo, Switzerland, where more than 70% of the households use wood burning for heating purposes. A two-lane trans-Alpine highway passes through the village and contributes to the total aerosol burden in the area. The village is located in a steep Alpine valley characterized by strong and persistent temperature inversions during winter, especially from December to February. During two winter and one early spring campaigns, a seven-wavelength aethalometer, high volume (HIVOL) samplers, an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), an optical particle counter (OPC), and a Sunset Laboratory OCEC analyzer were deployed to study the contribution of wood burning and traffic aerosols to particulate matter. A linear regression model of the carbonaceous particulate mass in the submicrometer size range CM(PM1) as a function of aerosol light absorption properties measured by the aethalometer is introduced to estimate the particulate mass from wood burning and traffic (PM(wb), PM(traffic)). This model was calibrated with analyses from the 14C method using HIVOL filter measurements. These results indicate that light absorption exponents of 1.1 for traffic and 1.8-1.9 for wood burning calculated from the light absorption at 470 and 950 nanometers should be used to obtain agreement of the two methods regarding the relative wood burning and traffic emission contributions to CM(PM1) and also to black carbon. The resulting PM(wb) and PM(traffic) values explain 86% of the variance of the CM(PM1) and contribute, on average, 88 and 12% to CM(PM1), respectively. The black carbon is estimated to be 51% due to wood burning and 49% due to traffic emissions. The average organic carbon/total carbon (OC/TC) values were estimated to be 0.52 for traffic and 0.88 for wood burning particulate emissions.

  9. Emission factors and particulate matter size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustions in rural Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Zhu, Chen; Min, Yujia; Xue, Miao; Ding, Junnan; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2010-12-01

    Coal consumption is one important contributor to energy production, and is regarded as one of the most important sources of air pollutants that have considerable impacts on human health and climate change. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal combustion were studied in a typical stove. Emission factors (EFs) of 16 EPA priority PAHs from tested coals ranged from 6.25 ± 1.16 mg kg -1 (anthracite) to 253 ± 170 mg kg -1 (bituminous), with NAP and PHE dominated in gaseous and particulate phases, respectively. Size distributions of particulate phase PAHs from tested coals showed that they were mostly associated with particulate matter (PM) with size either between 0.7 and 2.1 μm or less than 0.4 μm (PM 0.4). In the latter category, not only were more PAHs present in PM 0.4, but also contained higher fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Generally, there were more than 89% of total particulate phase PAHs associated with PM 2.5. Gas-particle partitioning of freshly emitted PAHs from residential coal combustions were thought to be mainly controlled by absorption rather than adsorption, which is similar to those from other sources. Besides, the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions was further investigated by using stepwise regression analysis, which indicated that almost 57 ± 10% of total variations in PAH EFs can be accounted for by moisture and volatile matter content of coal in residential combustion.

  10. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size

  11. Properties and cellular effects of particulate matter from direct emissions and ambient sources.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wenjie; Su, Shu; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Xi; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Wu, Shuiping; Zeng, Eddy; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-10-14

    The pollution of particulate matter (PM) is of great concern in China and many other developing countries. It is generally recognized that the toxicity of PM is source and property dependent. However, the relationship between PM properties and toxicity is still not well understood. In this study, PM samples from direct emissions of wood, straw, coal, diesel combustion, cigarette smoking and ambient air were collected and characterized for their physicochemical properties. Their expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) was measured using a RAW264.7 cell model. Our results demonstrated that the properties of the samples from different origins exhibited remarkable differences. Significant increases in ROS were observed when the cells were exposed to PMs from biomass origins, including wood, straw and cigarettes, while increases in TNF-α were found for all the samples, particularly those from ambient air. The most important factor associated with ROS generation was the presence of water-soluble organic carbon, which was extremely abundant in the samples that directly resulted from biomass combustion. Metals, endotoxins and PM size were the most important properties associated with increases in TNF-α expression levels. The association of the origins of PM particles and physicochemical properties with cytotoxic properties is illustrated using a cluster analysis. PMID:27409416

  12. Properties and cellular effects of particulate matter from direct emissions and ambient sources.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wenjie; Su, Shu; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Xi; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Wu, Shuiping; Zeng, Eddy; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-10-14

    The pollution of particulate matter (PM) is of great concern in China and many other developing countries. It is generally recognized that the toxicity of PM is source and property dependent. However, the relationship between PM properties and toxicity is still not well understood. In this study, PM samples from direct emissions of wood, straw, coal, diesel combustion, cigarette smoking and ambient air were collected and characterized for their physicochemical properties. Their expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) was measured using a RAW264.7 cell model. Our results demonstrated that the properties of the samples from different origins exhibited remarkable differences. Significant increases in ROS were observed when the cells were exposed to PMs from biomass origins, including wood, straw and cigarettes, while increases in TNF-α were found for all the samples, particularly those from ambient air. The most important factor associated with ROS generation was the presence of water-soluble organic carbon, which was extremely abundant in the samples that directly resulted from biomass combustion. Metals, endotoxins and PM size were the most important properties associated with increases in TNF-α expression levels. The association of the origins of PM particles and physicochemical properties with cytotoxic properties is illustrated using a cluster analysis.

  13. Brand Cigarillos — A Cheap and Less Harmful Alternative to Cigarettes? Particulate Matter Emissions Suggest Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Alexander; Bigelow, Alexander; Schulze, Michaela; Groneberg, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-associated particulate matter (PM) constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers. It ought to be assessed separately from the other known toxic compounds of tobacco smoke. Brand-specific differences between cigarettes and particularly between cigarettes and favorably taxed cigarillos, are of public interest and therefore worth being investigated. Methods: An automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE) was developed to generate cigarette and cigarillo smoke in a reliable and reproducible way. John Player Special (JPS) Red cigarettes, JPS filter cigarillos and 3R4F standard research cigarettes were smoked automatically in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber according to a standardized protocol until 5 cm from the top were burned down. Results: Mean concentrations (Cmean) and area of the curve (AUC) of PM2.5 were measured and compared. Cmean PM2.5 were found to be 804 µg/m3 for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 1633 µg/m3 for JPS cigarettes, and 1059 µg/m3 for JPS filter cigarillos. AUC PM2.5-values are 433,873 µg/m3×s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 534,267 µg/m3×s for JPS Red cigarettes and 782,850 µg/m3×s for JPS filter cigarillos. Conclusion: Potential brand-specific differences of ETS-associated PM emissions among brands of cigarettes, and between cigarettes and cigarillos of the same brand and size should be investigated and published. Information about relative PM-emissions should be printed on the package. PMID:25568972

  14. Flux estimation of fugitive particulate matter emissions from loose Calcisols at construction sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Hala A.; Kumar, Prashant; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.

    2016-09-01

    A major source of airborne pollution in arid and semi-arid environments (i.e. North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, and Australia) is the fugitive particulate matter (fPM), which is a frequent product of wind erosion. However, accurate determination of fPM is an ongoing scientific challenge. The objective of this study is to examine fPM emissions from the loose Calcisols (i.e. soils with a substantial accumulation of secondary carbonates), owing to construction activities that can be frequently seen nowadays in arid urbanizing regions such as the Middle East. A two months field campaign was conducted at a construction site, at rest, within the city of Doha (Qatar) to measure number concentrations of PM over a size range of 0.25-32 μm using light scattering based monitoring stations. The fPM emission fluxes were calculated using the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) in an iterative manner and were fitted to a power function, which expresses the wind velocity dependence. The power factors were estimated as 1.87, 1.65, 2.70 and 2.06 for the four different size classes of particles ≤2.5, 2.5-6, 6-10 and ≤10 μm, respectively. Fitted power function was considered acceptable given that adjusted R2 values varied from 0.13 for the smaller particles and up to 0.69 for the larger ones. These power factors are in the same range of those reported in the literature for similar sources. The outcome of this study is expected to contribute to the improvement of PM emission inventories by focusing on an overlooked but significant pollution source, especially in dry and arid regions, and often located very close to residential areas and sensitive population groups. Further campaigns are recommended to reduce the uncertainty and include more fPM sources (e.g. earthworks) and other types of soil.

  15. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Chinese megacities: the implication for emission control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Elser, Miriam; Wang, Qiyuan Wang; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Wang, Meng; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Yongming; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Cao, Junji; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A quantitative understanding of these effects has proven extremely challenging due to spatial and temporal variability in the sources of aerosols and their precursors, the complexity of particle composition, and uncertainties associated with the atmospheric aging of existing particles (Pöschl 2005; Hallquist et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2014). Nowadays the average PM2.5 concentrations in China are approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than those observed in urban areas in the US and European countries (Cao 2012). This has forced the Chinese government to announce its first national environmental standard for PM2.5 in 2012 and to make highly ambitious plans for emission control. The Chinese aim to reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% of the 2012 levels by 2017, backed by 277 billion investments from the central government. To achieve this ambitious aim, a better understanding of the aerosol composition, sources, and atmospheric processing is required. In this study, we present the results from intensive field measurement campaigns carried out in Chinese megacities in 2013/2014. The sources of PM2.5 and the organic aerosol (OA) were investigated by applying the multi-linear engine (ME-2) receptor model (Canonaco et al., 2013) to a comprehensive dataset. Primary sources including vehicle emissions, biomass burning, coal burning, and dust-related emissions were identified and quantified. The contributions from secondary aerosol formation processes to total PM2.5 mass and OA mass were evaluated. Detailed results will be presented and discussed. References Cao, J. J. (2012) J. Earth Environ., 3, 1030

  16. Particulate Emissions from the Combustion of Diesel Fuel with a Fuel-Borne Nanoparticulate Cerium Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conny, J. M.; Willis, R. D.; Weinstein, J. P.; Krantz, T.; King, C.

    2013-12-01

    To address the adverse impacts on health and climate from the use of diesel-fueled vehicles, a number of technological solutions have been developed for reducing diesel soot emissions and to improve fuel economy. One such solution is the use fuel-borne metal oxide catalysts. Of current interest are commercially-available fuel additives consisting of nanoparticulate cerium oxide (CeO2). In response to the possible use of CeO2-containing fuels in on-road vehicles in the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency is conducting research to address the potential toxicity and environmental effects of particulate CeO2 emitted with diesel soot. In this study, emissions from a diesel-fueled electric generator were size-segregated on polished silicon wafers in a nanoparticle cascade impactor. The diesel fuel contained 10 ppm Ce by weight in the form of crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles 4 nm to 7.5 nm in size. Primary CeO2 nanoparticles were observed in the diesel emissions as well as CeO2 aggregates encompassing a broad range of sizes up to at least 200 nm. We report the characterization of individual particles from the size-resolved samples with focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results show a dependency between the impactor size range and CeO2 agglomeration state: in the larger size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 560 nm to 1000 nm) CeO2 nanoparticles were predominantly attached to soot particles. In the smaller size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 100 nm to 320 nm), CeO2 aggregates tended to be larger and unattached to soot. The result is important because the deposition of CeO2 nanoparticles attached to soot particles in the lung or on environmental surfaces such as plant tissue will likely present different consequences than the deposition of unagglomerated CeO2 particles. Disclaimer The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development funded and collaborated in the research described

  17. Characterizing particulate matter emissions from vehicles: chassis-dynamometer tests using a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, S.; Zhang, Q.; Forestieri, S.; Kleeman, M.; Cappa, C. D.; Kuwayama, T.

    2012-12-01

    During September of 2011 a suite of real-time instruments was used to sample vehicle emissions at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Schmidt facility in El Monte, CA. A representative fleet of 8 spark ignition gasoline vehicles, a diesel passenger vehicle, a gasoline direct-injection vehicle and an ultra-low emissions vehicle were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The emissions were sampled into the facility's standard CVS tunnel and diluted to atmospherically relevant levels (5-30 μg/m3) while controlling other factors such as relative humidity or background black carbon particulate loading concentrations. An Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-MS) was among the real-time instruments used and sampled vehicle emissions at 10 second time resolution in order to characterize the non-refractory organic and inorganic particulate matter (PM). PM composition and concentration were tracked throughout the cold start driving cycle which included periods of fast acceleration and high velocity cruise control, meant to recreate typical commuter driving behavior. Variations in inorganic and organic PM composition for a given vehicle throughout the driving cycle as well as for various vehicles with differing emissions loading were characterized. Differences in PM composition for a given vehicle whose emissions are being exposed to differing experimental conditions such as varying relative humidity will also be reported. In conjunction with measurements from a Multi Wavelength Photoacoustic Black Carbon Spectrometer (MWPA-BC) and real-time gas measurements from the CARB facility, we determine the real-time emission ratios of primary organic aerosols (POA) with respect to BC and common combustion gas phase pollutants and compared to different vehicle driving conditions. The results of these tests offer the vehicle emissions community a first time glimpse at the real-time behavior of vehicle PM emissions for a variety of conditions and

  18. Bioavailability and biotransformation of the mutagenic component of particulate emissions present in motor exhaust samples.

    PubMed Central

    Vostal, J J

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic concepts of bioavailability and biotransformation are introduced into the assessment of public health risk from experimental data concerning the emissions of potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic substances from motor vehicles. The inappropriateness of an automatic application in the risk assessment process of analytical or experimental results, obtained with extracts and procedures incompatible with the biological environment, is illustrated on the discrepancy between short-term laboratory tests predictions that wider use of diesel engines on our roads will increase the risk of respiratory cancer and the widely negative epidemiological evidence. Mutagenic activity of diesel particulates was minimal or negative when tested in extracts obtained with biological fluids, was substantially dependent on the presence of nitroreductase in the microbial tester strain, and disappeared completely 48 hr after the diesel particles had been phagocytized by alveolar macrophages. Similarly, long-term animal inhalation exposures to high concentrations of diesel particles did not induce the activity of hydrocarbon metabolizing enzymes or specific adverse immune response unless organic solvent extracts of diesel particles were administered intratracheally or parenterally in doses that highly exceed the predicted levels of public exposure even by the year 2000. Furthermore, the suspected cancer producing effects of inhaled diesel particles have thus far not been verified by experimental animal models or available long-term epidemiological observations. It is concluded that unless the biological accessibility of the active component on the pollutant as well as its biotransformation and clearance by natural defense mechanisms are considered, lung cancer risk assessment based solely on laboratory microbial tests will remain an arbitrary and unrealistic process and will not provide meaningful information on the potential health hazard of a pollutant. PMID:6186478

  19. Modelisation 0D/1D des emissions de particules de suie dans les turbines a gaz aeronautiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisson, Jeremie

    Because of more stringent regulations of aircraft particle emissions as well as strong uncertainties about their formation and their effects on the atmosphere, a better understanding of particle microphysical mechanisms and their interactions with the engine components is required. This thesis focuses on the development of a 0D/1D combustion model with soot production in an aeronautical gas turbine. A major objective of this study is to assess the quality of soot particle emission predictions for different flight configurations. The model should eventually allow performing parametric studies on current or future engines with a minimal computation time. The model represents the combustor as well as turbines and nozzle with a chemical reactor network (CRN) that is coupled with a detailed combustion chemistry for kerosene (Jet A-1) and a soot particle dynamics model using the method of moments. The CRN was applied to the CFM56-2C1 engine during flight configurations of the LTO cycle (Landing-Take-Off) as in the APEX-1 study on aircraft particle emissions. The model was mainly validated on gas turbine thermodynamic data and pollutant concentrations (H2O, COX, NOx, SOX) which were measured in the same study. Once the first validation completed, the model was subsequently used for the computation of mass and number-based emissions indices of the soot particulate population and average diameter. Overall, the model is representative of the thermodynamic conditions and succeeds in predicting the emissions of major pollutants, particularly at high power. Concerning soot particulate emissions, the model's ability to predict simultaneously the emission indices as well as mean diameter has been partially validated. Indeed, the mass emission indices have remained higher than experimental results particularly at high power. These differences on particulate emission index may be the result of uncertainties on thermodynamic parameters of the CRN and mass air flow distribution in

  20. Noise Abatement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  1. Control of diesel gaseous and particulate emissions with a tube-type wet electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Keener, Tim C; Lu, Mingming; Liang, Fuyan; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2008-10-01

    In this study, experiments were performed with a bench-scale tube-type wet electrostatic precipitator (wESPs) to investigate its effectiveness for the removal of mass- and number-based diesel particulate matter (DPM), hydrocarbons (HCs), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel exhaust emissions. The concentration of ozone (O3) present in the exhaust that underwent a nonthermal plasma treatment process inside the wESP was also measured. A nonroad diesel generator operating at varying load conditions was used as a stationary diesel emission source. The DPM mass analysis was conducted by means of isokinetic sampling and the DPM mass concentration was determined by a gravimetric method. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to quantify the DPM number concentration. The HC compounds, n-alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected on a moisture-free quartz filter together with a PUF/XAD/PUF cartridge and extracted in dichloromethane with sonication. Gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectroscopy (MS) was used to determine HC concentrations in the extracted solution. A calibrated gas combustion analyzer (Testo 350) and an O3 analyzer were used for quantifying the inlet and outlet concentrations of CO and NOx (nitric oxide [NO] + nitrogen dioxide [NO2]), and O3 in the diesel exhaust stream. The wESP was capable of removing approximately 67-86% of mass- and number-based DPM at a 100% exhaust volumetric flow rate generated from 0- to 75-kW engine loads. At 75-kW engine load, increasing gas residence time from approximately 0.1 to 0.4 sec led to a significant increase of DPM removal efficiency from approximately 67 to more than 90%. The removal of n-alkanes, 16 PAHs, and CO in the wESP ranged from 31 to 57% and 5 to 38%, respectively. The use of the wESP did not significantly affect NOx concentration in diesel exhaust. The O3 concentration in diesel exhaust was measured to be less than 1 ppm. The main mechanisms

  2. Size-specific-particulate emission factors for industrial and rural roads: source category report. Final task report, June 1981-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cowherd, C.; Englehart, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    The report gives results of a study to derive size-specific particulate emission factors for industrial paved and unpaved roads and for rural unpaved roads from an existing field testing data base. Regression analysis was used to develop predictive emission factor equations which relate emission quantities to road and traffic parameters. Separate equations were developed for each road type and for three aerodynamic particle size fractions: < or = 15, < or = 10, and < or = 2.5 micrometers. Recommendations are made for including the resulting emission factors in EPA document AP-42. Over the past few years, traffic-generated dust emissions from unpaved and paved industrial roads have become recognized as a significant source of atmospheric particulate emissions, especially within industries involved in mining and processing mineral aggregates. Although a considerable amount of field testing of industrial roads has been performed, most studies have focused on total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions, because the current national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter are based on TSP. Only recently, in anticipation of a NAAQS for particulate matter based on particle size, has the emphasis shifted to the development of size-specific emission factors.

  3. INVERTING CASCADE IMPACTOR DATA FOR SIZE-RESOLVED CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cascade impactors are particularly useful in determining the mass size distributions of particulate and individual chemical species. The impactor raw data must be inverted to reconstruct a continuous particle size distribution. An inversion method using a lognormal function for p...

  4. DIFFERENTIAL CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA PROFILES IN HYPERTENSIVE AND NORMAL RATS AFTER EMISSION SOURCE PARTICULATE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. These effects are especially conspicuous in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and coronary heart disease...

  5. Effectiveness of mitigation measures in reducing future primary particulate matter emissions from on-road vehicle exhaust.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C; Streets, David G

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa.

  6. Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures in Reducing Future Primary Particulate Matter Emissions from On-Road Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa

  7. Assessment of Microphysical Models in the National Combustion Code (NCC) for Aircraft Particulate Emissions: Particle Loss in Sampling Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2008-01-01

    This paper at first describes the fluid network approach recently implemented into the National Combustion Code (NCC) for the simulation of transport of aerosols (volatile particles and soot) in the particulate sampling systems. This network-based approach complements the other two approaches already in the NCC, namely, the lower-order temporal approach and the CFD-based approach. The accuracy and the computational costs of these three approaches are then investigated in terms of their application to the prediction of particle losses through sample transmission and distribution lines. Their predictive capabilities are assessed by comparing the computed results with the experimental data. The present work will help establish standard methodologies for measuring the size and concentration of particles in high-temperature, high-velocity jet engine exhaust. Furthermore, the present work also represents the first step of a long term effort of validating physics-based tools for the prediction of aircraft particulate emissions.

  8. A comprehensive study of the characterization of particulate matter emissions from a Delmarva broiler poultry operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Shannon E.

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural practices, including those from animal feeding operations (AFO's) have become an increasingly important topic, and has generated considerable interest from local and state agencies, as well as, the local community over the past decade. Because of growth in population, and an increase in commercial and residential development within close proximity to these operations, which house a large number of animals in confinement, and because of a better understanding of the effects of exposure to airborne contaminants on health, this has lead to an increase in concerns and a demand for more research to be conducted on PM from AFO's. Particulate matter generated within, and emitted from, AFO's can carry with it various components including metals and microorganisms that can negatively affect health. This research was conducted in order to verify if PM from a broiler poultry operation on Delmarva has the potential to become a health concern. The first step was to determine concentrations of two size segregated fractions of PM from indoor and outdoor sampling sites over four seasonal periods, early summer (ES), late summer (LS), Fall (F), and Winter (W). Both PM10 and PM2.5 were collected because of their classification from the Environmental Protection Agency as having the ability to cause significant health effects with short-term exposure. Next, temporal and spatial characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on PM concentrations over the four seasonal periods. Following this, the chemical composition and morphology of PM10 and PM2.5 generated from the broiler poultry operation was investigated. Finally, further detailed information was obtained on arsenic speciation and oxidation state in PM to investigate toxicity. Arsenic use in the poultry industry has been occurring for a number of decades, and is most frequently administered in the organic form. However, studies have shown that these organo

  9. Recent changes in particulate air pollution over China observed from space and the ground: effectiveness of emission control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Nielsen, Chris P; Zhao, Yu; Lei, Yu; Liu, Yang; McElroy, Michael B

    2010-10-15

    The Chinese government has moved aggressively since 2005 to reduce emissions of a number of pollutants including primary particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), efforts inadvertently aided since late 2008 by economic recession. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and column nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) provide independent indicators of emission trends, clearly reflecting the sharp onset of the recession in the fall of 2008 and rebound of the economy in the latter half of 2009. Comparison of AOD with ground-based observations of PM over a longer period indicate that emission-control policies have not been successful in reducing concentrations of aerosol pollutants at smaller size range over industrialized regions of China. The lack of success is attributed to the increasing importance of anthropogenic secondary aerosols formed from precursor species including nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH(3)).

  10. Particulate metals and organic compounds from electronic and tobacco-containing cigarettes: comparison of emission rates and secondhand exposure.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Ruprecht, Ario; De Marco, Cinzia; Pozzi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto; Hamad, Samera H; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Westerdahl, Dane; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes have gained increasing popularity as alternatives to normal (tobacco-containing) cigarettes. In the present study, particles generated by e-cigarettes and normal cigarettes have been analyzed and the degree of exposure to different chemical agents and their emission rates were quantified. Despite the 10-fold decrease in the total exposure to particulate elements in e-cigarettes compared to normal cigarettes, specific metals (e.g. Ni and Ag) still displayed a higher emission rate from e-cigarettes. Further analysis indicated that the contribution of e-liquid to the emission of these metals is rather minimal, implying that they likely originate from other components of the e-cigarette device or other indoor sources. Organic species had lower emission rates during e-cigarette consumption compared to normal cigarettes. Of particular note was the non-detectable emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from e-cigarettes, while substantial emission of these species was observed from normal cigarettes. Overall, with the exception of Ni, Zn, and Ag, the consumption of e-cigarettes resulted in a remarkable decrease in secondhand exposure to all metals and organic compounds. Implementing quality control protocols on the manufacture of e-cigarettes would further minimize the emission of metals from these devices and improve their safety and associated health effects.

  11. Emission characters of particulate concentrations and dry deposition studies for incense burning at a Taiwanese temple.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng

    2002-05-01

    Suspended particulate concentrations were measured at the Tzu Yun Yen temple in the Taichung region of Taiwan. The temple performs traditional incense burning. A universal sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler with a dry deposition plate were used to measure the particulate concentrations. The results show that the average PM2.5/PM10 ratio was 74% during the incense burning period at this temple. In addition, the average suspended particulate (PM10) element concentration of anthropogenic element Zn (495 ng/m3) was higher than the other anthropogenic elements (Pb, Mn, Ni, and Cd). Furthermore, the average mass size distribution was bimodal with major peaks occurring at 0.32-0.56 microm and 5.6-10 microm during the incense burning period. The dry deposition velocities of Cd used fine particulates (PM2.5) and suspended particulate (PM10) mode were 1.86 and 0.99 cm/s in this study, respectively.

  12. A comprehensive study of the characterization of particulate matter emissions from a Delmarva broiler poultry operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Shannon E.

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural practices, including those from animal feeding operations (AFO's) have become an increasingly important topic, and has generated considerable interest from local and state agencies, as well as, the local community over the past decade. Because of growth in population, and an increase in commercial and residential development within close proximity to these operations, which house a large number of animals in confinement, and because of a better understanding of the effects of exposure to airborne contaminants on health, this has lead to an increase in concerns and a demand for more research to be conducted on PM from AFO's. Particulate matter generated within, and emitted from, AFO's can carry with it various components including metals and microorganisms that can negatively affect health. This research was conducted in order to verify if PM from a broiler poultry operation on Delmarva has the potential to become a health concern. The first step was to determine concentrations of two size segregated fractions of PM from indoor and outdoor sampling sites over four seasonal periods, early summer (ES), late summer (LS), Fall (F), and Winter (W). Both PM10 and PM2.5 were collected because of their classification from the Environmental Protection Agency as having the ability to cause significant health effects with short-term exposure. Next, temporal and spatial characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on PM concentrations over the four seasonal periods. Following this, the chemical composition and morphology of PM10 and PM2.5 generated from the broiler poultry operation was investigated. Finally, further detailed information was obtained on arsenic speciation and oxidation state in PM to investigate toxicity. Arsenic use in the poultry industry has been occurring for a number of decades, and is most frequently administered in the organic form. However, studies have shown that these organo

  13. In vitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, Pasi I.; Happo, Mikko S.; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hukkanen, Annika; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Obernberger, Ingwald; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-04-01

    Residential wood combustion causes major effects on the air quality on a global scale. The ambient particulate levels are known to be responsible for severe adverse health effects that include e.g. cardio-respiratory illnesses and cancer related effects, even mortality. It is known that biomass combustion derived emissions are affected by combustion technology, fuel being used and user-related practices. There are also indications that the health related toxicological effects are influenced by these parameters. This study we evaluated toxicological effects of particulate emissions (PM1) from seven different residential wood combusting furnaces. Two appliances i.e. log wood boiler and stove represented old batch combustion technology, whereas stove and tiled stove were designated as new batch combustion as three modern automated boilers were a log wood boiler, a woodchip boiler and a pellet boiler. The PM1 samples from the furnaces were collected in an experimental setup with a Dekati® gravimetric impactor on PTFE filters with the samples being weighed and extracted from the substrates and prior to toxicological analyses. The toxicological analyses were conducted after a 24-hour exposure of the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to four doses of emission particle samples and analysis of levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, chemokine MIP-2, cytotoxicity with three different methods (MTT, PI, cell cycle analysis) and genotoxicity with the comet assay. In the correlation analysis all the toxicological results were compared with the chemical composition of the samples. All the samples induced dose-dependent increases in the studied parameters. Combustion technology greatly affected the emissions and the concomitant toxicological responses. The modern automated boilers were usually the least potent inducers of most of the parameters while emissions from the old technology log wood boiler were the most potent. In correlation analysis, the PAH and other organic

  14. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill – Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika; Simmons, Donald L.; Wels, Brian R.; Spak, Scott N.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies’ findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg−1), particle number (3.5×1016 kg−1), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg−1), EC (2.37 g kg−1), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg−1). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85-0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided. PMID:25663800

  15. Generation rates and emission factors of particulate matter and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of incense sticks.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Hu, Shu-Chuan

    2003-02-01

    The generation rates and emission factors of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from incense burning were assessed in a laboratory setting. The differences among different segments of the same stick, among different sticks of the same kind of incense, and between two kinds of manually made Chih-Chen incense sticks (A and B) were evaluated. Joss sticks were burned inside a 44 cm long elutriator; personal environmental monitors fitted into the top of the elutriator were used to take PM2.5 and PM10 samples of incense smoke. Samples were analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography-flame ionization Detector. It was found that particle and associated PAHs were generated approximately at 561 microg/min (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.1) and 0.56 microg/min (GSD = 1.1) from Incense A, and at 661 microg/min (GSD = 1.7) and 0.46 microg/min (GSD = 1.3) from Incense B, respectively. One gram of Incense A emitted about 19.8 mg (GSD = 1.1) particulate matter and 17.1 microg (GSD = 1.2) particulate-phase PAHs, while one gram of Incense B produced around 43.6 mg (GSD = 1.1) of particles and 25.2 microg (GSD = 1.2) of particle-bound PAHs. There were significant differences in emissions between Incenses A and B, although they belong to the same class of incense. A 10-20% variability in emissions was observed in the main part of the manually produced stick, and a larger variation was found at both tips of the combustible part.

  16. Particulate hydroxy-PAH emissions from a residential wood log stove using different fuels and burning conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Nyström, Robin; Lindgren, Robert; Boman, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but have not been studied as extensively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several studies have however shown that hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have toxic and carcinogenic properties. They have been detected in air samples in semi urban areas and combustion is assumed to be the primary source of those compounds. To better understand the formation and occurrence of particulate hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential wood log stove combustion, 9 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 hydroxy biphenyls were quantified in particles generated from four different types of wood logs (birch, spruce, pine, aspen) and two different combustion conditions (nominal and high burn rate). A previously developed method utilizing liquid chromatography - photo ionization tandem mass spectrometry and pressurized liquid extraction was used. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed along with hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions varied significantly across different wood types and burning conditions; the highest emissions for nominal burn rate were from spruce and for high burn rate from pine burning. Emissions from nominal burn rate corresponded on average to 15% of the emissions from high burn rate, with average emissions of 218 μg/MJfuel and 32.5 μg/MJfuel for high burn rate and nominal burn rate, respectively. Emissions of the measured hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons corresponded on average to 28% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. This study shows that wood combustion is a large emission source of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and that not only combustion conditions, but also wood type influences the emissions of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. There are

  17. Mathematical study of methods to reduce emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate from a compression ignited, direct injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiming

    2001-11-01

    A phenomenological model based on the multizone concept and a three-dimensional CFD model were used to predict the effect of engine modification on particulated and NOx emission from a compression ignited direct injection (CIDI) engine. The phenomenological model consisted of a spray model, an evaporation model, a heat release model, NOx formation, soot formation, and oxidation model, and can be used to predict the combustion process and pollutant emission in a CIDI diesel engine. The advantage of the multizone model over the 3-D CFD model is the small CPU and memory it requires for a simulation. In this study, the phenomenological model was used to investigate (1) the effect of increasing the intake-air O2 content on soot and NO x emission as a function of power level and wall temperature; and (2) the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and split fuel injection on pollutant emission, and compare their soot penalty at a given NOx emission. The results indicate that EGR with a relatively low temperature can reduce NOx emission with a minimum penalty of soot particle emission. The use of EGR is promising for significantly reducing NOx emission with small or no penalty of soot particle emission. The effect of auxiliary gas injection (AGI) on diesel engine combustion and emission was studied using KIVA 3V, a multidimensional computation fluid dynamics code. AGI enhances the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce the emission of pollutants. The simulation of a high-speed gas jet model with a relatively coarse computational grids was described. The choice of turbulent length scale for optimum simulation suitability is dependent of local mesh grid. The results demonstrate that AGI creates a second-way flow in the cylinder, which improves the mixing of charge in the cylinder. The effect of AGI on combustion and flow movement is significant. The use of exhaust gas on the AGI can reduce soot emission, while NOx emission also can be decreased to some degree. To reduce

  18. A study of emissions from a Euro 4 light duty diesel vehicle with the European particulate measurement programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Harry; Ayala, Alberto; Zhang, Sherry; Collins, John; Huai, Tao; Herner, Jorn; Chau, Wilson

    2010-09-01

    The California Air Resources Board, CARB, has participated in a program to quantify particulate matter (PM) emissions with a European methodology, which is known as the Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP). The essence of the PMP methodology is that the diesel PM from a Euro 4 vehicle equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists primarily of solid particles with a size range greater than 23 nm. The PMP testing and the enhanced testing performed by CARB have enabled an increased understanding of both the progress that has been made in PM reduction, and the future remaining challenges for new and improved DPF-equipped diesel vehicles. A comparison of measured regulated emissions and solid particle number emissions with the results obtained by the PMP participating international laboratories was a success, and CARB's measurements and standard deviations compared well with the other laboratories. Enhanced measurements of the influence of vehicle conditioning prior to testing on PM mass and solid particle number results were performed, and some significant influences were discovered. For example, the influence of vehicle preconditioning on particle number results was significant for both the European and USA test driving cycles. However, the trends for the cycles were opposite with one cycle showing an increase and the other cycle showing a decrease in particle number emissions. If solid particle size distribution and total particle numbers are to be used as proposed in PMP, then a greater understanding of the quality and errors associated with measurement technologies is advisable. In general, particle counting instruments gave results with similar trends, but cycle-to-cycle testing variation was observed. Continuous measurements of particle number concentrations during test cycles have given detailed insight into PM generation. At the present time there is significant variation in the capabilities of the particle counting instruments in terms of

  19. Effects of Fuel Aromatic Content on Nonvolatile Particulate Emissions of an In-Production Aircraft Gas Turbine.

    PubMed

    Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Siegerist, Frithjof; Beyerle, Peter; Bruderer, Kevin; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Rocci-Denis, Sara; Andac, M Gurhan; Zelina, Joseph; Penanhoat, Olivier; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-17

    Aircraft engines emit particulate matter (PM) that affects the air quality in the vicinity of airports and contributes to climate change. Nonvolatile PM (nvPM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines depend on fuel aromatic content, which varies globally by several percent. It is uncertain how this variability will affect future nvPM emission regulations and emission inventories. Here, we present black carbon (BC) mass and nvPM number emission indices (EIs) as a function of fuel aromatic content and thrust for an in-production aircraft gas turbine engine. The aromatics content was varied from 17.8% (v/v) in the neat fuel (Jet A-1) to up to 23.6% (v/v) by injecting two aromatic solvents into the engine fuel supply line. Fuel normalized BC mass and nvPM number EIs increased by up to 60% with increasing fuel aromatics content and decreasing engine thrust. The EIs also increased when fuel naphthalenes were changed from 0.78% (v/v) to 1.18% (v/v) while keeping the total aromatics constant. The EIs correlated best with fuel hydrogen mass content, leading to a simple model that could be used for correcting fuel effects in emission inventories and in future aircraft engine nvPM emission standards. PMID:26495879

  20. Emissions of organic compounds and trace metals in fine particulate matter from motor vehicles: a tunnel study in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Chellam, Shankararaman; Kulkarni, Pranav; Fraser, Matthew P

    2005-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM) samples collected in a highway tunnel in Houston, TX, were analyzed to quantify the concentrations of 14 n-alkanes, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nine petroleum biomarkers, as well as 21 metals, with the ultimate aim of identifying appropriate tracers for diesel engines. First, an exploratory multivariate dimensionality reduction technique called principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to identify all potential candidates for tracers. Next, emission indices were calculated to interpret PCA results physically. Emission indices of n-heneicosane, n-docosane, n-tricosane, n-tetracosane, n-pentacosane, fluoranthene, and pyrene were correlated highly and increased strongly with percentage carbon present in the tunnel emanating from diesel vehicles. This suggests that these organic compounds are useful molecular markers to separate emissions from diesel and gasoline engines. Additionally, the results are the first quantification of the metal composition of PM with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) emissions from mobile sources in Houston. PCA of trace metal concentrations followed by emission index calculations revealed that barium in fine airborne particles can be linked quantitatively to diesel engine emissions, demonstrating its role as an elemental tracer for heavy-duty trucks.

  1. Physical properties, chemical composition, and cloud forming potential of particulate emissions from a marine diesel engine at various load conditions.

    PubMed

    Petzold, A; Weingartner, E; Hasselbach, J; Lauer, P; Kurok, C; Fleischer, F

    2010-05-15

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from one serial 4-stroke medium-speed marine diesel engine were measured for load conditions from 10% to 110% in test rig studies using heavy fuel oil (HFO). Testing the engine across its entire load range permitted the scaling of exhaust PM properties with load. Emission factors for particle number, particle mass, and chemical compounds were determined. The potential of particles to form cloud droplets (cloud condensation nuclei, CCN) was calculated from chemical composition and particle size. Number emission factors are (3.43 +/- 1.26) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 85-110% load and (1.06 +/- 0.10) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 10% load. CCN emission factors of 1-6 x 10(14) (kg fuel)(-1) are at the lower bound of data reported in the literature. From combined thermal and optical methods, black carbon (BC) emission factors of 40-60 mg/(kg fuel) were determined for 85-100% load and 370 mg/(kg fuel) for 10% load. The engine load dependence of the conversion efficiency for fuel sulfur into sulfate of (1.08 +/- 0.15)% at engine idle to (3.85 +/- 0.41)% at cruise may serve as input to global emission calculations for various load conditions.

  2. Effects of Fuel Aromatic Content on Nonvolatile Particulate Emissions of an In-Production Aircraft Gas Turbine.

    PubMed

    Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Siegerist, Frithjof; Beyerle, Peter; Bruderer, Kevin; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Rocci-Denis, Sara; Andac, M Gurhan; Zelina, Joseph; Penanhoat, Olivier; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-17

    Aircraft engines emit particulate matter (PM) that affects the air quality in the vicinity of airports and contributes to climate change. Nonvolatile PM (nvPM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines depend on fuel aromatic content, which varies globally by several percent. It is uncertain how this variability will affect future nvPM emission regulations and emission inventories. Here, we present black carbon (BC) mass and nvPM number emission indices (EIs) as a function of fuel aromatic content and thrust for an in-production aircraft gas turbine engine. The aromatics content was varied from 17.8% (v/v) in the neat fuel (Jet A-1) to up to 23.6% (v/v) by injecting two aromatic solvents into the engine fuel supply line. Fuel normalized BC mass and nvPM number EIs increased by up to 60% with increasing fuel aromatics content and decreasing engine thrust. The EIs also increased when fuel naphthalenes were changed from 0.78% (v/v) to 1.18% (v/v) while keeping the total aromatics constant. The EIs correlated best with fuel hydrogen mass content, leading to a simple model that could be used for correcting fuel effects in emission inventories and in future aircraft engine nvPM emission standards.

  3. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... has an annual capacity factor for residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent...

  4. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any...

  5. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any...

  6. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any...

  7. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any...

  8. Fugitive particulate air emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers at military training lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Military training lands used for off-road vehicle maneuvers may be subject to severe soil loss and air quality degradation as a result of severe wind erosion. The objective of this study was to measure suspended particulate matter resulting from various different vehicle training scenarios. Soil s...

  9. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., record the measured roll or shaft revolutions and reset the counter or switch to a second counter. As... valves isolating particulate filter No. 1, if applicable). Record the measured roll or shaft revolutions... shaft revolutions (and the No. 1 gas meter reading or flow measurement instrument). (Carefully...

  10. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-abatement uses a fungus to metabolize and remove fermentation inhibitors. To determine whether bio-abatement could alleviate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in biomass liquors after pretreatment, corn stover at 10% (w/v) solids was pretreated with either dilute acid or liquid hot water. The ...

  11. Application of multicriteria decision making methods to compression ignition engine efficiency and gaseous, particulate, and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Surawski, Nicholas C; Miljevic, Branka; Bodisco, Timothy A; Brown, Richard J; Ristovski, Zoran D; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2013-02-19

    Compression ignition (CI) engine design is subject to many constraints, which present a multicriteria optimization problem that the engine researcher must solve. In particular, the modern CI engine must not only be efficient but must also deliver low gaseous, particulate, and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions so that its impact on urban air quality, human health, and global warming is minimized. Consequently, this study undertakes a multicriteria analysis, which seeks to identify alternative fuels, injection technologies, and combustion strategies that could potentially satisfy these CI engine design constraints. Three data sets are analyzed with the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations and Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (PROMETHEE-GAIA) algorithm to explore the impact of (1) an ethanol fumigation system, (2) alternative fuels (20% biodiesel and synthetic diesel) and alternative injection technologies (mechanical direct injection and common rail injection), and (3) various biodiesel fuels made from 3 feedstocks (i.e., soy, tallow, and canola) tested at several blend percentages (20-100%) on the resulting emissions and efficiency profile of the various test engines. The results show that moderate ethanol substitutions (~20% by energy) at moderate load, high percentage soy blends (60-100%), and alternative fuels (biodiesel and synthetic diesel) provide an efficiency and emissions profile that yields the most "preferred" solutions to this multicriteria engine design problem. Further research is, however, required to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) emissions with alternative fuels and to deliver technologies that do not significantly reduce the median diameter of particle emissions.

  12. Current and future particulate-matter-related mortality risks in the United States from aviation emissions during landing and takeoff.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Woody, Matthew; Baek, Bok Haeng; Shankar, Uma; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2012-02-01

    Demand for air travel is projected to increase in the upcoming years, with a corresponding influence on emissions, air quality, and public health. The trajectory of health impacts would be influenced by not just emissions growth, but also changes in nonaviation ambient concentrations that influence secondary fine particulate matter (PM(2.5) ) formation, population growth and aging, and potential shifts in PM(2.5) concentration-response functions (CRFs). However, studies to date have not systematically evaluated the individual and joint contributions of these factors to health risk trajectories. In this study, we simulated emissions during landing and takeoff from aircraft at 99 airports across the United States for 2005 and for a 2025 flight activity projection scenario. We applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with the Speciated Modeled Attainment Test (SMAT) to determine the contributions of these emissions to ambient concentrations, including scenarios with 2025 aircraft emissions and 2005 nonaviation air quality. We combined CMAQ outputs with PM(2.5) mortality CRFs and population projections, and evaluated the influence of changing emissions, nonaviation concentrations, and population factors. Given these scenarios, aviation-related health impacts would increase by a factor of 6.1 from 2005 to 2025, with a factor of 2.1 attributable to emissions, a factor of 1.3 attributable to population factors, and a factor of 2.3 attributable to changing nonaviation concentrations which enhance secondary PM(2.5) formation. Our study emphasizes that the public health burden of aviation emissions would be significantly influenced by the joint effects of flight activity increases, nonaviation concentration changes, and population growth and aging.

  13. Near-surface temperature gradients and their effects on thermal-infrared emission spectra of particulate planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, B. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The infrared energy emitted from a planetary surface is generated within a finite depth determined by the material's absorption skin depth. This parameter varies significantly with wavelength in the infrared but has an average value of around 50 microns for most geologic materials. In solid rock, heat transfer is efficient enough so that this 50 micron zone of the near surface from which the radiation emanates will be more or less isothermal. In particulate materials, however, heat transfer is more complicated and occurs via a combination of mechanisms, including solid conduction within grains and across grain contacts, conduction through the interstitial gas, and thermal radiation within individual particles and across the void spaces in between grains. On planets with substantial atmospheres, the gas component dominates the heat transfer and tends to mitigate near-surface thermal gradients. However, on airless bodies, the gas component is absent and heat transfer occurs via solid conductions and radiation. If the particles are small relative to the average absorption skin depth, then the top 50-100 microns or so of the surface will be cooled by radiation to space allowing the creation of significant near-surface thermal gradients. In those regions of the spectrum where the absorption coefficient is low, the emission will come from the deeper, warmer parts of the medium, whereas in regions of high absorption, the emission will emanate from shallower, cooler parts of the medium. The resulting emission spectrum will show non-compositional features as a result of the thermal structure in the material. We have modeled the heat transfer in a particulate medium in order to determine the magnitude of near-surface thermal gradients for surfaces on airless bodies and on Mars. We use the calculated thermal structure to determine the effects it has on the infrared emission spectrum of the surface.

  14. Particulate matter, carbon emissions and elemental compositions from a diesel engine exhaust fuelled with diesel-biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraful, A. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    A comparative morphological analysis was performed on the exhaust particles emitted from a CI engine using different blending ratios of palm biodiesel at several operating conditions. It was observed from this experiment; peak particle concentration for PB10 at 1200 rpm is 1.85E + 02 and at 1500 rpm is 2.12E + 02. A slightly smaller amount of volatile material has found from the biodiesel samples compared to the diesel fuel sample. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the amount of volatile material in the soot from biodiesel fuels was slightly lower than that of diesel fuel. PB20 biodiesel blends reduced maximum 11.26% of volatile matter from the engine exhaust, while PB10 biodiesel blend reduced minimum 5.53% of volatile matter. On the other hand, the amount of fixed carbon from the biodiesel samples was slightly higher than diesel fuel. Analysis of carbon emissions, palm biodiesel (PB10) reduced elemental carbon (EC) was varies 0.75%-18%, respectively. Similarly, the emission reduction rate for PB20 was varies 11.36%-23.46% respectively. While, organic carbon (OC) emission rates reduced for PB20 was varied 13.7-49% respectively. Among the biodiesel blends, PB20 exhibited highest oxygen (O), sulfur (S) concentration and lowest silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) concentration. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images for PB20 showed granular structure particulates with bigger grain sizes compared to diesel. Particle diameter increased under the 2100-2400 rpm speed condition and it was 8.70% higher compared to the low speed conditions. Finally, the results indicated that the composition and degree of unsaturation of the methyl ester present in biodiesel, play an important role in the chemical composition of particulate matter emissions.

  15. The effect of large anthropogenic particulate emissions on atmospheric aerosols, deposition and bioindicators in the eastern Gulf of Finland region.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, L; Mäkinen, A; Häsänen, E; Juhanoja, J

    2000-10-30

    The effect of the emissions from large oil shale fuelled power plants and a cement factory in Estonia on the elemental concentration of atmospheric aerosols, deposition, elemental composition of mosses and ecological effects on mosses, lichens and pine trees in the eastern Gulf of Finland region has been studied. In addition to chemical analysis, fly ash, moss and aerosol samples were analysed by a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The massive particulate calcium emissions, approximately 60 kton/year (1992), is clearly observed in the aerosols, deposition and mosses. The calcium deposition is largest next to the Russian border downwind from the power plants and in south-eastern part of Finland. This deposition has decreased due to the application of dust removal systems at the particulate emission sources. At the Virolahti EMEP station approximately 140 km north from the emission sources, elevated elemental atmospheric aerosol concentrations are observed for Al, Ca, Fe, K and Si and during episodes many trace elements, such as As, Br, Mo, Ni, Pb and V. The acidification of the soil is negligible because of the high content of basic cations in the deposition. Visible symptoms on pine trees are negligible. However, in moss samples close to the power plants, up to 25% of the leaf surface was covered by particles. Many epiphytic lichen species do not tolerate basic stemflow and on the other hand most species are also very sensitive for the SO2 content in air. Consequently a large lichen desert is found in an area of 2500 km2 in the vicinity of the power plants with only one out of the investigated 12 species growing.

  16. Measurement of particulate matter emission fluxes from a beef cattle feedlot using Flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely-used micrometeorological method for gaseous emissions from open sources. V...

  17. Temperature effects on particulate matter emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions study measured exhaust emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from over 500 vehicles randomly recruited in the Kansas City metropolitan area in 2004 and 2005. Vehicle emissions testing occurred during the summer and winter, ...

  18. Removal of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Vehicle Using a Self-Powered Triboelectric Filter.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang Bao; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Chi; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Chaoying; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution from automobile exhaust has become one of the main pollution sources in urban environments. Although the diesel particulate filter has been used in heavy diesel vehicles, there is no particulate filter for most gasoline cars or light-duty vehicles because of high cost. Here, we introduce a self-powered triboelectric filter for removing PMs from automobile exhaust fumes using the triboelectrification effect. The finite element simulation reveals that the collision or friction between PTFE pellets and electrodes can generate large triboelectric charges and form a space electric field as high as 12 MV/m, accompanying an open-circuit voltage of ∼6 kV between the two electrodes, which is comparable to the measured value of 3 kV. By controlling the vibration frequency and fill ratio of pellets, more than 94% PMs in aerosol can be removed using the high electric field in the triboelectric filter. In real automobile exhaust fumes, the triboelectic filter has a mass collection efficiency of ∼95.5% for PM2.5 using self-vibration of the tailpipe.

  19. Removal of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Vehicle Using a Self-Powered Triboelectric Filter.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang Bao; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Chi; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Chaoying; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution from automobile exhaust has become one of the main pollution sources in urban environments. Although the diesel particulate filter has been used in heavy diesel vehicles, there is no particulate filter for most gasoline cars or light-duty vehicles because of high cost. Here, we introduce a self-powered triboelectric filter for removing PMs from automobile exhaust fumes using the triboelectrification effect. The finite element simulation reveals that the collision or friction between PTFE pellets and electrodes can generate large triboelectric charges and form a space electric field as high as 12 MV/m, accompanying an open-circuit voltage of ∼6 kV between the two electrodes, which is comparable to the measured value of 3 kV. By controlling the vibration frequency and fill ratio of pellets, more than 94% PMs in aerosol can be removed using the high electric field in the triboelectric filter. In real automobile exhaust fumes, the triboelectic filter has a mass collection efficiency of ∼95.5% for PM2.5 using self-vibration of the tailpipe. PMID:26554501

  20. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  1. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles. PMID:22369074

  2. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered

  4. Long-term records of fire occurrence and their implications for gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.S.; Stocks, B.J. Forestry Canada, Sault Ste, Marie, Ontario )

    1993-06-01

    Changing climate and land use appear to importantly affect the biosphere by way of impacts on fire regimes. Feedback effects on climate and air quality are likely through emissions of trace gases, aerosols, and particulates that affect radiation budgets, stability of the troposphere, and biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles. Paleorecords of biomass burning are available in the form of stratigraphic charcoal in lake and mire deposits and fire scars on trees. When taken together with recent emissions data from experimental bums and wildland fires they hold promise for estimation of how changing fire regimes may be affecting atmospheric composition. We synthesize existing evidence for effects of global change on fire regimes for each of the major biomes. Fire regimes vary in their sensitivities to changing climate, with woodland/savanna types and boreal forest among the most sensitive. Emissions have greatly increased with changing human influences in some vegetation types (temperate and some low-latitude biomes) and decreased in others (temperate pine forests). Some biomes, including boreal forests, hold promise for rather detailed reconstructions of past emissions. We recommend that future efforts focus on those regions where the importance of fire and availability of paleodata are greatest.

  5. Characteristics of particulate emissions from a diesel generator fueled with varying blends of biodiesel and fossil diesel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the particulate matter (PM), particle-bound carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a diesel-engine generator fuelled with blends of pure fossil diesel oil (D100) and varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel (W10, 10 vol %; W20, 20 vol %; W30, 30 vol %; and W50, 50 vol %) under generator loads of 0, 1.5, and 3 kW. On average, the PM emission factors of all blends was 30.5 % (range, 13.7-52.3 %) lower than that of D100 under the tested loads. Substituting pure fossil diesel oil with varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel reduced emissions of particle-bound total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC). The W20 blend had the lowest particle-bound organic carbon (OC) emissions. Notably, W10, W20, and W30 also had lower Total-PAH emissions and lower total equivalent toxicity (Total-BaP(eq)) compared to D100. Additionally, the brake-specific fuel consumption of the generator correlated positively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel. However, generator energy efficiency correlated negatively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel.

  6. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (<23%) on a domain-wide basis, despite significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions (65-89% of total VOC emissions). However, the production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic

  7. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (<23%) on a domain-wide basis, despite significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions (65-89% of total VOC emissions). However, the production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic

  8. Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) emission reductions of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked emission reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to reductions in primary emissions. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40 % in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85 %) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass, and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  9. Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) emission reductions of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to reductions in primary emissions. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40% in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85%) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  10. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 1: gaseous and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Prem; Rye, Lucas; Williams, Paul I; Christie, Simon; Uryga-Bugajska, Ilona; Wilson, Christopher W; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Blakey, Simon; Coe, Hugh; Raper, David; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. One such strategy being investigated is the use of alternative fuels in aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs) as a means to diversify fuel supplies and reduce emissions. This paper summarizes the results of a study to characterize the emissions of an APU, a small gas turbine engine, burning conventional Jet A-1, a fully synthetic jet fuel, and other alternative fuels with varying compositions. Gas phase emissions were measured at the engine exit plane while PM emissions were recorded at the exit plane as well as 10 m downstream of the engine. Five percent reduction in NO(x) emissions and 5-10% reduction in CO emissions were observed for the alternative fuels. Significant reductions in PM emissions at the engine exit plane were achieved with the alternative fuels. However, as the exhaust plume expanded and cooled, organic species were found to condense on the PM. This increase in organic PM elevated the PM mass but had little impact on PM number.

  11. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 1: gaseous and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Prem; Rye, Lucas; Williams, Paul I; Christie, Simon; Uryga-Bugajska, Ilona; Wilson, Christopher W; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Blakey, Simon; Coe, Hugh; Raper, David; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. One such strategy being investigated is the use of alternative fuels in aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs) as a means to diversify fuel supplies and reduce emissions. This paper summarizes the results of a study to characterize the emissions of an APU, a small gas turbine engine, burning conventional Jet A-1, a fully synthetic jet fuel, and other alternative fuels with varying compositions. Gas phase emissions were measured at the engine exit plane while PM emissions were recorded at the exit plane as well as 10 m downstream of the engine. Five percent reduction in NO(x) emissions and 5-10% reduction in CO emissions were observed for the alternative fuels. Significant reductions in PM emissions at the engine exit plane were achieved with the alternative fuels. However, as the exhaust plume expanded and cooled, organic species were found to condense on the PM. This increase in organic PM elevated the PM mass but had little impact on PM number. PMID:22913288

  12. An Analysis of Field-Aged Diesel Particulate Filter Performance: Particle Emissions Before, During and After Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John Morse; Domingo, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    A field-aged, passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) employed in a school bus retrofit program was evaluated for emissions of particle mass and number concentration before, during and after regeneration. For the particle mass measurements, filter samples were collected for gravimetric analysis with a partial flow sampling system, which sampled proportionally to the exhaust flow. Total number concentration and number-size distributions were measured by a condensation particle counter and scanning mobility particle sizer, respectively. The results of the evaluation show that the number concentration emissions decreased as the DPF became loaded with soot. However after soot removal by regeneration, the number concentration emissions were approximately 20 times greater, which suggests the importance of the soot layer in helping to trap particles. Contrary to the number concentration results, particle mass emissions decreased from 6 1 mg/hp-hr before regeneration to 3 2 mg/hp-hr after regeneration. This indicates that nanoparticles with diameter less than 50 nm may have been emitted after regeneration since these particles contribute little to the total mass. Overall, average particle emission reductions of 95% by mass and 10,000-fold by number concentration after four years of use provided evidence of the durability of a field-aged DPF. In contrast to previous reports for new DPFs in which elevated number concentrations occurred during the first 200 seconds of a transient cycle, the number concentration emissions were elevated during the second half of the heavy-duty federal test procedure when high speed was sustained. This information is relevant for the analysis of mechanisms by which particles are emitted from field-aged DPFs.

  13. An analysis of field-aged diesel particulate filter performance: particle emissions before, during, and after regeneration.

    PubMed

    Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John M E; Domingo, Norberto

    2010-08-01

    A field-aged, passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) used in a school bus retrofit program was evaluated for emissions of particle mass and number concentration before, during, and after regeneration. For the particle mass measurements, filter samples were collected for gravimetric analysis with a partial flow sampling system, which sampled proportionally to the exhaust flow. A condensation particle counter and scanning mobility particle sizer measured total number concentration and number-size distributions, respectively. The results of the evaluation show that the number concentration emissions decreased as the DPF became loaded with soot. However, after soot removal by regeneration, the number concentration emissions were approximately 20 times greater, which suggests the importance of the soot layer in helping to trap particles. Contrary to the number concentration results, particle mass emissions decreased from 6 +/- 1 mg/hp-hr before regeneration to 3 +/- 2 mg/hp-hr after regeneration. This indicates that nanoparticles with diameters less than 50 nm may have been emitted after regeneration because these particles contribute little to the total mass. Overall, average particle emission reductions of 95% by mass and 10,000-fold by number concentration after 4 yr of use provided evidence of the durability of a field-aged DPF. In contrast to previous reports for new DPFs in which elevated number concentrations occurred during the first 200 sec of a transient cycle, the number concentration emissions were elevated during the second half of the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) when high speed was sustained. This information is relevant for the analysis of mechanisms by which particles are emitted from field-aged DPFs.

  14. 40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (COMS) for measuring the opacity of the emissions discharged to the atmosphere and record the output of... emission rates of 26 ng/J (0.060 lb/MMBtu) heat input or less and that do not use a post-combustion... output of the system for PM emissions discharged to the atmosphere as specified in § 60.45c(c). The...

  15. PM2.5 and ultrafine particulate matter emissions from natural gas-fired turbine for power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli; Li, Yang; Finken, Bob; Quartucy, Greg; Muzio, Lawrence; Baez, Al; Garibay, Mike; Jung, Heejung S.

    2016-04-01

    The generation of electricity from natural gas-fired turbines has increased more than 200% since 2003. In 2007 the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) funded a project to identify control strategies and technologies for PM2.5 and ultrafine emissions from natural gas-fired turbine power plants and test at pilot scale advanced PM2.5 technologies to reduce emissions from these gas turbine-based power plants. This prompted a study of the exhaust from new facilities to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine located at the Walnut Creek Energy Park in August 2013. These tests included particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. After turbine exhaust was diluted sevenfold with filtered air, particle concentrations in the 10-300 nm size range were approximately two orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient air and those in the 2-3 nm size range were up to four orders of magnitude higher. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. While some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings of 3.63E-04 lb/MMBtu based on Methods 5.1/201A and 1.07E-04 lb/MMBtu based on SMPS method, which are similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area (FERCo et al., 2014), however, the turbine

  16. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  17. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  18. Mote trash system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  19. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from a current technology natural gas engine.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Yoon, Seungju; Collins, John; Kappanna, Hemanth; Carder, Daniel K; Ayala, Alberto; Herner, Jorn; Gautam, Mridul

    2014-07-15

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the particulate matter (PM)-size distribution, number concentration, and chemical composition emitted from transit buses powered by a USEPA 2010 compliant, stoichiometric heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst (TWC). Results of the particle-size distribution showed a predominant nucleation mode centered close to 10 nm. PM mass in the size range of 6.04 to 25.5 nm correlated strongly with mass of lubrication-oil-derived elemental species detected in the gravimetric PM sample. Results from oil analysis indicated an elemental composition that was similar to that detected in the PM samples. The source of elemental species in the oil sample can be attributed to additives and engine wear. Chemical speciation of particulate matter (PM) showed that lubrication-oil-based additives and wear metals were a major fraction of the PM mass emitted from the buses. The results of the study indicate the possible existence of nanoparticles below 25 nm formed as a result of lubrication oil passage through the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress (OS) analysis on the PM samples indicated strong correlations with both the PM mass calculated in the nanoparticle-size bin and the mass of elemental species that can be linked to lubrication oil as the source. PMID:24960475

  20. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from a current technology natural gas engine.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Yoon, Seungju; Collins, John; Kappanna, Hemanth; Carder, Daniel K; Ayala, Alberto; Herner, Jorn; Gautam, Mridul

    2014-07-15

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the particulate matter (PM)-size distribution, number concentration, and chemical composition emitted from transit buses powered by a USEPA 2010 compliant, stoichiometric heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst (TWC). Results of the particle-size distribution showed a predominant nucleation mode centered close to 10 nm. PM mass in the size range of 6.04 to 25.5 nm correlated strongly with mass of lubrication-oil-derived elemental species detected in the gravimetric PM sample. Results from oil analysis indicated an elemental composition that was similar to that detected in the PM samples. The source of elemental species in the oil sample can be attributed to additives and engine wear. Chemical speciation of particulate matter (PM) showed that lubrication-oil-based additives and wear metals were a major fraction of the PM mass emitted from the buses. The results of the study indicate the possible existence of nanoparticles below 25 nm formed as a result of lubrication oil passage through the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress (OS) analysis on the PM samples indicated strong correlations with both the PM mass calculated in the nanoparticle-size bin and the mass of elemental species that can be linked to lubrication oil as the source.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (MICROFACPM) FOR PREDICTING REAL-TIME MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory has initiated a project to improve the methodology for modeling human exposure to motor vehicle emissions. The overall project goal is to develop improved methods for modeling the source t...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (MICROFACPM) FOR PREDICTING REAL-TIME MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory is pursuing a project to improve the methodology for modeling human exposure to motor vehicle emissions. The overall project is to develop improved methods for modeling the source through...

  3. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-03-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop techniques for nitrogen oxides abatement by distributed fuel addition. The major nitrogen oxide of interest is Nitric Oxide (NO), a precursor to premature forest damage and to acid rain. Recently interest has also been evoked with respect to an additional oxide of nitrogen, namely Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O). Therefore, abatement measures for NO{sub x} are being investigated to determine their influence on N{sub 2}O as well. This report briefly describes the significance of N{sub 2}O emissions to the environment and the urgent need to develop techniques that can reduce emissions of both NO and N{sub 2}O. Reburning through distributed fuel addition may be an effective technique for NO{sub x} (mainly NO) emission control as described in the previous quarterly report. Reburning may also be effective in reducing N{sub 2}O levels. A technique for N{sub 2}O measurement by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was developed during this quarter, and is described in this report. This analysis technique will be used in the proposed experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of reburning on N{sub 2}O control.

  4. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

  5. Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

    We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

  6. Response of SO2 and particulate air pollution to local and regional emission controls: A case study in Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Vinnikov, Konstantin Y.; Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Jongeward, Andrew R.; Li, Zhanqing; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Hains, Jennifer C.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the questions of what effect local regulations can have on pollutants with different lifetimes and how surface observations and remotely sensed data can be used to determine the impacts. We investigated the decadal trends of tropospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) and aerosol pollution over Maryland and its surrounding states, using surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Aircraft measurements indicated fewer isolated SO2 plumes observed in summers, a ˜40% decrease of column SO2, and a ˜20% decrease of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) over Maryland after the implementation of local regulations on sulfur emissions from power plants (˜90% reduction from 2010). Surface observations of SO2 and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Maryland show similar trends. OMI SO2 and MODIS AOD observations were used to investigate the column contents of air pollutants over the eastern U.S.; these indicate decreasing trends in column SO2 (˜60% decrease) and AOD (˜20% decrease). The decrease of upwind SO2 emissions also reduced aerosol loadings over the downwind Atlantic Ocean near the coast by ˜20%, while indiscernible changes of the SO2 column were observed. A step change of SO2 emissions in Maryland starting in 2009-2010 had an immediate and profound benefit in terms of local surface SO2 concentrations but a modest impact on aerosol pollution, indicating that short-lived pollutants are effectively controlled locally, while long-lived pollutants require regional measures.

  7. Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2012-09-01

    Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%.

  8. Particulate Emissions Control using Advanced Filter Systems: Final Report for Argonne National Laboratory, Corning Inc. and Hyundai Motor Company CRADA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Hee Je; Choi, Seungmok

    2015-10-09

    This is a 3-way CRADA project working together with Corning, Inc. and Hyundai Motor Co. (HMC). The project is to understand particulate emissions from gasoline direct-injection engines (GDI) and their physico-chemical properties. In addition, this project focuses on providing fundamental information about filtration and regeneration mechanisms occurring in gasoline particulate filter (GPF) systems. For the work, Corning provides most advanced filter substrates for GPF applications and HMC provides three-way catalyst (TWC) coating services of these filter by way of a catalyst coating company. Then, Argonne National Laboratory characterizes fundamental behaviors of filtration and regeneration processes as well as evaluated TWC functionality for the coated filters. To examine aging impacts on TWC and GPF performance, the research team evaluates gaseous and particulate emissions as well as back-pressure increase with ash loading by using an engine-oil injection system to accelerate ash loading in TWC-coated GPFs.

  9. Particle Size Distributions of Particulate Emissions from the Ferroalloy Industry Evaluated by Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI)

    PubMed Central

    Kero, Ida; Naess, Mari K.; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    The present article presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential use of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) in the ferroalloy industry with respect to indoor air quality and fugitive emission control. The ELPI was used to assess particulate emission properties, particularly of the fine particles (Dp ≤ 1 μm), which in turn may enable more satisfactory risk assessments for the indoor working conditions in the ferroalloy industry. An ELPI has been applied to characterize the fume in two different ferroalloy plants, one producing silicomanganese (SiMn) alloys and one producing ferrosilicon (FeSi) alloys. The impactor classifies the particles according to their aerodynamic diameter and gives real-time particle size distributions (PSD). The PSD based on both number and mass concentrations are shown and compared. Collected particles have also been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. From the ELPI classification, particle size distributions in the range 7 nm – 10 μm have been established for industrial SiMn and FeSi fumes. Due to the extremely low masses of the ultrafine particles, the number and mass concentration PSD are significantly different. The average aerodynamic diameters for the FeSi and the SiMn fume particles were 0.17 and 0.10 μm, respectively. Based on this work, the ELPI is identified as a valuable tool for the evaluation of airborne particulate matter in the indoor air of metallurgical production sites. The method is well suited for real-time assessment of morphology (particle shape), particle size, and particle size distribution of aerosols. PMID:25380385

  10. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  11. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as directly in the exhaust plumes of individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks. BC emission factor distributions for HD trucks were more skewed than OA distributions, with the highest 10% of trucks accounting for 56 and 42% of total measured BC and OA emissions, respectively. A comparison of measured OA and BC mass spectra across various sampling periods revealed a high degree of similarity in BC and OA emitted by gasoline and diesel engines. Cycloalkanes predominate in exhaust OA emissions relative to saturated alkanes (i.e., normal and iso-paraffins), suggesting that lubricating oil rather than fuel is the dominant source of primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions in diesel vehicle exhaust. This finding is supported by the detection of trace elements such as zinc and phosphorus in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks. Trace elements were emitted relative to total OA at levels that are consistent with typical weight fractions of commonly used additives present in lubricating oil. The presence of trace elements in vehicle exhaust raises the concern that ash deposits may accumulate over time in diesel particle filter systems, and may eventually lead to performance problems that require servicing.

  12. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Amara L.; Hagler, Gayle S. W.; Aurell, Johanna; Hays, Michael D.; Gullett, Brian K.

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol optical properties of biomass burning emissions are critical parameters determining how these emissions impact the Earth's climate. Despite their importance, field measurements of aerosol optical properties from fires remain scarce. Aerosol emissions from prescribed fires of forested and grass plots in the southeastern United States were measured and compared to emissions from laboratory simulations. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and aerosol light scattering and absorption were characterized for all fires. Refractory BC emission factors (EFs) measured at ground level (~2 m) were 0.76 ± 0.15 g/kg, comparable to the 0.93 ± 0.32 g/kg measured aloft (~100-600 m). However, PM EFs measured by aircraft were only 18% (5.4 ± 2.0 g/kg) of those measured on the ground (28.8 ± 9.8 g/kg). Such large differences in PM EFs for the same fire have not been previously reported and may plausibly be due to the differing particle measurement methodologies being applied but also likely related to partitioning of organic compounds to the gas phase as the plume dilutes aloft. Higher PM EFs on the ground may also be related to a higher contribution from smoldering combustion. The absorption Ångström exponents (αa) for the high intensity South Carolina fires were 3.92 ± 0.6, which was larger than prescribed forest fire in Florida (2.84) and the grass fire in Florida (2.71), implying a larger absorption contribution from brown carbon from higher-intensity fires. Aerosol optical properties from laboratory simulations did not represent field measurements.

  13. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as directly in the exhaust plumes of individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks. BC emission factor distributions for HD trucks were more skewed than OA distributions (N = 293), with the highest 10% of trucks accounting for 56 and 42% of total measured BC and OA emissions, respectively. OA mass spectra measured for HD truck exhaust plumes show cycloalkanes are predominate in exhaust OA emissions relative to saturated alkanes (i.e., normal and iso-paraffins), suggesting that lubricating oil rather than fuel is the dominant source of primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions in diesel vehicle exhaust. This finding is supported by the detection of trace elements such as zinc and phosphorus in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks. Trace elements were emitted relative to total OA at levels that are consistent with typical weight fractions of commonly used additives present in lubricating oil. A comparison of measured OA and BC mass spectra across various sampling periods revealed a high degree of similarity in OA and BC emitted by gasoline and diesel engines. This finding indicates a large fraction of OA in gasoline exhaust is lubricant-derived as well. The similarity in OA and BC mass spectra for gasoline and diesel engine exhaust is likely to confound ambient source apportionment efforts to determine contributions to air pollution from these two important sources.

  14. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Raymond B.; Healy, Mark G.; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called ‘pollution swapping’ potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application. PMID:26053923

  15. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  16. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  17. 40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility fires fuel for which an opacity standard is applicable using Method 22 of appendix A-7 of this... within 24 hours of the first discovery of the high emission incident and, take the appropriate...

  18. Determination of Vanadium, Tin and Mercury in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cement Dust Samples by Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindy, Kamal T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution study applies direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) to samples of total suspended particulate matter collected in two industrial areas and one residential area, and cement dust collected near major cement factories. These samples were analyzed for vanadium, tin, and mercury. The results indicate the…

  19. Potential ozone impacts of excess NO2 emissions from diesel particulate filters for on- and off-road diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Bar-llan, Amnon; Johnson, Jeremiah R; Denbleyker, Allison; Chan, Lit-Mian; Yarwood, Gregory; Hitchcock, David; Pinto, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    This study considers potential impacts of increased use of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on ozone formation in the Dallas/ Fort Worth (DFW) area. There is concern that excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from vehicles equipped with these devices could increase ambient ozone levels. The approach involved developing two scenarios for use of these devices, quantifying excess NO2 emissions in each scenario, and using a photochemical model to estimate the resulting ozone changes. In the "maximum penetration" scenario, DOC/DPF devices in a 2009 fleet of heavy-duty on-road trucks, school buses, and construction equipment were significantly increased by accelerating turnover of these vehicles and equipment to models that would require DOCs/DPFs. In the "realistic" scenario, current fractional usage of these devices was assessed for 2009. For both scenarios, excess NO2 emissions from DOCs/DPFs were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE6 and NONROAD emissions inventory modeling tools. The emissions analyses were used to adjust the DFW photochemical modeling emissions inventories and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions air quality model was rerun for the DFW area to determine the impact of these two scenarios on ozone formation. The maximum penetration scenario, which showed an overall reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) because of the accelerated turnover of equipment to cleaner models, resulted in a net decrease in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of 4-5 parts per billion (ppb) despite the increase in NO2 emissions. The realistic scenario resulted in a small increase in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of less than 1 ppb for the DFW area. It was concluded that the excess NO2 emissions from DOC/DPF devices result in very small ozone impacts, particularly for the realistic scenario, in the DFW area. There are noticeable decreases in ozone for the maximum penetration scenario because NO

  20. Electron microscopic study of soot particulate matter emissions from aircraft turbine engines.

    PubMed

    Liati, Anthi; Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Vögtli, Melanie; Dasilva, Yadira Arroyo Rojas; Eggenschwiler, Panayotis Dimopoulos; Wang, Jing

    2014-09-16

    The microscopic characteristics of soot particulate matter (PM) in gas turbine exhaust are critical for an accurate assessment of the potential impacts of the aviation industry on the environment and human health. The morphology and internal structure of soot particles emitted from a CFM 56-7B26/3 turbofan engine were analyzed in an electron microscopic study, down to the nanoscale, for ∼ 100%, ∼ 65%, and ∼ 7% static engine thrust as a proxy for takeoff, cruising, and taxiing, respectively. Sampling was performed directly on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids with a state-of-the-art sampling system designed for nonvolatile particulate matter. The electron microscopy results reveal that ∼ 100% thrust produces the highest amount of soot, the highest soot particle volume, and the largest and most crystalline primary soot particles with the lowest oxidative reactivity. The opposite is the case for soot produced during taxiing, where primary soot particles are smallest and most reactive and the soot amount and volume are lowest. The microscopic characteristics of cruising condition soot resemble the ones of the ∼ 100% thrust conditions, but they are more moderate. Real time online measurements of number and mass concentration show also a clear correlation with engine thrust level, comparable with the TEM study. The results of the present work, in particular the small size of primary soot particles present in the exhaust (modes of 24, 20, and 13 nm in diameter for ∼ 100%, ∼ 65% and ∼ 7% engine thrust, respectively) could be a concern for human health and the environment and merit further study. This work further emphasizes the significance of the detailed morphological characteristics of soot for assessing environmental impacts. PMID:25180674

  1. Electron microscopic study of soot particulate matter emissions from aircraft turbine engines.

    PubMed

    Liati, Anthi; Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Vögtli, Melanie; Dasilva, Yadira Arroyo Rojas; Eggenschwiler, Panayotis Dimopoulos; Wang, Jing

    2014-09-16

    The microscopic characteristics of soot particulate matter (PM) in gas turbine exhaust are critical for an accurate assessment of the potential impacts of the aviation industry on the environment and human health. The morphology and internal structure of soot particles emitted from a CFM 56-7B26/3 turbofan engine were analyzed in an electron microscopic study, down to the nanoscale, for ∼ 100%, ∼ 65%, and ∼ 7% static engine thrust as a proxy for takeoff, cruising, and taxiing, respectively. Sampling was performed directly on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids with a state-of-the-art sampling system designed for nonvolatile particulate matter. The electron microscopy results reveal that ∼ 100% thrust produces the highest amount of soot, the highest soot particle volume, and the largest and most crystalline primary soot particles with the lowest oxidative reactivity. The opposite is the case for soot produced during taxiing, where primary soot particles are smallest and most reactive and the soot amount and volume are lowest. The microscopic characteristics of cruising condition soot resemble the ones of the ∼ 100% thrust conditions, but they are more moderate. Real time online measurements of number and mass concentration show also a clear correlation with engine thrust level, comparable with the TEM study. The results of the present work, in particular the small size of primary soot particles present in the exhaust (modes of 24, 20, and 13 nm in diameter for ∼ 100%, ∼ 65% and ∼ 7% engine thrust, respectively) could be a concern for human health and the environment and merit further study. This work further emphasizes the significance of the detailed morphological characteristics of soot for assessing environmental impacts.

  2. Source apportionment of traffic emissions of particulate matter using tunnel measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mao, Hongjun; Prain, Hunter Douglas; Bull, Ian D.

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to quantify exhaust/non-exhaust emissions and the uncertainties associated with them by combining innovative motorway tunnel sampling and source apportionment modelling. Analytical techniques ICP-AES and GC-MS were used to identify the metallic and organic composition of PM10, respectively. Good correlation was observed between Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Sb and change in traffic volume. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organics varies significantly at the entrance and exit site of the tunnel, with fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and benzothiazole having the highest incremented concentrations. The application of Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis helped to identify the emission sources for 82% of the total PM10 mass inside the tunnel. Identified sources include resuspension (27%), diesel exhaust emissions (21%), petrol exhaust emissions (12%), brake wear emissions (11%) and road surface wear (11%). This study shows that major health related chemical species of PM10 originate from non-exhaust sources, further signifying the need for legislation to reduce these emissions.

  3. Emission Factors of Greenhouse Gases and Particulates from Australian Savanna Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desservettaz, Maximilien; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David; Kettlewell, Graham; Wilson, Stephen; Keywood, Melita; Van der Schoot, Marcel; Seleck, Paul; Ward, Jason; Harwell, James; Reisen, Fabienne; Lawson, Sarah; Ristovski, Zoran; Mallet, Marc; Miljevic, Brenka; Milic, Andjelija; Atkinson, Brad

    2016-04-01

    In June 2014 a measurement campaign took place at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS), in the Northern Territory, Australia, during the early dry season. The campaign was focused on understanding biomass burning emissions from savanna fires. In order to achieve this, a suite of aerosol, reactive and trace gases instruments were deployed. Seven smoke events were extracted from the 4 weeks of continuous measurements using carbon monoxide as a proxy for biomass burning. Those events were then analysed and emission factors were calculated for CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NOx and aerosols (Aitken and Accumulation mode, and chemical speciation), along with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Upon review of the emission factors, smoke events could then be classified in 3 groups: high MCE events (0.98) were characterised by emission factors typical of savanna grass fires while low MCE events (0.88) were characteristic of shrub fires. Intermediate MCE events (0.93) were found not to reflect any distinct vegetation type. This presentation will outline the campaign and present emission factors of trace and reactive gases as well as the first emission factors for aerosols reported for Australian savanna fires.

  4. Emission factors of particulate matter and elemental carbon for crop residues and coals burned in typical household stoves in China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Tao, Shu; Zhu, Chen; Min, Yujia; Xue, Miao; Ding, Junnan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G.

    2013-01-01

    Both particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) impact climate change and human health. Uncertainties in emission inventories of PM and BC are partially due to large variation of measured emission factors (EFs) and lack of EFs from developing countries. Although there is a debate whether thermal-optically measured elemental carbon (EC) may be referred to as BC, EC are often treated as the same mass of BC. In this study, EFs of PM (EFPM) and EC (EFEC) for 9 crop residues and 5 coals were measured in actual rural cooking and coal stoves using the carbon mass balance method. The dependence of the EFs on fuel properties and combustion conditions were investigated. It was found that the mean EFPM were 8.19 ± 4.27 and 3.17 ± 4.67 g/kg and the mean EFEC were 1.38 ± 0.70 and 0.23 ± 0.36 g/kg for crop residues and coals, respectively. PM with size less than 10 μm (PM10) from crop residues were dominated by particles of aerodynamic size ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 μm, while the most abundant size ranges of PM10 from coals were either from 0.7 to 2.1 μm or less than 0.7 μm. Of various fuel properties and combustion conditions tested, fuel moisture and modified combustion efficiency (MCE) were the most critical factors affecting EFPM and EFEC for crop residues. For coal combustion, EFPM were primarily affected by MCE and volatile matter, while EFEC were significantly influenced by ash content, volatile matter, heat value, and MCE. It was also found that EC emissions were significantly correlated with emissions of PM with size less than 0.4 μm. PMID:20735038

  5. Emission factors of particulate matter and elemental carbon for crop residues and coals burned in typical household stoves in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Tao, Shu; Zhu, Chen; Min, Yujia; Xue, Miao; Ding, Junnan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G

    2010-09-15

    Both particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) impact climate change and human health. Uncertainties in emission inventories of PM and BC are partially due to large variation of measured emission factors (EFs) and lack of EFs from developing countries. Although there is a debate whether thermal-optically measured elemental carbon (EC) may be referred to as BC, EC is often treated as the same mass of BC. In this study, EFs of PM (EF(PM)) and EC (EF(EC)) for 9 crop residues and 5 coals were measured in actual rural cooking and coal stoves using the carbon mass balance method. The dependence of the EFs on fuel properties and combustion conditions was investigated. It was found that the mean EF(PM) were 8.19 ± 4.27 and 3.17 ± 4.67 g/kg and the mean EF(EC) were 1.38 ± 0.70 and 0.23 ± 0.36 g/kg for crop residues and coals, respectively. PM with size less than 10 μm (PM(10)) from crop residues were dominated by particles of aerodynamic size ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 μm, while the most abundant size ranges of PM(10) from coals were either from 0.7 to 2.1 μm or less than 0.7 μm. Of various fuel properties and combustion conditions tested, fuel moisture and modified combustion efficiency (MCE) were the most critical factors affecting EF(PM) and EF(EC) for crop residues. For coal combustion, EF(PM) were primarily affected by MCE and volatile matter, whereas EF(EC) were significantly influenced by ash content, volatile matter, heat value, and MCE. It was also found that EC emissions were significantly correlated with emissions of PM with size less than 0.4 μm. PMID:20735038

  6. A new alternative fuel for reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tser-Son; Chen, Kung-Fu

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogenic potential of PAH and particulate matter (PM), brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and power from diesel engines under transient cycle testing of six test fuels: premium diesel fuel (PDF), B100 (100% palm biodiesel), B20 (20% palm biodiesel + 80% PDF), BP9505 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm biodiesel), BP8020 (80% paraffinic fuel + 20% palm biodiesel), and BP100 (100% paraffinic fuel; Table 1). Experimental results indicated that B100, BP9505, BP8020, and BP100 were much safer when stored than PDF. However, we must use additives so that B100 and BP100 will not gel as quickly in a cold zone. Using B100, BP9505, and BP8020 instead of PDF reduced PM, THC, and CO emissions dramatically but increased CO2 slightly because of more complete combustion. The CO2-increased fraction of BP9505 was the lowest among test blends. Furthermore, using B100, B20, BP9505, and BP8020 as alternative fuels reduced total PAHs and total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (total BaPeq) emissions significantly. BP9505 had the lowest decreased fractions of power and torque and increased fraction of BSFC. These experimental results implied that BP9505 is feasible for traveling diesel vehicles. Moreover, paraffinic fuel will likely be a new alternative fuel in the future. Using BP9505 instead of PDF decreased PM (22.8%), THC (13.4%), CO (25.3%), total PAHs (88.9%), and total BaPeq (88.1%) emissions significantly. PMID:17458465

  7. Network Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2016-09-09

    Specification of PM2.5 spatial and temporal characteristics is important for understanding PM2.5 adverse effects and policymaking. We applied network analysis to studying the dataset MIX, which contains PM2.5 emissions recorded from 2168 monitoring stations in China in 2008 and 2010. The results showed that for PM2.5 emissions from industrial sector 8 clusters were found in 2008 but they merged together into a huge cluster in 2010, suggesting that industrial sector underwent an integrating process. For PM2.5 emissions from electricity generation sector, strong locality of clusters was revealed, implying that each region had its own electricity generation system. For PM2.5 emissions from residential sector, the same pattern of 10 clusters was uncovered in both years, implicating the household energy consumption unchanged from 2008 to 2010. For PM2.5 emissions from transportation sector, the same pattern of 5 clusters with many connections in-between was unraveled, indicating the high-speed development of transportation nationalwidely. Except for the known elements, mercury (Hg) surfaced as an element for particle nucleation. To our knowledge, this is the first network study in this field.

  8. Network Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Specification of PM2.5 spatial and temporal characteristics is important for understanding PM2.5 adverse effects and policymaking. We applied network analysis to studying the dataset MIX, which contains PM2.5 emissions recorded from 2168 monitoring stations in China in 2008 and 2010. The results showed that for PM2.5 emissions from industrial sector 8 clusters were found in 2008 but they merged together into a huge cluster in 2010, suggesting that industrial sector underwent an integrating process. For PM2.5 emissions from electricity generation sector, strong locality of clusters was revealed, implying that each region had its own electricity generation system. For PM2.5 emissions from residential sector, the same pattern of 10 clusters was uncovered in both years, implicating the household energy consumption unchanged from 2008 to 2010. For PM2.5 emissions from transportation sector, the same pattern of 5 clusters with many connections in-between was unraveled, indicating the high-speed development of transportation nationalwidely. Except for the known elements, mercury (Hg) surfaced as an element for particle nucleation. To our knowledge, this is the first network study in this field. PMID:27608625

  9. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-01

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential).

  10. Size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon particulate emission factors from agricultural burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshtkar, Haleh; Ashbaugh, Lowell L.

    Burning of agricultural waste residue is a common method of disposal when preparing land following crop harvest. This practice introduces volatile organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), into the atmosphere. This study examines the particle size distribution in the smoke emissions of two common agricultural waste residues (biofuels) in California, almond prunings and rice straw. The residues were burned in a combustion chamber designed specifically for this purpose, and the smoke emissions were collected on 10-stage MOUDI impactors for analysis of PAH and total particle mass. The results, in units of emission factors, show that combustion temperature is an important factor in determining the smoke particle PAH composition. Total PAH emissions from rice straw burns were 18.6 mg kg -1 of fuel, while the emissions from almond prunings were lower at 8.03 mg kg -1. The less volatile five- and six-ring PAH was predominately on smaller particles where it condensed in the early stages of combustion while the more volatile three- and four-ring PAH formed on larger particles as the smoke cooled.

  11. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-01

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential). PMID:25093939

  12. Network Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Specification of PM2.5 spatial and temporal characteristics is important for understanding PM2.5 adverse effects and policymaking. We applied network analysis to studying the dataset MIX, which contains PM2.5 emissions recorded from 2168 monitoring stations in China in 2008 and 2010. The results showed that for PM2.5 emissions from industrial sector 8 clusters were found in 2008 but they merged together into a huge cluster in 2010, suggesting that industrial sector underwent an integrating process. For PM2.5 emissions from electricity generation sector, strong locality of clusters was revealed, implying that each region had its own electricity generation system. For PM2.5 emissions from residential sector, the same pattern of 10 clusters was uncovered in both years, implicating the household energy consumption unchanged from 2008 to 2010. For PM2.5 emissions from transportation sector, the same pattern of 5 clusters with many connections in-between was unraveled, indicating the high-speed development of transportation nationalwidely. Except for the known elements, mercury (Hg) surfaced as an element for particle nucleation. To our knowledge, this is the first network study in this field.

  13. Network Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Emissions in China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Specification of PM2.5 spatial and temporal characteristics is important for understanding PM2.5 adverse effects and policymaking. We applied network analysis to studying the dataset MIX, which contains PM2.5 emissions recorded from 2168 monitoring stations in China in 2008 and 2010. The results showed that for PM2.5 emissions from industrial sector 8 clusters were found in 2008 but they merged together into a huge cluster in 2010, suggesting that industrial sector underwent an integrating process. For PM2.5 emissions from electricity generation sector, strong locality of clusters was revealed, implying that each region had its own electricity generation system. For PM2.5 emissions from residential sector, the same pattern of 10 clusters was uncovered in both years, implicating the household energy consumption unchanged from 2008 to 2010. For PM2.5 emissions from transportation sector, the same pattern of 5 clusters with many connections in-between was unraveled, indicating the high-speed development of transportation nationalwidely. Except for the known elements, mercury (Hg) surfaced as an element for particle nucleation. To our knowledge, this is the first network study in this field. PMID:27608625

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  15. Response of winter fine particulate matter concentrations to emission and meteorology changes in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meng; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Saide, Pablo E.; Lu, Zifeng; Yu, Man; Streets, David G.; Wang, Zifa

    2016-09-01

    The winter haze is a growing problem in North China, but the causes are not well understood. The chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) was applied in North China to examine how PM2.5 concentrations change in response to changes in emissions (sulfur dioxide (SO2), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), ammonia (NH3), and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), as well as meteorology (temperature, relative humidity (RH), and wind speeds) changes in winter. From 1960 to 2010, the dramatic changes in emissions lead to +260 % increases in sulfate, +320 % increases in nitrate, +300 % increases in ammonium, +160 % increases in BC, and +50 % increases in OC. The responses of PM2.5 to individual emission species indicate that the simultaneous increases in SO2, NH3, and NOx emissions dominated the increases in PM2.5 concentrations. PM2.5 shows more notable increases in response to changes in SO2 and NH3 as compared to increases in response to changes in NOx emissions. In addition, OC also accounts for a large fraction in PM2.5 changes. These results provide some implications for haze pollution control. The responses of PM2.5 concentrations to temperature increases are dominated by changes in wind fields and mixing heights. PM2.5 shows relatively smaller changes in response to temperature increases and RH decreases compared to changes in response to changes in wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. From 1960 to 2010, aerosol feedbacks have been significantly enhanced due to higher aerosol loadings. The discussions in this study indicate that dramatic changes in emissions are the main cause of increasing haze events in North China, and long-term trends in atmospheric circulations may be another important cause since PM2.5 is shown to be substantially affected by wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. More studies are necessary to get a better understanding of the aerosol-circulation interactions.

  16. Reduction of gaseous and particulate emissions from small-scale wood combustion with a catalytic combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hukkanen, A.; Kaivosoja, T.; Sippula, O.; Nuutinen, K.; Jokiniemi, J.; Tissari, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a catalytic combustor was used on a wood stove as a secondary emission reduction measure. An experimental comparison of emissions was done from combustion experiments with and without the catalyst. Samples were collected from gasification and burn out phases and from the whole combustion cycle (from start-up to burn out). Concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and organic gaseous carbon (OGC), temperature and pressure were measured online directly from the flue gas stack. With the catalyst, the O2 concentration in the flue gas was lower and the temperature higher than without the catalyst, due to the large amount of unburnt compounds which were oxidized by the catalyst. Reductions of 21% for CO and 14% for OGC were achieved during the whole combustion cycle. During the burn out phase, a reduction as high as 80% was achieved for CO. PM1 (particle mass below aerodynamic size of 1 μm) was reduced by 30% during the whole combustion cycle. During gasification, a 44% reduction of PM1 was achieved but there was no reduction during burn out. The organic and elemental carbon analyzed from PM1 had reduced also only during gasification by 56% and 37%, respectively. The particle emission reductions were notable and it can be concluded that the catalyst affects the particles through oxidation of condensable organic vapors and oxidation of soot particles. The catalyst has potential as a secondary emission reduction method but in order to achieve low emissions, also improved combustion technology for emission reduction needs to be developed.

  17. Particulate matter composition and emission rates from the disk incorporation of class B biosolids into soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paez-Rubio, Tania; Xin, Hua; Anderson, James; Peccia, Jordan

    Biosolids contain metal, synthetic organic compound, endotoxin, and pathogen concentrations that are greater than concentrations in the agricultural soils to which they are applied. Once applied, biosolids are incorporated into soils by disking and the aerosols produced during this process may pose an airborne toxicological and infectious health hazard to biosolids workers and nearby residents. Field studies at a Central Arizona biosolids land application site were conducted to characterize the physical, chemical, and biological content of the aerosols produced during biosolids disking and the content of bulk biosolids and soils from which the aerosols emanate. Arrayed samplers were used to estimate the vertical source aerosol concentration profile to enable plume height and associated source emission rate calculations. Source aerosol concentrations and calculated emission rates reveal that disking is a substantial source of biosolids-derived aerosols. The biosolids emission rate during disking ranged from 9.91 to 27.25 mg s -1 and was greater than previously measured emission rates produced during the spreading of dewatered biosolids or the spraying of liquid biosolids. Adding biosolids to dry soils increased the moisture content and reduced the total PM 10 emissions produced during disking by at least three times. The combination of bulk biosolids and aerosol measurements along with PM 10 concentrations provides a framework for estimating aerosol concentrations and emission rates by reconstruction. This framework serves to eliminate the difficulty and inherent limitations associated with monitoring low aerosol concentrations of toxic compounds and pathogens, and can promote an increased understanding of the associated biosolids aerosol health risks to workers and nearby residents.

  18. Particulate-matter distribution and its flow from power plants using infrared spectrometry and thermodynamics for in situ continuous emissions monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlifshteyn, Alex; Lang, Fred D.; Ayrapetian, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Spectroscopy measurements made through a continuum having suspended particulate matter are addressed. The applications presented permit correction of spectral transmissions as effected by particulate-producing fossil-fuel combustion. The research is especially applicable to large effluent flows from coal-fired power plants, whose effluents are studied with in situ (smokestack) radiometers. Methods involving fast calculation procedures based on measured irradiances in unabsorbed regions of the IR spectrum are presented. The methodology is based on wavelength-dependent extinction of radiation by small particles, considering both elastic scattering and absorbing effects. This extinction leads to an observed skeweness (or shift) of the blackbody spectral shape. Based on such skeweness, the particulate number distribution is determined with Mie theory. In order to simplify, and to speed up the routine for real-time application, a two-step procedure is presented. During preinstallation calibration with Mie theory, sets of integral tables are computed for all possible solution values and stored in computer memory. Based on instantaneous spectral measurements, the appropriate integral tables are retrieved, then used as inputs in a process leading to particulate number distribution. Because all time-consuming calculations associated with Mie theory are performed during preinstallation calibration, the technique is capable of monitoring particulate emission in real time. Furthermore, given resolution of the number distribution in combination with thermodynamic analysis of the system, determination of particulate apparent density and particulate mass flow rate is made. These values have importance for environmental reporting. Comparisons of calculated particulate distributions with in situ measurements are also presented. Confirmatory testing programs conducted at several power plants are discussed.

  19. Testing the near field/far field model performance for prediction of particulate matter emissions in a paint factory.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, A J; Jensen, A C Ø; Levin, M; Kling, K I; Maso, M Dal; Nielsen, S H; Jensen, K A; Koponen, I K

    2015-01-01

    A Near Field/Far Field (NF/FF) model is a well-accepted tool for precautionary exposure assessment but its capability to estimate particulate matter (PM) concentrations is not well studied. The main concern is related to emission source characterization which is not as well defined for PM emitters compared to e.g. for solvents. One way to characterize PM emission source strength is by using the material dustiness index which is scaled to correspond to industrial use by using modifying factors, such as handling energy factors. In this study we investigate how well the NF/FF model predicts PM concentration levels in a paint factory. PM concentration levels were measured during big bag and small bag powder pouring. Rotating drum dustiness indices were determined for the specific powders used and applied in the NF/FF model to predict mass concentrations. Modeled process specific concentration levels were adjusted to be similar to the measured concentration levels by adjusting the handling energy factor. The handling energy factors were found to vary considerably depending on the material and process even-though they have the same values as modifying factors in the exposure models. This suggests that the PM source characteristics and process-specific handling energies should be studied in more detail to improve the model-based exposure assessment. PMID:25407261

  20. Testing the near field/far field model performance for prediction of particulate matter emissions in a paint factory.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, A J; Jensen, A C Ø; Levin, M; Kling, K I; Maso, M Dal; Nielsen, S H; Jensen, K A; Koponen, I K

    2015-01-01

    A Near Field/Far Field (NF/FF) model is a well-accepted tool for precautionary exposure assessment but its capability to estimate particulate matter (PM) concentrations is not well studied. The main concern is related to emission source characterization which is not as well defined for PM emitters compared to e.g. for solvents. One way to characterize PM emission source strength is by using the material dustiness index which is scaled to correspond to industrial use by using modifying factors, such as handling energy factors. In this study we investigate how well the NF/FF model predicts PM concentration levels in a paint factory. PM concentration levels were measured during big bag and small bag powder pouring. Rotating drum dustiness indices were determined for the specific powders used and applied in the NF/FF model to predict mass concentrations. Modeled process specific concentration levels were adjusted to be similar to the measured concentration levels by adjusting the handling energy factor. The handling energy factors were found to vary considerably depending on the material and process even-though they have the same values as modifying factors in the exposure models. This suggests that the PM source characteristics and process-specific handling energies should be studied in more detail to improve the model-based exposure assessment.

  1. Development of a multi-point isokinetic sampling system to measure poultry house particulate matter emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has attempted to regulate air emissions from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These laws directly affect the poultry industry, which makes up approximately half of all CAFOs. The adaptation of these standards has been met with resistan...

  2. Particulate Emissions from Fall Tillage Operations as Determined via Inverse Modeling and Lidar Mass Balance Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preparation of soil for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric loadings, especially in areas with a high density of perennial crops. Emissions may originate from the tractor’s diesel engine, the tractor moving over the ground, and the equipment...

  3. Utilizing vegetative environmental buffers to mitigate ammonia and particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEBs) are vegetation designed as a visual screen, which usually consist of trees, shrubs, grass and other potential plants. VEBs are placed around the poultry houses for the purpose of minimizing the air pollutant emissions. The expansion of the poultry industry due...

  4. Portable air pollution control equipment for the control of toxic particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Odabashian, S.; Busch, E.

    1997-12-31

    Chromium VI (Cr VI) has been identified by the environmental regulatory agencies as a potent carcinogen among eleven heavy metals. A threshold level of 0.0001 lb/year for Cr VI emissions has been established by the California Air Resources Board for reporting under Assembly Bill 2588. A need for an innovative control technology to reduce fugitive emissions of Cr VI was identified during the Air Toxic Emissions Reduction Program at Northrop Grumman Military Aircraft Systems Division (NGMASD). NGMASD operates an aircraft assembly facility in El Segundo, CA. Nearly all of the aircraft components are coated with a protective coating (primer) prior to assembly. The primer has Cr VI as a component for its excellent corrosion resistance property. The complex assembly process requires fasteners which also need primer coating. Therefore, NGMASD utilizes High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) guns for the touch-up spray coating operations. During the touch-up spray coating operations, Cr VI particles are atomized and transferred to the aircraft surface. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has determined that the HVLP gun transfers 65% of the paint particles onto the substrate and the remaining 35% are emitted as an overspray if air pollution controls are not applied. NGMASD has developed the Portable Air Pollution Control Equipment (PAPCE) to capture and control the overspray in order to reduce fugitive Cr VI emissions from the touch-up spray coating operations. A source test was performed per SCAQMD guidelines and the final report has been approved by the SCAQMD.

  5. Characterization of the particulate emissions from the BP Deepwater Horizon surface oil burns.

    PubMed

    Gullett, Brian K; Hays, Michael D; Tabor, Dennis; Wal, Randy Vander

    2016-06-15

    Sampling of the smoke plumes from the BP Deepwater Horizon surface oil burns led to the unintentional collection of soot particles on the sail of an instrument-bearing, tethered aerostat. This first-ever plume sampling from oil burned at an actual spill provided an opportunistic sample from which to characterize the particles' chemical properties for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon, elemental carbon, metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and physical properties for size and nanostructure. Thermal-optical analyses indicated that the particulate matter was 93% carbon with 82% being refractory elemental carbon. PAHs accounted for roughly 68μg/g of the PM filter mass and 5mg/kg oil burned, much lower than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicated that the soot is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure. PM-bound metals were largely unremarkable but PCDD/PCDF formation was observed, contrary to other's findings. Levels of lighter PCDD/PCDF and PAH compounds were reduced compared to historical samples, possibly due to volatilization or photo-oxidation. PMID:27084200

  6. Trace gas and particulate emissions from the 2003 southern California wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühle, J.; Lueker, T. J.; Su, Y.; Miller, B. R.; Prather, K. A.; Weiss, R. F.

    2007-02-01

    In October 2003, thirteen major wildfires in southern California burned more than 300,000 hectares of mainly chaparral biome. High-precision in situ trace gas and particle measurements of the wildfire plumes in La Jolla, California, showed a high degree of correlation among carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons, and methyl halide mixing ratios, as well as with particle number concentrations (10-300 nm and 500-2500 nm aerodynamic diameter). Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles (50-2500 nm range) showed that 70-85% had typical biomass burning signatures (levoglucosan coupled with potassium). Only 5-18% of particles in the 50-300 nm range had vehicle signatures. Molar trace gas enhancement ratios (ERs) versus ethane and CO2 were calculated and showed a narrow age distribution, consistent with the short distance from the wildfires. ERs for N2O and CH3CCl3 versus CO2 were determined, but correlations were poor. No significant CH2Cl2 or CHCl3 emissions were detected. CO2 emissions from the nearby Cedar fire were estimated both with a simple Lagrangian atmospheric transport model and a burned area approach and extrapolated to 11 Tg CO2 for the total burned area in southern California. Total CO2, CH4, C2-hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, methyl chloride, methyl iodide, and PM2.5 emissions were ˜0.2-3.5% of yearly global extratropical forest fire emissions and more than 28% of CH4, C6H6, and PM2.5 2003 San Diego and South Coast Air Basins anthropogenic emissions. Particle distributions and single particle chemistry are discussed. PM2.5 considerably exceeded the EPA short-term exposure limit.

  7. Size-Resolved Density Measurements of Particulate Emissions from an Advanced Combustion Diesel Engine: Effect of Aggregate Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John Morse; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E

    2011-01-01

    We report the first in situ size-resolved density measurements of particles produced by premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and compare these with conventional diesel particles. The densities of size-classified particles were determined by measurements with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). Particle masses of the different size classes were evaluated with a proposed DMA-APM response function for aggregates. Our results indicate that the effective densities of PCCI and conventional diesel particles were approximately the same for 50 and 100 nm electrical mobility diameters (0.9 and 0.6 g/cc, respectively), but the PCCI particle effective density (0.4 g/cc) was less than the conventional (0.5 g/cc) for 150 nm. The lowest effective particle densities were observed for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels somewhat less than that required for PCCI operation. The inherent densities of conventional particles in the 50 and 100 nm size classes were 1.22 and 1.77 g/cc, which is in good agreement with Park et al. (2004). PCCI inherent particle densities for these same size classes were higher (1.27 and 2.10 g/cc), suggesting that there may have been additional adsorbed liquid hydrocarbons. For 150 nm particles, the inherent densities were nearly the same for PCCI and conventional particles at 2.20 g/cc. We expect that the lower effective density of PCCI particles may improve particulate emissions control with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). The presence of liquid hydrocarbons may also promote oxidation in DPFs.

  8. Association between Source-Specific Particulate Matter Air Pollution and hs-CRP: Local Traffic and Industrial Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Fuks, Kateryna; Moebus, Susanne; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Memmesheimer, Michael; Jakobs, Hermann; Bröcker-Preuss, Martina; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    , Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigative Group. 2014. Association between source-specific particulate matter air pollution and hs-CRP: local traffic and industrial emissions. Environ Health Perspect 122:703–710; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307081 PMID:24755038

  9. Dinitro derivatives of pyrene and fluoranthene in diesel emission particulates and their tumorigenicity in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, H; Otofuji, T; Nakagawa, R; Horikawa, K; Maeda, T; Sano, N; Izumi, K; Otsuka, H

    1986-01-01

    A number of mutagens/carcinogens in diesel emission particulates are produced and distributed into the atmosphere. On the basis of the results of chemical analysis, it was found that most of the mutagenicity in diesel particulate extracts is due to super-mutagens such as 1,3-, 1,6- and 1,8-DNP, and 3,7- and 3,9-DNF. 3,7- and 3,9-DNF are new mutagens which were isolated in this study and they induced a frameshift type mutation in the Salmonella microsome test. Each derivative of DNP and DNF was detected at a concentration of 0.01 to 0.03 ppm in the particulates while the diesel engine was used under the condition of idling. 1,6- and 1,8-DNP were tumorigenic at the injection site in BALB/c male mice when a total of 2 and 1 mg, respectively, of the compounds was given subcutaneously. The incidences for tumors by 60 weeks were at a ratio of 50 and 30%, respectively, for 1,6- and 1,8-DNP-treated mice. 4-NQO and BaP, as positive control, induced tumors at the injection site in BALB/c mice when a total of 2 and 1 mg, respectively, of the compound was given. The incidences of tumors were observed at a high ratio of 90 and 93.4%, respectively, for 4-NQO- and BaP-treated mice. Histologically the tumors were diagnosed as malignant fibrous histiocytomas in all the tumors which developed. No tumors occurred at the injection site in mice given injections of 1,3-DNP. Tumorigenicity tests of 3,7- and 3,9-DNF are now being attempted using F344/DuCrj male rats. This animal experiment is now in progress. In the 3,9-DNF-treated rats (a total of 1 mg per rat), subcutaneous tumors developed in 8 of 11 rats up to 150 days after injection, and a part of a tumor resected from a rat showed the typical features of rhabdomyosarcoma.

  10. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  11. Valorization of CH4 emissions into high-added-value products: Assessing the production of ectoine coupled with CH4 abatement.

    PubMed

    Cantera, Sara; Lebrero, Raquel; Sadornil, Lidia; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed an innovative strategy for the valorization of dilute methane emissions based on the bio-conversion of CH4 (the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG)) into ectoine by the methanotrophic ectoine-producing strain Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20 Z. The influence of CH4 (2-20%), Cu(2+) (0.05-50 μM) and NaCl (0-9%) concentration as well as temperature (25-35 °C) on ectoine synthesis and specific CH4 biodegradation rate was evaluated for the first time. Concentrations of 20% CH4 (at 3% NaCl, 0.05 μM Cu(2+), 25 °C) and 6% NaCl (at 4% CH4, 0.05 μM Cu(2+), 25 °C) supported the maximum intra-cellular ectoine production yield (31.0 ±1.7 and 66.9 ±4.2 mg g biomass(-1), respectively). On the other hand, extra-cellular ectoine concentrations of up to 4.7 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) were detected at high Cu(2+)concentrations (50 μM), despite this methanotroph has not been previously classified as an ectoine-excreting strain. This research demonstrated the feasibility of the bio-conversion of dilute emissions of methane into high-added value products in an attempt to develop a sustainable GHG bioeconomy.

  12. Valorization of CH4 emissions into high-added-value products: Assessing the production of ectoine coupled with CH4 abatement.

    PubMed

    Cantera, Sara; Lebrero, Raquel; Sadornil, Lidia; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed an innovative strategy for the valorization of dilute methane emissions based on the bio-conversion of CH4 (the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG)) into ectoine by the methanotrophic ectoine-producing strain Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20 Z. The influence of CH4 (2-20%), Cu(2+) (0.05-50 μM) and NaCl (0-9%) concentration as well as temperature (25-35 °C) on ectoine synthesis and specific CH4 biodegradation rate was evaluated for the first time. Concentrations of 20% CH4 (at 3% NaCl, 0.05 μM Cu(2+), 25 °C) and 6% NaCl (at 4% CH4, 0.05 μM Cu(2+), 25 °C) supported the maximum intra-cellular ectoine production yield (31.0 ±1.7 and 66.9 ±4.2 mg g biomass(-1), respectively). On the other hand, extra-cellular ectoine concentrations of up to 4.7 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) were detected at high Cu(2+)concentrations (50 μM), despite this methanotroph has not been previously classified as an ectoine-excreting strain. This research demonstrated the feasibility of the bio-conversion of dilute emissions of methane into high-added value products in an attempt to develop a sustainable GHG bioeconomy. PMID:27472052

  13. Evaluation of Uncertainties in Measuring Particulate Matter Emission Factors from Atmospheric Fugitive Sources Using Optical Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, W.; Ma, Q.; Du, K.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions generated from fugitive sources are of interest in air pollution studies, since such emissions vary widely both spatially and temporally. This research focuses on determining the uncertainties in quantifying fugitive PM emission factors (EFs) generated from mobile vehicles using a vertical scanning micro-pulse lidar (MPL). The goal of this research is to identify the greatest sources of uncertainty of the applied lidar technique in determining fugitive PM EFs, and to recommend methods to reduce the uncertainties in this measurement. The MPL detects the PM plume generated by mobile fugitive sources that are carried downwind to the MPL's vertical scanning plane. Range-resolved MPL signals are measured, corrected, and converted to light extinction coefficients, through inversion of the lidar equation and calculation of the lidar ratio. In this research, both the near-end and far-end lidar equation inversion methods are considered. Range-resolved PM mass concentrations are then determined from the extinction coefficient measurements using the measured mass extinction efficiency (MEE) value, which is an intensive PM property. MEE is determined by collocated PM mass concentration and light extinction measurements, provided respectively by a DustTrak and an open-path laser transmissometer. These PM mass concentrations are then integrated with wind information, duration of plume event, and vehicle distance travelled to obtain fugitive PM EFs. To obtain the uncertainty of PM EFs, uncertainties in MPL signals, lidar ratio, MEE, and wind variation are considered. Error propagation method is applied to each of the above intermediate steps to aggregate uncertainty sources. Results include determination of uncertainties in each intermediate step, and comparison of uncertainties between the use of near-end and far-end lidar equation inversion methods.

  14. [Determination and Emission of Condensable Particulate Matter from Coal-fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Pei, Bing

    2015-05-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21.2 ± 3.5) mg · m(-3) while the FPM was (20.6 ± 10.0) mg · m(-3) during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32%, and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1%. PMID:26314098

  15. [Determination and Emission of Condensable Particulate Matter from Coal-fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Pei, Bing

    2015-05-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21.2 ± 3.5) mg · m(-3) while the FPM was (20.6 ± 10.0) mg · m(-3) during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32%, and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1%.

  16. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-01

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane.

  17. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-01

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane. PMID:22913312

  18. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Electrothermal Swing Adsorption of Air Emissions from Sheet-Foam Production Compared to Conventional Abatement Techniques.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, David L; Emamipour, Hamidreza; Guest, Jeremy S; Rood, Mark J

    2016-02-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis are presented comparing the environmental and economic impacts of using regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO), granular activated carbon (GAC), and activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) systems to treat gaseous emissions from sheet-foam production. The ACFC system has the lowest operational energy consumption (i.e., 19.2, 8.7, and 3.4 TJ/year at a full-scale facility for RTO, GAC, and ACFC systems, respectively). The GAC system has the smallest environmental impacts across most impact categories for the use of electricity from select states in the United States that produce sheet foam. Monte Carlo simulations indicate the GAC and ACFC systems perform similarly (within one standard deviation) for seven of nine environmental impact categories considered and have lower impacts than the RTO for every category for the use of natural gas to produce electricity. The GAC and ACFC systems recover adequate isobutane to pay for themselves through chemical-consumption offsets, whereas the net present value of the RTO is $4.1 M (20 years, $0.001/m(3) treated). The adsorption systems are more environmentally and economically competitive than the RTO due to recovered isobutane for the production process and are recommended for resource recovery from (and treatment of) sheet-foam-production exhaust gas. Research targets for these adsorption systems should focus on increasing adsorptive capacity and saturation of GAC systems and decreasing electricity and N2 consumption of ACFC systems.

  19. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Electrothermal Swing Adsorption of Air Emissions from Sheet-Foam Production Compared to Conventional Abatement Techniques.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, David L; Emamipour, Hamidreza; Guest, Jeremy S; Rood, Mark J

    2016-02-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis are presented comparing the environmental and economic impacts of using regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO), granular activated carbon (GAC), and activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) systems to treat gaseous emissions from sheet-foam production. The ACFC system has the lowest operational energy consumption (i.e., 19.2, 8.7, and 3.4 TJ/year at a full-scale facility for RTO, GAC, and ACFC systems, respectively). The GAC system has the smallest environmental impacts across most impact categories for the use of electricity from select states in the United States that produce sheet foam. Monte Carlo simulations indicate the GAC and ACFC systems perform similarly (within one standard deviation) for seven of nine environmental impact categories considered and have lower impacts than the RTO for every category for the use of natural gas to produce electricity. The GAC and ACFC systems recover adequate isobutane to pay for themselves through chemical-consumption offsets, whereas the net present value of the RTO is $4.1 M (20 years, $0.001/m(3) treated). The adsorption systems are more environmentally and economically competitive than the RTO due to recovered isobutane for the production process and are recommended for resource recovery from (and treatment of) sheet-foam-production exhaust gas. Research targets for these adsorption systems should focus on increasing adsorptive capacity and saturation of GAC systems and decreasing electricity and N2 consumption of ACFC systems. PMID:26727459

  20. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  1. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic.

    PubMed

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-08-15

    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 degrees C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  2. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  3. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  4. Biological abatement of enzyme inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose pretreatments release phenolic compounds that cause enzyme inhibition and deactivation. Bio-abatement, the biological removal of furfurals, acetic acid and phenolics, may utilize fungal fermentation to metabolize these compounds to CO2, water, cell mass, and heat. Our work with Coni...

  5. Lead Abatement Worker Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for lead abatement in a manner that is easy to understand, useful, and meaningful to workers, educators, trainers, labor leaders, contractors, and project owners. To meet the needs of the various users of this document who will have a different application of the standards and seek different information,…

  6. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  7. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  8. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P<0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P<0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P<0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study enable

  9. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems — Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, T. A.; Zhao, Y.; Li, H.; Stinn, J. P.; Hayes, M. D.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P < 0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P < 0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P < 0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study

  10. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P<0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P<0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P<0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study enable

  11. Source apportionment of PAHs in atmospheric particulates of Dalian: Factor analysis with nonnegative constraints and emission inventory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xianlie; Chen, Jingwen; Tian, Fulin; Sun, Weijun; Yang, Fenglin; Saiki, Kaoru

    Levels of 12 PAH species, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene, in atmospheric particulates from urban area of Dalian, China, were determined. The sampling was performed at 15 sites in 1998. For wintertime and summertime, the summation of the 12 PAHs (ΣPAHs) averaged 167 (53.3-561) and 17.9 (1.6-48.9) ng m -3, respectively, which were much higher than the levels in other cities worldwide. Factor analysis with nonnegative constraints was used for source apportionment, which showed that PAHs originated from coal-related sources mainly (87%) and traffic emission as a second source (13%) in wintertime, and in summertime, coal-related sources (70%), traffic-related sources (27%), and wood burning (3%). The source apportionment results agree with the actual municipal and industrial layout well. Inventory analysis estimated the total amount of the 12 PAHs emitted by regulated stationary and mobile sources was 9940 kg in 1998. Qualitatively, consistent source apportionment results were obtained from the factor analysis with nonnegative constraints and inventory analysis.

  12. Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.

    PubMed

    Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

    2002-01-01

    A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed.

  13. Particulate matter beyond mass: recent health evidence on the role of fractions, chemical constituents and sources of emission.

    PubMed

    Cassee, Flemming R; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Kelly, Frank J

    2013-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution.

  14. Particulate matter beyond mass: recent health evidence on the role of fractions, chemical constituents and sources of emission

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Marie-Eve; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Kelly, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution. PMID:24304307

  15. Evaluation of AERMOD and CALPUFF for predicting ambient concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emissions from a quarry in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Broday, David M; Stern, Eli

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of particulate emissions from a quarry located in hilly terrain were calculated by two common atmospheric dispersion models, AERMOD and CALPUFF. Evaluation of these models for emissions from quarries/open pit mines that are located in complex topography is missing from the literature. Due to severe uncertainties in the input parameters, numerous scenarios were simulated and model sensitivity was studied. Model results were compared among themselves, and to measured total suspended particulate (TSP). For a wide range of meteorological and topographical conditions studied, AERMOD predictions were in a better agreement with the measurements than those obtained by CALPUFF. The use of AERMOD's "Open pit" tool seems unnecessary when accurate digital topographic data are available. Onsite meteorological data are shown to be crucial for reliable dispersion calculations in complex terrain.

  16. Impacts of continuously regenerating trap and particle oxidation catalyst on the NO2 and particulate matter emissions emitted from diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; He, Chao; Shah, Asad Naeem; Ding, Yan; Yu, Linxiao; Zhao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) with different configurations and one particles oxidation catalyst (POC) were employed to perform experiments in a controlled laboratory setting to evaluate their effects on NO2, smoke and particle number emissions. The results showed that the application of the after-treatments increased the emission ratios of NO2/NOx significantly. The results of smoke emissions and particle number (PN) emissions indicated that both CRDPFs had sufficient capacity to remove more than 90% of total particulate matter (PM) and more than 97% of solid particles. However, the POC was able to remove the organic components of total PM, and only partially to remove the carbonaceous particles with size less than 30 nm. The negligible effects of POC on larger particles were observed due to its honeycomb structure leads to an inadequate residence time to oxidize the solid particles or trap them. The particles removal efficiencies of CRDPFs had high degree of correlations with the emission ratio of NO2/NOx. The PN emission results from two CRDPFs indicated that more NO2 generating in diesel oxidation catalyst section could obtain the higher removal efficiency of solid particles. However this also increased the risk of NO2 exposure in atmosphere.

  17. Impacts of continuously regenerating trap and particle oxidation catalyst on the NO2 and particulate matter emissions emitted from diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; He, Chao; Shah, Asad Naeem; Ding, Yan; Yu, Linxiao; Zhao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) with different configurations and one particles oxidation catalyst (POC) were employed to perform experiments in a controlled laboratory setting to evaluate their effects on NO2, smoke and particle number emissions. The results showed that the application of the after-treatments increased the emission ratios of NO2/NOx significantly. The results of smoke emissions and particle number (PN) emissions indicated that both CRDPFs had sufficient capacity to remove more than 90% of total particulate matter (PM) and more than 97% of solid particles. However, the POC was able to remove the organic components of total PM, and only partially to remove the carbonaceous particles with size less than 30 nm. The negligible effects of POC on larger particles were observed due to its honeycomb structure leads to an inadequate residence time to oxidize the solid particles or trap them. The particles removal efficiencies of CRDPFs had high degree of correlations with the emission ratio of NO2/NOx. The PN emission results from two CRDPFs indicated that more NO2 generating in diesel oxidation catalyst section could obtain the higher removal efficiency of solid particles. However this also increased the risk of NO2 exposure in atmosphere. PMID:22894096

  18. Chemical Characteristics of Particulate Matter from Vehicle emission using High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, T.; Lee, T.; Kang, S.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Son, J.; Yoo, H. M.; Kim, K.; Park, G.

    2015-12-01

    Car emissions are major contributors of particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment and effects of air pollution, climate change, and human activities. By increasing of interest in research of car emission for assessment of the PM control, it became require to understand the chemical composition and characteristics of the car exhaust gases and particulate matter. To understand car emission characteristics of PM, we will study PM of car emissions for five driving modes (National Institute Environmental Research (NIER)-5, NIER-9, NIER-12, NIER-14) and three fixed speed driving modes (30km/h, 70km/h, 110km/h) using different fuel types (gasoline, diesel, and LPG) at Transportation Pollution Research Center (TPRC) of NIER in Incheon, South Korea. PM chemical composition of car emission was measured for concentrations of organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, PAHs, oxidation states and size distribution using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) on real-time. In the study, organics concentration was dominated for all cases of driving modes and the concentration of organics was increased in 110km/h fixed speed mode for gasoline and diesel. The presentation will provide an overview of the chemical composition of PM in the car emissions.

  19. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  20. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  1. Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst (ETV Mobile Source Emissions Control Devices) Verification Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst is a diesel engine retrofit device for light, medium, and heavy heavy-duty diesel on-highway engines for use with commercial ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The BA-B particulate filter is composed of a pre-catalyst ...

  2. The use of CETANER{trademark} for the reduction of particulate matter emissions in a turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, H.S.; Chiodo, J.A.; Boehman, A.L.; Tijim, P.J.A.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-07-01

    In this experimental study, the effects of the addition of CETANER{trademark} to a premium diesel fuel at various blend levels (5%, 10% and 15% by weight) were evaluated using a 1.9 liter turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. CETANER{trademark}, a product developed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., can be manufactured from coal-derived syngas through a two-stage process: (i) Liquid Phase DiMethyl Ether synthesis (LPDME); and (ii) oxidative coupling of DiMethyl Ether (DME) to form long chain linear ethers. When compared to other oxygenated components currently being researched, CETANER has several key advantages: (1) it is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock; (2) it has a cetane number greater than 100; and (3) it will have a cost comparable to diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions and exhaust gas composition (NOx and CO), were determined at six steady-state engine operating conditions. In addition, fuel properties (viscosity, cloud point, pour point, density, flash point and calorific value) of the various blends were also determined. Engine test results indicate that CETANER is effective in reducing particulate matter emissions at all blend levels tested, without any modifications to engine operating parameters. At the highest blend level (15% CETANER by weight), particulate matter emissions were reduced by greater than 20% when compared to premium diesel fuel.

  3. Removable Thin Films used for the Abatement and Mitigation of Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    M. Lumia; C. Gentile; K. Creek; R. Sandoval

    2003-11-06

    The use of removable thin films for the abatement of hazardous particulates has many advantages. Removable thin films are designed to trap and fix particulates in the film's matrix by adhesion. Thin films can be applied to an existing contaminated area to fix and capture the particulates for removal. The nature of the removable thin films, after sufficient cure time, is such that it can typically be removed as one continuous entity. The removable thin films can be applied to almost any surface type with a high success rate of removal.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and particulate emissions from two-stage combustion of polystyrene: the effect of the primary furnace temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Levendis, Y A; Richter, H; Howard, J B; Carlson, J

    2001-09-01

    A study is presented on laboratory-scale combustion of polystyrene (PS) to identify staged-combustion conditions that minimize emissions. Batch combustion of shredded PS was conducted in fixed beds placed in a bench-scale electrically heated horizontal muffle furnace. In most cases, combustion of the samples occurred by forming gaseous diffusion flames in atmospheric pressure air. The combustion effluent was mixed with additional air, and it was channeled to a second muffle furnace (afterburner) placed in series. Further reactions took place in the secondary furnace at a residence time of 0.7 s. The gas temperature of the primary furnace was varied in the range of 500-1,000 degrees C, while that of the secondary furnace was kept fixed at 1,000 degrees C. Sampling for CO, CO2, O2, soot, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions (volatile and semivolatile, by GC-MS) was performed at the exits of the two furnaces. Results showed that the temperature of the primary furnace, where PS gasifies, is of paramount importance to the formation and subsequent emissions of organic species and soot. Atthe lowesttemperatures explored, mostly styrene oligomers were identified at the outlet of the primary furnace, but they did not survive the treatment in the secondary furnace. The formation and emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot were suppressed. As the temperature in the first furnace was raised, increasing amounts of a wide range of both unsubstituted and substituted PAH containing up to at least seven condensed aromatic rings were detected. A similar trend was observed for total particulate yields. The secondary furnace treatment reduced the yields of total PAH, but it had an ambiguous effect on individual species. While most low molecular mass PAH were reduced in the secondary furnace, concentrations of some larger PAH increased under certain conditions. Thus, care in the selection of operating conditions of both the primary furnace (gasifier/ burner) and the

  5. Atmospheric concentrations of particulate sulfate and nitrate in Hong Kong during 1995-2008: impact of emission changes in mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, W.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wei, X.; Liu, Q.

    2011-12-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the burning of fossil fuel leads to regional air pollution phenomena such as haze and acidic deposition. Despite longstanding recognition of the severity of these problems and the numerous studies conducted in China, little is known of long-term trends in particulate sulfate and nitrate and their association with changes in precursor emissions. In this study, we analyze records covering a 14-year period (1995-2008) of coarse particulate (PM10) composition in the subtropical city of Hong Kong, situated in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of southern China. A linear regression method and a Regional Kendall test are employed for trend calculations. In contrast to the decreased levels of SO2 and NOx emissions in Hong Kong, there are increasing overall trends in ambient concentrations of sulfate and nitrate, with the most obvious rise seen during 2001-2005 and relatively steady values recorded thereafter. These increased sulfate and nitrate concentrations have both negated the effect of emission-reduction efforts for coarse particles and increased the acidity of wet deposition in Hong Kong. Backward trajectories are computed to help identify the origin of large-scale air masses arriving in Hong Kong. In air masses dominated by Hong Kong urban sources and ship emissions, no statistically significant trend is apparent in either sulfate or nitrate, results that can be attributed to falling local urban emissions and increasing ship emissions; however, the sharp increases seen in particulate sulfate and nitrate concentrations were observed in air masses originating from eastern China and are generally consistent with changes in emissions of their precursors in eastern China. Examination of PM10 mass data recorded at a pair of upwind-urban sites also indicates that long-range transport makes a large contribution (> 80%) to coarse particulate loadings in Hong Kong. Together with

  6. Lead paint abatement -- A technological review

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, A.C. III; Kapuscik, D.

    1994-12-31

    Abatement of lead from various surfaces proves to be a rapidly developing industry. Removal techniques and effectiveness varies greatly with varying substrates (wood, concrete, steel, etc.) and surface configurations including interior/exterior considerations, habitability and anticipated retrofit. Numerous technologies advances, and/or adaptations of long accepted removal techniques have recently emerged. Some of the more commonly used removal procedures including vacuum blasting, chemical stripping, scarifiers, grinders, sanders, etc. will be reviewed. Specific emphasis will be placed upon mode of application, positive and negative environmental aspects, and varying emissions generated. Personnel sampling data will be discussed with respect to associated personal protective equipment impact to derive the most cost productive environmentally conscious alternatives.

  7. Comparative analysis on the effects of diesel particulate filter and selective catalytic reduction systems on a wide spectrum of chemical species emissions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Gerald; Berg, Devin R; Swor, Thaddeus A; Schauer, James J

    2008-08-15

    Two methods, diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems,for controlling diesel emissions have become widely used, either independently or together, for meeting increasingly stringent emissions regulations worldwide. Each of these systems is designed for the reduction of primary pollutant emissions including particulate matter (PM) for DPF and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for SCR. However, there have been growing concerns regarding the secondary reactions that these aftertreatment systems may promote, involving unregulated species emissions. This study was performed to gain an understanding of the effects that these aftertreatment systems may have on the emission levels of a wide spectrum of chemical species found in diesel engine exhaust. Samples were extracted using a source dilution sampling system designed to collect exhaust samples representative of real-world emissions. Testing was conducted