Science.gov

Sample records for particulate matter aggregation

  1. Enzymatic biofilm digestion in soil aggregates facilitates the release of particulate organic matter by sonication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büks, Frederick; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The stability of soil aggregates against shearing and compressive forces as well as water-caused dispersion is an integral marker of soil quality. High stability results in less compaction and erosion and has been linked to enhanced water retention, dynamic water transport and aeration regimes, increased rooting depth, and protection of soil organic matter (SOM) against microbial degradation. In turn, particulate organic matter is supposed to support soil aggregate stabilization. For decades the importance of biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) regarding particulate organic matter (POM) occlusion and aggregate stability has been canonical because of its distribution, geometric structure and ability to link primary particles. However, experimental proof is still missing. This lack is mainly due to methodological reasons. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop a method of enzymatic biofilm detachment for studying the effects of EPSs on POM occlusion. The method combines an enzymatic pre-treatment with different activities of α-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, DNAse and lipase with a subsequent sequential ultrasonic treatment for disaggregation and density fractionation of soils. POM releases of treated samples were compared to an enzyme-free control. To test the efficacy of biofilm detachment the ratio of bacterial DNA from suspended cells and the remaining biofilm after enzymatic treatment were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Although the enzyme treatment was not sufficient for total biofilm removal, our results indicate that EPSs may attach POM within soil aggregates. The tendency to additional POM release with increased application of enzymes was attributed to a slight loss in aggregate stability. This suggests that an effect of agricultural practices on soil microbial populations could influence POM occlusion/aggregate stability and thereby carbon cycle/soil quality.

  2. Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates: Formation mechanism and fate in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Andrew; Shim, Won Joon; Ha, Sung Yong; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2014-12-01

    Oil suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA) are naturally occurring phenomena where oil droplets and particles interact to form aggregates. This aggregation could aid cleanup processes of oil contaminated waters. When OSA is formed, it makes oil less sticky and would facilitate the dispersion of oil into the water column. Increased oil-water surface contact by OSA formation enhances biodegradation of oil. Its applicability as a natural oil clean-up mechanism has been effectively demonstrated over past decades. There are many factors affecting the formation of OSA and its stability in the natural environment that need to be understood. This review provides a current understanding of (1) types of OSA that could be formed in the natural environment; (2) controlling factors and environmental parameters for the formation of OSA; (3) environmental parameters; and (4) fate of OSA and its applicability for oil spill remediation processes.

  3. A review of the effects of particle types on oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2016-12-01

    Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate (OSA) can form naturally when oil and particles interact. The interaction between oil and suspended particulate matter makes oil less sticky, and facilitates its dispersion in the water column. The high oil-water surface contact enhances the biodegradation of oil and thus increases the efficiency of remediation processes. There are many factors that affect OSA formation, but, particle type is one of the most important. Because different particle types have different physical, chemical, and biological properties, their interactions with oil differ greatly. Particle properties such as interlayer spaces, hydrophobicity, surface charges, polarity, organic content, and size affect the interactions between materials and oil. These different interactions determine the type, buoyancy, size, and stability of OSA that forms, thus determining its fate in the environment. This review provides a current understanding of (1) OSA formation mechanisms, (2) sources and classes of marine materials, (3) oil-particle interactions, (4) material properties and their effects on oil interaction, and (5) future research needs.

  4. Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Apte, Joshua S; Hodas, Natasha; Evans, John; Weschler, Charles J; Stylianou, Katerina S; Jantunen, Matti; McKone, Thomas E

    2017-08-15

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide a set of consistent primary PM2.5 aggregated exposure factors. We followed a matrix-based mass balance approach for quantifying exposure from indoor and ground-level urban and rural outdoor sources using an effective indoor-outdoor population intake fraction and a system of archetypes to represent different levels of spatial detail. Emission-to-exposure archetypes range from global indoor and outdoor averages, via archetypal urban and indoor settings, to 3646 real-world cities in 16 parametrized subcontinental regions. Population intake fractions from urban and rural outdoor sources are lowest in Northern regions and Oceania and highest in Southeast Asia with population-weighted means across 3646 cities and 16 subcontinental regions of, respectively, 39 ppm (95% confidence interval: 4.3-160 ppm) and 2 ppm (95% confidence interval: 0.2-6.3 ppm). Intake fractions from residential and occupational indoor sources range from 470 ppm to 62 000 ppm, mainly as a function of air exchange rate and occupancy. Indoor exposure typically contributes 80-90% to overall exposure from outdoor sources. Our framework facilitates improvements in air pollution reduction strategies and life cycle impact assessments.

  5. Laboratory investigation of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation under different mixing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Khelifa, Ali; Zhao, Chaocheng; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wang, Zhendi

    2014-03-01

    Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation (OSA) has been recognized by the oil spill remediation community to effectively enhance the cleansing of spilled oil in the marine environment. While studies have investigated the application of mineral fines as an effective method to facilitate oil dispersion, decision-makers still lack information on the role of mixing energy in OSA formation and its significance to oil dispersion in real spills. This work studied the effect of level and duration of mixing energy on OSA formation using the standard reference material 1,941 b and Arabian light crude oil. The results showed that dispersed small oil droplets increased with an increase of both the level and duration of mixing energy to form multi-droplet OSAs. The sizes of the dispersed droplets varied between 5 and 10 μm under different conditions studied. The maximum oil trapping efficiency increased from 23% to 33%, the oil to sediment ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.43 g oil/g sediment, and the required shaking time decreased from 2.3 to 1.1h as the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. Based on the size measurement results, a breakage effect on the formed OSAs and sediment flocs was confirmed under high mixing energy level.

  6. Factors influencing soil aggregation and particulate organic matter responses to bioenergy crops across a topographic gradient

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Ontl; Cynthia A. Cambardella; Lisa A. Schulte; Randall K. Kolka

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy crops have the potential to enhance soil carbon (C) pools from increased aggregation and the physical protection of organic matter; however, our understanding of the variation in these processes over heterogeneous landscapes is limited. In particular, little is known about the relative importance of soil properties and root characteristics for the physical...

  7. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  8. Particulate matter fugitive dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in this conference include: Review of EPA's cost/benefit analysis for additional regulation of surface coal mines; Particulate monitoring on the Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii, and The MEDUSA sampling system: case histories in the measurement of particulate matter with wide spectrum analysis.

  9. Factors influencing soil aggregation and particulate organic matter responses to bioenergy crops across a topographic gradient

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changes in tillage practices and land use have a strong influence on soil aggregation and the physical protection of soil organic carbon (C) pools. Bioenergy production from crops has the potential to improve C storage in soils over time through associated changes in land use and tillage. Less well ...

  10. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  11. A laboratory study on the kinetics of the formation of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates using the NIST-1941b sediment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Khelifa, Ali; Zheng, Xilai; Wang, Zhendi; So, Lily L; Wong, Sharon; Yang, Chun; Fieldhouse, Benjamin

    2010-10-01

    The formation of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSAs) results from the heteroaggregation between dispersed oil droplets and suspended particulate matter present in coastal waters. This process has been recognized by the oil spill remediation community to enhance natural cleansing of oiled shorelines and oil dispersion in the water column. While several studies have been conducted on the formation and characteristics of OSAs, few studies have addressed the kinetics of OSA formation. Operationally, this has left decision-makers lacking information on the time scale of this process and its significance to oil dispersion in real spills. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the kinetics of OSA formation as a function of mixing energy and the sediment-to-oil ratio using the standard reference material 1941b. Results showed that formation of OSAs increased exponentially with the mixing time and reached a maximum within 4h. When the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz, the maximum oil trapping efficiency increased from 20% to 42% and the required shaking time decreased from 3.7 to 0.7h.

  12. Potential application of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSA) on the remediation of reflective beaches impacted by petroleum: a mesocosm simulation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carine S; de Oliveira, Olivia M C; Moreira, Icaro T A; Queiroz, Antonio F S; de Almeida, Marcos; Silva, Jessica V L; da Silva Andrade, Igor Oliveira

    2015-08-28

    This paper presents the oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate (OSA) resulted from the interaction of droplets of dispersed oil in a water column and particulate matter. This structure reduces the adhesion of oil on solid surfaces, promotes dispersion, and may accelerate degradation processes. The effects of the addition of fine sediments (clay + silt) on the formation of OSA, their impact on the dispersion and degradation of the oil, and their potential use in recovering reflective sandy beaches were evaluated in a mesoscale simulation model. Two simulations were performed (21 days), in the absence and presence of fine sediments, with four units in each simulation using oil from the Recôncavo Basin. The results showed that the use of fine sediment increased the dispersion of the oil in the water column up to four times in relation to the sandy sediment. There was no evidence of the transport of hydrocarbons in bottom sediments associated with fine sediments that would have accelerated the dispersion and degradation rates of the oil. Most of the OSA that formed in this process remained in the water column, where the degradation processes were more effective. Over the 21 days of simulation, we observed a 40 % reduction on average of the levels of saturated hydrocarbons staining the surface oil.

  13. A review of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation--a natural process of cleansing spilled oil in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Zheng, Xilai

    2009-10-01

    It has been acknowledged that following an oil spill in coastal areas where suspended particulate matter (SPM) is rich, aggregation between oil and SPM can be naturally formed. This kind of aggregation product is termed as oil-SPM aggregates (OSAs). Because OSAs are not as sticky to the shorelines as crude oil and the oil-water contact area is greatly increased due to the formation of OSAs, both oil dispersion into the water body and oil biodegration would be significantly enhanced. In this review article, the authors (1) describe in detail the mechanism of OSA formation and controlling parameters which can influence OSA formation (the parameters discussed include the oil nature and properties, sediment types and concentrations, and the environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and mixing energy); (2) briefly review qualitative and quantitative methods used for characterization of OSA formation (two main methods used for the OSA characterization are the UV epi-fluorescence microscopy and gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID); (3) elucidate the applications of OSA formation in oil spill response strategies including natural attenuation, sediment relocation, and sediment mixing; and (4) discuss research needs in the future which would further improve our understanding of OSA formation and move towards the development of adequate oil behaviour models.

  14. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  15. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  16. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  17. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  18. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  19. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  20. The road surface as a source of particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullová, Daša; Jandačka, Dušan; Ďurčanská, Daniela; Eštoková, Adriana; Hegrová, Jitka

    2017-09-01

    Traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on the environment and longevity of the pavements. It is also associated with increase in emissions of particulate matter. Slovakia has built up the major part of roads with asphalt surface. Therefore, the research presented in this contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of released particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures are abraded in wheel tracking machine DYNA-TRACK. The particulate matter measurements were performed in the laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution presents results of measured mass concentrations, chemical analyses of asphalt mixture materials and chemical analyses of particulate matter. The rutted asphalt samples are compared in terms of particulate matter mass concentrations and chemical composition. The contribution presents results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. The concentrations of metals are subjected to the multivariate statistical analysis (factor analysis) for the identification of sources of particulate matter (bituminous binder, aggregates).

  1. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J [Grand Forks, ND; Zhuang, Ye [Grand Forks, ND; Almlie, Jay C [East Grand Forks, MN

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  2. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary disorders. Clinical and experimental studies have historically focused on the cardiopulmonary effects of PM. However, since PM particles carry numerous biocontaminants that are capable of triggering free radical production and cytokine release, the possibility that PM may affect organs systems sensitive to oxidative stress must be considered. Four independent studies that summarize the neurochemical and neuropathological changes found in the brains of PM exposed animals are described here. These were recently presented at two 2007 symposia sponsored by the Society of Toxicology (Charlotte, NC) and the International Neurotoxicology Association (Monterey, CA). Particulates are covered with biocontaminants (e.g., endotoxins, mold, pollen) which convey free radical activity that can damage the lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins of target cells on contact and stimulate inflammatory cytokine release. Although, the historical focus of PM toxicity has been cardiopulmonary targets, it is now appreciated that inhaled nano-size (<100 nm) particles quickly exit the lungs and enter the circulation where they distribute to various organ systems (l.e., liver, kidneys, testes, lymph nodes) (Takenaka et aI

  3. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  4. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  5. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  6. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  7. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  8. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  9. Ecological effects of particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Grantz, D A; Garner, J H B; Johnson, D W

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a heterogeneous material. Though regulated as un-speciated mass, it exerts most effects on vegetation and ecosystems by virtue of the mass loading of its chemical constituents. As this varies temporally and spatially, prediction of regional impacts remains difficult. Deposition of PM to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of the particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. However, chemical loading of an ecosystem may be determined by the size distribution as different constituents dominate different size fractions. Coating with dust may cause abrasion and radiative heating, and may reduce the photosynthetically active photon flux reaching the photosynthetic tissues. Acidic and alkaline materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more likely route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. PM deposited directly to the soil can influence nutrient cycling, especially that of nitrogen, through its effects on the rhizosphere bacteria and fungi. Alkaline cation and aluminum availability are dependent upon the pH of the soil that may be altered dramatically by deposition of various classes of PM. A regional effect of PM on ecosystems is linked to climate change. Increased PM may reduce radiation interception by plant canopies and may reduce precipitation through a variety of physical effects. At the present time, evidence does not support large regional threats due to un-speciated PM, though site-specific and constituent-specific effects can be readily identified. Interactions of PM with other pollutants and with components of climate change remain important areas of research in assessment of challenges to ecosystem stability.

  10. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  11. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  12. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  13. Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

  14. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  15. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  16. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  17. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

  18. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  19. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  20. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  1. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  2. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  3. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  4. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  5. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  6. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  7. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  8. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  10. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  11. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on... fine particulate matter (PM2.5) nonattainment area has attained the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 national...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  13. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  14. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  15. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on... fine particulate matter (PM2.5) nonattainment area has attained the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 national...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  17. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  18. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  19. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  1. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  2. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  4. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  5. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  6. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  8. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  9. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  10. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  11. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  12. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  13. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  14. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  15. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  16. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  17. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  18. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  19. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  20. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  2. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  4. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  5. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  6. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  7. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  8. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  9. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  10. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  11. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 28507, May 15, 2013. (a) The requirements of... the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Region....

  12. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  13. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  14. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  15. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  16. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... Investigating and Controlling Nontraditional Particulate Matter Emissions Task Completion date Scheduled...

  18. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  19. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  20. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  2. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  3. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  4. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  5. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  6. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) (b) EPA approves the PM-10 attainment demonstration for the...-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE fine particulate matter (PM2.5) nonattainment area has attained the 2006 24-hour...

  8. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.275 Particulate matter control... particulate matter, and because there is no demonstration that their deletion would not interfere with the...

  9. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from a...

  10. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from a...

  11. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  12. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.275 Particulate matter control... particulate matter, and because there is no demonstration that their deletion would not interfere with the...

  13. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  14. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard cubic...

  15. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard cubic...

  16. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  17. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from a...

  18. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  19. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods and...

  20. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  1. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  2. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from a...

  3. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods and...

  4. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  5. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.275 Particulate matter control... particulate matter, and because there is no demonstration that their deletion would not interfere with the...

  6. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  7. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  8. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods and...

  9. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.275 Particulate matter control... particulate matter, and because there is no demonstration that their deletion would not interfere with the...

  10. Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

    2007-03-01

    The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

  11. Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Gallinari, M.; Laurenceau, E.; De La Rocha, C. L.

    2013-09-01

    To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths) and microzooplankton (rotifers). Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM in suspension or in aggregates), of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic particulate matter, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM by zooplankton in the water column. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in a more rapid initial rate of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

  12. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  13. Lidar measurements of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2003-03-01

    Raman lidar techniques have been used in remote sensing to measure the aerosol optical extinction in the lower atmosphere, as well as water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties assumes special importance in the wake of studies strongly correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects. Optical extinction depends upon the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the particulate matter. Optical extinction from lidar returns provide information on particle size and density. The influence of relative humidity upon the growth and size of aerosols, particularly the sulfate aerosols along the northeast US region, has been investigated using a Raman lidar during several field measurement campaigns. A particle size distribution model is being developed and verified based on the experimental results. Optical extinction measurements from lidar in the NARSTO-NE-OPS program in Philadelphia PA, during summer of 1999 and 2001, have been analyzed and compared with other measurements such as PM sampling and particle size measurements.

  14. Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

  15. Aromatic Radicals-Acetylene Particulate Matter Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    atmosphere1. In addition to acute respiratory problems, long-term effects include lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases , as studied by Pope at al...problems such as ischemic heart disease , fatal arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure4,5. Strategies to reduce fine particulate matter (PM...acetylene reaction have been made by Fahr and Stein15, who deduced an Arrhenius expression in a 4 temperature range between 1000 and 1330 K in

  16. PARTICULATE MATTER NAAQS RISK AND EXPOSURE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The PM REA assesses human exposure and health risks for particulate matter. To provide a quantitative assessment of PM exposures and health risks as one of the key information inputs to the Administrator in order to make an informed decision regarding the PM NAAQS. A tiered risk/exposure assessment will be conducted as part of the PM NAAQS review and will be peer reviewed by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) of EPA’s Science Advisory Board.

  17. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... and secondary NAAQS for particulates. The schedule for this study is as follows: Schedule for...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... and secondary NAAQS for particulates. The schedule for this study is as follows: Schedule for...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... and secondary NAAQS for particulates. The schedule for this study is as follows: Schedule for...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the... matter in the Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Region and the Ohio portions of the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the... matter in the Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Region and the Ohio portions of the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the... matter in the Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Region and the Ohio portions of the...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the... matter in the Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Region and the Ohio portions of the...

  4. Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

    2012-06-01

    A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

  5. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  6. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  7. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  8. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  9. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  10. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...

  11. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The development of this document is part of the Agency's periodic review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for PM. The recently completed PM ISA and supplementary annexes, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments developed by EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, will provide the scientific basis to inform EPA decisions related to the review of the current PM NAAQS. Key information and judgments formerly contained in an Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for PM are incorporated in this assessment. Additional details of the pertinent literature published since the last review, as well as selected older studies of particular interest, are included in a series of annexes. This ISA thus serves to update and revise the evaluation of the scientific evidence available at the time of the previous review of the NAAQS for PM that was concluded in 2006.

  12. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  18. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.332 Section 52.332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter. 52.1341 Section 52.1341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.332 Section 52.332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  4. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  10. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  11. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.427 Section 52.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  14. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.332 Section 52.332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter. 52.1341 Section 52.1341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

  2. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.332 Section 52.332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

  4. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  9. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  12. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  13. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12..., and other planning SIPs related to attainment of the standard for as long as the area continues to...

  14. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  15. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The develop...

  16. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 0.1 g/kg black liquor solids (dry weight) . (3) From any lime kiln any...

  17. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled. ...

  18. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled. ...

  19. Field measurement of diesel particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Volkwein, Jon C; Mischler, Steven E; Davies, Brian; Ellis, Clive

    2008-03-01

    A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the filter with R(2) values >0.86. The relative standard deviation from replicate samples of DP and EC was 0.16 and 0.11, respectively. The method may also have applications beyond mining, where qualitative evaluation of engine emissions is desirable to determine if engine or control technology maintenance may be required.

  20. Elemental composition of Arctic particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Eldred, Robert A.

    Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan arctic to the Norwegian arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

  1. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  2. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Particulate Matter; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed rule...

  3. Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Gallinari, M.; Laurenceau, E.; De La Rocha, C. L.

    2013-02-01

    To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths) and microzooplankton (rotifers). Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM), suspended or in aggregates, of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic material, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM in the water column by zooplankton. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in more rapid kinetics of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

  4. Cell death pathways of particulate matter toxicity.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Milena Simões; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2017-08-22

    Humans are exposed to various complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) from different sources. Long-term exposure to high levels of these particulates has been linked to a diverse range of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases that have resulted in hospital admission. The evaluation of the effects of PM exposure on the mechanisms related to cell death has been a challenge for many researchers. Therefore, in this review, we have discussed the effects of airborne PM exposure on mechanisms related to cell death. For this purpose, we have compiled literature data on PM sources, the effects of exposure, and the assays and models used for evaluation, in order to establish comparisons between various studies. The analysis of this collected data suggested divergent responses to PM exposure that resulted in different cell death types (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis). In addition, PM induced oxidative stress within cells, which appeared to be an important factor in the determination of cell fate. When the levels of reactive oxygen species were overpowering, the cellular fate was directed toward cell death. This may be the underlying mechanism of the development or exacerbation of respiratory diseases, such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. In addition, PM was shown to cause DNA damage and the resulting mutations increased the risk of cancer. Furthermore, several conditions should be considered in the assessment of cell death in PM-exposed models, including the cell culture line, PM composition, and the interaction of the different cells types in in vivo models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 75 FR 17865 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY... updates were made to the particulate matter standards by adding fine particulate standards and revoking the state's course particulate standards. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October...

  6. Lability of secondary organic particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Gilles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2016-01-01

    The energy flows in Earth’s natural and modified climate systems are strongly influenced by the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). For predictions of concentration, equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between organic PM and the surrounding vapor has widely been assumed, yet recent observations show that organic PM can be semisolid or solid for some atmospheric conditions, possibly suggesting that SVOC uptake and release can be slow enough that equilibrium does not prevail on timescales relevant to atmospheric processes. Herein, in a series of laboratory experiments, the mass labilities of films of secondary organic material representative of similar atmospheric organic PM were directly determined by quartz crystal microbalance measurements of evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations. There were strong differences between films representative of anthropogenic compared with biogenic sources. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH) between 20% and 30%, indicating rapid partitioning above a transition RH but not below. Below the threshold, the characteristic time for equilibration is estimated as up to 1 wk for a typically sized particle. In contrast, for films representing biogenic PM, no RH threshold was observed, suggesting equilibrium partitioning is rapidly obtained for all RHs. The effective diffusion rate Dorg for the biogenic case is at least 103 times greater than that of the anthropogenic case. These differences should be accounted for in the interpretation of laboratory data as well as in modeling of organic PM in Earth’s atmosphere. PMID:27791063

  7. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of identifiable effects on public health which may be expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air (42 U.S.C. 7408). This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM sufficiently protects public health and the environment. Key information and judgments formerly contained in an Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for PM are incorporated in this assessment. Additional details of the pertinent literature published since the last review, as well as selected older studies of particular interest, are included in a series of annexes. This ISA thus serves to update and revise the evaluation of the scientific evidence available at the time of the previous review of the NAAQS for PM that was concluded in 2006.

  8. Factors Controlling Liquid Particulate Matter in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, A. P.; Gong, Z.; de Sá, S. S.; Wernis, R. A.; Yee, L.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Castillo, P.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Alexander, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The hygroscopic response of particulate matter (PM) during GoAmazon 2014/5 was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. The hygroscopic response was measured online and in real-time using a custom designed impaction apparatus. The impaction apparatus was calibrated with respect to particle viscosity indicating a liquid state (viscosity <102 Pa s) for complete adherence (no particle rebound). By varying the PM water content and observing particle rebound as a function of RH (up to 98%), the hygroscopic response and phase state of the PM under investigation was determined. The hygroscopic response curves were categorized according to the rebound fraction at high RH (80 - 98%) bounded by two extremes. 1) Time periods that resemble pure SOM generated under controlled chamber conditions, where no particle rebound is observed above 80% RH. 2) Time periods that a large fraction (10 - 40%) of particles rebound at RH values >95%, an indication of hydrophobic particles. The role of anthropogenic and biogenic factors in controlling the hygroscopic response of PM in Amazonia is investigated through meteorological conditions and particle chemical composition.

  9. 76 FR 5270 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... particulates can cause heart and lung disease. Particulate matter also aggravates asthma. Airborne particulate... more for fine particulates. WPC states that it would be difficult for sources to limit PM 2.5...

  10. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... procedures in § 60.534: (1) An affected facility equipped with a catalytic combustor shall not discharge into... (0.009 lb/hr). Particulate emissions during any test run at any burn rate that is required to be used...

  11. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blowing still: (1) Particulate...) Particulate matter in excess of 0.60 kg/Mg (1.2 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still during blowing without... the still during blowing without a catalyst and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner;...

  12. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blowing still: (1) Particulate...) Particulate matter in excess of 0.60 kg/Mg (1.2 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still during blowing without... the still during blowing without a catalyst and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner;...

  13. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blowing still: (1) Particulate...) Particulate matter in excess of 0.60 kg/Mg (1.2 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still during blowing without... the still during blowing without a catalyst and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner;...

  14. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  15. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not...

  16. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not...

  17. Setting and Reviewing Standards to Control Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set national air quality standards for particulate matter, and to periodically review the standards to ensure that they provide adequate health and environmental protection, updating those standards as necessary.

  18. Monitoring by Control Technique - Wet Scrubber For Particulate Matter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Wet Scrubber For Particulate Matter controls used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  19. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  20. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  1. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  2. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

  3. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

  4. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

  5. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  6. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  7. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

  8. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  9. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

  10. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  11. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  12. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  13. A comprehensive particulate matter monitoring system and dosimetry-based ambient particulate matter standards.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yousheng

    2006-04-01

    A numerical particulate matter (PM) measurement model is developed to characterize and evaluate PM sampling methods. Simulations are conducted using the model to evaluate currently widely used PM samplers, including Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers. The simulations show that current PM samplers are very vulnerable to both changes in measurement target (i.e., natural variability of particle size distribution) and the sampler's design, manufacturing, and operating conditions, potentially resulting in significant errors in the monitoring data. The numerical model is used in conjunction with two types of commercially available PM monitoring devices to form a Comprehensive Particulate Matter Monitoring System (CPMMS). The first type of device can be any mass-based PM monitor with a well-defined sampling efficiency curve. The second type of device is one capable of measuring particle size distribution with a reasonably good relative accuracy between size categories but not necessarily accurate in measuring absolute mass concentrations. This study shows that CPMMS can produce much higher quality PM monitoring data than the current PM samplers under the same conditions. In addition, unlike past and current PM monitoring data such as total suspended particulates, coarse PM (PM10), fine PM (PM2.5), etc., the CPMMS monitoring data will survive changes in PM regulatory definition. A new concept, dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards, is proposed to define ambient PM level based on the deposition fraction of particles in the human respiratory tract. The dosimetry-based PM metrics is more meaningful because it correlates the ambient PM level with the portion that can be deposited in the respiratory tract without an arbitrary cutoff particle diameter. CPMMS makes dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards feasible.

  14. PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  16. Lability of secondary organic particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Gilles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    We report the energy flows in Earth’s natural and modified climate systems are strongly influenced by the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). For predictions of concentration, equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between organic PM and the surrounding vapor has widely been assumed, yet recent observations show that organic PM can be semisolid or solid for some atmospheric conditions, possibly suggesting that SVOC uptake and release can be slow enough that equilibrium does not prevail on timescales relevant to atmospheric processes. Herein, in a series of laboratory experiments, the mass labilities of films of secondary organic material representative of similar atmospheric organic PM were directly determined by quartz crystal microbalance measurements of evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations. There were strong differences between films representative of anthropogenic compared with biogenic sources. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH) between 20% and 30%, indicating rapid partitioning above a transition RH but not below. Below the threshold, the characteristic time for equilibration is estimated as up to 1 wk for a typically sized particle. In contrast, for films representing biogenic PM, no RH threshold was observed, suggesting equilibrium partitioning is rapidly obtained for all RHs. The effective diffusion rate Dorg for the biogenic case is at least 103 times greater than that of the anthropogenic case. In conclusion, these differences should be accounted for in the interpretation of laboratory data as well as in modeling of organic PM in Earth’s atmosphere.

  17. Lability of secondary organic particulate matter

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; ...

    2016-10-24

    We report the energy flows in Earth’s natural and modified climate systems are strongly influenced by the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). For predictions of concentration, equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between organic PM and the surrounding vapor has widely been assumed, yet recent observations show that organic PM can be semisolid or solid for some atmospheric conditions, possibly suggesting that SVOC uptake and release can be slow enough that equilibrium does not prevail on timescales relevant to atmospheric processes. Herein, in a series of laboratory experiments, the mass labilities of films of secondary organic material representativemore » of similar atmospheric organic PM were directly determined by quartz crystal microbalance measurements of evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations. There were strong differences between films representative of anthropogenic compared with biogenic sources. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH) between 20% and 30%, indicating rapid partitioning above a transition RH but not below. Below the threshold, the characteristic time for equilibration is estimated as up to 1 wk for a typically sized particle. In contrast, for films representing biogenic PM, no RH threshold was observed, suggesting equilibrium partitioning is rapidly obtained for all RHs. The effective diffusion rate Dorg for the biogenic case is at least 103 times greater than that of the anthropogenic case. In conclusion, these differences should be accounted for in the interpretation of laboratory data as well as in modeling of organic PM in Earth’s atmosphere.« less

  18. Association between ambient particulate matter and disorders of vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Lim, Youn-Hee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals has been suggested to alter the physiologic state of the inner and middle ear. However, it is unknown if particulate matter exposure is associated with acute vestibular dysfunction. To estimate the effects of particulate matter exposure on the number of hospital visits related to three major diseases of vestibular dysfunction, Meniere's disease (MD), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and vestibular neuronitis (VN). Our study subject is from Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, which is dynamic cohort consist of 1 million participants representing the Korean population. Among total cohort participants, we used the hospital visit data of 210,000 individuals who resided in Seoul from 2007 to 2010. Time series analysis using the Poisson generalized additive model and case-crossover analysis using conditional logistic regression were used to investigate the association between daily particulate matter levels (PM2.5, particulate matter <2.5μg/m(3); PM10, particulate matter <10μg/m(3); PM10-2.5, PM10- PM2.5) and number of MD, BPPV, and VN hospital visits. Time series analysis showed that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 and PM10-2.5 on lag day 1 was associated with an increased risk of MD hospital visits [relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI), PM10: 1.09 (1.02-1.15); PM10-2.5: 1.06 (1.02-1.10)]. In addition, elderly individuals (≥60 years old) showed an increased risk of MD hospital visits after particulate matter exposure when compared to younger individuals. An IQR increase in particulate matter on lag day 1 was associated with a marginally significant increase in VN hospital visits [RR (95%CI), PM2.5: 1.11 (0.98-1.25); PM10: 1.07 (0.99-1.15); PM10-2.5: 1.04 (0.99-1.09)]. However, no association between particulate matter exposure and BPPV hospital visits was noted. Case-crossover analyses showed similar results to the time-series analysis across all three diseases. MD

  19. Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Urban Chinese Cities, 2005-2016: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    He, Mike Z; Zeng, Xiange; Zhang, Kaiyue; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-02-14

    Background: Particulate matter pollution has become a growing health concern over the past few decades globally. The problem is especially evident in China, where particulate matter levels prior to 2013 are publically unavailable. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature that reported fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in different regions of China from 2005 to 2016. Methods: We searched for English articles in PubMed and Embase and for Chinese articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We evaluated the studies overall and categorized the collected data into six geographical regions and three economic regions. Results: The mean (SD) PM2.5 concentration, weighted by the number of sampling days, was 60.64 (33.27) μg/m³ for all geographic regions and 71.99 (30.20) μg/m³ for all economic regions. A one-way ANOVA shows statistically significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the various geographic regions (F = 14.91, p < 0.0001) and the three economic regions (F = 4.55, p = 0.01). Conclusions: This review identifies quantifiable differences in fine particulate matter concentrations across regions of China. The highest levels of fine particulate matter were found in the northern and northwestern regions and especially Beijing. The high percentage of data points exceeding current federal regulation standards suggests that fine particulate matter pollution remains a huge problem for China. As pre-2013 emissions data remain largely unavailable, we hope that the data aggregated from this systematic review can be incorporated into current and future models for more accurate historical PM2.5 estimates.

  20. Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Urban Chinese Cities, 2005–2016: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    He, Mike Z.; Zeng, Xiange; Zhang, Kaiyue; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter pollution has become a growing health concern over the past few decades globally. The problem is especially evident in China, where particulate matter levels prior to 2013 are publically unavailable. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature that reported fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in different regions of China from 2005 to 2016. Methods: We searched for English articles in PubMed and Embase and for Chinese articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We evaluated the studies overall and categorized the collected data into six geographical regions and three economic regions. Results: The mean (SD) PM2.5 concentration, weighted by the number of sampling days, was 60.64 (33.27) μg/m3 for all geographic regions and 71.99 (30.20) μg/m3 for all economic regions. A one-way ANOVA shows statistically significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the various geographic regions (F = 14.91, p < 0.0001) and the three economic regions (F = 4.55, p = 0.01). Conclusions: This review identifies quantifiable differences in fine particulate matter concentrations across regions of China. The highest levels of fine particulate matter were found in the northern and northwestern regions and especially Beijing. The high percentage of data points exceeding current federal regulation standards suggests that fine particulate matter pollution remains a huge problem for China. As pre-2013 emissions data remain largely unavailable, we hope that the data aggregated from this systematic review can be incorporated into current and future models for more accurate historical PM2.5 estimates. PMID:28216601

  1. [Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1

  2. Driver exposure to particulate matter in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Jinsart, W; Kaewmanee, C; Inoue, M; Hara, K; Hasegawa, S; Karita, K; Tamura, K; Yano, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters > or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10-2.5) exposure levels of drivers and to analyze the proportion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Four bus routes were selected. Measurements were conducted over 10 days in August (rainy season) 2008 and 8 days in January (dry season) 2009. The mean PM2.5 exposure level of the Tuk-tuk drivers was 86 microg/m3 in August and 198 microg/m3 in January. The mean for the non-air-conditioned bus drivers was 63 microg/m3 in August and 125 microg/m3 in January. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposure levels of the drivers in January were approximately twice as high as those in August. The proportion of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 to the PM2.5 level in August (0.97 +/- 0.28 microg/m3) was higher than in January (0.65 +/- 0.13 microg/m3). The proportion of OC in the TC of the PM2.5 in August (0.51 +/- 0.08 microg/m3) was similar to that in January (0.65 +/- 0.07 microg/m3). The TC exposure by PM25 in January (81 +/- 30 microg/m3) remained higher than in August (56-21 microg/m3). The mean level of OC in the PM2.5 was 29 +/- 13 microg/m3 in August and 50 +/- 24 microg/m3 in January. In conclusion, the PM exposure level in Bangkok drivers was higher than that in the general environment, which was already high, and it varied with the seasons and vehicle type. This study also demonstrated that the major component of the PM was carbon, likely derived from vehicles.

  3. Aggregation of organic matter in coastal waters: A dilemma of using a Couette flocculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Skoog, Annelie

    2017-05-01

    Aggregation of organic matter (OM) plays an important role in regulating the efficiency of biological pump. We investigated the effect of OM aggregation on bulk and compound-specific composition of particulate and dissolved samples from the coast of Avery Point, Connecticut, USA. Samples were incubated in a Couette device for 6 h in the dark at 8 rpm, which generated a mean shear of 3.4 s-1. The shear induced a net aggregation (1.69 μM-C, equivalent to 7.2% of initial particulate organic carbon; POC) and an even larger gross aggregation (7.43 μM-C, equivalent to 31.5% of initial POC) in 6 h. However, in a blank test, we found that Couette devices released a significant amount of uncharacterized dissolved organic matter (DOM) within 6 h of the experiment. Blank tests have not been part of previous studies, but released DOM has to be taken into account when evaluating experimental data employing Couette devices. The relative abundance (as % of organic C and N) of labile POC components (i.e. amino acids and neutral aldoses in this study) decreased significantly in the treatment. There was no compound-specific selective degradation of amino acids or neutral aldoses in the particulate phase. The decrease of labile organic components and the increase of uncharacterized OM in the particulate phase, indicating that aggregation processes accumulate uncharacterized OM and lead to a more refractory POC. Further, our data indicate that aggregation processes may accumulate the element not essential for microbial growth under the specific environmental conditions. In this study, we found particulate C accumulates when microbial growth is N-limited.

  4. Spatial Temporal Modelling of Particulate Matter for Health Effects Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, N. A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution require estimation of individual exposure. It is not possible to obtain measurements at all relevant locations so it is necessary to predict at these space-time locations, either on the basis of dispersion from emission sources or by interpolating observations. This study used data obtained from a low-cost sensor network of 32 air quality monitoring stations in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, which make up the ILM (innovative air (quality) measurement system). These stations currently provide PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 m in diameter), aggregated to hourly means. The data provide an unprecedented level of spatial and temporal detail for a city of this size. Despite these benefits the time series of measurements is characterized by missing values and noisy values. In this paper a space-time analysis is presented that is based on a dynamic model for the temporal component and a Gaussian process geostatistical for the spatial component. Spatial-temporal variability was dominated by the temporal component, although the spatial variability was also substantial. The model delivered accurate predictions for both isolated missing values and 24-hour periods of missing values (RMSE = 1.4 μg m-3 and 1.8 μg m-3 respectively). Outliers could be detected by comparison to the 95% prediction interval. The model shows promise for predicting missing values, outlier detection and for mapping to support health impact studies.

  5. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas.

  6. Diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fire stations.

    PubMed

    Bott, Raymond C; Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B; Reid, Damien A

    2017-09-01

    Firefighters are known to be exposed to a wide variety of combustion products during operational and training firefighting activities. However, the potential for exposure to diesel exhaust emissions, recently classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, also exists within the fire station environment. In this study, concentrations of diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured in the engine bays, duty offices and dormitory areas of eight fire stations in Queensland, Australia. Operation of fire appliances and mechanical equipment during start of shift checks were found to contribute more strongly to overall engine bay diesel particulate matter concentrations than the number of fire appliance departures and returns. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found to be transported further into fire station living environments than diesel particulate matter. This study highlights a number of potential strategies for reducing firefighter exposures to components of diesel engine exhaust in the fire station environment.

  7. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullová, Daša; Đurčanská, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  8. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  9. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... matter in excess of 0.67 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still when a catalyst is added to... still when a catalyst is added to the still and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner; and (3... a catalyst; and (4) Particulate matter in excess of 0.64 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to...

  10. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter in excess of 0.67 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still when a catalyst is added to... still when a catalyst is added to the still and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner; and (3... a catalyst; and (4) Particulate matter in excess of 0.64 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to...

  11. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  12. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  13. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  14. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  15. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  16. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  17. Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-02-21

    A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

  18. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62 Section 60.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland...

  19. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.776 Control strategy... Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Region. (b) APC 4-R of Indiana's “Air Pollution Control...

  20. Turkish Primary Students' Conceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter in daily-life events. Five questions were asked of students and interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were conducted with 12 students, four students from each grade, after they finished the formal…

  1. Update - characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for PM2.5, particulate matter whose effective diameter is less than 2.5 microns. PM2.5 is listed as a criteria pollutant in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). All cotton gins across the cotton belt will be impacted by this standar...

  2. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

  3. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

  4. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (Final Report, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

  5. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (Final Report, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

  6. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and e...

  7. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel (excluding...

  8. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel (excluding...

  9. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel (excluding...

  10. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

  11. Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has m...

  12. Concentrations of particulate matter in large cattle feedlots in Kansas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Air quality in communities surrounding cattle feedlots is a growing public concern. Our objective was to quantify emission patterns and weather effects on particulate matter (PM) transport upwind and downwind from two large cattle feedlots (KS1, KS2) in Kansas. The concentrations of PM2.5 (particles...

  13. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  14. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

  15. Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

  16. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury.
    Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC.
    Epidemiol...

  17. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  18. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  19. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  20. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  1. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury.
    Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC.
    Epidemiol...

  2. Chapter 2: particulate matter (PM10) in the air

    Treesearch

    Cliff F. Hunt; Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the atmospheric conditions in and near the nation forest in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twainin Missoui, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest in Arkansas. This report includes information about particulate matter, visibility, ozone concentrations, and acid deposition in...

  3. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  4. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  5. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  6. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard cubic foot) after correction to a stack gas concentration of 7% oxygen, using procedures... particulate matter standard. (c) Oxygen correction. (1) Measured pollutant levels must be corrected for the amount of oxygen in the stack gas according to the formula: ER30SE99.027 Where: Pc is the...

  7. Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

  8. Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has m...

  9. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  10. Spatial Statistics of atmospheric particulate matter in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongxiang; Wang, Yangjun; Liu, Yulu

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the spatial dynamics of the atmospheric particulate matters (resp. PM10 and PM2.5) are studied using turbulence methodologies. The hourly concentrations of particulate matter were released by the Chinese government (http://www.cnemc.cn). We first processed these data into daily average concentrations. Totally, there are 305 monitor stations with an observations period of 425 days. It is found experimentally that the spatial correlation function ρ(r) shows a log-law on the mesoscale range, i.e., 50 ≤ r ≤ 500 km, with an experimental scaling exponent β = 0.45. The spatial structure function shows a power-law behavior on the mesoscale range 90 ≤ r ≤ 500 km. The experimental scaling exponent ζ(q) is convex, showing that the intermittent correction is relevant in characterizing the spatial dynamics of particulate matter. The measured singularity spectrum f(α) also shows its multifractal nature. Experimentally, the particulate matter is more intermittent than the passive scalar, which could be partially due to the mesoscale movements of the atmosphere, and also due to local sources, such as local industry activities.

  11. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

  12. AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTEIN MASS OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of ambient particulate matter mass concentrations with the total protein mass concentration has not been performed previously for North Carolina and was the goal of this study. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all inclusive indicator of biologically ...

  13. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

  14. SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this paper, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipa...

  15. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  16. Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

  17. Particulate matter adjacent to cattle deep-bedded monoslope facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region. Many of these facilities add organic bedding material to the pens once or twice per week. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions from these facilities have not been evaluate...

  18. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0...

  19. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any electric submerged arc furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 0.45... submerged arc furnace and escape the capture system and are visible without the aid of instruments. The...

  20. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any electric submerged arc furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 0.45... submerged arc furnace and escape the capture system and are visible without the aid of instruments. The...

  1. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for <span class=Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...

  2. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0...

  3. Evaluation of a Direct Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Monitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    One aspect of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment study (NCAAES) was to evaluate personal exposures to coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5) and their associated variability. As part of this, we examined the ability of a community-based monitor to act as...

  4. Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

  5. 77 FR 50446 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 )...

  6. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction ha...

  7. STATUS AND PROGRESS IN PARTICULATE MATTER FORECASTING: INITIAL APPLICATION OF THE ETA- CMAQ FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews the status and progress in forecasting particulate matter distributions. The shortcomings in representation of particulate matter formation in current atmospheric chemistry/transport models are presented based on analyses and detailed comparisons with me...

  8. 77 FR 12526 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year...

  9. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction ha...

  10. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  11. PRELIMINARY PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGITUDINAL PANEL STUDIES "ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES OF HIGH RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO PARTICULATE MATTER"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NERL Particulate Matter Longitudinal Panel Studies were used to characterize temporal variations of personal exposure to PM and related co-pollutants, including that of PM measured at ambient sites. These studies were fundamental in understanding the associations between p...

  12. PRELIMINARY PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGITUDINAL PANEL STUDIES "ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES OF HIGH RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO PARTICULATE MATTER"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NERL Particulate Matter Longitudinal Panel Studies were used to characterize temporal variations of personal exposure to PM and related co-pollutants, including that of PM measured at ambient sites. These studies were fundamental in understanding the associations between p...

  13. 75 FR 17894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... September 11, 2009. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October 2006 by strengthening the 24... particulate matter. DATES: Comments must be received on or before May 10, 2010. ADDRESSES: Submit...

  14. Research priorities for airborne particulates matter in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.; Wassle, R.; Holmes, K.J.; Abt, E.; Bakshi, K.

    2005-07-15

    Despite substantial progress in reducing air pollution over the past 30 years, particulates remain a poorly understood health concern that requires further study. The article provides a brief overview of the work of an independent National Research Council (NRC) Committee on particulate matter (PM). It highlights the committee's process for developing during its deliberations. It reflects on the committee as a potential model to provide guidance on a broad research area in which findings may have significant policy implications. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales

    SciTech Connect

    Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis

    2010-09-15

    Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel

  16. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, Steven R. . E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-09-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

  17. Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1996-09-01

    As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

  18. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  19. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, James; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Sappok, Alex; Ragaller, Paul; Bromberg, Leslie

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  20. Optical and Gravimetric Partitioning of Coastal Ocean Suspended Particulate Inorganic Matter (PIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavn, R. H.; Zhang, X.; Falster, A. U.; Gray, D. J.; Rick, J. J.; Gould, R. W., Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Recent work on the composition of suspended particulates of estuarine and coastal waters increases our capabilities to investigate the biogeochemal processes occurring in these waters. The biogeochemical properties associated with the particulates involve primarily sorption/desorption of dissolved matter onto the particle surfaces, which vary with the types of particulates. Therefore, the breakdown into chemical components of suspended matter will greatly expand the biogeochemistry of the coastal ocean region. The gravimetric techniques for these studies are here expanded and refined. In addition, new optical inversions greatly expand our capabilities to study spatial extent of the components of suspended particulate matter. The partitioning of a gravimetric PIM determination into clay minerals and amorphous silica is aided by electron microprobe analysis. The amorphous silica is further partitioned into contributions by detrital material and by the tests of living diatoms based on an empirical formula relating the chlorophyll content of cultured living diatoms in log phase growth to their frustules determined after gravimetric analysis of the ashed diatom residue. The optical inversion of composition of suspended particulates is based on the entire volume scattering function (VSF) measured in the field with a Multispectral Volume Scattering Meter and a LISST 100 meter. The VSF is partitioned into an optimal combination of contributions by particle subpopulations, each of which is uniquely represented by a refractive index and a log-normal size distribution. These subpopulations are aggregated to represent the two components of PIM using the corresponding refractive indices and sizes which also yield a particle size distribution for the two components. The gravimetric results of partitioning PIM into clay minerals and amorphous silica confirm the optical inversions from the VSF.

  1. Particulate matter formation from photochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Several experiments were performed in the European Photo-reactor - EUPHORE - for studying aerosol formation from organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl. The mass concentration yields obtained (Y) were in the range 5 - 44% for the photo-oxidation reactions in the presence and the absence of NOx. These results confirm the importance of studying pesticides as significant precursors of atmospheric particulate matter due to the serious risks associated to them. The studies based on the use of EUPHORE photoreactor provide useful data about atmospheric degradation processes of organophosphorus pesticides to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the specific degradation products, including the formation of secondary particulate matter, could complete the assessment of their potential impact, since the formation of those degradation products plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry, global climate change, radiative force, and are related to health effects.

  2. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 μm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. PMID:19617562

  3. Organic content of particulate matter in turbine engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.J.; Groth, R.H.; Blasko, T.J.

    1980-03-01

    Research report:Solid particulate matter, mainly carbon, emitted during fossil fuels combustion contains a variety of organic species adsorbed onto it. Studies were conducted to identify the organic compounds generated by a gas turbine engine. Total organics were determined by gas chromatography and flame ionization. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and nitrosamines were present in samples collected from exhaust gases. (1 diagram, 4 references, 11 tables)

  4. Electrically heated particulate matter filter soot control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2016-03-15

    A regeneration system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A control module determines a current soot loading level of the PM filter and compares the current soot loading level to a predetermined soot loading level. The control module permits regeneration of the PM filter when the current soot loading level is less than the predetermined soot loading level.

  5. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  6. Particulate Matter Emissions Factors for Dust from Unique Military Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Plane-Integrated PM10 Mass Concentration PI-SWERL Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Laboratory PM Particulate Matter PNNL Pacific Northwest National...surface material (with respect to the sum of sand , clay, and silt) and M is the vehicle mass in metric tons (Mg). A second emission factor equation for...increased, the particle size of entrained dust converged, but the sand -sized particles entrained by the rotor-wash increased indicating that the

  7. Establishing the origin of particulate matter across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Martijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. In this paper we like to provide an overview of recent source apportionment studies aimed at PM and its precursors carried out at TNO. The source apportionment module that tracks the origin of modelled particulate matter distributions throughout a LOTOS-EUROS simulation will be explained. To optimally apply this technology dedicated emission inventories, e.g. fuel type specific, need to be generated. Applications to Europe shows that in northwestern Europe the contribution of transport and agricultural emissions dominate the PM mass concentrations, especially during episodic events. In eastern Europe, the domestic and energy sector are much more important. In southern Europe the picture is more mixed, although the frequent high levels of desert dust stand out. Evaluation of the source allocation against experimental data and PMF analyses is challenging as there is only a limited availability of source specific tracers or factors that can be used for direct comparison. Nonetheless, for the available tracers such as vanadium for heavy fuel oil combustion an evaluation is very well possible. The source apportionment technique can also be used to interpret particulate matter formation efficiencies. It will be shown that the conversion rates for the secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (NOx, NH3 and SO2) have changed during the last 20 years. A particular problem is related to the fact that CTMs systematically underestimate observed PM levels, which means that the contribution of certain source categories (natural, agriculture, combustion) are underestimated. Future developments needed to improve the source apportionment information concerning process knowledge, data assimilation as well as model implementation will be discussed. Specific challenges concerning the

  8. Total particulate matter concentration skews cigarette smoke's gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hassell, John A; Stampfli, Martin R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure of small animals to cigarette smoke is widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, protocols and exposure systems utilised vary substantially and it is unclear how these different systems compare. We analysed the gene expression profile of six publically available murine datasets from different cigarette smoke-exposure systems and related the gene signatures to three clinical cohorts. 234 genes significantly regulated by cigarette smoke in at least one model were used to construct a 55-gene network containing 17 clusters. Increasing numbers of differentially regulated clusters were associated with higher total particulate matter concentrations in the different datasets. Low total particulate matter-induced genes mainly related to xenobiotic/detoxification responses, while higher total particulate matter activated immune/inflammatory processes in addition to xenobiotic/detoxification responses. To translate these observations to the clinic, we analysed the regulation of the revealed network in three human cohorts. Similar to mice, we observed marked differences in the number of regulated clusters between the cohorts. These differences were not determined by pack-year. Although none of the experimental models exhibited a complete alignment with any of the human cohorts, some exposure systems showed higher resemblance. Thus, depending on the cohort, clinically observed changes in gene expression may be mirrored more closely by specific cigarette smoke exposure systems. This study emphasises the need for careful validation of animal models.

  9. Total particulate matter concentration skews cigarette smoke's gene expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hassell, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of small animals to cigarette smoke is widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, protocols and exposure systems utilised vary substantially and it is unclear how these different systems compare. We analysed the gene expression profile of six publically available murine datasets from different cigarette smoke-exposure systems and related the gene signatures to three clinical cohorts. 234 genes significantly regulated by cigarette smoke in at least one model were used to construct a 55-gene network containing 17 clusters. Increasing numbers of differentially regulated clusters were associated with higher total particulate matter concentrations in the different datasets. Low total particulate matter-induced genes mainly related to xenobiotic/detoxification responses, while higher total particulate matter activated immune/inflammatory processes in addition to xenobiotic/detoxification responses. To translate these observations to the clinic, we analysed the regulation of the revealed network in three human cohorts. Similar to mice, we observed marked differences in the number of regulated clusters between the cohorts. These differences were not determined by pack-year. Although none of the experimental models exhibited a complete alignment with any of the human cohorts, some exposure systems showed higher resemblance. Thus, depending on the cohort, clinically observed changes in gene expression may be mirrored more closely by specific cigarette smoke exposure systems. This study emphasises the need for careful validation of animal models. PMID:27995131

  10. High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

  11. [Form of the particulate matter ambient air standards in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Ding, Jun-Nan; Wang, Rui-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Meng, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Bin; Lin, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Based on the principles from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States, an analysis was conducted to study the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter in China by methods of statistical regression, proportional rollback and controlling contrast maps, using the monitoring data of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) from 120 cities in China during year 2005 to 2012. It was found that for cities in China, when the annual arithmetic mean of PM10 was equal to the national standard, the non-exceedance rates of daily average PM10 in most cities were higher than 95.0% , and the average rate for all cities was 97.1%. The average non-exceedance rate was 96.3% for cities in North China and Northwest China, 96.6% for Northeast China, 97.2% for East China and Central South China, and 98.1% for Southwest China. When the 97th percentile was chosen as the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter for China, the 24-hour standard had an equal controlling strength with the annual standard. The 24-hour standard will become the controlling standard when larger percentiles were chosen, otherwise the contrary. By considering together the statistical characteristics of PM10 level in China, the robustness of the percentiles and protection of human health, the 95th percentile was suitable as the preferred form of the 24-hour standard of PM10 and PM2.5 in China.

  12. Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

  13. Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzari, E. D.; Clayton, C. A.; Rodes, C. E.; Mason, R. E.; Piper, L. L.; Fort, B.; Pfeifer, G.; Lynam, D.

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is a manganese-based gasoline additive used to enhance automobile performance. MMT has been used in Canadian gasoline for about 20 yr. Because of the potential for increased levels of Mn in particulate matter resulting from automotive exhausts, a large-scale population-based exposure study (˜1000 participant periods) was conducted in Toronto, Canada, to estimate the distribution of 3-day average personal exposures to particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) and Mn. A stratified, three-stage, two-phase probability, longitudinal sample design of the metropolitan population was employed. Residential indoor and outdoor, and ambient levels (at a fixed site and on a roof) of PM 2.5, PM 10, and Mn were also measured. Supplementary data on traffic counts, meteorology, MMT levels in gasoline, personal occupations, and activities (e.g. amount of vehicular usage) were collected. Overall precision (%RSD) for analysis of duplicate co-located samples ranged from 2.5 to 5.0% for particulate matter and 3.1 to 5.5% for Mn. The detection limits were 1.47 and 3.45 μg m -3 for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 fractions, respectively, and 5.50 and 1.83 ng m -3 for Mn in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. These low detection limits permitted the reporting of concentrations for >98% of the samples. For PM 10, the personal particulate matter levels (median 48.5 μg m -3) were much higher than either indoor (23.1 μg m -3) or outdoor levels (23.6 μg m -3). The median levels for PM 2.5 for personal, indoor, and outdoor were 28.4, 15.4 and 13.2 μg m -3, respectively. The correlation between PM 2.5 personal exposures and indoor concentrations was high (0.79), while correlations between personal and the outdoor, fixed site and roof site were low (0.16-0.27). Indoor Mn concentration distributions (in PM 2.5 and PM 10), unlike particulate matter, exhibited much lower and less variable levels that the corresponding outdoor data. The median personal exposure

  14. Active matter model of Myxococcus xanthus aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, Adam; Bahar, Fatmagul; Liu, Guannan; Thutupalli, Shashi; Welch, Roy; Yllanes, David; Shaevitz, Joshua; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling bacterium that exhibits several fascinating collective behaviors including streaming, swarming, and generation of fruiting bodies. A striking feature of M. xanthus is that it periodically reverses its motility direction. The first stage of fruiting body formation is characterized by the aggregation of cells on a surface into round mesoscopic structures. Experiments have shown that this aggregation relies heavily on regulation of the reversal rate and local mechanical interactions, suggesting motility-induced phase separation may play an important role. We have adapted self-propelled particle models to include cell reversal and motility suppression resulting from sporulation observed in aggregates. Using 2D molecular dynamics simulations, we map the phase behavior in the space of Péclet number and local density and examine the kinetics of aggregation for comparison to experiments.

  15. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for DPM. (2) Non-powered, negative-pressure, air purifying, particulate-filter respirators shall use... respirator at the mine. If the PLHCP determines that the miner cannot wear a negative pressure respirator... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter...

  16. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for DPM. (2) Non-powered, negative-pressure, air purifying, particulate-filter respirators shall use... respirator at the mine. If the PLHCP determines that the miner cannot wear a negative pressure respirator... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter...

  17. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

  18. Speciation of The Particulate Organic Matter In Three Remote Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masclet, Pierre; Marchand, Nicolas; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Besombes, Jean Luc

    Total particulate matter was collected as part of three programs between 1999 and 2001 (EAAS in Finland, ESOMPTE in Marseille/Fos and POVA in french alpine valleys). The speciation of the particulate organic matter (POM) was performed by Gas Chromatography or HPLC coupled with a mass spectrometer. 13 organic families were identified in the 245 samples collected. The presence of some functional groups (- COOH; - OH and - CHO) and the carbon chain length are used in order to identify the sources of the particulate pollutants and the physicochemical behaviour during the long range atmospheric transport of the aerosol. The composition of the POM differs depending on the season (the secondary fraction reaches 27 % in summer and only 6% in winter) and on the remoteness of the sources. Alkanes are always the most abundant compounds. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, carboxylic acids and monoaromatic hydrocarbons are present in significant abundance. Some alkenes, aldehydes, ether oxydes, ketones and halocompounds are also found. Alcohols are more abundant in aerosols collected close to marine sites. Long carbon chain esters are mostly found in aerosols collected in high density vegetation areas and relatively high concentrations of PAH are measured in aerosols collected close to highly populated areas. These three families are good geochemical tracers, respectively of marine, biogenic and anthropic sources.

  19. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  20. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  1. Aggregation of organic matter by pelagic tunicates

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeroy, L.R.; Deibel, D.

    1980-07-01

    Three genera of pelagic tunicates were fed concentrates of natural seston and an axenic diatom culture. Fresh and up to 4-day-old feces resemble flocculent organic aggregates containing populations of microorganisms, as described from highly productive parts of the ocean, and older feces resemble the nearly sterile flocculent aggregates which are ubiquitous in surface waters. Fresh feces consist of partially digested phytoplankton and other inclusions in an amorphous gelatinous matrix. After 18 to 36 h, a population of large bacteria develops in the matrix and in some of the remains of phytoplankton contained in the feces. From 48 to 96 h, protozoan populations arise which consume the bacteria and sometimes the remains of the phytoplankton in the feces. Thereafter only a sparse population of microorganisms remains, and the particles begin to fragment. Water samples taken in or below dense populations of salps and doliolids contained greater numbers of flocculent aggregates than did samples from adjacent stations.

  2. STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION INVOLVING AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research in the early 1990s focusing on health effects of airborne particulate matter pointed to a statistical association between increases in concentration of particulate in ambient air and increases in daily nonaccidental mortality, particularly among the eld...

  3. Impact assessment of respirable suspended particulate matter from diesel generator sets used for pumping station.

    PubMed

    Talwar, B; Pipalatkar, P; Gajghate, D G; Nema, P

    2010-10-01

    Prediction of respirable suspended particulate matter impacts of diesel generator sets used for pumping station has been made using meteorological data, information on stack characteristics and emission rate, baseline ambient particulate matter and Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST-3) model. It is observed that particulate matter emission from pumping station-S workplace diesel generator sets ranged from 2.4 to 436.5 mg Nm⁻³ and while at pumping station-C, it ranged from 23.2 to 186.5 mg Nm⁻³. The predicted and ambient respirable suspended particulate matter concentrations are below the national air quality standard for respirable suspended particulate matter in a mixed industrial area. Metals contents in respirable suspended particulate matter indicate the origin of crustal and mobile sources. Therefore, the impact of diesel generator sets used for pumping of crude oil on local air quality would be acceptable.

  4. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources

  5. Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

    2011-10-04

    An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

  6. Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Peyton L.; Morse, John C.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

  7. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms.

    PubMed

    Braniš, Martin; Šafránek, Jiří

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5-1.0)) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM(10-2.5) 4.1-7.4 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 2.0-3.3 μg m(-3)) than indoors (average PM(10-2.5) 13.6-26.7 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 3.7-7.4 μg m(-3)). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM(10-2.5) and 1.4-4.8 for the PM(2.5-1.0) values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM(10-2.5)) and 19.1 (PM(2.5-1.0)). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high

  8. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  9. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  10. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  11. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  12. Fe, Ni and Zn speciation, in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiodjio Sendja, Bridinette; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Vassura, Ivano; Giorgetti, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The study of elemental speciation in atmospheric particulate matter is important for the assessment of the source of the particle as well for the evaluation of its toxicity. XANES data at Fe, Ni, and Zn K-edges are recorded on a sample of urban dust (from the Rimini area of Emilia Romagna region, Italy) deposited on a filter and on the NIST standard reference material 1648. Using linear combination fitting we give an indication of the chemical species of the three metals present in the samples.

  13. Natural isotopic composition of nitrogen in suspended particulate matter in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Bhosle, N. B.; Sardesai, S.; Sheshshayee, M. S.

    We present the first measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the surface Bay of Bengal (BOB) at 24 different locations during pre- (April-May 2003) and post- (September-October 2002) monsoon seasons. The δ15N values of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) in surface suspended matter of coastal and northern open BOB show mixing between continental inputs and marine sources. Dilution by continental material brought in by rivers leads to consistently lower δ15N, evident from the relationship between surface salinity and δ15N. δ15N values of surface PON of open ocean locations during both seasons, and also at coastal locations during premonsoon suggest nitrate from deeper waters to be a predominant source of nutrients for phytoplankton. The depth profiles of δ15N of PON during the premonsoon season at nine different locations indicate an increase in δ15N by a maximum of 2.8 between euphotic depth and 300m. These changes are less than those observed in the far eastern Indian Ocean, indicating higher sinking rates of particles ballasted by aggregates of organic and mineral matter in BOB.

  14. Nature and dynamics of phosphorus-containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannigrahi, Poulomi; Ingall, Ellery D.; Benner, Ronald

    2006-12-01

    The molecular sources, dynamics and analytical characterizations of the phosphorus (P) containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM) are reviewed. Using a combination of 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on samples collected from a depth profile (20-4000 m) at Station Aloha in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the biomolecular associations of P functional groups in marine OM are identified. Compositional differences between ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (UDOM; 1-100 nm size fraction) and ultrafiltered particulate organic matter (UPOM; 0.1-60 μm size fraction) as reflected by NMR and elemental analyses indicate that UDOM does not originate from simple solubilization of UPOM, and the aggregation of UDOM is not the primary source of UPOM. Regression analyses indicated a large fraction of the P in UDOM is associated with carbohydrates and amino acids, but not with lipids. Similar analyses for UPOM indicated that P is associated with carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. The P functional groups also appear to be balanced in their distribution among molecular classes, because they remain in relatively constant proportion throughout the ocean.

  15. Does the composition of streamwater colloidal and particulate matter change during monsoon storms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott-Smith, J.; Pohlmann, M. A.; Perdrial, J. N.; Perdrial, N.; Troch, P. A.; Chorover, J.

    2012-12-01

    Streams draining mountain catchments are an important pathway for carbon and weathering products to leave the critical zone (CZ). During intense events such as North American monsoon related storms, shallow flow paths may dominate and introduce soil-derived particulate organic matter (POM), mineral particles and organo-mineral heteroaggregates, into the streams. However, it is not yet well understood how the composition of colloidal and particulate matter (PM) changes during the storm-fed hydrograph. We hypothesized that during small, low intensity storms (small hydrograph response) both organic and organo-mineral aggregates will dominate the suspended particulate load, and that during larger high intensity storms (distinct rise of stream water levels) there will be a significant increase in organic polysaccharide particulates during the rising limb and peak of the storm, with higher levels of minerals being re-introduced during the falling limb of the hydrograph. A headwater stream draining a small (1.3km2) watershed in the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone Observatory (SCM-CZO) was sampled at high resolution (5 minute) intervals during monsoon storms, and solutions were cascade-filtered through polycarbonate filters of 8, 1.2, 0.4 and 0.025 μm pore size. The PM mass was determined and particles >8um were further analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microscopy. These qualitative spectral results were supplemented by the ultra-violet/visible and fluorescence spectra of the colloidal and dissolved (<1.2 μm and <0.4μm) matter in the same sample. Preliminary results for a low intensity storm suggest that three main types of particles dominated: i) POM, ii) silicates and hydroxide minerals and iii) OM-mineral aggregates. POM was most abundant and chemical functional group composition resembled that of the <1.2μm and <0.4μm filtrates (e.g. distinct phenolic-OH and aliphatic C-H stretching bands were observed in both sets of spectra). Bands

  16. Modeling particulate matter emissions during mineral loading process under weak wind simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Chen, Weiping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shuifen

    2013-04-01

    The quantification of particulate matter emissions from mineral handling is an important problem for the quantification of global emissions on industrial sites. Mineral particulate matter emissions could adversely impact environmental quality in mining regions, transport regions, and even on a global scale. Mineral loading is an important process contributing to mineral particulate matter emissions, especially under weak wind conditions. Mathematical models are effective ways to evaluate particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process. The currently used empirical models based on the form of a power function do not predict particulate matter emissions accurately under weak wind conditions. At low particulate matter emissions, the models overestimated, and at high particulate matter emissions, the models underestimated emission factors. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to evaluate the particulate matter emission factors for the mineral loading process. A new approach based on the mathematical form of a logistical function was developed and tested. It provided a realistic depiction of the particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process, accounting for fractions of fine mineral particles, dropping height, and wind velocity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J; Walker, Larry R; Yapaulo, Renato A; Orita, Tetsuo; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai; Foster, David; Akard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

  18. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metassan, Sofian; Ariens, Robert A. S.; Scott, D. Julian; Routledge, Michael N.

    2009-02-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  19. Evaluation of near surface ozone and particulate matter in air ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields without correcting toward higher-resolution observations. The Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model are used to simulate regional climate and air quality over the contiguous United States for 2000–2010. The air quality simulations for that historical period are then compared to observations from four national networks. Comparisons are drawn between defined performance metrics and other published modeling results for predicted ozone, fine particulate matter, and speciated fine particulate matter. The results indicate that the historical air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled meteorology are typically within defined modeling performance benchmarks and are consistent with results from other published modeling studies using finer-resolution meteorology. This indicates that the regional climate and air quality modeling framework utilized here does not introduce substantial bias, which provides confidence in the method’s use for future air quality projections. This paper shows that if emissions inputs and coarse-scale meteorological inputs are reasonably accurate, then air quality can be simulated with acceptable accuracy even wi

  20. [Fine particulate matter and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Li, M; Li, Y M

    2016-09-20

    Fine particulate matter is defined as the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of < 2.5 μm, i.e., PM2.5. Its surface absorbs large amounts of toxic and hazardous substances, which can deposit in pulmonary alveoli through respiration and reach other organs through pulmonary ventilation. Many studies have confirmed that PM2.5 is closely associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)has similar risk factors as these diseases, as well as obesity, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes, and it is considered a part of metabolic syndrome. In this view, many studies focus on the possible association between PM2.5 and NAFLD in recent years, including epidemiological study and experimental study, so as to investigate possible pathogenic mechanisms. With reference to the research advances in PM2.5 and NAFLD, this article reviews the association between PM2.5 and NAFLD from the aspects of lipid deposition, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption on selected solid particulate matter fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Frantisek; Huzlik, Jiri; Pawelczyk, Adam; Hoza, Ignac; Naplavova, Magdalena; Jedlicka, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    This article is directed to evaluating the proportion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) captured on particulate matter (PM) classified as PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, i.e. particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5-10 μm and 2.5 μm. During three week-long and one 2-day campaigns, 22 paired air samples were taken in parallel of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions inside the Mrázovka tunnel in Prague, Czech Republic. Following sample preparation, concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual pairs of each PAH were tested by the nonparametric method using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. At significance level p < 0.01, it was demonstrated that all individual PAHs, including their totals, were bound to the PM2.5 fraction. Exceptions were seen in the cases of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, the concentrations of which fluctuated around the detection limit, where increased measurement error can be expected.

  2. Composition and oxidation state of sulfur in atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Amelia F.; Vine, David J.; King, Laura E.; Oakes, Michelle; Weber, Rodney J.; Huey, Lewis Gregory; Russell, Armistead G.; Ingall, Ellery D.

    2016-10-01

    The chemical and physical speciation of atmospheric sulfur was investigated in ambient aerosol samples using a combination of sulfur near-edge x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (S-NEXFS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the composition and oxidation state of sulfur in common primary emission sources and ambient particulate matter collected from the greater Atlanta area. Ambient particulate matter samples contained two oxidation states: S0 and S+VI. Ninety-five percent of the individual aerosol particles (> 1 µm) analyzed contain S0. Linear combination fitting revealed that S+VI in ambient aerosol was dominated by ammonium sulfate as well as metal sulfates. The finding of metal sulfates provides further evidence for acidic reactions that solubilize metals, such as iron, during atmospheric transport. Emission sources, including biomass burning, coal fly ash, gasoline, diesel, volcanic ash, and aerosolized Atlanta soil, and the commercially available bacterium Bacillus subtilis, contained only S+VI. A commercially available Azotobacter vinelandii sample contained approximately equal proportions of S0 and S+VI. S0 in individual aerosol particles most likely originates from primary emission sources, such as aerosolized bacteria or incomplete combustion.

  3. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment.

  4. California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM10–2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 μm to < 10 μm; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season. PMID:19590679

  5. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  6. Effect of ozonation on particulate matter in broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Wang, L; Oviedo-Rondón, E; Parnell, C B

    2010-10-01

    The effects of ozonation on particulate matter were studied on a commercial broiler farm. The farm consisted of 4 identical tunnel-ventilated houses (12.8×152.4 m): 2 houses were treated with O3 (maximum concentration 0.1 ppm) and the other 2 served as control units. The particle size distributions of total suspended particulate (TSP) samples from both control and treated houses were found to have very similar profiles with no statistical difference. The TSP concentrations were significantly higher in treated houses as compared with those in control houses, and the mean of the differences was 5.50 mg/m3. In both treated and control houses, there were substantial vertical TSP concentration gradients and the concentrations decreased with height. At broiler chicken height (0.28 m), TSP concentrations were 13±3 mg/m3 in control houses and 17±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. At human breathing height (1.55 m), TSP concentrations were 8±4 mg/m3 in control houses and 7±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. Particle phase NH4+ concentrations were higher in treated houses (ranging from 0.59 to 42.01 mg/m3 with mean=17.49 mg/m3) than in control houses (ranging from 0.34 to 13.55 mg/m3 with mean=4.42 mg/m3). The TSP samples from locations in the vicinity of the farm showed higher concentrations downwind than that upwind, but there were no significant differences observed among different ambient locations for TSP NH4+ concentrations. The results from this study did not show that direct application of ozonation technique has beneficial effects for particulate matter control in broiler houses.

  7. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  8. Partitioning of copper onto suspended particulate matter in river waters.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Allen, H E

    2001-09-28

    Suspended particles and river water from the Susquehanna River, White Clay Creek and the Delaware River were collected to experimentally study the partitioning of copper. The effects of many factors that may influence the partitioning coefficient (Kd) including pH, total suspended solids (TSS), total copper concentration ([Cu]T), dissolved organic matter (DOM), particulate organic matter (POM), hardness, and ionic strength were investigated by performing batch adsorption experiments. The results implied that organic matter binding sites in both the aqueous and solid phases play the most important role in controlling copper partitioning. Other major factors governing the partitioning are pH and TSS. Kd increases with pH in the pH range 3-8. TSS increases caused decreases in Kd values, which may be attributed to the decrease in the quantity of available binding sites caused by interparticle interactions, rather than by the redistribution of organic matter between solid and solution phases with the variation of TSS. Kd decreases slightly when total Cu concentration increases; however, Kd can be considered to be independent of Cu concentration when TSS is high. The effects of calcium competition and ionic strength on partitioning are small.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  11. 78 FR 8066 - Method for the Determination of Lead in Total Suspended Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Data used for... in Total Suspended Particulate Matter, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Docket Center (EPA...

  12. 77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Matter 2002 Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions...

  13. 77 FR 12769 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year...

  14. Comparison of methods for online measurement of diesel particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhun; Swanson, Jacob; Kittelson, David B; Pui, David Y H

    2012-06-05

    Gravimetric analysis is the regulatory method for diesel particulate mass measurement. Because of issues such as adsorption/volatilization artifacts, it faces obstacles in measuring ultra low level emissions from modern diesel engines. Alternative methods of suspended particle mass measurement have been developed that show improvements in time resolution, sensitivity, and accuracy. Three size-resolved methods were considered here. Two methods rely on converting number size distributions obtained using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Conversion techniques were based on effective density measurements and the Lall-Friedlander aggregate model. The third method employs the Universal Nanoparticle Analyzer (UNPA) to measure the aggregate size distribution from which mass is calculated. Results were compared with mass concentrations obtained using gravimetric analysis. The effective density conversion resulted in mass concentrations that were highly correlated (R(2) >0.99) with filter mass. The ratios to filter mass concentration were found to be 0.99 ± 0.04, 0.45 ± 0.03, and 0.45 ± 0.19 for the effective density conversion, the Lall-Friedlander conversion, and the UNPA, respectively, for a wide range of engine operating conditions. In addition, the diesel aerosol mass distributions measured by the online techniques are in agreement to within 15-20% with respect to the mass median diameter, while discrepancies were observed in the mass concentration.

  15. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    SciTech Connect

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art

  16. Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particu...

  17. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  18. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  19. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  20. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  1. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE.
    JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of vegetative environmental buffers in mitigating particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from animal operations have been identified as a major air pollutant source with health and environmental impacts. Nearly 600 million broilers are produced annually on the Delmarva Peninsula, making it a hot spot for particulate matter emissions from poultry houses....

  3. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  4. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency performed a particulate matter (PM) exposure assessment based on data from the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study was a one-year investigation of PM ...

  5. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE.
    JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  18. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section 52.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following... particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial County Air Pollution...

  19. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section 52.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following... particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial County Air Pollution...

  20. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section 52.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following... particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial County Air Pollution...

  1. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section 52.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following... particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial County Air Pollution...

  2. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section 52.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following... particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial County Air Pollution...

  3. SUMMARY FINDINGS FROM THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Particulate Matter Panel Studies were a series of longitudinal human exposure studies used to characterize personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants to that of pollutants of ambient origin. Participants were monitored over time (28 d...

  4. Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particu...

  5. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.528 Section 52.528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.528 Section 52.528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the...

  7. Primary and secondary particulate matter intake fraction from different height emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvez, Fatema; Lamancusa, Carmen; Wagstrom, Kristina

    2017-09-01

    This study uses intake fraction, the fraction of emissions that are inhaled, to compare potential particulate matter exposure among different height emission sources. We use the Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to estimate intake fraction for primary and secondary particulate matter species from different height emission sources. We develop an approach to quantify intake fraction for both primary and secondary particulate matter species emitted from all types of emission sources in the contiguous United States. To compute intake fraction for secondary particulate matter species, we consider the inhalation of the precursor gas and condensed species based on the common atomic unit between the emitted gas and particulate matter product. Our calculated intake fraction varies from 1.0 to 4.9 per million for primary particulate matter, 0.4 to almost 6.0 per million for secondary species, including inhalation of both particulate matter and the relevant precursor species. Intake fraction is consistently higher in the winter than the summer for all species from all emission heights. The shortest height sources, which include area sources, display intake fractions over an order of magnitude greater than more elevated sources.

  8. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  9. SUMMARY FINDINGS FROM THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Particulate Matter Panel Studies were a series of longitudinal human exposure studies used to characterize personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants to that of pollutants of ambient origin. Participants were monitored over time (28 d...

  10. 77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year..., a 2002 base year emissions inventory and other planning SIP revisions related to attainment of the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2231 Section 52.2231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2231 Section 52.2231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval....

  13. 40 CFR 52.578 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.578 Section 52.578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 26, 1987, the Georgia Department...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2231 Section 52.2231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2231 Section 52.2231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval....

  17. 40 CFR 52.578 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.578 Section 52.578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 26, 1987, the Georgia Department...

  18. 40 CFR 52.578 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.578 Section 52.578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 26, 1987, the Georgia Department...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.1781 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2231 Section 52.2231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.933 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.933 Section 52.933 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 27, 1987, the Kentucky...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.1781 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control...

  5. 40 CFR 52.578 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.578 Section 52.578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 26, 1987, the Georgia Department...

  6. 40 CFR 52.933 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.933 Section 52.933 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated March 27, 1987, the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.62 Section 52.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated May 29, 1987, the Alabama Department...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7,...

  10. Characterization of Particulate Matter from a Heavily Industrial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valarini, Simone; Ynoue, Rita Yuri

    2011-01-01

    A characterization of PM aerosols collected in Cubatão, Brazil is presented. Throughout 2009, 5 sampling campaings were carried out at CEPEMA (Centro de Capacitação e Pesquisa em Meio Ambiente da Universidade de São Paulo), in the vicinity of PETROBRAS oil refinery. Mini-vol portable air sampler was deployed to collect coarse and fine particles. Size-fractionated particle samples were collected by a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) device. Gravimetric analysis showed three peaks for mass size distributions: the After-Filter stage (cut point diameter of less than 0,1μm), stage 7A (d=0,32μm) and stage 3A (d= 3,2μm). Fine particle matter (FPM) concentrations were almost always lower than coarse particle matter (CPM) concentrations. Comparison between the PM2.5 (particulate matter lower than 2.5μg.m-3) measurements by the MOUDI and Mini-Vol sampler reveals good agreement. However, MOUDI underestimates CPM. Reflectance analysis showed that almost all the Black Carbon is found in the Mini-Vol FPM and lower stages of the MOUDI, with higher concentrations at the After-Filter. The atmospheric loading of PM 2.5 was elevated at night, mainly due to more stable atmospheric conditions. Aerosol samples were analyzed for water- soluble ions, black carbon (BC), and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques.

  11. Particulate matter dynamics in naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E. L.

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) concentrations and ventilation rates, in two naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns, were continuously monitored for two years. The first barn (B1) housed 400 fresh lactating cows, while the second barn (B2) housed 835 non-fresh lactating cows and 15 bulls. The relationships between PM concentrations and accepted governing parameters (environmental conditions and cattle activity) were examined. In comparison with other seasons, PM concentrations were lowest in winter. Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations in spring and autumn were relatively higher than those in summer. Overall: the concentrations in the barns and ambient air, for all the PM categories (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP), exhibited non-normal positively skewed distributions, which tended to overestimate mean or average concentrations. Only concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 increased with ambient air temperature (R2 = 0.60-0.82), whereas only concentrations of TSP increased with cattle activity. The mean respective emission rates of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP for the two barns ranged between 1.6-4.0, 11.9-15.0, and 48.7-52.5 g d-1 cow-1, indicating similar emissions from the two barns.

  12. Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, A.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.; Vautard, R.; Ferreira, J.; Perez, A. T.

    Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, forced by the MM5 meteorological fields, was applied over Portugal for 2001 year, with 10 km horizontal resolution, using an emission inventory obtained from a spatial top-down disaggregation of the 2001 national inventory database. The evaluation model exercise shows a model trend to overestimate particulate pollution episodes (peaks) at urban sites, especially in winter season. This could be due to an underprediction of the winter model vertical mixing and also to an overestimation of PM emissions. Simulated inorganic components (ammonium and sulfate) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were compared to measurements taken at Aveiro (northwest coast of Portugal). An underestimation of the three components was verified. However, the model is able to predict their seasonal variation. Nevertheless, as a first approach, and despite the complex topography and coastal location of Portugal affected by sea salt natural aerosols emissions, the results obtained show that the model reproduces the PM levels, temporal evolution, and spatial patterns. The concentration maps reveal that the areas with high PM values are covered by the air quality monitoring network.

  13. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  14. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  15. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    SciTech Connect

    Branis, Martin; Safranek, Jiri

    2011-05-15

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0}) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 4.1-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 2.0-3.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}) than indoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 13.6-26.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 3.7-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM{sub 10-2.5} and 1.4-4.8 for the PM{sub 2.5-1.0} values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and 19.1 (PM{sub 2.5-1.0}). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school

  16. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  17. Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sæbø, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

    2012-06-15

    Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants.

  18. Systemic and vascular effects of circulating diesel exhaust particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ni; van Eeden, Stephan F

    2013-11-01

    Numerous studies have found an association between transiently increased particulate matter air pollution and acute adverse cardiovascular health effects; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clear. Translocation of ultra-fine ambient particulate matter has been proposed to play a key role in these acute side effects. This study was designed to determine the contribution of circulating (translocated) diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) to the systemic and vascular effects. C57 mice (10-week) received intravenous DEPs via tail vein injection. Following 1-h post-injection, inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), peripheral blood cell counts, band cell counts, aortic endothelial function and vascular constriction were assessed. Thoracic aortae were isolated, and endothelial function was examined by measuring acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated vascular relaxation using a wire myograph. In addition, phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated vasoconstriction was also measured. The amount of DEPs deposited and trapped in tissues (the spleen, liver, lungs and heart) were quantified. Acute systemic DEP exposure caused a significant increase in TNF-α, peripheral neutrophil and band cell counts. ACh and SNP-induced relaxation were not affected by acute systemic DEP exposure, neither was PE-stimulated constriction. There was a significantly increased DEP deposition in the spleen as well as in the liver. No significantly increased DEPs were detected in the lung and heart. Here we show that circulating DEPs induce a systemic response characterized by increased TNF-α, peripheral granulocytes, but does not impact endothelial function. Our study also suggests that circulating particles are rapidly removed from the circulation and predominantly sequestered in the spleen and liver.

  19. Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Qiu, Guowang

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has long been recognized as an air pollutant due to its adverse health and environmental impacts. As emission of PM from agricultural operations is an emerging air quality issue, the Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions Indicator (APMEI) has been developed to estimate the primary PM contribution to the atmosphere from agricultural operations on Census years and to assess the impact of practices adopted to mitigate these emissions at the soil landscape polygon scale as part of the agri-environmental indicator report series produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. In the APMEI, PM emissions from animal feeding operations, wind erosion, land preparation, crop harvest, fertilizer and chemical application, grain handling, and pollen were calculated and compared for the Census years of 1981-2006. In this study, we present the results for PM10 and PM2.5, which exclude chemical application and pollen sources as they only contribute to total suspended particles. In 2006, PM emissions from agricultural operations were estimated to be 652.6 kt for PM10 and 158.1 kt for PM2.5. PM emissions from wind erosion and land preparation account for most of PM emissions from agricultural operations in Canada, contributing 82% of PM10 and 76% of PM2.5 in 2006. Results from the APMEI show a strong reduction in PM emissions from agricultural operations between 1981 and 2006, with a decrease of 40% (442.8 kt) for PM10 and 47% (137.7 kt) for PM2.5. This emission reduction is mainly attributed to the adoption of conservation tillage and no-till practices and the reduction in the area of summer fallow land.

  20. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  1. Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Hu, Wei; Wei, Fusheng; Korn, Leo; Chapman, Robert S.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with deficits in lung function growth among children in Western countries. However, few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where PM levels are often substantially higher. Methods Children (n=3273) aged 6–12 years were recruited from eight schools in four cities. The lung function parameters of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were measured using computerized spirometers twice a year for up to three years (1993–1996). Dichotomous samplers placed in each schoolyard were used to measure PM2.5 and PM10 (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10, respectively). Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between the quarterly average PM levels and lung function growth over the period of follow-up. Results Annual average PM2.5 and PM10 levels in the four cities ranged from 57 to 158 μg/m3 and 95 to 268 μg/m3, respectively. In multivariable models, an increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 was associated with decreases of 2.7 ml FEV1 (95% confidence interval= −3.5 to −2.0), 3.5 ml FVC (−4.3 to −2.7), 1.4 ml/year FEV1 growth (−1.8 to −0.9), and 1.5 ml/year FVC growth (−2.0 to −1.0). Similar results were seen with PM10 exposure. Conclusions Exposure to ambient particulate matter was associated with decreased growth in lung function among Chinese children. PMID:22407138

  2. Gaseous pollutants in particulate matter epidemiology: confounders or surrogates?

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, J A; Schwartz, J; Catalano, P J; Suh, H H

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiologic studies use ambient pollutant concentrations as surrogates of personal exposure. Strong correlations among numerous ambient pollutant concentrations, however, have made it difficult to determine the relative contribution of each pollutant to a given health outcome and have led to criticism that health effect estimates for particulate matter may be biased due to confounding. In the current study we used data collected from a multipollutant exposure study conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, during both the summer and winter to address the potential for confounding further. Twenty-four-hour personal exposures and corresponding ambient concentrations to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide were measured for 56 subjects. Results from correlation and regression analyses showed that personal PM(2.5) and gaseous air pollutant exposures were generally not correlated, as only 9 of the 178 individual-specific pairwise correlations were significant. Similarly, ambient concentrations were not associated with their corresponding personal exposures for any of the pollutants, except for PM(2.5), which had significant associations during both seasons (p < 0.0001). Ambient gaseous concentrations were, however, strongly associated with personal PM(2.5) exposures. The strongest associations were shown between ambient O(3) and personal PM(2.5) (p < 0.0001 during both seasons). These results indicate that ambient PM(2.5) concentrations are suitable surrogates for personal PM(2.5) exposures and that ambient gaseous concentrations are surrogates, as opposed to confounders, of PM(2.5). These findings suggest that the use of multiple pollutant models in epidemiologic studies of PM(2.5) may not be suitable and that health effects attributed to the ambient gases may actually be a result of exposures to PM(2.5). PMID:11675271

  3. Acute pulmonary toxicity of urban particulate matter and ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, R.; Bjarnason, S. G.; Adamson, I. Y.; Hedgecock, C.; Kumarathasan, P.; Guénette, J.; Potvin, M.; Goegan, P.; Bouthillier, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the acute lung toxicity of urban particulate matter in interaction with ozone. Rats were exposed for 4 hours to clean air, ozone (0.8 ppm), the urban dust EHC-93 (5 mg/m3 or 50 mg/m3), or ozone in combination with urban dust. The animals were returned to clean air for 32 hours and then injected (intraperitoneally) with [3H]thymidine to label proliferating cells and killed after 90 minutes. The lungs were fixed by inflation, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and processed for light microscopy autoradiography. Cell labeling was low in bronchioles (0.14 +/- 0.04%) and parenchyma (0.13 +/- 0.02%) of air control animals. Inhalation of EHC-93 alone did not induce cell labeling. Ozone alone increased (P < 0.05) cell labeling (bronchioles, 0.42 +/- 0.16%; parenchyma, 0.57 +/- 0.21%), in line with an acute reparative cell proliferation. The effects of ozone were clearly potentiated by co-exposure with either the low (3.31 +/- 0.31%; 0.99 +/- 0.18%) or the high (4.45 +/- 0.51%; 1.47 +/- 0.18%) concentrations of urban dust (ozone X EHC-93, P < 0.05). Cellular changes were most notable in the epithelia of terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and did not distribute to the distal parenchyma. Enhanced DNA synthesis indicates that particulate matter from ambient air can exacerbate epithelial lesions in the lungs. This may extend beyond air pollutant interactions, such as to effects of inhaled particles in the lungs of compromised individuals. Images Figure 1 PMID:9403707

  4. [Characteristics of particulate matter pollution in coke oven plant].

    PubMed

    Deng, Hua-xin; Zhang, Wang-zhen; Huang, Kun; He, Yun-feng; Li, Xiao-hai; Kuang, Dan; Lin, Da-feng; Zhang, Xiao-min; Wu, Tang-chun

    2012-12-01

    To explore the characteristics of particulate matter pollution in coke oven plant, so as to provide scientific data for establishing occupational exposure limits for coke oven emissions. Concentrations of CO, SO₂, BSM, BTEX (concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were determined in this study), PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, 16 selected PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were determined in the work environment of a coke oven plant in Wuhan. The work environment was divided into the adjunct area, the bottom of, the side of and the top of coke oven. The concentrations of CO, SO₂, BSM, BETX, PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were significantly related to working environmental categories, respectively, and were increasing as the adjunct area < bottom < side < top (P (trend) < 0.05). PM₁₀ was statistically significantly correlated with CO, SO₂, benzene, BTEX and BSM (0.705, 0.823, 0.664, 0.624 and 0.734, respectively). PM₂.₅ was statistically significantly correlated with CO, SO₂, benzene, BTEX and BSM (0.635, 0.916, 0. 680, 0.553 and 0.726, respectively). BSM was statistically significantly correlated with benzene (0.689). The ratios of PM₂.₅ to PM₁₀ between different work environments were not significantly different in one-way ANOVA (P > 0.05). The distribution of aromatic rings and the concentrations of total benzo[a] pyrene equivalents in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were not statistically different between work environments. The concentrations of particulate matter was related with other contents of coke oven emissions in coke work environment, and the contents and types of PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were similar.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

  7. Evaluation of particulate matter abatement strategies for almond harvest.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, William B; Downey, Daniel; Giles, D Ken; Capareda, Sergio C

    2011-04-01

    Almond harvest accounts for substantial PM10 (particulate matter [PM] < or =10 microm in nominal aerodynamic diameter) emissions in California each harvest season. This paper evaluates the effects of using reduced-pass sweepers and lower harvester separation fan speeds (930 rpm) on lowering PM emissions from almond harvesting operations. In-canopy measurements of PM concentrations were collected along with PM concentration measurements at the orchard boundary; these were used in conjunction with on-site meteorological data and inverse dispersion modeling to back-calculate emission rates from the measured concentrations. The harvester discharge plume was measured as a function of visible plume opacity during conditioning operations. Reduced-pass sweeping showed the potential for reducing PM emissions, but results were confounded because of differences in orchard maturity and irrigation methods. Fuel consumption and sweeping time per unit area were reduced when comparing a reduced-pass sweeper to a conventional sweeper. Reducing the separation fan speed from 1080 to 930 rpm led to reductions in PM emissions. In general, foreign matter levels within harvested product were nominally affected by separation fan speed in the south (less mature) orchard; however, in samples conditioned using the lower fan speed from the north (more mature) orchard, these levels were unacceptable.

  8. The movement of small particulate matter in the early solar system and the formation of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1974-01-01

    The motions of the abundant small particulate matter in the early solar system are discussed. The effects of gas drag and resonance effects of perturbing forces could have led to accretion and differentiation of the matter. The composition of the moon and the existence of the rings of Saturn can be explained on the basis of the assembly of small particulate matter in satellite orbits around the planets.

  9. The movement of small particulate matter in the early solar system and the formation of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1974-01-01

    The motions of the abundant small particulate matter in the early solar system are discussed. The effects of gas drag and resonance effects of perturbing forces could have led to accretion and differentiation of the matter. The composition of the moon and the existence of the rings of Saturn can be explained on the basis of the assembly of small particulate matter in satellite orbits around the planets.

  10. Noise Pollution and How it Can Indirectly Affect the Amounts of Particulate Matter in the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, S.; Power, J.; Pham, D.; Preston, K. B.; Iqbal, A.

    2007-12-01

    Human and animal activity that occurs on gravel and dirt roads tends to contribute to high levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Birds molt their feathers, automobiles emit unused residues, and humans and animals stir up debris on the ground. Not only do these activities generate particulate matter, but they also generate noise. The aim of our study was to determine if a direct correlation exists between the amount of particulate matter and the noise levels in select areas within the Lake Merritt Park region of downtown Oakland, California. In addition, our research was aimed at determining if the level of noise at various locations conforms to City of Oakland regulations. Over a four-week period we measured noise levels and particulate matter concentrations at 27 different sites within the Park region. Preliminary results indicate that at a construction site and a residential area near the lake a direct correlation between our two variables existed; high noise level accompanied high particulate matter while low noise level accompanied low particulate matter, respectively. However, at the majority of the areas around the lake either indirect or no correlation was observed. Based on our results thus far, we conclude that noise levels are not indicative of particulate matter levels and that noise levels around Lake Merritt do conform to the city's regulations.

  11. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust particulate matter and diesel fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Obuchi, A; Aoyama, H; Ohi, A; Ohuchi, H

    1984-11-16

    Clean-up procedures were developed for a method for determining the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel exhaust particulate matter and in diesel fuel oils using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). They were based mainly on the elimination of insoluble matter and aliphatic compounds that affect the performance of HPLC, from the dichloromethane extracts of particulate matter or from oils, with the aid of a disposable preparation column containing reversed-phase packings (Sep-Pak C18). Using these procedures, it is possible to detect 1 ng of benzo(a)pyrene in 30 mg of particulate matter with more than a 97% recovery or 0.5 ng in 50 microliters of oil with 91% recovery. Examples of analyses are given for particulate matter emitted from a diesel test engine and for diesel fuel oils, such as gas oil, residual oil and coal-liquefied oil.

  12. Maximum sinking velocities of suspended particulate matter in a coastal transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerz, Joeran; Hofmeister, Richard; van der Lee, Eefke M.; Gräwe, Ulf; Riethmüller, Rolf; Wirtz, Kai W.

    2016-09-01

    Marine coastal ecosystem functioning is crucially linked to the transport and fate of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Transport of SPM is controlled by, amongst other factors, sinking velocity ws. Since the ws of cohesive SPM aggregates varies significantly with size and composition of the mineral and organic origin, ws exhibits large spatial variability along gradients of turbulence, SPM concentration (SPMC) and SPM composition. In this study, we retrieved ws for the German Bight, North Sea, by combining measured vertical turbidity profiles with simulation results for turbulent eddy diffusivity. We analyzed ws with respect to modeled prevailing dissipation rates ɛ and found that mean ws were significantly enhanced around log10(ɛ (m2 s-3)) ≈ -5.5. This ɛ region is typically found at water depths of approximately 15 to 20 m along cross-shore transects. Across this zone, SPMC declines towards the offshore waters and a change in particle composition occurs. This characterizes a transition zone with potentially enhanced vertical fluxes. Our findings contribute to the conceptual understanding of nutrient cycling in the coastal region which is as follows. Previous studies identified an estuarine circulation. Its residual landward-oriented bottom currents are loaded with SPM, particularly within the transition zone. This retains and traps fine sediments and particulate-bound nutrients in coastal waters where organic components of SPM become remineralized. Residual surface currents transport dissolved nutrients offshore, where they are again consumed by phytoplankton. Algae excrete extracellular polymeric substances which are known to mediate mineral aggregation and thus sedimentation. This probably takes place particularly in the transition zone and completes the coastal nutrient cycle. The efficiency of the transition zone for retention is thus suggested as an important mechanism that underlies the often observed nutrient gradients towards the coast.

  13. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  14. Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI.

    PubMed

    Gildemeister, Amy E; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene

    2007-10-01

    Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily industrialized region. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and comparing source contributions at Allen Park to those in Dearborn, contributions made by local industrial sources (power plants, coke refineries, iron smelting, waste incineration), local area sources (automobile and diesel truck) and long range sources of PM(2.5) can be distinguished in greater Detroit. Overall, the mean mass concentration measured at Dearborn was 19% higher than that measured at Allen Park. The mass at Allen Park was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 31%, secondary nitrate 28%, soil 8%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 15%, diesel 4%, and biomass burning 3%. At Dearborn the mass was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 25%, secondary nitrate 20%, soil 12%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 20%, diesel 8%, iron and steel, 5%, and mixed industrial 7%. The impact of the iron and steel, soil, and mixed aged sea and road salt was much higher at the Dearborn site than at the Allen Park site, suggesting that close proximity to a local industrial complex has a direct negative impact on local air quality.

  15. Monitoring of airborne particulate matter at mountainous urban sites.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Dutta, Tanushree; Park, Wha Me; Hong, Jong-Ki; Jung, Kweon; Brown, Richard J C

    2016-08-01

    Concentrations of various size fractions (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0) of particulate matter (PM) were measured at two mountainous sites, Buk Han (BH) and Gwan AK (GA), along with one ground reference site at Gwang Jin (GJ), located in Seoul, South Korea for the 4 years from 2010 to 2013. The daily average concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 at BH were 47.9 ± 32.5, 37.0 ± 24.6, 20.6 ± 12.9, and 15.3 ± 9.53 μg m(-3), respectively. These values were slightly larger than those measured at GA while much lower than those measured at the reference site (GJ). Seasonal variations in PM concentrations were consistent across all locations with a relative increase in concentrations observed in spring and winter. Correlation analysis showed clear differences in PM concentrations between the mountainous sites and the reference site. Analysis of these PM concentrations indicated that the distribution of PM in the mountainous locations was affected by a number of manmade sources from nearby locations, including both traffic and industrial emissions.

  16. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  17. Fine particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis: Mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuntao; Sun, Qinghua

    2016-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and fibrous plaque in the arteries. Its etiology is very complicated and its risk factors primarily include genetic defects, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, lack of exercise, and infection. Recent studies suggest that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution may also contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. The present review integrates current experimental evidence with mechanistic pathways whereby PM2.5 exposure can promote the development of atherosclerosis. PM2.5-mediated enhancement of atherosclerosis is likely due to its pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects, involving multiple organs, different cell types, and various molecular mediators. Studies about the effects of PM2.5inhalation on atherosclerosis may yield a better understanding of the link between air pollution and major cardiovascular diseases, and provide useful information for policy makers to determine acceptable levels of PM2.5 air quality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Foam cell formation by particulate matter (PM) exposure: a review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Long, Jimin; Ji, Yuejia; Chen, Gui; Shen, Yuexin; Gong, Yu; Li, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that exposure of particulate matter (PM) from traffic vehicles, e.g., diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was associated with adverse vascular effects, e.g., acceleration of atherosclerotic plaque progression. By analogy, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) could also induce similar effects. The formation of lipid laden foam cells, derived predominately from macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is closely associated with the development of atherosclerosis and adverse vascular effects. We reviewed current studies about particle exposure-induced lipid laden foam cell formation. In vivo studies using animal models have shown that exposure of air pollution by PM promoted lipid accumulation in alveolar macrophages or foam cells in plaques, which was likely associated with pulmonary inflammation or systemic oxidative stress, but not blood lipid profile. In support of these findings, in vitro studies showed that direct exposure of cultured macrophages to DEP or NP exposure, with or without further exposure to external lipids, promoted intracellular lipid accumulation. The mechanisms remained unknown. Although a number studies found increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) or an adaptive response to oxidative stress, the exact role of oxidative stress in mediating particle-induced foam cell formation requires future research. There is currently lack of reports concerning VSMC as a source for foam cells induced by particle exposure. In the future, it is necessary to explore the role of foam cell formation in particle exposure-induced atherosclerosis development. In addition, the formation of VSMC derived foam cells by particle exposure may also need extensive studies.

  19. Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie L; McGregor, Glenn

    2008-11-01

    Because the state of the atmosphere determines the development, transport, dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants, there is concern that climate change could affect morbidity and mortality associated with elevated concentrations of these gases and fine particles. We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health. We review studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and studies projecting the impacts of these changes on morbidity and mortality. Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty include the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given these uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, which would increase morbidity and mortality. Few projections are available for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, primarily because few studies have been conducted. Additional research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution-related health impacts. If improved models continue to project higher ozone concentrations with climate change, then reducing greenhouse gas emissions would enhance the health of current and future generations.

  20. Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie; McGregor, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health, as well as studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and the impacts of these changes on morbidity/mortality. Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty are the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given the uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, increasing morbidity/mortality. There are few projections for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, because few studies have been conducted. More research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution-related health impacts.

  1. Trends of particulate matter in four cities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, Rakesh

    Particulate matter (PM) in all the four Metropolitan cities in India are higher than the prescribed standards of Central Pollution Control Board, India as well as WHO guidelines. Over last 10 years various changes in fuel quality, vehicle technologies, industrial fuel mix and domestic fuel mix have taken place resulting in changes in air quality in these cities. A set of time series analysis methods viz. t-test adjusted for seasonality, Seasonal Kendall test and Intervention analysis have been applied to identify and estimate the trend in PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) levels monitored for about 10 years at three monitoring sites at each of the four cities in India. These tests have indicated that overall PM 10 levels in all four metro cities have been decreasing or stationary. The distinct trends for the monthly averages of PM 10 concentrations at Parel, Kalbadevi in Mumbai and Thiruvattiyar in Chennai for the period 1993-2003 were declining by 10%, 6% and 5% per annum, respectively. This is ascribed to a shift in the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions in the city. However, the monthly averages of TSP do not have a clear trend over the period 1991-2003.

  2. Protein oxidation and degradation caused by particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Chun-Nin; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, You-Lan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE) protein adduct was caused by DEPs at 150 μg/ml. Methionine oxidation (MetO) of human albumin proteins was induced by DEPs, UD, and CB; however, the protein repair mechanism that converts MetO back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3) was activated by DEPs and inhibited by UD, suggesting that oxidized protein was accumulating in cells. As to the degradation of oxidized proteins, proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by CB with ubiquitin accumulation, whereas proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by DEPs without ubiquitin accumulation. The results suggest that CB-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-dependent autophagy pathway, whereas DEP-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-independent autophagy pathway. A distinct proteotoxic effect may depend on the physicochemistry of PM. PMID:27644844

  3. Modeling residential fine particulate matter infiltration for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry U; Setton, Eleanor M; Allen, Ryan W; Keller, Peter C; Brauer, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Individuals spend the majority of their time indoors; therefore, estimating infiltration of outdoor-generated fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) can help reduce exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies. As indoor measurements in individual homes are not feasible in large epidemiological studies, we evaluated the potential of using readily available data to predict infiltration of ambient PM(2.5) into residences. Indoor and outdoor light scattering measurements were collected for 84 homes in Seattle, Washington, USA, and Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate residential infiltration efficiencies. Meteorological variables and spatial property assessment data (SPAD), containing detailed housing characteristics for individual residences, were compiled for both study areas using a geographic information system. Multiple linear regression was used to construct models of infiltration based on these data. Heating (October to February) and non-heating (March to September) season accounted for 36% of the yearly variation in detached residential infiltration. Two SPAD housing characteristic variables, low building value, and heating with forced air, predicted 37% of the variation found between detached residential infiltration during the heating season. The final model, incorporating temperature and the two SPAD housing characteristic variables, with a seasonal interaction term, explained 54% of detached residential infiltration. Residences with low building values had higher infiltration efficiencies than other residences, which could lead to greater exposure gradients between low and high socioeconomic status individuals than previously identified using only ambient PM(2.5) concentrations. This modeling approach holds promise for incorporating infiltration efficiencies into large epidemiology studies, thereby reducing exposure misclassification.

  4. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Funk, Paul A

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health.

  5. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  6. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter in Mouse Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile G.; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Wang, Xiaoying; Basnakian, Alexei; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory mortality and morbidity has been associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Experimental evidence suggests involvement of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the development of PM-associated pathological states; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed short-term epigenetic response to PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) exposure in mouse ascitic RAW264.7 macrophages (BALB/C Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor). Ambient PM10 was collected using a high volume sampler in Little Rock, AR. Analysis revealed that PM10 was composed mainly of Al and Fe, and the water soluble organic fraction was dominated by aliphatic and carbohydrate fragments and minor quantities of aromatic components. Exposure to PM10 compromised the cellular epigenome at concentrations 10–200 μg/ml. Specifically, epigenetic alterations were evident as changes in the methylation and expression of repetitive element-associated DNA and associated DNA methylation machinery. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations, in concert with cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, might contribute to the pathogenesis of PM-associated respiratory diseases. PMID:24535919

  7. Air Pollution Particulate Matter Alters Antimycobacterial Respiratory Epithelium Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Santiago, César E.; Sarkar, Srijata; Cantarella, Pasquale; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Meng, Qingyu; Kirn, Thomas J.; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Torres, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants and cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Whether exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) alters protective human host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been little studied. Here, we examined the effect of PM from Iztapalapa, a municipality of Mexico City, with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) on innate antimycobacterial immune responses in human alveolar type II epithelial cells of the A549 cell line. Exposure to PM2.5 or PM10 deregulated the ability of the A549 cells to express the antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and HBD-3 upon infection with M. tuberculosis and increased intracellular M. tuberculosis growth (as measured by CFU count). The observed modulation of antibacterial responsiveness by PM exposure was associated with the induction of senescence in PM-exposed A549 cells and was unrelated to PM-mediated loss of cell viability. Thus, the induction of senescence and downregulation of HBD-2 and HBD-3 expression in respiratory PM-exposed epithelial cells leading to enhanced M. tuberculosis growth represent mechanisms by which exposure to air pollution PM may increase the risk of M. tuberculosis infection and the development of TB. PMID:25847963

  8. Skin Damage Mechanisms Related to Airborne Particulate Matter Exposure.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Natalia D; Muresan, Ximena M; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Cervellati, Franco; Sticozzi, Claudia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Miracco, Clelia; Marchini, Timoteo; Evelson, Pablo; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between increased airborne particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. The mechanisms of PM-health effects are believed to involve oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate the ability of PM promoting skin tissue damage, one of the main organs exposed to outdoor pollutants, we analyzed the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues were exposed to 25 or 100 µg/ml CAPs for 24 or 48 h. Data showed that RHE seems to be more susceptible to CAPs-induced toxicity after 48 h exposure than after 24 h. We found a local reactive O(2) species (ROS) production increase generated from metals present on the particle, which contributes to lipids oxidation. Furthermore, as a consequence of altered redox status, NFkB nucleus translocation was increase upon CAPs exposure, as well as cyclooxygenase 2 and cytochrome P450 levels, which may be involved in the inflammatory response initiated by PM. CAPs also triggered an apoptotic process in skin. Surprisingly, by transition electron microscopy analysis we showed that CAPs were able to penetrate skin tissues. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cutaneous pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by CAPs exposure, where oxidative stress and inflammation may play predominant roles.

  9. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  10. Effects of Source-Apportioned Coarse Particulate Matter (PM) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Cleveland Multiple Air Pollutant Study (CMAPS) is one of the first comprehensive studies conducted to evaluate particulate matter (PM) over local and regional scales. Cleveland and the nearby Ohio River Valley impart significant regional sources of air pollution including coal combustion and steel production. Size-fractionated PM (coarse, fine and ultrafine) were collected from an urban site (G.T. Craig (GTC)) and a rural site (Chippewa Lake monitor (CLM) located 53 km southwest of Cleveland) from July 2009 to June 2010. Following collection, resulting speciated PM data were apportioned to identify local industrial emission sources for each size fraction and location, indicating these samples were enriched with resident emission sources. This study was designed to determine whether exposure of the CMAPS coarse PM contributes to the exacerbation of allergic asthma. Non-sensitized and house dust mite (HDM)-sensitized female Balb/cJ mice (n= 8/group) were exposed via oropharyngeal (OP) aspiration to 100 g coarse fractions of one of five source apportioned groups representative of distinct time periods of 4-6 weeks (traffic, coal, steel 1, steel 2, or winter PM) and OP challenge with HDM conducted 2 hr following dosing with PM. Two days later, airway responsiveness to methacholine aerosol was assessed in anesthetized ventilated control and HDM mice. The HDM-allergic mice demonstrated increased airway reactivity in comparison to control mice. Bronchoalveolar l

  11. Hormesis for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5).

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis of hormesis - that substances that harm health at high exposures can reduce risks below background at low exposures, e.g., if they activate defenses without overwhelming them - becomes important for practical policy making if it holds for regulated substances. Recently, the U.S. EPA concluded that reductions in ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air caused trillions of dollars worth of human health benefits for a compliance cost of only about $65 billion per year. This conclusion depends on an unverified assumption of a positive, causal, straight-line relation between PM2.5 concentrations and mortality risks. We review empirical data on PM2.5 and mortality risks (and their precursors, inflammatory responses) and conclude that the PM2.5 concentration-response relation may be J-shaped, rather than linear. This possibility implies that the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment may well have produced no (or negative) human health benefits, rather than the trillions of dollars worth of reduced mortalities ascribed to it by EPA; and that attempts to achieve further risk-reduction benefits by further reducing PM2.5 concentrations may be counterproductive. This creates a very high value for scientific information that better reveals the true shape of the PM2.5 concentration-response function at and below current ambient levels.

  12. Hormesis for Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5)

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Louis Anthony (Tony)

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis of hormesis – that substances that harm health at high exposures can reduce risks below background at low exposures, e.g., if they activate defenses without overwhelming them – becomes important for practical policy making if it holds for regulated substances. Recently, the U.S. EPA concluded that reductions in ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air caused trillions of dollars worth of human health benefits for a compliance cost of only about $65 billion per year. This conclusion depends on an unverified assumption of a positive, causal, straight-line relation between PM2.5 concentrations and mortality risks. We review empirical data on PM2.5 and mortality risks (and their precursors, inflammatory responses) and conclude that the PM2.5 concentration-response relation may be J-shaped, rather than linear. This possibility implies that the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment may well have produced no (or negative) human health benefits, rather than the trillions of dollars worth of reduced mortalities ascribed to it by EPA; and that attempts to achieve further risk-reduction benefits by further reducing PM2.5 concentrations may be counterproductive. This creates a very high value for scientific information that better reveals the true shape of the PM2.5 concentration-response function at and below current ambient levels. PMID:22740783

  13. Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Surya, Nitya; Sussan, Thomas E; Rao, Xiaoquan; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to aggravation of respiratory symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although the health effects of PM on the lower pulmonary airway have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the impact of chronic PM exposure on the upper sinonasal airway. We sought to test the impact of chronic airborne PM exposure on the upper respiratory system in vivo. Mice were subjected, by inhalation, to concentrated fine (2.5 μm) PM 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 16 weeks. Mean airborne fine PM concentration was 60.92 μm/m(3), a concentration of fine PM lower than that reported in some major global cities. Mice were then killed and analyzed for evidence of inflammation and barrier breakdown compared with control mice. Evidence of the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM on sinonasal health in vivo, including proinflammatory cytokine release, and macrophage and neutrophil inflammatory cell accumulation was observed. A significant increase in epithelial barrier dysfunction was observed, as assessed by serum albumin accumulation in nasal airway lavage fluid, as well as decreased expression of adhesion molecules, including claudin-1 and epithelial cadherin. A significant increase in eosinophilic inflammation, including increased IL-13, eotaxin-1, and eosinophil accumulation, was also observed. Collectively, although largely observational, these studies demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

  14. Magnetic quantification of urban pollution sources in atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassov, S.; Egli, R.; Heller, F.; Nourgaliev, D. K.; Hannam, J.

    2004-11-01

    A new method is presented for fast quantification of urban pollution sources in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The remanent magnetization of PM samples collected in Switzerland at sites with different exposures to pollution sources is analysed. The coercivity distribution of each sample is calculated from detailed demagnetization curves of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and is modelled using a linear combination of appropriate functions which represent the contribution of different sources of magnetic minerals to the total magnetization. Two magnetic components, C1 and C2, are identified in all samples. The low-coercivity component C1 predominates in less polluted sites, whereas the concentration of the higher-coercivity component C2 is large in urban areas. The same sites were monitored independently by Hüglin using detailed chemical analysis and a quantitative source attribution of the PM. His results are compared with the magnetic component analysis. The absolute and relative magnetic contributions of component C2 correlate very well with absolute and relative mass contributions of exhaust emissions, respectively. Traffic is the most important PM pollution source in Switzerland: it includes exhaust emissions and abrasion products released by vehicle brakes. Component C2 and traffic-related PM sources correlate well, which is encouraging for the implementation of non-destructive magnetic methods as an economic alternative to chemical analysis when mapping urban dust pollution.

  15. Exploring variation and predictors of residential fine particulate matter infiltration.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nina A; Allen, Ryan W; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2010-08-01

    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.

  16. Lung bioaccessibility of contaminants in particulate matter of geological origin.

    PubMed

    Guney, Mert; Chapuis, Robert P; Zagury, Gerald J

    2016-12-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects. While inhalation exposure to airborne PM is a prominent research subject, exposure to PM of geological origin (i.e., generated from soil/soil-like material) has received less attention. This review discusses the contaminants in PM of geological origin and their relevance for human exposure and then evaluates lung bioaccessibility assessment methods and their use. PM of geological origin can contain toxic elements as well as organic contaminants. Observed/predicted PM lung clearance times are long, which may lead to prolonged contact with lung environment. Thus, certain exposure scenarios warrant the use of in vitro bioaccessibility testing to predict lung bioavailability. Limited research is available on lung bioaccessibility test development and test application to PM of geological origin. For in vitro tests, test parameter variation between different studies and concerns about physiological relevance indicate a crucial need for test method standardization and comparison with relevant animal data. Research is recommended on (1) developing robust in vitro lung bioaccessibility methods, (2) assessing bioaccessibility of various contaminants (especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) in PM of diverse origin (surface soils, mine tailings, etc.), and (3) risk characterization to determine relative importance of exposure to PM of geological origin.

  17. Decomposition of N2O over particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbert, R. E.; Ausloos, P.

    1978-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is shown to undergo both a thermal and a photochemical decomposition at 296 K when it is adsorbed on various dry sands. The photochemical process occurs with light of wavelengths greater than 280 nm, where gaseous N2O does not absorb. At low pressures (less than 0.1 torr) the half-life for the thermal decomposition of nitrous oxide to nitrogen when placed in contact with about 5 gm of heat-treated Tunisian sand in a one-liter vessel was 350 + or - 35 days. Under certain photolytic conditions this half-life was reduced. The efficiency of the photolytic process for a particular sand depends on the pressure and on the wavelength of light. For Tunisian sand at 1.1 torr and with the full mercury arc, the destruction efficiency is about 0.00002 molecule/incident photon. These results indicate that particulate matter in the troposphere may be responsible for the decomposition of nitrous oxide and hence act as an atmospheric sink for N2O. However, moisture causes a drastic reduction in the number of molecules dissociated per incident photon.

  18. Air pollution particulate matter alters antimycobacterial respiratory epithelium innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, César E; Sarkar, Srijata; Cantarella, Pasquale; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Meng, Qingyu; Kirn, Thomas J; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Torres, Martha; Schwander, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants and cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Whether exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) alters protective human host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been little studied. Here, we examined the effect of PM from Iztapalapa, a municipality of Mexico City, with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) on innate antimycobacterial immune responses in human alveolar type II epithelial cells of the A549 cell line. Exposure to PM2.5 or PM10 deregulated the ability of the A549 cells to express the antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and HBD-3 upon infection with M. tuberculosis and increased intracellular M. tuberculosis growth (as measured by CFU count). The observed modulation of antibacterial responsiveness by PM exposure was associated with the induction of senescence in PM-exposed A549 cells and was unrelated to PM-mediated loss of cell viability. Thus, the induction of senescence and downregulation of HBD-2 and HBD-3 expression in respiratory PM-exposed epithelial cells leading to enhanced M. tuberculosis growth represent mechanisms by which exposure to air pollution PM may increase the risk of M. tuberculosis infection and the development of TB.

  19. Protein oxidation and degradation caused by particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Chun-Nin; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, You-Lan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE) protein adduct was caused by DEPs at 150 μg/ml. Methionine oxidation (MetO) of human albumin proteins was induced by DEPs, UD, and CB; however, the protein repair mechanism that converts MetO back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3) was activated by DEPs and inhibited by UD, suggesting that oxidized protein was accumulating in cells. As to the degradation of oxidized proteins, proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by CB with ubiquitin accumulation, whereas proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by DEPs without ubiquitin accumulation. The results suggest that CB-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-dependent autophagy pathway, whereas DEP-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-independent autophagy pathway. A distinct proteotoxic effect may depend on the physicochemistry of PM.

  20. Inferring Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentrations from Chinese Social Media Data

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhu; Kokas, Aynne; Zhang, Rui; Cohan, Daniel S.; Wallach, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Although studies have increasingly linked air pollution to specific health outcomes, less well understood is how public perceptions of air quality respond to changing pollutant levels. The growing availability of air pollution measurements and the proliferation of social media provide an opportunity to gauge public discussion of air quality conditions. In this paper, we consider particulate matter (PM) measurements from four Chinese megacities (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu) together with 112 million posts on Weibo (a popular Chinese microblogging system) from corresponding days in 2011–2013 to identify terms whose frequency was most correlated with PM levels. These correlations are used to construct an Air Discussion Index (ADI) for estimating daily PM based on the content of Weibo posts. In Beijing, the Chinese city with the most PM as measured by U.S. Embassy monitor stations, we found a strong correlation (R = 0.88) between the ADI and measured PM. In other Chinese cities with lower pollution levels, the correlation was weaker. Nonetheless, our results show that social media may be a useful proxy measurement for pollution, particularly when traditional measurement stations are unavailable, censored or misreported. PMID:27649530

  1. Consumption of particulate wastes derived from cage fish farming by aggregated wild fish. An experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Moltó, M; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Aguado-Giménez, F

    2017-09-01

    Particulate wastes derived from cage fish farming are a trophic resource used by wild fish. This study assesses waste consumption by wild fish and the impact on the final balance of wastes. Consumption was determined according to the difference between the particulate matter exiting the cages and that reaching 5 m away at three different depths, in the presence and absence of wild fish. Wild fish around the experimental cages were counted during feeding and non-feeding periods. A weighted abundance of 1057 fish 1000 m(-3) consumed 17.75% of the particulate wastes exiting the cages, on average. Consumption was higher below the cages, where waste outflow was greater. However, waste removal by wild fish was noteworthy along the shallow and deep sides of the cages. Wild fish diminished the net particulate wastes by about 14%, transforming them into more easily dispersible and less harmful wastes. This study demonstrates the mitigating potential of wild fish in reducing environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Adjuvant Effect of Ambient Particulate Matter Is Closely Reflected by the Particulate Oxidant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Bramble, Lori A.; Schmitz, Debra A.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R.; Nel, Andre E.

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization. Redox-active organic chemicals on the particle surface play an important role in PM adverse health effects and may determine the adjuvant effect of different particle types according to their potential to perturb redox equilibrium in the immune system. Objectives We determined whether the adjuvant effect of ambient fine particles versus ultrafine particles (UFPs) is correlated to their prooxidant potential. Methods We have established an intranasal sensitization model that uses ambient PM as a potential adjuvant for sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA), which enhances the capacity for secondary OVA challenge to induce allergic airway inflammation. Results UFPs with a greater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and higher oxidant potential enhanced OVA sensitization more readily than did fine particles. This manifests as enhanced allergic inflammation upon secondary OVA challenge, leading to eosinophilic inflammation and mucoid hyperplasia starting at the nasal turbinates all the way down to the small pulmonary airways. The thiol antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine was able to suppress some of these sensitization events. Conclusions The adjuvant effects of ambient UFP is determined by their oxidant potential, which likely plays a role in changing the redox equilibrium in the mucosal immune system. PMID:19654922

  3. The adjuvant effect of ambient particulate matter is closely reflected by the particulate oxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Bramble, Lori A; Schmitz, Debra A; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R; Nel, Andre E

    2009-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization. Redox-active organic chemicals on the particle surface play an important role in PM adverse health effects and may determine the adjuvant effect of different particle types according to their potential to perturb redox equilibrium in the immune system. We determined whether the adjuvant effect of ambient fine particles versus ultrafine particles (UFPs) is correlated to their prooxidant potential. We have established an intranasal sensitization model that uses ambient PM as a potential adjuvant for sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA), which enhances the capacity for secondary OVA challenge to induce allergic airway inflammation. UFPs with a greater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and higher oxidant potential enhanced OVA sensitization more readily than did fine particles. This manifests as enhanced allergic inflammation upon secondary OVA challenge, leading to eosinophilic inflammation and mucoid hyperplasia starting at the nasal turbinates all the way down to the small pulmonary airways. The thiol antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine was able to suppress some of these sensitization events. The adjuvant effects of ambient UFP is determined by their oxidant potential, which likely plays a role in changing the redox equilibrium in the mucosal immune system.

  4. Differential Effects between Cigarette Total Particulate Matter and Cigarette Smoke Extract on Blood and Blood Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Min; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Kwang-Hoon; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Jin-Yong; Satoh, Masahiko; Song, Seong-Yu; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The generation and collection of cigarette smoke (CS) is a prerequisite for any toxicology study on smoking, especially an in vitro CS exposure study. In this study, the effects on blood and vascular function were tested with two widely used CS preparations to compare the biological effects of CS with respect to the CS preparation used. CS was prepared in the form of total particulate matter (TPM), which is CS trapped in a Cambridge filter pad, and cigarette smoke extract (CSE), which is CS trapped in phosphate-buffered saline. TPM potentiated platelet reactivity to thrombin and thus increased aggregation at a concentration of 25~100 μg/mL, whereas 2.5~10% CSE decreased platelet aggregation by thrombin. Both TPM and CSE inhibited vascular contraction by phenylephrine at 50~100 μg/mL and 10%, respectively. TPM inhibited acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation at 10~100 μg/mL, but CSE exhibited a minimal effect on relaxation at the concentration that affects vasoconstriction. Neither TPM nor CSE induced hemolysis of erythrocytes or influenced plasma coagulation, as assessed by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Taken together, CS affects platelet activity and deteriorates vasomotor functions in vitro. However, the effect on blood and blood vessels may vary depending on the CS preparation. Therefore, the results of experiments conducted with CS preparations should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27818738

  5. Influence of Channel Geomorphology on Retention of Dissolved and Particulate Matter in a Cascade Mountain Stream

    Treesearch

    Gary A. Lamberti; Stan V. Gregory; Linda R. Ashkenas; Randall C. Wildman; Alan G. Steinman

    1989-01-01

    Retention of particulate and dissolved nutrients in streams is a major determinant of food avail-ability to stream biota. Retention of particulate matter (leaves) and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen) was studied experimentally during summer 1987 in four 300-500 m reaches of Lookout Creek, a fifth-order stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Constrained (narrow valley...

  6. QUANTITATION, DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work focuses on analysis of organic molecular markers in airborne particulate matter (PM) by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC/IT MS). The particulate samples used in the method development were collected as PM10 in metropolitan Philadelphia during...

  7. TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

  8. TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

  9. QUANTITATION, DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work focuses on analysis of organic molecular markers in airborne particulate matter (PM) by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC/IT MS). The particulate samples used in the method development were collected as PM10 in metropolitan Philadelphia during...

  10. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  11. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  12. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  13. MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION PLATFORM (MAQSIP): INITIAL APPLICATIONS AND PERFORMANCE FOR TROPOSPHERIC OZONE AND PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides an overview of the formulation, process considerations, and performance for simulating tropospheric ozone and particulate matter distributions of the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP). MAQSIP is a comprehensive atmospheric chemistry/tran...

  14. Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

  15. Trueness, Precision, and Detectability for Sampling and Analysis of Organic Species in Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recovery. precision, limits of detection and quantitation, blank levels, calibration linearity, and agreement with certified reference materials were determined for two classes of organic components of airborne particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes usin...

  16. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... materials likely to become airborne. (viii) The prompt removal from paved streets of earth or other material... fugitive particulate matter emissions. For new sources or new operations, a survey must be conducted within...

  17. REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

  18. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  19. AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE FOLLOWING ANTIGEN AND PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IS VAGALLY MEDIATED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sensory nerves within the airways can initiate a variety of protective reflexes. We hypothesized that insults such as exposure to antigen and particulate matter (PM) might dysregulate airway sensory nerve function, thereby contributing to enhanced airway inflammation and hyperre...

  20. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT DISTANCES FROM A HIGHWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between proximity to highway traffic and increased respiratory symptoms. This study was initiated to determine the contribution of ambient particulate matter (PM) to these observed effects. Ambient PM was collected for 2 weeks ...