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Sample records for particulate emission arrester

  1. Further theoretical studies of modified cyclone separator as a diesel soot particulate emission arrester.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, N; Bose, P K

    2009-10-01

    Soot particulate emission reduction from diesel engine is one of the most emerging problems associated with the exhaust pollution. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) hold out the prospects of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions but the question of the reliable regeneration of filters still remains a difficult hurdle to overcome. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from design complexity, cost, regeneration problem and energy demands. This study presents a computer aided theoretical analysis for controlling diesel soot particulate emission by cyclone separator--a non contact type particulate removal system considering outer vortex flow, inner vortex flow and packed ceramic fiber filter at the end of vortex finder tube. Cyclone separator with low initial cost, simple construction produces low back pressure and reasonably high collection efficiencies with reduced regeneration problems. Cyclone separator is modified by placing a continuous ceramic packed fiber filter placed at the end of the vortex finder tube. In this work, the grade efficiency model of diesel soot particulate emission is proposed considering outer vortex, inner vortex and the continuous ceramic packed fiber filter. Pressure drop model is also proposed considering the effect of the ceramic fiber filter. Proposed model gives reasonably good collection efficiency with permissible pressure drop limit of diesel engine operation. Theoretical approach is predicted for calculating the cut size diameter considering the effect of Cunningham molecular slip correction factor. The result shows good agreements with existing cyclone and DPF flow characteristics.

  2. Modeling of Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    vaporization CxHy H H2 C2H2 Alkylated- aromatics naphthenes Gas-phase kinetics PAH C2H2 . .... CO inception Surface growth & coalescence ageing...coagulation oxidation.... carbonization 14 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Formation Kinetics 2 1016 1 ]HC[kdt dS = Inception: Dimerization of...pyrene (and other 202 amu species), after Appel, et al, 2000. (Full detailed kinetics required!) Surface Growth: Mass growth (via acetylene addition

  3. Particulate emission reduction using additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rising, B.

    1998-07-01

    A particulate emission reduction study using a large industrial combustion turbine was undertaken. With heavy oil, both the mass particulate rate and smoke emissions exceeded original emission projections. Extensive particulate (gravimetric) emission tests were conducted to define the problem, and to assess specific corrective actions. Physical characterization of the particulate emissions revealed that the particulates from heavy oil were much larger than those found from lighter distillates. A review of the available literature on the subject was undertaken. Methods that were found to be effective at reducing smoke emissions were selected as a starting point. From this information, various techniques, including water injection, emulsification, and additive injection were evaluated to address both the visible smoke emissions and the particulate emission. Only the use of metal based fuel additives was found to be effective in reducing both visible smoke emissions and particulates. From vendor information, different additive time was selected for evaluation. Because of the complex chemistry of the fuel and additive mixtures, the vendor was required to optimize the additive carrier. Additives reduced particulates produced from the burning of heavy oil, but were found to be relatively ineffective with lighter distillate oils. Extensive chemical and physical characterization of the particulates were undertaken. From heavy oil, the particulates were found to be physically larger, greater than 5 microns. The additive was most effective on the heavy oils, but did not appear to alter the particulate size distribution. Additives did not appear to have any impact on the conversion of fuel bond sulfur into sulfuric acid mist. Additive dosage ratios were found which reduced the total particulate emission signature to meet current environmental requirements, while also nearly eliminating the plume visibility issues.

  4. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  5. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  6. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  7. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  8. Particulate Emissions from Gas Turbine Engines. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    with ferrocene additive) Particulate mass emissions from a J79-GE-IOB engine A-48 to A-64 Particulate mass emissions from a J52-P-6B engine A-65 to A...J79-CE-8D engine 4-9 1 with ferrocene additive (Summary of Files 34 through 45) 6 Particulate emissions from the ,J/7-G;E8f) engine 4 - 0l with... ferrocene additive (Summary of Files 46 and 47) 7 Particulate emissions from the J79-GE-8D engine 4-1i with ferrocene additive (Summary of Files 34 through

  9. Particulate emissions from construction activities.

    PubMed

    Muleski, Gregory E; Cowherd, Chatten; Kinsey, John S

    2005-06-01

    Although it has long been recognized that road and building construction activity constitutes an important source of particulate matter (PM) emissions throughout the United States, until recently only limited research has been directed to its characterization. This paper presents the results of PM10 and PM2.5 (particles < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter, respectively) emission factor development from the onsite testing of component operations at actual construction sites during the period 1998-2001. Much of the testing effort was directed at earthmoving operations with scrapers, because earthmoving is the most important contributor of PM emissions across the construction industry. Other sources tested were truck loading and dumping of crushed rock and mud and dirt carryout from construction site access points onto adjacent public paved roads. Also tested were the effects of watering for control of scraper travel routes and the use of paved and graveled aprons at construction site access points for reducing mud and dirt carryout. The PM10 emissions from earthmoving were found to be up to an order of magnitude greater than predicted by AP-42 emission factors drawn from other industries. As expected, the observed PM2.5:PM10 emission factor ratios reflected the relative importance of the vehicle exhaust and the resuspended dust components of each type of construction activity. An unexpected finding was that PM2.5 emissions from mud and dirt carryout were much less than anticipated. Finally, the control efficiency of watering of scraper travel routes was found to closely follow a bilinear moisture model.

  10. Measurement of vehicle particulate emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Beltzer, M

    1975-01-01

    A constant volume sampler (CVS) compatible auto exhaust particulate sampling system has been built which samples exhaust isokinetically at constant temperature. This system yields internally consistent results and is capable of frequent and convenient operation. PMID:50931

  11. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  12. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  13. Diesel particulate emission control without engine modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Filowitz, M.S.; Vataru, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an ashless, fuel supplement which was found to typically reduce diesel particulate emissions by over 30% while significantly improving fuel economy and power output without any modifications to existing diesel engines or fuels. The treating cost is an order of magnitude less than the estimated cost of reducing aromatic content at the refinery to achieve particulate reductions. The particulate reduction is virtually all from the carbon (soot) fraction. The reduced soot formation translates into less abrasives and less soot-loading stress on the engine oil. Diesel tests conducted are also discussed.

  14. PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although it has long been recognized that road and building construction activity constitutes an important source of PM emissions throughout the United States, until recently only limited research has been directed to its characterization. This paper presents the results of PM10...

  15. PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although it has long been recognized that road and building construction activity constitutes an important source of PM emissions throughout the United States, until recently only limited research has been directed to its characterization. This paper presents the results of PM10...

  16. Ambient particulate matter induces alveolar epithelial cell cycle arrest: role of G1 cyclins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingmei; Ghio, Andrew J; Gao, Mingxing; Wei, Ke; Rosen, Glenn D; Upadhyay, Daya

    2007-11-13

    We hypothesized that the ambient air pollution particles (particulate matter; PM) induce cell cycle arrest in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Exposure of PM (25microg/cm(2)) to AEC induced cells cycle arrest in G1 phase, inhibited DNA synthesis, blocked cell proliferation and caused decrease in cyclin E, A, D1 and Cyclin E- cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-2 kinase activity after 4h. PM induced upregulation of CDK inhibitor, p21 protein and p21 activity in AEC. SiRNAp21 blocked PM-induced downregulation of cyclins and AEC G1 arrest. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that PM induces AEC G1 arrest by altered regulation of G1 cyclins and CDKs.

  17. Field measurement of diesel particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Volkwein, Jon C; Mischler, Steven E; Davies, Brian; Ellis, Clive

    2008-03-01

    A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the filter with R(2) values >0.86. The relative standard deviation from replicate samples of DP and EC was 0.16 and 0.11, respectively. The method may also have applications beyond mining, where qualitative evaluation of engine emissions is desirable to determine if engine or control technology maintenance may be required.

  18. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental cleanup and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  19. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. the large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  20. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boiler Houses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which currently comprises over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low- capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  1. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  2. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equation for particulate mass emissions then reduces to: ER06OC93.075 (6) Vep = total volume of sample... final reported test results for the mass particulate (Mp) in grams/mile shall be computed as follows. Mp = 0.43(Mp1 + Mp2)/(Dct + Ds) + 0.57(Mp3 + Mp2)/(Dht = Ds) where: (1) Mp1 = Mass of particulate...

  3. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equation for particulate mass emissions then reduces to: ER06OC93.075 (6) Vep = total volume of sample... final reported test results for the mass particulate (Mp) in grams/mile shall be computed as follows. Mp = 0.43(Mp1 + Mp2)/(Dct + Ds) + 0.57(Mp3 + Mp2)/(Dht = Ds) where: (1) Mp1 = Mass of particulate...

  4. On-road particulate emission measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio

    Particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere has harmful health effects, contributes to visibility impairment, and affects atmospheric radiative transfer, thereby contributing to global change. Vehicles contribute substantially to the ambient PM concentration in urban areas, yet the fraction of ambient PM originating from vehicle emissions is poorly characterized because suitable measurement methods have not been available. This dissertation describes the development and the use of a new vehicle emission remote sensing system (VERSS) for the on-road measurement of PM emission factors for vehicles. The PM VERSS measures PM by ultraviolet backscattering and transmission. PM backscattering and transmission mass efficiencies have been calculated from Mie theory based on an homogeneous spherical model for gasoline particles and on a two-layers, spherical model for diesel particles. The VERSS was used in a large-scale study in Las Vegas, NV. A commercial gaseous VERSS was used for the measurement of gaseous emission factors (i.e., carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide). Speed and acceleration were also measured for each vehicle. A video image of each vehicle's rear license plate was acquired and license plate numbers were matched with the Clark County department of motor vehicle database to retrieve vehicle information such as model year, vehicle weight category and engine ignition type. PM VERSS has precisely estimated PM fleet average emission factors and clearly shown the dependence of PM emission factors on vehicle model year. Under mostly hot-stabilized operation, diesel vehicle PM emission factors are about 25 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles. Furthermore, the fleet frequency distributions of PM emission factors are highly skewed, meaning that most of the fleet emission factor is accounted for by a small portion of the fleet. The PM VERSS can measure PM emission factors for these high emitting vehicles on an individual basis. PM

  5. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M.

    1998-11-19

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1778-99 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; particulate emissions. 86.1778-99 Section 86.1778-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1778-99 Calculations; particulate emissions. The provisions of §...

  7. Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

  8. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-20

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  9. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-04-30

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  10. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  11. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  12. Major components of China's anthropogenic primary particulate emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; He, K.; Klimont, Z.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive estimates of particulate emissions in China by size distribution and major components. Using a technology-based emission inventory approach, we are able to classify particulate emissions into three size ranges, TSP, PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, and identify the contributions of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), Ca and Mg. Total particulate emissions are estimated to be 27.4 Tg for the year 2001, of which 17.8 Tg are PM{sub 10} and 12.7 Tg are PM{sub 2.5}. Industrial processes are the major sources of particles over all three size ranges, but residential biofuel use and transportation sources become increasingly important for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}. The industrialized coastal provinces, such as Shandong, Jiangsu and Hebei, are the major sources of particulate emissions. The industrialized and developing regions show different characteristic emission ratios of PM{sub 2.5}/TSP, (BC+OC)/PM{sub 2.5} and (Ca+Mg)/TSP. In the future, we can expect significant reductions in primary particulate emissions and major changes in the patterns of size and species.

  13. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  14. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  15. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted. Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions. Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  16. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  17. Characterization of chemical and particulate emissions from aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Harshit; Sawant, Aniket A.; Jansen, Karel; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a series of measurements from four on-wing, commercial aircraft engines, including two newer CFM56-7 engines and two earlier CFM56-3 engines. Samples were collected from each engine using a probe positioned behind the exhaust nozzle of the aircraft, chocked on a concrete testing pad. The emission factors for particulate matter mass, elemental and organic carbon, carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, dioxins, metals and ions are reported for four different engine power setting modes. The emissions indices of particulate matter, elemental and organic carbon are highly power dependent for these engines. Particulate matter emission indices (g kg-1 fuel) are found to increase from 1.1E-02 to 2.05E-01 with increase in power from idle to 85%. The elemental carbon to organic carbon varies from 0.5 to 3.8 with change in power from idle to 85%. The carbonyl emissions are dominated by formaldehyde. The emission index of formaldehyde ranges from 2.3E-01 to 4.8E-01 g kg-1 fuel. The distribution of metals depends on the difference in the various engines. The dioxin emissions from the aircraft engines are observed to be below detection limit.

  18. Chemical tracers of particulate emissions from commercial shipping.

    PubMed

    Viana, Mar; Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Teresa; Dos Santos, Saúl García; Herce, María Dolores; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía

    2009-10-01

    Despite the increase of commercial shipping around the world, data are yet relatively scarce on the contribution of these emissions to ambient air particulates. One of the reasons is the complexity in the detection and estimation of shipping contributions to ambient particulates in harbor and urban environments, given the similarity with tracers of other combustion sources. This study aimed to identify specific tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean city with an important harbor (Melilla, Spain). Results showed that for 24 h PM10 and PM2.5 samples, valid tracers of commercial shipping emissions were ratios of V/Ni = 4-5 and V/EC < 2, whereas V/EC > 8 excluded the influence of shipping emissions. Other ratios (V/ S, La/Ce, Zn/Ni, Pb/Zn, OC/EC) and tracers (Pb, Zn) were also tested but did not correlate with this source. Due to the changing composition of diesel fuels, tracers in the Mediterranean Sea may not be representative in other regions of the world and vice versa. The contribution of shipping emissions to ambient particulate matter (PM) urban background levels was quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), resulting in 2% and 4% of mean annual PM10 levels (0.8 microg/m3 primary particles and 1.7 microg/m3 secondary particles, with 20% uncertainty) and 14% of mean annual PM2.5 levels (2.6 microg/m3).

  19. Optical properties of particulate emissions from on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japar, Steven M.; Szkarlat, Ann Cuneo; Gorse, Robert A.

    The light absorbing and light scattering properties of on-road vehicle exhaust particulate were determined as a function of traffic composition at the Allegheny Tunnel on the Pennsylvania Turnpike during August-September 1979. This study was one part of a comprehensive experiment aimed at the chemical and physical characterization of vehicle exhaust particulate. Paniculate light absorption was determined by the integrating plate method, while light scattering was measured with an integrating nephelometer. Mass-specific optical coefficients (at 500.0 nm) have been derived from regressions of the optical and mass emissions data against traffic composition. For diesel vehicles (predominantly heavy-duty, but also including diesel passenger vehicles) the absorption coefficient, b' abs/ M', was found to be 5.13 ± 0.28 m2g-1, while the light scattering coefficient, b' scat/ M', was 1.99 ± 0.07 m2g-1. Diesel vehicle emissions were responsible for greater than 90% of the light extinction in the tunnel, although diesels accounted for only 23% of the vehicle miles travelled. Estimates for b' abs/ M' and b' scat/ M' for particulate from gasoline-powered vehicles were 8 ± 16 m2g-1and 6 ± 10 m2g-1, respectively, while the analogous values for ambient particulate were babs/ M< 1 m2g-1andbscat/ M = 5.0 ± 1.0 m2g-1.

  20. Gaseous and particulate emissions from prescribed burning in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangil; Baumann, Karsten; Schauer, James J; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Naeher, Luke P; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R; Edgerton, Eric S; Russell, Armistead G; Clements, Mark

    2005-12-01

    Prescribed burning is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the southeastern United States. However, limited data exist on the emission characteristics from this source. Various organic and inorganic compounds both in the gas and particle phase were measured in the emissions of prescribed burnings conducted at two pine-dominated forest areas in Georgia. The measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM2.5 allowed the determination of emission factors for the flaming and smoldering stages of prescribed burnings. The VOC emission factors from smoldering were distinctly higher than those from flaming except for ethene, ethyne, and organic nitrate compounds. VOC emission factors show that emissions of certain aromatic compounds and terpenes such as alpha and beta-pinenes, which are important precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are much higher from active prescribed burnings than from fireplace wood and laboratory open burning studies. Levoglucosan is the major particulate organic compound (POC) emitted for all these studies, though its emission relative to total organic carbon (mg/g OC) differs significantly. Furthermore, cholesterol, an important fingerprint for meat cooking, was observed only in our in situ study indicating a significant release from the soil and soil organisms during open burning. Source apportionment of ambient primary fine particulate OC measured at two urban receptor locations 20-25 km downwind yields 74 +/- 11% during and immediately after the burns using our new in situ profile. In comparison with the previous source profile from laboratory simulations, however, this OC contribution is on average 27 +/- 5% lower.

  1. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Funk, Paul A

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health.

  2. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana

    2006-08-15

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag.

    PubMed

    Kura, Bhaskar; Kambham, Kalpalatha; Sangameswaran, Sivaramakrishnan; Potana, Sandhya

    2006-08-01

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions.

  4. Particulate Matter Emissions Factors for Dust from Unique Military Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Plane-Integrated PM10 Mass Concentration PI-SWERL Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Laboratory PM Particulate Matter PNNL Pacific Northwest National...surface material (with respect to the sum of sand , clay, and silt) and M is the vehicle mass in metric tons (Mg). A second emission factor equation for...increased, the particle size of entrained dust converged, but the sand -sized particles entrained by the rotor-wash increased indicating that the

  5. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  6. Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Qiu, Guowang

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has long been recognized as an air pollutant due to its adverse health and environmental impacts. As emission of PM from agricultural operations is an emerging air quality issue, the Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions Indicator (APMEI) has been developed to estimate the primary PM contribution to the atmosphere from agricultural operations on Census years and to assess the impact of practices adopted to mitigate these emissions at the soil landscape polygon scale as part of the agri-environmental indicator report series produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. In the APMEI, PM emissions from animal feeding operations, wind erosion, land preparation, crop harvest, fertilizer and chemical application, grain handling, and pollen were calculated and compared for the Census years of 1981-2006. In this study, we present the results for PM10 and PM2.5, which exclude chemical application and pollen sources as they only contribute to total suspended particles. In 2006, PM emissions from agricultural operations were estimated to be 652.6 kt for PM10 and 158.1 kt for PM2.5. PM emissions from wind erosion and land preparation account for most of PM emissions from agricultural operations in Canada, contributing 82% of PM10 and 76% of PM2.5 in 2006. Results from the APMEI show a strong reduction in PM emissions from agricultural operations between 1981 and 2006, with a decrease of 40% (442.8 kt) for PM10 and 47% (137.7 kt) for PM2.5. This emission reduction is mainly attributed to the adoption of conservation tillage and no-till practices and the reduction in the area of summer fallow land.

  7. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter.

    PubMed

    Overcamp, Thomas J; Speer, Matthew P; Griner, Stewart J; Cash, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    Tests treating soils contaminated with metal compounds and radionuclide surrogates were conducted in a DC arc melter. The soil melted, and glassy or ceramic waste forms with a separate metal phase were produced. Tests were run in the melter plenum with either air or N2 purge gases. In addition to nitrogen, the primary emissions of gases were CO2, CO, oxygen, methane, and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). Although the gas flow through the melter was low, the particulate concentrations ranged from 32 to 145 g/m3. Cerium, a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium and uranium, was not enriched in the particulate matter (PM). The PM was enriched in cesium and highly enriched in lead.

  8. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MICROFACPM: A MICROSCALE MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microscale emission factor model (MicroFacPM) for predicting real-time site-specific motor vehicle particulate matter emissions was presented in the companion paper entitled "Development of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter (MicroFacPM) for Predicting Re...

  9. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MICROFACPM: A MICROSCALE MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microscale emission factor model (MicroFacPM) for predicting real-time site-specific motor vehicle particulate matter emissions was presented in the companion paper entitled "Development of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter (MicroFacPM) for Predicting Re...

  10. Modeling particulate matter emissions during mineral loading process under weak wind simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Chen, Weiping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shuifen

    2013-04-01

    The quantification of particulate matter emissions from mineral handling is an important problem for the quantification of global emissions on industrial sites. Mineral particulate matter emissions could adversely impact environmental quality in mining regions, transport regions, and even on a global scale. Mineral loading is an important process contributing to mineral particulate matter emissions, especially under weak wind conditions. Mathematical models are effective ways to evaluate particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process. The currently used empirical models based on the form of a power function do not predict particulate matter emissions accurately under weak wind conditions. At low particulate matter emissions, the models overestimated, and at high particulate matter emissions, the models underestimated emission factors. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to evaluate the particulate matter emission factors for the mineral loading process. A new approach based on the mathematical form of a logistical function was developed and tested. It provided a realistic depiction of the particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process, accounting for fractions of fine mineral particles, dropping height, and wind velocity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  12. Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

  13. Particulate Emissions from a Pre-Emissions Control Era Spark-Ignition Vehicle: A Historical Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    John M.E. Storey; C. Scott Sluder; Douglas A. Blom; Erin Higinbotham

    2000-06-19

    This study examined the particulate emissions from a pre-emissions control era vehicle operated on both leaded and unleaded fuels for the purpose of establishing a historical benchmark. A pre-control vehicle was located that had been rebuilt with factory original parts to approximate an as-new vehicle prior to 1968. The vehicle had less than 20,000 miles on the rebuilt engine and exhaust. The vehicle underwent repeated FTP-75 tests to determine its regulated emissions, including particulate mass. Additionally, measurements of the particulate size distribution were made, as well as particulate lead concentration. These tests were conducted first with UTG96 certification fuel, followed by UTG96 doped with tetraethyl lead to approximate 1968 levels. Results of these tests, including transmission electron micrographs of individual particles from both the leaded and unleaded case are presented. The FTP composite PM emissions from this vehicle averaged 40.5 mg/mile using unleaded fuel. The results from the leaded fuel tests showed that the FTP composite PM emissions increased to an average of 139.5 mg/mile. Analysis of the particulate size distribution for both cases demonstrated that the mass-based size distribution of particles for this vehicle is heavily skewed towards the nano-particle range. The leaded-fuel tests showed a significant increase in mass concentration at the <0.1 micron size compared with the unleaded-fuel test case. The leaded-fuel tests produced lead emissions of nearly 0.04 g/mi, more than a 4-order-of-magnitude difference compared with unleaded-fuel results. Analysis of the size-fractionated PM samples showed that the lead PM emissions tended to be distributed in the 0.25 micron and smaller size range.

  14. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER INDUCES ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELL CYCLE ARREST: ROLE OF G1 CYCLINS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingmei; Ghio, Andrew J.; Gao, Mingxing; Wei, Ke; Rosen, Glenn D.; Upadhyay, Daya

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ambient air pollution particles (PM) induce cell cycle arrest in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Exposure of PM (25μg/cm2) to AEC induced cells cycle arrest in G1 phase, inhibited DNA synthesis, blocked cell proliferation and caused decrease in cyclin E, A, D1 and Cyclin E- cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK)-2 kinase activity after 4h. PM induced upregulation of CDK inhibitor, p21 protein and p21 activity in AEC. SiRNAp21 blocked PM–induced downregulation of cyclins and AEC G1 arrest. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that PM induces AEC G1 arrest by altered regulation of G1 cyclins and CDKs. PMID:17977533

  15. Filtration of Carbon Particulate Emissions from a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Green, Robert; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon; Greenwood, Zach; Abney, Morgan; Peterson, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    NASA is investigating plasma pyrolysis as a candidate technology that will enable the recovery of hydrogen from the methane produced by the ISS Sabatier Reactor. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) is the current prototype of this technology which converts the methane product from the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) to acetylene and hydrogen with 90% or greater conversion efficiency. A small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on several options for filtering out the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream. The filtration technologies and concepts investigated range from fibrous media to monolithic ceramic and sintered metal media. This paper describes the different developed filter prototypes and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC. In addition, characterization data on the generated carbon particulates, that help to define filter requirements, are also presented.

  16. Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.

  17. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    SciTech Connect

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art

  18. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, little is known about the fraction of Hg bound to particulate matter (HgP) released from BB, and the factors controlling this fraction are also uncertain. In light of the aims of the Minamata Convention to reduce intentional Hg use and emissions from anthropogenic activities, the relative importance of Hg emissions from BB will have an increasing impact on Hg deposition fluxes. Hg speciation is one of the most important factors determining the redistribution of Hg in the atmosphere and the geographical distribution of Hg deposition. Using the latest version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv4.1s) and the global Hg chemistry transport model, ECHMERIT, the impact of Hg speciation in BB emissions, and the factors which influence speciation, on Hg deposition have been investigated for the year 2013. The role of other uncertainties related to physical and chemical atmospheric processes involving Hg and the influence of model parametrisations were also investigated, since their interactions with Hg speciation are complex. The comparison with atmospheric HgP concentrations observed at two remote sites, Amsterdam Island (AMD) and Manaus (MAN), in the Amazon showed a significant improve

  19. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, little is known about the fraction of Hg bound to particulate matter (HgP) released from BB, and the factors controlling this fraction are also uncertain. In light of the aims of the Minamata Convention to reduce intentional Hg use and emissions from anthropogenic activities, the relative importance of Hg emissions from BB will have an increasing impact on Hg deposition fluxes. Hg speciation is one of the most important factors determining the redistribution of Hg in the atmosphere and the geographical distribution of Hg deposition. Using the latest version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv4.1s) and the global Hg chemistry transport model, ECHMERIT, the impact of Hg speciation in BB emissions, and the factors which influence speciation, on Hg deposition have been investigated for the year 2013. The role of other uncertainties related to physical and chemical atmospheric processes involving Hg and the influence of model parametrisations were also investigated, since their interactions with Hg speciation are complex. The comparison with atmospheric HgP concentrations observed at two remote sites, Amsterdam Island (AMD) and Manaus (MAN), in the Amazon showed a significant improve

  20. Gaseous and particulate emission profiles during controlled rice straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, E.; Ferrer, M.; Calvet, S.; Coscollà, C.; Yusà, V.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of rice straw can emit considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants. We evaluated the effect of rice straw moisture content (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and on the organic and inorganic constituents of released particulate matter (PM): dioxins, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four burning tests were conducted per moisture treatment using the open chamber method. Additionally, combustion characteristics, including burning stages, durations, temperature, and relative humidity, were recorded. Burning tests showed flaming and smoldering stages were significantly longer in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the rest. The amount of burned straw and ashes decreased with increasing straw moisture content (P < 0.001). Carbon dioxide was the main product obtained during combustion with emission values ranging from 692 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (10% moisture content) to 835 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (20% moisture content). Emission factors for PM were the highest in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.005). Fine PM (PM2.5) accounted for more than 60% of total PM mass. Emission factors for dioxins increased with straw moisture content, being the highest in 20% moisture treatment, although showing a wide variability among burning tests (P > 0.05). Emissions factors for heavy metals were low and similar among moisture treatments (P > 0.05). Emission factors for individual PAHs were generally higher in 20% moisture treatment. Overall, emission factors of atmospheric pollutants measured in our study were higher in the 20% moisture content. This difference could be attributed to the incomplete combustion at higher levels of rice straw moisture content. According to our results, rice straw burning should be done after straw drying and under minimal moisture conditions to lower pollutant emission levels.

  1. Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lack, Daniel A.; Corbett, James J.; Onasch, Timothy; Lerner, Brian; Massoli, Paola; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Covert, David S.; Coffman, Derek; Sierau, Berko; Herndon, Scott; Allan, James; Baynard, Tahllee; Lovejoy, Edward; Ravishankara, A. R.; Williams, Eric

    2009-04-01

    We characterize particulate emissions on the basis of chemical, physical, and optical properties from commercial vessels. Observations during the Texas Air Quality Study/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study 2006 field campaign provide chemical and physical characteristics including sulfate (SO42-) mass, organic matter (OM) mass, black carbon (BC) mass, particulate matter (PM) mass, number concentrations (condensation nuclei (CN) > 5 nm), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Optical characterization included multiple wavelength visible light absorption and extinction, extinction relative humidity dependence, and single scatter albedo (SSA). The global contribution of shipping PM was calculated to be 0.90 Tg a-1, in good agreement with previous inventories (0.91 and 1.13 Tg a-1 from Eyring et al. (2005a) and Wang et al. [2008]). Observed PM composition was 46% SO42-, 39% OM, and 15% BC and differs from inventories that used 81%, 14%, and 5% and 31%, 63%, and 6% SO42-, OM, and BC, respectively. SO42- and OM mass were found to be dependent on fuel sulfur content as were SSA, hygroscopicity, and CCN concentrations. BC mass was dependent on engine type and combustion efficiency. A plume evolution study conducted on one vessel showed conservation of particle light absorption, decrease in CN > 5 nm, increase in particle hygroscopicity, and an increase in average particle size with distance from emission. These results suggest emission of small nucleation mode particles that subsequently coagulate/condense onto larger BC and OM. This work contributes to an improved understanding of the impacts of ship emissions on climate and air quality and will also assist in determining potential effects of altering fuel standards.

  2. Discrimination of particulate matter emission sources using stochastic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Grzegorz; Balcerek, Michał; Teuerle, Marek

    2016-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the criteria pollutants which has been determined as harmful to public health and the environment. For this reason the ability to recognize its emission sources is very important. There are a number of measurement methods which allow to characterize PM in terms of concentration, particles size distribution, and chemical composition. All these information are useful to establish a link between the dust found in the air, its emission sources and influence on human as well as the environment. However, the methods are typically quite sophisticated and not applicable outside laboratories. In this work, we considered PM emission source discrimination method which is based on continuous measurements of PM concentration with a relatively cheap instrument and stochastic analysis of the obtained data. The stochastic analysis is focused on the temporal variation of PM concentration and it involves two steps: (1) recognition of the category of distribution for the data i.e. stable or the domain of attraction of stable distribution and (2) finding best matching distribution out of Gaussian, stable and normal-inverse Gaussian (NIG). We examined six PM emission sources. They were associated with material processing in industrial environment, namely machining and welding aluminum, forged carbon steel and plastic with various tools. As shown by the obtained results, PM emission sources may be distinguished based on statistical distribution of PM concentration variations. Major factor responsible for the differences detectable with our method was the type of material processing and the tool applied. In case different materials were processed by the same tool the distinction of emission sources was difficult. For successful discrimination it was crucial to consider size-segregated mass fraction concentrations. In our opinion the presented approach is very promising. It deserves further study and development.

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of vegetative environmental buffers in mitigating particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from animal operations have been identified as a major air pollutant source with health and environmental impacts. Nearly 600 million broilers are produced annually on the Delmarva Peninsula, making it a hot spot for particulate matter emissions from poultry houses....

  4. Particulate emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed chaparral fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Winstead, Edward L.; Riggin, Philip J.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1988-01-01

    Particulate emission from a 400-acre prescribed chaparral fire in the San Dimas Experimental Forest was investigated by collecting smoke aerosol on Teflon and glass-fiber filters from a helicopter, and using SEM and EDAX to study the features of the particles. Aerosol particles ranged in size from about 0.1 to 100 microns, with carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, calcium, and iron as the primary elements. The results of ion chromatographic analysis of aerosol-particle extracts (in water-methanol) revealed the presence of significant levels of NO2(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), PO4(3-), C2O4(2-), Na(+), NH4(+), and K(+). The soluble ionic portion of the aerosol was estimated to be about 2 percent by weight.

  5. Removal of Sulfur from Natural Gas to Reduce Particulate Matter Emission from a Turbine Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Brent Loren

    The present work investigates the effect of natural gas fuel sulfur on particulate emissions from stationary gas turbine engines used for electricity generation. Fuel sulfur from standard line gas was scrubbed using a system of fluidized reactor beds containing a specially designed activated carbon purpose built for sulfur absorption. A sulfur injection system using sonic orifices was designed and constructed to inject methyl mercaptan into the scrubbed gas stream at varying concentrations. Using these systems, particulate emissions created by various fuel sulfur levels between 0 and 8.3 ppmv were investigated. Particulate samples were collected from a Capstone C65 microturbine generator system using a Horiba MDLT-1302TA micro dilution tunnel and analyzed using a Horiba MEXA-1370PM particulate analyzer. In addition, ambient air samples were collected to determine incoming particulate levels in the combustion air. The Capstone C65 engine air filter was also tested for particulate removal efficiency by sampling downstream of the filter. To further differentiate the particulate entering the engine in the combustion air from particulate being emitted from the exhaust stack, two high efficiency HEPA filters were installed to eliminate a large portion of incoming particulate. Variable fuel sulfur testing showed that there was a strong correlation between total particulate emission factor and fuel sulfur concentration. Using eleven variable sulfur tests, it was determined that an increase of 1 ppmv fuel sulfur will produce an increase of approximately 3.2 microg/m3 total particulate. Also, the correlation also predicted that, for this particular engine, the total particulate emission factor for zero fuel sulfur was approximately 19.1 microg/m3. With the EC and OC data removed, the correlation became 3.1 microg/m3 of sulfur particulate produced for each ppmv of fuel sulfur. The correlation also predicted that with no fuel sulfur present, 6.6 microg/m3 of particulate will

  6. Characterizing particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from diesel vehicles using a portable emissions measurement system.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Hu, Jingnan; Zhang, K Max; Li, Zhenhua; He, Liqiang; Hao, Jiming

    2017-08-30

    Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs) emitted from diesel vehicles are of concern because of their significant health impacts. Laboratory tests, road tunnel and roadside experiments have been conducted to measure p-PAH emissions. While providing valuable information, these methods have limited capabilities of characterizing p-PAH emissions either from individual vehicles or under real-world conditions. We employed a portable emissions measurement (PEMS) to measure real-world emission factors of priority p-PAHs for diesel vehicles representative of an array of emission control technologies. The results indicated over 80% reduction in p-PAH emission factors comparing the China V and China II emission standard groups (113 μg kg(-1) vs. 733 μg kg(-1)). The toxicity abatement in terms of Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent emissions was substantial because of the large reductions in highly toxic components. By assessing real traffic conditions, the p-PAH emission factors on freeways were lower than on local roads by 52% ± 24%. A significant correlation (R(2)~0.85) between the p-PAH and black carbon emissions was identified with a mass ratio of approximately 1/2000. A literature review indicated that diesel p-PAH emission factors varied widely by engine technology, measurement methods and conditions, and the molecular diagnostic ratio method for source apportionment should be used with great caution.

  7. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  8. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... = Weighted mass particulate, grams per brake horsepower-hour. (2) PC = Mass particulate measured during the cold-start test, grams. (3) PH = Mass particulate measured during the hot-start test, grams. (4) BHP-hr..., grams per test phase. (PH = Pmass for the hot-start test and PC = Pmass for the cold-start test....

  9. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... = Weighted mass particulate, grams per brake horsepower-hour. (2) PC = Mass particulate measured during the cold-start test, grams. (3) PH = Mass particulate measured during the hot-start test, grams. (4) BHP-hr..., grams per test phase. (PH = Pmass for the hot-start test and PC = Pmass for the cold-start test....

  10. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... = Weighted mass particulate, grams per brake horsepower-hour. (2) PC = Mass particulate measured during the cold-start test, grams. (3) PH = Mass particulate measured during the hot-start test, grams. (4) BHP-hr..., grams per test phase. (PH = Pmass for the hot-start test and PC = Pmass for the cold-start test....

  11. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... = Weighted mass particulate, grams per brake horsepower-hour. (2) PC = Mass particulate measured during the cold-start test, grams. (3) PH = Mass particulate measured during the hot-start test, grams. (4) BHP-hr..., grams per test phase. (PH = Pmass for the hot-start test and PC = Pmass for the cold-start test....

  12. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  13. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Emission factors were calculated using previous sampling values of background-adjusted CO2 and particulate matter (PM)-bound C. The mean of five thermal-optical analyses indicated that the burned crude oil particulate matter was 93% carbon (w/w) with the predominance being refractory elemental carbon (82% w/w) on average. PAHs accounted for roughly 60 ug/g of the PM mass or 4.5 mg/kg oil burned, at least an order of magnitude less than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicates that the soot from the in situ oil burns is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure within the primary particles. The PCDD/PCDF concentration of the PM was 1.5 to 3.3 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg PM sampled, about 10-fold lower than from a previous dedicated gas/solid sample, indicating loss of small particle-bound and more volatile PCDD/PCDF congeners through the aerostat sail. This work presents an analysis of smoke particles opportunistically caught during the in situ surface oil burns during the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon di

  14. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Emission factors were calculated using previous sampling values of background-adjusted CO2 and particulate matter (PM)-bound C. The mean of five thermal-optical analyses indicated that the burned crude oil particulate matter was 93% carbon (w/w) with the predominance being refractory elemental carbon (82% w/w) on average. PAHs accounted for roughly 60 ug/g of the PM mass or 4.5 mg/kg oil burned, at least an order of magnitude less than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicates that the soot from the in situ oil burns is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure within the primary particles. The PCDD/PCDF concentration of the PM was 1.5 to 3.3 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg PM sampled, about 10-fold lower than from a previous dedicated gas/solid sample, indicating loss of small particle-bound and more volatile PCDD/PCDF congeners through the aerostat sail. This work presents an analysis of smoke particles opportunistically caught during the in situ surface oil burns during the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon di

  15. Emission characterization of particulate matter in the ironmaking process.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Sun, Wenqiang; Zhao, Liang; Cai, Jiuju

    2017-10-03

    The aim of this study is to provide a detailed physical and chemical characterization of particles collected in the ironmaking process from an integrated iron and steel factory. The samples collected from three measuring points includes a bunker system, a cast house and a pulverized coal feeding system. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), X ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analyses, the size distribution, morphology, elemental composition and emission factor of particles were investigated. The contribution rates of cast house for emission factors of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 are the largest, 57.0%, 75.5% and 83.3%, respectively. SEM-EDS analysis indicated that cast house particle shapes are mainly formed by polymerization from spherical particles and ultrafine particles, whose main component is Fe. But the particles of the bunker system or the pulverized coal feeding system are mainly the large ones of irregular block or powder particles and the main component is carbon. The highest content of the element in particles of the bunker system and cast house is Fe, followed by C, Si, Ca, Al. The main elements of particles in the pulverized coal feeding system are C, Si, Al and Ca, and their contents are 63.6%, 7.83%, 3.07% and 1.47%, respectively. These 'fingerprints' information of the particles can provide details for source apportionment studies at receptor sites and will be useful for the treatment of particulate matter in the steel industry.

  16. Primary and secondary particulate matter intake fraction from different height emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvez, Fatema; Lamancusa, Carmen; Wagstrom, Kristina

    2017-09-01

    This study uses intake fraction, the fraction of emissions that are inhaled, to compare potential particulate matter exposure among different height emission sources. We use the Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to estimate intake fraction for primary and secondary particulate matter species from different height emission sources. We develop an approach to quantify intake fraction for both primary and secondary particulate matter species emitted from all types of emission sources in the contiguous United States. To compute intake fraction for secondary particulate matter species, we consider the inhalation of the precursor gas and condensed species based on the common atomic unit between the emitted gas and particulate matter product. Our calculated intake fraction varies from 1.0 to 4.9 per million for primary particulate matter, 0.4 to almost 6.0 per million for secondary species, including inhalation of both particulate matter and the relevant precursor species. Intake fraction is consistently higher in the winter than the summer for all species from all emission heights. The shortest height sources, which include area sources, display intake fractions over an order of magnitude greater than more elevated sources.

  17. Particulate emissions from different types of biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Obrist, Daniel; Zielinska, Barbara; Gertler, Alan

    2013-06-01

    Biomass burning is a significant emission source of PM2.5(i.e., particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm), but few studies addressed the chemical composition of PM2.5 emissions from various types of fires. Here, we present results from a sampling campaign to quantify PM2.5 emissions from various types of prescribed burning activities using analysis of carbon (elemental carbon: EC; organic carbon: OC; and total carbon: TC); polar organic compounds (12 different compounds and four functional classes); water-soluble potassium (K+); and particle-bound mercury (PHg). Emissions were characterized for a series of prescribed burns in the Lake Tahoe basin in the western United States, along with controlled biomass combustion in a wood stove. In the field, emissions were collected from: (i) landscape underburns, consisting of wooden tissues, foliage, branches, and surface duff; (ii) pile burns, consisting mainly of wooden tissues stacked up to piles; (iii) mixed underburn/pile burns which consisted of a mix of the above; in a wood stove, burns included different fuel types collected from the Lake Tahoe basin, specifically (iv) wooden logs mainly of pine; (v) green foliage and branches from two dominant shrubs (manzanita and bitterbrush); and (vi) surface duff, mostly consisting of pine needle litter.Our data showed higher ratios of organic to elemental carbon in green fuels (19.2 ± 4.2) compared to dry, wooden logs (7.3 ± 1.9) both in prescribed burns in the field and in controlled stove combustion, indicating that more moisture in green biomass resulted in more smoldering-phase combustion. Further, OC/EC ratios were lower in wood stove burns compared to prescribed burns in the field, which we attribute to higher combustion temperatures in wood stove burns. The suite of 12 select polar organic compounds showed that the most prevalent compounds emitted across all burns were levoglucosan, mannosan, and resin acids (dehydroabietic, pimaric, and

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (MICROFACPM) FOR PREDICTING REAL TIME MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health risk evaluation needs precise measurement and modeling of human exposures in microenvironments to support review of current air quality standards. The particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles are a major component of human exposures in urban microenvironments. Cu...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (MICROFACPM) FOR PREDICTING REAL TIME MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health risk evaluation needs precise measurement and modeling of human exposures in microenvironments to support review of current air quality standards. The particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles are a major component of human exposures in urban microenvironments. Cu...

  20. ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN CANDLE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS BY XRF USING UNIQUANT 4

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an extensive program to study the small combustion sources of indoor fine particulate matter (PM), candles with lead-core wicks were burned in a 46-L glass flow- through chamber. The particulate emissions with aerodynamic diameters <10 micrometers (PM10) were captured ...

  1. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  2. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  3. Second stage mote system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal...

  4. Overflow system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  5. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage mote system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  6. Combined mote system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  7. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin overflow system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  8. Mote trash system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  9. First stage mote system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  10. Mote cyclone robber system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  11. Master trash system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or ...

  12. Second stage lint cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal...

  13. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage mote system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  14. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined mote system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  15. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin unloading system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  16. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cleaner system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  17. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin master trash system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  18. Mote cleaner system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or ...

  19. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  20. First stage lint cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal...

  1. Unloading system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  2. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  3. Cyclone robber system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or ...

  4. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  5. Battery condenser system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  6. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin battery condenser system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  7. Combined lint cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  8. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote trash system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  9. TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

  10. TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

  11. ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN CANDLE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS BY XRF USING UNIQUANT 4

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an extensive program to study the small combustion sources of indoor fine particulate matter (PM), candles with lead-core wicks were burned in a 46-L glass flow- through chamber. The particulate emissions with aerodynamic diameters <10 micrometers (PM10) were captured ...

  12. Bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine.

    PubMed

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Prati, M Vittoria; Costagliola, M Antonietta; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst-equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in at percentages (10, 15, and 20% v/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate matter was characterized in terms of total mass collected on filters and total number ofparticles in the range 7 nm-10 microm measured by electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions were evaluated to assess the health impact of the emitted particulate. Finally, an accurate morphological analysis was performed on the particulate by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a digital image-processing/data-acquisition system. In general, CO emission reductions of 60-70% were obtained with 15 and 20% v/v ethanol blends, while the ethanol use did not reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions. No evident effect of ethanol on the particulate mass emissions and associated PAHs emissions was observed. Twenty-one PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase with emissions ranging from 26 to 35 microg/km and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors from 2.2 to 4.1 microg/km. Both particulate matter and associated PAHs with higher carcinogenic risk were mainly emitted in the submicrometer size range (<0.1 microm). On the basis of the TEM observations, no relevant effect of the ethanol use on the particulate morphology was evidenced, showing aggregates composed ofprimary particles with mean diameters in the range 17.5-32.5 nm.

  13. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... materials likely to become airborne. (viii) The prompt removal from paved streets of earth or other material... fugitive particulate matter emissions. For new sources or new operations, a survey must be conducted within...

  14. Air Emissions Inventory Guidance for Implementation of Ozone and Particulate Matter NAAQS and Regional Haze Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance document on how to develop emission inventories to meet State Implementation Plan requirements for complying with the 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), the revised particulate matter (PM) NAAQS, and the regional haze reg

  15. Trace gas and particulate emissions from biomass burning in temperate ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Stocks, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    Emissions measured from fires in graminoid wetlands, Mediterranean chaparrals, and boreal forests, suggest that such ecosystemic parameters as fuel size influence combustion emissions in ways that are broadly predictable. The degree of predictability is most noticeable when wetland fire-related results are compared with boreal forest emissions; the inorganic fraction of the particulate emissions is close in composition irrespective of the ecosystem. It is found that both aerosol and trace gas emissions are influenced by the phase of combustion.

  16. Characteristics of particulate carbon emissions from real-world Chinese coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yuanxun Zhang; James Jay Schauer; Yuanhang Zhang; Limin Zeng; Yongjie Wei; Yuan Liu; Min Shao

    2008-07-15

    Particulate matter emissions from a series of different Chinese coal combustion systems were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), and molecular markers. Emissions from both industrial boilers and residential stoves were investigated. The coal used in this study included anthracite, bituminite, and brown coal, as well as commonly used coal briquettes produced in China for residential coal combustion. Results show significant differences in the contribution of carbonaceous species to particulate mass emissions. Industrial boilers had much higher burn out of carbon yielding particulate matter emissions with much lower levels of OC, EC, and speciated organic compounds, while residential stoves had significantly higher emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter with emission rates of approximately 100 times higher than that of industrial boilers. Quantified organic compounds emitted from industrial boilers were dominated by oxygenated compounds, of which 46-68% were organic acids, whereas the dominate species quantified in the emissions from residential stoves were PAHs (38%) and n-alkanes (20%). An important observation was the fact that emission factors of PAHs and the distribution of hopanoids were different among the emissions from industrial and residential coal combustion even using the same coal for combustion. Although particulate matter emissions from industrial and residential combustion were different in many regards, picene was detected in all samples with detectable OC mass concentrations, which supports the use of this organic tracer for OC from all types of coal combustion. 17{alpha}(H),21{beta}(H)-29-norhopane was the predominant hopanoid in coal combustion emissions, which is different from mobile source emissions and may be used to distinguish emissions from these different fossil fuel sources. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Characteristics of particulate carbon emissions from real-world Chinese coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James Jay; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yuan; Shao, Min

    2008-07-15

    Particulate matter emissions from a series of different Chinese coal combustion systems were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), and molecular markers. Emissions from both industrial boilers and residential stoves were investigated. The coal used in this study included anthracite, bituminite, and brown coal, as well as commonly used coal briquettes produced in China for residential coal combustion. Results show significant differences in the contribution of carbonaceous species to particulate mass emissions. Industrial boilers had much higher burn out of carbon yielding particulate matter emissions with much lower levels of OC, EC, and speciated organic compounds, while residential stoves had significantly higher emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter with emission rates of approximately 100 times higher than that of industrial boilers. Quantified organic compounds emitted from industrial boilers were dominated by oxygenated compounds, of which 46-68% were organic acids, whereas the dominate species quantified in the emissions from residential stoves were PAHs (38%) and n-alkanes (20%). An important observation was the fact that emission factors of PAHs and the distribution of hopanoids were different among the emissions from industrial and residential coal combustion even using the same coal for combustion. Although particulate matter emissions from industrial and residential combustion were different in many regards, picene was detected in all samples with detectable OC mass concentrations, which supports the use of this organic tracer for OC from all types of coal combustion. 17alpha(H),21beta(H)-29-norhopane was the predominant hopanoid in coal combustion emissions, which is different from mobile source emissions and may be used to distinguish emissions from these different fossil fuel sources.

  18. Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Odón R; Ynoue, Rita Y; Martins, Leila D; Astolfo, Rosana; Miranda, Regina M; Freitas, Edmilson D; Borges, Alessandro S; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Freitas, Helber; Moreira, Andréa; Andrade, Maria F

    2009-02-01

    In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can provide information about emission factors of in-use vehicles. Emission factors are used to estimate vehicular emissions and are described as the amount of species emitted per vehicle distance driven or per volume of fuel consumed. This study presents emission factor data for fine particles, coarse particles, inhalable particulate matter and black carbon, as well as size distribution data for inhalable particulate matter, as measured in March and May of 2004, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros and Maria Maluf road tunnels, both located in São Paulo. The Jânio Quadros tunnel carries mainly light-duty vehicles, whereas the Maria Maluf tunnel carries light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. In the Jânio Quadros tunnel, the estimated light-duty vehicle emission factors for the trace elements copper and bromine were 261 and 220 microg km(-1), respectively, and 16, 197, 127 and 92 mg km(-1), respectively, for black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles. The mean contribution of heavy-duty vehicles to the emissions of black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles was, respectively 29, 4, 6 and 6 times higher than that of light-duty vehicles. The inhalable particulate matter emission factor for heavy-duty vehicles was 1.2 times higher than that found during dynamometer testing. In general, the particle emissions in São Paulo tunnels are higher than those found in other cities of the world.

  19. Reactive oxidative species formation and unregulated particulate emissions from blended diesel and biodiesel light-duty engine emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is well established that particulate matter (PM) continues to be a major air pollutant challenge for human health globally and vehicle exhaust PM emissions have been linked to many adverse health effects. However, the relative toxicity of biodiesel emissions compared to petroleum diesel remains u...

  20. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL EMISSIONS FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES: DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS AND DOMESTIC WASTE OPEN BURN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from combustion sources are poorly characterized due to the large number of compounds present in the emissions, the complexity of the analytical separations required, and the uncertainty regarding identification of chemicals with...

  1. Solibacillus kalamii sp. nov., isolated from a high-efficiency particulate arrestance filter system used in the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra; Kumar, Rajendran Mathan; Pal, Deepika; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2017-04-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterial strain, designated ISSFR-015T, was isolated from a high-efficiency particulate arrestance filter in the International Space Station and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomy. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence (1494 bp) of strain ISSFR-015T showed highest similarity to Solibacillus isronensis B3W22T (98.9 %), followed by Solibacillus silvestris HR3-23T (98.6 %) and Bacillus cecembensis PN5T (96.7 %). DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed that the DNA relatedness values of strain ISSFR-015T with other closely related species were in the range of 41-47 % [S. silvestrisMTCC 10789T (47 %), S. isronensis MTCC 7902T (41 %) and B. cecembensis MTCC 9127T (43 %)]. The DNA G+C content of strain ISSFR-015T was 45.4 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (45.2 %) and C17 : 1ω10c (12.1 %). The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and one unknown phospholipid. The isoprenoid quinones present in strain ISSFR-015T were MK-7 (86.8 %), MK-6 (11.6 %) and MK-8 (1.0 %). The peptidoglycan type of the cell wall was A4α l-Lys-d-Glu. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, strain ISSFR-015T belongs to the genus Solibacillus. The polyphasic taxonomic data, including low DNA-DNA hybridization values, and the chemotaxonomic analysis confirmed that strain ISSFR-015T represents a novel species, for which the name Solibacillus kalamii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for this proposed species is ISSFR-015T (=NRRL B-65388T=DSM 101595T).

  2. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  3. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  4. Particulate Matter Emissions for Fires in the Palmetto-Gallberry Fuel Type

    Treesearch

    Darold E. Ward

    1983-01-01

    Fire management specialists in the southeastern United States needing guides for predicting or assessing particulate matter emission factors, emission rates, and heat release rate can use the models presented in this paper for making these predictions as a function of flame length in the palmetto-gallberry fuel type.

  5. Determination of particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots using windtrax and flux-gradient technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large commercial cattle feedlots are significant sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions. This research compared WindTrax and the flux-gradient technique in estimating emissions of PM with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) from cattle feedlots. Meteorological conditions were measured and PM10...

  6. Estimation of dairy particulate matter emission rates by lidar and inverse modeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural operations are an important issue for air quality and human health and a topic of interest to government regulators. PM emission rates from a dairy in the San Joaquin Valley of California were investigated during June 2008. The facility had 1,885 t...

  7. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a... emitted from certain wood products industry sources operating within the Indian reservation to control...

  8. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a... emitted from certain wood products industry sources operating within the Indian reservation to control...

  9. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a... emitted from certain wood products industry sources operating within the Indian reservation to control...

  10. Control of NOx and particulate emissions from spreader-stokers fired with hogged wood

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.M.; Bradshaw, F.W.; Pershing, D.W.

    1987-06-01

    The formation and emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate carry-over were studied from spreader-stoker combustion of nogged Douglas-fir, with a focus on optimizing the combustion conditions in each of the two distinct combustion zones, the bed phase and the suspension phase. Local oxygen availability was the controlling parameter for nitric oxide formation. Minimum nitric oxide emissions were found when local air: fuel stoichiometric ratios were held at 0.70-0.85, with emissions reduced as much as 39%. Long first-stage residence times allowed intermediate nitrogenous species to decay to molecular nitrogen, if there was sufficient oxygen for first-stage formation of nitric oxide. Entrainment of large particulates was a function of furnace gas velocities in the bed zone. Operation of the furnace at low stoichiometric ratios (fuel rich) in the bed zone reduced these gas velocities and thus reduced particulate emissions. (Refs. 12).

  11. Diagnosis of partial and total physeal arrest by bone single-photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Wioland, M; Bonnerot, V

    1993-09-01

    Bone single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), capable of creating maps of the distribution of osteoblastic activity in every spatial plane of a physis, should provide images of diagnostic value in the case of patients suffering from growth arrests (epiphysiodeses). Seventy-five bone SPECT scans were obtained in 64 children suspected to have developed physeal arrests. The transaxial slices of the physis, in the case of partial epiphysiodeses: (a) indicated the percentage of the remaining normal physis, (b) located the bony bridge within the physis and (c) showed the slowdown of the growth of the remaining normal physis induced by the bony bridge in some children. Misdiagnosis occurred in six patients. For total epiphysiodeses, the radionuclide diagnosis was confirmed in 20 of 21 patients. Radionuclide, x-ray and MRI examinations in the study of growth disturbances were found to be complementary.

  12. Update - characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for PM2.5, particulate matter whose effective diameter is less than 2.5 microns. PM2.5 is listed as a criteria pollutant in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). All cotton gins across the cotton belt will be impacted by this standar...

  13. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

  14. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

  15. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... = 0.43(Mp1 + Mp2)/(Dct + Ds) + 0.57(Mp3 + Mp2)/(Dht = Ds) where: (1) Mp1 = Mass of particulate... start test, in grams per test phase. (See § 86.110-82(c)(1) for determination.) (3) Mp3 = Mass of...

  16. Gaseous and particulate emissions from rural vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin

    2011-06-01

    Rural vehicles (RVs) could contribute significantly to air pollutant emissions throughout Asia due to their considerable population, extensive usage, and high emission rates, but their emissions have not been measured before and have become a major concern for the accuracy of regional and global emission inventories. In this study, we measured CO, HC, NO x and PM emissions of RVs using a combined on-board emission measurement system on real roads in China. We also compared the emission levels of the twenty RVs to those of nineteen Euro II light-duty diesel trucks (LDDTs) that we measured for previous studies. The results show that one-cylinder RVs have lower distance-based emission factors compared to LDDTs because of their smaller weight and engine power, but they have significantly higher fuel-based PM emission factors than LDDTs. Four-cylinder RVs have equivalent emission levels to LDDTs. Based on the emission factors and the activity data obtained, we estimate that the total emissions of RVs in China in 2006 were 1049 Gg of CO, 332 Gg of HC, 933 Gg of NO x, and 54 Gg of PM, contributing over 40% to national on-road diesel CO, NO x, and PM emissions. As RVs are a significant contributor to national emissions, further research work is needed to improve the accuracy of inventories at all levels, and the government should strengthen the management of RVs to facilitate both policy making and research work.

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemical emissions from combustion sources: diesel particulate emissions and domestic waste open burn emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Sukh; Gullett, Brian; Striebich, Richard; Klosterman, Joy; Contreras, Jesse; DeVito, Michael

    Emissions of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from combustion sources are poorly characterized due to the large number of compounds present in the emissions, the complexity of the analytical separations required, and the uncertainty regarding identification of chemicals with endocrine effects. In this work, multidimensional gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) was used to characterize emissions from both controlled (diesel engine) and uncontrolled (open burning of domestic waste) combustion sources. The results of this study suggest that, by using MDGC-MS, one can resolve a much greater percentage of the chromatogram and identify about 84% of these resolved compounds. This increase in resolution helped to identify and quantify various classes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the combustion emissions that had not been identified previously. Significant emissions (when compared to industrial sources) of known EDCs, dioctyl phthalate (over ˜2,500,000 kg year -1) and bisphenol A (over ˜75,000 kg year -1) were estimated from uncontrolled domestic waste burning. Emissions of several suspected EDCs (oxygenated PAHs) were observed in both diesel soot and the uncontrolled domestic waste burn samples. The emission rates of known and suspected EDCs estimated in this study suggest that combustion emissions need to be characterized for EDCs to further assess its importance as a source of EDC exposure.

  18. Gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions from commercial restaurants in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Ho, Kin Fai; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Wing Kei; Lee, Shun Cheng; Yu, Jian Zhen; Sit, Elber Hoi Leung

    2007-12-01

    Commercial cooking emissions are important air pollution sources in a heavily urbanized city. Exhaust samples were collected in six representative commercial kitchens including Chinese restaurants, Western restaurants, and Western fast-food restaurants in Hong Kong during peak lunch hours. Both gaseous and particulate emissions were evaluated. Eight gaseous and twenty-two particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in this study. In the gaseous phase, naphthalene (67-89%) was the most abundant PAH in all of the exhaust samples. The contribution of acenaphthylene in the gaseous phase was significantly higher in emissions from the Chinese restaurants, whereas fluorene was higher in emissions from the Western cooking style restaurants (i.e., Western restaurants and Western fast-food restaurants). Pyrene is the most abundant particulate PAH in the Chinese restaurants (14-49%) while its contribution was much lower in the Western cooking style restaurants (10-22%). Controlled cooking conditions were monitored in a staff canteen to compare the emissions from several different local cooking styles, including deep frying, steaming, and mixed cooking styles (combination of steaming and frying). Deep frying produced the highest amount of total gaseous PAHs, 6 times higher than the steaming. However, steaming produced the highest particulate emissions. The estimated annual gaseous PAH emissions for the Chinese restaurants, Western restaurants, and Western fast-food restaurants were 255, 173, and 20.2 t y(-1) whereas 252, 1.9, and 0.4 t y(-1) were estimated for particulate phase PAH emissions. The study provides useful information and estimates for PAH emissions from commercial cooking exhaust in Hong Kong.

  19. Sensitivity analysis and evaluation of MicroFacPM: a microscale motor vehicle emission factor model for particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakesh B; Huber, Alan H; Braddock, James N

    2007-04-01

    A microscale emission factor model (MicroFacPM) for predicting real-time site-specific motor vehicle particulate matter emissions was presented in the companion paper titled "Development of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter (MicroFacPM) for Predicting Real-Time Motor Vehicle Emissions". The emission rates discussed are in mass per unit distance with the model providing estimates of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matter. This paper complements the companion paper by presenting a sensitivity analysis of the model to input variables and evaluation model outputs using data from limited field studies. The sensitivity analysis has shown that MicroFacPM emission estimates are very sensitive to vehicle fleet composition, speed, and the percentage of high-emitting vehicles. The vehicle fleet composition can affect fleet emission rates from 8 mg/mi to 1215 mg/mi; an increase of 5% in the smoking (high-emitting) current average U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet (compared with 0%) increased PM2.5 emission rates by -272% for 2000; and for the current U.S. fleet, PM2.5 emission rates are reduced by a factor of -0.64 for speeds >50 miles per hour (mph) relative to a speed of 10 mph. MicroFacPM can also be applied to examine the contribution of emission rates per vehicle class, model year, and sources of PM. The model evaluation is presented for the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel, Pennsylvania Turnpike, PA, and some limited evaluations at two locations: Sepulveda Tunnel, Los Angeles, CA, and Van Nuys Tunnel, Van Nuys, CA. In general, the performance of MicroFacPM has shown very encouraging results.

  20. Reductions in particulate and NO(x) emissions by diesel engine parameter adjustments with HVO fuel.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Matti; Heikkilä, Juha; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-06-05

    Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel fuel is a promising biofuel candidate that can complement or substitute traditional diesel fuel in engines. It has been already reported that by changing the fuel from conventional EN590 diesel to HVO decreases exhaust emissions. However, as the fuels have certain chemical and physical differences, it is clear that the full advantage of HVO cannot be realized unless the engine is optimized for the new fuel. In this article, we studied how much exhaust emissions can be reduced by adjusting engine parameters for HVO. The results indicate that, with all the studied loads (50%, 75%, and 100%), particulate mass and NO(x) can both be reduced over 25% by engine parameter adjustments. Further, the emission reduction was even higher when the target for adjusting engine parameters was to exclusively reduce either particulates or NO(x). In addition to particulate mass, different indicators of particulate emissions were also compared. These indicators included filter smoke number (FSN), total particle number, total particle surface area, and geometric mean diameter of the emitted particle size distribution. As a result of this comparison, a linear correlation between FSN and total particulate surface area at low FSN region was found.

  1. Toxicological effects of particulate emissions - A comparison of oil and wood fuels in small- and medium-scale heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasurinen, Stefanie; Jalava, Pasi I.; Tapanainen, Maija; Uski, Oskari; Happo, Mikko S.; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Lamberg, Heikki; Koponen, Hanna; Nuutinen, Ilpo; Kortelainen, Miika; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2015-02-01

    The use of wood instead of oil fuels in heating systems is strongly encouraged in many countries. Yet it is unknown to what extent such a large-scale change from oil to wood fuels in heating systems would contribute to any negative health effects from their emissions. We compared the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and oil fuels from two small-scale and two medium-scale heating systems. To assess whether oil or wood combustion emissions cause adverse effects and which PM emissions' effects are more profound, we measured cell viability and proliferation, inflammatory markers, as well as DNA damage in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. We found that the medium-scale oil-fueled heating system induced a dose-dependent increase of DNA damage, short-term cytotoxic effects, and a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M-phase. We did not detect an induction of DNA damage by the medium-scale wood-fired system. However, we detected significant short-term cytotoxicity. We found that both oil and wood combustion emission samples from the small-scale heating systems induced DNA damage. However, the short-term cytotoxic effects were greater for the PM emissions from the oil-fired heating system. PM mass emissions differed significantly between the tested heating systems. The lowest emissions, 0.1 mg/MJ, were produced by the small-scale oil-fired heating system; the highest emissions, 20.3 mg/MJ, by the medium-scale oil-fired heating system. The wood-fired heating systems' PM mass emissions were in between these concentrations, complicating the direct comparison of the emissions' health related toxic effects. Conclusively, our results indicate that the emissions from both the small- and the medium-scale wood-fueled heating systems cause overall less cytotoxicity and DNA damage in a cell model than the emissions from the corresponding oil-fueled heating systems. Hence, controlled wood-fueled heating systems may be good alternatives to heating systems fired

  2. Particulate emission characteristics of a port-fuel-injected SI engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Poola, R.; Lee, K. O.; Sekar, R.

    2000-03-02

    Particulate emissions from spark-ignited (SI) engines have come under close scrutiny as they tend to be smaller than 50 nm, are composed mainly of volatile organic compounds, and are emitted in significant numbers. To assess the impact of such emissions, measurements were performed in the exhaust of a current-technology port-fuel-injected SI engine, which was operated at various steady-state conditions. To gain further insights into the particulate formation mechanisms, measurements were also performed upstream of the catalytic converter. At all engine speeds, a general trend was observed in the number densities and mass concentrations: a moderate increase at low loads followed by a decrease at mid-range loads, which was followed by a steep increase at high loads. Within reasonable bounds, one could attribute such a trend to three different mechanisms. An unidentified mechanism at low loads results in particulate emissions monotonically increasing with load. At medium loads, wherein the engine operates close to stoichiometric conditions, high exhaust temperatures lead to particulate oxidation. At high loads, combustion occurs mostly under fuel-rich conditions, and the contribution from combustion soot becomes significant. Estimates of the number of particles emitted per kilometer by a vehicle carrying the current test engine were found to be lower than those from a comparable diesel vehicle by three orders of magnitude. Similar estimates for mass emissions (grams of particulates emitted per kilometer) were found to be two orders of magnitude lower than the future regulated emission value of 0.006 (g/km) for light-duty diesel vehicles. Moreover, considering the fact that these particles have typical lifetimes of 15 min, the health hazard from particulate emissions from SI engines appears to be low.

  3. Experimental study on the nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter emissions from diesel engine retrofitted with particulate oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin

    2014-02-15

    A particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) was employed to perform experiments on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engine. The engine exhaust was sampled from both upstream and downstream of the POC. The results showed that the POC increased the ratios of NO2/NOx significantly in the middle and high loads, the ratio of NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased 4.5 times on average under all experiment modes with the POC. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used to study the particle number-weighted size distributions and the abnormal particle emissions with the POC. The results indicated that the average reduction rate of particle number (PN) was 61% in the operating range of the diesel engine. At the engine speed of 1,400 r/min, the reduction rates of PN tended to decrease with the larger particle size. In the long time run under the steady mode (520 Nm, 1,200 r/min), abnormal particle emissions after the POC happened seven times in the first hour, and the average PN concentration of these abnormal emission peaks was much higher than that in normal state. The particle emissions of peaks 1-5 equaled the particles emitted downstream of the POC in normal state for 1.9h in number concentration, and for 3.6h in mass concentration. The PN concentrations tended to increase over time in 5h under the steady engine mode and the increase of the PN in the size range of 6.04-14.3 nm was more evident. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the impacts of ethanol and isobutanol on gaseous and particulate emissions from flexible fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Short, Daniel; Russell, Robert L; Jung, Heejung; Johnson, Kent C; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Durbin, Thomas D

    2014-12-02

    This study investigated the effects of higher ethanol blends and an isobutanol blend on the criteria emissions, fuel economy, gaseous toxic pollutants, and particulate emissions from two flexible-fuel vehicles equipped with spark ignition engines, with one wall-guided direct injection and one port fuel injection configuration. Both vehicles were tested over triplicate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and Unified Cycles (UC) using a chassis dynamometer. Emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) showed some statistically significant reductions with higher alcohol fuels, while total hydrocarbons (THC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) did not show strong fuel effects. Acetaldehyde emissions exhibited sharp increases with higher ethanol blends for both vehicles, whereas butyraldehyde emissions showed higher emissions for the butanol blend relative to the ethanol blends at a statistically significant level. Particulate matter (PM) mass, number, and soot mass emissions showed strong reductions with increasing alcohol content in gasoline. Particulate emissions were found to be clearly influenced by certain fuel parameters including oxygen content, hydrogen content, and aromatics content.

  5. Climate-relevant properties of diesel particulate emissions: results from a piggyback study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Paw-armart, Ittipol; Duleep, K G

    2009-06-01

    A "piggyback" approach is used to characterize aerosol emissions to obtain input for large-scale models of atmospheric transport. Particulate and gaseous emissions from diesel trucks, light-duty vehicles, and buses were measured by the Bangkok Pollution Control Department as part of the Developing Integrated Emissions Strategies for Existing Land Transport (DIESEL) project. We added filter-based measurements of carbonaceous composition, particulate light absorption, and water uptake. For 88 "normal" diesel vehicles (PM emission rate < 4.7 g/kg), our best estimate of the average PM2.5 emission rate is 2.2 +/- 0.5 g/kg, whereas for 15 high emitters, it is 8.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg. The effect of Euro standards on PM emission rates was apparent for heavy-duty vehicles, but not for light-duty vehicles. Carbonaceous composition appears relatively consistent, with particulate (artifact-corrected) OC at 17 +/- 1% and EC at 40 +/- 8% of PM for 103 pickups, vans, heavy-duty trucks and buses. The median absorption cross-section for EC is 10.5 m2/g at 532 nm. The history of average emission rate and chemical composition during the project suggests that about 25 vehicles can provide a regional PM emission rate for normal vehicles. Other studies such as remote sensing measurements will be required to estimate the important contribution of high-emitting vehicles.

  6. Emission estimates of particulate matter and heavy metals from mobile sources in Delhi (India).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Ragini; Attri, Arun K; Panis, Luc Int; Gurjar, B R

    2013-04-01

    An attempt has been made to make a comprehensive emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) of various size fractions and also of heavy metals (HMs) emitted from mobile sources (both exhaust and non-exhaust) from the road transport of Delhi, India (1991-2006). COPERT-III and 4 models were mainly used toestimate these emissions. Results show that the annual exhaust emission of PM of size upto 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) has increased from 3Gg to 4.5Gg during 1991-2006 irrespective of'improvement in vehicle-technology and fuel use. PM emission from exhaust and non-exhaust sources in general has increased. Heavy commercial vehicles-need attention to control particulate emission as it emerged as a predominant source of PM emissions. Among non-exhaust emissions of total suspended particulate matter (TSP), road-surface wear (~49%) has the prime contribution. As a result of-introduction of unleaded gasoline Pb has significantly reduced (~8 fold) whereas share of Cu and Zn are still considerable. Among non-exhaust sources, Pb release was the most significant one from tyre-wear whereas from break-wear, Cu release was found to be the most significant followed by Pb and Cr + Zn. Because of public health concerns further policies need to be developed to reduce emissions of PM and HMs from the road transport of megacity Delhi.

  7. Diesel fuel containing wax oxidates to reduce particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, H.G.; Sweeney, W.M.

    1980-09-16

    Addition of 0.1 to 1.5 percent by weight of wax oxidates to a diesel fuel is found to reduce the amount of soot and invisible particles produced when the fuel is used in a diesel engine. The wax oxidates act synergistically with fuel-soluble organometallic compounds such as alkyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl complex salts in reducing particulates. The wax oxidates used have a ratio of neutralization number to saponification number below about 0.40 and a saybolt universal viscosity at 210* F. Higher than 1600.

  8. Electrostatic precipitator for metal and particulate emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.L.; Beltran, M.

    2000-03-01

    Improving air pollution control systems is crucial for incinerators to be an option for sewage sludge disposal. Combinations of venturi and tray tower scrubbers are the most popular air pollution control system for sewage sludge incinerators. Recently wet electrostatic precipitators have been installed downstream of the scrubbing system to ensure the compliance of new regulations. Performance and stack tests were conducted on sludge incinerators at Somerset Raritan Valley Sewage Authority and New England Treatment Company. Efficiencies in terms of heavy metal and particulate removals are presented. This paper also describes sewage sludge incinerators, existing air pollution control systems, design considerations of the wet electrostatic precipitator, as well as sampling and analysis methods.

  9. Particulate and Gaseous Emissions Measurement System (PAGEMS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostic, Milivoje

    2003-01-01

    Professor Kostic will work on the current UEET program of the Aerosol and Particulate task. This task will focus on: how to acquire experimental data through Labview software how to make the data acquisition system more efficient trouble existing problem of the labview software recommend a better system improve existing system with better data and usually friendly.Three different assignments in this project included:Particle-Size Distribution Data Presentation;Error or Uncertainty Analysis of Measurement Results; and Enhancement of LabVlRN Data Acquisition Program for GRC PAGEMS Project.

  10. Review of grout particulate-emissions methodology. Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1993-09-01

    A model as been developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Program Release) to estimate the quantity of particulate aerosols that would become airborne during the pouring of grout into a storage vault. Information and equations derived from spill experiments were used in the model to determine release fractions. The letter report discusses the similarities and differences between the spill experiments and the grout vault operations, the applicability of the spill equations, and the use of particle depletion models to account for the residence time of particles in the grout vault.

  11. Characterization of gaseous pollutant and particulate matter emission rates from a commercial broiler operation part II: Correlated emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumeliotis, Taylor S.; Dixon, Brad J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2010-10-01

    Emission rates of ammonia, acid gases, inorganic aerosols, methane, and size fractionated particulate matter were measured from a commercial broiler facility. This paper discusses the statistically influential parameters on numerous pollutants' emission from a broiler chicken facility and generates emission correlations to fill data gaps and develop averaged emission factors. Live mass of the birds was commonly a significant variable to each pollutant's emission. Some variables significantly impacted the pollutants' emissions, such as litter moisture content, but were measured discretely and cannot be used for filling in data gaps. House parameter correlations were, therefore, developed using parameters measured at the facility, such as indoor temperature, relative humidity, and the live mass of the birds, and relied on the mutual behaviour of discretely measured explanatory parameters and continuously monitored confounding variables. The live mass and the difference in the indoor temperature and the house set-point temperature were the most significant variables in each pollutant's correlation. The correlations predicted each pollutants emission to within 20% (total mass basis) over most broiler production cycles. Their validation on independent datasets also successfully estimated the flocks' emissions to within 3%. Emission factors (EFs) were developed for methane, ammonia, and size fractionated particulate matter using measured data and correlated emissions to fill in data gaps. PM 10 (particulate matter ≤10 microns) EFs were estimated to be 4.6 and 5.9 g d -1 [Animal Unit, AU] -1 for five and six week production cycles, respectively. PM 2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5 microns) EFs were 0.8 and 1.4 g d -1 AU -1 for five and six week cycles, respectively. Ammonia and methane emission factors were estimated at 120.8 and 197.0 g d -1 AU -1, respectively for a five week production cycle.

  12. Development of a particulate emission factor model for European motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.B.; Colls, J.

    1997-12-31

    A motor vehicle emission model for suspended particulate matter capable of collecting virtually all the existing knowledge on emissions from the European vehicle fleet, in particular for the United Kingdom, has been developed. It is written in FORTRAN90 and calculates exhaust, tire wear and brake wear particulate emission factors in gram per kilometer per vehicle from on-road vehicles. The model can be used to calculate the total suspended particulate matter and the concentration in four particle size ranges between 10 and 1 m (i.e., PM10, PM5, PM2.5 and PM1). It calculates the composite emission factors based on parameters such as vehicle fleet, speed, ambient temperature and driving cycle and also has the option to calculate detailed emission factors for all the vehicles individually. Emissions from a road can be calculated on a lane-by-lane basis and for available vehicle fleet structure data. The vehicle fleet data includes options based on observations, closed circuit television camera or average values for the country or region. The model can also be used near a signalized intersections and calculates emissions in user-defined element of the lane near a intersection. It takes into account the increased emissions from cold engines which are dependent on the ambient temperature and the driving cycle; and other particulate sources such as road dust, tire wears and brake wears. The modeled emission factors are very sensitive to speed and vehicular fleet composition. The model is validated on urban and rural roads of the United Kingdom.

  13. Real-world particulate matter and gaseous emissions from motor vehicles in a highway tunnel.

    PubMed

    Gertler, Alan W; Gillies, John A; Pierson, William R; Rogers, C Fred; Sagebiel, John C; Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Coulombe, William; Tarnay, Leland; Cahill, Thomas A

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have linked atmospheric particulate matter with human health problems. In many urban areas, mobile sources are a major source of particulate matter (PM) and the dominant source of fine particles or PM2.5 (PM smaller than 2.5 pm in aerodynamic diameter). Dynamometer studies have implicated diesel engines as being a significant source of ultrafine particles (< 0.1 microm), which may also exhibit deleterious health impacts. In addition to direct tailpipe emissions, mobile sources contribute to ambient particulate levels by brake and tire wear and by resuspension of particles from pavement. Information about particle emission rates, size distributions, and chemical composition from in-use light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles is scarce, especially under real-world operating conditions. To characterize particulate emissions from a limited set of in-use vehicles, we studied on-road emissions from vehicles operating under hot-stabilized conditions, at relatively constant speed, in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel along the Pennsylvania Turnpike from May 18 through 23, 1999. There were five specific aims of the study. (1) obtain chemically speciated diesel profiles for the source apportionment of diesel versus other ambient constituents in the air and to determine the chemical species present in real-world diesel emissions; (2) measure particle number and size distribution of chemically speciated particles in the atmosphere; (3) identify, by reference to data in years past, how much change has occurred in diesel exhaust particulate mass; (4) measure particulate emissions from LD gasoline vehicles to determine their contribution to the observed particle levels compared to diesels; and (5) determine changes over time in gas phase emissions by comparing our results with those of previous studies. Comparing the results of this study with our 1992 results, we found that emissions of C8 to C20 hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from

  14. Gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different technologies.

    PubMed

    Athar, Makshoof; Ali, Mahboob; Khan, Misbahul Ain

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the assessment of gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different combustion technologies. Four thermal power plants operating on heavy furnace oil were selected for the study, among which three were based on diesel engine technology, while the fourth plant was based on oil-fired steam turbine technology. The stack emissions were monitored for critical air pollutants carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, lead, and mercury. The pollutant emissions were measured at optimum load conditions for a period of 6 months with an interval of 1 month. The results of stack emissions were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan and World Bank guidelines for thermal power plants, and few parameters were found higher than the permissible limits of emissions. It was observed that the emissions carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matters from diesel engine-based power plants were comparatively higher than the turbine-based power plants. The emissions of sulfur dioxide were high in all the plants, even the plants with different technologies, which was mainly due to high sulfur contents in fuel.

  15. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Particulate Matter Emission Factor Model for European Motor Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakesh B; Colls, Jeremy J

    2000-10-01

    Although modeling of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles is now quite advanced, prediction of particulate emissions is still at an unsophisticated stage. Emission factors for gasoline vehicles are not reliably available, since gasoline vehicles are not included in the European Union (EU) emission test procedure. Regarding diesel vehicles, emission factors are available for different driving cycles but give little information about change of emissions with speed or engine load. We have developed size-specific speed-dependent emission factors for gasoline and diesel vehicles. Other vehicle-generated emission factors are also considered and the empirical equation for re-entrained road dust is modified to include humidity effects. A methodology is proposed to calculate modal (accelerating, cruising, or idling) emission factors. The emission factors cover particle size ranges up to 10 um, either from published data or from user-defined size distributions. A particulate matter emission factor model (PMFAC), which incorporates virtually all the available information on particulate emissions for European motor vehicles, has been developed. PMFAC calculates the emission factors for five particle size ranges [i.e., total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM5, PM25, and PM1] from both vehicle exhaust and nonexhaust emissions, such as tire wear, brake wear, and re-entrained road dust. The model can be used for an unlimited number of roads and lanes, and to calculate emission factors near an intersection in user-defined elements of the lane. PMFAC can be used for a variety of fleet structures. Hot emission factors at the user-defined speed can be calculated for individual vehicles, along with relative cold-to-hot emission factors. The model accounts for the proportions of distance driven with cold engines as a function of ambient temperature and road type (i.e., urban, rural, or motorway). A preliminary evaluation of PMFAC with an available dispersion model to predict the

  16. Development and preliminary evaluation of a particulate matter emission factor model for European motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Singh, R B; Colls, J J

    2000-10-01

    Although modeling of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles is now quite advanced, prediction of particulate emissions is still at an unsophisticated stage. Emission factors for gasoline vehicles are not reliably available, since gasoline vehicles are not included in the European Union (EU) emission test procedure. Regarding diesel vehicles, emission factors are available for different driving cycles but give little information about change of emissions with speed or engine load. We have developed size-specific speed-dependent emission factors for gasoline and diesel vehicles. Other vehicle-generated emission factors are also considered and the empirical equation for re-entrained road dust is modified to include humidity effects. A methodology is proposed to calculate modal (accelerating, cruising, or idling) emission factors. The emission factors cover particle size ranges up to 10 microns, either from published data or from user-defined size distributions. A particulate matter emission factor model (PMFAC), which incorporates virtually all the available information on particulate emissions for European motor vehicles, has been developed. PMFAC calculates the emission factors for five particle size ranges [i.e., total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM5, PM2.5, and PM1] from both vehicle exhaust and nonexhaust emissions, such as tire wear, brake wear, and re-entrained road dust. The model can be used for an unlimited number of roads and lanes, and to calculate emission factors near an intersection in user-defined elements of the lane. PMFAC can be used for a variety of fleet structures. Hot emission factors at the user-defined speed can be calculated for individual vehicles, along with relative cold-to-hot emission factors. The model accounts for the proportions of distance driven with cold engines as a function of ambient temperature and road type (i.e., urban, rural, or motorway). A preliminary evaluation of PMFAC with an available dispersion model to predict

  17. Particulate matter, gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban traffic tunnel of China: Emission from on-road vehicles and gas-particle partitioning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Gao, Yi; Yu, Na; Zhang, Chenkai; Wang, Siyao; Ma, Limin; Zhao, Jianfu; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Traffic vehicles are a main source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in urban area. It is vital to understand PAH gas-particle partitioning in real traffic environment and assess PAH vehicular emission factors in developing China. Concentrations of particulate matter, carbonaceous products, gaseous and particulate PAHs were measured during 2011-2012 in a road tunnel of Shanghai, China. Time variation of them reflected basic traffic operation of the tunnel. PAHs approached equilibrium between gas and particle phases and the partitioning was predicted better by a dual sorption model combining absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto black carbon. The influence of black carbon adsorption on the partitioning behavior of PAHs was important. The difference in isomer ratios of gaseous and particulate PAHs was attributed to PAH contributions from different traffic-related PAHs sources. Real-world vehicle emission factors of gaseous and particulate PAHs were quantified based on fuel burned model and vehicle kilometer traveled model.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Electrostatic Spray Wet Scrubber to Control Particulate Matter Emissions from Poultry Facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant emitted from animal production and has significant impacts on health and the environment. Abatement of PM emissions is imperative and effective PM control technologies are strongly needed. In this work, an electrostatic spray wet scrubber (ESWS) techn...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a research program which directly determined mud/dirt carryout emission factors for both particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of 10 micrometers or less (PM10) and PM with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5). The research was ...

  20. Source sampling of particulate matter emissions from cotton harvesting - system design and evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    State and regional air pollution regulatory agencies are required by federal law to reduce ambient particulate matter concentrations in non-attainment areas to a level in compliance with National Ambient Air Quality Standards. All emission regulations, including reduction regulations, should be base...

  1. Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Total Particulate Matter Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first progress report of a study to evaluate two different condensation devices for the measurement of the total (volatile + non-volatile) particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines by direct sampling at the engine exit. The characteristics of th...

  2. Particulate Matter Stack Emission Compliance Test Procedure for Fuel Burning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission, Charleston.

    This publication details the particulate matter emissions test procedure that is applicable for conducting compliance tests for fuel burning units required to be tested under Sub-section 7 of Regulation II (1972) as established by the state of West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission. The testing procedure is divided into five parts:…

  3. Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Total Particulate Matter Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first progress report of a study to evaluate two different condensation devices for the measurement of the total (volatile + non-volatile) particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines by direct sampling at the engine exit. The characteristics of th...

  4. Emissions calculated from particulate matter and gaseous ammonia measurements from a commercial dairy in California, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emission rates and factors for particulate matter (PM) and gaseous ammonia (NH3) were estimated from measurements taken at a dairy in California, USA in June 2008. Concentration measurements were made using both point and remote sensors. Filter-based PM samplers and OPCs characterized aerodynamic an...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES: MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a field study of PM-2.5 and PM-10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 and 10 micrometers, respectively) emissions from a public paved road in Overland Park, Kansas, adjacent to a 200-acre construction site which will ultimately have 4 ...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES: MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a field study of PM-2.5 and PM-10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 and 10 micrometers, respectively) emissions from a public paved road in Overland Park, Kansas, adjacent to a 200-acre construction site which will ultimately have 4 ...

  7. Particulate emissions calculations from fall tillage operations using point and remote sensors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preparation of soil for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric loadings of particulate matter (PM). Efforts to reduce PM emissions from tillage operations through a variety of conservation management practices (CMP) have been made but the reduc...

  8. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run, gaseous...

  9. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run, gaseous...

  10. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run, gaseous...

  11. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run, gaseous...

  12. Particulate PAH emissions from residential biomass combustion: time-resolved analysis with aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A C; Nordin, E Z; Nyström, R; Pettersson, E; Swietlicki, E; Bergvall, C; Westerholm, R; Boman, C; Pagels, J H

    2014-06-17

    Time-resolved emissions of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total organic particulate matter (OA) from a wood log stove and an adjusted pellet stove were investigated with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS). The highest OA emissions were found during the addition of log wood on glowing embers, that is, slow burning pyrolysis conditions. These emissions contained about 1% PAHs (of OA). The highest PAH emissions were found during fast burning under hot air starved combustion conditions, in both stoves. In the latter case, PAHs contributed up to 40% of OA, likely due to thermal degradation of other condensable species. The distribution of PAHs was also shifted toward larger molecules in these emissions. AMS signals attributed to PAHs were found at molecular weights up to 600 Da. The vacuum aerodynamic size distribution was found to be bimodal with a smaller mode (Dva ∼ 200 nm) dominating under hot air starved combustion and a larger sized mode dominating under slow burning pyrolysis (Dva ∼ 600 nm). Simultaneous reduction of PAHs, OA and total particulate matter from residential biomass combustion may prove to be a challenge for environmental legislation efforts as these classes of emissions are elevated at different combustion conditions.

  13. Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.H.; Schieber, C.; Socha, R.G.; Kramlich, J.C.

    1990-04-01

    The primary objective of this program was to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern the formation of particulate matter in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range in pulverized coal flames. The mechanism that produces ash particles in this size range is not clear. Particle sizes smaller than the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range are generally accepted to result from a vaporization/condensation mechanism while particles larger than this size result from the coalescence of ash in coal particles which may breakup as they burn. This program combined experimental and theoretical studies to understand the mechanisms which control the production of ash in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range. (VC)

  14. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest are induced in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells exposed to fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Yan-Yan; Cao, Ji-Yu; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Chen, Dao-Jun; Che, Zhen; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Wen, Long-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a linkage between morbidity and mortality and particulate matter (PM), particularly fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that can readily penetrate into the lungs and are therefore more likely to increase the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the compositions of cooking oil fume (COF)-derived PM2.5, which is the major source of indoor pollution in China. Furthermore, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest induced by COF-derived PM2.5 in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II cells) were also detected. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a radical scavenger, was used to identify the role of oxidative stress in the abovementioned processes. Our results suggested that compositions of COF-derived PM2.5 are obviously different to PM2.5 derived from other sources, and COF-derived PM2.5 led to cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and G0/G1 cell arrest in primary fetal AEC II cells. Furthermore, the results also showed that COF-derived PM2.5 induced apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, which is indicated by the increased expression of ER stress-related apoptotic markers, namely GRP78 and caspase-12. Besides, the induction of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest was reversed by pretreatment with NAC. These findings strongly suggested that COF-derived PM2.5-induced toxicity in primary fetal AEC II cells is mediated by increased oxidative stress, accompanied by ER stress which results in apoptosis.

  15. Passive acoustic emissions from particulates in a V-blender.

    PubMed

    Crouter, Allison; Briens, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are recommending the development of process analytical technologies (PAT) to improve the efficiency and product quality during pharmaceutical manufacturing. The objective of the research was to investigate the potential application of passive acoustic emission monitoring of a V-blender. Trials were conducted with sugar spheres, lactose or MCC in a V-blender. Vibrations from acoustic emissions were measured using PCB Piezotronics accelerometers with ICP signal conditioners. A wavelet filter was applied to the measured acoustic emissions to remove vibrations from the tumbling motion of the V-shell, allowing a focus on information about particle motion and interactions within the V-shell. The ideal sensor location was determined to be the lid of one of the V-shell arms due to the impact of the tumbling particles on the lid and transmission of the vibrations from other particle motion within the V-shell. The amplitude of vibrations increased with particle size due to larger particle momentum before a collision. The fill level and the V-shell scale also influenced the measured vibrations as particle motion was affected which in turn affected momentum. Changes in particle flowability could be detected through variations in the measured acoustic emissions. The measured vibrations from passive acoustic emissions reflected particle motion and interactions within a V-blender demonstrating potential as a monitoring method.

  16. Emissions factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.; Li, J.; Zhang, G.; Matthias, V.

    2015-09-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbor districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel engine power offshore vessels in China were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emissions factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emissions factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low engine power vessel than for the two higher engine power vessels. Fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low engine power engineering vessel were significantly higher than that of the previous studies, while for the two higher engine power vessels, the fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies. The fuel-based average emissions factor for nitrogen oxides for the small engine power vessel was more than twice the International Maritime Organization standard, while those for the other two vessels were below the standard. Emissions factors for all three vessels were significantly different during different operating modes. Organic carbon and elemental carbon were the main components of particulate matter, while water-soluble ions and elements were present in trace amounts. Best-fit engine speeds

  17. Harvesting equipment to reduce particulate matter emissions from almond harvest.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, William B

    2013-01-01

    Almond harvest accounts for an estimated 12 Gg of PM10 emissions in California each harvest season. Emissions from three new, "low-dust" almond harvesters (Exact Harvest Systems E4000; Flory Industries 8550; Weiss-McNair 9800 California Special) and one exhaust abatement device (Joe DiAnna, Clean Air Concept) were compared to those from a conventional harvester operating in the same orchard. Emissions of TSP and PM10 trended lower for all new harvesters and were significantly lower for most harvesters (alpha < 0.10). Significant reductions in PM2.5 emissions were observed from two harvesters as well. Fractionation analysis was not conducted on nut samples collected in the second year of the project, but differences observed in the composition of material that would be delivered to the huller between the Exact E4000 and conventional harvesters were functionally insignificant. The results of these tests imply that new harvest technologies are able to reduce PM10 emissions from one of the largest sources in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California without affecting product quality. As such, use of these new harvesters should be considered a conservation measure that would help the SJV Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) meet the requirements of their PM10 maintenance plan. The results of this research indicate that new harvesting technologies have the potential to substantially reduce PM emissions from almond harvest operations over traditional harvester designs without negatively affecting product quality. As such, use of these new harvesters could aid the SJVAPCD in maintaining its attainment status for PM10 and should be considered as candidate conservation management practices for producers.

  18. Semivolatile and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental tobacco smoke. Cleanup, speciation, and emission factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, L.A.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M. |

    1995-06-01

    Studies of phase distributions and emission factors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) require collection and analysis of very small samples. To achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity, a method has been devised and tested for extraction and cleanup of gas- and particulate-phase ETS samples. Gas-phase species were trapped by polymeric sorbents, and particles were trapped on filters. The samples were extracted with hot cyclohexane, concentrated, and passed through silica solid-phase extraction columns for cleanup. After solvent change, the PAH were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with two programmed fluorescence detectors. PAH concentrations in 15-mg aliquots of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649 (urban dust/organics) agreed well with published values. Relative precision at the 95% confidence level was 8% for SRM 1649 and 20% for replicate samples (5-mg) of ETS particles. Emission factors have been measured for a range of gas- and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ETS. The emission factors per cigarette were 13.0 {+-} 0.5 mg of particulate matter, 11.2 + 0.9 {mu}g for gas-phase napthalene, and 74 {+-} 10 ng for particulate benzo[a]pyrene. 21 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions of a Supercharged Spark Ignited Hydrogen Fueled Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieran, Sean

    A spark ignited hydrogen fueled engine was operated at three equivalence ratios (0.4, 0.5, and 0.6) with a supercharger. During steady-state road load conditions, the engine produced exceptionally low unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter emissions. The oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of the supercharged engine were 31.4, 149.5, and 787.0 mg*NOx/km for the equivalence ratios 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 respectively. Given that the current EPA regulations are 99.4 mg*NOx/km, this engine configuration represents a possible replacement option for gasoline fueled engines without the need for exhaust after treatment. During engine start-up, some of the supercharged tests exhibited particulate matter emission spikes. These particulate matter spikes do not seem to be related to equivalence ratio, coolant temperature, testing order, or start-up acceleration. Currently, there is no explanation why some of the tests produced particulate matter during engine start-up and others did not.

  20. Effect of oxygenated fuels on physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of diesel particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-12-16

    A systematic study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation of the effects of blending five different oxygenates (diglyme (DGM), palm oil methyl ester (PME), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl adipate (DEA), and butanol (Bu)) with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) at 2% and 4% oxygen levels on physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from a nonroad diesel engine. All blended fuels led to an overall decrease in the particulate mass concentration and elemental carbon (EC) emissions, which was strongly associated with the oxygen content in fuels and the specific type of fuels used. In general, the proportion of particulate-bound organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) increased while using oxygenated fuel blends. Compared to ULSD, all fuel blends showed different emission factors of particle-phase PAHs and n-alkanes, slight alterations in soot nanostructure, lower soot ignition temperature, and lower activation energy. The total counts of particles (≤ 560 nm diameter) emitted decreased gradually for ULSD blended with DMC, DEA, and Bu, while they increased significantly for other fuel blends. The in vitro toxicity of particulates significantly increased with ULSD blended with DMC and DEA, while it decreased when ULSD was blended with PME, DGM, and Bu.

  1. Development of a microscale emission factor model for particulate matter for predicting real-time motor vehicle emissions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakesh B; Huber, Alan H; Braddock, James N

    2003-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory is pursuing a project to improve the methodology for modeling human exposure to motor vehicle emissions. The overall project goal is to develop improved methods for modeling the source through the air pathway to human exposure in significant exposure microenvironments. Current particulate matter (PM) emission models, particle emission factor model (used in the United States, except California) and motor vehicle emission factor model (used in California only), are suitable only for county-scale modeling and emission inventories. There is a need to develop a site-specific real-time emission factor model for PM emissions to support human exposure studies near roadways. A microscale emission factor model for predicting site-specific real-time motor vehicle PM (MicroFacPM) emissions for total suspended PM, PM less than 10 microm aerodynamic diameter, and PM less than 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameter has been developed. The algorithm used to calculate emission factors in MicroFacPM is disaggregated, and emission factors are calculated from a real-time fleet, rather than from a fleet-wide average estimated by a vehicle-miles-traveled weighting of the emission factors for different vehicle classes. MicroFacPM requires input information necessary to characterize the site-specific real-time fleet being modeled. Other variables required include average vehicle speed, time and day of the year, ambient temperature, and relative humidity.

  2. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  3. Characteristics of particulate matter emissions from toy cars with electric motors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Williams, Brent J; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from toy cars with electric motors were characterized. Particle emission rates from the toy cars, as high as 7.47×10(7) particles/s, were measured. This emission rate is lower than other indoor sources such as smoking and cooking. The particles emitted from toy cars are generated from spark discharges inside the electric motors that power the toy cars. Size distribution measurements indicated that most particles were below 100 nm in diameter. Copper was the dominant inorganic species in these particles. By deploying aerosol mass spectrometers, high concentrations of particulate organic matter were also detected and characterized in detail. Several organic compounds were identified using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography. The mass size distribution of particulate organic matter was bimodal. The formation mechanism of particulate organic matter from toy cars was elucidated. A possible new source of indoor air pollution, particles from electric motors in toy cars, was identified. This study characterized aerosol emissions from toy cars in detail. Most of these particles have a diameter less than 100 nm. Copper and some organics are the major components of these particles. Conditions that minimize these emissions were determined.

  4. The methodologies and instruments of vehicle particulate emission measurement for current and future legislative regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuki, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Arai, Masataka; Xu, Min

    2015-09-01

    Since the health risks associated with fine particles whose aerodynamic diameters are smaller than 2.5 μm was first proven, regulations restricting particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from internal combustion engines have become increasingly severe. Accordingly, the gravimetric method of PM mass measurement is facing its lower limit of detection as the emissions from vehicles are further reduced. For example, the variation in the adsorption of gaseous components such as hydrocarbons from unburned fuel and lubricant oil and the presence of agglomerated particles, which are not directly generated in engine combustion but re-entrainment particulates from walls of sampling pipes, can cause uncertainty in measurement. The PM mass measurement systems and methodologies have been continuously refined in order to improve measurement accuracy. As an alternative metric, the particle measurement programme (PMP) within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) developed a solid particle number measurement method in order to improve the sensitivity of particulate emission measurement from vehicles. Consequently, particle number (PN) limits were implemented into the regulations in Europe from 2011. Recently, portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for in-use vehicle emission measurements are also attracting attention, currently in North America and Europe, and real-time PM mass and PN instruments are under evaluation.

  5. Comparison of the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from the combustion of agricultural and forest biomasses.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Patrick; Palacios, Joahnn H; Godbout, Stéphane; Bussières, Denis; Lagacé, Robert; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from the combustion of agricultural (switchgrass, fast-growing willow and the dried solid fraction of pig manure) and forest (wood mixture of Black Spruce and Jack Pine) biomasses in a small-scale unit (17.58kW). Concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, NO2, NH3, N2O, SO2, HCl, and H2O were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and converted into emission rates. Opacity was also evaluated and particulates were sampled. Results showed significantly higher emissions of SO2, NO2 and PM with the combustion of agricultural biomass compared to the forest biomass. However, further studies should be carried out so regulations can be adapted in order to permit the combustion of agricultural biomass in small-scale combustion units.

  6. The 1997 fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia: Gaseous and particulate emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    Extensive and widespread vegetation and peat fires swept throughout Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia, from August 1997 through March 1998. The fires resulted from routine burning for land clearing and land-use change. However, the severe drought conditions resulting from El Nino caused small land-clearing fires to become large uncontrolled wildfires. Analysis of SPOT images indicate that a total of 45,600 km² burned between August and December 1997. In this paper, the gaseous and particulate emissions resulting from the 1997 fires are estimated. On a daily basis, the calculated emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, and particulates from the Kalimantan and Sumatra fires of 1997 significantly exceeded the emissions from the Kuwait oil fires of 1991.

  7. CENTRAL CAROLINA VEHICLE PARTICULATE EMISSION STUDY (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study to characterize the exhaust emissions from a light-duty fleet of in-use vehicles representative of central North Carolina was conducted in 1999 during both a winter phase (February) and a summer phase (June - July). Summer temperatures averaged 78 F, while the winter te...

  8. Novel cyclone empirical pressure drop and emissions with heterogeneous particulate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New cyclone designs equally effective at controlling emissions that have smaller pressure losses would reduce both the financial and the environmental cost of procuring electricity. Tests were conducted with novel and industry standard 30.5 cm diameter cyclones at inlet velocities from 8 to 18 m s-...

  9. CENTRAL CAROLINA VEHICLE PARTICULATE EMISSION STUDY (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study to characterize the exhaust emissions from a light-duty fleet of in-use vehicles representative of central North Carolina was conducted in 1999 during both a winter phase (February) and a summer phase (June - July). Summer temperatures averaged 78 F, while the winter te...

  10. Coarse particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots in Australia.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Flesch, T K; Chen, D; Crenna, B; Denmead, O T; Naylor, T; Rowell, D

    2010-01-01

    Open cattle feedlots are a source of air pollutants that include particular matter (PM). Over 24 h, exposure to ambient concentrations of 50 microg m(-3) of the coarse-sized fraction PM (aerodynamic diameter <10 microm [PM(10)]) is recognized as a health concern for humans. The objective of our study was to document PM(10) concentration and emissions at two cattle feedlots in Australia over several days in summer. Two automated samplers were used to monitor the background and in-feedlot PM(10) concentrations. At the in-feedlot location, the PM(10) emission was calculated using a dispersion model. Our measurements revealed that the 24-h PM(10) concentrations on some of the days approached or exceeded the health criteria threshold of 50 microg m(-3) used in Australia. A key factor responsible for the generation of PM(10) was the increased activity of cattle in the evening that coincided with peak concentrations of PM(10) (maximum, 792 microg m(-3)) between 1930 and 2000 h. Rain coincided with a severe decline in PM(10) concentration and emission. A dispersion model used in our study estimated the emission of PM(10) between 31 and 60 g animal(-1) d(-1). These data contribute to needed information on PM(10) associated with livestock to develop results-based environmental policy.

  11. Particulate emission reductions from road paving in California oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cowherd, C.

    1982-06-01

    Calculation of road dust emissions before and after paving shows that paving is an effective measure for reducing road dust emissions in Kern County oil fields. Control efficiency values for particles smaller than 10 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter averaged about 70 percent for paving with coldmix asphalt and 95 percent for paving with hot-mix asphalt. These control efficiencies are about the same for other particle size fractions up to 30 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter. The higher efficiency associated with hot-mix asphalt reflects the substantially lower quantities of surface road dust found on hot-mix roads in comparison to cold-mix roads in Kern County. The emission reductions achievable by paving a given road depend on the VMT as well as the type of asphalt pavement used. VMT increases with increasing traffic count and length of the road segment. Emission reductions also depend on the texture (silt content) of the surface before paving and on the traffic characteristics, i.e., vehicle speed, vehicle weight and number of wheels per vehicle.

  12. Particulate Matter Emissions for Dust From Unique Military Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-31

    three towers is also instrumented with cup anemometers to measure the vertical wind speed profile and a wind vane to measure wind direction. The...magnitude of the dust emissions, SI-1399 also collected 3-dimensional wind speed data generated by the rotor-wash using a sonic anemometer deployed in...diameters from the position of the sonic anemometer . Four Irwin sensors (Irwin, 1980), which have been previously used to measure surface shear

  13. Particulate and gaseous emissions when welding aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Cole, Homer; Epstein, Seymour; Peace, Jon

    2007-09-01

    Fabrication and repair of aluminum components and structures commonly involves the use of electric arc welding. The interaction of the arc and the metal being welded generates ultraviolet radiation, metallic oxides, fumes, and gases. Aluminum is seldom used as the pure metal but is often alloyed with other metals to improve strength and other physical properties. Therefore, the exact composition of any emissions will depend on the welding process and the particular aluminum alloy being welded. To quantify such emissions, The Aluminum Association sponsored several studies to characterize arc welding emissions by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes for various combinations of base and filler alloys. In all cases, the tests were conducted under conditions that could be found in a production weld shop without forced ventilation. The concentrations of each analyte that a welder could be exposed to were greatly affected by the welding process, the composition of the base and filler alloys, the position of the welder, and the welding helmet. The results obtained can be used by employers to identify and control potential hazards associated with the welding of aluminum alloys and can provide the basis for hazard communication to employees involved in the welding of these alloys.

  14. Characterization of gaseous pollutant and particulate matter emission rates from a commercial broiler operation part I: Observed trends in emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumeliotis, Taylor S.; Dixon, Brad J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2010-10-01

    This paper characterizes the emission rates of size fractionated particulate matter, inorganic aerosols, acid gases, ammonia and methane measured over four flocks at a commercial broiler chicken facility. Mean emission rates of each pollutant, along with sampling notes, were reported in this paper, the first in a series of two. Sampling notes were needed because inherent gaps in data may bias the mean emission rates. The mean emission rates of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were 5.0 and 0.78 g day -1 [Animal Unit, AU] -1, respectively, while inorganic aerosols mean emission rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.46 g day -1 AU -1 depending on the season. The average total acid gas emission rate was 0.43 g day -1 AU -1 with the greatest contribution from nitrous and nitric acids and little contribution from sulfuric acid (as SO 2). Ammonia emissions were seasonally dependent, with a mean emission rate of 66.0 g day -1 AU -1 in the cooler seasons and 94.5 g day -1 AU -1 during the warmer seasons. Methane emissions were relatively consistent with a mean emission rate of 208 g day -1 AU -1. The diurnal pattern in each pollutant's emission rate was relatively consistent after normalizing the hourly emissions according to each daily mean emission rate. Over the duration of a production cycle, all the measured pollutants' emissions increased proportionally to the total live mass of birds in the house, with the exception of ammonia. Interrelationships between pollutants provide evidence of mutually dependent release mechanisms, which suggests that it may be possible to fill data gaps with minimal data requirements. In the second paper (Roumeliotis, T.S., Dixon, B.J., Van Heyst, B.J. Characterization of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter emission rates from a commercial broiler operation part II: correlated emission rates. Atmospheric Environment, 2010.), regression correlations are developed to estimate daily mean emission rates for data gaps and, using the normalized hourly diurnal

  15. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  16. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms–the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs.

  17. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms–the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs. PMID:27782159

  18. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-10-26

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms-the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs.

  19. Evaluation of particulate matter emissions from manganese alloy production using life-cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Davourie, Julia; Westfall, Luke; Ali, Mohammed; McGough, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) provide a wealth of industry data to assist in evaluating the environmental impacts of industrial processes and product supply chains. In this investigation, data from a recent LCA covering global manganese alloy production was used to evaluate sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions associated with the manganese alloy supply chain. The analysis is aimed at providing an empirical, industry-averaged breakdown of the contribution that processes and emissions controls have on total emissions, manganese releases and occupational exposure. The assessment shows that 66% of PM emissions associated with manganese production occur beyond manganese facilities. Direct or on-site emissions represent 34% of total PM and occur predominantly as disperse sources during mineral extraction and hauling, and as primary furnace emissions. The largest contribution of manganese-bearing PM at ground-level is associated with fugitive emissions from metal and slag tapping, casting, crushing and screening. The evaluation provides a high-level ranking of emissions by process area, to assist in identifying priority areas for industry-wide initiatives to reduce emissions and occupational exposure of manganese. The range of PM emission levels in industry indicate that further enhancements in PM emissions can be achieved by sharing of best practices in emissions controls, limiting furnace conditions which lead to by-passing of emissions controls and application of secondary emission controls to capture fugitive emissions during tapping and casting. The LCA approach to evaluating PM emissions underscores the important role that process optimization and resource efficiency have on reducing PM emissions throughout the manganese supply chain.

  20. Characterization of Particulate Ship Emissions during CalNex 2010 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Mellon, D.; Lack, D. A.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Onasch, T. B.; Massoli, P.; Coffman, D. J.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Nuaaman, I.; Li, S.; Hayden, K.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    An important and under-characterized source of particulate matter is emissions from ships, and in particular, ocean going vessels. For example, emissions from commercial shipping operations are thought to be ca. 8% of primary organic emissions from fossil and bio fuels and 2% of the global black carbon (BC) emissions. Although nominally a small contribution, ship emissions often occur in either pristine marine environments or concentrated near large population centers making the impacts potentially much more important than such numbers would tacitly suggest. During CalNex 2010, particulate emissions from numerous ships were directly characterized and quantified from measurements made on board the R/V Atlantis and the NOAA P3 aircraft. In this talk, first results from these measurements will be discussed, with a particular emphasis on emissions of black carbon (BC). On board the R/V Altlantis, BC emissions were characterized at high time resolution using a variety of methods and techniques: light absorption (via PAS and PSAP), SP2, SP-AMS and ATOFMS. On the NOAA P3, BC was characterized using an SP2 and PAS. In addition to these BC-focused techniques, a wide range of other techniques were employed to determine emissions factors of co-emitted pollutants. Specific discussion will focus on two case studies: emissions from a single ship operating at different engine loads and emissions from a single ship as it changed from a high sulfur to low sulfur fuel type. The results from this study have implications for impending US and global regulations that mandate lower sulfur fuel and an industry wide push to slow steaming which reduces fuel consumption.

  1. Power plant emissions: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative emission reduction scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.

    2004-06-15

    This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total emissions from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the emissions inventory estimates, and the changes in the emissions associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.

  2. THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL ON THE CONTROL OF OTHER MWC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 20, 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revised new source performance standards for new municipal waste combustion (MWC) units and guidelines for existing sources. The proposed national regulations require tighter particulate matter control and a...

  3. Particulate emission characterization of a biodiesel vs diesel-fuelled compression ignition transport engine: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh

    This study was set out to characterize particulate emissions from diesel engines fuelled by (i) mineral diesel and (ii) B20 (a blend of 20% biodiesel with diesel); in terms of metals and benzene soluble organic fraction (BSOF), which is an indicator of toxicity and carcinogenicity. A medium duty, transport diesel engine (Mahindra MDI 3000) was operated at idling, 25%, 50%, 75% and rated load at maximum torque speed (1800 rpm) and samples of particulate were collected using a partial flow dilution tunnel for both fuels. Collected particulate samples were analyzed for their metal contents. In addition, metal contents in mineral diesel, biodiesel and lubricating oil were also measured to examine and correlate their (metals present in fuel) impact on particulate characteristics. Results indicated comparatively lower emission of particulate from B20-fuelled engine than diesel engine exhaust. Metals like Cd, Pb, Na, and Ni in particulate of B20 exhaust were lower than those in the exhaust of mineral diesel. However, emissions of Fe, Cr, Ni Zn, and Mg were higher in B20 exhaust. This reduction in particulate and metals in B20 exhaust was attributed to near absence of aromatic compounds, sulphur and relatively low levels of metals in biodiesel. However, benzene soluble organic fraction (BSOF) was found higher in B20 exhaust particulate compared to diesel exhaust particulate.

  4. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  5. Temperature effects on particulate matter emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Edward; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Fulper, Carl R; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, James

    2010-06-15

    The Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES) measured exhaust emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from 496 vehicles recruited in the Kansas City metropolitan area in 2004 and 2005. Vehicle emissions testing occurred during the summer and winter, with the vehicles operated at ambient temperatures. One key component of this study was the investigation of the influence of ambient temperature on particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles. A subset of the recruited vehicles were tested in both the summer and winter to further elucidate the effects of temperature on vehicle tailpipe emissions. The study results indicated that PM emissions increased exponentially as temperature decreased. In general, PM emissions doubled for every 20 degrees F drop in ambient temperature, with these increases independent of vehicle model year. The effects of temperature on vehicle emissions was most pronounced during the initial start-up of the vehicle (cold start phase) when the vehicle was still cold, leading to inefficient combustion, inefficient catalyst operation, and the potential for the vehicle to be operating under fuel-rich conditions. The large data set available from this study also allowed for the development of a model to describe temperature effects on PM emission rates due to changing ambient conditions. This study has been used as the foundation to develop PM emissions rates, and to model the impact of ambient temperature on these rates, for gasoline-powered vehicles in the EPA's new regulatory motor vehicle emissions model, MOVES.

  6. Second stage seed-cotton cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal...

  7. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  8. Third stage seed-cotton cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal...

  9. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  10. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin third stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  11. [Calculating emissions of exhaust particulate matter from motor vehicles with PART5 model].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye; Hao, Jiming; Li, Wei; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-30

    PART5, a vehicle particulate emission factor model developed by USEPA, was modified and then used to obtain the emission factors of exhaust PM10 and PM2.5 from on-road automobiles, trucks and motorcycles in Beijing. The total exhaust PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from motor vehicles in 1995 and 1998 were calculated separately. The contribution ratios of different types of vehicles to the total vehicular emissions, and the share of different exhaust particulate components including Pb, direct SO4(2-), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and remaining carbon portion (RCP), were also estimated. It was shown that the emission factors of exhaust PM10 and PM2.5 from gasoline motor vehicles, motorcycles and heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Beijing were 1.7-8.6 times, 2.1-3.5 times and 1.3-1.5 times, respectively, of the USA average emission levels during the same period. The total exhaust PM10 and PM2.5 from vehicles were 2445 tons and 1890 tons in 1995 in Beijing, and increased to 3359 tons and 2694 tons in 1998, which increase by 37.4% and 42.5%, respectively.

  12. Tracking Petroleum Refinery Emission Events Using Lanthanum and Lanthanides as Elemental Markers for Fine Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation reports the development and application of an analytical method to quantify the rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric particulate matter and emissions of catalyst material from the petroleum refining industry. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry following high temperature/high pressure microwave digestion has been used to study the REE composition of several fresh and spent catalysts used in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units in petroleum refineries as well as in ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX. The results show that the routine emissions from local FCC units in Houston contribute a constant and low amount to ambient PM2.5 of ~0.1 micrograms per cubic meter. However, a significant (33 - 106 fold) increase in the contributions of FCC emissions to PM2.5 is quantified during an upset emission event compared with background levels associated with routine operation. The impact of emissions from the local refinery that reported the emission event was tracked to a site approximately 50 km downwind from the source, illustrating the potential exposure of humans over a large geographical area through the long-range transport of atmospheric fine particles as well as the power of elemental signatures to understand the sources of fine particles.

  13. Trends in Motor Vehicle Emissions in Relation to Ambient Concentrations of Particulate Black and Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Kirchstetter, T.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study is to relate long-term trends of particulate black and organic carbon (BC and OC) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by motor vehicles to fine particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. The analysis focuses on the Los Angeles and San Francisco areas in California, for the period between 1990 and 2010. A fuel-based approach is used to estimate vehicular emissions of BC and OC using emission factors measured on-road in highway tunnels, and fuel sales reported at the state level, which are then allocated to each region. Emission results for BC are also compared with coefficient of haze data. A meta-analysis of past field studies is performed to derive trends in ambient OC and BC concentrations over the last 25 years. We try to account for differences in sampling and filter analysis protocols across studies, including the use of backup filters and thermal-optical procedures used to distinguish between BC and OC. Between 1990 and 2010, vehicular emissions of BC and primary OC fell by ~50% and ~60%, respectively. Over the same time period, VOC emissions from gasoline vehicles decreased by a factor of ~7. In contrast, ambient OC concentrations as measured in previous field studies have remained approximately constant. Since a majority of organic aerosol is thought to be secondary organic aerosol (SOA), this suggests that VOC emissions from gasoline engines did not figure prominently as a precursor to SOA formation.

  14. Unregulated emissions from diesel engine with particulate filter using Fe-based fuel borne catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Zhang, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jipeng; Tan, Jianwei; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-10-01

    The alteration and formation of toxic compounds and potential changes in the toxicity of emissions when using after-treatment technologies have gained wide attention. Volatile organic compound (VOC), carbonyl compound and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were tested at European Steady State Cycle (ESC) to study unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with a fuel-borne catalyst and diesel particulate filter (FBC-DPF). An Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst was used for this study. According to the results, brake specific emissions of total VOCs without and with DPF were 4.7 and 4.9mg/kWh, respectively, showing a 4.3% increase. Benzene and n-undecane emissions increased and toluene emission decreased, while other individual VOC emissions basically had no change. When retrofitted with the FBC-DPF, total carbonyl compound emission decreased 15.7%, from 25.8 to 21.8mg/kWh. The two highest carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were reduced from 20.0 and 3.7 to 16.5 and 3.3mg/kWh respectively. The specific reactivity (SR) with DPF was reduced from 6.68 to 6.64mg/kWh. Total particle-phase PAH emissions decreased 66.4% with DPF compared to that without DPF. However, the Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) with DPF had increased from 0.016 to 0.030mg/kWh. Fluoranthene and Pyrene had the greatest decrease, 91.1% and 88.4% respectively. The increase of two- and three-ring PAHs with DPF indicates that the fuel-borne catalyst caused some gas-phase PAHs to adsorb on particles. The results of this study expand the knowledge of the effects of using a particulate filter and a Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst on diesel engine unregulated emissions.

  15. Laboratory and field investigations of particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from traditional and improved cookstoves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Christoph A.; Bond, Tami C.; Conway, Stuart; Osorto Pinel, Anibal Benjamin; MacCarty, Nordica; Still, Dean

    We implemented a program in which emission characterization is enabled through collaborations between academic, US and international non-governmental entities that focus on evaluation, dissemination, and in-use testing, of improved cookstoves. This effort resulted in a study of field and laboratory emissions from traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves. We found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking average three times those measured during simulated cooking in the laboratory. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in laboratory settings. The single scattering albedo (SSA) of the emissions was very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. Over the course of three summers in Honduras, we measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. We found that well-designed improved cookstoves can significantly reduce PM and CO emission factors below traditional cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.2 g kg -1 - significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 6.6 g kg -1 and 4.5 g kg -1, respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories.

  16. Speciation of volatile organic compound emissions for regional air quality modeling of particulate matter and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Scholtz, M. T.; Taylor, A.

    2003-01-01

    A new classification scheme for the speciation of organic compound emissions for use in air quality models is described. The scheme uses 81 organic compound classes to preserve both net gas-phase reactivity and particulate matter (PM) formation potential. Chemical structure, vapor pressure, hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, freezing point/boiling point, and solubility data were used to create the 81 compound classes. Volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic compounds are included. The new classification scheme has been used in conjunction with the Canadian Emissions Processing System (CEPS) to process 1990 gas-phase and particle-phase organic compound emissions data for summer and winter conditions for a domain covering much of eastern North America. A simple postprocessing model was used to analyze the speciated organic emissions in terms of both gas-phase reactivity and potential to form organic PM. Previously unresolved compound classes that may have a significant impact on ozone formation include biogenic high-reactivity esters and internal C6-8 alkene-alcohols and anthropogenic ethanol and propanol. Organic radical production associated with anthropogenic organic compound emissions may be 1 or more orders of magnitude more important than biogenic-associated production in northern United States and Canadian cities, and a factor of 3 more important in southern U.S. cities. Previously unresolved organic compound classes such as low vapour pressure PAHs, anthropogenic diacids, dialkyl phthalates, and high carbon number alkanes may have a significant impact on organic particle formation. Primary organic particles (poorly characterized in national emissions databases) dominate total organic particle concentrations, followed by secondary formation and primary gas-particle partitioning. The influence of the assumed initial aerosol water concentration on subsequent thermodynamic calculations suggests that hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds may form external

  17. From Contrails and Smoke Trails to Exhaust Particle Processes: A Brief History of Aircraft Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    2,6- Dimethylnaphthalene Acenaphthylene Acenaphthene Phenanthrene Anthracene Fluoranthene Benz[ a ]anthracene Benzofluoranthenes Benzo [ a ] pyrene Indeno...1,2,3-c,d] pyrene Benzo [g,h,i]perylene Methane Ethane Propane Acetylene Propene n-Pentane n-Hexane Toluene n-Decane Dodecane Tridecane Formaldehyd e...Aerodyne Research, Inc. From Contrails and Smoke Trails to Exhaust Particle Processes: A brief history of aircraft particulate emissions Presented

  18. Ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as gasoline components in relation to gaseous emissions and particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Aakko-Saksa, Päivi T; Rantanen-Kolehmainen, Leena; Skyttä, Eija

    2014-09-02

    The exhaust emissions of three cars using different biofuels were explored at a temperature of -7 °C. The biofuels studied contained both low- and high-concentration ethanol blends, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons. A multipoint fuel injection car (MPFI), direct-injection spark-ignition car (DISI), and flex-fuel car (FFV) represented three different spark-ignition-car technologies. At -7 °C, substantial emissions were observed for the three cars, and differences were found among ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as fuel components. For example, E85 resulted in high acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, ethene, and acetylene emissions when compared to E30 or lower ethanol concentrations. Isobutanol-containing fuel showed elevated butyraldehyde, methacrolein, and isobutanol emissions. The highest particulate matter (PM) emissions, associated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and indirect mutagenicity emissions were detected with the DISI car. Oxygenated fuels reduced PM emissions and associated priority PAH emissions in the DISI car. PM and PAH emissions from the MPFI and FFV cars were generally low. A combination of 10% ethanol and biohydrocarbon components did not change emissions significantly when compared to ethanol-only-containing E10 gasoline. Therefore, a combination of ethanol or isobutanol with biohydrocarbon components offers an option to reach high gasoline bioenergy content for E10-compatible cars.

  19. Particulate electron beam weld emission hazards in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunton, Patrick H.

    1996-01-01

    The electron-beam welding process is well adapted to function in the environment of space. The Soviets were the first to demonstrate welding in space in the mid-1980's. Under the auspices of the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE), an on-orbit test of a Ukrainian designed electron-beam welder (the Universal Hand Tool or 'UHT') is scheduled for October of 1997. The potential for sustained presence in space with the development of the international space station raises the possibility of the need for construction and repair in space. While welding is not scheduled to be used in the assembly of the space station, repair of damage from orbiting debris or meteorites is a potential need. Furthermore, safe and successful welding in the space environment may open new avenues for design and construction. The safety issue has been raised with regard to hot particle emissions (spatter) sometimes observed from the weld during operations. On earth the hot particles pose no particular hazard, but in space there exists the possibility for burn-through of the space suit which could be potentially lethal. Contamination of the payload bay by emitted particles could also be a problem.

  20. Particulate emissions from combustion of biomass in conventional combustion (air) and oxy-combustion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscio, Amanda Deanne

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a viable technology for new and existing coal-fired power plants, as it facilitates carbon capture and thereby, can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The use of biomass as an energy source is another popular strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions as they are considered nearly carbon dioxide neutral. If the use of biomass is combined with oxy-fuel combustion, negative net emissions of carbon dioxide are possible. This work examined the particulate emissions from combustion of pulverized biomass residues burning in either conventional or oxy-fuel environments. Combustion of three biomasses (olive residue, corn residue, and torrefied pine sawdust) occurred in a laboratory-scale laminar-flow drop tube furnace (DTF) heated to 1400 K. The O2 mole fraction was increased from 20% to 60% in N2 environments while a range of 30% to 60% O2 mole fractions were used in CO2 environments to represent plausible dry oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Submicron particulate matter (PM1) emission yields of all three fuels were typically lower in O2/CO2 environments than in O2/N2 environments. When the oxygen mole fraction was increased, the PM1 yields typically increased. The mass fractions of submicron particulate matter (PM1/PM18) collected from biomass combustion were higher than those of coal combustion. PM 1 constituted approximately 50 wt% of the collected ash particles in PM18 in each environment, whereas the corresponding submicron emissions from coal constituted approximately 20 wt%. Changing the background gas had little effect on the chemical composition of the PM1 particles. Unlike the submicron particles collected from coal which contained high amounts of silicon and aluminum, high amounts of alkalis (potassium, calcium, and sodium) and chlorine were the major elements observed in PM1 from the biomasses. In addition, phosphorous and sulfur also existed in high amounts in PM1 of corn residue. Super-micron particles (PM1-18) yields exhibited no clear

  1. Impact of Biogenic Emission Uncertainties on the Simulated Response of Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter to Anthropogenic Emission Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E.; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1–0.25 μg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1–2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 μg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions. PMID:21305893

  2. Impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on the simulated response of ozone and fine particulate matter to anthropogenic emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1-0.25 microg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1-2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions.

  3. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  4. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  5. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  6. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  7. Measuring the Effect of Fuel Chemical Structure on Particulate and Gaseous Emissions using Isotope Tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Martin, G C; Upatnicks, A; Dibble, R W; Cheng, S

    2003-09-11

    Using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique initially developed for radiocarbon dating and recently applied to internal combustion engines, carbon atoms within specific fuel molecules can be labeled and followed in particulate or gaseous emissions. In addition to examining the effect of fuel chemical structure on emissions, the specific source of carbon for PM can be identified if an isotope label exists in the appropriate fuel source. Existing work has focused on diesel engines, but the samples (soot collected on quartz filters or combustion gases captured in bombs or bags) are readily collected from large industrial combustors as well.

  8. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    PubMed

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Size-resolved global emission inventory of primary particulate matter from energy-related combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Winijkul, E.; Yan, F.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D.G.; Bond, T. C.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Current emission inventories provide information about the mass emissions of different chemical species from different emitting sources without information concerning the size distribution of primary particulate matter (PM). The size distribution information, however, is an important input into chemical transport models that determine the fate of PM and its impacts on climate and public health. At present, models usually make rather rudimentary assumptions about the size distribution of primary PM emissions in their model inputs. In this study, we develop a global and regional, size-resolved, mass emission inventory of primary PM emissions from source-specific combustion components of the residential, industrial, power, and transportation sectors for the year 2010. Uncertainties in the emission profiles are also provided. The global size-resolved PM emissions show a distribution with a single peak and the majority of the mass of particles in size ranges smaller than 1 mu m. The PM size distributions for different sectors and world regions vary considerably, due to the different combustion characteristics. Typically, the sizes of particles decrease in the order: power sector > industrial sector > residential sector > transportation sector. Three emission scenarios are applied to the baseline distributions to study the likely changes in size distribution of emissions as clean technologies are implemented.

  10. Fracto-emission from fiber-reinforced and particulate filled composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. T.; Jahan-Latibari, A.; Jensen, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    Fracto-emission (FE) in the emission of particles and photons during and following crack propagation. The types of particles observed include electrons (EE), positive ions (PIE), photons (phE), and excited and ground state neutral emission (NE). In this paper work is presented on the characterization of the various FE components and measurements relating FE to the fracture events and material properties involved. FE characteristics measured include total emission, time dependence relative to crack propagation, species of neutral and ionic components, energy of charged species, and time correlations between pairs of FE components. Experiments on fracture of epoxy, single fibers, fiber/epoxy strands, particulate filled epoxy, and multi-ply fiber/epoxy systems will be presented.

  11. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  12. Differential pressure as a measure of particulate matter emissions from diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Mischler, Steven E; Volkwein, Jon C

    2005-04-01

    A diesel particulate matter analyzer capable of direct, real-time measurement of engine exhaust particulate is necessary to effectively institute source control technology currently being used on diesel equipment and to ensure that the control measures are working. To investigate the potential of a differential pressure monitor to measure diesel particulate matter in undiluted exhaust, samples were collected from three different diesel engines--Kubota, Isuzu, and Deutz--running under 12 different RPM and load scenarios. These measurements were compared to elemental carbon concentrations in the sampled exhaust as determined by using the NIOSH 5040 analytical method. Elemental carbon is used as a surrogate measurement for diesel particulate matter. The results of the two data sets were then compared using a linear regression analysis. The coefficient of determination (or R2) was calculated to be 0.98, 0.94, and 0.74 for the Kubota, Deutz, and Isuzu engines, respectively. R2 values of this magnitude indicate that this method can be successful in estimating elemental carbon emissions in the engines tested. In addition, for replicate samples, the coefficient of variation ranged from 7.1% to 10.2% with an average of 8.5%. These data indicate that this method could prove useful to mechanics as they work to maintain engines and DPM control technologies.

  13. Particulate emissions from large North American wildfires estimated using a new top-down method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, Tadas; North, Peter R. J.; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2017-05-01

    Particulate matter emissions from wildfires affect climate, weather and air quality. However, existing global and regional aerosol emission estimates differ by a factor of up to 4 between different methods. Using a novel approach, we estimate daily total particulate matter (TPM) emissions from large wildfires in North American boreal and temperate regions. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire location and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data sets are coupled with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) atmospheric dispersion simulations, attributing identified smoke plumes to sources. Unlike previous approaches, the method (i) combines information from both satellite and AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) observations to take into account aerosol water uptake and plume specific mass extinction efficiency when converting smoke AOT to TPM, and (ii) does not depend on instantaneous emission rates observed during individual satellite overpasses, which do not sample night-time emissions. The method also allows multiple independent estimates for the same emission period from imagery taken on consecutive days. Repeated fire-emitted AOT estimates for the same emission period over 2 to 3 days of plume evolution show increases in plume optical thickness by approximately 10 % for boreal events and by 40 % for temperate emissions. Inferred median water volume fractions for aged boreal and temperate smoke observations are 0.15 and 0.47 respectively, indicating that the increased AOT is partly explained by aerosol water uptake. TPM emission estimates for boreal events, which predominantly burn during daytime, agree closely with bottom-up Global Fire Emission Database (GFEDv4) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFASv1.0) inventories, but are lower by approximately 30 % compared to Quick Fire Emission Dataset (QFEDv2) PM2. 5, and are higher by approximately a factor of 2 compared to Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEERv1

  14. Characterization of the fugitive particulate emissions from construction mud/dirt carryout.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, John S; Linna, Kara J; Squier, William C; Muleski, Gregory E; Cowherd, Chatten

    2004-11-01

    Although the fugitive dust associated with construction mud/dirt carryout can represent a substantial portion of the particulate matter (PM) emissions inventory in nonattainment areas, it has not been well characterized by direct sampling methods. In this paper, a research program is described that directly determined both PM10 and PM2.5 (particles < or =10 and 2.5 microm in classical aerodynamic diameter, respectively) emission factors for mud/dirt carryout from a major construction project located in metropolitan Kansas City, MO. The program also assessed the contribution of automotive emissions to the total PM2.5 burden and determined the baseline emissions from the test road. As part of the study, both time-integrated and continuous exposure-profiling methods were used to assess the PM emissions, including particle size and elemental composition. This research resulted in overall PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors of 6 and 0.2 g/vehicle, respectively. Although PM10 is within the range of prior U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance, the PM2.5 emission factor is far lower than previous estimates published by EPA. In addition, based on both the particle size and chemical data obtained in the study, a major portion of the PM2.5 emissions appears to be attributable to automotive exhaust from light-duty, gasoline-powered vehicles and not to the fugitive dust associated with reentrained mud/dirt carryout.

  15. Temporalization of peak electric generation particulate matter emissions during high energy demand days.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Baker, Kirk R; Rodgers, Mark; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2015-04-07

    Underprediction of peak ambient pollution by air quality models hinders development of effective strategies to protect health and welfare. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model routinely underpredicts peak ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. Temporal misallocation of electricity sector emissions contributes to this modeling deficiency. Hourly emissions are created for CMAQ by use of temporal profiles applied to annual emission totals unless a source is matched to a continuous emissions monitor (CEM) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). More than 53% of CEMs in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and 45% nationally are unmatched in the 2008 NEI. For July 2006, a United States heat wave with high electricity demand, peak electric sector emissions, and elevated ambient PM2.5 mass, we match hourly emissions for 267 CEM/NEI pairs in PJM (approximately 49% and 12% of unmatched CEMs in PJM and nationwide) using state permits, electricity dispatch modeling and CEMs. Hourly emissions for individual facilities can differ up to 154% during the simulation when measurement data is used rather than default temporalization values. Maximum CMAQ PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and elemental carbon predictions increase up to 83%, 103%, and 310%, at the surface and 51%, 75%, and 38% aloft (800 mb), respectively.

  16. High NO2/NOx emissions downstream of the catalytic diesel particulate filter: An influencing factor study.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Li, Jiaqiang; Ma, Zhilei; Tan, Jianwei; Zhao, Longqing

    2015-09-01

    Diesel vehicles are responsible for most of the traffic-related nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, including nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The use of after-treatment devices increases the risk of high NO2/NOx emissions from diesel engines. In order to investigate the factors influencing NO2/NOx emissions, an emission experiment was carried out on a high pressure common-rail, turbocharged diesel engine with a catalytic diesel particulate filter (CDPF). NO2 was measured by a non-dispersive ultraviolet analyzer with raw exhaust sampling. The experimental results show that the NO2/NOx ratios downstream of the CDPF range around 20%-83%, which are significantly higher than those upstream of the CDPF. The exhaust temperature is a decisive factor influencing the NO2/NOx emissions. The maximum NO2/NOx emission appears at the exhaust temperature of 350°C. The space velocity, engine-out PM/NOx ratio (mass based) and CO conversion ratio are secondary factors. At a constant exhaust temperature, the NO2/NOx emissions decreased with increasing space velocity and engine-out PM/NOx ratio. When the CO conversion ratios range from 80% to 90%, the NO2/NOx emissions remain at a high level.

  17. Developing particulate thin filter using coconut fiber for motor vehicle emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardoyo, A. Y. P.; Juswono, U. P.; Riyanto, S.

    2016-03-01

    Amounts of motor vehicles in Indonesia have been recognized a sharply increase from year to year with the increment reaching to 22 % per annum. Meanwhile motor vehicles produce particulate emissions in different sizes with high concentrations depending on type of vehicles, fuels, and engine capacity. Motor Particle emissions are not only to significantly contribute the atmosphric particles but also adverse to human health. In order to reduce the particle emission, it is needed a filter. This study was aimed to develop a thin filter using coconut fiber to reduce particulate emissions for motor vehicles. The filter was made of coconut fibers that were grinded into power and mixed with glues. The filter was tested by the measurements of particle concentrations coming out from the vehicle exhaust directly and the particle concentrations after passing through the filter. The efficiency of the filter was calculated by ratio of the particle concentrations before comming in the filter to the particle conentrations after passing through the filter. The results showed that the efficiency of the filter obtained more than 30 %. The efficiency increases sharply when a number of the filters are arranged paralelly.

  18. Chemical characteristics and oxidative potential of particulate matter emissions from gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel cars.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ka Lam; Polidori, Andrea; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Samaras, Zissis; Cassee, Flemming R; Gerlofs, Miriam; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-08-15

    Three light-duty vehicles in five different configurations [a Honda Accord operating with diesel with a closed-coupled oxidation catalyst and an underfloor catalyst replaced in some tests with a diesel particle filter (DPF), a Toyota Corolla operating with gasoline, and a VW Golf alternatively operating with petrodiesel or biodiesel] were tested in a dynamometer facility to develop an improved understanding of the factors affecting the toxicity of particulate exhaust emissions. The vehicles were tested using a variety of real-world driving cycles, more than the certification test (New European Driving Cycle). Particle samples were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC, respectively), water soluble and water insoluble organic carbon (WSOC and WISOC, respectively), and inorganic ions, and the emission rates (mg/km) for each vehicle/configuration were determined. A dithiothreitol (DTT) assay was used to assess the oxidative potential of the particulate matter (PM) samples. The DPF-equipped diesel and gasoline vehicles were characterized by the lowest overall PM mass emissions, while the diesel and biodiesel cars produced the most potent exhaust in terms of oxidative activity. When the DPF was fitted on the Honda Accord diesel vehicle, the mass emission rates and distance-based oxidative potential were both decreased by 98%, compared to the original configuration. Correlation analysis showed that the DTT consumption rate was highly associated with WSOC, WISOC, and OC (R = 0.98, 0.93, and 0.94, respectively), consistent with previous findings.

  19. Methods of analysis for complex organic aerosol mixtures from urban emission sources of particulate carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurek, M.A. ); Hildemann, L.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Cass, G.R.; Rogge, W.F. . Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science); Simoneit, B.R.T. . Coll. of Oceanography)

    1990-04-01

    Extractable organic compounds having between 6 to 40 carbon atoms comprise an important mass fraction of the fine particulate matter samples from major urban emission sources. Depending on the emission source type, this solvent-soluble fraction accounts for <20% to 100% of the total organic aerosol mass, as measured by quantitative high-resolution has chromatography (HRGC) with flame ionization detection. In addition to total extract quantitation, HRGC can be applied to further analyses of the mass distributions of elutable organics present in the complex aerosol extract mixtures, thus generating profiles that serve as fingerprints'' for the sources of interest. This HRGC analytical method is applied to emission source samples that contain between 7 to 12,000 {mu}g/filter organic carbon. It is shown to be a sensitive technique for analysis of carbonaceous aerosol extract mixtures having diverse mass loadings and species distributions. This study describes the analytical chemical methods that have been applied to: the construction of chemical mass balances based on the mass of fine organic aerosol emitted for major urban sources of particulate carbon; and the generation of discrete emission source chemical profiles derived from chromatographic characteristics of the organic aerosol components. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  1. Experimental investigation on the performance, gaseous and particulate emissions of a methanol fumigated diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C H; Cheung, C S; Chan, T L; Lee, S C; Yao, C D

    2008-01-15

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with fumigation methanol injected into the air intake of each cylinder. The fumigation methanol was injected to top up 10%, 20% and 30% of the power output under different engine operating conditions. The effects of fumigation methanol on engine performance, gaseous emissions and particulate emission were investigated. The experimental results show that there is a decrease in the brake thermal efficiency when fumigation methanol is applied, except at the highest load of 0.67 MPa. At low loads, the brake thermal efficiency decreases with increase in fumigation methanol; but at high loads, it increases with increase in fumigation methanol. The fumigation method results in a significant increase in hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emissions. The concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is significantly reduced except at close to full load condition. There is also a reduction in the smoke opacity and the particulate matter (PM) mass concentration. For the submicron particles, the total number of particles decreases at low and medium loads but increases at high loads. In all cases, there is a shift of the particles towards smaller geometrical mean diameter, especially at high loads. The increase in nano-sized particles and the increase in NO(2) emission could have serious impact on human health.

  2. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine: the influence of biodiesel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Elbagir, S; Stevanovic, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-12-15

    This study undertook a physicochemical characterization of particle emissions from a single compression ignition engine operated at one test mode with 3 biodiesel fuels made from 3 different feedstocks (i.e., soy, tallow, and canola) at 4 different blend percentages (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) to gain insights into their particle-related health effects. Particle physical properties were inferred by measuring particle number size distributions both with and without heating within a thermodenuder (TD) and also by measuring particulate matter (PM) emission factors with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)). The chemical properties of particulates were investigated by measuring particle and vapor phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentrations. The particle number size distributions showed strong dependency on feedstock and blend percentage with some fuel types showing increased particle number emissions, while others showed particle number reductions. In addition, the median particle diameter decreased as the blend percentage was increased. Particle and vapor phase PAHs were generally reduced with biodiesel, with the results being relatively independent of the blend percentage. The ROS concentrations increased monotonically with biodiesel blend percentage but did not exhibit strong feedstock variability. Furthermore, the ROS concentrations correlated quite well with the organic volume percentage of particles - a quantity which increased with increasing blend percentage. At higher blend percentages, the particle surface area was significantly reduced, but the particles were internally mixed with a greater organic volume percentage (containing ROS) which has implications for using surface area as a regulatory metric for diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions.

  4. Size-specific particulate emissions from the handling of prilled sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Muleski, G.E.; Cowherd, C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a field testing program conducted by Midwest Research Institute (MRI) to determine fugitive dust emission factors and particle size distributions associated with the handling of wet-formed prilled sulfur. Two dust-generating operations were tested: dumping of prill into a partial enclosure representing a melter feed hopper; and travel of front-end loader over a particulate-laden paved surface. Six tests of the dumping operation and three tests of loader travel were performed at California Sulfur Company in Wilmington, California, during April 1984. The airborne particle size fraction of primary interest in this study, referred to as suspended particulate (SP), was that reflecting potential air quality impact as measured by the standard high-volume sampler. An effective cutpoint of 30 micrometers aerodynamic diameter (..mu..mA) is usually assigned to the standard high-volume sampler.

  5. Particulate Filtration from Emissions of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Reactor Using Regenerable Porous Metal Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Abney, Morgan; Greenwood, Zachary; West, Philip; Mitchell, Karen; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon M.

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-based plasma pyrolysis technology is being studied as a means of supporting oxygen recovery in future spacecraft life support systems. The process involves the conversion of methane produced from a Sabatier reactor to acetylene and hydrogen, with a small amount of solid carbon particulates generated as a side product. The particles must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on porous metal media filters for removing the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream and to provide in situ media regeneration capability. Because of the high temperatures involved in oxidizing the deposited carbon during regeneration, there was particular focus in this development on the materials that could be used, the housing design, and heating methods. This paper describes the design and operation of the filter and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC.

  6. Particulate filtration from emissions of a plasma pyrolysis assembly reactor using regenerable porous metal filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Gordon M.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary W.; West, Philip J.; Mitchell, Karen O.

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-based plasma pyrolysis technology is being studied as a means of supporting oxygen recovery in future spacecraft life support systems. The process involves the conversion of methane produced from a Sabatier reactor to acetylene and hydrogen, with a small amount of solid carbon particulates generated as a side product. The particles must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on porous metal media filters for removing the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream and to provide in situ media regeneration capability. Because of the high temperatures involved in oxidizing the deposited carbon during regeneration, there was particular focus in this development on the materials that could be used, the housing design, and heating methods. This paper describes the design and operation of the filter and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC.

  7. Characterization of atmospheric particulate: relationship between chemical composition, size, and emission source.

    PubMed

    Di Tullio, Alessandra; Reale, Samantha; Ciammola, Margherita; Arrizza, Lorenzo; Picozzi, Pietro; De Angelis, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization of particulate matter fractionated into eight samples by size from 10 to 0.43 microm was performed by HS-SPME/GC-MS for the organic (semi-)volatile components and SEM X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) for analysis of the elemental composition. The HS-SPME technique was shown to be efficient with respect to requiring an extremely low amount of material, being selective and clean and avoiding use of any solvents. Particulate matter was collected at four sites characterized by particular environmental locations and different pollution levels around the city of L'Aquila in central Italy. The results reveal a tight correlation between the particle composition, size, and the emission source. The analyses show also that the finer the particle, the higher its content of elemental carbon and organic compounds. Well-known carcinogens such as PAHs were detected among the identified organic compounds from both the rural and highly polluted sites.

  8. Review of factors impacting emission/concentration of cooking generated particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; Gorjinezhad, Soudabeh; Unluevcek, Hediye Sumru; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-05-15

    Studies have shown that exposure to particulate matter (PM) emitted while cooking is related to adverse human health effects. The level of PM emissions during cooking varies with several factors. This study reviewed controlled studies available in the cooking PM emissions literature, and found that cooking method, type and quality of the energy (heating) source, burner size, cooking pan, cooking oil, food, additives, source surface area, cooking temperature, ventilation and position of the cooking pan on the stove are influential factors affecting cooking PM emission rates and resulting concentrations. Opportunities to reduce indoor PM concentrations during cooking are proposed. Minor changes in cooking habits and manner might result in a substantial reduction in the cook's exposure to the cooking PM. Finally, the need for additional studies is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon-Centered Free Radicals in Particulate Matter Emissions from Wood and Coal Combustion

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the free radicals in the particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and coal combustion. The intensity of radicals in PM dropped linearly within two months of sample storage and stabilized after that. This factor of storage time was adjusted when comparing radical intensities among different PM samples. An inverse relationship between coal rank and free radical intensities in PM emissions was observed, which was in contrast with the pattern of radical intensities in the source coals. The strong correlation between intensities of free radical and elemental carbon in PM emissions suggests that the radical species may be carbon-centered. The increased g-factors, 2.0029−2.0039, over that of purely carbon-centered radicals may indicate the presence of vicinal oxygen heteroatom. The redox and biology activities of these carbon-centered radicals are worthy of evaluation. PMID:19551161

  10. Effects of Changing Emissions on Ozone and Particulates in the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; McKeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Ryerson, T.; Holloway, J.; Brock, C.; Middlebrook, A.; Wollny, A.; Matthew, B.; Williams, E.; Lerner, B.; Fortin, T.; Sueper, D.; Parrish, D.; Fehsenfeld, F.; Peckham, S.; Grell, G.; Peltier, R.; Weber, R.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T.

    2004-12-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric power generation have decreased in recent years due to changes in burner technology and fuels used. Mobile NOx emissions assessments are less certain, since they must account for increases in vehicle miles traveled, changes in the proportion of diesel and gasoline vehicles, and more stringent controls on engines and fuels. The impact of these complicated emission changes on a particular region's air quality must be diagnosed by a combination of observation and model simulation. The New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2004 (NEAQS-ITCT 2004) program provides an opportunity to test the effects of changes in emissions of NOx and other precursors on air quality in the northeastern United States. An array of ground, marine, and airborne observation platforms deployed during the study offer checks on emission inventories and air quality model simulations, like those of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with online chemistry (WRF-Chem). Retrospective WRF-Chem runs are carried out with two EPA inventories, one compiled for base year 1999 and an update for 2004 incorporating projected and known changes in emissions during the past 5 years. Differences in model predictions of ozone, particulates, and other tracers using the two inventories are investigated. The inventories themselves and the model simulations are compared with the extensive observations available during NEAQS-ITCT 2004. Preliminary insights regarding the sensitivity of the model to NOx emission changes are discussed.

  11. Particulate matter emission rates from beef cattle feedlots in Kansas-reverse dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Auvermann, Brent W; Razote, Edna B; Murphy, James P; Harner, Joseph P

    2012-03-01

    Open beef cattle feedlots emit various air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm or less (PM10); however limited research has quantified PM10 emission rates from feedlots. This research was conducted to determine emission rates of PM10 from large cattle feedlots in Kansas. Concentrations of PM10 at the downwind and upwind edges of two large cattle feedlots (KS1 and KS2) in Kansas were measured with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM10 monitors from January 2007 to December 2008. Weather conditions at the feedlots were also monitored. From measured PM10 concentrations and weather conditions, PM10 emission rates were determined using reverse modeling with the American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD). The two feedlots differed significantly in median PM10 emission flux (1.60 g/m2-day for KS1 vs. 1.10 g/m2-day for KS2) but not in PM10 emission factor (27 kg/1000 head-day for KS1 and 30 kg/1000 head-day KS2). These emission factors were smaller than published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission factor for cattle feedlots.

  12. Relating summer ambient particulate sulfur, sulfur dioxide, and light scattering to gaseous tracer emissions from the MOHAVE Power Project.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, V A; Farber, R J

    2000-05-01

    Project MOHAVE was initiated in 1992 to examine the role of emissions from the 1580 MW coal-fired MOHAVE Power Project (MPP) on haze at the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP), located about 130 km north-north-east of the power plant. Statistical relationships were analyzed between summertime ambient concentrations of a gaseous perfluorocarbon tracer released from MPP and ambient SO2, particulate sulfur, and light scattering to evaluate whether MPP's emissions could be transported to the GCNP and then impact haze levels there. Spatial analyses indicated that particulate sulfur levels were strongly correlated across the monitoring network, regardless of whether the monitoring stations were upwind or downwind of MPP. This indicates that particulate sulfur levels in this region were influenced by distant regional emission sources. A significant particulate sulfur contribution from a point source such as MPP would result in a non-uniform pattern downwind. There was no suggestion of this in the data. Furthermore, correlations between the MPP tracer and ambient particulate sulfur and light scattering at locations in the park were virtually zero for averaging times ranging from 24 hr to 1 hr. Hour-by-hour MPP tracer levels and light scattering were individually examined, and still no positive correlations were detected. Finally, agreement between tracer and particulate sulfur did not improve as a function of meteorological regime, implying that, even during cloudy monsoon days when more rapid conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfur would be expected, there was no evidence for downwind particulate sulfur impacts. Despite the fact that MPP was a large source of SO2 and tracer, neither time series nor correlation analyses were able to detect any meaningful relationship between MPP's SO2 and tracer emission "signals" to particulate sulfur or light scattering.

  13. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; May, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Lipsky, E. M.; Donahue, N. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    The effects of photochemical aging on emissions from 15 light-duty gasoline vehicles were investigated using a smog chamber to probe the critical link between the tailpipe and ambient atmosphere. The vehicles were recruited from the California in-use fleet; they represent a wide range of model years (1987 to 2011), vehicle types and emission control technologies. Each vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer using the unified cycle. Dilute emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and then photochemically aged under urban-like conditions. For every vehicle, substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurred during cold-start tests, with the emissions from some vehicles generating as much as 6 times the amount of SOA as primary particulate matter after three hours of oxidation inside the chamber at typical atmospheric oxidant levels. Therefore, the contribution of light duty gasoline vehicle exhaust to ambient PM levels is likely dominated by secondary PM production (SOA and nitrate). Emissions from hot-start tests formed about a factor of 3-7 less SOA than cold-start tests. Therefore, catalyst warm-up appears to be an important factor in controlling SOA precursor emissions. The mass of SOA generated by photo-oxidizing exhaust from newer (LEV1 and LEV2) vehicles was only modestly lower (38%) than that formed from exhaust emitted by older (pre-LEV) vehicles, despite much larger reductions in non-methane organic gas emissions. These data suggest that a complex and non-linear relationship exists between organic gas emissions and SOA formation, which is not surprising since SOA precursors are only one component of the exhaust. Except for the oldest (pre-LEV) vehicles, the SOA production could not be fully explained by the measured oxidation of speciated (traditional) SOA precursors. Over the time scale of these experiments, the mixture of organic vapors emitted by newer vehicles appear to be more efficient (higher yielding) in producing SOA than

  14. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-06-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions of 84% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (64%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g. at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the feedstock. As the plume cools downwind of the engine, nucleation-mode aerosols form. For the pure FT fuels, reductions (94% averaged over all powers) in downwind particle number emissions were similar to those measured at the exhaust plane (84

  15. Measurement of emissions of fine particulate organic matter from Chinese cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan

    Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.

  16. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    This project involves the implementation of a new particulate control technology called a ``Core Separator`` for low emission sources (LES) in Krakow. With several hundred boiler sites in the city burning low grade coal, existing pollution control equipment consists primarily of low efficiency cyclones. Such equipment cannot meet the emission standards of most industrial nations. More importantly, these conditions have been the cause of low ambient air quality in Krakow from suspended particles. The Core Separator can be retrofitted onto these boiler houses to substantially reduce particulate emissions, particularly those consisting of the fraction classified as PM10. In this project, Core Separator technology will be demonstrated for boiler house applications in the Krakow region. Phase I entailed business planning and infrastructure studies to determine the market for this equipment. In the second phase, the technology is to be demonstrated in several boilers of different capacity and firing various grades of coal. Later, a joint venture company was to be established with capability of manufacturing and supplying this equipment in Krakow and throughout Poland.

  17. Study of the control of particulate emissions from turbine engine test cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The United States Air Force has been cited in California for violation of visible opacity standards by the test cell buildings used for aircraft engine run-up during major engine overhaul. Recommendations to control emissions by conventional means, such as electrostatic precipitation or high-energy scrubbers with demisters, were deemed non-cost-effective (130 test cells at more than 1 million dollars per cell). As an alternative control measure, EPA Method 5 particulate sampling was used to characterize stack emissions during the incremental addition of cooling water to the engine exhaust/augmentor air discharge. Six water increments, from 230 (baseline) to 1200 gallons per minute, were tested, and the results evaluated by a mixture of statistical techniques. Increasing water injection rates to 801 gallons per minute significantly reduced engine-contributed test cell emissions for the J75-17 engine to 0.05 pounds particulate per million Btu. The literature review and test results indicate that sonic agglomeration of particles may account for the significant removal noted in this low volume water injection.

  18. Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NOx (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NOx, our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions. PMID:24144266

  19. Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2013-11-19

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.

  20. Emissions of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter from small-scale peat fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I. J.; Black, R.; Walker, J. T.; Hays, M. D.; Tabor, D.; Gullett, B.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution emitted from peat fires can negatively impact regional air quality, visibility, climate, and human health. Peat fires can smolder over long periods of time and, therefore, can release significantly greater amounts of carbon into the atmosphere per unit area compared to burning of other types of biomass. However, few studies have characterized the gas and particulate emissions from peat burning. To assess the atmospheric impact of peat fires, particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified from controlled small-scale peat fire experiments. Major carbon emissions (i.e. CO2, CO, methane and total hydrocarbons) were measured during the peat burn experiments. Speciated PM mass was also determined from the peat burns from filter and polyurethane foam samples. Whole air samples were taken in SUMMA canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 82 trace VOCs. Additional gaseous carbonyl species were measured by sampling with dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated cartridges and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. VOCs with highest observed concentrations measured from the peat burns were propylene, benzene, chloromethane and toluene. Gas-phase carbonyls with highest observed concentrations included acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone. Emission factors of major pollutants will be compared with recommended values for peat and other biomass burning.

  1. Particulate emissions calculations from fall tillage operations using point and remote sensors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kori D; Wojcik, Michael D; Martin, Randal S; Marchant, Christian C; Bingham, Gail E; Pfeiffer, Richard L; Prueger, John H; Hatfield, Jerry L

    2013-07-01

    Soil preparation for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Efforts to reduce PM emissions from tillage through a variety of conservation management practices (CMPs) have been made, but the reductions from many of these practices have not been measured in the field. A study was conducted in California's San Joaquin Valley to quantify emissions reductions from fall tillage CMP. Emissions were measured from conventional tillage methods and from a "combined operations" CMP, which combines several implements to reduce tractor passes. Measurements were made of soil moisture, bulk density, meteorological profiles, filter-based total suspended PM (TSP), concentrations of PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) and PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM), and aerosol size distribution. A mass-calibrated, scanning, three-wavelength light detection and ranging (LIDAR) procedure estimated PM through a series of algorithms. Emissions were calculated via inverse modeling with mass concentration measurements and applying a mass balance to LIDAR data. Inverse modeling emission estimates were higher, often with statistically significant differences. Derived PM emissions for conventional operations generally agree with literature values. Sampling irregularities with a few filter-based samples prevented calculation of a complete set of emissions through inverse modeling; however, the LIDAR-based emissions dataset was complete. The CMP control effectiveness was calculated based on LIDAR-derived emissions to be 29 ± 2%, 60 ± 1%, and 25 ± 1% for PM, PM, and TSP size fractions, respectively. Implementation of this CMP provides an effective method for the reduction of PM emissions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Source apportionment of gaseous and particulate PAHs from traffic emission using tunnel measurements in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Siyao; Lohmann, Rainer; Yu, Na; Zhang, Chenkai; Gao, Yi; Zhao, Jianfu; Ma, Limin

    2015-04-01

    Understanding sources and contributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs from traffic-related pollution can provide valuable information for alleviating air contamination from traffic in urban areas. On-road sampling campaigns were comprehensively conducted during 2011-2012 in an urban tunnel of Shanghai, China. 2-3 rings PAHs were abundant in the tunnel's gas and particle phases. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs were statistically described; several were significantly different between the gas and particle phases. Principal component analysis (PCA), positive matrix factorization (PMF), bivariate correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) were applied to apportion sources of gaseous and particulate PAHs in the tunnel. Main sources of the gaseous PAHs included evaporative emission of fuel, high-temperature and low-temperature combustion of fuel, accounting for 50-51%, 30-36% and 13-20%, respectively. Unburned fuel particles (56.4-78.3%), high-temperature combustion of fuel (9.5-26.1%) and gas-to-particle condensation (12.2-17.5%) were major contributors to the particulate PAHs. The result reflected, to a large extent, PAH emissions from the urban traffic of Shanghai. Improving fuel efficiency of local vehicles will greatly reduce contribution of traffic emission to atmospheric PAHs in urban areas. Source apportionment of PM10 mass was also performed based on the organic component data. The results showed that high-temperature combustion of fuel and gas-to-particle condensation contributed to 15-18% and 7-8% of PM10 mass, respectively, but 55-57% of the particle mass was left unexplained. Although the results from the PCA and PMF models were comparable, the PMF method is recommended for source apportionment of PAHs in real traffic conditions. In addition, the combination of multivariate statistical method and bivariate correlation analysis is a useful tool to comprehensively assess sources of PAHs.

  3. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill - Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika; Simmons, Donald L; Wels, Brian R; Spak, Scott N; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles; Stone, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies' findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg(-1)), particle number (3.5×10(16) kg(-1)), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg(-1)), EC (2.37 g kg(-1)), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg(-1)). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85-0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided.

  4. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill - Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Simmons, Donald L.; Wels, Brian R.; Spak, Scott N.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles O.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies' findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg-1), particle number (3.5 × 1016 kg-1), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg-1), EC (2.37 g kg-1), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg-1). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85 to 0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided.

  5. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Methods of analysis for complex organic aerosol mixtures from urban emission sources of particulate carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurek, M.A. ); Hildemann, L.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Cass, G.R.; Rogge, W.F. ); Simoneit, B.R.T. . Coll. of Oceanography)

    1990-10-01

    Organic aerosols comprise approximately 30% by mass of the total fine particulate matter present in urban atmospheres. The chemical composition of such aerosols is complex and reflects input from multiple sources of primary emissions to the atmosphere, as well as from secondary production of carbonaceous aerosol species via photochemical reactions. To identify discrete sources of fine carbonaceous particles in urban atmospheres, analytical methods must reconcile both bulk chemical and molecular properties of the total carbonaceous aerosol fraction. This paper presents an overview of the analytical protocol developed and used in a study of the major sources of fine carbon particles emitted to an urban atmosphere. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States were measured and compared to emissions from laboratory burns with fuels collected from the site. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, and aerosol light scattering and absorption were characte...

  8. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States were measured and compared to emissions from laboratory burns with fuels collected from the site. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, and aerosol light scattering and absorption were characte...

  9. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  10. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  11. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  12. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  13. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  14. Total suspended particulate (TSP), polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) emissions from medical waste incinerators in Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, A; Cobo, M; Aristizábal, B; Córdoba, F; Montes de Correa, C

    2008-08-01

    Results of a preliminary survey of particulate and dioxin emissions in combustion gases from hospital waste incinerators in Antioquia-Colombia are presented. Base line data of total suspended particulate (TSP) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) emissions in incinerators from health care institutions in Antioquia-Colombia will be used to improve the management of medical waste in the local context. All monitored incinerators are batch operated. TSP exceeds 80 mg Nm(-3) in 8 out of 12 incinerators. Dioxin emissions are in the range from about 7 to 700 I-TEQ (ng Nm(-3)). Such a significant amount of dioxin emissions did correlate with entrained particulate matter, mainly as a consequence of poor control of operation parameters. Several suggestions are made to improve medical waste management practices in Colombia.

  15. Implications of ammonia emissions from post-combustion carbon capture for airborne particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinhyok; McCoy, Sean T; Adams, Peter J

    2015-04-21

    Amine scrubbing, a mature post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, could increase ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to its ammonia emissions. To capture 2.0 Gt CO2/year, for example, it could emit 32 Gg NH3/year in the United States given current design targets or 15 times higher (480 Gg NH3/year) at rates typical of current pilot plants. Employing a chemical transport model, we found that the latter emission rate would cause an increase of 2.0 μg PM2.5/m(3) in nonattainment areas during wintertime, which would be troublesome for PM2.5-burdened areas, and much lower increases during other seasons. Wintertime PM2.5 increases in nonattainment areas were fairly linear at a rate of 3.4 μg PM2.5/m(3) per 1 Tg NH3, allowing these results to be applied to other CCS emissions scenarios. The PM2.5 impacts are modestly uncertain (±20%) depending on future emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3. The public health costs of CCS NH3 emissions were valued at $31-68 per tonne CO2 captured, comparable to the social cost of carbon itself. Because the costs of solvent loss to CCS operators are lower than the social costs of CCS ammonia, there is a regulatory interest to limit ammonia emissions from CCS.

  16. Emission characteristics of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds in cow dung combustion.

    PubMed

    Park, Duckshin; Barabad, Mona L; Lee, Gwangjae; Kwon, Soon-Bark; Cho, Youngmin; Lee, Duckhee; Cho, Kichul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2013-11-19

    Biomass fuel is used for cooking and heating, especially in developing countries. Combustion of biomass fuel can generate high levels of indoor air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study characterized PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion in a controlled experiment. Dung from grass-fed cows was dried and combusted using a dual-cone calorimeter. Heat fluxes of 10, 25, and 50 kW/m(2) were applied. The concentrations of PM and VOCs were determined using a dust spectrometer and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. PM and VOC emission factors were much higher for the lower heat flux, implying a fire ignition stage. When the heat flux was 50 kW/m(2), the CO2 emission factor was highest and the PM and VOC emission factors were lowest. Particle concentrations were highest in the 0.23-0.3 μm size range at heat fluxes of 25 and 50 kW/m(2). Various toxic VOCs, including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene, and toluene, were detected at high concentrations. Although PM and VOC emission factors at 50 kW/m(2) were lower, they were high enough to cause extremely high indoor air pollution. The characteristics of PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion indicated potential health effects of indoor air pollution in developing countries.

  17. Emissions of particulate-bound elements from stationary diesel engine: Characterization and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the emissions of airborne particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines because of their close association with adverse health and environmental impacts. Among the alternative fuels being considered, biodiesel made by the transesterification of waste cooking oil has received wide attention in recent years because of its low cost and the added advantage of reducing waste oil disposal. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation of the particulate-bound elements emitted from ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel (B100) and a blend of both the fuels (B50). It was observed that the PM mass concentrations were reduced by about 36% when B100 was used. Crustal elements such as Mg, K and Al were found to be in higher concentrations compared to other elements emitted from both B100 and ULSD. Zn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Ba, K were found to be higher in the biodiesel exhaust while Co, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr, and As were found to be higher in the ULSD exhaust. To evaluate the potential health risk due to inhalation of PM emitted from diesel engines running on ULSD and B100, health risk estimates based on exposure and dose-response assessments of particulate-bound elements were calculated assuming exposure for 24 h. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to ULSD.

  18. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Duling, Matthew G.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M. Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m3 chamber and in a small room (32.7 m3) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color. PMID:27196745

  19. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F; Duling, Matthew G; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m(3) chamber and in a small room (32.7 m(3)) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color.

  20. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, Sandro; Mohr, Martin; Grob, Koni; Neukom, Hans Peter

    In this study we determined particle-bound paraffins in the exhaust of six light-duty diesel vehicles on a chassis dynamometer for different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. The filters containing particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus, and the paraffin analysis was performed using two-dimensional normal phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The different molecular mass of lubricant and diesel paraffins facilitated the distinction between diesel and lubricant contribution to the emission. Although all vehicles were certified according to the same emission class, there were considerable variations between vehicles. The study showed that under cold-start conditions the organic mass fraction ranged from 10% to 30% with respect to particle mass and the paraffins from 30% to 60% with respect to the organic mass. With cold engine, falling ambient temperature increased the emission of unburned diesel fuel, whereas that from unburned lubricating oil was less affected. Under warm-start conditions, the ambient temperature had less impact on the emission of paraffins. The emissions were also affected by the operating conditions of the engine: driving cycles with higher mean load tend towards higher emissions of lubricant. The operating conditions also affected the distribution of paraffins: the emission of light paraffins seemed to be lower with higher load in the driving cycle. With an urban and a highway cycle, roughly 40% and 80% w/w, respectively, of unburned paraffins were contributed by the lubricant. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lubricating oil showed lubricant to be a sink for PAHs. As lubricant significantly contributes to the organic emission, as shown in this study, it can be assumed that it is also a significant source of PAH emissions.

  1. Contribution of ship emissions to the fine particulate in the community near an international port in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, P. S.; Lee, S. C.; Cheng, Y.; Huang, Y.; Lai, S. C.; Xu, X. H.

    2013-04-01

    Fine particulates from ship exhaust are proved to be harmful to human health. To better understand the impact of ship emissions on the particulate matter (PM) level of port-side residential areas, fine particulates (PM2.5) were collected near Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Container Terminals (KTCT) in Hong Kong during August 2009 to March 2010. The average PM2.5 concentration was 30.5 μg/m3. The contribution of ship emissions on fine particulates near the container port was demonstrated by source apportionment. By positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, eight potential sources, i.e., residual oil (RO) combustion, marine diesel oil (MDO) combustion, vehicle emission, coal combustion, incineration, crustal and sea-salt, secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate were identified. Among the identified sources, RO combustion and MDO combustion were regarded as ship emissions and accounted for 12% and 7% of PM2.5 respectively. An estimate of 1.8 μg/m3 (6%) of secondary sulfate corresponded to 3.6 μg/m3 of primary fine particulates from RO combustion. Together with primary PM emitted from ships, the total ambient PM2.5 mass associated with ship emissions at the sampling site was 7.6 μg/m3 (25%).

  2. Source sampling of particulate matter emissions from cotton harvesting - System field testing and emission factor development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emission factors are used in the air pollution regulatory process to quantify the mass of pollutants emitted from a source. Accurate emission factors must be used in the air pollution regulatory process to ensure fair and appropriate regulation for all sources. Agricultural sources, including cotton...

  3. Particulate and gaseous emissions from the combustion of different biofuels in a pellet stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, E. D.; Duarte, M. A.; Tarelho, L. A. C.; Nunes, T. F.; Amato, F.; Querol, X.; Colombi, C.; Gianelle, V.; Alves, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    Seven fuels (four types of wood pellets and three agro-fuels) were tested in an automatic pellet stove (9.5 kWth) in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of gaseous compounds, such as carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total organic carbon (TOC). Particulate matter (PM10) EFs and the corresponding chemical compositions for each fuel were also obtained. Samples were analysed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), anhydrosugars and 57 chemical elements. The fuel type clearly affected the gaseous and particulate emissions. The CO EFs ranged from 90.9 ± 19.3 (pellets type IV) to 1480 ± 125 mg MJ-1 (olive pit). Wood pellets presented the lowest TOC emission factor among all fuels. HCHO and CH4 EFs ranged from 1.01 ± 0.11 to 36.9 ± 6.3 mg MJ-1 and from 0.23 ± 0.03 to 28.7 ± 5.7 mg MJ-1, respectively. Olive pit was the fuel with highest emissions of these volatile organic compounds. The PM10 EFs ranged from 26.6 ± 3.14 to 169 ± 23.6 mg MJ-1. The lowest PM10 emission factor was found for wood pellets type I (fuel with low ash content), whist the highest was observed during the combustion of an agricultural fuel (olive pit). The OC content of PM10 ranged from 8 wt.% (pellets type III) to 29 wt.% (olive pit). Variable EC particle mass fractions, ranging from 3 wt.% (olive pit) to 47 wt.% (shell of pine nuts), were also observed. The carbonaceous content of particulate matter was lower than that reported previously during the combustion of several wood fuels in traditional woodstoves and fireplaces. Levoglucosan was the most abundant anhydrosugar, comprising 0.02-3.03 wt.% of the particle mass. Mannosan and galactosan were not detected in almost all samples. Elements represented 11-32 wt.% of the PM10 mass emitted, showing great variability depending on the type of biofuel used.

  4. Rare-earth isotopes as tracers of particulate emissions: An urban scale test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ondov, J.M.; Kelly, W.R.; Holland, J.Z.; Lin, Z.C.; Wight, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The particulate emissions of a 100 MW(e) coal-fired power plant were successfully tagged with enriched rare-earth isotopes on three occasions during the month of August, 1988. On 28 August, an 8-hour release was made using 94% isotopically pure 148Nd injected at a rate of 61 mg/hr and 14 ambient aerosol samples collected along a 72 degree arc 20-km distant from the plant were analyzed by pulse-counting thermal-ionization mass spectrometry for excess 148Nd and naturally-occurring (total) Nd background. The results were in good agreement with Gaussian plume model predictions. We conclude that the experiment and preliminary results successfully demonstrate the feasibility of using an enriched rare-earth isotopes as tracers of emissions from coal-fired power plants. The large signal-to-noise ratios achieved here are sufficient for tracing particles over much larger distances.

  5. Characterisation of particulate matter emissions from the Zimbabwe Mining and Smelting Company (ZIMASCO) Kwekwe Division (Zimbabwe): a ferrochrome smelter.

    PubMed

    Pumure, I; Sithole, S D; Kahwai, S G T

    2003-09-01

    Particulate matter emissions from stack number 2 of a major ferrochrome smelter, Zimbabwe Mining and Smelting Company (ZIMASCO) were characterized and the rates at which the elements Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn and total ferrochrome dust are emitted into the atmosphere were determined. The extent of soil contamination by the dust deposited around the smelter in the generally prevailing southeasterly wind direction around the smelter was carried out. The highest concentrations of Cr and Fe occurred in the fine particulates of sizes less than 59 microm whilst that of Cu and Zn occurred in the coarse particulates of size range 70-100 microm. The emission rates from stack 2 were; total ferrochrome particulates 62.17 kg h(-1), Cr 6.217 kg h(-1), Fe 2.423 kg h(-1), Zn 42 mg h(-1) and 6 mg h(-1) for Cu. Particulate matter was emitted at a rate of 289 mg m(-3) from stack number 2. This value exceeds the legal limit of 200 mg m(-3). Chromium and iron are the metals in the largest amounts. The particles that constitute the largest proportion of the dust were in the range of 58-107.5 microm. This is a characteristic feature of the particulate matter emissions from ZIMASCO. Soils in the downwind direction from the smelter were polluted with Cr up to a distance of about 700 m outward from the perimeter of the boundary of the smelter.

  6. Fire environment effects on particulate matter emission factors in southeastern U.S. pine-grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Kevin M.; Hsieh, Yuch P.; Bugna, Glynnis C.

    2014-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFPM), which predict particulate emissions per biomass consumed, have a strong influence on event-based and regional PM emission estimates and inventories. PM < 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), regulated for its impacts to human health and visibility, is of special concern. Although wildland fires vary widely in their fuel conditions, meteorology, and fire behavior which might influence combustion reactions, the EFPM2.5 component of emission estimates is typically a constant for the region or general fuel type being assessed. The goal of this study was to use structural equation modeling (SEM) to identify and measure effects of fire environment variables on EFPM2.5 in U.S. pine-grasslands, which contribute disproportionately to total U.S. PM2.5 emissions. A hypothetical model was developed from past literature and tested using 41 prescribed burns in northern Florida and southern Georgia, USA with varying years since previous fire, season of burn, and fire direction of spread. Measurements focused on EFPM2.5 from flaming combustion, although a subset of data considered MCE and smoldering combustion. The final SEM after adjustment showed EFPM2.5 to be higher in burns conducted at higher ambient temperatures, corresponding to later dates during the period from winter to summer and increases in live herbaceous vegetation and ambient humidity, but not total fine fuel moisture content. Percentage of fine fuel composed of pine needles had the strongest positive effect on EFPM2.5, suggesting that pine timber stand volume may significantly influence PM2.5 emissions. Also, percentage of fine fuel composed of grass showed a negative effect on EFPM2.5, consistent with past studies. Results of the study suggest that timber thinning and frequent prescribed fire minimize EFPM2.5 and total PM2.5 emissions on a per burn basis, and that further development of PM emission models should consider adjusting EFPM2.5 as a function of common

  7. Air quality modelling : effects of emission reductions on concentrations of particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, L.; Roustan, Y.; Seigneur, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has adverse effects on human health. PM acts primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular (due to their small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs), but they are also known effects on the skin. In France, the "Particulate Plan" - developed as part of the second National Environmental Health Plan - aims to reduce by 30% fine PM (noted PM2.5because these particles have an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) by 2015. A recent study by Airparif (the organization in charge of monitoring air quality in the Paris region, the Île-de-France) and LSCE (Laboratory of climate and the environmental science, France) has allowed, through a large measurement campaign conducted between 2009 and 2011, to quantify the proportion of PM produced in Île-de-France and those transported from the surrounding areas. The study by numerical modelling of air pollution presented here complements these results by investigating future emission scenarios. The CEREA develops and uses an air quality model which simulates the concentrations of pollutants from an emission inventory, meteorological data and boundary conditions of the area studied. After an evaluation of simulation results for the year 2005, the model is used to assess the effects of various scenarios of reductions in NOx and NH3 emissions on the concentrations of PM2.5in Île-de-France. The effects of the controls on the local pollution and the long-range pollution are considered separately. For each emitted species, three scenarios of emission reductions are identified: an emission reduction at the local level (Île-de-France), a reduction at the regional scale (France) and a reduction at the continental scale (across Europe). In each case, a 15% reduction is applied. The comparison of the results allows us to assess the respective contributions of local emissions and long-range transport to PM2.5 concentrations. For instance, the reduction of NOx emissions in Europe leads to a

  8. Fugitive particulate emission measurements at two industrial facilities at the Port of Tubarao

    SciTech Connect

    Muleski, G.E.; Arantes, J.V.; Lyrio, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes a series of field tests of particulate matter (PM) from two industrial facilities located at the Port of Tubarao, Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Tests occurred at both an integrated iron and steel plant operated by Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (CST) and large facility operated by Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD). The CVRD facility includes iron ore pelletizing and marine shipping operations. The principal objectives of the study were to develop site-specific emission factors for several PM emission sources at the two facilities and to determine the control efficiency of currently applied emission control measures. Two emission source measurement techniques were employed. The first -- known as the portable wind tunnel method -- allowed the accurate determination of wind erosion potential of erodible surfaces. This technique was applied to approximately 30 different erodible surfaces between the two facilities. The second test method is known as the exposure profiling technique and is applicable to a wide variety of anthropogenic (man-made) dust sources. The exposure profiling method was used to generate emission measurements from approximately 40 material transfer operations at the two facilities.

  9. Hidden cost of U.S. agricultural exports: particulate matter from ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Paulot, Fabien; Jacob, Daniel J

    2014-01-21

    We use a model of agricultural sources of ammonia (NH3) coupled to a chemical transport model to estimate the impact of U.S. food export on particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5). We find that food export accounts for 11% of total U.S. NH3 emissions (13% of agricultural emissions) and that it increases the population-weighted exposure of the U.S. population to PM2.5 by 0.36 μg m(-3) on average. Our estimate is sensitive to the proper representation of the impact of NH3 on ammonium nitrate, which reflects the interplay between agricultural (NH3) and combustion emissions (NO, SO2). Eliminating NH3 emissions from food export would achieve greater health benefits than the reduction of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 from 15 to 12 μg m(-3). Valuation of the increased premature mortality associated with PM2.5 from food export (36 billion US$ (2006) per year) amounts to 50% of the gross food export value. Livestock operations in densely populated areas have particularly large health costs. Decreasing SO2 and NOx emissions will indirectly reduce health impact of food export as an ancillary benefit.

  10. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lou, Diming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Matthias, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh-1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh-1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg-1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg-1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg-1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was

  11. Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter and NO(x) emissions using 4-way catalyzed filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jacob J; Watts, Winthrop F; Newman, Robert A; Ziebarth, Robin R; Kittelson, David B

    2013-05-07

    The next generation of diesel emission control devices includes 4-way catalyzed filtration systems (4WCFS) consisting of both NOx and diesel particulate matter (DPM) control. A methodology was developed to simultaneously evaluate the NOx and DPM control performance of miniature 4WCFS made from acicular mullite, an advanced ceramic material (ACM), that were challenged with diesel exhaust. The impact of catalyst loading and substrate porosity on catalytic performance of the NOx trap was evaluated. Simultaneously with NOx measurements, the real-time solid particle filtration performance of catalyst-coated standard and high porosity filters was determined for steady-state and regenerative conditions. The use of high porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 99% and solid and total particulate matter by 95% when averaged over 10 regeneration cycles. A "regeneration cycle" refers to an oxidizing ("lean") exhaust condition followed by a reducing ("rich") exhaust condition resulting in NOx storage and NOx reduction (i.e., trap "regeneration"), respectively. Standard porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 60-75% and exhibited 99.9% filtration efficiency. The rich/lean cycling used to regenerate the filter had almost no impact on solid particle filtration efficiency but impacted NOx control. Cycling resulted in the formation of very low concentrations of semivolatile nucleation mode particles for some 4WCFS formulations. Overall, 4WCFS show promise for significantly reducing diesel emissions into the atmosphere in a single control device.

  12. Characterization of particulate matter and gaseous emissions of a C-130H aircraft.

    PubMed

    Corporan, Edwin; Quick, Adam; DeWitt, Matthew J

    2008-04-01

    The gaseous and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) emissions of two T56-A-15 turboprop engines of a C-130H aircraft stationed at the 123rd Airlift Wing in the Kentucky Air National Guard were characterized. The emissions campaign supports the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project WP-1401 to determine emissions factors from military aircraft. The purpose of the project is to develop a comprehensive emissions measurement program using both conventional and advanced techniques to determine emissions factors of pollutants, and to investigate the spatial and temporal evolutions of the exhaust plumes from fixed and rotating wing military aircraft. Standard practices for the measurement of gaseous emissions from aircraft have been well established; however, there is no certified methodology for the measurement of aircraft PM emissions. In this study, several conventional instruments were used to physically characterize and quantify the PM emissions from the two turboprop engines. Emissions samples were extracted from the engine exit plane and transported to the analytical instrumentation via heated lines. Multiple sampling probes were used to assess the spatial variation and obtain a representative average of the engine emissions. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and mass emissions were measured using commercially available aerosol instruments. Engine smoke numbers were determined using established Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) practices, and gaseous species were quantified via a Fourier-transform infrared-based gas analyzer. The engines were tested at five power settings, from idle to take-off power, to cover a wide range of operating conditions. Average corrected particle numbers (PNs) of (6.4-14.3) x 10(7) particles per cm3 and PN emission indices (EI) from 3.5 x 10(15) to 10.0 x 10(15) particles per kg-fuel were observed. The highest PN EI were observed for the idle power conditions. The mean particle diameter

  13. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, Michael D; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lee, Doh-Won; Huff, Shean P; Storey, John Morse; Swartz, Matthew M; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  14. Total suspended particulate matter emissions at high friction velocities from desert landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Steven N.; McDonald, Eric V.; Amit, Rivka; Enzel, Yehouda; Crouvi, Onn

    2011-09-01

    Most wind erosion studies that characterize dust emission potential measure particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM10) for air quality purposes or atmospheric modeling. Because the PM10 size fraction is only a portion of the total range of fine-grained particles potentially emitted from desert landforms, we modified the miniature Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Lab (PI-SWERL) by adding a new instrument to measure total suspended particulate matter (TSP). The modified PI-SWERL is capable of measuring TSP with diameters <500 μm emitted from highly erodible surfaces at friction velocities up to 1.28 m s-1. Undisturbed and artificially disturbed surfaces of six common landforms in the Negev Desert of Israel were studied to evaluate the utility of TSP measurements. These landforms include alluvial fans and plains armored by desert pavements, loessial soils with silt-rich surficial crusts, fluvial loess with biological crusts, and active sand dunes. The landforms differ in character and surface age, thereby exhibiting a wide range of surface covers, soil properties, and soil strengths. Our results indicate that the magnitude of TSP emission is primarily controlled by geomorphic setting and surface characteristics. TSP and PM10 concentrations measured from dust-rich loessial soils were significantly correlated, and TSP emission was best predicted at all sites using PM10 content and bearing capacity. Our results demonstrate that further research is needed to determine correction factors for friction velocities related to erodible, anisotropic surface roughness elements and that the modified PI-SWERL is a promising tool to quantify total potential emission flux from desert landforms.

  15. Comparative carcinogenic potencies of particulates from diesel engine exhausts, coke oven emissions, roofing tar aerosols and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, R E

    1983-01-01

    Mammalian cell mutagenesis, transformation and skin tumorigenesis assays show similar results in comparing the potencies of diesel, coke oven, roofing tar and cigarette smoke particulates. These assay results are reasonably consistent with the comparative carcinogenic potencies of coke oven and roofing tar emissions as determined by epidemiological studies. The bacterial mutagenesis assay tends to show disproportionately high potencies, particularly with diesel particulates. Results to date encourage the approach to the assessment for carcinogenic risks from diesel emissions based on the use of epidemiological data on cancer induced by coke oven emissions, roofing tar particulates and cigarette smoke with the comparative potencies of these materials determined by in vivo and in vitro bioassays. PMID:6186481

  16. Size and composition distributions of particulate matter emissions: part 1--light-duty gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Robert, Michael A; VanBergen, Saskia; Kleeman, Michael J; Jakober, Christopher A

    2007-12-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter (PM) emitted from light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) was characterized using filter-based samplers, cascade impactors, and scanning mobility particle size measurements in the summer 2002. Thirty LDGVs, with different engine and emissions control technologies (model years 1965-2003; odometer readings 1264-207,104 mi), were tested on a chassis dynamometer using the federal test procedure (FTP), the unified cycle (UC), and the correction cycle (CC). LDGV PM emissions were strongly correlated with vehicle age and emissions control technology. The oldest models had average ultrafine PM0.1 (0.056- to 0.1-microm aerodynamic diameter) and fine PM1.8 (< or =1.8-microm aerodynamic diameter) emission rates of 9.6 mg/km and 213 mg/km, respectively. The newest vehicles had PM0.1 and PM1.8 emissions of 51 microg/km and 371 microg/km, respectively. Light duty trucks and sport utility vehicles had PM0.1 and PM1.8 emissions nearly double the corresponding emission rates from passenger cars. Higher PM emissions were associated with cold starts and hard accelerations. The FTP driving cycle produced the lowest emissions, followed by the UC and the CC. PM mass distributions peaked between 0.1- and 0.18-microm particle diameter for all vehicles except those emitting visible smoke, which peaked between 0.18 and 0.32 microm. The majority of the PM was composed of carbonaceous material, with only trace amounts of water-soluble ions. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic matter (OM) had similar size distributions, but the EC/OM ratio in LDGV exhaust particles was a strong function of the adopted emissions control technology and of vehicle maintenance. Exhaust from LDGV classes with lower PM emissions generally had higher EC/OM ratios. LDGVs adopting newer technologies were characterized by the highest EC/OM ratios, whereas OM dominated PM emissions from older vehicles. Driving cycles with cold starts and hard accelerations produced higher EC/OM ratios in

  17. Integration of remote lidar and in-situ measured data to estimate particulate flux and emission from tillage operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Bingham, Gail E.; Wojcik, Michael; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Martin, Randal S.; Marchant, Christian; Moore, Kori; Bradford, Bill

    2010-10-01

    Agriculture, through wind erosion, tillage and harvest operations, burning, diesel-powered machinery and animal production operations, is a source of particulate matter emissions. Agricultural sources vary both temporally and spatially due to daily and seasonal activities and inhomogeneous area sources. Conventional point sampling methods originally designed for regional, well mixed aerosols are challenged by the disrupted wind flow and by the small mobile source of the emission encountered in this study. Atmospheric lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) technology provides a means to derive quantitative information of particulate spatial and temporal distribution. In situ point measurements of particulate physical and chemical properties are used to characterize aerosol physical parameters and calibrate lidar data for unambiguous lidar data processing. Atmospheric profiling with scanning lidar allows estimation of temporal and 2D/3D spatial variations of mass concentration fields for different particulate fractions (PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP) applicable for USEPA regulations. This study used this advanced measurement technology to map PM emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions, allowing for accurate comparisons of the Conservation Management Practice (CMP) under test. The purpose of this field study was to determine whether and how much particulate emission differs from the conventional method of agricultural fall tillage and combined CMP operations.

  18. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  19. Organic particulate emissions from field burning of garden and agriculture residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Monteiro, Cristina; Pio, Casimiro; Tomé, Mário

    2011-08-01

    To assess the particulate matter (PM) composition, the smoke from three different agriculture and garden residues, commonly subjected to open field burning in Northern Portugal (potato haulm (A), arable weed vegetation (B) and collard greens stalks/pruned green leafy-twigs (C)) have been sampled into 3 different size fractions (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 ). To replicate another frequent practise of reducing or dispose agriculture/garden debris, residue C was complementarily burned in a metal container with addition of used lubricant oil. The size-segregated aerosol samples were analysed for elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon by a thermal-optical transmission technique. The organosoluble OC was fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Burning of residue C produced the highest PM emissions. OC was the dominant carbonaceous component in all aerosol samples, contributing to about 98% of total carbon (TC). The detailed chemical profiles of particulate emissions, including organic tracer compounds, have been assessed. The contribution of phenolics (0.2-39% OC, w/w) and organic acids (1.5-13% OC, w/w) to OC was always predominant over other organic compounds, whose distribution patterns were found to vary from one residue to another. The polyphenols, as the guaiacyl derivatives, were particularly abundant in PM from the residue C burning, but anthropogenic constituents completely superimposed the emission profiles after addition of used lubricant oil. It was shown that the prevailing ambient conditions (such as high humidity) likely contributed to atmospheric processes (e.g. coagulation and hygroscopic growth), which influenced the particle size characteristics of the smoke tracers, shifting their distribution to larger diameters. Since it was shown that the relative contribution of different carbon forms and organic compounds may strongly depend on the size of the particulate matter, the barely

  20. Black carbon particulate matter emission factors for buoyancy-driven associated gas flares.

    PubMed

    McEwen, James D N; Johnson, Matthew R

    2012-03-01

    Flaring is a technique used extensively in the oil and gas industry to burn unwanted flammable gases. Oxidation of the gas can preclude emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas); however, flaring creates other pollutant emissions such as particulate matter (PM) in the form of soot or black carbon (BC). Currently available PM emissionfactors for flares were reviewed and found to be questionably accurate, or based on measurements not directly relevant to open-atmosphere flares. In addition, most previous studies of soot emissions from turbulent diffusion flames considered alkene or alkyne based gaseous fuels, and few considered mixed fuels in detail and/or lower sooting propensity fuels such as methane, which is the predominant constituent of gas flared in the upstream oil and gas industry. Quantitative emission measurements were performed on laboratory-scale flares for a range of burner diameters, exit velocities, and fuel compositions. Drawing from established standards, a sampling protocol was developed that employed both gravimetric analysis of filter samples and real-time measurements of soot volume fraction using a laser-induced incandescence (LII) system. For the full range of conditions tested (burner inner diameter [ID] of 12.7-76.2 mm, exit velocity 0.1-2.2 m/sec, 4- and 6-component methane-based fuel mixtures representative of associated gas in the upstream oil industry), measured soot emission factors were less than 0.84 kg soot/10(3) m3 fuel. A simple empirical relationship is presented to estimate the PM emission factor as a function of the fuel heating value for a range of conditions, which, although still limited, is an improvement over currently available emission factors.

  1. Particulate emissions from U.S. Department of Defense artillery backblast testing.

    PubMed

    Gillies, John A; Kuhns, Hampden; Engelbrecht, Johann P; Uppapalli, Sebastian; Etyemezian, Vicken; Nikolich, George

    2007-05-01

    There is a dearth of information on dust emissions from sources that are unique to the U.S. Department of Defense testing and training activities. However, accurate emissions factors are needed for these sources so that military installations can prepare accurate particulate matter (PM) emission inventories. One such source, coarse and fine PM (PM10 and PM2.5) emissions from artillery backblast testing on improved gun positions, was characterized at the Yuma Proving Ground near Yuma, AZ, in October 2005. Fugitive emissions are created by the shockwave from artillery pieces, which ejects dust from the surface on which the artillery is resting. Other contributions of PM can be attributed to the combustion of the propellants. For a 155-mm howitzer firing a range of propellant charges or zones, amounts of emitted PM10 ranged from -19 g of PM10 per firing event for a zone 1 charge to 92 g of PM10 per firing event for a zone 5. The corresponding rates for PM2.5 were approximately 9 g of PM2.5 and 49 g of PM2.5 per firing. The average measured emission rates for PM1o and PM2.5 appear to scale with the zone charge value. The measurements show that the estimated annual contributions of PM10 (52.2 t) and PM2.5 (28.5 t) from artillery backblast are insignificant in the context of the 2002 U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) PM emission inventory. Using national-level activity data for artillery fire, the most conservative estimate is that backblast would contribute the equivalent of 5 x 10(-4) % and 1.6 x 10(-3)% of the annual total PM10 and PM2.5 fugitive dust contributions, respectively, based on 2002 EPA inventory data.

  2. Emission rates of particulate matter and elemental and organic carbon from in-use diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sandip D; Cocker, David R; Miller, J Wayne; Norbeck, Joseph M

    2004-05-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) emission rates are reported for a number of heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs) and back-up generators (BUGs) operating under real-world conditions. Emission rates were determined using a unique mobile emissions laboratory (MEL) equipped with a total capture full-scale dilution tunnel connected directly to the diesel engine via a snorkel. This paper shows that PM, EC, and OC emission rates are strongly dependent on the mode of vehicle operation; highway, arterial, congested, and idling conditions were simulated by following the speed trace from the California Air Resources Board HHDDT cycle. Emission rates for BUGs are reported as a function of engine load at constant speed using the ISO 8178B Cycle D2. The EC, OC, and PM emission rates were determined to be highly variable for the HHDDTs. It was determined that the per mile emission rate of OC from a HHDDT in congested traffic is 8.1 times higher than that of an HHDDT in cruise or highway speed conditions and 1.9 times higher for EC. EC/OC ratios for BUGs (which generally operate at steady states) and HHDDTs show marked differences, indicating that the transient nature of engine operation dictates the EC/OC ratio. Overall, this research shows that the EC/OC ratio varies widely for diesel engines in trucks and BUGs and depends strongly on the operating cycle. The findings reported here have significant implications in the application of chemical mass balance modeling, diesel risk assessment, and control strategies such as the Diesel Risk Reduction Program.

  3. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  4. Real-Time Characterization of Particle and Gas Phase Diesel Emissions - Understanding the Influence of a Diesel Particulate Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Sappok, A.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E.; Jayne, J.; Wong, V.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Diesel engine emissions constitute an important source of particulate black carbon (BC) and gas phase organics in the atmosphere. Particles composed of black carbon absorb incoming solar radiation having a net positive radiative forcing effect on the climate. Black carbon also has major air quality implications as BC particles from combustion sources are often coated with poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and are generally emitted in higher concentrations close to population centers. Regulations of diesel emissions target the mass of particulate matter (PM) and concentration of volatile gas phase organic compounds (VOC) produced. A third, potentially important component of diesel exhaust, is low volatility organic compounds (LVOC). Both the VOCs and LVOCs can lead to the formation of ultrafine particles (via homogeneous nucleation) and secondary organic aerosols (via oxidation). Recent development of mass spectrometric techniques to measure particulate black carbon and gas phase organics provide the opportunity to quantify and chemically characterize diesel emissions in real-time. Measurements of both the particulate and gas phase emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine will be presented. The experimental apparatus includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) integrated in the exhaust line, which is a requirement for all 2007 and newer on-road diesel engines in the U.S. Measurements taken over the regeneration cycle of the DPF provide insight into how this after-treatment technology influences the gas phase and particle phase composition of the emissions. Gas phase measurements were made with a newly developed Total Gas-Phase Organic (TGO) instrument. Particulate species were characterized with a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS). The combined utility of the TGO and SP-AMS instruments for emissions characterization studies will be demonstrated.

  5. Analysis of particulate emissions from tropical biomass burning using a global aerosol model and long-term surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddington, Carly L.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Artaxo, Paulo; Ridley, David A.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Arana, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    We use the GLOMAP global aerosol model evaluated against observations of surface particulate matter (PM2.5) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) to better understand the impacts of biomass burning on tropical aerosol over the period 2003 to 2011. Previous studies report a large underestimation of AOD over regions impacted by tropical biomass burning, scaling particulate emissions from fire by up to a factor of 6 to enable the models to simulate observed AOD. To explore the uncertainty in emissions we use three satellite-derived fire emission datasets (GFED3, GFAS1 and FINN1). In these datasets the tropics account for 66-84 % of global particulate emissions from fire. With all emission datasets GLOMAP underestimates dry season PM2.5 concentrations in regions of high fire activity in South America and underestimates AOD over South America, Africa and Southeast Asia. When we assume an upper estimate of aerosol hygroscopicity, underestimation of AOD over tropical regions impacted by biomass burning is reduced relative to previous studies. Where coincident observations of surface PM2.5 and AOD are available we find a greater model underestimation of AOD than PM2.5, even when we assume an upper estimate of aerosol hygroscopicity. Increasing particulate emissions to improve simulation of AOD can therefore lead to overestimation of surface PM2.5 concentrations. We find that scaling FINN1 emissions by a factor of 1.5 prevents underestimation of AOD and surface PM2.5 in most tropical locations except Africa. GFAS1 requires emission scaling factor of 3.4 in most locations with the exception of equatorial Asia where a scaling factor of 1.5 is adequate. Scaling GFED3 emissions by a factor of 1.5 is sufficient in active deforestation regions of South America and equatorial Asia, but a larger scaling factor is required elsewhere. The model with GFED3 emissions poorly simulates observed seasonal variability in surface PM2.5 and AOD in regions where small fires dominate, providing

  6. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset provides all data used to generate the figures and tables in the article entitled Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: AtmospheresThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Holder , A., G. Hagler , J. Aurell, M. Hays , and B. Gullett. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, 121(7): 3465-3483, (2016).

  7. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  8. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  9. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; May, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Lipsky, E. M.; Donahue, N. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    The effects of photochemical aging on emissions from 15 light-duty gasoline vehicles were investigated using a smog chamber to probe the critical link between the tailpipe and ambient atmosphere. The vehicles were recruited from the California in-use fleet; they represent a wide range of model years (1987 to 2011), vehicle types and emission control technologies. Each vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer using the unified cycle. Dilute emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and then photochemically aged under urban-like conditions. For every vehicle, substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurred during cold-start tests, with the emissions from some vehicles generating as much as 6 times the amount of SOA as primary particulate matter (PM) after 3 h of oxidation inside the chamber at typical atmospheric oxidant levels (and 5 times the amount of SOA as primary PM after 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h of OH exposure). Therefore, the contribution of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhaust to ambient PM levels is likely dominated by secondary PM production (SOA and nitrate). Emissions from hot-start tests formed about a factor of 3-7 less SOA than cold-start tests. Therefore, catalyst warm-up appears to be an important factor in controlling SOA precursor emissions. The mass of SOA generated by photooxidizing exhaust from newer (LEV2) vehicles was a factor of 3 lower than that formed from exhaust emitted by older (pre-LEV) vehicles, despite much larger reductions (a factor of 11-15) in nonmethane organic gas emissions. These data suggest that a complex and nonlinear relationship exists between organic gas emissions and SOA formation, which is not surprising since SOA precursors are only one component of the exhaust. Except for the oldest (pre-LEV) vehicles, the SOA production could not be fully explained by the measured oxidation of speciated (traditional) SOA precursors. Over the timescale of these experiments, the mixture of organic vapors

  10. [Emission of Particulate Matter, Organic and Elemental Carbon from Burning of Fallen Leaves].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-zong; Liu, Gang; Li, Jiu-hai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Dan

    2015-04-01

    The two kinds of burning conditions, i. e., flaming and smoldering, were selected to investigate the particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon ( EC) from burning of ten kinds of fallen leaves. In the experiment, the emission smoke was sampled from the fallen leaves burning, in which the OC and EC loadings were measured by the Thermal Optical Carbon Analyzer. The results showed that the emission factors of PM, OC, and EC were 7.9-31.9, 0.9-9.7, and 3.6-13.9 g x kg(-1), with the average values of 19.7, 5.2, and 6.8 g x kg(-1), respectively, under the flaming condition. The emission factors of PM, OC, and EC were 61.3-128.9, 31.7-60.4, and 1.9-6.0 g x kg(-1), with the average values of 91.0, 43.0, and 4.0 g x kg(-1), respectively, under the smoldering condition. The OC/EC ratio ranged from 0.21 to 1.82 and from 8.16 to 16.84 under the flaming and smoldering condition, respectively. The OC/PM and EC/PM ratios ranged from 0.11 to 0.41 and from 0.18 to 0.56, respectively under the flaming condition. The OC/PM and EC/PM ratios, however, ranged from 0.43 to 0.53 and from 0.03 to 0.06, respectively, under the smoldering condition. The OC emission factor was well correlated with the PM emission factor in the two burning conditions. Those results indicated that rather different emission factors occurred in all kind of components in different burning emission. In addition, the OC emission factor was higher under the smoldering condition than that under the flaming condition. However, the EC emission factor was higher under flaming condition, compared with that under smoldering condition. Analysis of the PM, OC, and EC emission factor and their ratios was beneficial for building the emission list from the biomass burning and the sources apportionment.

  11. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion in Europe - revised estimates and an evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Bergström, R.; Fountoukis, C.; Johansson, C.; Pandis, S. N.; Simpson, D.; Visschedijk, A.

    2014-12-01

    Currently residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because of rising fossil fuel prices but also due to climate change mitigation policies. However, especially in small-scale applications, RWC may cause high emissions of particulate matter (PM). Recently we have developed a new high-resolution (7 km × 7 km) anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory for Europe. The inventory indicated that about half of the total PM2.5 emission in Europe is carbonaceous aerosol and identified RWC as the largest organic aerosol (OA) source in Europe. The inventory was partly based on national reported PM emissions. Use of this OA inventory as input for two Chemical Transport Models (CTMs), PMCAMx and EMEP MSC-W, revealed major underestimations of OA in winter time, especially for regions dominated by RWC. Interestingly, this was not universal but appeared to differ by country. In the present study we constructed a new bottom-up emission inventory for RWC accounting for the semi-volatile components of the emissions. The new RWC emissions are higher than those in the previous inventory by a factor of 2-3 but with substantial inter-country variation. The new emission inventory served as input for the CTMs and a substantially improved agreement between measured and predicted organic aerosol was found. The new RWC inventory improves the model calculated OA significantly. Comparisons to Scandinavian source apportionment studies also indicate substantial improvements in the modeled wood-burning component of OA. This suggests that primary organic aerosol emission inventories need to be revised to include the semi-volatile OA that is formed almost instantaneously due to cooling of the flue gas or exhaust. Since RWC is a key source of fine PM in Europe, a major revision of the emission estimates as proposed here is likely to influence source-receptor matrices and modelled source apportionment. Since usage of biofuels, such as wood, in small combustion units is a

  12. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide and particulate matter from cage-free layer houses in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingjun; Zhang, Ruihong; Jiang, Shumei; El-Mashad, Hamed; Xin, Hongwei

    2017-03-01

    Cage-free housing systems have attracted considerable attention in the United States recently as they provide more space and other resources (such as litter area, perches, and nest boxes) for hens and are considered to be more favorable from the standpoint of hen welfare. This study was carried out to quantify emissions of aerial ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from cage-free layer houses in California and compare the values with those for other types of layer houses. Two commercial cage-free houses with 38,000 hens each were monitored from March 1, 2012 to April 1, 2013. Results show that NH3 and CO2 concentrations in the houses were affected by ventilation rate, which was largely influenced by ambient air temperature. The PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the houses depended on the activity of birds, ventilation rate and relative humidity of the ambient air. The average emission rates of NH3, CO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.29, 89.9, 0.163 and 0.020 g d-1 hen-1, respectively. The NH3 emission rate determined in this study was higher than those of aviary houses. The PM10 and PM2.5 emission rates were higher than those reported for high-rise layer houses.

  13. In-use gaseous and particulate matter emissions from a modern ocean going container vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Harshit; Malloy, Quentin G. J.; Welch, William A.; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    Ocean going vessels are one of the largest uncontrolled sources of pollutants and the emissions data from these sources are scarce. This paper provides the emission measurements of gases, particulate matter (PM), metals, ions, elemental and organic carbon, conducted from the main engine of an ocean going PanaMax class container vessel, at certification cycle and at vessel speed reduction mode, during actual operation at sea. The weighted emission factor (g kW -1 h -1) of PM and NO x were 1.64 and 18.2, respectively, for the main engine operating on a 2.05 wt% sulfur heavy fuel oil (HFO). The NO x emissions at the vessel speed reduction mode (8% of full load) are 30% higher than at 52% engine power, the normal cruise speed. The composition of PM, from main engine is dominated by sulfate and water bound with sulfate (about 80% of total PM) and organic carbon constitutes about 15% of the PM. Sulfur, vanadium and nickel are the significant elements in the exhaust from the engine running on the HFO. At the point of sampling 3.7-5.0% of the fuel sulfur was converted to sulfate.

  14. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion in Europe - revised estimates and an evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Bergström, R.; Fountoukis, C.; Johansson, C.; Pandis, S. N.; Simpson, D.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.

    2015-06-01

    Currently residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because of rising fossil fuel prices but also due to climate change mitigation policies. However, especially in small-scale applications, RWC may cause high emissions of particulate matter (PM). Recently we have developed a new high-resolution (7 × 7 km) anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory for Europe. The inventory indicated that about half of the total PM2.5 emission in Europe is carbonaceous aerosol and identified RWC as the largest organic aerosol source in Europe. The inventory was partly based on national reported PM emissions. Use of this organic aerosol inventory as input for two chemical transport models (CTMs), PMCAMx and EMEP MSC-W, revealed major underestimations of organic aerosol in winter time, especially for regions dominated by RWC. Interestingly, this was not universal but appeared to differ by country. In the present study we constructed a revised bottom-up emission inventory for RWC accounting for the semivolatile components of the emissions. The revised RWC emissions are higher than those in the previous inventory by a factor of 2-3 but with substantial inter-country variation. The new emission inventory served as input for the CTMs and a substantially improved agreement between measured and predicted organic aerosol was found. The revised RWC inventory improves the model-calculated organic aerosol significantly. Comparisons to Scandinavian source apportionment studies also indicate substantial improvements in the modelled wood-burning component of organic aerosol. This suggests that primary organic aerosol emission inventories need to be revised to include the semivolatile organic aerosol that is formed almost instantaneously due to dilution and cooling of the flue gas or exhaust. Since RWC is a key source of fine PM in Europe, a major revision of the emission estimates as proposed here is likely to influence source-receptor matrices and modelled source

  15. Lubricating oil and fuel contributions to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A

    2008-01-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) operated under realistic driving cycles were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measured hopane and sterane size distributions did not match the total carbon size distribution in most cases, suggesting that lubricating oil was not the dominant source of particulate carbon in the vehicle exhaust. A regression analysis using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and benzo[ghi/perylene as a tracer for gasoline showed that gasoline fuel and lubricating oil both make significant contributions to particulate EC and OC emissions from LDGVs. A similar regression analysis performed using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and flouranthene as a tracerfor diesel fuel was able to explain the size distribution of particulate EC and OC emissions from HDDVs. The analysis showed that EC emitted from all HDDVs operated under relatively high load conditions was dominated by diesel fuel contributions with little EC attributed to lubricating oil. Particulate OC emitted from HDDVs was more evenly apportioned between fuel and oil contributions. EC emitted from LDGVs operated underfuel-rich conditions was dominated by gasoline fuel contributions. OC emitted from visibly smoking LDGVs was mostly associated with lubricating oil, but OC emitted from all other categories of LDGVs was dominated by gasoline fuel. The current study clearly illustrates that fuel and lubricating oil make separate and distinct contributions to particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles. These particles should be tracked separately during ambient source apportionment studies since the atmospheric evolution and ultimate health effects of these particles may be different. The source profiles for fuel and lubricating oil contributions to EC and OC

  16. Physical properties of particulate matter from animal houses-empirical studies to improve emission modelling.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ehab; Nannen, Christoph; Henseler, Jessica; Diekmann, Bernd; Gates, Richard; Buescher, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining and preserving the environment from pollutants are of utmost importance. Particulate matter (PM) is considered one of the main air pollutants. In addition to the harmful effects of PM in the environment, it has also a negative indoor impact on human and animal health. The specific forms of damage of particulate emission from livestock buildings depend on its physical properties. The physical properties of particulates from livestock facilities are largely unknown. Most studies assume the livestock particles to be spherical with a constant density which can result in biased estimations, leading to inaccurate results and errors in the calculation of particle mass concentration in livestock buildings. The physical properties of PM, including difference in density as a function of particle size and shape, can have a significant impact on the predictions of particles' behaviour. The aim of this research was to characterize the physical properties of PM from different animal houses and consequently determine PM mass concentration. The mean densities of collected PM from laying hens, dairy cows and pig barns were 1450, 1520 and 2030 kg m(-3), respectively, whilst the mass factors were 2.17 × 10(-3), 2.18 × 10(-3) and 5.36 × 10(-3) μm, respectively. The highest mass concentration was observed in pig barns generally followed by laying hen barns, and the lowest concentration was in dairy cow buildings. Results are presented in such a way that they can be used in subsequent research for simulation purposes and to form the basis for a data set of PM physical properties.

  17. Time-resolved characterization of diesel particulate emissions. 2. Instruments for elemental and organic carbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Moosmüller, H; Arnott, W P; Rogers, C F; Bowen, J L; Gillies, J A; Pierson, W R; Collins, J F; Durbin, T D; Norbeck, J M

    2001-05-15

    The measurement of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) mass for particles emitted by diesel vehicles is currently accomplished using particle collection on filters, followed by analysis using the thermal/optical reflectance carbon analysis method (TOR) or one of its variations. Such filter methods limit time resolution to a minimum of several minutes, making it impossible to study emissions during transient operating conditions. Testing of five different measurement methods has demonstrated that fast response measurement of diesel exhaust particulate EC and OC concentrations, consistent with TOR filter measurements, is feasible using existing technology. EC mass concentrations are best measured through determination of particulate light absorption with a photoacoustic instrument or determination of light extinction with a smoke meter. The photoacoustic instrument has the better dynamic range and sensitivity, whereas the smoke meter is a simpler instrument. Fast response OC measurements cannot be made with any single instrument tested. However, a combination of real time weighing as implemented in the tapered element oscillating microbalance with the photoacoustic instrument has been shown to be capable of determining OC concentrations with good time response. The addition of a nephelometer to the OC measurement could potentially improve time resolution, freedom from interferences, and sensitivity.

  18. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Particulate Emissions on Major Highways in Southern California: Lagrangian Approach Using Mobile Monitoring System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Grady, M.; Pham, L.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010 CARB reported 9,000 people in California die prematurely each year as a result of exposure to particulate emissions. Public's exposure to particulate emissions is known to be highest on highway during daily commute. Total particle concentrations vary temporarily and spatially due to many reasons including particle nucleation, traffic, and meteorological conditions. The stationary ambient monitoring sites are too sparsely located to measure these variations on highway. Also, emissions from highways can be included in the emission inventory which can improve modeler capability to predict at much finer scale. Emissions from highways are vary temporally and spatially. This study used a mobile platform to measure total particle number, total particle surface area and average particle diameter in Lagrangian approach. The study will report occurrence and frequency of hot spots for particle nucleation on highway and temporal/ spatial variations of particle concentrations on highway. This will enable better assessment of public's exposure to particulate emissions on highway by transportation and propose a methodology how to obtain emission inventory for major highways.

  19. Emissions and indoor concentrations of particulate matter and its specific chemical components from cooking: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullahi, Karimatu L.; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-06-01

    It has long been known that cooking can create high concentrations of aerosol indoors. Increasingly, it is now being reported that cooking aerosol is also a significant component of outdoor particulate matter. As yet, the health consequences are unquantified, but the presence of well known chemical carcinogens is a clear indication that cooking aerosol cannot be benign. This review is concerned with current knowledge of the mass concentrations, size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol generated from typical styles of cooking as reported in the literature. It is found that cooking can generate both appreciable masses of aerosol at least within the area where the cooking takes place, that particle sizes are largely within the respirable size range and that major groups of chemical compounds which have been used to characterise cooking aerosol include alkanes, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, lactones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanones and sterols. Measured data, cooking emission profiles and source apportionment methods are briefly reviewed.

  20. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil Carbon to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W; Rich, D; Cheng, A S

    2003-01-31

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) at 1600 rpm) used 100% biodiesel fuel (8100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C mg C. The {sup 14}C concentration of the exhaust CO{sub 2} and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in {sup 14}C content in the CO, and PM are due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions.

  1. CRADA final report for CRADA number Y1294-0296: Optical particulate emission monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C. Jr.; Bernacki, E.; Nuspliger, R.J.

    1995-10-15

    The Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology (ORCMT) and Environmental Systems Corporation (ESC) have collaborated on an effort to develop the optical system for an enhanced particulate emission monitor. The purpose of this effort was to assist a small East Tennessee company in perfecting an instrument that would meet or exceed the performance of competing foreign instruments and provide measurement capabilities necessary to assure compliance of Department of Energy facilities and other industrial facilities with expected EPA regulations. The two parties collaborated on design, assembly, and bench testing of the prototype instrument. The prototype system was targeted to have the capability for measuring micron size particles in concentrations as low as 10 micrograms per cubic meter and to have the added benefit of improving sampling statistics (i.e. measurements will be made over larger regions of the stack) over current instruments. Project deliverables were a prototype optical system and characterization data.

  2. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A S; Rich, D; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A

    2002-12-06

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) 1600 m) used 100% biodiesel fuel (B100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C/ mg C. The C concentration of the exhaust C02 and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in I4C content in the PM is due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions. The slight depression in CO{sub 2} isotope content could be attributed to ambient CO{sub 2} levels and measurement uncertainty.

  3. The Level of Particulate Matter on Foliage Depends on the Distance from the Source of Emission.

    PubMed

    Popek, Robert; Gawrońska, Helena; Gawroński, Stanislaw W

    2015-01-01

    One of the most dangerous inhaled pollutants is particulate matter (PM). PM in inhaled air have a negative impact on human wellbeing and health, and may even cause deaths. Where pollutants have been emitted into the outdoor atmosphere, the only possible method for cleaning the air is through phytoremediation, a form of environmental biotechnology, where plants act as biological filters for pollutants. This study compared PM levels on the leaves of Tilia cordata Mill. trees growing in locations at increasing distances from the source of the PM emission. Significant differences between individual trees growing at a distance of between 3 m and 500 m from the road edge were found in: (i) the mass of PM that accumulated on leaves (total, surface, in-wax and the three determined size fractions) and (ii) the amount of waxes deposited on leaves.

  4. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability, and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions in mass of 86% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (66%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. At 7% power, this corresponds to a reduction from 7.6 mg kg-1 for JP-8 to 1.2 mg kg-1 for the natural gas FT fuel. At full power, soot emissions were reduced from 103 to 24 mg kg-1 (JP-8 and natural gas FT, respectively). The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g., at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the natural gas FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the

  5. Particulate emissions from 'in-use' motor vehicles—I. Spark ignition vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. J.; Milne, J. W.; Roberts, D. B.; Kimberlee, M. C.

    A detailed study has been undertaken of the exhaust particulate matter (EPM) emitted by 22 spark ignition (S.I.) vechicles driven over an urban drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. A super-grade petrol (97 octane) containing 0.4 g Pbℓ -1 was used throughout the tests. Emission rates were found to vary between 0.29 and 1.70 g kg -1 fuel for the ADR 37 test cycle with an average value of 0.67 g kg -1. Emission rates were generally highest during the first 505 s of the cycle and covered the range 0.4-2.85 g kg -1. High EPM emission rates were associated with high non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) levels but were not correlated with CO, NOx or odometer readings. The bulk (85%) of the EPM was aerodynamically < 1 μm in diameter. The major species in the EPM were C, Pb and Br -, and C being very largely organic rather than sooty in nature. When 13C-labelled lubricating oil was added to two vehicles, the oil contribution to the EPM was found to be 15% w/w.

  6. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process.

  7. Evaluation of methods for measuring particulate matter emissions from gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Andreas; Marsh, Richard; Johnson, Mark; Miller, Michael; Sevcenco, Yura; Delhaye, David; Ibrahim, Amir; Williams, Paul; Bauer, Heidi; Crayford, Andrew; Bachalo, William D; Raper, David

    2011-04-15

    The project SAMPLE evaluated methods for measuring particle properties in the exhaust of aircraft engines with respect to the development of standardized operation procedures for particulate matter measurement in aviation industry. Filter-based off-line mass methods included gravimetry and chemical analysis of carbonaceous species by combustion methods. Online mass methods were based on light absorption measurement or used size distribution measurements obtained from an electrical mobility analyzer approach. Number concentrations were determined using different condensation particle counters (CPC). Total mass from filter-based methods balanced gravimetric mass within 8% error. Carbonaceous matter accounted for 70% of gravimetric mass while the remaining 30% were attributed to hydrated sulfate and noncarbonaceous organic matter fractions. Online methods were closely correlated over the entire range of emission levels studied in the tests. Elemental carbon from combustion methods and black carbon from optical methods deviated by maximum 5% with respect to mass for low to medium emission levels, whereas for high emission levels a systematic deviation between online methods and filter based methods was found which is attributed to sampling effects. CPC based instruments proved highly reproducible for number concentration measurements with a maximum interinstrument standard deviation of 7.5%.

  8. Comparison of carbonaceous particulate matter emission factors among different solid fuels burned in residential stoves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Haisuo; Ding, Aijun; Tao, Shu

    2014-06-01

    Uncertainty in the emission factor (EF) usually contributes largely to the overall uncertainty in the emission inventory. In the present study, the locally measured EFs of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) for solid fuels burned in the residential sector are compiled and compared. These fuels are classified into seven sub-groups of anthracite briquette, anthracite chunk, bituminous briquette, bituminous chunk, crop residue, fuel wood log, and brushwood/branches. The EFs of carbonaceous particles for these fuels vary significantly, generally in the order of anthracite (briquette and chunk) < wood log < brushwood/branches < crop residue < bituminous (briquette and chunk), with an exception that the brushwood/branches have a relatively high EF of EC. The ratio of EC/OC varies significantly among different fuels, and is generally higher for biomass fuel than that for coal because of the intense flaming conditions formed during the biomass burning process in improved stoves. Distinct ratios calls for a future study on the potential health and climate impacts of carbonaceous PM from the residential combustions of different fuels. A narrow classification of these fuels significantly reduces the variations in the EFs of PM, OC, and EC, and the temporal and geographical distributions of the emissions could be better characterized.

  9. Primary particulate emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from idling diesel vehicle exhaust in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Hu, Qihou; Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Song, Wei; Sun, Yele; Bi, Xinhui; Yu, Jianzhen; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Zhonghui; He, Quanfu; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; George, Christian

    2017-09-01

    In China diesel vehicles dominate the primary emission of particulate matters from on-road vehicles, and they might also contribute substantially to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). In this study tailpipe exhaust of three typical in-use diesel vehicles under warm idling conditions was introduced directly into an indoor smog chamber with a 30m(3) Teflon reactor to characterize primary emissions and SOA formation during photo-oxidation. The emission factors of primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) for the three types of Chinese diesel vehicles ranged 0.18-0.91 and 0.15-0.51gkg-fuel(-1), respectively; and the SOA production factors ranged 0.50-1.8gkg-fuel(-1) and SOA/POA ratios ranged 0.7-3.7 with an average of 2.2. The fuel-based POA emission factors and SOA production factors from this study for idling diesel vehicle exhaust were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in previous studies for idling gasoline vehicle exhaust. The emission factors for total particle numbers were 0.65-4.0×10(15)particleskg-fuel(-1), and particles with diameters less than 50nm dominated in total particle numbers. Traditional C2-C12 precursor non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) could only explain less than 3% of the SOA formed during aging and contribution from other precursors including intermediate volatile organic compounds (IVOC) needs further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical characterization and toxicity of particulate matter emissions from roadside trash combustion in urban India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeland, Heidi; Schauer, James J.; Russell, Armistead G.; Marshall, Julian D.; Fushimi, Akihiro; Jain, Grishma; Sethuraman, Karthik; Verma, Vishal; Tripathi, Sachi N.; Bergin, Michael H.

    2016-12-01

    Roadside trash burning is largely unexamined as a factor that influences air quality, radiative forcing, and human health even though it is ubiquitously practiced across many global regions, including throughout India. The objective of this research is to examine characteristics and redox activity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with roadside trash burning in Bangalore, India. Emissions from smoldering and flaming roadside trash piles (n = 24) were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), brown carbon (BrC), and toxicity (i.e. redox activity, measured via the dithiothreitol "DTT" assay). A subset of samples (n = 8) were further assessed for toxicity by a cellular assay (macrophage assay) and also analyzed for trace organic compounds. Results show high variability of chemical composition and toxicity between trash-burning emissions, and characteristic differences from ambient samples. OC/EC ratios for trash-burning emissions range from 0.8 to 1500, while ambient OC/EC ratios were observed at 5.4 ± 1.8. Trace organic compound analyses indicate that emissions from trash-burning piles were frequently composed of aromatic di-acids (likely from burning plastics) and levoglucosan (an indicator of biomass burning), while the ambient sample showed high response from alkanes indicating notable representation from vehicular exhaust. Volume-normalized DTT results (i.e., redox activity normalized by the volume of air pulled through the filter during sampling) were, unsurprisingly, extremely elevated in all trash-burning samples. Interestingly, DTT results suggest that on a per-mass basis, fresh trash-burning emissions are an order of magnitude less redox-active than ambient air (13.4 ± 14.8 pmol/min/μgOC for trash burning; 107 ± 25 pmol/min/μgOC for ambient). However, overall results indicate that near trash-burning sources, exposure to redox-active PM can be extremely high.

  11. Quality-assured measurements of animal building emissions: particulate matter concentrations.

    PubMed

    Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Ni, Ji-Qin; Tao, Pei-Chun; Schmidt, Amy M; Koziel, Jacek A; Hoff, Steven J; Jacobson, Larry D; Zhang, Yuanhui; Baughman, Gerald B

    2006-12-01

    Federally funded, multistate field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP), ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and odor from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States. This paper describes the use of a continuous PM analyzer based on the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). In these studies, the TEOM was used to measure PM emissions at identical locations in paired barns. Measuring PM concentrations in swine and poultry barns, compared with measuring PM in ambient air, required more frequent maintenance of the TEOM. External screens were used to prevent rapid plugging of the insect screen in the PM10 preseparator inlet. Minute means of mass concentrations exhibited a sinusoidal pattern that followed the variation of relative humidity, indicating that mass concentration measurements were affected by water vapor condensation onto and evaporation of moisture from the TEOM filter. Filter loading increased the humidity effect, most likely because of increased water vapor adsorption capacity of added PM. In a single layer barn study, collocated TEOMs, equipped with TSP and PM10 inlets, corresponded well when placed near the inlets of exhaust fans in a layer barn. Initial data showed that average daily mean concentrations of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations at a layer barn were 1440 +/- 182 microg/m3 (n = 2), 553 +/- 79 microg/m3 (n = 4), and 33 +/- 75 microg/m3 (n = 1), respectively. The daily mean TSP concentration (n = 1) of a swine barn sprinkled with soybean oil was 67% lower than an untreated swine barn, which had a daily mean TSP concentration of 1143 +/- 619 microg/m3. The daily mean ambient TSP concentration (n = 1) near the swine barns was 25 +/- 8 microg/m3. Concentrations of PM inside the swine barns were correlated to pig activity.

  12. Impact of vehicular traffic emissions on particulate-bound PAHs: Levels and associated health risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, Klara; Castro, Dionísia; Delerue–Matos, Cristina; Alvim–Ferraz, Maria da Conceição; Morais, Simone; Pereira, Maria do Carmo

    2013-06-01

    Considering vehicular transport as one of the most health-relevant emission sources of urban air, and with aim to further understand its negative impact on human health, the objective of this work was to study its influence on levels of particulate-bound PAHs and to evaluate associated health risks. The 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene associated with fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles were determined. The samples were collected at one urban site, as well as at a reference place for comparison. The results showed that the air of the urban site was more seriously polluted than at the reference one, with total concentrations of 17 PAHs being 2240% and 640% higher for PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively; vehicular traffic was the major emission source at the urban site. PAHs were predominantly associated with PM2.5 (83% to 94% of ΣPAHs at urban and reference site, respectively) with 5 rings PAHs being the most abundant groups of compounds at both sites. The risks associated with exposure to particulate PAHs were evaluated using the TEF approach. The estimated value of lifetime lung cancer risks exceeded the health-based guideline levels, thus demonstrating that exposure to PM2.5-bound PAHs at levels found at urban site might cause potential health risks. Furthermore, the results showed that evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene (regarded as a marker of the genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs) alone would probably underestimate the carcinogenic potential of the studied PAH mixtures.

  13. Global emissions of trace gases, particulate matter, and hazardous air pollutants from open burning of domestic waste.

    PubMed

    Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yokelson, Robert J; Gullett, Brian K

    2014-08-19

    The open burning of waste, whether at individual residences, businesses, or dump sites, is a large source of air pollutants. These emissions, however, are not included in many current emission inventories used for chemistry and climate modeling applications. This paper presents the first comprehensive and consistent estimates of the global emissions of greenhouse gases, particulate matter, reactive trace gases, and toxic compounds from open waste burning. Global emissions of CO2 from open waste burning are relatively small compared to total anthropogenic CO2; however, regional CO2 emissions, particularly in many developing countries in Asia and Africa, are substantial. Further, emissions of reactive trace gases and particulate matter from open waste burning are more significant on regional scales. For example, the emissions of PM10 from open domestic waste burning in China is equivalent to 22% of China's total reported anthropogenic PM10 emissions. The results of the emissions model presented here suggest that emissions of many air pollutants are significantly underestimated in current inventories because open waste burning is not included, consistent with studies that compare model results with available observations.

  14. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  15. A large source of dust missing in particulate matter emission inventories? Wind erosion of post-fire landscapes

    Treesearch

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; S. H. Chung; B. K. Lamb

    2017-01-01

    Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire contributes substantial particulate matter (PM) in the form of dust to the atmosphere, but the magnitude of this dust source is largely unknown. It is important to accurately quantify dust emissions because they can impact human health, degrade visibility, exacerbate dust-on-snow issues (including snowmelt timing, snow chemistry...

  16. USERS GUIDE FOR THE CONVERSION OF NAVY PAINT SPRAY BOOTH PARTICULATE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS FROM WET TO DRY OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a guide or convrting U.S. Navy paint spray booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air pollution control of paint spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid waste pol-lution from industria...

  17. USERS GUIDE FOR THE CONVERSION OF NAVY PAINT SPRAY BOOTH PARTICULATE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS FROM WET TO DRY OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a guide or convrting U.S. Navy paint spray booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air pollution control of paint spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid waste pol-lution from industria...

  18. EFFECTS OF INSTILLED EMISSION PARTICULATE MATTER ON ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICES AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY (HRV) IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED EMISSION PARTICULATE MATTER (EPM) ON ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICES AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY (HRV) IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. L.B. Wichers1, J.P. Nolan2, W.H. Rowan2, M.J. Campen3, T.P. Jenkins4, D.L. Costa2, and W.P. Watkinson2. 1UNC SPH, Chap...

  19. EFFECTS OF INSTILLED EMISSION PARTICULATE MATTER ON ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICES AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY (HRV) IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED EMISSION PARTICULATE MATTER (EPM) ON ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICES AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY (HRV) IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. L.B. Wichers1, J.P. Nolan2, W.H. Rowan2, M.J. Campen3, T.P. Jenkins4, D.L. Costa2, and W.P. Watkinson2. 1UNC SPH, Chap...

  20. Fuel-based fine particulate and black carbon emission factors from a railyard area in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Mike; Russell, Armistead

    2013-06-01

    Railyards have the potential to influence localfine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm; PM2.5) concentrations through emissions from diesel locomotives and supporting activities. This is of concern in urban regions where railyards are in proximity to residential areas. Northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, Inman and Tilford railyards are located beside residential neighborhoods, industries, and schools. The PM2.5 concentrations near the railyards is the highest measured amongst the state-run monitoring sites (Georgia Environmental Protection Division, 2012; http://www.georgiaair.org/amp/report.php). The authors estimated fuel-based black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 emission factors for these railyards in order to help determine the impact of railyard activities on PM2.5 concentrations, and for assessing the potential benefits of replacing current locomotive engines with cleaner technologies. High-time-resolution measurements of BC, PM2.5, CO2, and wind speed and direction were made at two locations, north and south of the railyards. Emissions factors (i.e., the mass of BC or PM2.5 per gallon of fuel burned) were estimated by using the downwind/upwind difference in concentrations, wavelet analysis, and an event-based approach. By the authors' estimates, diesel-electric engines used in the railyards have average emission factors of 2.8 +/- 0.2 g of BC and 6.0 +/- 0.5 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. A broader mix of railyard supporting activities appear to lead to average emission factors of 0.7 +/- 0.03 g of BC and 1.5 +/- 0.1 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. Railyard emissions appear to lead to average enhancements of approximately 1.7 +/- 0.1 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and approximately 0.8 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 of BC in neighboring areas on an annual average basis. Uncertainty not quantified in these results could arise mainly from variability in downwind/upwind differences, differences in emissions of the diverse zones within the

  1. Size and composition distributions of particulate matter emissions: part 2--heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Robert, Michael A; Kleeman, Michael J; Jakober, Christopher A

    2007-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) were collected using a chassis dynamometer/dilution sampling system that employed filter-based samplers, cascade impactors, and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements. Four diesel vehicles with different engine and emission control technologies were tested using the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) 5 mode driving cycle. Vehicles were tested using a simulated inertial weight of either 56,000 or 66,000 lb. Exhaust particles were then analyzed for total carbon, elemental carbon (EC), organic matter (OM), and water-soluble ions. HDDV fine (< or =1.8 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM1.8) and ultrafine (0.056-0.1 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM0.1) PM emission rates ranged from 181-581 mg/km and 25-72 mg/km, respectively, with the highest emission rates in both size fractions associated with the oldest vehicle tested. Older diesel vehicles produced fine and ultrafine exhaust particles with higher EC/OM ratios than newer vehicles. Transient modes produced very high EC/OM ratios whereas idle and creep modes produced very low EC/OM ratios. Calcium was the most abundant water-soluble ion with smaller amounts of magnesium, sodium, ammonium ion, and sulfate also detected. Particle mass distributions emitted during the full 5-mode HDDV tests peaked between 100-180 nm and their shapes were not a function of vehicle age. In contrast, particle mass distributions emitted during the idle and creep driving modes from the newest diesel vehicle had a peak diameter of approximately 70 nm, whereas mass distributions emitted from older vehicles had a peak diameter larger than 100 nm for both the idle and creep modes. Increasing inertial loads reduced the OM emissions, causing the residual EC emissions to shift to smaller sizes. The same HDDV tested at 56,000 and 66,000 lb had higher PM0.1 EC emissions (+22%) and lower PM0.1 OM emissions (-38%) at the higher load

  2. Cardiovascular health and particulate vehicular emissions: a critical evaluation of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Grahame, Thomas J; Schlesinger, Richard B

    2010-03-01

    consequences of such emissions, it may be desirable to promulgate a black carbon (BC) PM(2.5) standard under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, which would apply to both on and off-road diesels. Two specific critical research needs are identified. One is to continue research on health effects of vehicular emissions, gaseous as well as particulate. The second is to utilize identical or nearly identical research designs in studies using accurate exposure metrics to determine whether other major PM pollutant sources and types may also underlie the specific health effects found in this evaluation for vehicular emissions.

  3. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of extract of particulate emission from a gasoline-powered engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hadnagy, W.; Seemayer, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    Extract of particulate matter (EPM) from gasoline engine exhaust has been investigated for cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the concentration range 0.16-10 micrograms/ml by means of short-term bioassays using mammalian cell culture systems. Cytotoxicity is demonstrated by a strong dose-dependent reduction of cloning efficiency after treatment of V79 cells with EPM. Employing the dye exclusion test with erythrosin B, no considerable loss of cell viability was observed. Using the same cell system, EPM revealed a highly increased number of aberrant mitoses, whereby the occurrence of C mitoses and metaphases with chromosome clusters was especially pronounced. This effect led to mitotic arrest as shown by a highly increased mitotic index at 5 and 10 micrograms/ml EPM. The results indicate disturbances of the mitotic spindle in a way similar to the known spindle poison colcemid. As a consequence of spindle disturbances, EPM produced numerical chromosome alterations such as aneuploidy and polyploidy. Cytogenetic analyses using human lymphocyte cultures treated with EPM revealed a slight increase of chromosomal aberrations at 10 micrograms/ml and a dose-dependent induction of sister chromatid exchanges in the range 2.5-10 micrograms/ml. At least, EPM showed a dose-dependent increase in the cell transformation assay using SV 40-infected Syrian hamster kidney cultures. The great variety of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects found with EPM suggests a potential health hazard to human populations exposed to gasoline engine exhaust. The possible contribution to cytotoxic and genotoxic activity by organolead compounds derived from antiknock additives is discussed.

  4. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  5. The effects of biodiesels on semivolatile and nonvolatile particulate matter emissions from a light-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Shao-Meng; Liggio, John; Hayden, Katherine; Han, Yuemei; Stroud, Craig; Chan, Tak; Poitras, Marie-Josée

    2017-11-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD. For ULSD, the contribution of pSVOCs to total particulate organic matter (POM) mass in the engine exhaust ranged between 21 and 85%. Evaporation of pSVOCs from the diesel particles during dilution led to decreases in the hydrogen to carbon ratio of POM and the PM number emission factor of the particles. Substituting biodiesels for ULSD could increase pSVOCs emissions but brought on large reductions in black carbon (BC) emissions. Among the biodiesels tested, tallow/used cooking oil (UCO) biodiesel showed advantages over soybean and canola biodiesels in terms of both pSVOCs and nonvolatile PM emissions. It is noteworthy that PM properties, such as particle size and BC mass fraction, differed substantially between emissions from conventional diesel and biodiesels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Particulate and gaseous emissions from different wood fuels during combustion in a small-scale biomass heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olave, R. J.; Forbes, E. G. A.; Johnston, C. R.; Relf, J.

    2017-05-01

    Woodchip is widely used as fuel in dedicated biomass and, even in some conventional energy generation plants. However, there are concerns about atmospheric air pollution from flue gases emitted during wood biomass combustion, particularly oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulates <10 μm diameter (PM10). In the United Kingdom (UK) a small scale biomass heat generation support scheme, the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI), has been introduced. Qualifying criteria for this scheme have included limits for flue gas emissions of NOX and PM10 of 150 and 30 g per gigajoule (g/GJ) of energy input, respectively. In an experiment, three locally available types of Willow (Salix spp) and one of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) woodchips, showed significant differences in physical and chemical constituents, gaseous and particulate emissions. During combustion in a 120 kW biomass system, air flows, flue gas temperatures and energy output correlated with gaseous emissions, NOx with raw fuel ash, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content, as did all flue gas particulate fractions. PM10 ranged from 30.3 to 105.7 g/GJ and NOx from 91.2 to 174.3 g/GJ. Sitka spruce produced significantly lower emissions of PM10 and NOx (27.5 and 52.6% less, respectively) than the three willow fuels, from which emissions were above the RHI emissions limits.

  7. An automatic isokinetic sampler for particulate emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines. Final report Feb 75-Jun 78

    SciTech Connect

    Dehne, H.

    1980-01-01

    An automated isokinetic sampler for evaluating particulate emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines was designed, constructed and tested. The sampler is capable of collecting the particulate mass emitted by an aircraft gas turbine at the exit plane (non-afterburner operation) for gravimetric measurements and permits simultaneous on-line particle size distribution measurements to be performed. The particulate is collected on a fiber glass filter for gravimetric measurement. The size distribution is determined by conditioning the gas turbine exhaust gases and passing them through a mobility particulate size distribution analyzer. The sampler has two-axis traverse capability and a maximum sampling capability of 226 1/min (8 scfm). Test data are automatically recorded. Control of the sampler is by means of 12-bit microprocessor. Preliminary tests were performed at the Naval Air Rework Facility, Alameda, California, at various construction stages of the sampler to evaluate its performance and to measure the effects of fuel additives on particulate emissions on a TF41 gas turbine engine.

  8. Characterisation of particulate matter and gaseous emissions from a large ship diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldanová, Jana; Fridell, Erik; Popovicheva, Olga; Demirdjian, Benjamin; Tishkova, Victoria; Faccinetto, Alessandro; Focsa, Cristian

    Composition of exhaust from a ship diesel engine using heavy fuel oil (HFO) was investigated onboard a large cargo vessel. The emitted particulate matter (PM) properties related to environmental and health impacts were investigated along with composition of the gas-phase emissions. Mass, size distribution, chemical composition and microphysical structure of the PM were investigated. The emission factor for PM was 5.3 g (kg fuel) -1. The mass size distribution showed a bimodal shape with two maxima: one in the accumulation mode with mean particle diameter DP around 0.5 μm and one in the coarse mode at DP around 7 μm. The PM composition was dominated by organic carbon (OC), ash and sulphate while the elemental carbon (EC) composed only a few percent of the total PM. Increase of the PM in exhaust upon cooling was associated with increase of OC and sulphate. Laser analysis of the adsorbed phase in the cooled exhaust showed presence of a rich mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) species with molecular mass 178-300 amu while PM collected in the hot exhaust showed only four PAH masses. Microstructure and elemental analysis of ship combustion residuals indicate three distinct morphological structures with different chemical composition: soot aggregates, significantly metal polluted; char particles, clean or containing minerals; mineral and/or ash particles. Additionally, organic carbon particles of unburned fuel or/and lubricating oil origin were observed. Hazardous constituents from the combustion of heavy fuel oil such as transitional and alkali earth metals (V, Ni, Ca, Fe) were observed in the PM samples. Measurements of gaseous composition in the exhaust of this particular ship showed emission factors that are on the low side of the interval of global emission factors published in literature for NO x, hydrocarbons (HC) and CO.

  9. Characterization of particulate matter emission from open burning of rice straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Ly, Bich Thuy; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manandhar, Bhai Raja; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EF varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EF were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20 ± 8 g kg -1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7 ± 2.2 g kg -1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM 2.5 with EF of 5.1 ± 0.7 g m -2 or 8.3 ± 2.7 g kg -1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM 10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM 10 (9.4 ± 3.5 g kg -1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM 2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from <0.4 μm to >9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM 1.1. The most significant components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration

  10. Application of a Backwards Lagrangian Stochastic Model to Estimate Particulate Matter Emissions from Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K. D.; Wojcik, M.; Martin, R. S.; Pfeiffer, R.; Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J.

    2013-12-01

    Advancements in elastic light detection and ranging (Lidar) data analysis have made possible the conversion of return signals due to scattering by aerosols to particulate matter (PM) concentrations. This has enabled the use of Lidar systems in PM emissions calculation. Bingham et al. (2009, J. Appl. Rem. Sens., 033510) describes the application of a mass balance technique to estimate emissions from a facility or operation. Additional techniques that utilize the PM calibrated Lidar data are being investigated for use in non-ideal measurement situations, such as limitations on scanning due to physical constraints and obstacles or U.S. Federal Aviation Authority restrictions. The authors are investigating the application of inverse modeling, which uses measured pollutant concentrations resulting from the activity (downwind minus upwind) and an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate the emission rate input into the model that results in the best fit between measured and modeled concentration impacts. Lagrangian stochastic (LS) models, or random flight models, have been shown to simulate atmospheric dispersion and transport fairly well in the surface layer of the atmosphere. A LS model simulates the motion of numerous particles (marked fluid elements or particles) in a fluid based on the fluid's transport and dispersion characteristics plus randomized variations. Several gaseous air pollutant emissions studies have used LS models in inverse modeling in agricultural settings over the past decade. Unlike most gases, particles may have significant settling and deposition due to gravitation forces depending on particle size and density. This may be an important factor, especially in plumes initially dominated by large particles (>~2 μm in diameter), such as in agriculture. Estimates of PM emissions, therefore, should account for particle deposition velocity (vs). In this work we will convert a forward LS model given by Wang et al. (2008, Trans. ASABE, 1763-1774) that

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSION FROM OPEN BURNING OF RICE STRAW

    PubMed Central

    Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manadhar, Bhai R.; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Liu, L-J Sally

    2010-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003–2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EFs varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EFs were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20±8 g kg−1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7±2.2 g kg−1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM2.5 with EF of 5.1±0.7 g m−2 or 8.3±2.7 g kg−1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM10 (9.4±3.5 g kg−1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from <0.4 μm to >9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM1.1. The most significant components in PM2.5 and PM10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration, an

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSION FROM OPEN BURNING OF RICE STRAW.

    PubMed

    Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manadhar, Bhai R; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D; Liu, L-J Sally

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EFs varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EFs were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20±8 g kg(-1) RS) than hood spread burning (4.7±2.2 g kg(-1) RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM(2.5) with EF of 5.1±0.7 g m(-2) or 8.3±2.7 g kg(-1) RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM(10-2.5)) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM(10) (9.4±3.5 g kg(-1) RS) was not significantly higher than PM(2.5). PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from <0.4 μm to >9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM(1.1). The most significant components in PM(2.5) and PM(10) include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For

  13. Emission Factors, Size Distributions and Emission Inventories of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter from Residential Wood Combustion in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Wei, Wen; Zhang, Yanyan; Min, Yujia; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Huang, Ye; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Wang, Xuejun; Tao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Published emission factors (EFs) often vary significantly, leading to high uncertainties in emission estimations. There are few reliable EFs from field measurements of residential wood combustion in China. In this study, 17 wood fuels and one bamboo were combusted in a typical residential stove in rural China to measure realistic EFs of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), as well as to investigate the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions on the EFs. Measured EFs of PM, OC, and EC (EFPM, EFOC, and EFEC, respectively) were in the range of 0.38~6.4, 0.024~3.0 and 0.039~3.9 g/kg (dry basis), with means and standard derivation of 2.2±1.2, 0.62±0.64 and 0.83±0.69 g/kg, respectively. Shrubby biomass combustion produced higher EFs than tree woods, and both species had lower EFs than those of indoor crop residue burning (p<0.05). Significant correlations between EFPM, EFOC and EFEC were expected. By using a nine-stage cascade impactor, it was shown that size distributions of PM emitted from tree biomass combustions were unimodal with peaks at a diameter less than 0.4 µm (PM0.4), much finer than the PM from indoor crop residue burning. Approximately 79.4% of the total PM from tree wood combustion was PM with a diameter less than 2.1µm (PM2.1). PM size distributions for shrubby biomasses were slightly different from those for tree fuels. Based on the measured EFs, total emissions of PM, OC, and EC from residential wood combustion in rural China in 2007 were estimated at about 303, 75.7, and 92.0 Gg. PMID:22380753

  14. Emission factors, size distributions, and emission inventories of carbonaceous particulate matter from residential wood combustion in rural China.

    PubMed

    Guofeng, Shen; Siye, Wei; Wen, Wei; Yanyan, Zhang; Yujia, Min; Bin, Wang; Rong, Wang; Wei, Li; Huizhong, Shen; Ye, Huang; Yifeng, Yang; Wei, Wang; Xilong, Wang; Xuejun, Wang; Shu, Tao

    2012-04-03

    Published emission factors (EFs) often vary significantly, leading to high uncertainties in emission estimations. There are few reliable EFs from field measurements of residential wood combustion in China. In this study, 17 wood fuels and one bamboo were combusted in a typical residential stove in rural China to measure realistic EFs of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC), as well as to investigate the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions on the EFs. Measured EFs of PM, OC, and EC (EF(PM), EF(OC), and EF(EC), respectively) were in the range of 0.38-6.4, 0.024-3.0, and 0.039-3.9 g/kg (dry basis), with means and standard derivation of 2.2 ± 1.2, 0.62 ± 0.64, and 0.83 ± 0.69 g/kg, respectively. Shrubby biomass combustion produced higher EFs than tree woods, and both species had lower EFs than those of indoor crop residue burning (p < 0.05). Significant correlations between EF(PM), EF(OC), and EF(EC) were expected. By using a nine-stage cascade impactor, it was shown that size distributions of PM emitted from tree biomass combustions were unimodal with peaks at a diameter less than 0.4 μm (PM(0.4)), much finer than the PM from indoor crop residue burning. Approximately 79.4% of the total PM from tree wood combustion was PM with a diameter less than 2.1 μm (PM(2.1)). PM size distributions for shrubby biomasses were slightly different from those for tree fuels. On the basis of the measured EFs, total emissions of PM, OC, and EC from residential wood combustion in rural China in 2007 were estimated at about 303, 75.7, and 92.0 Gg.

  15. Greenhouse Gas and Particulate Emissions and Impacts from Cooking Technologies in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, D. M.; Bailis, R.; Kituyi, E.; Ezzati, M.

    2003-12-01

    In much of Africa, the largest fraction of energy consumption occurs within the residential sector and is derived primarily from woodfuels burned in simple stoves with poor combustion characteristics. Many of the products of incomplete combustion (PICs) are damaging to human health, particularly when they are concentrated in poorly ventilated indoor environments. Incomplete combustion also has potentially harmful impacts on the climate. Prevalent PICs include methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is among the pollutants subject to controls under the Kyoto Protocol as well as carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulate matter (PM), which can all have an effect on climate, but are not subject to controls under Kyoto. In addition, when woodfuels are used at a rate that reduces standing stocks of trees over the medium or long term, the CO2 released by combustion also has an impact. The choice of stove and fuel technology can have a significant impact on the emission of GHGs as well as on human exposure to health damaging pollutants. In this paper we analyze the emissions of different household energy technologies on a life-cycle basis. We use emission factors to estimate the emissions associated with production, distribution and end-use of common household fuels and assess the likely impacts of these emissions on public health and the global environment. We focus largely on charcoal, a popular fuel in many sub-Saharan African countries. Charcoal is produced by heating wood in the absence of sufficient air for complete combustion to occur. This process removes moisture and most of the volatile compounds. The compounds driven off in the process consist of condensable tars as well as many gaseous hydrocarbons, including ~40 g CH4 per kg of charcoal produced. Combining upstream and end-use emissions, every meal cooked with charcoal has 2-10 times the global warming effect of cooking the same meal with firewood and 5-12 times the effect of

  16. Control of diesel soot and NOx emissions with a particulate trap and EGR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-xiang; Gao, Xi-yan; Yang, De-sheng; Xu, Xiao-guang

    2005-01-01

    The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), coupled with a high-collection efficiency particulate trap to simultaneously control smoke and NOx emissions from diesel engines were studied. This ceramic trap developed previously provided the soot cleaning efficiency of 99%, the regeneration efficiency reaches 80% and the ratio of success reaches 97%, which make EGR used in diesel possible. At the presence of EGR, opening of the regeneration control valve of the trap was over again optimized to compensate for the decrease of the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas resulted from EGR. The results indicated the cleaning efficiency and regeneration performance of the trap were maintained at the same level except that the back pressure increased faster. A new EGR system was developed, which is based on a wide range oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Experiments were carried out under steady state conditions while maintaining the engine speed at 1600 r/min, setting the engine loads at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively. Throughout each test the EGR rate was kept at nine different settings and data were taken with the gas analyzer and UEGO sensor. Then, the EGR rate and engine load maps, which showed the tendencies of NOx, CO and HC emissions from diesel engine, were made using the measured data. Using the maps, the author set up the EGR regulation, the relationship between the optimal amounts of EGR flow and the equivalence ratio, sigma, where sigma = 14.5/AFR.

  17. Measuring Particulate Emissions of Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Using Integrated Particle Size Distribution (IPSD).

    PubMed

    Quiros, David C; Zhang, Sherry; Sardar, Satya; Kamboures, Michael A; Eiges, David; Zhang, Mang; Jung, Heejung S; Mccarthy, Michael J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Ayala, Alberto; Zhu, Yifang; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2015-05-05

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) adopted the low emission vehicle (LEV) III particulate matter (PM) standards in January 2012, which require, among other limits, vehicles to meet 1 mg/mi over the federal test procedure (FTP). One possible alternative measurement approach evaluated to support the implementation of the LEV III standards is integrated particle size distribution (IPSD), which reports real-time PM mass using size distribution and effective density. The IPSD method was evaluated using TSI's engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, 5.6-560 nm) and gravimetric filter data from more than 250 tests and 34 vehicles at ARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL). IPSD mass was persistently lower than gravimetric mass by 56-75% over the FTP tests and by 81-84% over the supplemental FTP (US06) tests. Strong covariance between the methods suggests test-to-test variability originates from actual vehicle emission differences rather than measurement accuracy, where IPSD offered no statistical improvement over gravimetric measurement variability.

  18. Emission, Dispersion, Transformation, and Deposition of Asian Particulates Over the Western Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, Richard P.

    2005-02-28

    In this project we developed and applied a coupled three-dimensional meteorology/chemistry/microphysics model to study the patterns of aerosol dispersion and deposition in the western Pacific area; carried out a series of detailed regional aerosol simulations to test the ability of models to treat emission, dispersion and removal processes prior to long-range transport; calculated and analyzed trajectories that originate in Asian dust source regions and reach the Pacific Basin; performed detailed simulations of regional and trans-Pacific transport, as well as the microphysical and chemical properties, of aerosols in the Asia-Pacific region to quantify processes that control the emission, dispersion and removal of particles; and assessed the contributions of regional-scale Asian particulate sources to the deposition of pollutants onto surface waters. The transport and deposition of aerosols and vapors were found to be strongly controlled by large and synoptic scale meteorology, convection, turbulence, and precipitation, as well as strong interactions between surface conditions and topographical features. The present analysis suggests that accurate representations of aerosol sources, transport and deposition can be obtained using a comprehensive modeling approach.

  19. Emission Factors of Greenhouse Gases and Particulates from Australian Savanna Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desservettaz, M.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Kettlewell, G.; Wilson, S. R.; Keywood, M. D.; van der Schoot, M. V.; Selleck, P. W.; Ward, J.; Harnwell, J.; Reisen, F.; Lawson, S. J.; Ristovski, Z.; Mallet, M.; Miljevic, B.; Atkinson, B.; Milic, A.

    2015-12-01

    In June 2014 a measurement campaign took place at Gunn Point in the Northern Territory, Australia, aimed at characterising the emissions from early dry season savanna fires. The campaign was especially focused on understanding aerosol composition and size distribution. Equipment deployed to measure aerosol properties included a multi-angle absorption photometer, a nephelometer, a cloud condensation nuclei counter, a condensation particle counter, two scanning mobility particle sizer, two aerosol mass spectrometers (one a time of flight instrument) , a multi-axis differential optical absorption spectrometer, a volatility-humidity tandem differential mobility analyser and two high volume aerosol samplers (one PM10 and one MOUDI). In addition there were measurements of mercury in both gas and aerosol phase. Complementary measurements of trace gases were provided by a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, a volatile organic compounds sequencer, a Fourier transform spectrometer, an ozone analyser and a nitrogen oxides monitor. This presentation will present results from the Fourier transform spectrometer, the scanning mobility particulate sizer, the beta attenuation monitor and the aerosol mass spectrometer. In particular individual fire events have been identified and emission factors calculated for CO2, CO, CH4 N2O and aerosols (PM1, PM10, Aitken and Accumulation mode).

  20. Semi-Volatile and Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons inEnvironmental Tobacco Smoke: Cleanup, Speciation and EmissionsFactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, L.A.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    Studies of phase distributions and emission factors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) require collection and analysis of very small samples. To achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity, a method has been devised and tested for extraction and cleanup of gas- and particulate-phase ETS samples. Gas-phase species were trapped by polymeric sorbents, and particles were trapped on filters. The samples were extracted with hot cyclohexane, concentrated and passed through silica solid-phase extraction columns for cleanup. After solvent change, the PAH were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with two programmed fluorescence detectors. PAH concentrations in 15-mg aliquots of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material SRM 1649 (Urban DustIOrganics) agreed well with published values. Relative precision at the 95% confidence level was 8% for SRM 1649 and 20% for replicate samples (5 mg) of ETS particles. Emission factors have been measured for a range of gas- and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ETS. The emission factors per cigarette were 13.0{+-}0.5 mg particulate matter, 11.2{+-}0.9 pg for gas-phase naphthalene and 74{+-}10 {micro}g for particulate benzo(a)pyrene.

  1. Spatial patterns of mobile source particulate matter emissions-to-exposure relationships across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Susan L.; Wilson, Andrew M.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Assessing the public health benefits from air pollution control measures is assisted by understanding the relationship between mobile source emissions and subsequent fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) exposure. Since this relationship varies by location, we characterized its magnitude and geographic distribution using the intake fraction (iF) concept. We considered emissions of primary PM 2.5 as well as particle precursors SO 2 and NO x from each of 3080 counties in the US. We modeled the relationship between these emissions and total US population exposure to PM 2.5, making use of a source-receptor matrix developed for health risk assessment. For primary PM 2.5, we found a median iF of 1.2 per million, with a range of 0.12-25. Half of the total exposure was reached by a median distance of 150 km from the county where mobile source emissions originated, though this spatial extent varied across counties from within the county borders to 1800 km away. For secondary ammonium sulfate from SO 2 emissions, the median iF was 0.41 per million (range: 0.050-10), versus 0.068 per million for secondary ammonium nitrate from NO x emissions (range: 0.00092-1.3). The median distance to half of the total exposure was greater for secondary PM 2.5 (450 km for sulfate, 390 km for nitrate). Regression analyses using exhaustive population predictors explained much of the variation in primary PM 2.5 iF ( R2=0.83) as well as secondary sulfate and nitrate iF ( R2=0.74 and 0.60), with greater near-source contribution for primary than for secondary PM 2.5. We conclude that long-range dispersion models with coarse geographic resolution are appropriate for risk assessments of secondary PM 2.5 or primary PM 2.5 emitted from mobile sources in rural areas, but that more resolved dispersion models are warranted for primary PM 2.5 in urban areas due to the substantial contribution of near-source populations.

  2. Abatement of particulate matter emission from experimental aviary housings for laying hens by spraying rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Winkel, A; van Riel, J W; van Emous, R A; Aarnink, A J A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Ogink, N W M

    2016-12-01

    In alternative systems for laying hens, concentrations and emission rates of particulate matter (PM) give reason for concern with regard to working conditions, bird health and productivity, and health of residents living near farms. Previously, we found that spraying a film of rapeseed oil onto the litter of broilers could substantially reduce PM concentrations and emissions. The objective of this study was to establish dose-response effects of oil spraying in aviaries on concentrations and emission rates of PM with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5), on stockmen's exposure to PM10, on egg production, exterior quality and behavior of the hens, and on the litter. An experiment was carried out with 4 treatments: 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mL/m(2) per d (oil treatments). Each treatment was applied in 2 rooms with different aviary systems (8 rooms in total). The experiment was repeated during a second period, both lasting 35 days. From d 11 to d 35, oil was applied daily using a spraying gun. Applying 15, 30, or 45 mL/m(2) per d significantly reduced emission rates of PM10 by 27, 62, and 82%, and emission rates of PM2.5 by 71, 83, and 94%, respectively. No significant effects of oil spraying were found on mortality, egg production, dust bathing behavior, scratching behavior, plumage soiling, DM content of the litter, or friability of the litter. A significant worsening of the plumage condition was found only for the body spot back/wings/tail (not for: throat/neck, chest/breast, or legs) in the 45 mL/m(2) per d treatment. Egg quality shifted significantly towards more second-class eggs in the oil treatments (1.9% versus 1.4%; P = 0.004). Remarkably, foot soiling decreased with increasing oil application. In conclusion, PM concentrations and emission rates in aviaries can be effectively reduced by spraying 15 to 30 mL/m(2) per d with minor side effects within a 25 d application period.

  3. Evolution of particulate emissions from a coal-fired power plant. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Buckholtz, H.T.Y.

    1980-08-15

    A numerical model has been developed for the dispersal of aerosols downwind from a coal-fired power plant. The main goals were to evaluate with a mathematical simulation the evolution of the spatial extent and particle size distribution of the aerosol material and to predict settling rates affecting the surface environment in the downwind path. The hot air plume coming out of the power plant stack includes a large quantity of aerosol particles. The plume rises with initial upward emission speed until it reaches thermal and kinetic equilibria with the ambient air, then it is transported by the wind current. The plume disperses vertically and horizontally by wind turbulence. In the model particulate coagulation is mathematically described by Timiskii's equation. The relevant semi-empirical work of Smirnov is incorporated to provide the coagulation constant. Because of coagulation, the concentrations of different sizes of aerosol particles in the plume are changed. The numerical simulation studies the importance of particulate coagulation and turbulent dispersion on the downwind plume profile. The downwind transport of the aerosol particles is described by Fick's diffusion equation with the Brownian diffusion coefficient replaced by the turbulent diffusion coefficient. Particle sedimentation is incorporated into the diffusion equation as a first-order differential term. The transport equation is solved by an unconditionally stable finite difference method. At 20 miles downwind, most of the particles with diameter larger than 10 ..mu..m have settled to the ground. The size distribution is still bimodal. The distribution of larger particles remains almost unchanged, except for the departure of the super-micronic particles, because coagulation losses are approximately balanced by coagulation gains.

  4. Positron emission tomography in the quantification of cellular and biochemical responses to intrapulmonary particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Hazel A. . E-mail: hazel.jones@imperial.ac.uk; Hamacher, Kurt; Clark, John C.; Schofield, John B.; Krausz, Thomas; Haslett, Christopher; Boobis, Alan R.

    2005-09-01

    Inhaled mineral dusts and fibres can cause chronic pulmonary inflammation, often leading to permanent scarring with loss of function, but the mechanisms involved remain obscure. There are currently no good methods for monitoring inflammatory processes in situ. Positron emission tomography (PET) of suitable intravenously injected radiolabelled markers provides non-invasive and repeatable methods of quantifying biochemical and cellular responses. We have developed animal models of fibrotic and non-fibrotic pulmonary response to particulate instillation and characterised these by histology. Different components of the inflammatory response have been investigated by PET: (1) [{sup 18}F]-labelled fluoro-deoxyglucose, a positron emitting glucose analogue, accumulates in cells in proportion to their glucose uptake; ex vivo microautoradiography indicates that neutrophils are the cells responsible for an increased signal during pulmonary inflammation; a persistently high uptake is associated with lung scarring. (2) The radioligand [{sup 11}C]-R-PK11195 binds to benzodiazepine-like receptors abundant in macrophages; following particulate instillation, the [{sup 11}C]-R-PK11195 PET signal tracks with lung macrophage accumulation and also localises to regions consistent with macrophage clearance; poor macrophage clearance is associated with fibrosis. (3) [{sup 18}F]-fluoroproline is likely a substrate for extracellular matrix production, especially proline-rich collagen; during active scarring, the rate of lung uptake of fluoroproline is elevated. Localisation of radioactivity in the lung has been validated ex vivo by microautoradiography of tritium analogues of each of the positron emitting tracers. The use of PET to monitor different inflammatory processes by repeated scanning of the same animal or individual is helping to identify key events in the fibrotic process.

  5. Global Air Quality Predictions of Particulate Matter in the Middle East and Sensitivity to Future Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzo, E. A.; Holmes, C. D.; Paltsev, S.; Alawad, A.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the influence of natural and anthropogenic drivers of future PM in the Middle East region using two future emissions scenarios to drive the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model. The Arabian Peninsula is a major source of windblown dust as well as anthropogenic aerosols. Future emissions - driven jointly and individually by climate change and anthropogenic emissions from this rapidly growing region - will play an important role in both climate forcing and human health impacts from particulate matter. We use two scenarios to compare their climate and air quality implications. First, we use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for four radiative forcing cases. Second, we develop a consistent future greenhouse gas and conventional pollutant emission inventory using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, which is a general equilibrium model of the global economy that calculates how economic growth and anthropogenic emissions change as a result of policies and other stressors. With EPPA, we examine three emissions cases, a business-as-usual case and two stabilization cases leading to anthropogenic radiative forcings of 3.7 W/m2 and 4.5 W/m2. We use these scenarios to drive GEOS-Chem for present and future climate, assessing changes in chemical composition of aerosol and drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, out to 2050. We find that projected anthropogenic emissions are strong determinants of future particulate matter air quality in the Middle East region.

  6. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  7. Particulate emissions from the combustion of birch, beech, and spruce logs cause different cytotoxic responses in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Kasurinen, Stefanie; Jalava, Pasi I; Happo, Mikko S; Sippula, Olli; Uski, Oskari; Koponen, Hanna; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2017-05-01

    According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets. We determined the chemical composition (elements, ions, and carbonaceous compounds) of the particulate emissions with a diameter of less than 1 µm and tested their cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, inflammatory potential, and ability to induce oxidative stress in a human lung epithelial cell line. The chemical composition of the samples differed significantly, especially with regard to the carbonaceous and metal contents. Also the toxic effects in our tested endpoints varied considerably between each of the three log wood combustion samples, as well as between the log wood combustion samples and the pellet combustion sample. The difference in the toxicological potential of the samples in the various endpoints indicates the involvement of different pathways of toxicity depending on the chemical composition. All three emission samples from the log wood combustions were considerably more toxic in all endpoints than the emissions from the pellet combustion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1487-1499, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Flux estimation of fugitive particulate matter emissions from loose Calcisols at construction sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Hala A.; Kumar, Prashant; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.

    2016-09-01

    A major source of airborne pollution in arid and semi-arid environments (i.e. North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, and Australia) is the fugitive particulate matter (fPM), which is a frequent product of wind erosion. However, accurate determination of fPM is an ongoing scientific challenge. The objective of this study is to examine fPM emissions from the loose Calcisols (i.e. soils with a substantial accumulation of secondary carbonates), owing to construction activities that can be frequently seen nowadays in arid urbanizing regions such as the Middle East. A two months field campaign was conducted at a construction site, at rest, within the city of Doha (Qatar) to measure number concentrations of PM over a size range of 0.25-32 μm using light scattering based monitoring stations. The fPM emission fluxes were calculated using the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) in an iterative manner and were fitted to a power function, which expresses the wind velocity dependence. The power factors were estimated as 1.87, 1.65, 2.70 and 2.06 for the four different size classes of particles ≤2.5, 2.5-6, 6-10 and ≤10 μm, respectively. Fitted power function was considered acceptable given that adjusted R2 values varied from 0.13 for the smaller particles and up to 0.69 for the larger ones. These power factors are in the same range of those reported in the literature for similar sources. The outcome of this study is expected to contribute to the improvement of PM emission inventories by focusing on an overlooked but significant pollution source, especially in dry and arid regions, and often located very close to residential areas and sensitive population groups. Further campaigns are recommended to reduce the uncertainty and include more fPM sources (e.g. earthworks) and other types of soil.

  9. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  10. Controlling fine particulate and acid mist emissions from a residual oil fired utility boiler with an EDV{trademark} system

    SciTech Connect

    Olen, K.R.; Vincent, H.B.; Jones, G.

    1995-06-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Belco Technologies Corporation, evaluated the performance of an EDV system to remove fine particulate and acid mist from untreated flue gas from a residual oil-fired utility boiler. The cosponsored project was carried out using a full-scale EDV module in a slip stream from one of the 400 MW wall-fired boilers at FPL`s Sanford Plant. Particulate, acid gas and chemical analytical data are presented, and used to illustrate the effects of operating variables on EDV performance. EDV system efficiencies of 90% were achieved, which resulted in controlled particulate and SO{sub 3} emissions of less than 10 mg/Nm{sup 3} (0.0065 lbs/10{sup 6}Btu) and 1 ppmv, respectively.

  11. Size-segregated particulate matter and gaseous emissions from motor vehicles in a road tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Célia A.; Gomes, Joana; Nunes, Teresa; Duarte, Márcio; Calvo, Ana; Custódio, Danilo; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    In order to address road traffic emissions, studies need to be performed under realistic driving conditions where the input from other sources is minimised. Measurements in traffic tunnels have been used for quantifying emissions, but so far no study has established emission factors (EFs) for Southern Europe. To fill this gap, a sampling campaign was carried out for one week in the Liberdade Avenue tunnel (Braga, Portugal). The campaign included the monitoring of gaseous pollutants (CO2, CO, NOx) and suspended particulate matter (PM) at two sites, one in the tunnel and another in an urban background location. Organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in size-segregated particles (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5 and PM2.5-10) were determined by a thermal-optical system, whereas major and trace elements were analysed by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. PM0.5 accounted for 56% of the PM10 mass, while PM2.5-10 represented only 12%. The carbonaceous fraction was concentrated in PM0.5, encompassing 88% of the EC and 67% of the OC present in PM10. Elements attributable to non-exhaust emissions could be divided into two groups. Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Sn and Zn, from tyre and brake wear, were more abundant in particles between 1 and 2 μm. Ca, Al, K, Sr and Ti, associated with soil resuspension, were mainly present in particles > 2 μm. The average EFs of CO, CO2 and NOx were 212, 4.02 and 1.22 g veh- 1 km- 1, respectively, while values of 152 mg PM10 veh- 1 km- 1 and 133 mg PM2.5 veh- 1 km- 1 were obtained for the particles. OC and EC emission factor was 39 mg veh- 1 km- 1 for PM10. The corresponding OC and EC values for PM2.5 were 34 and 38 mg veh- 1 km- 1. The EFs are slightly lower than those found for other tunnels, but within the ranges presented by the EMEP/EEA inventory.

  12. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning and impact on resulting deposition: a modelling assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Francesco; Artaxo, Paulo; Bencardino, Mariantonia; Cinnirella, Sergio; Carbone, Francesco; D'Amore, Francesco; Dommergue, Aurélien; Feng, Xin Bin; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Landis, Matthew S.; Sprovieri, Francesca; Suzuki, Noriuki; Wängberg, Ingvar; Pirrone, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, little is known about the fraction of Hg bound to particulate matter (HgP) released from BB, and the factors controlling this fraction are also uncertain. In light of the aims of the Minamata Convention to reduce intentional Hg use and emissions from anthropogenic activities, the relative importance of Hg emissions from BB will have an increasing impact on Hg deposition fluxes. Hg speciation is one of the most important factors determining the redistribution of Hg in the atmosphere and the geographical distribution of Hg deposition. Using the latest version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv4.1s) and the global Hg chemistry transport model, ECHMERIT, the impact of Hg speciation in BB emissions, and the factors which influence speciation, on Hg deposition have been investigated for the year 2013. The role of other uncertainties related to physical and chemical atmospheric processes involving Hg and the influence of model parametrisations were also investigated, since their interactions with Hg speciation are complex. The comparison with atmospheric HgP concentrations observed at two remote sites, Amsterdam Island (AMD) and Manaus (MAN), in the Amazon showed a significant improvement when considering a fraction of HgP from BB. The set of sensitivity runs also showed how the quantity and geographical distribution of HgP emitted from BB has a limited impact on a global scale, although the inclusion of increasing fractions HgP does limit Hg0(g) availability to the global atmospheric pool. This reduces the fraction of Hg from BB which deposits to the world's oceans from 71 to 62 %. The impact locally is, however, significant on northern boreal and tropical forests, where fires are

  13. Investigation on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethyl carbonate blends.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C S; Zhu, Ruijun; Huang, Zuohua

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a diesel engine was investigated using Euro V diesel fuel blended with different proportions of DMC. Combustion analysis shows that, with the blended fuel, the ignition delay and the heat release rate in the premixed combustion phase increase, while the total combustion duration and the fuel consumed in the diffusion combustion phase decrease. Compared with diesel fuel, with an increase of DMC in the blended fuel, the brake thermal efficiency is slightly improved but the brake specific fuel consumption increases. On the emission side, CO increases significantly at low engine load but decreases at high engine load while HC decreases slightly. NO(x) reduces slightly but the reduction is not statistically significant, while NO(2) increases slightly. Particulate mass and number concentrations decrease upon using the blended fuel while the geometric mean diameter of the particles shifts towards smaller size. Overall speaking, diesel-DMC blends lead to significant improvement in particulate emissions while the impact on CO, HC and NO(x) emissions is small.

  14. Using aerosol light absorption measurements for the quantitative determination of wood burning and traffic emission contributions to particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Sandradewi, Jisca; Prévôt, Andre S H; Szidat, Sönke; Perron, Nolwenn; Alfarra, M Rami; Lanz, Valentin A; Weingartner, Ernest; Baltensperger, Urs

    2008-05-01

    A source apportionment study was performed for particulate matter in the small village of Roveredo, Switzerland, where more than 70% of the households use wood burning for heating purposes. A two-lane trans-Alpine highway passes through the village and contributes to the total aerosol burden in the area. The village is located in a steep Alpine valley characterized by strong and persistent temperature inversions during winter, especially from December to February. During two winter and one early spring campaigns, a seven-wavelength aethalometer, high volume (HIVOL) samplers, an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), an optical particle counter (OPC), and a Sunset Laboratory OCEC analyzer were deployed to study the contribution of wood burning and traffic aerosols to particulate matter. A linear regression model of the carbonaceous particulate mass in the submicrometer size range CM(PM1) as a function of aerosol light absorption properties measured by the aethalometer is introduced to estimate the particulate mass from wood burning and traffic (PM(wb), PM(traffic)). This model was calibrated with analyses from the 14C method using HIVOL filter measurements. These results indicate that light absorption exponents of 1.1 for traffic and 1.8-1.9 for wood burning calculated from the light absorption at 470 and 950 nanometers should be used to obtain agreement of the two methods regarding the relative wood burning and traffic emission contributions to CM(PM1) and also to black carbon. The resulting PM(wb) and PM(traffic) values explain 86% of the variance of the CM(PM1) and contribute, on average, 88 and 12% to CM(PM1), respectively. The black carbon is estimated to be 51% due to wood burning and 49% due to traffic emissions. The average organic carbon/total carbon (OC/TC) values were estimated to be 0.52 for traffic and 0.88 for wood burning particulate emissions.

  15. Emission factors and particulate matter size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustions in rural Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Zhu, Chen; Min, Yujia; Xue, Miao; Ding, Junnan; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Coal consumption is one important contributor to energy production, and is regarded as one of the most important sources of air pollutants that have considerable impacts on human health and climate change. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal combustion were studied in a typical stove. Emission factors (EFs) of 16 EPA priority PAHs from tested coals ranged from 6.25 ± 1.16 mg kg−1 (anthracite) to 253 ± 170 mg kg−1 (bituminous), with NAP and PHE dominated in gaseous and particulate phases, respectively. Size distributions of particulate phase PAHs from tested coals showed that they were mostly associated with particulate matter (PM) with size either between 0.7 and 2.1 μm or less than 0.4 μm (PM0.4). In the latter category, not only were more PAHs present in PM0.4, but also contained higher fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Generally, there were more than 89% of total particulate phase PAHs associated with PM2.5. Gas-particle partitioning of freshly emitted PAHs from residential coal combustions were thought to be mainly controlled by absorption rather than adsorption, which is similar to those from other sources. Besides, the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions was further investigated by using stepwise regression analysis, which indicated that almost 57 ± 10% of total variations in PAH EFs can be accounted for by moisture and volatile matter content of coal in residential combustion. PMID:24179437

  16. Emission factors and particulate matter size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustions in rural Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Zhu, Chen; Min, Yujia; Xue, Miao; Ding, Junnan; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2010-12-01

    Coal consumption is one important contributor to energy production, and is regarded as one of the most important sources of air pollutants that have considerable impacts on human health and climate change. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal combustion were studied in a typical stove. Emission factors (EFs) of 16 EPA priority PAHs from tested coals ranged from 6.25 ± 1.16 mg kg -1 (anthracite) to 253 ± 170 mg kg -1 (bituminous), with NAP and PHE dominated in gaseous and particulate phases, respectively. Size distributions of particulate phase PAHs from tested coals showed that they were mostly associated with particulate matter (PM) with size either between 0.7 and 2.1 μm or less than 0.4 μm (PM 0.4). In the latter category, not only were more PAHs present in PM 0.4, but also contained higher fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Generally, there were more than 89% of total particulate phase PAHs associated with PM 2.5. Gas-particle partitioning of freshly emitted PAHs from residential coal combustions were thought to be mainly controlled by absorption rather than adsorption, which is similar to those from other sources. Besides, the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions was further investigated by using stepwise regression analysis, which indicated that almost 57 ± 10% of total variations in PAH EFs can be accounted for by moisture and volatile matter content of coal in residential combustion.

  17. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size

  18. An Automatic Isokinetic Sampler for Particulate Emissions from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    The particulate is collected on a fiber glass filter for gravimetric Y DD I FM13. 1473 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFIYION OF T mlS P ARE [)e foa Fnr... determined by conditioning the gas turbine exhaust gases and passing them through a mobility particulate size distribution analyzer. The sampler has two...purpose of determining particle mass concentration and size distribution. The difficulty of applying existing particulate V sampling equipment

  19. Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, S; Graham, J; Striebich, R

    2001-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are a major anthropogenic source of air pollution and contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. In this paper, we report results of a laboratory investigation of particle formation from four different alternative diesel fuels, namely, compressed natural gas (CNG), dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, and diesel, under fuel-rich conditions in the temperature range of 800-1200 degrees C at pressures of approximately 24 atm. A single pulse shock tube was used to simulate compression ignition (CI) combustion conditions. Gaseous fuels (CNG and DME) were exposed premixed in air while liquid fuels (diesel and biodiesel) were injected using a high-pressure liquid injector. The results of surface analysis using a scanning electron microscope showed that the particles formed from combustion of all four of the above-mentioned fuels had a mean diameter less than 0.1 microm. From results of gravimetric analysis and fuel injection size it was found that under the test conditions described above the relative particulate yields from CNG, DME, biodiesel, and diesel were 0.30%. 0.026%, 0.52%, and 0.51%, respectively. Chemical analysis of particles showed that DME combustion particles had the highest soluble organic fraction (SOF) at 71%, followed by biodiesel (66%), CNG (38%) and diesel (20%). This illustrates that in case of both gaseous and liquid fuels, oxygenated fuels have a higher SOF than non-oxygenated fuels.

  20. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7) but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen's kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5). Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  1. Modeling of particulate matter transport in atmospheric boundary layer following dust emission from source areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katra, Itzhak; Elperin, Tov; Fominykh, Andrew; Krasovitov, Boris; Yizhaq, Hezi

    2016-03-01

    A two-dimensional model for particulate matter (PM) dispersion due to dust emission from soils is presented. Field experiments were performed at a dust source site (Negev loess soil) with a portable boundary layer wind tunnel to determine the emitted PM fluxes for different wind speeds and varying soil conditions. The numerical model is formulated using parameterizations based on the aeolian experiments. The wind velocity profiles used in the simulations were fitted from data obtained in field measurements. Size distribution of the emitted dust particles in the numerical simulations was taken into account using a Monte Carlo method. The PM concentration distributions at a distance of several kilometers from the dust source under specific shear velocities and PM fluxes from the soil were determined numerically by solving advection-diffusion equation. The obtained PM10 concentrations under typical wind and soil conditions are supported by PM data recorded over time in a standard environmental monitoring station. The model enhances our capacity of quantification of dust processes to support climate models as well as health risk assessment.

  2. Brand Cigarillos — A Cheap and Less Harmful Alternative to Cigarettes? Particulate Matter Emissions Suggest Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Alexander; Bigelow, Alexander; Schulze, Michaela; Groneberg, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-associated particulate matter (PM) constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers. It ought to be assessed separately from the other known toxic compounds of tobacco smoke. Brand-specific differences between cigarettes and particularly between cigarettes and favorably taxed cigarillos, are of public interest and therefore worth being investigated. Methods: An automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE) was developed to generate cigarette and cigarillo smoke in a reliable and reproducible way. John Player Special (JPS) Red cigarettes, JPS filter cigarillos and 3R4F standard research cigarettes were smoked automatically in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber according to a standardized protocol until 5 cm from the top were burned down. Results: Mean concentrations (Cmean) and area of the curve (AUC) of PM2.5 were measured and compared. Cmean PM2.5 were found to be 804 µg/m3 for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 1633 µg/m3 for JPS cigarettes, and 1059 µg/m3 for JPS filter cigarillos. AUC PM2.5-values are 433,873 µg/m3×s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 534,267 µg/m3×s for JPS Red cigarettes and 782,850 µg/m3×s for JPS filter cigarillos. Conclusion: Potential brand-specific differences of ETS-associated PM emissions among brands of cigarettes, and between cigarettes and cigarillos of the same brand and size should be investigated and published. Information about relative PM-emissions should be printed on the package. PMID:25568972

  3. Trace gases and particulate matter emissions from wildfires and agricultural burning in Northeastern Mexico during the 2000 fire season.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Alberto; Garcia, Marisa R; Vela, Patricia; Lozano, D Fabian; Allen, David

    2005-12-01

    An inventory of air pollutants emitted from forest and agricultural fires in Northeastern Mexico for the period of January to August of 2000 is presented. The emissions estimates were calculated using an emissions factor methodology. The inventory accounts for the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter emissions include estimates for fine PM and coarse PM. A total of 2479 wildfires were identified in the domain for the period of interest, which represented approximately 810,000 acres burned and 621,130 short tons emitted (81% being CO). The main source of information used to locate and estimate the extent of the fires came from satellite imagery. A geographic information system was used to determine the type of vegetation burned by each fire. More than 54% of the total area burned during the period of study was land on the State of Tamaulipas. However, >58% of the estimated emissions came from the State of Coahuila. This was because of the mix of vegetation types burned in each state. With respect to the temporal distribution, 76.9% of the fires occurred during the months of April and May consuming almost 78% of the total area burned during the period of study. Analysis of wind forward trajectories of air masses passing through the burned areas and 850-mb wind reanalyses indicate possible transboundary transport of the emissions from Mexico to the United States during the occurrence of the major wildfires identified.

  4. Particulate Emissions from a Stationary Engine Fueled with Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel and Waste-Cooking-Oil-Derived Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture. [Box: see text].

  5. Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture.

  6. Temperature effects on particulate emissions from DPF-equipped diesel trucks operating on conventional and biodiesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Book, Emily K; Snow, Richard; Long, Thomas; Fang, Tiegang; Baldauf, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Emissions tests were conducted on two medium heavy-duty diesel trucks equipped with a particulate filter (DPF), with one vehicle using a NOx absorber and the other a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for control of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Both vehicles were tested with two different fuels (ultra-low-sulfur diesel [ULSD] and biodiesel [B20]) and ambient temperatures (70ºF and 20ºF), while the truck with the NOx absorber was also operated at two loads (a heavy weight and a light weight). The test procedure included three driving cycles, a cold start with low transients (CSLT), the federal heavy-duty urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS), and a warm start with low transients (WSLT). Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured second-by-second using an Aethalometer for black carbon (BC) concentrations and an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) for particle count measurements between 5.6 and 560 nm. The DPF/NOx absorber vehicle experienced increased BC and particle number concentrations during cold starts under cold ambient conditions, with concentrations two to three times higher than under warm starts at higher ambient temperatures. The average particle count for the UDDS showed an opposite trend, with an approximately 27% decrease when ambient temperatures decreased from 70ºF to 20ºF. This vehicle experienced decreased emissions when going from ULSD to B20. The DPF/SCR vehicle tested had much lower emissions, with many of the BC and particle number measurements below detectable limits. However, both vehicles did experience elevated emissions caused by DPF regeneration. All regeneration events occurred during the UDDS cycle. Slight increases in emissions were measured during the WSLT cycles after the regeneration. However, the day after a regeneration occurred, both vehicles showed significant increases in particle number and BC for the CSLT drive cycle, with increases from 93 to 1380% for PM number emissions compared with tests following a day

  7. Development and Application of Novel Sampling Methodologies for Study of Volatile Particulate Matter in Military Aircraft Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Research Laboratory LIST OF KEYWORDS Aircraft Diesel Dilution Emission Fischer-Tropsch FTIR JP-8 Mobility Particles...specifically designed to protect human health and environmental well being against excessive levels of ozone , sulfur and nitrogen oxide, lead, and particulate...known to cause ozone formation through photochemical reactions and production of fine particles like smog, which was discovered in the 1970s. Smog is

  8. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Chinese megacities: the implication for emission control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Elser, Miriam; Wang, Qiyuan Wang; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Wang, Meng; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Yongming; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Cao, Junji; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A quantitative understanding of these effects has proven extremely challenging due to spatial and temporal variability in the sources of aerosols and their precursors, the complexity of particle composition, and uncertainties associated with the atmospheric aging of existing particles (Pöschl 2005; Hallquist et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2014). Nowadays the average PM2.5 concentrations in China are approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than those observed in urban areas in the US and European countries (Cao 2012). This has forced the Chinese government to announce its first national environmental standard for PM2.5 in 2012 and to make highly ambitious plans for emission control. The Chinese aim to reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% of the 2012 levels by 2017, backed by 277 billion investments from the central government. To achieve this ambitious aim, a better understanding of the aerosol composition, sources, and atmospheric processing is required. In this study, we present the results from intensive field measurement campaigns carried out in Chinese megacities in 2013/2014. The sources of PM2.5 and the organic aerosol (OA) were investigated by applying the multi-linear engine (ME-2) receptor model (Canonaco et al., 2013) to a comprehensive dataset. Primary sources including vehicle emissions, biomass burning, coal burning, and dust-related emissions were identified and quantified. The contributions from secondary aerosol formation processes to total PM2.5 mass and OA mass were evaluated. Detailed results will be presented and discussed. References Cao, J. J. (2012) J. Earth Environ., 3, 1030

  9. Particulate Emissions from the Combustion of Diesel Fuel with a Fuel-Borne Nanoparticulate Cerium Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conny, J. M.; Willis, R. D.; Weinstein, J. P.; Krantz, T.; King, C.

    2013-12-01

    To address the adverse impacts on health and climate from the use of diesel-fueled vehicles, a number of technological solutions have been developed for reducing diesel soot emissions and to improve fuel economy. One such solution is the use fuel-borne metal oxide catalysts. Of current interest are commercially-available fuel additives consisting of nanoparticulate cerium oxide (CeO2). In response to the possible use of CeO2-containing fuels in on-road vehicles in the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency is conducting research to address the potential toxicity and environmental effects of particulate CeO2 emitted with diesel soot. In this study, emissions from a diesel-fueled electric generator were size-segregated on polished silicon wafers in a nanoparticle cascade impactor. The diesel fuel contained 10 ppm Ce by weight in the form of crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles 4 nm to 7.5 nm in size. Primary CeO2 nanoparticles were observed in the diesel emissions as well as CeO2 aggregates encompassing a broad range of sizes up to at least 200 nm. We report the characterization of individual particles from the size-resolved samples with focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results show a dependency between the impactor size range and CeO2 agglomeration state: in the larger size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 560 nm to 1000 nm) CeO2 nanoparticles were predominantly attached to soot particles. In the smaller size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 100 nm to 320 nm), CeO2 aggregates tended to be larger and unattached to soot. The result is important because the deposition of CeO2 nanoparticles attached to soot particles in the lung or on environmental surfaces such as plant tissue will likely present different consequences than the deposition of unagglomerated CeO2 particles. Disclaimer The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development funded and collaborated in the research described

  10. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  11. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  12. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  13. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  14. Fugitive dust emission source profiles and assessment of selected control strategies for particulate matter at gravel processing sites in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chang, Yu-Min; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Wu, Ming-Ching

    2010-10-01

    Particles emitted from gravel processing sites are one contributor to worsening air quality in Taiwan. Major pollution sources at gravel processing sites include gravel and sand piles, unpaved roads, material crushers, and bare ground. This study analyzed fugitive dust emission characteristics at each pollution source using several types of particle samplers, including total suspended particulates (TSP), suspended particulate (PM10), fine suspended particulate (PM2.5), particulate sizer, and dust-fall collectors. Furthermore, silt content and moisture in the gravel were measured to develop particulate emission factors. The results showed that TSP (< 100 microm) concentrations at the boundary of gravel sites ranged from 280 to 1290 microg/m3, which clearly exceeds the Taiwan hourly air quality standard of 500 microg/m3. Moreover, PM10 concentrations, ranging from 135 to 550 microg/m3, were also above the daily air quality standard of 125 microg/m3 and approximately 1.2 and 1.5 times the PM2.5 concentrations, ranging from 105 to 470 microg/m3. The size distribution analysis reveals that mass mean diameter and geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.2 to 5.7 microm and from 2.82 to 5.51, respectively. In this study, spraying surfactant was the most effective control strategy to abate windblown dust from unpaved roads, having a control efficiency of approximately 93%, which is significantly higher than using paved road strategies with a control efficiency of approximately 45%. For paved roads, wet suppression provided the best dust control efficiencies ranging from 50 to 83%. Re-vegetation of disturbed ground had dust control efficiencies ranging from 48 to 64%.

  15. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  16. Characterizing particulate matter emissions from vehicles: chassis-dynamometer tests using a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, S.; Zhang, Q.; Forestieri, S.; Kleeman, M.; Cappa, C. D.; Kuwayama, T.

    2012-12-01

    During September of 2011 a suite of real-time instruments was used to sample vehicle emissions at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Schmidt facility in El Monte, CA. A representative fleet of 8 spark ignition gasoline vehicles, a diesel passenger vehicle, a gasoline direct-injection vehicle and an ultra-low emissions vehicle were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The emissions were sampled into the facility's standard CVS tunnel and diluted to atmospherically relevant levels (5-30 μg/m3) while controlling other factors such as relative humidity or background black carbon particulate loading concentrations. An Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-MS) was among the real-time instruments used and sampled vehicle emissions at 10 second time resolution in order to characterize the non-refractory organic and inorganic particulate matter (PM). PM composition and concentration were tracked throughout the cold start driving cycle which included periods of fast acceleration and high velocity cruise control, meant to recreate typical commuter driving behavior. Variations in inorganic and organic PM composition for a given vehicle throughout the driving cycle as well as for various vehicles with differing emissions loading were characterized. Differences in PM composition for a given vehicle whose emissions are being exposed to differing experimental conditions such as varying relative humidity will also be reported. In conjunction with measurements from a Multi Wavelength Photoacoustic Black Carbon Spectrometer (MWPA-BC) and real-time gas measurements from the CARB facility, we determine the real-time emission ratios of primary organic aerosols (POA) with respect to BC and common combustion gas phase pollutants and compared to different vehicle driving conditions. The results of these tests offer the vehicle emissions community a first time glimpse at the real-time behavior of vehicle PM emissions for a variety of conditions and

  17. Effects of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR) on the particulate matter emissions from a direct injection spark ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Chen, Longfei; Stone, Richard

    2011-10-15

    Emissions of fine particles have been shown to have a large impact on the atmospheric environment and human health. Researchers have shown that gasoline engines, especially direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, tend to emit large amounts of small size particles compared to diesel engines fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As a result, the particle number emissions of DISI engines will be restricted by the forthcoming EU6 legislation. The particulate emission level of DISI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the EU6 requirement. This paper is an experimental study on the size-resolved particle number emissions from a spray guided DISI engine and the performance of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR), as the EU legislation seeks to exclude volatile particles. The performance of the catalytic VPR was evaluated by varying its temperature and the exhaust residence time. The effect of the catalytic VPR acting as an oxidation catalyst on particle emissions was also tested. The results show that the catalytic VPR led to a marked reduction in the number of particles, especially the smaller size (nucleation mode) particles. The catalytic VPR is essentially an oxidation catalyst, and when post three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust was introduced to the catalytic VPR, the performance of the catalytic VPR was not affected much by the use of additional air, i.e., no significant oxidation of the PM was observed.

  18. Particulate matter emissions, and metals and toxic elements in airborne particulates emitted from biomass combustion: The importance of biomass type and combustion conditions.

    PubMed

    Zosima, Angela T; Tsakanika, Lamprini-Areti V; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria Th

    2017-05-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of biomass combustion with respect to burning conditions and fuel types on particulate matter emissions (PM10) and their metals as well as toxic elements content. For this purpose, different lab scale burning conditions were tested (20 and 13% O2 in the exhaust gas which simulate an incomplete and complete combustion respectively). Furthermore, two pellet stoves (8.5 and 10 kW) and one open fireplace were also tested. In all cases, 8 fuel types of biomass produced in Greece were used. Average PM10 emissions ranged at laboratory-scale combustions from about 65 to 170 mg/m(3) with flow oxygen at 13% in the exhaust gas and from 85 to 220 mg/m(3) at 20% O2. At pellet stoves the emissions were found lower (35 -85 mg/m(3)) than the open fireplace (105-195 mg/m(3)). The maximum permitted particle emission limit is 150 mg/m(3). Metals on the PM10 filters were determined by several spectrometric techniques after appropriate digestion or acid leaching of the filters, and the results obtained by these two methods were compared. The concentration of PM10 as well as the total concentration of the metals on the filters after the digestion procedure appeared higher at laboratory-scale combustions with flow oxygen at 20% in the exhaust gas and even higher at fireplace in comparison to laboratory-scale combustions with 13% O2 and pellet stoves. Modern combustion appliances and appropriate types of biomass emit lower PM10 emissions and lower concentration of metals than the traditional devices where incomplete combustion conditions are observed. Finally, a comparison with other studies was conducted resulting in similar results.

  19. Modelisation 0D/1D des emissions de particules de suie dans les turbines a gaz aeronautiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisson, Jeremie

    Because of more stringent regulations of aircraft particle emissions as well as strong uncertainties about their formation and their effects on the atmosphere, a better understanding of particle microphysical mechanisms and their interactions with the engine components is required. This thesis focuses on the development of a 0D/1D combustion model with soot production in an aeronautical gas turbine. A major objective of this study is to assess the quality of soot particle emission predictions for different flight configurations. The model should eventually allow performing parametric studies on current or future engines with a minimal computation time. The model represents the combustor as well as turbines and nozzle with a chemical reactor network (CRN) that is coupled with a detailed combustion chemistry for kerosene (Jet A-1) and a soot particle dynamics model using the method of moments. The CRN was applied to the CFM56-2C1 engine during flight configurations of the LTO cycle (Landing-Take-Off) as in the APEX-1 study on aircraft particle emissions. The model was mainly validated on gas turbine thermodynamic data and pollutant concentrations (H2O, COX, NOx, SOX) which were measured in the same study. Once the first validation completed, the model was subsequently used for the computation of mass and number-based emissions indices of the soot particulate population and average diameter. Overall, the model is representative of the thermodynamic conditions and succeeds in predicting the emissions of major pollutants, particularly at high power. Concerning soot particulate emissions, the model's ability to predict simultaneously the emission indices as well as mean diameter has been partially validated. Indeed, the mass emission indices have remained higher than experimental results particularly at high power. These differences on particulate emission index may be the result of uncertainties on thermodynamic parameters of the CRN and mass air flow distribution in

  20. Emissions of particulate-bound elements from biodiesel and ultra low sulfur diesel: size distribution and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-01-01

    Use of waste cooking oil derived biodiesel (WCOB) as an alternative fuel in diesel engines has increased significantly in recent years. The impact of WCOB on particulate emissions from diesel engines needs to be investigated thoroughly. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation and size-differentiated speciation of the particulate bound elements from ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and WCOB and a blend of both of the fuels (B50). Particle mass and their elemental size distributions ranging from 0.01-5.6 μm were measured. It was observed that more ultrafine particles (UFPs, <100 nm) were emitted when the engine was fueled with WCOB. Fifteen particulate-bound elements such as K, Al, Mg, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, As, Ba, Pb, Zn and Sr were investigated and reported in this study. Potential health risk associated with these particulate bound elements upon inhalation was also evaluated based on dose-response assessments for both adults and children. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to that of ULSD. Also, investigations on human health risk due to exposure to UFPs indicate that UFPs contribute a major fraction (>70%) of the total estimated health risk.

  1. Mutagenicity and in vivo toxicity of combined particulate and semivolatile organic fractions of gasoline and diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob D; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Nikula, Kristen J; Seilkop, Steven K; Gurevich, Michael; Mauderly, Joe L

    2002-12-01

    Exposure to engine emissions is associated with adverse health effects. However, little is known about the relative effects of emissions produced by different operating conditions, fuels, or technologies. Rapid screening techniques are needed to compare the biological effects of emissions with different characteristics. Here, we examined a set of engine emission samples using conventional bioassays. The samples included combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound fractions of emissions collected from normal- and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles collected at 72 degrees F, and from normal-emitter groups collected at 30 degrees F. The relative potency of the samples was determined by statistical analysis of the dose-response curves. All samples induced bacterial mutagenicity, with a 10-fold range of potency among the samples. Responses to intratracheal instillation in rats indicated generally parallel rankings of the samples by multiple endpoints reflecting cytotoxic, inflammatory, and lung parenchymal changes, allowing selection of a more limited set of parameters for future studies. The parameters selected to assess oxidative stress and macrophage function yielded little useful information. Responses to instillation indicated little difference in potency per unit of combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound mass between normal-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles, or between emissions collected at different temperatures. However, equivalent masses of emissions from high-emitter vehicles of both types were more potent than those from normal-emitters. While preliminary in terms of assessing contributions of different emissions to health hazards, the results indicate that a subset of this panel of assays will be useful in providing rapid, cost-effective feedback on the biological impact of modified technology.

  2. Bioavailability and biotransformation of the mutagenic component of particulate emissions present in motor exhaust samples.

    PubMed Central

    Vostal, J J

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic concepts of bioavailability and biotransformation are introduced into the assessment of public health risk from experimental data concerning the emissions of potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic substances from motor vehicles. The inappropriateness of an automatic application in the risk assessment process of analytical or experimental results, obtained with extracts and procedures incompatible with the biological environment, is illustrated on the discrepancy between short-term laboratory tests predictions that wider use of diesel engines on our roads will increase the risk of respiratory cancer and the widely negative epidemiological evidence. Mutagenic activity of diesel particulates was minimal or negative when tested in extracts obtained with biological fluids, was substantially dependent on the presence of nitroreductase in the microbial tester strain, and disappeared completely 48 hr after the diesel particles had been phagocytized by alveolar macrophages. Similarly, long-term animal inhalation exposures to high concentrations of diesel particles did not induce the activity of hydrocarbon metabolizing enzymes or specific adverse immune response unless organic solvent extracts of diesel particles were administered intratracheally or parenterally in doses that highly exceed the predicted levels of public exposure even by the year 2000. Furthermore, the suspected cancer producing effects of inhaled diesel particles have thus far not been verified by experimental animal models or available long-term epidemiological observations. It is concluded that unless the biological accessibility of the active component on the pollutant as well as its biotransformation and clearance by natural defense mechanisms are considered, lung cancer risk assessment based solely on laboratory microbial tests will remain an arbitrary and unrealistic process and will not provide meaningful information on the potential health hazard of a pollutant. PMID:6186478

  3. Control of diesel gaseous and particulate emissions with a tube-type wet electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Keener, Tim C; Lu, Mingming; Liang, Fuyan; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2008-10-01

    In this study, experiments were performed with a bench-scale tube-type wet electrostatic precipitator (wESPs) to investigate its effectiveness for the removal of mass- and number-based diesel particulate matter (DPM), hydrocarbons (HCs), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel exhaust emissions. The concentration of ozone (O3) present in the exhaust that underwent a nonthermal plasma treatment process inside the wESP was also measured. A nonroad diesel generator operating at varying load conditions was used as a stationary diesel emission source. The DPM mass analysis was conducted by means of isokinetic sampling and the DPM mass concentration was determined by a gravimetric method. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to quantify the DPM number concentration. The HC compounds, n-alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected on a moisture-free quartz filter together with a PUF/XAD/PUF cartridge and extracted in dichloromethane with sonication. Gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectroscopy (MS) was used to determine HC concentrations in the extracted solution. A calibrated gas combustion analyzer (Testo 350) and an O3 analyzer were used for quantifying the inlet and outlet concentrations of CO and NOx (nitric oxide [NO] + nitrogen dioxide [NO2]), and O3 in the diesel exhaust stream. The wESP was capable of removing approximately 67-86% of mass- and number-based DPM at a 100% exhaust volumetric flow rate generated from 0- to 75-kW engine loads. At 75-kW engine load, increasing gas residence time from approximately 0.1 to 0.4 sec led to a significant increase of DPM removal efficiency from approximately 67 to more than 90%. The removal of n-alkanes, 16 PAHs, and CO in the wESP ranged from 31 to 57% and 5 to 38%, respectively. The use of the wESP did not significantly affect NOx concentration in diesel exhaust. The O3 concentration in diesel exhaust was measured to be less than 1 ppm. The main mechanisms

  4. Effectiveness of mitigation measures in reducing future primary particulate matter emissions from on-road vehicle exhaust.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C; Streets, David G

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa.

  5. Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures in Reducing Future Primary Particulate Matter Emissions from On-Road Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa

  6. Fine particulate speciation profile and emission factor of municipal solid waste incinerator established by dilution sampling method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Luo, Shao-Wei; Lee, Kuei-Ting; Wu, Jhin-Yan; Chang, Chun Wei; Chu, Pei Feng

    2016-08-01

    In this study, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) was collected using dilution sampling method. Chemical compositions of the collected PM2.5 samples, including carbon content, metal elements, and water-soluble ions, were analyzed. Traditional in-stack hot sampling was simultaneously conducted to compare the influences of dilution on PM2.5 emissions and the characteristics of the bonded chemical species. The results, established by a dilution sampling method, show that PM2.5 and total particulate matter (TPM) emission factors were 61.6 ± 4.52 and 66.1 ± 5.27 g ton-waste(-1), respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TPM is 0.93, indicating that more than 90% of PM emission from the MSWI was fine particulate. The major chemical species in PM2.5 included organic carbon (OC), Cl(-), NH4(+), elemental carbon (EC) and Si, which account for 69.7% of PM2.5 mass. OC was from the unburned carbon in the exhaust, which adsorbed onto the particulate during the cooling process. High Cl(-) emission is primarily attributable to wastes containing plastic bags made of polyvinyl chloride, salt in kitchen refuse and waste biomass, and so on. Minor species that account for 0.01-1% of PM2.5 mass included SO4(2-), K(+), Na, K, NO3(-), Al, Ca(2+), Zn, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Mg. The mean ratio of dilution method/in-stack hot method was 0.454. The contents of water-soluble ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-)) were significantly enriched in PM2.5 via gas-to-particle conversion in the dilution process. Results indicate that in-stack hot sampling would underestimate levels of these species in PM2.5. PM2.5 samples from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) were collected simultaneously by a dilution sampling technique and a traditional in-stack method. PM2.5 emission factors and chemical speciation profiles were established. Dilution sampling provides more reliable data than in-stack hot sampling. The results can be applied to estimate the PM2

  7. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

    PubMed

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Roberts, B A; Elbagir, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-07-01

    Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels.

  8. DIFFERENTIAL CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA PROFILES IN HYPERTENSIVE AND NORMAL RATS AFTER EMISSION SOURCE PARTICULATE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. These effects are especially conspicuous in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and coronary heart disease...

  9. DIFFERENTIAL CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA PROFILES IN HYPERTENSIVE AND NORMAL RATS AFTER EMISSION SOURCE PARTICULATE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. These effects are especially conspicuous in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and coronary heart disease...

  10. IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

  11. IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

  12. INVERTING CASCADE IMPACTOR DATA FOR SIZE-RESOLVED CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cascade impactors are particularly useful in determining the mass size distributions of particulate and individual chemical species. The impactor raw data must be inverted to reconstruct a continuous particle size distribution. An inversion method using a lognormal function for p...

  13. INVERTING CASCADE IMPACTOR DATA FOR SIZE-RESOLVED CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cascade impactors are particularly useful in determining the mass size distributions of particulate and individual chemical species. The impactor raw data must be inverted to reconstruct a continuous particle size distribution. An inversion method using a lognormal function for p...

  14. Assessment of Microphysical Models in the National Combustion Code (NCC) for Aircraft Particulate Emissions: Particle Loss in Sampling Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2008-01-01

    This paper at first describes the fluid network approach recently implemented into the National Combustion Code (NCC) for the simulation of transport of aerosols (volatile particles and soot) in the particulate sampling systems. This network-based approach complements the other two approaches already in the NCC, namely, the lower-order temporal approach and the CFD-based approach. The accuracy and the computational costs of these three approaches are then investigated in terms of their application to the prediction of particle losses through sample transmission and distribution lines. Their predictive capabilities are assessed by comparing the computed results with the experimental data. The present work will help establish standard methodologies for measuring the size and concentration of particles in high-temperature, high-velocity jet engine exhaust. Furthermore, the present work also represents the first step of a long term effort of validating physics-based tools for the prediction of aircraft particulate emissions.

  15. Indoor air quality in a middle school, Part II: Development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Scheff, P A; Paulius, V K; Curtis, L; Conroy, L M

    2000-11-01

    A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, Illinois, with no known air quality problems, was selected for a baseline indoor air quality survey. The study was designed to measure and evaluate air quality at the middle school with the objective of providing a benchmark for comparisons with measurements in schools with potential air quality problems. The focus of this article is on the development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols. The school was characterized as having no health complaints and good maintenance schedules. Four indoor locations including the cafeteria, a science classroom, an art classroom, the lobby outside the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February 1997. Integrated samples (eight-hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements (two-minute samples, three times per day) for bioaerosols were collected on three consecutive days at each of the sampling sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the lobby area. A linear relationship between occupancy and corresponding carbon dioxide and particle concentrations was seen. A completely mixed space, one compartment mass balance model with estimated CO2 generation rates and actual CO2 and particulate matter concentrations was used to model ventilation and pollutant emission rates. Emission factors for occupancy were represented by the slope of emission rate versus occupancy scatter plots. The following particle and bioaerosol emission factors were derived from the indoor measurements: total particles: 1.28 mg/hr/person-hr; respirable particles: 0.154 g/hr/person-hr; total fungi: 167 CFU/hr/person-min; thermophilic fungi: 35.8 CFU/hr/person-min; mesophilic fungi: 119 CFU/hr/person-min; total

  16. Particulate metals and organic compounds from electronic and tobacco-containing cigarettes: comparison of emission rates and secondhand exposure.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Ruprecht, Ario; De Marco, Cinzia; Pozzi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto; Hamad, Samera H; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Westerdahl, Dane; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes have gained increasing popularity as alternatives to normal (tobacco-containing) cigarettes. In the present study, particles generated by e-cigarettes and normal cigarettes have been analyzed and the degree of exposure to different chemical agents and their emission rates were quantified. Despite the 10-fold decrease in the total exposure to particulate elements in e-cigarettes compared to normal cigarettes, specific metals (e.g. Ni and Ag) still displayed a higher emission rate from e-cigarettes. Further analysis indicated that the contribution of e-liquid to the emission of these metals is rather minimal, implying that they likely originate from other components of the e-cigarette device or other indoor sources. Organic species had lower emission rates during e-cigarette consumption compared to normal cigarettes. Of particular note was the non-detectable emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from e-cigarettes, while substantial emission of these species was observed from normal cigarettes. Overall, with the exception of Ni, Zn, and Ag, the consumption of e-cigarettes resulted in a remarkable decrease in secondhand exposure to all metals and organic compounds. Implementing quality control protocols on the manufacture of e-cigarettes would further minimize the emission of metals from these devices and improve their safety and associated health effects.

  17. Particulate monitoring, modeling, and management: natural sources, long-range transport, and emission control options: a case study of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleanthous, Savvas; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Christofides, Ioannis; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Achilleos, Constantia; Akylas, Evangelos; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Douros, Ioannis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Panayiotou, Charalambos; Gregoris, Charalambous; Fedra, Kurt; Kubat, Milan; Mihalopoulos, Nicolaos

    2013-08-01

    The LIFE+ Project PM3: Particulate Monitoring, Modeling, Management is coordinated by the Department of Labour Inspection in Cyprus and funded in part by LIFE+ Environment Policy & Governance. The project aims at the analysis of dust emissions, transport, and control options for Cyprus, as well as at the identification of "natural" contributions (Directive 2008/50/EC). The ultimate objective is to provide inputs for the design of a dust management plan to improve compliance to EC Directives and minimise impacts to human health and environment. This paper presents a short analysis of historical monitoring data and their patterns as well as a description of a dynamic dust entrainment model. The pyrogenic PM10 emissions combined with the wind driven emissions, are subject to a two phase non-linear multi-criteria emission control optimization procedure. The resulting emission scenarios with an hourly resolution provide input to the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) 3D fate and transport model, implemented for the 4,800 km master domain and embedded subdomains (270 km around the island of Cyprus and embedded smaller city domains of up to 30 km down to street canyon modeling). The models test the feasibility of candidate emission control solutions over a range of weather conditions. Model generated patterns of local emissions and long-range transport are discussed compared with the monitoring data, remote sensing (MODIS derived AOT), and the chemical analysis of dust samples.

  18. VOC and particulate emissions from commercial cigarettes: analysis of 2,5-DMF as an ETS tracer.

    PubMed

    Charles, Simone M; Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart A; Godwin, Christopher

    2008-02-15

    Emissions of particulate matter (PM) and a broad suite of target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in total, main-stream (MS) and side-stream (SS) smoke emissions are measured for six types of commercial cigarettes. The suitability of 2,5-dimethyl furan (DMF) as a tracer for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is investigated using laboratory results and a field study of 47 residences. Over 30 VOCs were characterized in cigarette smoke, including several that have not been reported previously. "regular tar", "low tar", menthol, and nonmenthol cigarettes showed only minor differences in PM and VOC emissions. When total emissions are considered, PM emissions averaged 18 +/- 2 mg cigarette(-1) and VOC emissions averaged 3644 +/- 160 mg cigarette(-1). DMF appears to satisfy all requirements for a tracer, namely, uniqueness, detectability, similar emission factors across tobacco products (211 +/- 16 microg cigarette(-1)), consistent proportions to other ETS compounds, and behavior similar to other ETS components in relevant environments. On the basis of field study results, DMF more reliably indicated smoking status than occupant-completed questionnaires, and cigarette smoking was responsible for significant fractions of benzene (50%), styrene (49%), and other VOCs in the smoker's homes.

  19. In vitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, Pasi I.; Happo, Mikko S.; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hukkanen, Annika; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Obernberger, Ingwald; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-04-01

    Residential wood combustion causes major effects on the air quality on a global scale. The ambient particulate levels are known to be responsible for severe adverse health effects that include e.g. cardio-respiratory illnesses and cancer related effects, even mortality. It is known that biomass combustion derived emissions are affected by combustion technology, fuel being used and user-related practices. There are also indications that the health related toxicological effects are influenced by these parameters. This study we evaluated toxicological effects of particulate emissions (PM1) from seven different residential wood combusting furnaces. Two appliances i.e. log wood boiler and stove represented old batch combustion technology, whereas stove and tiled stove were designated as new batch combustion as three modern automated boilers were a log wood boiler, a woodchip boiler and a pellet boiler. The PM1 samples from the furnaces were collected in an experimental setup with a Dekati® gravimetric impactor on PTFE filters with the samples being weighed and extracted from the substrates and prior to toxicological analyses. The toxicological analyses were conducted after a 24-hour exposure of the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to four doses of emission particle samples and analysis of levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, chemokine MIP-2, cytotoxicity with three different methods (MTT, PI, cell cycle analysis) and genotoxicity with the comet assay. In the correlation analysis all the toxicological results were compared with the chemical composition of the samples. All the samples induced dose-dependent increases in the studied parameters. Combustion technology greatly affected the emissions and the concomitant toxicological responses. The modern automated boilers were usually the least potent inducers of most of the parameters while emissions from the old technology log wood boiler were the most potent. In correlation analysis, the PAH and other organic

  20. Evaluation of alternative filter media for particulate matter emission testing of residential wood heating devices.

    PubMed

    Allen, George; Rector, Lisa; Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca

    2017-10-01

    The performance of Teflon-coated glass fiber filter media (Pallflex Emfab TX40) is evaluated for particulate matter (PM) sampling of residential wood heating devices in a dilution tunnel. Thirty samples of varying duration and PM loading and concentration were collected from an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 28 dilution tunnel using dual Method 5G sample trains with untreated glass fiber and Emfab filters. Filters were weighed soon after the end of sampling and again the next day after equilibration at 35% relative humidity (RH). PM concentrations from both types of filters agreed very well with 1-day equilibration, demonstrating that Emfab filters are appropriate for use in measuring PM from residential wood burning appliances in a dilution tunnel and have performance equal to or better than the glass fiber filter media. Agreement between filter media without equilibration was erratic, with PM from glass fiber filter samples varying from slightly less than the Emfab samples to as much as 2.8 times higher. Some of the glass fiber filters lost substantial mass with equilibration, with the highest percent loss at lower filter mass loadings. Mass loss for Emfab samples was a small percentage of the mass and very consistent across the range of mass loadings. Taken together, these results may indicate water uptake on the glass fiber media that is readily removed with 1-day equilibration at moderate RH conditions. EPA regulations now allow the use of either glass fiber or Teflon filter media for wood appliance PM emission testing. Teflon filter media minimizes the potential for acid-gas PM artifacts on glass fiber filters; this is important as EPA moves toward the use of locally sourced cordwood for testing that may have higher sulfur content. This work demonstrates that the use of Teflon-coated glass fiber filters can give similar PM measurement results to glass fiber filters after 1 day of equilibration. With no equilibration, measured PM from glass

  1. A comprehensive study of the characterization of particulate matter emissions from a Delmarva broiler poultry operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Shannon E.

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural practices, including those from animal feeding operations (AFO's) have become an increasingly important topic, and has generated considerable interest from local and state agencies, as well as, the local community over the past decade. Because of growth in population, and an increase in commercial and residential development within close proximity to these operations, which house a large number of animals in confinement, and because of a better understanding of the effects of exposure to airborne contaminants on health, this has lead to an increase in concerns and a demand for more research to be conducted on PM from AFO's. Particulate matter generated within, and emitted from, AFO's can carry with it various components including metals and microorganisms that can negatively affect health. This research was conducted in order to verify if PM from a broiler poultry operation on Delmarva has the potential to become a health concern. The first step was to determine concentrations of two size segregated fractions of PM from indoor and outdoor sampling sites over four seasonal periods, early summer (ES), late summer (LS), Fall (F), and Winter (W). Both PM10 and PM2.5 were collected because of their classification from the Environmental Protection Agency as having the ability to cause significant health effects with short-term exposure. Next, temporal and spatial characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on PM concentrations over the four seasonal periods. Following this, the chemical composition and morphology of PM10 and PM2.5 generated from the broiler poultry operation was investigated. Finally, further detailed information was obtained on arsenic speciation and oxidation state in PM to investigate toxicity. Arsenic use in the poultry industry has been occurring for a number of decades, and is most frequently administered in the organic form. However, studies have shown that these organo

  2. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-12

    This project involves the implementation of a new particulate control technology called a Core Separator for low emission sources (LES) in Krakow. With several hundred boiler sites in the city burning low grade coal, existing pollution control equipment consists primarily of low efficiency cyclones. Such equipment cannot meet the emission standards of most industrial nations. More importantly, these conditions have been the cause of low ambient air quality in Krakow from suspended particles. The Core Separator can be retrofitted onto these boiler houses to substantially reduce particulate emissions, particularly those consisting of the fraction classified as PM10. In this project, Core Separator technology will be demonstrated for boiler house applications in the Krakow region. Phase 1 entailed business planning and infrastructure studies to determine the market for this equipment. In the second phase, the technology is to be demonstrated in several boilers of different capacity and firing various grades of coal. Later, a joint venture company will be established with the capability of manufacturing and supplying this equipment in Krakow and throughout Poland. Several new installations are now nearing completion in Krakow. As of this writing, four Core Separator units have been installed in Krakow and others have been proposed.

  3. Particulate hydroxy-PAH emissions from a residential wood log stove using different fuels and burning conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Nyström, Robin; Lindgren, Robert; Boman, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but have not been studied as extensively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several studies have however shown that hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have toxic and carcinogenic properties. They have been detected in air samples in semi urban areas and combustion is assumed to be the primary source of those compounds. To better understand the formation and occurrence of particulate hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential wood log stove combustion, 9 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 hydroxy biphenyls were quantified in particles generated from four different types of wood logs (birch, spruce, pine, aspen) and two different combustion conditions (nominal and high burn rate). A previously developed method utilizing liquid chromatography - photo ionization tandem mass spectrometry and pressurized liquid extraction was used. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed along with hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions varied significantly across different wood types and burning conditions; the highest emissions for nominal burn rate were from spruce and for high burn rate from pine burning. Emissions from nominal burn rate corresponded on average to 15% of the emissions from high burn rate, with average emissions of 218 μg/MJfuel and 32.5 μg/MJfuel for high burn rate and nominal burn rate, respectively. Emissions of the measured hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons corresponded on average to 28% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. This study shows that wood combustion is a large emission source of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and that not only combustion conditions, but also wood type influences the emissions of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. There are

  4. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill – Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika; Simmons, Donald L.; Wels, Brian R.; Spak, Scott N.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies’ findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg−1), particle number (3.5×1016 kg−1), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg−1), EC (2.37 g kg−1), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg−1). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85-0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided. PMID:25663800

  5. Generation rates and emission factors of particulate matter and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of incense sticks.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Hu, Shu-Chuan

    2003-02-01

    The generation rates and emission factors of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from incense burning were assessed in a laboratory setting. The differences among different segments of the same stick, among different sticks of the same kind of incense, and between two kinds of manually made Chih-Chen incense sticks (A and B) were evaluated. Joss sticks were burned inside a 44 cm long elutriator; personal environmental monitors fitted into the top of the elutriator were used to take PM2.5 and PM10 samples of incense smoke. Samples were analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography-flame ionization Detector. It was found that particle and associated PAHs were generated approximately at 561 microg/min (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.1) and 0.56 microg/min (GSD = 1.1) from Incense A, and at 661 microg/min (GSD = 1.7) and 0.46 microg/min (GSD = 1.3) from Incense B, respectively. One gram of Incense A emitted about 19.8 mg (GSD = 1.1) particulate matter and 17.1 microg (GSD = 1.2) particulate-phase PAHs, while one gram of Incense B produced around 43.6 mg (GSD = 1.1) of particles and 25.2 microg (GSD = 1.2) of particle-bound PAHs. There were significant differences in emissions between Incenses A and B, although they belong to the same class of incense. A 10-20% variability in emissions was observed in the main part of the manually produced stick, and a larger variation was found at both tips of the combustible part.

  6. Users guide for the conversion of Navy paint spray booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayer, Jacqueline; Tate, Darrel

    1990-06-01

    Users are provided instructions and cost evaluation information for converting the water curtain particulate emission control system currently used on many Navy painting facilities to dry filter operation. Engineering and logistical issues are addressed, and example design plans are provided. Construction and operating permit requirements mandated by regulatory agencies, such as air pollution control districts and fire departments, are discussed. Cost estimates that may be used to perform comprehensive cost evaluation analyses are provided. In addition, sample calculations that illustrate how to use the cost data are included.

  7. Toxic and reproductive effects of the soluble organic fraction from diesel particulate emissions on the parasitoid wasp, Bracon hebetor.

    PubMed

    Petters, R M; Mettus, R V; Casey, J N

    1983-10-01

    The soluble organic fraction of diesel particulate emissions was tested for physiological and genotoxic effects on the parasitoid wasp, Bracon hebetor. Adult female survival after topical treatment was significantly decreased at the higher concentrations of SOF. Daily egg production, a sensitive assay for genotoxic and physiological effects, was not significantly affected at any concentration. Egg hatchability on Days 1-5, representing vitellogenic oocytes at the time of treatment, was decreased, but this effect lacked consistency and dose dependence. An extensive dominant lethal test was performed with negative results. Possible explanations for these findings and comparisons with in vitro tests such as the Ames test and sister chromatid exchange are discussed.

  8. Emissions of organic compounds and trace metals in fine particulate matter from motor vehicles: a tunnel study in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Chellam, Shankararaman; Kulkarni, Pranav; Fraser, Matthew P

    2005-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM) samples collected in a highway tunnel in Houston, TX, were analyzed to quantify the concentrations of 14 n-alkanes, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nine petroleum biomarkers, as well as 21 metals, with the ultimate aim of identifying appropriate tracers for diesel engines. First, an exploratory multivariate dimensionality reduction technique called principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to identify all potential candidates for tracers. Next, emission indices were calculated to interpret PCA results physically. Emission indices of n-heneicosane, n-docosane, n-tricosane, n-tetracosane, n-pentacosane, fluoranthene, and pyrene were correlated highly and increased strongly with percentage carbon present in the tunnel emanating from diesel vehicles. This suggests that these organic compounds are useful molecular markers to separate emissions from diesel and gasoline engines. Additionally, the results are the first quantification of the metal composition of PM with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) emissions from mobile sources in Houston. PCA of trace metal concentrations followed by emission index calculations revealed that barium in fine airborne particles can be linked quantitatively to diesel engine emissions, demonstrating its role as an elemental tracer for heavy-duty trucks.

  9. Physical properties, chemical composition, and cloud forming potential of particulate emissions from a marine diesel engine at various load conditions.

    PubMed

    Petzold, A; Weingartner, E; Hasselbach, J; Lauer, P; Kurok, C; Fleischer, F

    2010-05-15

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from one serial 4-stroke medium-speed marine diesel engine were measured for load conditions from 10% to 110% in test rig studies using heavy fuel oil (HFO). Testing the engine across its entire load range permitted the scaling of exhaust PM properties with load. Emission factors for particle number, particle mass, and chemical compounds were determined. The potential of particles to form cloud droplets (cloud condensation nuclei, CCN) was calculated from chemical composition and particle size. Number emission factors are (3.43 +/- 1.26) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 85-110% load and (1.06 +/- 0.10) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 10% load. CCN emission factors of 1-6 x 10(14) (kg fuel)(-1) are at the lower bound of data reported in the literature. From combined thermal and optical methods, black carbon (BC) emission factors of 40-60 mg/(kg fuel) were determined for 85-100% load and 370 mg/(kg fuel) for 10% load. The engine load dependence of the conversion efficiency for fuel sulfur into sulfate of (1.08 +/- 0.15)% at engine idle to (3.85 +/- 0.41)% at cruise may serve as input to global emission calculations for various load conditions.

  10. Effects of Fuel Aromatic Content on Nonvolatile Particulate Emissions of an In-Production Aircraft Gas Turbine.

    PubMed

    Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Siegerist, Frithjof; Beyerle, Peter; Bruderer, Kevin; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Rocci-Denis, Sara; Andac, M Gurhan; Zelina, Joseph; Penanhoat, Olivier; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-17

    Aircraft engines emit particulate matter (PM) that affects the air quality in the vicinity of airports and contributes to climate change. Nonvolatile PM (nvPM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines depend on fuel aromatic content, which varies globally by several percent. It is uncertain how this variability will affect future nvPM emission regulations and emission inventories. Here, we present black carbon (BC) mass and nvPM number emission indices (EIs) as a function of fuel aromatic content and thrust for an in-production aircraft gas turbine engine. The aromatics content was varied from 17.8% (v/v) in the neat fuel (Jet A-1) to up to 23.6% (v/v) by injecting two aromatic solvents into the engine fuel supply line. Fuel normalized BC mass and nvPM number EIs increased by up to 60% with increasing fuel aromatics content and decreasing engine thrust. The EIs also increased when fuel naphthalenes were changed from 0.78% (v/v) to 1.18% (v/v) while keeping the total aromatics constant. The EIs correlated best with fuel hydrogen mass content, leading to a simple model that could be used for correcting fuel effects in emission inventories and in future aircraft engine nvPM emission standards.

  11. Evaluation of solid particle number and black carbon for very low particulate matter emissions standards in light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Chang, M-C Oliver; Shields, J Erin

    2017-01-03

    To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1-mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, d50 = 23 nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass, as well as the variability of each of these metrics. More than 150 Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) tests were conducted on 46 light-duty vehicles, including port-fuel-injected and direct-injected gasoline vehicles, as well as several light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters (LDD/DPF). For FTP tests, emission variability of gravimetric PM mass was found to be slightly less than that of either SPN or BC, whereas the opposite was observed for US06 tests. Emission variability of PM mass for LDD/DPF was higher than that of both SPN and BC, primarily because of higher PM mass measurement uncertainties (background and precision) near or below 0.1 mg/mile. While strong correlations were observed from both SPN and BC to PM mass, the slopes are dependent on engine technologies and driving cycles, and the proportionality between the metrics can vary over the course of the test. Replacement of the LEV III PM mass emission standard with one other measurement metric may imperil the effectiveness of emission reduction, as a correlation-based relationship may evolve over future technologies for meeting stringent greenhouse standards.

  12. Reduction in trace particulate matter emissions due to adoption of clean diesel technology at a major port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Toshihiro

    Air pollution emissions from major ports around the world contribute to airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure in surrounding communities. The Port of Oakland is one of three major shipping ports in California that collectively account for 39% of all the goods movement in the United States. The current study is the first to perform relatively complete chemical speciation on the real-world reduction in primary PM emissions from heavy duty trucks at a major shipping Port during the implementation of a retrofit and replacement program. Measurements of fine PM composition at the Port were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify five dominant PM sources: shipping, port truck traffic, distant on-road traffic, background sea spray, and road dust. Changes to port truck traffic related PM concentration on days with similar meteorological conditions during and after implementation of the controls programs were used as a direct indication of emissions reductions. Primary PM mass emissions from port trucks decreased by 75% due to the control program which meets the target inherent in the Emissions Reduction Plan for Ports and Goods Movement in California. Contributions of PM components attributed to Port truck activities decreased by amounts ranging from 66-86% (elemental carbon (EC) = 66%, organic carbon (OC) = 78%, Na = 82%, Ba = 84%, Fe = 87%). These reductions include contributions from both tailpipe emissions and brake/tire wear. Prior to implementation of the control program, port trucks accounted for approximately 56% of the ambient EC concentrations in the vicinity of the Port while ships accounted for approximately 12% of the EC concentrations. After implementation of the control program, port trucks and ships accounted for approximately 23% and 29% of the ambient EC concentrations at the Port, respectively. This estimate does not account for rail emissions that were downwind of the sampling site. The current study provides an example of how

  13. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions-preliminary database development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for PM2.5, particulate matter whose effective diameter is less than 2.5 microns. PM2.5 is listed as a criteria pollutant in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). All cotton gins across the cotton belt will be impacted by this standar...

  14. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate (PM2.5) dust emissions.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with non-attainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIP) det...

  15. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 49.123 General provisions: Act, air pollutant, air pollution source, ambient air, British thermal... particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating within the Indian...? This section applies to any person who owns or operates an air pollution source that emits, or...

  16. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution... does not apply to open burning, agricultural activities, forestry and silvicultural activities, sweat... subject to this section must: (i) Annually survey the air pollution source(s) during typical operating...

  17. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution... does not apply to open burning, agricultural activities, forestry and silvicultural activities, sweat... subject to this section must: (i) Annually survey the air pollution source(s) during typical operating...

  18. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... has an annual capacity factor for residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent...

  19. Fugitive particulate air emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers at military training lands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Military training lands used for off-road vehicle maneuvers may be subject to severe soil loss and air quality degradation as a result of severe wind erosion. The objective of this study was to measure suspended particulate matter resulting from various different vehicle training scenarios. Soil s...

  20. 2012 update-characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for PM2.5, particulate matter whose effective diameter is less than 2.5 microns. PM2.5 is listed as a criteria pollutant in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). All cotton gins across the cotton belt will be impacted by this standard....

  1. Preliminary particulate measurements and emission calculation results from a California dairy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural operations are a potentially important source of particulate matter (PM) pollution, including PM2.5 and PM10, which negatively impact air quality and human health. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) technology enables the measurement of high resolution profiles of PM concentration and ...

  2. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating... or structures, construction operations, grading of roads, or clearing of land. (ii) Application of... subject to this section must: (i) Annually survey the air pollution source(s) during typical operating...

  3. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution... demolition of buildings or structures, construction operations, grading of roads, or clearing of land. (ii... subject to this section must: (i) Annually survey the air pollution source(s) during typical operating...

  4. Concentrations and source contributions of particulate organic matter before and after implementation of a low emission zone in Munich, Germany.

    PubMed

    Qadir, R M; Abbaszade, G; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Chow, J C; Zimmermann, R

    2013-04-01

    Within the Munich low emission zone (LEZ), samples of PM(2.5) were collected before (2006/2007) and after (2009/2010) the implementation of the LEZ. The samples were analyzed for carbon fraction (EC/OC) and particulate organic compounds (POC). Significant lower concentrations were noticed for elemental carbon (EC) and some of the POC like vanillic acid, acetosyringone, syringylacetone and syringic acid after the implementation of the LEZ. Higher concentrations of levoglucosan, retene and O-PAH were detected in the second sampling period. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify the main sources of POC. Emissions from traffic, solid fuels combustion, cooking and mixed source were separated. The contribution of traffic source factor was decreased about 60% after the implementation of the LEZ. Thus the average concentration of EC from traffic factor decreased from 1.1 to 0.5 μg/m(3) after the implementation of the LEZ.

  5. Application of multicriteria decision making methods to compression ignition engine efficiency and gaseous, particulate, and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Surawski, Nicholas C; Miljevic, Branka; Bodisco, Timothy A; Brown, Richard J; Ristovski, Zoran D; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2013-02-19

    Compression ignition (CI) engine design is subject to many constraints, which present a multicriteria optimization problem that the engine researcher must solve. In particular, the modern CI engine must not only be efficient but must also deliver low gaseous, particulate, and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions so that its impact on urban air quality, human health, and global warming is minimized. Consequently, this study undertakes a multicriteria analysis, which seeks to identify alternative fuels, injection technologies, and combustion strategies that could potentially satisfy these CI engine design constraints. Three data sets are analyzed with the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations and Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (PROMETHEE-GAIA) algorithm to explore the impact of (1) an ethanol fumigation system, (2) alternative fuels (20% biodiesel and synthetic diesel) and alternative injection technologies (mechanical direct injection and common rail injection), and (3) various biodiesel fuels made from 3 feedstocks (i.e., soy, tallow, and canola) tested at several blend percentages (20-100%) on the resulting emissions and efficiency profile of the various test engines. The results show that moderate ethanol substitutions (~20% by energy) at moderate load, high percentage soy blends (60-100%), and alternative fuels (biodiesel and synthetic diesel) provide an efficiency and emissions profile that yields the most "preferred" solutions to this multicriteria engine design problem. Further research is, however, required to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) emissions with alternative fuels and to deliver technologies that do not significantly reduce the median diameter of particle emissions.

  6. The effects of the catalytic converter and fuel sulfur level on motor vehicle particulate matter emissions: gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

    2002-01-15

    Scanning mobility and electrical low-pressure impactor particle size measurements conducted during chassis dynamometer testing reveal that neither the catalytic converter nor the fuel sulfur content has a significant effect on gasoline vehicle tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions. For current technology, port fuel injection, gasoline engines, particle number emissions are < or = 2 times higher from vehicles equipped with blank monoliths as compared to active catalysts, insignificant in contrast to the 90+% removal of hydrocarbons. PM mass emission rates derived from the size distributions are equal within the experimental uncertainty of 50-100%. Gravimetric measurements exhibit a 3-10-fold PM mass increase when the active catalyst is omitted, which is attributed to gaseous hydrocarbons adsorbing onto the filter medium. Both particle number and gravimetric measurements show that gasoline vehicle tailpipe PM emissions are independent (within 2 mg/mi) of fuel sulfur content over the 30-990 ppm concentration range. Nuclei mode sulfate aerosol is not observed in either test cell measurements or during wind tunnel testing. For three-way catalyst equipped vehicles, the principal sulfur emission is SO2; however a sulfur balance is not obtained over the drive cycle. Instead, sulfur is stored on the catalyst during moderate driving and then partially removed during high speed/load operation.

  7. Current and future particulate-matter-related mortality risks in the United States from aviation emissions during landing and takeoff.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Woody, Matthew; Baek, Bok Haeng; Shankar, Uma; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2012-02-01

    Demand for air travel is projected to increase in the upcoming years, with a corresponding influence on emissions, air quality, and public health. The trajectory of health impacts would be influenced by not just emissions growth, but also changes in nonaviation ambient concentrations that influence secondary fine particulate matter (PM(2.5) ) formation, population growth and aging, and potential shifts in PM(2.5) concentration-response functions (CRFs). However, studies to date have not systematically evaluated the individual and joint contributions of these factors to health risk trajectories. In this study, we simulated emissions during landing and takeoff from aircraft at 99 airports across the United States for 2005 and for a 2025 flight activity projection scenario. We applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with the Speciated Modeled Attainment Test (SMAT) to determine the contributions of these emissions to ambient concentrations, including scenarios with 2025 aircraft emissions and 2005 nonaviation air quality. We combined CMAQ outputs with PM(2.5) mortality CRFs and population projections, and evaluated the influence of changing emissions, nonaviation concentrations, and population factors. Given these scenarios, aviation-related health impacts would increase by a factor of 6.1 from 2005 to 2025, with a factor of 2.1 attributable to emissions, a factor of 1.3 attributable to population factors, and a factor of 2.3 attributable to changing nonaviation concentrations which enhance secondary PM(2.5) formation. Our study emphasizes that the public health burden of aviation emissions would be significantly influenced by the joint effects of flight activity increases, nonaviation concentration changes, and population growth and aging.

  8. Near-surface temperature gradients and their effects on thermal-infrared emission spectra of particulate planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, B. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The infrared energy emitted from a planetary surface is generated within a finite depth determined by the material's absorption skin depth. This parameter varies significantly with wavelength in the infrared but has an average value of around 50 microns for most geologic materials. In solid rock, heat transfer is efficient enough so that this 50 micron zone of the near surface from which the radiation emanates will be more or less isothermal. In particulate materials, however, heat transfer is more complicated and occurs via a combination of mechanisms, including solid conduction within grains and across grain contacts, conduction through the interstitial gas, and thermal radiation within individual particles and across the void spaces in between grains. On planets with substantial atmospheres, the gas component dominates the heat transfer and tends to mitigate near-surface thermal gradients. However, on airless bodies, the gas component is absent and heat transfer occurs via solid conductions and radiation. If the particles are small relative to the average absorption skin depth, then the top 50-100 microns or so of the surface will be cooled by radiation to space allowing the creation of significant near-surface thermal gradients. In those regions of the spectrum where the absorption coefficient is low, the emission will come from the deeper, warmer parts of the medium, whereas in regions of high absorption, the emission will emanate from shallower, cooler parts of the medium. The resulting emission spectrum will show non-compositional features as a result of the thermal structure in the material. We have modeled the heat transfer in a particulate medium in order to determine the magnitude of near-surface thermal gradients for surfaces on airless bodies and on Mars. We use the calculated thermal structure to determine the effects it has on the infrared emission spectrum of the surface.

  9. Particulate matter, carbon emissions and elemental compositions from a diesel engine exhaust fuelled with diesel-biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraful, A. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    A comparative morphological analysis was performed on the exhaust particles emitted from a CI engine using different blending ratios of palm biodiesel at several operating conditions. It was observed from this experiment; peak particle concentration for PB10 at 1200 rpm is 1.85E + 02 and at 1500 rpm is 2.12E + 02. A slightly smaller amount of volatile material has found from the biodiesel samples compared to the diesel fuel sample. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the amount of volatile material in the soot from biodiesel fuels was slightly lower than that of diesel fuel. PB20 biodiesel blends reduced maximum 11.26% of volatile matter from the engine exhaust, while PB10 biodiesel blend reduced minimum 5.53% of volatile matter. On the other hand, the amount of fixed carbon from the biodiesel samples was slightly higher than diesel fuel. Analysis of carbon emissions, palm biodiesel (PB10) reduced elemental carbon (EC) was varies 0.75%-18%, respectively. Similarly, the emission reduction rate for PB20 was varies 11.36%-23.46% respectively. While, organic carbon (OC) emission rates reduced for PB20 was varied 13.7-49% respectively. Among the biodiesel blends, PB20 exhibited highest oxygen (O), sulfur (S) concentration and lowest silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) concentration. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images for PB20 showed granular structure particulates with bigger grain sizes compared to diesel. Particle diameter increased under the 2100-2400 rpm speed condition and it was 8.70% higher compared to the low speed conditions. Finally, the results indicated that the composition and degree of unsaturation of the methyl ester present in biodiesel, play an important role in the chemical composition of particulate matter emissions.

  10. The effect of large anthropogenic particulate emissions on atmospheric aerosols, deposition and bioindicators in the eastern Gulf of Finland region.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, L; Mäkinen, A; Häsänen, E; Juhanoja, J

    2000-10-30

    The effect of the emissions from large oil shale fuelled power plants and a cement factory in Estonia on the elemental concentration of atmospheric aerosols, deposition, elemental composition of mosses and ecological effects on mosses, lichens and pine trees in the eastern Gulf of Finland region has been studied. In addition to chemical analysis, fly ash, moss and aerosol samples were analysed by a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The massive particulate calcium emissions, approximately 60 kton/year (1992), is clearly observed in the aerosols, deposition and mosses. The calcium deposition is largest next to the Russian border downwind from the power plants and in south-eastern part of Finland. This deposition has decreased due to the application of dust removal systems at the particulate emission sources. At the Virolahti EMEP station approximately 140 km north from the emission sources, elevated elemental atmospheric aerosol concentrations are observed for Al, Ca, Fe, K and Si and during episodes many trace elements, such as As, Br, Mo, Ni, Pb and V. The acidification of the soil is negligible because of the high content of basic cations in the deposition. Visible symptoms on pine trees are negligible. However, in moss samples close to the power plants, up to 25% of the leaf surface was covered by particles. Many epiphytic lichen species do not tolerate basic stemflow and on the other hand most species are also very sensitive for the SO2 content in air. Consequently a large lichen desert is found in an area of 2500 km2 in the vicinity of the power plants with only one out of the investigated 12 species growing.

  11. Temperature effects on particulate matter emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions study measured exhaust emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from over 500 vehicles randomly recruited in the Kansas City metropolitan area in 2004 and 2005. Vehicle emissions testing occurred during the summer and winter, ...

  12. Characterization of cotton gin total particulate matter emissions based on EPA stack sampling methodologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A project to characterize cotton gin emissions in terms of stack sampling was conducted during the 2008 through 2011 ginning seasons. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. EPA AP-42 emission factors ar...

  13. Measurement of particulate matter emission fluxes from a beef cattle feedlot using Flux-gradient technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely-used micrometeorological method for gaseous emissions from open sources. V...

  14. Temperature effects on particulate matter emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions study measured exhaust emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from over 500 vehicles randomly recruited in the Kansas City metropolitan area in 2004 and 2005. Vehicle emissions testing occurred during the summer and winter, ...

  15. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  16. How the user can influence particulate emissions from residential wood and pellet stoves: Emission factors for different fuels and burning conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachinger, Friederike; Drewnick, Frank; Gieré, Reto; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    For a common household wood stove and a pellet stove we investigated the dependence of emission factors for various gaseous and particulate pollutants on burning phase, burning condition, and fuel. Ideal and non-ideal burning conditions (dried wood, under- and overload, small logs, logs with bark, excess air) were used. We tested 11 hardwood species (apple, ash, bangkirai, birch, beech, cherry, hickory, oak, olive, plum, sugar maple), 4 softwood species (Douglas fir, pine, spruce, spruce/fir), treated softwood, beech and oak wood briquettes, paper briquettes, brown coal, wood chips, and herbaceous species (miscanthus, Chinese silver grass) as fuel. Particle composition (black carbon, non-refractory, and some semi-refractory species) was measured continuously. Repeatability was shown to be better for the pellet stove than for the wood stove. It was shown that the user has a strong influence on wood stove emission behavior both by selection of the fuel and of the burning conditions: Combustion efficiency was found to be low at both very low and very high burn rates, and influenced particle properties such as particle number, mass, and organic content in a complex way. No marked differences were found for the emissions from different wood species. For non-woody fuels, much higher emission factors could be observed (up to five-fold increase). Strongest enhancement of emission factors was found for burning of small or dried logs (up to six-fold), and usage of excess air (two- to three-fold). Real world pellet stove emissions can be expected to be much closer to laboratory-derived emission factors than wood stove emissions, due to lower dependence on user operation.

  17. In vitro relative toxicity screening of combined particulate and semivolatile organic fractions of gasoline and diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K

    2003-06-27

    Engine technology modifications designed to reduce engine emissions are likely to alter the physicochemical characteristics of the emissions. These changes may alter the biological effects of the emissions, but these effects cannot currently be predicted from the physical and chemical properties. Rapid in vitro toxicity screening techniques to compare the biological effects of emission samples would be useful as preliminary guides to assess the relative health impact of modified technology. Here, we demonstrate that selected responses of cultured human lung epithelial cells and rat alveolar macrophages can discriminate among combined particulate matter (PM) and semivolatile organic compound (SVOO fractions of emissions collected from normal- and high-emitter, in-use gasoline and diesel vehicles. Macrophages were more susceptible to cytotoxicity than epithelial cells. Samples from gasoline vehicles (except a vehicle that produced visible white smoke) generally caused greater effects than the diesel engine samples. However, low concentrations of diesel emission samples were more potent stimulators of peroxide production than gasoline emission samples. The same rank order of potency applied to suppression of this response at high concentrations. A diesel PM fraction was much less toxic to both types of cells than the combined PM +SVOC fractions, consistent with a role for the SVOC fraction in cytotoxicity. However, the rank order of potency from the in vitro assays in general did not correspond with the previous rankings from in vivo comparisons of the same samples. Thus, while the in vitro assays may provide mechanistic information, revealing cell type-specific responses, they did not accurately reflect in vivo comparative toxicity in their current form.

  18. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-03

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles.

  19. Development and application of a mobile laboratory for measuring emissions from diesel engines. 2. Sampling for toxics and particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Cocker, David R; Shah, Sandip D; Johnson, Kent C; Zhu, Xiaona; Miller, J Wayne; Norbeck, Joseph M

    2004-12-15

    Limited data are available on the emission rates of speciated volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM) from mobile, in-use diesel engines operated on the road. A design for the sampling of these fractions and the first data from in-use diesel sources are presented in this paper. Emission rates for carbonyls, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylene, PM, and elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC) are reported for a vehicle driven while following the California Air Resources Board (ARB) four-mode heavy heavy-duty diesel truck (HHDDT) cycle and while transiting through a major transportation corridor. Results show that distance specific emission rates are substantially greater in congested traffic as compared with highway cruise conditions. Specifically, emissions of toxic compounds are 3-15 times greater, and PM is 7 times greater under these conditions. The dependence of these species on driving mode suggests that health and source apportionment studies will need to account for driving patterns in addition to emission factors. Comparison of the PM/NOx ratios obtained for the above tests provides insight into the presence and importance of "off-cycle" emissions during on-road driving. Measurements from a stationary source (operated and tested at constant engine speed) equipped with an engine similar to that in the HHDDT yielded a greater understanding of the relative dependence of emissions on load versus engine transients. These data are indicative of the type of investigations made possible by the development of this novel laboratory.

  20. Removal of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Vehicle Using a Self-Powered Triboelectric Filter.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang Bao; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Chi; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Chaoying; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution from automobile exhaust has become one of the main pollution sources in urban environments. Although the diesel particulate filter has been used in heavy diesel vehicles, there is no particulate filter for most gasoline cars or light-duty vehicles because of high cost. Here, we introduce a self-powered triboelectric filter for removing PMs from automobile exhaust fumes using the triboelectrification effect. The finite element simulation reveals that the collision or friction between PTFE pellets and electrodes can generate large triboelectric charges and form a space electric field as high as 12 MV/m, accompanying an open-circuit voltage of ∼6 kV between the two electrodes, which is comparable to the measured value of 3 kV. By controlling the vibration frequency and fill ratio of pellets, more than 94% PMs in aerosol can be removed using the high electric field in the triboelectric filter. In real automobile exhaust fumes, the triboelectic filter has a mass collection efficiency of ∼95.5% for PM2.5 using self-vibration of the tailpipe.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered

  2. Detailed characterization and profiles of crankcase and diesel particulate matter exhaust emissions using speciated organics.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David; Lawson, Douglas R; Ireson, Robert G; Weaver, Christopher S; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Larson, Timothy; Davey, Mark; Liu, L J Sally

    2008-08-01

    A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as an intentional quantitative tracer for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (< 1 microg/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions.

  3. [Technology-based emission inventory of particulate matters (PM) from cement industry].

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; He, Ke-bin; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Zuo-yi

    2008-08-01

    A bottom-up PM emission model was developed based on the production technologies and PM emission control devices in Chinese cement industry. Through analyzing the historical distribution of technologies in cement producing and the impact of standards on PM emission control from cement industry, emission factors of cement industry in China during 1990-2004 were generated by this technology-based model, and emission inventories were developed thereby. Emission factor decreased from 27.9 kg x t(-1) cement in 1990 to 8.05 kg x t(-1) cement in 2004. Emissions of PM from cement industry in China reached the peak value in 1997, with 1044 x 10(4) t of TSP, 716 x 10(4) t of PM10, 436 x 10(4) t of PM2.5 emitted, then decreased until 2001, and increased slowly again during 2001-2004. The distribution of PM emissions among provinces is uneven. Shandong, Guangdong, Hebei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Henan contribute more than 50% of emissions of China. Rapid spread of pre-calcining kilns in China and implementation of Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry in 2004 will probably decrease PM emissions from cement industry to a large extent, leading to obvious variation on PM pollution characteristics in China.

  4. Detailed Characterization and Profiles of Crankcase and Diesel Particulate Matter Exhaust Emissions Using Speciated Organics

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; Campbell, D.; Lawson, D. R.; Ireson, R. G.; Weaver, C. S.; Hesterberg, T. W.; Larson, T.; Davey, M.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2008-01-01

    A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as an intentional quantitative tracer for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (<1 {micro}g/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions.

  5. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (<23%) on a domain-wide basis, despite significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions (65-89% of total VOC emissions). However, the production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic

  6. Comparative study for hardwood and softwood forest biomass: chemical characterization, combustion phases and gas and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Simone Simões; de Carvalho, João Andrade; Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Soares Neto, Turíbio Gomes; Dellani, Rafael; Leite, Luiz Henrique Scavacini

    2014-07-01

    Two different types of typical Brazilian forest biomass were burned in the laboratory in order to compare their combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions. Approximately 2 kg of Amazon biomass (hardwood) and 2 kg of Araucaria biomass (softwood) were burned. Gaseous emissions of CO2, CO, and NOx and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were evaluated in the flaming and smoldering combustion phases. Temperature, burn rate, modified combustion efficiency, emissions factor, and particle diameter and concentration were studied. A continuous analyzer was used to quantify gas concentrations. A DataRam4 and a Cascade Impactor were used to sample PM2.5. Araucaria biomass (softwood) had a lignin content of 34.9%, higher than the 23.3% of the Amazon biomass (hardwood). CO2 and CO emissions factors seem to be influenced by lignin content. Maximum concentrations of CO2, NOx and PM2.5 were observed in the flaming phase.

  7. Gas Turbine Engine Nonvolatile Particulate Matter Mass Emissions: Correlation with Smoke Number for Conventional and Alternative Fuel Blends.

    PubMed

    Christie, Simon; Lobo, Prem; Lee, David; Raper, David

    2017-01-17

    This study evaluates the relationship between the emissions parameters of smoke number (SN) and mass concentration of nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine for a conventional Jet A-1 and a number of alternative fuel blends. The data demonstrate the significant impact of fuel composition on the emissions and highlight the magnitude of the fuel-induced uncertainty for both SN within the Emissions Data Bank as well as nvPM mass within the new regulatory standard under development. Notwithstanding these substantial differences, the data show that correlation between SN and nvPM mass concentration still adheres to the first order approximation (FOA3), and this agreement is maintained over a wide range of fuel compositions. Hence, the data support the supposition that the FOA3 is applicable to engines burning both conventional and alternative fuel blends without adaptation or modification. The chemical composition of the fuel is shown to impact mass and number concentration as well as geometric mean diameter of the emitted nvPM; however, the data do not support assertions that the emissions of black carbon with small mean diameter will result in significant deviations from FOA3.

  8. Long-term records of fire occurrence and their implications for gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.S.; Stocks, B.J. Forestry Canada, Sault Ste, Marie, Ontario )

    1993-06-01

    Changing climate and land use appear to importantly affect the biosphere by way of impacts on fire regimes. Feedback effects on climate and air quality are likely through emissions of trace gases, aerosols, and particulates that affect radiation budgets, stability of the troposphere, and biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles. Paleorecords of biomass burning are available in the form of stratigraphic charcoal in lake and mire deposits and fire scars on trees. When taken together with recent emissions data from experimental bums and wildland fires they hold promise for estimation of how changing fire regimes may be affecting atmospheric composition. We synthesize existing evidence for effects of global change on fire regimes for each of the major biomes. Fire regimes vary in their sensitivities to changing climate, with woodland/savanna types and boreal forest among the most sensitive. Emissions have greatly increased with changing human influences in some vegetation types (temperate and some low-latitude biomes) and decreased in others (temperate pine forests). Some biomes, including boreal forests, hold promise for rather detailed reconstructions of past emissions. We recommend that future efforts focus on those regions where the importance of fire and availability of paleodata are greatest.

  9. Effect of a fuel activation device (FAD) on particulate matter and black carbon emissions from a diesel locomotive engine.

    PubMed

    Park, Duckshin; Lee, Taejeong; Lee, Yongil; Jeong, Wonseog; Kwon, Soon-Bark; Kim, Dongsool; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-01-01

    Emission reduction is one of the most efficient control measures in fuel-powered locomotives. The purpose of this study was to determine the reduction in particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) emissions following the installation of a fuel activation device (FAD). The FAD was developed to enhance fuel combustion by atomizing fuel and to increase the surface area per unit volume of injected fuel. Emission reduction by the FAD was evaluated by installing a FAD in an operating diesel locomotive in Mongolia. The test was conducted on a train operating on a round-trip 238-km route between Ulaanbaatar and Choir stations in Mongolia. The fuel consumption rate was slightly reduced following the FAD installation. The FAD installation decreased PM and BC emissions in the diesel locomotive, especially coarse PM. The PM10 reductions achieved after FAD installation were 58.0, 69.7, and 34.2% for the constant velocity, stopping, and acceleration stages of the train's operation, respectively. The BC reduction rates were 29.5, 52.8, and 27.4% for the constant velocity, stopping, and acceleration stages, respectively.

  10. Inhibition of progesterone receptor activity in recombinant yeast by soot from fossil fuel combustion emissions and air particulate materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2005-10-15

    Numerous environmental pollutants have been detected for estrogenic activity by interacting with the estrogen receptor, but little information is available about their interactions with the progesterone receptor. In this study, emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion (FFC) and air particulate material (APM) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in a big city of China were evaluated to interact with the human progesterone receptor (hPR) signaling pathway by examining their ability to interact with the activity of hPR expressed in yeast. The results showed that the soot of a petroleum-fired vehicle possessed the most potent anti-progesteronic activity, that of coal-fired stove and diesel fired agrimotor emissions took the second place, and soot samples of coal-fired heating work and electric power station had lesser progesterone inhibition activity. The anti-progesteronic activity of APM was between that of soot from petroleum-fired vehicle and soot from coal-fired establishments and diesel fired agrimotor. Since there was no other large pollution source near the APM sampling sites, the endocrine disrupters were most likely from vehicle emissions, tire attrition and house heating sources. The correlation analysis showed that a strong relationship existed between estrogenic activity and anti-progesteronic activity in emissions of fossil fuel combustion. The discoveries that some environmental pollutants with estrogenic activity can also inhibit hPR activity indicate that further studies are required to investigate potential mechanisms for the reported estrogenic activities of these pollutants.

  11. Characteristics of particulate emissions from a diesel generator fueled with varying blends of biodiesel and fossil diesel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the particulate matter (PM), particle-bound carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a diesel-engine generator fuelled with blends of pure fossil diesel oil (D100) and varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel (W10, 10 vol %; W20, 20 vol %; W30, 30 vol %; and W50, 50 vol %) under generator loads of 0, 1.5, and 3 kW. On average, the PM emission factors of all blends was 30.5 % (range, 13.7-52.3 %) lower than that of D100 under the tested loads. Substituting pure fossil diesel oil with varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel reduced emissions of particle-bound total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC). The W20 blend had the lowest particle-bound organic carbon (OC) emissions. Notably, W10, W20, and W30 also had lower Total-PAH emissions and lower total equivalent toxicity (Total-BaP(eq)) compared to D100. Additionally, the brake-specific fuel consumption of the generator correlated positively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel. However, generator energy efficiency correlated negatively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel.

  12. Impacts of traffic emissions on atmospheric particulate nitrate and organics at a downwind site on the periphery of Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi Ming; Tan, Hao Bo; Jie Li, Yong; Schurman, Misha I.; Li, Fei; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André S. H.; Chan, Chak K.

    2017-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution on the peripheries of Chinese megacities can be as serious as in cities themselves. Given the substantial vehicular emissions in inner-city areas, the direct transport of primary PM (e.g., black carbon and primary organics) and effective formation of secondary PM from precursors (e.g., NOx and volatile organic compounds) can contribute to PM pollution in buffer zones between cities. To investigate how traffic emissions in inner-city areas impact these adjacent buffer zones, a suite of real-time instruments were deployed in Panyu, downwind from central Guangzhou, from November to December 2014. Nitrate mass fraction was higher on high-PM days, with the average nitrate-to-sulfate ratio increasing from around 0.35 to 1.5 as the PM mass concentration increased from 10 to 160 µg m-3. Particulate nitrate was strongly correlated with excess ammonium (([NH4+] / [SO42-] - 1.5) × [SO42-]), with higher concentrations in December than in November due to lower temperatures. The organic mass fraction was the highest across all PM1 levels throughout the campaign. While organic aerosols (OA) were dominated by secondary organic aerosols (SOA = semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosols + low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosols) as a campaign average, freshly emitted hydrocarbon-like organic aerosols (HOA) contributed up to 40 % of OA during high-OA periods, which typically occurred at nighttime and contributed 23.8 to 28.4 % on average. This was due to daytime traffic restrictions on heavy-duty vehicles in Guangzhou, and HOA almost increased linearly with total OA concentration. SOA increased as odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2) increased during the day due to photochemistry. A combination of nighttime traffic emissions and daytime photochemistry contributed to the buildup of PM in Panyu. The mitigation of PM pollution in inner-city areas by reducing vehicular traffic can potentially improve air quality in peripheral areas.

  13. Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) emission reductions of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked emission reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to reductions in primary emissions. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40 % in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85 %) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass, and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  14. Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) emission reductions of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to reductions in primary emissions. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40% in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85%) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  15. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 1: gaseous and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Prem; Rye, Lucas; Williams, Paul I; Christie, Simon; Uryga-Bugajska, Ilona; Wilson, Christopher W; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Blakey, Simon; Coe, Hugh; Raper, David; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2012-10-02

    Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. One such strategy being investigated is the use of alternative fuels in aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs) as a means to diversify fuel supplies and reduce emissions. This paper summarizes the results of a study to characterize the emissions of an APU, a small gas turbine engine, burning conventional Jet A-1, a fully synthetic jet fuel, and other alternative fuels with varying compositions. Gas phase emissions were measured at the engine exit plane while PM emissions were recorded at the exit plane as well as 10 m downstream of the engine. Five percent reduction in NO(x) emissions and 5-10% reduction in CO emissions were observed for the alternative fuels. Significant reductions in PM emissions at the engine exit plane were achieved with the alternative fuels. However, as the exhaust plume expanded and cooled, organic species were found to condense on the PM. This increase in organic PM elevated the PM mass but had little impact on PM number.

  16. Particulate sulfate ion concentration and SO2 emission trends in the United States from the early 1990s through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Schichtel, B. A.; Malm, W. C.; Pitchford, M. L.

    2012-11-01

    We examined particulate sulfate ion concentrations across the United States from the early 1990s through 2010 using remote/rural data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and from early 2000 through 2010 using data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) urban Chemical Speciation Network (CSN). We also examined measured sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants from 1995 through 2010 from the EPA's Acid Rain Program. The 1992-2010 annual mean sulfate concentrations at long-term rural sites in the United States have decreased significantly and fairly consistently across the United States at a rate of -2.7% yr-1 (p < 0.01). The short-term (2001-2010) annual mean trend at rural sites was -4.6% yr-1 (p < 0.01) and at urban sites (2002-2010) was -6.2% yr-1 (p < 0.01). Annual total SO2 emissions from power plants across the United States have decreased at a similar rate as sulfate concentrations from 2001 to 2010 (-6.2% yr-1, p < 0.01), suggesting a linear relationship between SO2 emissions and average sulfate concentrations. This linearity was strongest in the eastern United States and weakest in the West where power plant SO2 emissions were lowest and sulfate concentrations were more influenced by non-power-plant and perhaps international SO2 emissions. In addition, annual mean, short-term sulfate concentrations decreased more rapidly in the East relative to the West due to differences in seasonal trends at certain regions in the West. Specifically, increased wintertime concentrations in the central and northern Great Plains and increased springtime concentrations in the western United States were observed. These seasonal and regional positive trends could not be explained by changes in known local and regional SO2 emissions, suggesting other contributing influences. This work implies that on an annual mean basis across the United States, air quality mitigation strategies have been successful in reducing the

  17. Particulate sulfate ion concentration and SO2 emission trends in the United States from the early 1990s through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Schichtel, B. A.; Malm, W. C.; Pitchford, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    We examined particulate sulfate ion concentrations across the United States from the early 1990s through 2010 using remote/rural data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and from early 2000 through 2010 using data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) urban Chemical Speciation Network (CSN). We also examined measured sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants from 1995 through 2010 from the EPA's Acid Rain Program. The 1992-2010 annual mean sulfate concentrations at long-term sites in the United States have decreased significantly and fairly consistently across the United States at a rate of -2.7% yr-1 (p < 0.01). Short-term annual mean trends at rural and urban sites were -4.6% yr-1 (p < 0.01) from 2001 to 2010 and -6.2% yr-1 (p < 0.01) from 2002 to 2010, respectively. Annual total SO2 emissions from power plants across the United States have decreased at a similar rate as sulfate concentrations from 2000 to 2010 (-4.9% yr-1, p < 0.01), suggesting a linear relationship between SO2 emissions and average sulfate concentrations. This linearity was strongest in the eastern United States and weakest in the West where power plant SO2 emissions were lowest and sulfate concentrations were more influenced by non-power-plant and international SO2 emissions. In addition, annual mean, short-term sulfate concentrations decreased more rapidly in the East relative to the West due to differences in seasonal behavior at certain regions in the West. Specifically, increased wintertime concentrations in the central and northern Great Plains and increased springtime concentrations in the western United States were observed. These seasonal and regional increased concentrations could not be explained by changes in local and regional SO2 emissions, suggesting other contributing influences. This work implies that on an annual mean basis across the United States, air quality mitigation strategies have been successful in

  18. An Analysis of Field-Aged Diesel Particulate Filter Performance: Particle Emissions Before, During and After Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John Morse; Domingo, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    A field-aged, passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) employed in a school bus retrofit program was evaluated for emissions of particle mass and number concentration before, during and after regeneration. For the particle mass measurements, filter samples were collected for gravimetric analysis with a partial flow sampling system, which sampled proportionally to the exhaust flow. Total number concentration and number-size distributions were measured by a condensation particle counter and scanning mobility particle sizer, respectively. The results of the evaluation show that the number concentration emissions decreased as the DPF became loaded with soot. However after soot removal by regeneration, the number concentration emissions were approximately 20 times greater, which suggests the importance of the soot layer in helping to trap particles. Contrary to the number concentration results, particle mass emissions decreased from 6 1 mg/hp-hr before regeneration to 3 2 mg/hp-hr after regeneration. This indicates that nanoparticles with diameter less than 50 nm may have been emitted after regeneration since these particles contribute little to the total mass. Overall, average particle emission reductions of 95% by mass and 10,000-fold by number concentration after four years of use provided evidence of the durability of a field-aged DPF. In contrast to previous reports for new DPFs in which elevated number concentrations occurred during the first 200 seconds of a transient cycle, the number concentration emissions were elevated during the second half of the heavy-duty federal test procedure when high speed was sustained. This information is relevant for the analysis of mechanisms by which particles are emitted from field-aged DPFs.

  19. An analysis of field-aged diesel particulate filter performance: particle emissions before, during, and after regeneration.

    PubMed

    Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John M E; Domingo, Norberto

    2010-08-01

    A field-aged, passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) used in a school bus retrofit program was evaluated for emissions of particle mass and number concentration before, during, and after regeneration. For the particle mass measurements, filter samples were collected for gravimetric analysis with a partial flow sampling system, which sampled proportionally to the exhaust flow. A condensation particle counter and scanning mobility particle sizer measured total number concentration and number-size distributions, respectively. The results of the evaluation show that the number concentration emissions decreased as the DPF became loaded with soot. However, after soot removal by regeneration, the number concentration emissions were approximately 20 times greater, which suggests the importance of the soot layer in helping to trap particles. Contrary to the number concentration results, particle mass emissions decreased from 6 +/- 1 mg/hp-hr before regeneration to 3 +/- 2 mg/hp-hr after regeneration. This indicates that nanoparticles with diameters less than 50 nm may have been emitted after regeneration because these particles contribute little to the total mass. Overall, average particle emission reductions of 95% by mass and 10,000-fold by number concentration after 4 yr of use provided evidence of the durability of a field-aged DPF. In contrast to previous reports for new DPFs in which elevated number concentrations occurred during the first 200 sec of a transient cycle, the number concentration emissions were elevated during the second half of the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) when high speed was sustained. This information is relevant for the analysis of mechanisms by which particles are emitted from field-aged DPFs.

  20. Composition, toxicity, and mutagenicity of particulate and semivolatile emissions from heavy-duty compressed natural gas-powered vehicles.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, JeanClare; Gigliotti, Andrew; McDonald, Jacob D; Seilkop, Steven K; Whitney, Kevin A; Zielinska, Barbara; Mauderly, Joe L

    2005-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and vapor-phase semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected from three buses fueled by compressed natural gas. The bus engines included a well-functioning, conventional engine; a "high emitter" engine; and a new technology engine with an oxidation catalyst. Chemical analysis of the emissions showed differences among these samples, with the high emitter sample containing markers of engine oil constituents. PM + SVOC samples were also collected for mutagenicity and toxicity testing. Extraction efficiencies from the collection media were lower than for similarly collected samples from gasoline or diesel vehicles. Responses to the recovered samples were compared on the basis of exhaust volume, to incorporate the emission rates into the potency factors. Mutagenicity was assessed by Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Mutagenicity was greatest for the high emitter sample and lowest for the new technology sample. Metabolic activation reduced mutagenicity in strain TA100, but not TA98. Toxicity, including inflammation, cytotoxicity, and parenchymal changes, was assessed 24 h after intratracheal instillation into rat lungs. Lung responses were generally mild, with little difference between the responses to equivalent volumes of emissions from the normal emitter and the new technology, but greater responses for the high emitter. These emission sample potencies are further compared on the basis of recovered mass with previously reported samples from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles. While mutagenic potencies for the CNG emission samples were similar to the range observed in the gasoline and diesel emission samples, lung toxicity potency factors were generally lower than those for the gasoline and diesel samples.

  1. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the particulate and gas phase from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tzu-Ting; Lin, Shaw-Tao; Lin, Tser-Sheng; Chung, Hua-Yi

    2015-02-15

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in particulate and gas phases generated from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic H/C ratios were examined. Five types of mosquito coils were burned in a test chamber with a total airflow rate of 8.0 L/min at a constant relative humidity and temperature. The concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using the GC/MS technique. Among the used mosquito coils, the atomic H/C ratio ranged from 1.23 to 1.57, yielding total mass, gaseous, and particulate PAH emission factors of 28.17-78.72 mg/g, 26,139.80-35,932.98 and 5735.22-13,431.51 ng/g, respectively. The various partitions of PAHs in the gaseous and particulate phases were in the ranges, 70.26-83.70% and 1