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Sample records for particulate matter induce

  1. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury.
    Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC.
    Epidemiol...

  2. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury.
    Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC.
    Epidemiol...

  3. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE.
    JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  4. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE.
    JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  5. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter in Mouse Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile G.; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Wang, Xiaoying; Basnakian, Alexei; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory mortality and morbidity has been associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Experimental evidence suggests involvement of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the development of PM-associated pathological states; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed short-term epigenetic response to PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) exposure in mouse ascitic RAW264.7 macrophages (BALB/C Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor). Ambient PM10 was collected using a high volume sampler in Little Rock, AR. Analysis revealed that PM10 was composed mainly of Al and Fe, and the water soluble organic fraction was dominated by aliphatic and carbohydrate fragments and minor quantities of aromatic components. Exposure to PM10 compromised the cellular epigenome at concentrations 10–200 μg/ml. Specifically, epigenetic alterations were evident as changes in the methylation and expression of repetitive element-associated DNA and associated DNA methylation machinery. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations, in concert with cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, might contribute to the pathogenesis of PM-associated respiratory diseases. PMID:24535919

  6. Particulate matter phagocytosis induces tissue factor in differentiating macrophages.

    PubMed

    Milano, M; Dongiovanni, P; Artoni, A; Gatti, S; Rosso, L; Colombo, F; Bollati, V; Maggioni, M; Mannucci, P M; Bertazzi, P A; Fargion, S; Valenti, L

    2016-01-01

    Airborne exposure to particulate matter with diameter < 10 mcM (PM10) has been linked to an increased risk of thromboembolic events, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PM10 phagocytosis on the release of procoagulant molecules in human differentiating macrophages, and that of PM10 inhalation in an experimental model in rats. Human monocytes were separated from the peripheral blood by the lymphoprep method, differentiated in vitro and treated with standard PM10 or vehicle. Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled intratracheally with PM10 or vehicle alone. The outcome was expression of proinflammatory genes and of tissue factor (TF). In human differentiating macrophages, PM10 exposure upregulated inflammatory genes, but most consistently induced TF mRNA and protein levels, but not TF protein inhibitor, resulting in increased TF membrane expression and a procoagulant phenotype. Differentiation towards the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype inhibited PM10 -mediated TF expression. TF induction required phagocytosis of PM10 , whereas phagocytosis of inert particles was less effective. PM10 phagocytosis was associated with a gene expression profile consistent with intracellular retention of iron, inducing oxidative stress. Both PM10 and iron activated the stress kinases ERK1/2 pathway, involved in the induction of TF expression. In rats, alveolar exposure to PM10 was associated with pulmonary recruitment of inflammatory cells and resulted in local, but not systemic, induction of TF expression, which was sufficient to increase circulating TF levels. In conclusion, TF induction by differentiating lung macrophages, activated following phagocytosis, contributes to the increased risk of thromboembolic complications associated with PM10 exposure. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  8. Particulate matter induces prothrombotic microparticle shedding by human mononuclear and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neri, Tommaso; Pergoli, Laura; Petrini, Silvia; Gravendonk, Lotte; Balia, Cristina; Scalise, Valentina; Amoruso, Angela; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Bollati, Valentina; Celi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Particulate airborne pollution is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity. Microparticles are extracellular vesicles shed by cells upon activation or apoptosis involved in physiological processes such as coagulation and inflammation, including airway inflammation. We investigated the hypothesis that particulate matter causes the shedding of microparticles by human mononuclear and endothelial cells. Cells, isolated from the blood and the umbilical cords of normal donors, were cultured in the presence of particulate from a standard reference. Microparticles were assessed in the supernatant as phosphatidylserine concentration. Microparticle-associated tissue factor was assessed by an one-stage clotting assay. Nanosight technology was used to evaluate microparticle size distribution. Particulate matter induces a dose- and time- dependent, rapid (1h) increase in microparticle generation in both cells. These microparticles express functional tissue factor. Particulate matter increases intracellular calcium concentration and phospholipase C inhibition reduces microparticle generation. Nanosight analysis confirmed that upon exposure to particulate matter both cells express particles with a size range consistent with the definition of microparticles (50-1000 nm). Exposure of mononuclear and endothelial cells to particulate matter upregulates the generation of microparticles at least partially mediated by calcium mobilization. This observation might provide a further link between airborne pollution and cardiopulmonary morbidity.

  9. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elizabeth A W; Buckley, Barbara; Farraj, Aimen K; Thompson, Leslie C

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease have been explored, although linkage with specific factors or genes remains limited. These hypotheses may or may not also lead to particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction. Evidence pointing to autocrine/paracrine signaling systems as modulators of cardiac dysfunction has increased interest in the emerging role of endothelins as mediators of cardiac function following particulate matter exposure. Endothelin-1, a well-described small peptide expressed in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems, is best known for its ability to constrict blood vessels, although it can also induce extravascular effects. Research on the role of endothelins in the context of air pollution has largely focused on vascular effects, with limited investigation of responses resulting from the direct effects of endothelins on cardiac tissue. This represents a significant knowledge gap in air pollution health effects research, given the abundance of endothelin receptors found on cardiac tissue and the ability of endothelin-1 to modulate cardiac contractility, heart rate, and rhythm. The plausibility of endothelin-1 as a mediator of particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction is further supported by the therapeutic utility of certain endothelin receptor antagonists. The present review examines the possibility that endothelin-1 release caused by exposure to PM directly modulates extravascular effects on the heart, deleteriously altering cardiac function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Surya, Nitya; Sussan, Thomas E; Rao, Xiaoquan; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to aggravation of respiratory symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although the health effects of PM on the lower pulmonary airway have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the impact of chronic PM exposure on the upper sinonasal airway. We sought to test the impact of chronic airborne PM exposure on the upper respiratory system in vivo. Mice were subjected, by inhalation, to concentrated fine (2.5 μm) PM 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 16 weeks. Mean airborne fine PM concentration was 60.92 μm/m(3), a concentration of fine PM lower than that reported in some major global cities. Mice were then killed and analyzed for evidence of inflammation and barrier breakdown compared with control mice. Evidence of the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM on sinonasal health in vivo, including proinflammatory cytokine release, and macrophage and neutrophil inflammatory cell accumulation was observed. A significant increase in epithelial barrier dysfunction was observed, as assessed by serum albumin accumulation in nasal airway lavage fluid, as well as decreased expression of adhesion molecules, including claudin-1 and epithelial cadherin. A significant increase in eosinophilic inflammation, including increased IL-13, eotaxin-1, and eosinophil accumulation, was also observed. Collectively, although largely observational, these studies demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

  11. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction ha...

  12. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction ha...

  13. Particulate matter fugitive dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in this conference include: Review of EPA's cost/benefit analysis for additional regulation of surface coal mines; Particulate monitoring on the Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii, and The MEDUSA sampling system: case histories in the measurement of particulate matter with wide spectrum analysis.

  14. Ambient particulate matter induces alveolar epithelial cell cycle arrest: role of G1 cyclins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingmei; Ghio, Andrew J; Gao, Mingxing; Wei, Ke; Rosen, Glenn D; Upadhyay, Daya

    2007-11-13

    We hypothesized that the ambient air pollution particles (particulate matter; PM) induce cell cycle arrest in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Exposure of PM (25microg/cm(2)) to AEC induced cells cycle arrest in G1 phase, inhibited DNA synthesis, blocked cell proliferation and caused decrease in cyclin E, A, D1 and Cyclin E- cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-2 kinase activity after 4h. PM induced upregulation of CDK inhibitor, p21 protein and p21 activity in AEC. SiRNAp21 blocked PM-induced downregulation of cyclins and AEC G1 arrest. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that PM induces AEC G1 arrest by altered regulation of G1 cyclins and CDKs.

  15. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  16. Ambient particulate matter induces an exacerbation of airway inflammation in experimental asthma: role of interleukin-33.

    PubMed

    Shadie, A M; Herbert, C; Kumar, R K

    2014-08-01

    High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. < 10 μm median aerodynamic diameter) have been linked to acute exacerbations of asthma. We examined the effects of delivering a single dose of Sydney PM10 by intranasal instillation to BALB/c mice that had been sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged repeatedly with a low (≈3 mg/m(3)) mass concentration of aerosolized ovalbumin for 4 weeks. Responses were compared to animals administered carbon black as a negative control, or a moderate (≈30 mg/m(3)) concentration of ovalbumin to simulate an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Delivery of PM10 to mice, in which experimental mild chronic asthma had previously been established, elicited characteristic features of enhanced allergic inflammation of the airways, including eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment, similar to that in the allergen-induced exacerbation. In parallel, there was increased expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-33 in airway tissues and an increased concentration of IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Administration of a monoclonal neutralizing anti-mouse IL-33 antibody prior to delivery of particulates significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by Sydney PM10, as well as the levels of associated proinflammatory cytokines in lavage fluid. We conclude that IL-33 plays a key role in driving airway inflammation in this novel experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma induced by exposure to PM10.

  17. Ambient particulate matter induces an exacerbation of airway inflammation in experimental asthma: role of interleukin-33

    PubMed Central

    Shadie, A M; Herbert, C; Kumar, R K

    2014-01-01

    High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. < 10 μm median aerodynamic diameter) have been linked to acute exacerbations of asthma. We examined the effects of delivering a single dose of Sydney PM10 by intranasal instillation to BALB/c mice that had been sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged repeatedly with a low (≈3 mg/m3) mass concentration of aerosolized ovalbumin for 4 weeks. Responses were compared to animals administered carbon black as a negative control, or a moderate (≈30 mg/m3) concentration of ovalbumin to simulate an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Delivery of PM10 to mice, in which experimental mild chronic asthma had previously been established, elicited characteristic features of enhanced allergic inflammation of the airways, including eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment, similar to that in the allergen-induced exacerbation. In parallel, there was increased expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-33 in airway tissues and an increased concentration of IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Administration of a monoclonal neutralizing anti-mouse IL-33 antibody prior to delivery of particulates significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by Sydney PM10, as well as the levels of associated proinflammatory cytokines in lavage fluid. We conclude that IL-33 plays a key role in driving airway inflammation in this novel experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma induced by exposure to PM10. PMID:24730559

  18. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

  19. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

  20. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

  1. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

  2. Environmental Particulate Matter Induces Murine Intestinal Inflammatory Responses and Alters the Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Kish, Lisa; Hotte, Naomi; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Vincent, Renaud; Tso, Robert; Gänzle, Michael; Rioux, Kevin P.; Thiesen, Aducio; Barkema, Herman W.; Wine, Eytan; Madsen, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Particulate matter (PM) is a key pollutant in ambient air that has been associated with negative health conditions in urban environments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orally administered PM on the gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions. Methods Wild-type 129/SvEv mice were gavaged with Ottawa urban PM10 (EHC-93) for 7–14 days and mucosal gene expression analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Intestinal permeability was measured by lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine. At sacrifice, segments of small and large intestine were cultured and cytokine secretion measured. Splenocytes were isolated and incubated with PM10 for measurement of proliferation. Long-term effects of exposure (35 days) on intestinal cytokine expression were measured in wild-type and IL-10 deficient (IL-10−/−) mice. Microbial composition of stool samples was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short chain fatty acids were measured in caecum. Results Short-term treatment of wild-type mice with PM10 altered immune gene expression, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the small intestine, increased gut permeability, and induced hyporesponsiveness in splenocytes. Long-term treatment of wild-type and IL-10−/− mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the colon and altered short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial composition. IL-10−/− mice had increased disease as evidenced by enhanced histological damage. Conclusions Ingestion of airborne particulate matter alters the gut microbiome and induces acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the intestine. PMID:23638009

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone Protects Endothelial Cells against Inflammatory Events Induced by Urban Particulate Matter and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-García, Elizabeth; Montiél-Dávalos, Angélica; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Gutiérrez-Iglesias, Gisela; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and nanoparticles (NPs) induce activation and dysfunction of endothelial cells characterized by inhibition of proliferation, increase of adhesion and adhesion molecules expression, increase of ROS production, and death. DHEA has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in HUVEC activated with proinflammatory agents. We evaluated if DHEA could protect against some inflammatory events produced by PM10 and TiO2 NPs in HUVEC. Adhesion was evaluated by a coculture with U937 cells, proliferation by crystal violet staining, and oxidative stress through DCFDA and Griess reagent. PM10 and TiO2 NPs induced adhesion and oxidative stress and inhibited proliferation of HUVEC; however, when particles were added in combination with DHEA, the effects previously observed were abolished independently from the tested concentrations and the time of addition of DHEA to the cultures. These results indicate that DHEA exerts significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on the damage induced by particles in HUVEC, suggesting that DHEA could be useful to counteract the harmful effects and inflammatory diseases induced by PM and NPs. PMID:23484113

  4. A Novel High-Throughput Approach to Measure Hydroxyl Radicals Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yeongkwon; Mishin, Vladimir; Welsh, William; Lu, Shou-En; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Kipen, Howard; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms linking ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with various adverse health effects. The oxidative potential of PM has been used to characterize the ability of PM induced oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most destructive radical produced by PM. However, there is currently no high-throughput approach which can rapidly measure PM-induced •OH for a large number of samples with an automated system. This study evaluated four existing molecular probes (disodium terephthalate, 3′-p-(aminophenyl)fluorescein, coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and sodium benzoate) for their applicability to measure •OH induced by PM in a high-throughput cell-free system using fluorescence techniques, based on both our experiments and on an assessment of the physicochemical properties of the probes reported in the literature. Disodium terephthalate (TPT) was the most applicable molecular probe to measure •OH induced by PM, due to its high solubility, high stability of the corresponding fluorescent product (i.e., 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid), high yield compared with the other molecular probes, and stable fluorescence intensity in a wide range of pH environments. TPT was applied in a high-throughput format to measure PM (NIST 1648a)-induced •OH, in phosphate buffered saline. The formed fluorescent product was measured at designated time points up to 2 h. The fluorescent product of TPT had a detection limit of 17.59 nM. The soluble fraction of PM contributed approximately 76.9% of the •OH induced by total PM, and the soluble metal ions of PM contributed 57.4% of the overall •OH formation. This study provides a promising cost-effective high-throughput method to measure •OH induced by PM on a routine basis. PMID:26516887

  5. Sirtuin 3 Protects against Urban Particulate Matter-Induced Autophagy in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chieh; Huang, Hsin-Hsiu; Chen, Pei-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2016-07-01

    Urban particulate matter (urban PM) is a heterogeneous mixture of various types of particles originating from different sources. Exposure to high concentrations of urban PM leading to adverse health effects is evaluated by using in vitro cultures of human lung epithelial cells. However, the mechanism underlying the correlation between high concentrations of urban PM exposure and adverse health effects has not been fully elucidated; urban PM-induced oxidative stress is considered as an important mechanism of urban PM-mediated cytotoxicity. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a primary mitrochondrial deacetylase, controls cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and expression of antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we examined the role of SIRT3 in the regulation of urban PM-induced oxidative stress in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpiCs). Cell viability showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease when exposed to urban PM, which could indicate that the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released from the cell in response to urban PM is related to cell viability in HBEpiC. The effects of urban PM on morphological and biochemical markers of autophagy in HBEpiC were analyzed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Overexpression of SIRT3 inhibited urban PM-induced ROS generation, while concomitantly increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and decreasing NF-κB activation and release of inflammation factors. Up-regulation of SIRT3 significantly inhibited the expression of autophagy markers and autophagic vacuole formation. Our findings provide a valuable insight into the potential role of the SIRT3 enzyme in regulating urban PM-induced autophagy by mediating urban PM-induced oxidative stress, which may contribute to urban PM-induced impairment of airway epithelial cell function.

  6. Exposure to Fine Airborne Particulate Matters Induces Hepatic Fibrosis in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ze; Zhang, Xuebao; Wang, Jiemei; Dandeka, Aditya; Kim, Hyunbae; Qiu, Yining; Xu, Xiaohua; Cui, Yuqi; Wang, Aixia; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatic fibrosis, featured by accumulation of excessive extracellular matrix in liver tissues, is associated with metabolic disease and cancer. Inhalation exposure to airborne particulate matter in fine ranges (PM2.5) correlates with pulmonary dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrogenesis. Methods Both inhalation exposure of mice and in vitro exposure of specialized cells to PM2.5 were performed to elucidate the effect of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrosis. Histological examinations, gene expression analyses, and genetic animal models were utilized to determine the effect and mechanism by which PM2.5 exposure promotes hepatic fibrosis. Results Inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 induces hepatic fibrosis in mice under the normal chow or high-fat diet. Mice after PM2.5 exposure displayed increased expression of collagens in liver tissues. Exposure to PM2.5 led to activation of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-SMAD3 signaling, suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and expression of collagens in hepatic stellate cells. NADPH oxidase plays a critical role in PM2.5-induced liver fibrogenesis. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 exerts discernible effects on promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. NADPH oxidase mediates the effects of PM2.5 exposure on promoting hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26220751

  7. Exposure to fine airborne particulate matters induces hepatic fibrosis in murine models.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ze; Zhang, Xuebao; Wang, Jiemei; Dandekar, Aditya; Kim, Hyunbae; Qiu, Yining; Xu, Xiaohua; Cui, Yuqi; Wang, Aixia; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2015-12-01

    Hepatic fibrosis, featured by the accumulation of excessive extracellular matrix in liver tissue, is associated with metabolic disease and cancer. Inhalation exposure to airborne particulate matter in fine ranges (PM2.5) correlates with pulmonary dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrogenesis. Both inhalation exposure of mice and in vitro exposure of specialized cells to PM2.5 were performed to elucidate the effect of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrosis. Histological examinations, gene expression analyses, and genetic animal models were utilized to determine the effect and mechanism by which PM2.5 exposure promotes hepatic fibrosis. Inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 induces hepatic fibrosis in mice under the normal chow or high-fat diet. Mice after PM2.5 exposure displayed increased expression of collagens in liver tissues. Exposure to PM2.5 led to activation of the transforming growth factor β-SMAD3 signaling, suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and expression of collagens in hepatic stellate cells. NADPH oxidase plays a critical role in PM2.5-induced liver fibrogenesis. Exposure to PM2.5 exerts discernible effects on promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. NADPH oxidase mediates the effects of PM2.5 exposure on promoting hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Particulate matter (PM₁₀) induces metalloprotease activity and invasion in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-17

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) is a risk factor for the development of lung diseases and cancer. The aim of this work was to identify alterations in airway epithelial (A549) cells induced by PM10 that could explain how subtoxic exposure (10 μg/cm(2)) promotes a more aggressive in vitro phenotype. Our results showed that cells exposed to PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and an urban commercial zone (CZ) induced an increase in protease activity and invasiveness; however, the cell mechanism is different, as only PM10 from CZ up-regulated the activity of metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and disrupted E-cadherin/β-catenin expression after 48 h of exposure. These in vitro findings are relevant in terms of the mechanism action of PM10 in lung epithelial cells, which could be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of some human illness associated with highly polluted cities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Induces Apoptosis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Through Reactive Oxygen Species Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Xie, Xiaoyun; Jia, Fengpeng; He, Jianfeng; Li, Zhihong; Fu, Minghuan; Hao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jason Z.; Cowan, Peter J.; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in angiogenesis and vascular repair. Some environmental insults, like fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair cardiovascular functions. However, the mechanisms for PM-induced adverse effects on cardiovascular system remain largely unknown. The present research was to study the detrimental effects of PM on EPCs and explore the potential mechanisms. Methods PM was intranasal-distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry was used to measure the number of EPCs, apoptosis level of circulating EPCs and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Serum TNF-α and IL-1β were measured using ELISA. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in EPC apoptosis, PM was co-administrated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in wild type mice or used in a triple transgenic mouse line (TG) with overexpression of antioxidant enzyme network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx-1) with decreased in vivo ROS production. Results PM treatment significantly decreased circulating EPC population, promoted apoptosis of EPCs in association with increased ROS production and serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels, which could be effectively reversed by either NAC treatment or overexpression of AON. Conclusion PM exposure significantly decreased circulating EPCs population due to increased apoptosis via ROS formation in mice. PMID:25591776

  10. Oxidative damage induced by carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic extracts from urban air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Hanzalova, Katerina; Rossner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the role of oxidative damage in the mechanism of action of selected individual carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs: benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P; dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, DB[a,l]P), an artificial mixture of c-PAHs (c-PAHs mix) and extractable organic matter (EOM) from urban air particulate matter (PM). Two cell lines (human hepatoma cells, HepG2; human diploid lung fibroblasts, HEL) were treated for 24 and 48h with various concentrations of compounds and mixtures. A panel of oxidative stress markers included 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and protein carbonyl groups. The response of the cell lines to the test compounds was substantially different. In HepG2 cells, oxidative damage to DNA was generally not induced by individual c-PAHs and the c-PAHs mix, but EOM increased 8-oxodG levels in these cells. In HEL cells, none of the compounds induced oxidative DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation, measured as the level of 15-F(2t)-IsoP, was induced by c-PAHs in HepG2 cells only after 48h of incubation, while the effect of EOM was detected already after 24h. In HEL cells, individual c-PAHs and the c-PAH mix generally decreased 15-F(2t)-IsoP levels. This effect was even stronger for EOM treatment. Protein oxidation, assessed as carbonyl levels in cell lysates, was not induced after 24h of treatment with any compound in either cell line. Individual c-PAHs and the c-PAH mix generally induced protein oxidation in both cell lines after 48h treatment, with the exception of DB[a,l]P in HepG2 cells. Oxidative damage to proteins caused by EOM was generally increased in HepG2 cells after 48h of incubation, while in HEL cells the effect was observed for only one dose of EOM. In summary, our results demonstrate the ability of EOM to induce oxidative damage to DNA and lipids after 24h of treatment, and to proteins after 48h, in HepG2 cells, while the effect of c-PAHs was substantially less. The induction of oxidative stress by c-PAHs and EOM in HEL cells was

  11. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  12. Blueberry Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyu; Pang, Wei; He, Congcong; Li, Yibo; Jiang, Yugang; Guo, Changjiang

    2017-01-11

    Blueberry anthocyanin-enriched extracts (BAE) at three doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg) were administered by oral gavage to rats exposed to 10 mg/kg fine particulate matter (PM2.5) three times a week. A positive control group was exposed to PM2.5 without BAE treatment. We analyzed heart rate (HR), electrocardiogram (ECG), and histopathology, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system injuries, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function, and apoptosis. Results indicated that BAE, particularly at 1.0 g/kg, improved ECG and decreased cytokine levels in PM2.5-exposed rats. These changes were accompanied by an increase in interleukin 10 levels and superoxide dismutase activity in heart tissue and Bcl-2 protein expression, as well as a decrease in interleukin 6, malondialdehyde, endothelin 1, and angiotensin II levels and a reduction in Bax protein expression. This study demonstrates that BAE at certain doses can protect the cardiovascular system from PM2.5-induced damage.

  13. Protective effects of chebulic acid on alveolar epithelial damage induced by urban particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Won; Nam, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Hee-Ra; Hong, Chung-Oui; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2017-07-19

    Chebulic acid (CA) isolated from T. chebula, which has been reported for treating asthma, as a potent anti-oxidant resources. Exposure to ambient urban particulate matter (UPM) considered as a risk for cardiopulmonary vascular dysfunction. To investigate the protective effect of CA against UPM-mediated collapse of the pulmonary alveolar epithelial (PAE) cell (NCI-H441), barrier integrity parameters, and their elements were evaluated in PAE. CA was acquired from the laboratory previous reports. UPM was obtained from the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, and these were collected in St. Louis, MO, over a 24-month period and used as a standard reference. To confirm the protection of PAE barrier integrity, paracellular permeability and the junctional molecules were estimated with determination of transepithelial electrical resistance, Western Blotting, RT-PCR, and fluorescent staining. UPM aggravated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PAE and also decreased mRNA and protein levels of junction molecules and barrier integrity in NCI-H441. However, CA repressed the ROS in PAE, also improved barrier integrity by protecting the junctional parameters in NCI-H411. These data showed that CA resulted in decreased UPM-induced ROS formation, and the protected the integrity of the tight junctions against UPM exposure to PAE barrier.

  14. Particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure season-dependently induces neuronal apoptosis and synaptic injuries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjun; Li, Ben; Sang, Nan

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) not only increases the incidence of cardiopulmonary illnesses but also relates to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Considering that PM2.5 is highly heterogeneous with regional disparity and seasonal variation, we investigated whether PM2.5 exposure induced neuronal apoptosis and synaptic injuries in a season-dependent manner. The results indicated that PM2.5 altered the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (mainly bax and bcl-2), activated caspase-3 and caused neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, PM2.5 decreased the levels of synaptic structural protein postsynaptic density (PSD-95) and synaptic functional protein N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit (NR2B) expression. These effects occurred in a season-dependent manner, and PM2.5 collected from the winter showed the strongest changes. Furthermore, the effect was coupled with the inhibition of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB). Based on the findings, we analyzed the correlations between the chemical composition of PM2.5 samples and the biological effects, and confirmed that winter PM2.5 played a major role in causing neuronal apoptosis and synaptic injuries among different season samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Micronucleus in vitro induced by inhalable particulate matters in moxa smoke].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Hu, Hai; Yang, Jia; Bai, Hua; Wang, Lei; Liu, Juntian; Huang, Chang; Liu, Yaomeng; Ha, Lue

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether inhalable particulate matters can cause the damage of chromosome or mitotic apparatus to produce micronucleus, and to evaluate genetic toxicology of moxa smoke on chromosome. By MTT method, the 24 h half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxa smoke condensation (MSC) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was 0.087 mg/mL. CHO cells, which were cultured in vitro, were divided into a solvent control group, a positive control group (cyclophosphamide as solvent), a low concentration group, a moderate concentration group and a high concentration group. The low concentration group, moderate concentration group and high concentration group were set approximately 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 of IC50, respectively. Whether micronucleus had dose-effect response induced by the damage of chromosome or mitotic apparatus was observed after CHO cells were contaminated by MSC in the low concentration group, moderate concentration group and high concentration group. The rate of micronucleus induced by MSC in the low concentration group, moderate concentration group and high concentration group was higher than that in the solvent control group (all P < 0.05), which presented dosage-effect response. The experiment was repeated 3 times, indicating it was repeatable with statistical significance. High concentration of MSC shows toxicity to induce chromosome damage, which disappears at low concentration. The genetic toxicology is also dependent on concentration, and the concentration of moxa smoke is essential. In clinical treatment, it is noted to control the level of moxa smoke, while the clinical safety standard of moxa smoke concentration is in need of further study.

  16. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  17. Airways Hyperresponsiveness Following a Single Inhalation Exposure to Doxorubicin-Induced Heart Failure Prevents Airways Transition Metal-Rich Particulate Matter in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution results in airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), however it also results in adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly in individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease. The impact of pre-existing cardiac deficit on PM-induced ...

  18. Airways Hyperresponsiveness Following a Single Inhalation Exposure to Doxorubicin-Induced Heart Failure Prevents Airways Transition Metal-Rich Particulate Matter in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution results in airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), however it also results in adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly in individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease. The impact of pre-existing cardiac deficit on PM-induced ...

  19. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  20. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  1. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  2. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  3. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  4. Laser-matter coupling mechanisms governing particulate-induced damage on optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, M. J.; Feigenbaum, E.; Demos, S. G.; Raman, R. N.; Qiu, S. R.; Shen, N.; Harris, C.; Negres, R. A.; Norton, M.; Cross, D.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive study of laser-induced damage associated with particulate damage on optical surfaces is presented. Contaminant-driven damage on silica windows and multilayer dielectrics is observed to range from shallow pitting to more classical fracture-type damage, depending on particle-substrate material combination, as well as laser pulse characteristics. Ejection dynamics is studied in terms of plasma emission spectroscopy and pump-probe shadowgraphy. Our data is used to assess the momentum coupling between incident energy and the ejected plasma, which dominates the laser-particle-substrate interaction. Beam propagation analysis is also presented to characterize the impact of contaminant-driven surface pitting on optical performance.

  5. Nanoscale Particulate Matter from Urban Traffic Rapidly Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Olfactory Epithelium with Concomitant Effects on Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hank; Saffari, Arian; Sioutas, Constantinos; Forman, Henry J.; Morgan, Todd E.; Finch, Caleb E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rodent models for urban air pollution show consistent induction of inflammatory responses in major brain regions. However, the initial impact of air pollution particulate material on olfactory gateways has not been reported. Objective: We evaluated the olfactory neuroepithelium (OE) and brain regional responses to a nanosized subfraction of urban traffic ultrafine particulate matter (nPM, < 200 nm) in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. Methods: Adult mice were exposed to reaerosolized nPM for 5, 20, and 45 cumulative hours over 3 weeks. The OE, the olfactory bulb (OB), the cerebral cortex, and the cerebellum were analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Acute responses of the OE to liquid nPM suspensions were studied with ex vivo and primary OE cultures. Results: After exposure to nPM, the OE and OB had rapid increases of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) protein adducts, whereas the cerebral cortex and cerebellum did not respond at any time. All brain regions showed increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) protein by 45 hr, with earlier induction of TNFα mRNA in OE and OB. These responses corresponded to in vitro OE and mixed glial responses, with rapid induction of nitrite and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), followed by induction of TNFα. Conclusions: These findings show the differential time course of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to nPM between the OE and the brain. Slow cumulative transport of inhaled nPM into the brain may contribute to delayed responses of proximal and distal brain regions, with potential input from systemic factors. Citation: Cheng H, Saffari A, Sioutas C, Forman HJ, Morgan TE, Finch CE. 2016. Nanoscale particulate matter from urban traffic rapidly induces oxidative stress and inflammation in olfactory epithelium with concomitant effects on brain. Environ Health Perspect 124:1537–1546; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP134 PMID:27187980

  6. Analysis of the Ambient Particulate Matter-induced Chromosomal Aberrations Using an In Vitro System.

    PubMed

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Koturbash, Igor; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Kavouras, Ilias; Pathak, Rupak

    2016-12-21

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a major world health concern, which may damage various cellular components, including the nuclear genetic material. To assess the impact of PM on nuclear genetic integrity, structural chromosomal aberrations are scored in the metaphase spreads of mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PM is collected from ambient air with a high volume total suspended particles sampler. The collected material is solubilized and filtered to retain the water-soluble, fine portion. The particles are characterized for chemical composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Different concentrations of particle suspension are added onto an in vitro culture of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages for a total exposure time of 72 hr, along with untreated control cells. At the end of exposure, the culture is treated with colcemid to arrest cells in metaphase. Cells are then harvested, treated with hypotonic solution, fixed in acetomethanol, dropped onto glass slides and finally stained with Giemsa solution. Slides are examined to assess the structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in metaphase spreads at 1,000X magnification using a bright-field microscope. 50 to 100 metaphase spread are scored for each treatment group. This technique is adapted for the detection of structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs), such as chromatid-type breaks, chromatid-type exchanges, acentric fragments, dicentric and ring chromosomes, double minutes, endoreduplication, and Robertsonian translocations in vitro after exposure to PM. It is a powerful method to associate a well-established cytogenetic endpoint to epigenetic alterations.

  7. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  8. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Karoly, Edward D; Dailey, Lisa A; Schmitt, Michael T; Silbajoris, Robert; Graff, Donald W; Devlin, Robert B

    2011-01-01

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate among the three size fractions. Airway epithelial cells obtained from 6 normal individuals were exposed to Chapel Hill coarse, fine or ultrafine PM (250 μg/ml) for 6 and 24 h (n=3 different individuals each). RNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix cDNA microarrays. Significant genes were identified and mapped to canonical pathways. Expression of selected genes was confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The numbers of genes altered by coarse, fine, and ultrafine PM increased from 0, 6, and 17 at 6 h to 1281, 302, and 455 at 24 h, respectively. The NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, cell cycle:G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation, and mitotic roles of polo-like kinase were the top three pathways altered by all three fractions. Fine and ultrafine PM displayed more similar gene expression patterns. One example was the increased expression of metallothionein isoforms, reflecting the higher zinc content associated with fine and ultrafine fractions. A set of 10 genes was identified that could discriminate fine and ultrafine PM from coarse PM. These results indicate that common properties shared by the three size fractions as well as size-specific factors, e.g., compositions, may determine the effects on gene expression. Genomic markers may be used to discriminate coarse from fine and ultrafine PM.

  9. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are induced in human endothelial cells exposed to urban particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Dávalos, Angélica; Ibarra-Sánchez, María de Jesús; Ventura-Gallegos, José Luis; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2010-02-01

    Correlations between exposure to particle matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter induced the production of ROS (77% and 126% increase, respectively, vs. control) and NO (up to 132% and 233% increase, respectively, vs. control). PM(2.5) and PM(10) also induced the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. All these events were associated with apoptosis. In conclusion, the activation of HUVEC induced by PM(2.5) and PM(10) is related with an oxidative stress, suggesting that these particles may participate in the development of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.

  10. Quinones and aromatic chemical compounds in particulate matter induce mitochondrial dysfunction: implications for ultrafine particle toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Korge, Paavo; Weiss, James N; Li, Ning; Venkatesen, M Indira; Sioutas, Constantinos; Nel, Andre

    2004-10-01

    Particulate pollutants cause adverse health effects through the generation of oxidative stress. A key question is whether these effects are mediated by the particles or their chemical compounds. In this article we show that aliphatic, aromatic, and polar organic compounds, fractionated from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), exert differential toxic effects in RAW 264.7 cells. Cellular analyses showed that the quinone-enriched polar fraction was more potent than the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-enriched aromatic fraction in O2 .- generation, decrease of membrane potential (Delta-Psi m), loss of mitochondrial membrane mass, and induction of apoptosis. A major effect of the polar fraction was to promote cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive permeability transition pore (PTP) opening in isolated liver mitochondria. This opening effect is dependent on a direct effect on the PTP at low doses as well as on an effect on Delta-Psi m at high doses in calcium (Ca2+)-loaded mitochondria. The direct PTP effect was mimicked by redox-cycling DEP quinones. Although the aliphatic fraction failed to perturb mitochondrial function, the aromatic fraction increased the Ca2+ retention capacity at low doses and induced mitochondrial swelling and a decrease in Delta-Psi m at high doses. This swelling effect was mostly CsA insensitive and could be reproduced by a mixture of PAHs present in DEPs. These chemical effects on isolated mitochondria could be reproduced by intact DEPs as well as ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs). In contrast, commercial polystyrene nanoparticles failed to exert mitochondrial effects. These results suggest that DEP and UFP effects on the PTP and Delta-Psi m are mediated by adsorbed chemicals rather than the particles themselves.

  11. Quinones and Aromatic Chemical Compounds in Particulate Matter Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Implications for Ultrafine Particle Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Korge, Paavo; Weiss, James N.; Li, Ning; Venkatesen, M. Indira; Sioutas, Constantinos; Nel, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Particulate pollutants cause adverse health effects through the generation of oxidative stress. A key question is whether these effects are mediated by the particles or their chemical compounds. In this article we show that aliphatic, aromatic, and polar organic compounds, fractionated from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), exert differential toxic effects in RAW 264.7 cells. Cellular analyses showed that the quinone-enriched polar fraction was more potent than the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)–enriched aromatic fraction in O2•− generation, decrease of membrane potential (ΔΨm), loss of mitochondrial membrane mass, and induction of apoptosis. A major effect of the polar fraction was to promote cyclosporin A (CsA)–sensitive permeability transition pore (PTP) opening in isolated liver mitochondria. This opening effect is dependent on a direct effect on the PTP at low doses as well as on an effect on ΔΨm at high doses in calcium (Ca2+)-loaded mitochondria. The direct PTP effect was mimicked by redox-cycling DEP quinones. Although the aliphatic fraction failed to perturb mitochondrial function, the aromatic fraction increased the Ca2+ retention capacity at low doses and induced mitochondrial swelling and a decrease in ΔΨm at high doses. This swelling effect was mostly CsA insensitive and could be reproduced by a mixture of PAHs present in DEPs. These chemical effects on isolated mitochondria could be reproduced by intact DEPs as well as ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs). In contrast, commercial polystyrene nanoparticles failed to exert mitochondrial effects. These results suggest that DEP and UFP effects on the PTP and ΔΨm are mediated by adsorbed chemicals rather than the particles themselves. PMID:15471724

  12. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM{sub 10})

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih; Bai, Ni; Vincent, Renaud; Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D.; Van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM{sub 10}) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM{sub 10}. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM{sub 10}/saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM{sub 10} exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM{sub 10} impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM{sub 10} increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM{sub 10}. Taken together, statins protect against PM{sub 10}-induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal

  13. Cardiovascular Depression in Rats Exposed to Inhaled Particulate Matter and Ozone: Effects of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Katryn; Yang, Hui-yu; Nan, Bin; Morishita, Masako; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Spino, Catherine; Fink, Gregory D.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Brook, Robert D.; Harkema, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: High ambient levels of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases. Enhanced susceptibility to the toxicity of air pollutants may include individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular responses to O3 and PM2.5 will be enhanced in rats with diet-induced MetS. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fructose diet (HFrD) to induce MetS and then exposed to O3, concentrated ambient PM2.5, or the combination of O3 plus PM2.5 for 9 days. Data related to heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) were collected. Results: Consistent with MetS, HFrD rats were hypertensive and insulin resistant, and had elevated fasting levels of blood glucose and triglycerides. Decreases in HR and BP, which were found in all exposure groups, were greater and more persistent in HFrD rats compared with those fed a normal diet (ND). Coexposure to O3 plus PM2.5 induced acute drops in HR and BP in all rats, but only ND rats adapted after 2 days. HFrD rats had little exposure-related changes in HRV, whereas ND rats had increased HRV during O3 exposure, modest decreases with PM2.5, and dramatic decreases during O3 plus PM2.5 coexposures. Conclusions: Cardiovascular depression in O3- and PM2.5-exposed rats was enhanced and prolonged in rats with HFrD-induced MetS. These results in rodents suggest that people with MetS may be prone to similar exaggerated BP and HR responses to inhaled air pollutants. Citation: Wagner JG, Allen K, Yang HY, Nan B, Morishita M, Mukherjee B, Dvonch JT, Spino C, Fink GD, Rajagopalan S, Sun Q, Brook RD, Harkema JR. 2014. Cardiovascular depression in rats exposed to inhaled particulate matter and ozone: effects of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Environ Health Perspect 122:27–33; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307085 PMID:24169565

  14. Eupafolin nanoparticles protect HaCaT keratinocytes from particulate matter-induced inflammation and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zih-Chan; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Ko, Horng-Huey; Fang, Jia-You; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Liang, Chan-Jung; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a major form of air pollution, can induce oxidative stress and inflammation and may lead to many diseases in various organ systems including the skin. Eupafolin, a flavonoid compound derived from Phyla nodiflora, has been previously shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, eupafolin is characterized by poor water solubility and skin penetration, which limits its clinical applications. To address these issues, we successfully synthesized a eupafolin nanoparticle delivery system (ENDS). Our findings showed that ENDS could overcome the physicochemical drawbacks of raw eupafolin with respect to water solubility and skin penetration, through reduction of particle size and formation of an amorphous state with hydrogen bonding. Moreover, ENDS was superior to raw eupafolin in attenuating PM-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes, by mediating the antioxidant pathway (decreased reactive oxygen species production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity) and anti-inflammation pathway (decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production through downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling). In summary, ENDS shows better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities than raw eupafolin through improvement of water solubility and skin penetration. Therefore, ENDS may potentially be used as a medicinal drug and/or cosmeceutical product to prevent PM-induced skin inflammation. PMID:27570454

  15. Amelioration of particulate matter-induced oxidative damage by vitamin c and quercetin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoting; Su, Ruijun; Li, Ruijin; Song, Li; Chen, Meilan; Cheng, Long; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a close association with respiratory damage. Vitamin c and quercetin have been documented to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. However, their potential protective effects against PM2.5-induced respiratory damage have not been evaluated yet. Hence, the study was aimed to investigate their protective effects and delineate the possible mechanisms. The results indicated that PM2.5 depleted the cell viability of 16HBE cells, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and inhibited mitochondrial genes expressions, including fusion proteins Mfn1 and OPA1, along with biogenesis markers SIRT1 and p53R2. Additionally, the damage of mitochondrial morphology was observed upon PM2.5 exposure using both JC-1 and MitoTracker Red staining. Expressions of mitochondrial respiratory chain genes including NDUFS2 and UQCRI1 were also attenuated by PM2.5 exposure. Furthermore, PM2.5 promoted the mRNA levels of NADPH oxidase and inflammation cytokines. However, the addition of vitamin c or quercetin strikingly antagonized the PM2.5-induced toxic effects. Collectively, these findings suggest that vitamin c and quercetin have repressive roles in respiratory oxidative damage incurred by PM2.5, which provide the theoretical basis about intervention and control of food nutrients on PM2.5-induced human adverse health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eupafolin nanoparticles protect HaCaT keratinocytes from particulate matter-induced inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zih-Chan; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Ko, Horng-Huey; Fang, Jia-You; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Liang, Chan-Jung; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a major form of air pollution, can induce oxidative stress and inflammation and may lead to many diseases in various organ systems including the skin. Eupafolin, a flavonoid compound derived from Phyla nodiflora, has been previously shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, eupafolin is characterized by poor water solubility and skin penetration, which limits its clinical applications. To address these issues, we successfully synthesized a eupafolin nanoparticle delivery system (ENDS). Our findings showed that ENDS could overcome the physicochemical drawbacks of raw eupafolin with respect to water solubility and skin penetration, through reduction of particle size and formation of an amorphous state with hydrogen bonding. Moreover, ENDS was superior to raw eupafolin in attenuating PM-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes, by mediating the antioxidant pathway (decreased reactive oxygen species production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity) and anti-inflammation pathway (decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production through downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling). In summary, ENDS shows better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities than raw eupafolin through improvement of water solubility and skin penetration. Therefore, ENDS may potentially be used as a medicinal drug and/or cosmeceutical product to prevent PM-induced skin inflammation.

  17. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J [Grand Forks, ND; Zhuang, Ye [Grand Forks, ND; Almlie, Jay C [East Grand Forks, MN

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  18. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary disorders. Clinical and experimental studies have historically focused on the cardiopulmonary effects of PM. However, since PM particles carry numerous biocontaminants that are capable of triggering free radical production and cytokine release, the possibility that PM may affect organs systems sensitive to oxidative stress must be considered. Four independent studies that summarize the neurochemical and neuropathological changes found in the brains of PM exposed animals are described here. These were recently presented at two 2007 symposia sponsored by the Society of Toxicology (Charlotte, NC) and the International Neurotoxicology Association (Monterey, CA). Particulates are covered with biocontaminants (e.g., endotoxins, mold, pollen) which convey free radical activity that can damage the lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins of target cells on contact and stimulate inflammatory cytokine release. Although, the historical focus of PM toxicity has been cardiopulmonary targets, it is now appreciated that inhaled nano-size (<100 nm) particles quickly exit the lungs and enter the circulation where they distribute to various organ systems (l.e., liver, kidneys, testes, lymph nodes) (Takenaka et aI

  19. Ambient particulate matter induces IL-8 expression through an alternative NF-kB mechanism in human airway epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been shown to increase rates of cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine signaling events involved in the expression of the inflamma...

  20. METALS MIMIC AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY INDUCED BY IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO UTAH VALLEY AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Epidemiologic studies have shown positive associationsbetween changes in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels in Utah Valley during 1986-1988, and the respiratory health of the local population. Ambient PM reductions coincided withclosure of an open-hearth steel...

  1. METALS MIMIC AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY INDUCED BY IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO UTAH VALLEY AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Epidemiologic studies have shown positive associationsbetween changes in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels in Utah Valley during 1986-1988, and the respiratory health of the local population. Ambient PM reductions coincided withclosure of an open-hearth steel...

  2. Ambient particulate matter induces IL-8 expression through an alternative NF-kB mechanism in human airway epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been shown to increase rates of cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine signaling events involved in the expression of the inflamma...

  3. Appalachian mountaintop mining particulate matter induces neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells and promotes tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Chen, Michael; Knuckles, Travis; Wen, Sijin; Luo, Juhua; Ellis, Emily; Hendryx, Michael; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2014-11-04

    Epidemiological studies suggest that living near mountaintop coal mining (MTM) activities is one of the contributing factors for high lung cancer incidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term carcinogenic potential of MTM particulate matter (PMMTM) exposure on human bronchial epithelial cells. Our results show that chronic exposure (3 months) to noncytotoxic, physiological relevant concentration (1 μg/mL) of PMMTM, but not control particle PMCON, induced neoplastic transformation, accelerated cell proliferation, and enhanced cell migration of the exposed lung cells. Xenograft transplantation of the PMMTM-exposed cells in mice caused no apparent tumor formation, but promoted tumor growth of human lung carcinoma H460 cells, suggesting the tumor-promoting effect of PMMTM. Chronic exposure to the main inorganic chemical constituent of PMMTM, molybdenum but not silica, similarly induced cell transformation and tumor promotion, suggesting the contribution of molybdenum, at least in part, in the PMMTM effects. These results provide new evidence for the carcinogenic potential of PMMTM and support further risk assessment and implementation of exposure control for PMMTM.

  4. Effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 on cough hypersensitivity induced by particulate matter 2.5.

    PubMed

    Lv, Haining; Yue, Jianliang; Chen, Zhe; Chai, Senlin; Cao, Xu; Zhan, Jie; Ji, Zhenjun; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Rong; Lai, Kefang

    2016-04-15

    The mechanism of cough hypersensitivity induced by particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) remains elusive. The current study was designed to explore the effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) on cough hypersensitivity in airway and central nervous system. The PM2.5-induced chronic cough model of guinea pig was established by exposure to different doses of PM2.5 for three weeks. After exposure, the animals were microinjected with TRPV1 agonist capsaicine, antagonist capsazepine in the dorsal vagal complex respectively. Cough sensitivity was measured by determining the provocative concentration of citric acid inducing 5 or more coughs (C5). Airway inflammation was detected by hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining and Evans blue fluorescence, and substance P (SP) and TRPV1 expressions in airway were observed by immunohistochemical staining. TRPV1 expressions in the dorsal vagal complex were observed by immunofluorescence. Retrograde tracing by pseudorabies virus-Bartha (PRV-Bartha) was conducted to confirm the regulatory pathway between airway and central nervous system. PM2.5 induced TRPV1 expressions in both of airway and dorsal vagal complex and airway neurogenic inflammation. Airway vascular permeability increased after being exposed to PM2.5. The expressions of SP in the airway and airway inflammation was increased after microinjecting TRPV1 agonist, and decreased after microinjecting TRPV1 antagonist. PRV infected neurons in medulla oblongata mainly located in the dorsal vagal complex. These findings show that TRPV1 in the dorsal vagal complex could promote airway neurogenic inflammation and cough reflex sensitivity through neural pathways of vagal complex-airways, which indicate the therapeutic potential of specific inhibition of TRPV1 for chronic cough induced by PM2.5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM10).

    PubMed

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih; Bai, Ni; Vincent, Renaud; Francis, Gordon A; Sin, Don D; Van Eeden, Stephan F

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10μm or PM10) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM10. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM10/saline exposure for 4weeks±lovastatin (5mg/kg/day) treatment. PM10 exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM10 impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM10 increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM10. Taken together, statins protect against PM10-induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metals mimic airway epithelial injury induced by in vitro exposure to Utah Valley ambient particulate matter extracts.

    PubMed

    Pagan, Ines; Costa, Daniel L; McGee, John K; Richards, Judy H; Dye, Janice A

    2003-06-27

    Epidemiologic studies have shown positive associations between changes in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels in Utah Valley during 1986-1988, and the respiratory health of the local population. Ambient PM reductions coincided with closure of an open-hearth steel mill, the major industrial source of particulate emissions in the valley. In this report, water extracts of PM filters from steel mill operational (UE-86, UE-88) and closure (UE-87) periods were analyzed for their elemental composition. Their relative toxicity was determined by exposing primary rodent airway epithelial cultures to equal masses of extracted material. To elucidate extract subcomponents mediating the effects observed, cells were also exposed to surrogate metal mixtures. Potential interactions between the two predominant metals in the UE-86/88 samples, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), were further investigated. Data indicated that, relative to the UE-87 (plant closed) sample, UE-86/88 samples contained more sulfate, calcium, potassium,magnesium and, although present in much lower amounts, a variety of metals including Zn,Cu, iron, lead, strontium, nickel, manganese, and vanadium (V). Cell exposure to UE-86 and UE-88, but not UE-87, resulted in time- and concentration-dependent epithelial injury based on biochemical and light/electron microscopic changes. Cell injury induced by metal mixtures containing equivalent amounts of Zn + Cu + V was commensurate with that induced by the corresponding extract, although divergent antioxidant responses were observed. Exposure to Zn + Cu resulted in significantly greater epithelial toxicity and stress (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activation) responses than did exposure to Zn or Cu individually. The parallel epithelial injury induced by the extracts and their surrogate Zn + Cu + V mixtures suggests that these metals are mediating the acute airway epithelial effects observed; however, metal interactions appear to play a critical role in the overall cellular

  7. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced in vitro by solvent-extractable organic matter of size-segregated urban particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Velali, Ekaterini; Papachristou, Eleni; Pantazaki, Anastasia; Choli-Papadopoulou, Theodora; Argyrou, Nikoleta; Tsourouktsoglou, Theodora; Lialiaris, Stergios; Constantinidis, Alexandros; Lykidis, Dimitrios; Lialiaris, Thedore S; Besis, Athanasios; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini

    2016-11-01

    Three organic fractions of different polarity, including a non polar organic fraction (NPOF), a moderately polar organic fraction (MPOF), and a polar organic fraction (POF) were obtained from size-segregated (<0.49, 0.49-0.97, 0.97-3 and >3 μm) urban particulate matter (PM) samples, and tested for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using a battery of in vitro assays. The cytotoxicity induced by the organic PM fractions was measured by the mitochondrial dehydrogenase (MTT) cell viability assay applied on MRC-5 human lung epithelial cells. DNA damages were evaluated through the comet assay, determination of the poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity, and the oxidative DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation, while pro-inflammatory effects were assessed by determination of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mediator release. In addition, the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) inducibility of the solvent-extractable organic matter was measured on human peripheral lymphocyte. Variations of responses were assessed in relation to the polarity (hence the expected composition) of the organic PM fractions, particle size, locality, and season. Organic PM fractions were found to induce rather comparable Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PM appeared to be rather independent from the polarity of the extractable organic PM matter (EOM) with POF often being relatively more toxic than NPOF or MPOF. All assays indicated stronger mass-normalized bioactivity for fine than coarse particles peaking in the 0.97-3 and/or the 0.49-0.97 μm size ranges. Nevertheless, the air volume-normalized bioactivity in all assays was highest for the <0.49 μm size range highlighting the important human health risk posed by the inhalation of these quasi-ultrafine particles.

  8. Ambient fine particulate matters induce cell death and inflammatory response by influencing mitochondria function in human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Chae, Jae-Byoung; Lyu, Jungmook; Yoon, Cheolho; Kim, Sanghwa; Yeom, Changjoo; Kim, Younghun; Chang, Jaerak

    2017-11-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (AFP) is a main risk factor for the cornea as ultraviolet light. However, the mechanism of corneal damage following exposure to AFP has been poorly understood. In this study, we first confirmed that AFP can penetrate the cornea of mice, considering that two-dimensional cell culture systems are limited in reflecting the situation in vivo. Then, we investigated the toxic mechanism using human corneal epithelial (HCET) cells. At 24h after exposure, AFP located within the autophagosome-like vacuoles, and cell proliferation was clearly inhibited in all the tested concentration. Production of ROS and NO and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, conversion of LC3B from I-type to II-type and activation of caspase cascade which show autophagic- and apoptotic cell death, respectively, were observed in cells exposed to AFP. Furthermore, AFP decreased mitochondrial volume, inhibited ATP production, and altered the expression of metabolism-related genes. Taken together, we suggest that AFP induces cell death and inflammatory response by influencing mitochondrial function in HCET cells. In addition, we recommend that stringent air quality regulations are needed for eye health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in inflammatory immune responses induced by fine and coarse ambient air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Shoenfelt, Joanna; Mitkus, Robert J.; Zeisler, Rolf; Spatz, Rabia O.; Powell, Jan; Fenton, Matthew J.; Squibb, Katherine A.; Medvedev, Andrei E.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of proinflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient air particulate matter has been suggested to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and allergic diseases in the lungs. However, receptors and mechanisms underlying these responses have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether TLR2, TLR4, and the key adaptor protein, MyD88, mediate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fine and coarse PM. TLR2 deficiency blunted macrophage TNF-α and IL-6 expression in response to fine (PM2.5), while not affecting cytokine-inducing ability of coarse NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1648) particles. In contrast, TLR4−/− macrophages showed inhibited cytokine expression upon stimulation with NIST SRM 1648 but exhibited normal responses to PM2.5. Preincubation with polymyxin B markedly suppressed the capacity of NIST SRM 1648 to elicit TNF-α and IL-6, indicating endotoxin as a principal inducer of cytokine responses. Overexpression of TLR2 in TLR2/4-deficient human embryonic kidney 293 cells imparted PM2.5 sensitivity, as judged by IL-8 gene expression, whereas NIST SRM 1648, but not PM2.5 elicited IL-8 expression in 293/TLR4/MD-2 transfectants. Engagement of TLR4 by NIST SRM 1648 induced MyD88-independent expression of the chemokine RANTES, while TLR2-reactive NIST IRM PM2.5 failed to up-regulate this response. Consistent with the shared use of MyD88 by TLR2 and TLR4, cytokine responses of MyD88−/− macrophages to both types of air PM were significantly reduced. These data indicate differential utilization of TLR2 and TLR4 but shared use of MyD88 by fine and coarse air pollution particles. PMID:19406832

  10. Multi-organ toxicity induced by fine particulate matter PM2.5 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) model.

    PubMed

    Duan, Junchao; Hu, Hejing; Zhang, Yannan; Feng, Lin; Shi, Yanfeng; Miller, Mark R; Sun, Zhiwei

    2017-04-05

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air pollution is a major public health concern and now known to contribute to severe diseases, therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PM2.5-induced adverse effects in living organisms is needed urgently. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxicity of PM2.5 on multi-organ systems in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. The embryonic toxicity induced by PM2.5 was demonstrated by an increase in mortality and inhibition of hatching rate, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PM2.5 caused the pericardial edema, as well as reducing heart rate and cardiac output. The area of sub-intestinal vessels (SIVs) was significant reduced in Tg(fli-1:EGFP) transgenic zebrafish lines. Morphological defects and yolk sac retention were associated with hepatocyte injury. In addition, PM2.5 disrupted the axonal integrity, altering of axon length and pattern in Tg(NBT:EGFP) transgenic lines. Genes involved in cardiac function (spaw, supt6h, cmlc1), angiogenesis (vegfr2a, vegfr2b), and neural function (gabrd, chrna3, npy8br) were markedly down-regulated; while genes linked to hepatic metabolism (cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1) were significantly up-regulated by PM2.5. In summary, our data showed that PM2.5 induced the cardiovascular toxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish, suggested that PM2.5 could cause multi-organ toxicity in aquatic organism.

  11. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER INDUCES ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELL CYCLE ARREST: ROLE OF G1 CYCLINS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingmei; Ghio, Andrew J.; Gao, Mingxing; Wei, Ke; Rosen, Glenn D.; Upadhyay, Daya

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ambient air pollution particles (PM) induce cell cycle arrest in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Exposure of PM (25μg/cm2) to AEC induced cells cycle arrest in G1 phase, inhibited DNA synthesis, blocked cell proliferation and caused decrease in cyclin E, A, D1 and Cyclin E- cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK)-2 kinase activity after 4h. PM induced upregulation of CDK inhibitor, p21 protein and p21 activity in AEC. SiRNAp21 blocked PM–induced downregulation of cyclins and AEC G1 arrest. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that PM induces AEC G1 arrest by altered regulation of G1 cyclins and CDKs. PMID:17977533

  12. Involvement of oxidative stress and calcium signaling in airborne particulate matter - induced damages in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Deweirdt, J; Quignard, J F; Crobeddu, B; Baeza-Squiban, A; Sciare, J; Courtois, A; Lacomme, S; Gontier, E; Muller, B; Savineau, J P; Marthan, R; Guibert, C; Baudrimont, I

    2017-07-05

    Recent studies have revealed that particulate matter (PM) exert deleterious effects on vascular function. Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC), which are involved in the vasomotricity regulation, can be a direct target of inhaled particles. Modifications in calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress are critical events involved in the physiopathology of vascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of PM2.5 on oxidative stress and calcium signaling in HPAEC. Different endpoints were studied, (i) intrinsic and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the H2DCF-DA probe, (ii) intrinsic, intracellular and mitochondrial production of superoxide anion (O2(-)) by electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and MitoSOX probe, (iii) reactive nitrosative species (RNS) production by Griess reaction, and (vi) calcium signaling by the Fluo-4 probe. In acellular conditions, PM2.5 leads to an intrinsic free radical production (ROS, O2(-)) and a 4h-exposure to PM2.5 (5-15μg/cm(2)), induced, in HPAEC, an increase of RNS, of global ROS and of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial O2(-) levels. The basal intracellular calcium ion level [Ca(2+)]i was also increased after 4h-exposure to PM2.5 and a pre-treatment with superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly reduced this response. This study provides evidence that the alteration of intracellular calcium homeostasis induced by PM2.5 is closely correlated to an increase of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  14. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  15. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  16. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  17. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  18. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  19. Acute and subchronic exposure to air particulate matter induces expression of angiotensin and bradykinin-related genes in the lungs and heart: Angiotensin-II type-I receptor as a molecular target of particulate matter exposure.

    PubMed

    Aztatzi-Aguilar, Octavio Gamaliel; Uribe-Ramírez, Marisela; Arias-Montaño, José Antonio; Barbier, Olivier; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea

    2015-06-26

    Particulate matter (PM) adverse effects on health include lung and heart damage. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) and kallikrein-kinin (KKS) endocrine systems are involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and have been found to impact lung diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether PM exposure regulates elements of RAAS and KKS. Sprague-Dawley rats were acutely (3 days) and subchronically (8 weeks) exposed to coarse (CP), fine (FP) or ultrafine (UFP) particulates using a particulate concentrator, and a control group exposed to filtered air (FA). We evaluated the mRNA of the RAAS components At1, At2r and Ace, and of the KKS components B1r, B2r and Klk-1 by RT-PCR in the lungs and heart. The ACE and AT1R protein were evaluated by Western blot, as were HO-1 and γGCSc as indicators of the antioxidant response and IL-6 levels as an inflammation marker. We performed a binding assay to determinate AT1R density in the lung, also the subcellular AT1R distribution in the lungs was evaluated. Finally, we performed a histological analysis of intramyocardial coronary arteries and the expression of markers of heart gene reprogramming (Acta1 and Col3a1). The PM fractions induced the expression of RAAS and KKS elements in the lungs and heart in a time-dependent manner. CP exposure induced Ace mRNA expression and regulated its protein in the lungs. Acute and subchronic exposure to FP and UFP induced the expression of At1r in the lungs and heart. All PM fractions increased the AT1R protein in a size-dependent manner in the lungs and heart after subchronic exposure. The AT1R lung protein showed a time-dependent change in subcellular distribution. In addition, the presence of AT1R in the heart was accompanied by a decrease in HO-1, which was concomitant with the induction of Acta1 and Col3a1 and the increment of IL-6. Moreover, exposure to all PM fractions increased coronary artery wall thickness. We demonstrate that exposure to PM induces

  20. Ecological effects of particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Grantz, D A; Garner, J H B; Johnson, D W

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a heterogeneous material. Though regulated as un-speciated mass, it exerts most effects on vegetation and ecosystems by virtue of the mass loading of its chemical constituents. As this varies temporally and spatially, prediction of regional impacts remains difficult. Deposition of PM to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of the particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. However, chemical loading of an ecosystem may be determined by the size distribution as different constituents dominate different size fractions. Coating with dust may cause abrasion and radiative heating, and may reduce the photosynthetically active photon flux reaching the photosynthetic tissues. Acidic and alkaline materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more likely route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. PM deposited directly to the soil can influence nutrient cycling, especially that of nitrogen, through its effects on the rhizosphere bacteria and fungi. Alkaline cation and aluminum availability are dependent upon the pH of the soil that may be altered dramatically by deposition of various classes of PM. A regional effect of PM on ecosystems is linked to climate change. Increased PM may reduce radiation interception by plant canopies and may reduce precipitation through a variety of physical effects. At the present time, evidence does not support large regional threats due to un-speciated PM, though site-specific and constituent-specific effects can be readily identified. Interactions of PM with other pollutants and with components of climate change remain important areas of research in assessment of challenges to ecosystem stability.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice: effects of ambient existing particulate matters.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Koike, Eiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2010-11-01

    Pulmonary exposure of rodents to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induces lesions that morphologically resemble human panacinar emphysema. However, there has been little work on the comprehensive analysis of this model. The present study was designed to extensively examine the biological effects of PPE on inflammation, cell damage, emphysematous change, and cholinergic reactivity in the lungs of mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the disease model. Intratracheal administration of PPE induced (1) proinflammatory response in the lungs that was characterized by significant infiltration of leukocytes such as macrophages, eosinophils, and lymphocytes and an increased level of interleukin-1β in lung homogenates, (2) lung cell damage, indicated by higher levels of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in lung homogenates, (3) emphysema-related morphological changes including airspace enlargement and progressive destruction of alveolar wall structures, and (4) airway responsiveness to methacholine in the context of the compliance value of the respiratory system in a dose-dependent manner showing an overall trend. A single intratracheal administration of DEP did not significantly facilitate the hallmark of the disease. This is the first study to extensively analyze PPE-induced lung emphysema in mice with evaluation of the effects of DEP. Furthermore, this bioassay may be applied to future investigations that evaluate new therapeutic agents or risk factors for pulmonary emphysema.

  2. Dexamethasone-conjugated polyethylenimine/MIF siRNA complex regulation of particulate matter-induced airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moonhwan; Lee, Minhyung; Rhim, Taiyoun

    2013-10-01

    Inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM), such as silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), induces acute lung inflammation. siRNA therapy has been proposed as a method to repair acute lung inflammation. To determine whether DEXA-PEI/MIF siRNA contributes to SiO2-induced acute lung inflammation repair, we administered Dexa-PEI/MIF siRNA in SiO2-treated Beas-2b cells and instilled DEXA-PEI-MIF siRNA intratracheally in mice with SiO2-induced acute lung inflammation. Using genetic (MIF mRNA RT-PCR), histological (H&E and PAS) and immunohistochemical (MIF and Muc5ac) analyses, we estimated the acute lung inflammation in Beas-2b cells and BALB/c mice. Cells and mice treated with SiO2 particles demonstrated pulmonary inflammation. DEXA-PEI/MIF siRNA restricted the extent of the pulmonary inflammation reaction to SiO2 in cells and mice. In case of SiO2-treated Beas-2b cells, only DEXA-PEI treatment failed to effectively regulate MIF mRNA release. At the same time, only DEXA-PEI treatment adjusted the amount of MIF mRNA to some extent in SiO2-treated BALB/c mice. siRNA treatment did not markedly control MIF mRNA release in mice. We also observed that the amount of MIF mRNA was decreased in cells and mice treated with DEXA-PEI/MIF siRNA. The increase of MIF mRNA markedly increased Muc5ac; in contrast, the decrease of MIF mRNA using DEXA-PEI/MIF siRNA effectively lowered Muc5ac in SiO2-treated cells and mice. These results suggest that DEXA-PEI plays a role in delivering siRNA to the nucleus as a carrier and limits the extent of acute lung inflammation. MIF siRNA also contributed to the reparative lung response in SiO2-induced pulmonary inflammation.

  3. Macrophages treated with particulate matter PM2.5 induce selective neurotoxicity through glutaminase-mediated glutamate generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Huang, Yunlong; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Beiqing; Rui, Wei; Zheng, Jialin C; Ding, Wenjun

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) has been epidemiologically associated with respiratory illnesses. However, recent data have suggested that PM2.5 is able to infiltrate into circulation and elicit a systemic inflammatory response. Potential adverse effects of air pollutants to the central nervous system (CNS) have raised concerns, but whether PM2.5 causes neurotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, we have demonstrated that PM2.5 impairs the tight junction of endothelial cells and increases permeability and monocyte transmigration across endothelial monolayer in vitro, indicating that PM2.5 is able to disrupt blood-brain barrier integrity and gain access to the CNS. Exposure of primary neuronal cultures to PM2.5 resulted in decrease in cell viability and loss of neuronal antigens. Furthermore, supernatants collected from PM2.5 -treated macrophages and microglia were also neurotoxic. These macrophages and microglia significantly increased extracellular levels of glutamate following PM2.5 exposure, which were negatively correlated with neuronal viability. Pre-treatment with NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 alleviated neuron loss, suggesting that PM2.5 neurotoxicity is mediated by glutamate. To determine the potential source of excess glutamate production, we investigated glutaminase, the main enzyme for glutamate generation. Glutaminase was reduced in PM2.5 -treated macrophages and increased in extracellular vesicles, suggesting that PM2.5 induces glutaminase release through extracellular vesicles. In conclusion, these findings indicate PM2.5 as a potential neurotoxic factor, crucial to understanding the effects of air pollution on the CNS. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Air Pollution Particulate Matter Collected from an Appalachian Mountaintop Mining Site Induces Microvascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    KNUCKLES, TRAVIS L.; STAPLETON, PHOEBE A.; MINARCHICK, VALERIE C.; ESCH, LAURA; MCCAWLEY, MICHAEL; HENDRYX, MICHAEL; NURKIEWICZ, TIMOTHY R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Air pollution PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In Appalachia, PM from mining may represent a health burden to this sensitive population that leads the nation in cardiovascular disease, among others. Cardiovascular consequences following inhalation of PMMTM are unclear, but must be identified to establish causal effects. Methods PM was collected within 1 mile of an active MTM site in southern WV. The PM was extracted and was primarily <10μm in diameter (PM10), consisting largely of sulfur (38%) and silica (24%). Adult male rats were IT with 300 μg PMMTM. Twenty-four hours following exposure, rats were prepared for intravital microscopy, or isolated arteriole experiments. Results PMMTM exposure blunted endothelium-dependent dilation in mesenteric and coronary arterioles by 26%, and 25%, respectively, as well as endothelium-independent dilation. In vivo, PMMTM exposure inhibited endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation (60% reduction). α-adrenergic receptor blockade inhibited PVNS-induced vasoconstriction in exposed animals compared with sham. Conclusions These data suggest that PMMTM exposure impairs microvascular function in disparate microvascular beds, through alterations in NO-mediated dilation and sympathetic nerve influences. Microvascular dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular disease in regions with MTM sites. PMID:22963349

  5. Elemental composition of Arctic particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Eldred, Robert A.

    Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan arctic to the Norwegian arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

  6. An in vitro alveolar macrophage assay for the assessment of inflammatory cytokine expression induced by atmospheric particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Sijan, Zana; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Heo, Jongbae; Kado, Norman Y; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos; Shafer, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    Exposures to air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM) can result in excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the respiratory system, potentially causing both localized cellular injury and triggering a systemic inflammatory response. PM-induced inflammation in the lung is modulated in large part by alveolar macrophages and their biochemical signaling, including production of inflammatory cytokines, the primary mechanism via which inflammation is initiated and sustained. We developed a robust, relevant, and flexible method employing a rat alveolar macrophage cell line (NR8383) which can be applied to routine samples of PM from air quality monitoring sites to gain insight into the drivers of PM toxicity that lead to oxidative stress and inflammation. Method performance was characterized using extracts of ambient and vehicular engine exhaust PM samples. Our results indicate that the reproducibility and the sensitivity of the method are satisfactory and comparisons between PM samples can be made with good precision. The average relative percent difference for all genes detected during 10 different exposures was 17.1%. Our analysis demonstrated that 71% of genes had an average signal to noise ratio (SNR) ≥ 3. Our time course study suggests that 4 h may be an optimal in vitro exposure time for observing short-term effects of PM and capturing the initial steps of inflammatory signaling. The 4 h exposure resulted in the detection of 57 genes (out of 84 total), of which 86% had altered expression. Similarities and conserved gene signaling regulation among the PM samples were demonstrated through hierarchical clustering and other analyses. Overlying the core congruent patterns were differentially regulated genes that resulted in distinct sample-specific gene expression "fingerprints." Consistent upregulation of Il1f5 and downregulation of Ccr7 was observed across all samples, while TNFα was upregulated in half of the samples and downregulated in

  7. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  8. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  9. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  10. Exposure to Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil Burnoff Particulate Matter Induces Pulmonary Inflammation and Alters Adaptive Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Chen, Zaili; Saravia, Jordy; Yadav, Nikki; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Dugas, Tammy R; Cormier, Stephania A

    2015-07-21

    The ″in situ burning" of trapped crude oil on the surface of Gulf waters during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill released numerous pollutants, including combustion-generated particulate matter (PM). Limited information is available on the respiratory impact of inhaled in situ burned oil sail particulate matter (OSPM). Here we utilized PM collected from in situ burn plumes of the DWH oil spill to study the acute effects of exposure to OSPM on pulmonary health. OSPM caused dose-and time-dependent cytotoxicity and generated reactive oxygen species and superoxide radicals in vitro. Additionally, mice exposed to OSPM exhibited significant decreases in body weight gain, systemic oxidative stress in the form of increased serum 8-isoprostane (8-IP) levels, and airway inflammation in the form of increased macrophages and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Further, in a mouse model of allergic asthma, OSPM caused increased T helper 2 cells (Th2), peribronchiolar inflammation, and increased airway mucus production. These findings demonstrate that acute exposure to OSPM results in pulmonary inflammation and alteration of innate/adaptive immune responses in mice and highlight potential respiratory effects associated with cleaning up an oil spill.

  11. Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

  12. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  13. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

  14. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

  15. Latest Results from the PICO-2L Dark Matter Detector, and the identification and mitigation of particulate-induced backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Daniel; PICO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PICO Collaboration has taken a key step toward a background-free bubble chamber for WIMP dark matter detection. An unexpected background of unknown origin limited WIMP searches in the PICO-2L and PICO-60 detectors at SNOLAB in 2013 and 2014. Recent efforts targeting particulate contamination in the active volume of PICO-2L have reduced this background by at least one order of magnitude, to a rate below the known neutron background in the detector. The resulting data set the most stringent limit to date from a direct detection experiment on spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions. I will present a comparison of the background-limited Run-1 of PICO-2L with the new results from Run-2, identifying particulate as the primary source of the previously unexplained background. I will describe the engineering and operational controls now being implemented to eliminate this background in the PICO-60 detector, with the goal of a background-free run using our large detector within the next year. Supported in part by Department of Energy award #DE-SC0012161.

  16. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  17. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  18. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

  19. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  20. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  1. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  2. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  3. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  4. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  5. Cell death pathways of particulate matter toxicity.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Milena Simões; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2017-08-22

    Humans are exposed to various complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) from different sources. Long-term exposure to high levels of these particulates has been linked to a diverse range of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases that have resulted in hospital admission. The evaluation of the effects of PM exposure on the mechanisms related to cell death has been a challenge for many researchers. Therefore, in this review, we have discussed the effects of airborne PM exposure on mechanisms related to cell death. For this purpose, we have compiled literature data on PM sources, the effects of exposure, and the assays and models used for evaluation, in order to establish comparisons between various studies. The analysis of this collected data suggested divergent responses to PM exposure that resulted in different cell death types (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis). In addition, PM induced oxidative stress within cells, which appeared to be an important factor in the determination of cell fate. When the levels of reactive oxygen species were overpowering, the cellular fate was directed toward cell death. This may be the underlying mechanism of the development or exacerbation of respiratory diseases, such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. In addition, PM was shown to cause DNA damage and the resulting mutations increased the risk of cancer. Furthermore, several conditions should be considered in the assessment of cell death in PM-exposed models, including the cell culture line, PM composition, and the interaction of the different cells types in in vivo models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  7. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  8. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  9. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  10. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  12. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  13. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on... fine particulate matter (PM2.5) nonattainment area has attained the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 national...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  15. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  16. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  17. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on... fine particulate matter (PM2.5) nonattainment area has attained the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 national...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  19. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  20. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  1. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  3. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  4. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  6. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  7. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  8. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  10. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  11. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  12. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  13. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  14. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  15. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  16. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  17. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  18. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  19. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  20. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  1. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  2. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  4. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  6. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  7. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  8. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  9. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  10. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  11. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  12. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  13. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 28507, May 15, 2013. (a) The requirements of... the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Region....

  14. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  15. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  16. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  17. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  18. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... Investigating and Controlling Nontraditional Particulate Matter Emissions Task Completion date Scheduled...

  20. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  1. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  2. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  4. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  5. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  6. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  7. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  8. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) (b) EPA approves the PM-10 attainment demonstration for the...-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE fine particulate matter (PM2.5) nonattainment area has attained the 2006 24-hour...

  10. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.275 Particulate matter control... particulate matter, and because there is no demonstration that their deletion would not interfere with the...

  11. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from a...

  12. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from a...

  13. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  14. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.275 Particulate matter control... particulate matter, and because there is no demonstration that their deletion would not interfere with the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  16. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard cubic...

  17. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard cubic...

  18. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  19. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from a...

  20. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  1. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods and...

  2. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  3. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  4. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from a...

  5. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods and...

  6. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  7. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.275 Particulate matter control... particulate matter, and because there is no demonstration that their deletion would not interfere with the...

  8. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  9. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  10. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods and...

  11. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.275 Particulate matter control... particulate matter, and because there is no demonstration that their deletion would not interfere with the...

  12. Cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to particulate matter-induced oxidative stress, vagal dominance, arrhythmia, pulmonary inflammation in heart failure-prone rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiologic events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflamm...

  13. Cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to particulate matter-induced oxidative stress, vagal dominance, arrhythmia, pulmonary inflammation in heart failure-prone rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiologic events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflamm...

  14. Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

    2007-03-01

    The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

  15. Particulate matter Air Pollution induces hypermethylation of the p16 promoter Via a mitochondrial ROS-JNK-DNMT1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Soberanes, Saul; Gonzalez, Angel; Urich, Daniela; Chiarella, Sergio E; Radigan, Kathryn A; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ridge, Karen M; Chandel, Navdeep S; Mutlu, Gökhan M; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Budinger, G R Scott

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of human populations to chronically elevated levels of ambient particulate matter air pollution < 2.5 μm in diameter (PM(2.5)) has been associated with an increase in lung cancer incidence. Over 70% of lung cancer cell lines exhibit promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor p16, an epigenetic modification that reduces its expression. We exposed mice to concentrated ambient PM(2.5) via inhalation, 8 hours daily for 3 weeks and exposed primary murine alveolar epithelial cells to daily doses of fine urban PM (5 µg/cm(2)). In both mice and alveolar epithelial cells, PM exposure increased ROS production, expression of the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), and methylation of the p16 promoter. In alveolar epithelial cells, increased transcription of DNMT1 and methylation of the p16 promoter were inhibited by a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant and a JNK inhibitor. These findings provide a potential mechanism by which PM exposure increases the risk of lung cancer.

  16. Redox/methylation mediated abnormal DNA methylation as regulators of ambient fine particulate matter-induced neurodevelopment related impairment in human neuronal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Zhou, Ren; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been implicated as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including autism in children. However, the underlying biological mechanism remains unclear. DNA methylation is suggested to be a fundamental mechanism for the neuronal responses to environmental cues. We prepared whole particle of PM2.5 (PM2.5), water-soluble extracts (Pw), organic extracts (Po) and carbon core component (Pc) and characterized their chemical constitutes. We found that PM2.5 induced significant redox imbalance, decreased the levels of intercellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and caused global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure triggered gene-specific promoter DNA hypo- or hypermethylation and abnormal mRNA expression of autism candidate genes. PM2.5-induced DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions of synapse related genes were associated with the decreases in their mRNA and protein expression. The inhibiting effects of antioxidative reagents, a methylation-supporting agent and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of redox/methylation mechanism in PM2.5-induced abnormal DNA methylation patterns and synaptic protein expression. The biological effects above generally followed a sequence of PM2.5 ≥ Pwo > Po > Pw > Pc. Our results implicated a novel epigenetic mechanism for the neurodevelopmental toxicity of particulate air pollution, and that eliminating the chemical components could mitigate the neurotoxicity of PM2.5.

  17. Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particu...

  18. Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particu...

  19. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  20. Lidar measurements of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2003-03-01

    Raman lidar techniques have been used in remote sensing to measure the aerosol optical extinction in the lower atmosphere, as well as water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties assumes special importance in the wake of studies strongly correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects. Optical extinction depends upon the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the particulate matter. Optical extinction from lidar returns provide information on particle size and density. The influence of relative humidity upon the growth and size of aerosols, particularly the sulfate aerosols along the northeast US region, has been investigated using a Raman lidar during several field measurement campaigns. A particle size distribution model is being developed and verified based on the experimental results. Optical extinction measurements from lidar in the NARSTO-NE-OPS program in Philadelphia PA, during summer of 1999 and 2001, have been analyzed and compared with other measurements such as PM sampling and particle size measurements.

  1. Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

  2. Aromatic Radicals-Acetylene Particulate Matter Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    atmosphere1. In addition to acute respiratory problems, long-term effects include lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases , as studied by Pope at al...problems such as ischemic heart disease , fatal arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure4,5. Strategies to reduce fine particulate matter (PM...acetylene reaction have been made by Fahr and Stein15, who deduced an Arrhenius expression in a 4 temperature range between 1000 and 1330 K in

  3. PARTICULATE MATTER NAAQS RISK AND EXPOSURE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The PM REA assesses human exposure and health risks for particulate matter. To provide a quantitative assessment of PM exposures and health risks as one of the key information inputs to the Administrator in order to make an informed decision regarding the PM NAAQS. A tiered risk/exposure assessment will be conducted as part of the PM NAAQS review and will be peer reviewed by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) of EPA’s Science Advisory Board.

  4. The role of oxidative stress in ambient particulate matter-induced lung diseases and its implications in the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E

    2008-05-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) is an environmental factor that has been associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The major effect of ambient PM on the pulmonary system is the exacerbation of inflammation, especially in susceptible people. One of the mechanisms by which ambient PM exerts its proinflammatory effects is the generation of oxidative stress by its chemical compounds and metals. Cellular responses to PM-induced oxidative stress include activation of antioxidant defense, inflammation, and toxicity. The proinflammatory effect of PM in the lung is characterized by increased cytokine/chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression. Moreover, there is evidence that ambient PM can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization, which raises the possibility that long-term PM exposure may lead to increased prevalence of asthma. In addition to ambient PM, rapid expansion of nanotechnology has introduced the potential that engineered nanoparticles (NP) may also become airborne and may contribute to pulmonary diseases by novel mechanisms that could include oxidant injury. Currently, little is known about the potential adverse health effects of these particles. In this communication, the mechanisms by which particulate pollutants, including ambient PM and engineered NP, exert their adverse effects through the generation of oxidative stress and the impacts of oxidant injury in the respiratory tract will be reviewed. The importance of cellular antioxidant and detoxification pathways in protecting against particle-induced lung damage will also be discussed.

  5. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Ambient Particulate Matter-induced Lung Diseases and Its Implications in the Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E.

    2008-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) is an environmental factor that has been associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The major effect of ambient PM on the pulmonary system is the exacerbation of inflammation, especially in susceptible people. One of the mechanisms by which ambient PM exerts its proinflammatory effects is the generation of oxidative stress by its chemical compounds and metals. Cellular responses to PM-induced oxidative stress include activation of antioxidant defense, inflammation, and toxicity. The pro-inflammatory effect of PM in the lung is characterized by increased cytokine/chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression. Moreover, there is evidence that ambient PM can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization, which raises the possibility that long-term PM exposure may lead to increased prevalence of asthma. In addition to ambient PM, rapid expansion of nanotechnology has introduced the potential that engineered NP may also become airborne and may contribute to pulmonary diseases by novel mechanisms that could include oxidant injury. Currently, little is known about the potential adverse health effect of these particles. In this communication, the mechanisms by which particulate pollutants, including ambient PM and engineered NP, exert their adverse effects through the generation of oxidative stress and the impacts of oxidant injury in the respiratory tract will be reviewed. The importance of cellular antioxidant and detoxification pathways in protecting against particle-induced lung damage will also be discussed. PMID:18313407

  6. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest are induced in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells exposed to fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Yan-Yan; Cao, Ji-Yu; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Chen, Dao-Jun; Che, Zhen; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Wen, Long-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a linkage between morbidity and mortality and particulate matter (PM), particularly fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that can readily penetrate into the lungs and are therefore more likely to increase the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the compositions of cooking oil fume (COF)-derived PM2.5, which is the major source of indoor pollution in China. Furthermore, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest induced by COF-derived PM2.5 in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II cells) were also detected. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a radical scavenger, was used to identify the role of oxidative stress in the abovementioned processes. Our results suggested that compositions of COF-derived PM2.5 are obviously different to PM2.5 derived from other sources, and COF-derived PM2.5 led to cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and G0/G1 cell arrest in primary fetal AEC II cells. Furthermore, the results also showed that COF-derived PM2.5 induced apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, which is indicated by the increased expression of ER stress-related apoptotic markers, namely GRP78 and caspase-12. Besides, the induction of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest was reversed by pretreatment with NAC. These findings strongly suggested that COF-derived PM2.5-induced toxicity in primary fetal AEC II cells is mediated by increased oxidative stress, accompanied by ER stress which results in apoptosis.

  7. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... and secondary NAAQS for particulates. The schedule for this study is as follows: Schedule for...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... and secondary NAAQS for particulates. The schedule for this study is as follows: Schedule for...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... and secondary NAAQS for particulates. The schedule for this study is as follows: Schedule for...

  10. Oxidative stress-induced telomeric erosion as a mechanism underlying airborne particulate matter-related cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, the majority due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). While many potential pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed, there is not yet a consensus as to which are most important in causing pollution-related morbidity/mortality. Nor is there consensus regarding which specific types of PM are most likely to affect public health in this regard. One toxicological mechanism linking exposure to airborne PM with CVD outcomes is oxidative stress, a contributor to the development of CVD risk factors including atherosclerosis. Recent work suggests that accelerated shortening of telomeres and, thus, early senescence of cells may be an important pathway by which oxidative stress may accelerate biological aging and the resultant development of age-related morbidity. This pathway may explain a significant proportion of PM-related adverse health outcomes, since shortened telomeres accelerate the progression of many diseases. There is limited but consistent evidence that vehicular emissions produce oxidative stress in humans. Given that oxidative stress is associated with accelerated erosion of telomeres, and that shortened telomeres are linked with acceleration of biological ageing and greater incidence of various age-related pathology, including CVD, it is hypothesized that associations noted between certain pollution types and sources and oxidative stress may reflect a mechanism by which these pollutants result in CVD-related morbidity and mortality, namely accelerated aging via enhanced erosion of telomeres. This paper reviews the literature providing links among oxidative stress, accelerated erosion of telomeres, CVD, and specific sources and types of air pollutants. If certain PM species/sources might be responsible for adverse health outcomes via the proposed mechanism, perhaps the pathway to reducing mortality/morbidity from PM would become clearer. Not only would pollution

  11. Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter Induces a NASH-like Phenotype and Impairs Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ze; Xu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xuebao; Wang, Aixia; Zhang, Chunbin; Hüttemann, Maik; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2012-01-01

    Background Air pollution is a global challenge to public health. Epidemiological studies have linked exposure to ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) to the development of metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of PM2.5 exposure on liver pathogenesis and the mechanism by which ambient PM2.5 modulates hepatic pathways and glucose homeostasis. Methods Using “Ohio’s Air Pollution Exposure System for the Interrogation of Systemic Effects (OASIS)-1”, we performed whole-body exposure of mice to concentrated ambient PM2.5 for 3 or 10 weeks. Histological analyses, metabolic studies, as well as gene expression and molecular signal transduction analyses were performed to determine the effects and mechanisms by which PM2.5 exposure promotes liver pathogenesis. Results Mice exposed to PM2.5 for 10 weeks developed a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like phenotype, characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Mice after PM2.5 exposure displayed impaired hepatic glycogen storage, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Further investigation revealed that exposure to PM2.5 led to activation of inflammatory response pathways mediated through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but suppression of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1)-mediated signaling. Moreover, PM2.5 exposure repressed expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and PPARα in the liver. Conclusions Our study suggests that PM2.5 exposure represents a significant “hit” that triggers a NASH-like phenotype and impairs hepatic glucose metabolism. The information from this work has important implications in our understanding of air pollution-associated metabolic disorders. PMID:22902548

  12. Exposure to ambient particulate matter induces a NASH-like phenotype and impairs hepatic glucose metabolism in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ze; Xu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xuebao; Wang, Aixia; Zhang, Chunbin; Hüttemann, Maik; Grossman, Lawrence I; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is a global challenge to public health. Epidemiological studies have linked exposure to ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters<2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) to the development of metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of PM(2.5) exposure on liver pathogenesis and the mechanism by which ambient PM(2.5) modulates hepatic pathways and glucose homeostasis. Using "Ohio's Air Pollution Exposure System for the Interrogation of Systemic Effects (OASIS)-1", we performed whole-body exposure of mice to concentrated ambient PM(2.5) for 3 or 10 weeks. Histological analyses, metabolic studies, as well as gene expression and molecular signal transduction analyses were performed to determine the effects and mechanisms by which PM(2.5) exposure promotes liver pathogenesis. Mice exposed to PM(2.5) for 10 weeks developed a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like phenotype, characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. After PM(2.5) exposure, mice displayed impaired hepatic glycogen storage, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Further investigation revealed that exposure to PM(2.5) led to activation of inflammatory response pathways mediated through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but suppression of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1)-mediated signaling. Moreover, PM(2.5) exposure repressed expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and PPARα in the liver. Our study suggests that PM(2.5) exposure represents a significant "hit" that triggers a NASH-like phenotype and impairs hepatic glucose metabolism. The information from this work has important implications in our understanding of air pollution-associated metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fine Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure Induces Molecular Alterations Indicative of Cardiovascular Disease Progression in Atherosclerotic Susceptible Mice -- B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiology studies have reported associations between increased mortality and morbidity with exposure to particulate air pollution, particularly within individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical and toxicological studies have provided evide...

  14. Fine Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure Induces Molecular Alterations Indicative of Cardiovascular Disease Progression in Atherosclerotic Susceptible Mice -- B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiology studies have reported associations between increased mortality and morbidity with exposure to particulate air pollution, particularly within individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical and toxicological studies have provided evide...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the... matter in the Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Region and the Ohio portions of the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the... matter in the Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Region and the Ohio portions of the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the... matter in the Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Region and the Ohio portions of the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the... matter in the Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Region and the Ohio portions of the...

  19. Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

    2012-06-01

    A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

  20. Insulin sensitizers prevent fine particulate matter-induced vascular insulin resistance and changes in endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Haberzettl, Petra; McCracken, James P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Because blood vessels are sensitive targets of air pollutant exposure, we examined the effects of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) on vascular insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which reflect cardiovascular health. We found that CAP exposure for 9 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta of mice maintained on control diet. This change was accompanied by the induction of IL-1β and increases in the abundance of cleaved IL-18 and p10 subunit of Casp-1, consistent with the activation of the inflammasome pathway. CAP exposure also suppressed circulating levels of EPCs (Flk-1(+)/Sca-1(+) cells), while enhancing the bone marrow abundance of these cells. Although similar changes in vascular insulin signaling and EPC levels were observed in mice fed high-fat diet, CAP exposure did not exacerbate diet-induced changes in vascular insulin resistance or EPC homeostasis. Treatment with an insulin sensitizer, metformin or rosiglitazone, prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and NF-κB and inflammasome activation and restored peripheral blood and bone marrow EPC levels. These findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure induces diet-independent vascular insulin resistance and inflammation and prevents EPC mobilization, and that this EPC mobilization defect could be mediated by vascular insulin resistance. Impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying PM2.5-induced vascular injury, and pharmacological sensitization to insulin action could potentially prevent deficits in vascular repair and mitigate vascular inflammation due to exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  2. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  3. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  4. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  5. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  6. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...

  7. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The development of this document is part of the Agency's periodic review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for PM. The recently completed PM ISA and supplementary annexes, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments developed by EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, will provide the scientific basis to inform EPA decisions related to the review of the current PM NAAQS. Key information and judgments formerly contained in an Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for PM are incorporated in this assessment. Additional details of the pertinent literature published since the last review, as well as selected older studies of particular interest, are included in a series of annexes. This ISA thus serves to update and revise the evaluation of the scientific evidence available at the time of the previous review of the NAAQS for PM that was concluded in 2006.

  8. Total particulate matter concentration skews cigarette smoke's gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hassell, John A; Stampfli, Martin R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure of small animals to cigarette smoke is widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, protocols and exposure systems utilised vary substantially and it is unclear how these different systems compare. We analysed the gene expression profile of six publically available murine datasets from different cigarette smoke-exposure systems and related the gene signatures to three clinical cohorts. 234 genes significantly regulated by cigarette smoke in at least one model were used to construct a 55-gene network containing 17 clusters. Increasing numbers of differentially regulated clusters were associated with higher total particulate matter concentrations in the different datasets. Low total particulate matter-induced genes mainly related to xenobiotic/detoxification responses, while higher total particulate matter activated immune/inflammatory processes in addition to xenobiotic/detoxification responses. To translate these observations to the clinic, we analysed the regulation of the revealed network in three human cohorts. Similar to mice, we observed marked differences in the number of regulated clusters between the cohorts. These differences were not determined by pack-year. Although none of the experimental models exhibited a complete alignment with any of the human cohorts, some exposure systems showed higher resemblance. Thus, depending on the cohort, clinically observed changes in gene expression may be mirrored more closely by specific cigarette smoke exposure systems. This study emphasises the need for careful validation of animal models.

  9. Total particulate matter concentration skews cigarette smoke's gene expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hassell, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of small animals to cigarette smoke is widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, protocols and exposure systems utilised vary substantially and it is unclear how these different systems compare. We analysed the gene expression profile of six publically available murine datasets from different cigarette smoke-exposure systems and related the gene signatures to three clinical cohorts. 234 genes significantly regulated by cigarette smoke in at least one model were used to construct a 55-gene network containing 17 clusters. Increasing numbers of differentially regulated clusters were associated with higher total particulate matter concentrations in the different datasets. Low total particulate matter-induced genes mainly related to xenobiotic/detoxification responses, while higher total particulate matter activated immune/inflammatory processes in addition to xenobiotic/detoxification responses. To translate these observations to the clinic, we analysed the regulation of the revealed network in three human cohorts. Similar to mice, we observed marked differences in the number of regulated clusters between the cohorts. These differences were not determined by pack-year. Although none of the experimental models exhibited a complete alignment with any of the human cohorts, some exposure systems showed higher resemblance. Thus, depending on the cohort, clinically observed changes in gene expression may be mirrored more closely by specific cigarette smoke exposure systems. This study emphasises the need for careful validation of animal models. PMID:27995131

  10. Organic extracts of urban air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells).

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Soo Yeun; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-08-16

    Traffic is a major source of particulate matter (PM), and ultrafine particulates and traffic intensity probably contribute significantly to PM-related health effects. As a strong relationship between air pollution and motor vehicle-originated pollutants has been shown to exist, air pollution genotoxicity studies of urban cities are steadily increasing. In Korea, the death rate caused by lung cancer is the most rapidly increased cancer death rate in the past 10 years. In this study, genotoxicity of PM2.5 (<2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter particles) collected from the traffic area in Suwon City, Korea, was studied using cultured human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) as a model system for the potential inhalation health effects. Organic extract of PM2.5 (CE) generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation in a dose-dependent manner (1μg/cm(3)-50μg/cm(3)). In the acid-base-neutral fractionation of PM2.5, neutral samples including the aliphatic (F3), aromatic (F4) and slightly polar (F5) fractions generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation. These genotoxic effects were significantly blocked by scavenging agents [superoxide dismutase (SOD), sodium selenite (SS), mannitol (M), catalase (CAT)]. In addition, in the modified Comet assay using endonucleases (FPG and ENDOIII), CE and its fractions (F3, F4, and F5) increased DNA breakage compared with control groups, indicating that CE and fractions of PM2.5 induced oxidative DNA damage. These results clearly suggest that PM2.5 collected in the Suwon traffic area has genotoxic effects and that reactive oxygen species may play a distinct role in these effects. In addition, aliphatic/chlorinated hydrocarbons, PAH/alkylderivatives, and nitro-PAH/ketones/quinones may be important causative agents of the genotoxic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  17. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.332 Section 52.332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter. 52.1341 Section 52.1341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  20. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.332 Section 52.332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  3. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  9. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  10. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.427 Section 52.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  13. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.332 Section 52.332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter. 52.1341 Section 52.1341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

  1. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.332 Section 52.332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  8. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1081 Section 52.1081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  11. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  12. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12..., and other planning SIPs related to attainment of the standard for as long as the area continues to...

  13. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  14. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The develop...

  15. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 0.1 g/kg black liquor solids (dry weight) . (3) From any lime kiln any...

  16. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled. ...

  17. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled. ...

  18. Field measurement of diesel particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Volkwein, Jon C; Mischler, Steven E; Davies, Brian; Ellis, Clive

    2008-03-01

    A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the filter with R(2) values >0.86. The relative standard deviation from replicate samples of DP and EC was 0.16 and 0.11, respectively. The method may also have applications beyond mining, where qualitative evaluation of engine emissions is desirable to determine if engine or control technology maintenance may be required.

  19. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  20. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Particulate Matter; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed rule...

  1. Particulate matter from indoor environments of classroom induced higher cytotoxicity and leakiness in human microvascular endothelial cells in comparison with those collected from corridor.

    PubMed

    Chua, M L; Setyawati, M I; Li, H; Fang, C H Y; Gurusamy, S; Teoh, F T L; Leong, D T; George, S

    2016-09-23

    We investigated the physicochemical properties (size, shape, elemental composition, and endotoxin) of size resolved particulate matter (PM) collected from the indoor and corridor environments of classrooms. A comparative hazard profiling of these PM was conducted using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). Oxidative stress-dependent cytotoxicity responses were assessed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high content screening (HCS), and disruption of monolayer cell integrity was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and transwell assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed differences in the morphology and elemental composition of PM of different sizes and origins. While the total mass of PM collected from indoor environment was lower in comparison with those collected from the corridor, the endotoxin content was substantially higher in indoor PM (e.g., ninefold higher endotoxin level in indoor PM8.1-20 ). The ability to induce oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity and leakiness in cell monolayer were higher for indoor PM compared to those collected from the corridor. In conclusion, this comparative analysis suggested that indoor PM is relatively more hazardous to the endothelial system possibly because of higher endotoxin content.

  2. Oxidative damage induced in A549 cells by physically and chemically characterized air particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kouakou S; Billet, Sylvain; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Diouf, Amadou; Cazier, Fabrice; Djaman, Joseph; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollution particulate matter (PM) is strongly associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms of action whereby PM cause adverse health effects are still unclear. In developing countries, like in the sub-Saharian region of Africa, people are often exposed to high PM levels. Hence, three PM(2.5) samples were collected in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), under rural, urban or industrial influences. Their most toxicologically relevant physical and chemical characteristics were determined--thereby showing that most of them were equal or smaller than 2.5 microm--and the influence of both natural (Ca, Na, Mg, Ti, etc.) and anthropic (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, benzene and its derivatives, paraffins, etc.) emission sources. The toxicity induced by the three PM samples was studied through 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation to DNA, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity. Hence, effect concentrations at 10 and 50% (EC(10) and EC(50), respectively) were as follows: (i) rural PM--EC(10) = 5.91 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 29.55 microg cm(-2); (ii) urban PM--EC(10) = 5.45 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 27.23 microg cm(-2); and (iii) industrial PM--EC(10) = 6.86 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 34.29 microg cm(-2). Moreover, PM-induced oxidative damage in A549 cells was observed through the induction of lipid peroxidation, the alteration of superoxide dismutase activity, and the disruption of glutathione status. Both the transition metals and the organic chemicals within the three collected PM samples under study might be involved in the oxidative damage and, therefore, the toxicity they induced in A549 cells. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dunkerque City air pollution particulate matter-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in human epithelial lung cells (L132) in culture.

    PubMed

    Garçon, Guillaume; Dagher, Zeina; Zerimech, Farid; Ledoux, Frédéric; Courcot, Dominique; Aboukais, Antoine; Puskaric, Emile; Shirali, Pirouz

    2006-06-01

    Exposure to urban airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects. In this work, we focused our attention on the capacity of air pollution PM to induce cytotoxic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses in human epithelial lung cells (L132) in culture. PM were collected in Dunkerque, a French seaside city, and their physical and chemical characteristics were carried out. Their size distribution showed that 92.15% of the PM were equal or smaller than 2.5 and their specific surface area was 1 m2/g. Inorganic (i.e. Fe, Al, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb, etc.) and organic (i.e. VOC, PAH, etc.) chemicals were found in PM. Physical and chemical properties of Dunkerque City's PM suggested that much of the collected PM derived from wind-borne dust from the industrial complex and the heavy motor vehicle traffic. Their cytotoxicity, as evaluated by survival rate determination, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity showed concentration and time-dependent effects in L132 cells (LC10 = 18.84 microg PM/ml; LC50 = 75.36 microg PM/ml). Moreover, in PM-exposed L132 cells, there were concentration- and time-dependent changes in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation, and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, on the one hand, and in tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and nitric oxide release, on the other hand. Taken together, these findings suggested that oxidative stress and inflammatory responses proceeded cytotoxicity in PM-exposed L132 cells.

  4. Let-7a modulates particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm)-induced oxidative stress and injury in human airway epithelial cells by targeting arginase 2.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Li, Dan; Gu, Yue; Li, Xiaoping; Peng, Liping

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies show that particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is associated with cardiorespiratory diseases via the induction of excessive oxidative stress. However, the precise mechanism underlying PM2.5-mediated oxidative stress injury has not been fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence has indicated the microRNA let-7 family might play a role in PM-mediated pathological processes. In this study, we investigated the role of let-7a in oxidative stress and cell injury in human bronchial epithelial BEAS2B (B2B) cells after PM2.5 exposure. The let-7a level was the most significantly decreased in B2B cells after PM2.5 exposure. The overexpression of let-7a suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and the percentage of apoptotic cells after PM2.5 exposure, while the let-7a level decreased arginase 2 (ARG2) mRNA and protein levels in B2B cells by directly targeting the ARG2 3'-untranslated region. ARG2 expression was upregulated in B2B cells during PM2.5 treatment, and ARG2 knockdown could remarkably reduce oxidative stress and cellular injury. Moreover, its restoration could abrogate the protective effects of let-7a against PM2.5-induced injury. In conclusion, let-7a decreases and ARG2 increases resulting from PM2.5 exposure may exacerbate oxidative stress, cell injury and apoptosis of B2B cells. The let-7a/ARG2 axis is a likely therapeutic target for PM2.5-induced airway epithelial injury. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (p<0.05). We concluded that subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar reactive hyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats.

  6. The road surface as a source of particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullová, Daša; Jandačka, Dušan; Ďurčanská, Daniela; Eštoková, Adriana; Hegrová, Jitka

    2017-09-01

    Traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on the environment and longevity of the pavements. It is also associated with increase in emissions of particulate matter. Slovakia has built up the major part of roads with asphalt surface. Therefore, the research presented in this contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of released particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures are abraded in wheel tracking machine DYNA-TRACK. The particulate matter measurements were performed in the laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution presents results of measured mass concentrations, chemical analyses of asphalt mixture materials and chemical analyses of particulate matter. The rutted asphalt samples are compared in terms of particulate matter mass concentrations and chemical composition. The contribution presents results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. The concentrations of metals are subjected to the multivariate statistical analysis (factor analysis) for the identification of sources of particulate matter (bituminous binder, aggregates).

  7. 75 FR 17865 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY... updates were made to the particulate matter standards by adding fine particulate standards and revoking the state's course particulate standards. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October...

  8. Lability of secondary organic particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Gilles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2016-01-01

    The energy flows in Earth’s natural and modified climate systems are strongly influenced by the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). For predictions of concentration, equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between organic PM and the surrounding vapor has widely been assumed, yet recent observations show that organic PM can be semisolid or solid for some atmospheric conditions, possibly suggesting that SVOC uptake and release can be slow enough that equilibrium does not prevail on timescales relevant to atmospheric processes. Herein, in a series of laboratory experiments, the mass labilities of films of secondary organic material representative of similar atmospheric organic PM were directly determined by quartz crystal microbalance measurements of evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations. There were strong differences between films representative of anthropogenic compared with biogenic sources. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH) between 20% and 30%, indicating rapid partitioning above a transition RH but not below. Below the threshold, the characteristic time for equilibration is estimated as up to 1 wk for a typically sized particle. In contrast, for films representing biogenic PM, no RH threshold was observed, suggesting equilibrium partitioning is rapidly obtained for all RHs. The effective diffusion rate Dorg for the biogenic case is at least 103 times greater than that of the anthropogenic case. These differences should be accounted for in the interpretation of laboratory data as well as in modeling of organic PM in Earth’s atmosphere. PMID:27791063

  9. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of identifiable effects on public health which may be expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air (42 U.S.C. 7408). This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM sufficiently protects public health and the environment. Key information and judgments formerly contained in an Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for PM are incorporated in this assessment. Additional details of the pertinent literature published since the last review, as well as selected older studies of particular interest, are included in a series of annexes. This ISA thus serves to update and revise the evaluation of the scientific evidence available at the time of the previous review of the NAAQS for PM that was concluded in 2006.

  10. Factors Controlling Liquid Particulate Matter in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, A. P.; Gong, Z.; de Sá, S. S.; Wernis, R. A.; Yee, L.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Castillo, P.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Alexander, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The hygroscopic response of particulate matter (PM) during GoAmazon 2014/5 was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. The hygroscopic response was measured online and in real-time using a custom designed impaction apparatus. The impaction apparatus was calibrated with respect to particle viscosity indicating a liquid state (viscosity <102 Pa s) for complete adherence (no particle rebound). By varying the PM water content and observing particle rebound as a function of RH (up to 98%), the hygroscopic response and phase state of the PM under investigation was determined. The hygroscopic response curves were categorized according to the rebound fraction at high RH (80 - 98%) bounded by two extremes. 1) Time periods that resemble pure SOM generated under controlled chamber conditions, where no particle rebound is observed above 80% RH. 2) Time periods that a large fraction (10 - 40%) of particles rebound at RH values >95%, an indication of hydrophobic particles. The role of anthropogenic and biogenic factors in controlling the hygroscopic response of PM in Amazonia is investigated through meteorological conditions and particle chemical composition.

  11. 76 FR 5270 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... particulates can cause heart and lung disease. Particulate matter also aggravates asthma. Airborne particulate... more for fine particulates. WPC states that it would be difficult for sources to limit PM 2.5...

  12. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... procedures in § 60.534: (1) An affected facility equipped with a catalytic combustor shall not discharge into... (0.009 lb/hr). Particulate emissions during any test run at any burn rate that is required to be used...

  13. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blowing still: (1) Particulate...) Particulate matter in excess of 0.60 kg/Mg (1.2 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still during blowing without... the still during blowing without a catalyst and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner;...

  14. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blowing still: (1) Particulate...) Particulate matter in excess of 0.60 kg/Mg (1.2 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still during blowing without... the still during blowing without a catalyst and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner;...

  15. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blowing still: (1) Particulate...) Particulate matter in excess of 0.60 kg/Mg (1.2 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still during blowing without... the still during blowing without a catalyst and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner;...

  16. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  17. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not...

  18. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not...

  19. Setting and Reviewing Standards to Control Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set national air quality standards for particulate matter, and to periodically review the standards to ensure that they provide adequate health and environmental protection, updating those standards as necessary.

  20. Monitoring by Control Technique - Wet Scrubber For Particulate Matter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Wet Scrubber For Particulate Matter controls used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  1. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  2. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  3. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  4. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

  5. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

  6. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

  7. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  8. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  9. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

  10. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  11. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

  12. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  13. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  14. Cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to particulate matter-induced oxidative stress, vagal dominance, arrhythmia and pulmonary inflammation in heart failure-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Carll, Alex P; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Winsett, Darrell W; Hazari, Mehdi S; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy H; Cascio, Wayne E; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

    2015-02-01

    Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiological events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflammation, oxidative stress, arrhythmia and autonomic nervous system imbalance. Cardiomyopathy results from cardiac injury, is the leading cause of heart failure, and can be induced in heart failure-prone rats through sub-chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO). To test whether cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to inhaled PM2.5 and can elucidate potential mechanisms, we investigated the cardiophysiologic, ventilatory, inflammatory and oxidative effects of a single nose-only inhalation of a metal-rich PM2.5 (580 µg/m(3), 4 h) in ISO-pretreated (35 days × 1.0 mg/kg/day sc) rats. During the 5 days post-treatment, ISO-treated rats had decreased HR and BP and increased pre-ejection period (PEP, an inverse correlate of contractility) relative to saline-treated rats. Before inhalation exposure, ISO-pretreated rats had increased PR and ventricular repolarization time (QT) and heterogeneity (Tp-Te). Relative to clean air, PM2.5 further prolonged PR-interval and decreased systolic BP during inhalation exposure; increased tidal volume, expiratory time, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters of parasympathetic tone and atrioventricular block arrhythmias over the hours post-exposure; increased pulmonary neutrophils, macrophages and total antioxidant status one day post-exposure; and decreased pulmonary glutathione peroxidase 8 weeks after exposure, with all effects occurring exclusively in ISO-pretreated rats but not saline-pretreated rats. Ultimately, our findings indicate that cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to the oxidative, inflammatory, ventilatory, autonomic and arrhythmogenic effects of acute PM2.5 inhalation.

  15. Heavy metals bound to fine particulate matter from northern China induce season-dependent health risks: A study based on myocardial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Ji, Xiaotong; Ku, Tingting; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2016-09-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has consistently reported that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets composed of multiple components, and there has been high interest in identifying the specific health-relevant physical and/or chemical toxic constituents of PM2.5. In the present study, we analyzed 8 heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn and Co) in the PM2.5 collected during four different seasons in Taiyuan, a typical coal-burning city in northern China. Our results indicated that total concentrations of the 8 heavy metals differed among the seasons. Zn and Pb, which are primarily derived from the anthropogenic source, coal burning, were the dominant elements, and high concentrations of these two elements were observed during the spring and winter. To clarify whether these heavy metals in the locally collected PM2.5 were associated with health effects, we conducted health risk assessments using validated methods. Interestingly, Pb was responsible for greater potential health risks to children. Because cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a main contributor to the mortality associated with PM2.5 exposure, we performed experimental assays to evaluate the myocardial toxicity. Our in vitro experiments showed that the heavy metal-containing PM2.5 induced season-dependent apoptosis in rat H9C2 cells through a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inflammatory response. Our findings suggested that heavy metals bound to PM2.5 produced by coal burning play an important role in myocardial toxicity and contribute to season-dependent health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Winter fine particulate matter from Milan induces morphological and functional alterations in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Maurizio; Mantecca, Paride; Corvaja, Viviana; Longhin, Eleonora; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Camatini, Marina

    2009-07-10

    Samples of PM(2.5) were gravimetrically collected during the winter 2005/2006 in the urban area of Milan (North Italy). Samples were chemically characterized and the particles were detached from filters to determine their cytotoxic effects on the A549 cell line. Based on the potential toxicological relevance of its components, Milan winter PM(2.5) contained high concentrations of pro-oxidant transition metals and PAHs, while re-suspended particles showed a relatively high frequency of dimensional classes ranging from 40 nm to 300 nm. A549 cells exposed to particle suspensions showed a concentration-dependent decrease in viability, starting from 10 microg/cm(2). Phagocytosis of particles by A549 cells and particle aggregates were morphologically characterized and seemed to depend on both particle concentration and exposure time, with the majority of particles being engulfed in membrane-bound vacuoles after 24h of exposure. The ability of ultrafine particles to penetrate and spread throughout the cells was also verified. Cell membrane lysis and mitochondrial ultrastructural disruption appeared to be the main modifications induced by PM(2.5) on A549 cells. Concomitantly to the adverse effects observed in terms of cell mortality and ultrastructural lesions, a significant intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed, suggesting that the cytotoxicity, exerted by the winter PM(2.5) in Milan, derived also from its oxidative potential, probably associated with particle-adsorbed metals and PAHs.

  17. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  18. A comprehensive particulate matter monitoring system and dosimetry-based ambient particulate matter standards.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yousheng

    2006-04-01

    A numerical particulate matter (PM) measurement model is developed to characterize and evaluate PM sampling methods. Simulations are conducted using the model to evaluate currently widely used PM samplers, including Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers. The simulations show that current PM samplers are very vulnerable to both changes in measurement target (i.e., natural variability of particle size distribution) and the sampler's design, manufacturing, and operating conditions, potentially resulting in significant errors in the monitoring data. The numerical model is used in conjunction with two types of commercially available PM monitoring devices to form a Comprehensive Particulate Matter Monitoring System (CPMMS). The first type of device can be any mass-based PM monitor with a well-defined sampling efficiency curve. The second type of device is one capable of measuring particle size distribution with a reasonably good relative accuracy between size categories but not necessarily accurate in measuring absolute mass concentrations. This study shows that CPMMS can produce much higher quality PM monitoring data than the current PM samplers under the same conditions. In addition, unlike past and current PM monitoring data such as total suspended particulates, coarse PM (PM10), fine PM (PM2.5), etc., the CPMMS monitoring data will survive changes in PM regulatory definition. A new concept, dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards, is proposed to define ambient PM level based on the deposition fraction of particles in the human respiratory tract. The dosimetry-based PM metrics is more meaningful because it correlates the ambient PM level with the portion that can be deposited in the respiratory tract without an arbitrary cutoff particle diameter. CPMMS makes dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards feasible.

  19. PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  1. Lability of secondary organic particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Gilles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    We report the energy flows in Earth’s natural and modified climate systems are strongly influenced by the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). For predictions of concentration, equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between organic PM and the surrounding vapor has widely been assumed, yet recent observations show that organic PM can be semisolid or solid for some atmospheric conditions, possibly suggesting that SVOC uptake and release can be slow enough that equilibrium does not prevail on timescales relevant to atmospheric processes. Herein, in a series of laboratory experiments, the mass labilities of films of secondary organic material representative of similar atmospheric organic PM were directly determined by quartz crystal microbalance measurements of evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations. There were strong differences between films representative of anthropogenic compared with biogenic sources. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH) between 20% and 30%, indicating rapid partitioning above a transition RH but not below. Below the threshold, the characteristic time for equilibration is estimated as up to 1 wk for a typically sized particle. In contrast, for films representing biogenic PM, no RH threshold was observed, suggesting equilibrium partitioning is rapidly obtained for all RHs. The effective diffusion rate Dorg for the biogenic case is at least 103 times greater than that of the anthropogenic case. In conclusion, these differences should be accounted for in the interpretation of laboratory data as well as in modeling of organic PM in Earth’s atmosphere.

  2. Lability of secondary organic particulate matter

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; ...

    2016-10-24

    We report the energy flows in Earth’s natural and modified climate systems are strongly influenced by the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). For predictions of concentration, equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between organic PM and the surrounding vapor has widely been assumed, yet recent observations show that organic PM can be semisolid or solid for some atmospheric conditions, possibly suggesting that SVOC uptake and release can be slow enough that equilibrium does not prevail on timescales relevant to atmospheric processes. Herein, in a series of laboratory experiments, the mass labilities of films of secondary organic material representativemore » of similar atmospheric organic PM were directly determined by quartz crystal microbalance measurements of evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations. There were strong differences between films representative of anthropogenic compared with biogenic sources. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH) between 20% and 30%, indicating rapid partitioning above a transition RH but not below. Below the threshold, the characteristic time for equilibration is estimated as up to 1 wk for a typically sized particle. In contrast, for films representing biogenic PM, no RH threshold was observed, suggesting equilibrium partitioning is rapidly obtained for all RHs. The effective diffusion rate Dorg for the biogenic case is at least 103 times greater than that of the anthropogenic case. In conclusion, these differences should be accounted for in the interpretation of laboratory data as well as in modeling of organic PM in Earth’s atmosphere.« less

  3. Association between ambient particulate matter and disorders of vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Lim, Youn-Hee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals has been suggested to alter the physiologic state of the inner and middle ear. However, it is unknown if particulate matter exposure is associated with acute vestibular dysfunction. To estimate the effects of particulate matter exposure on the number of hospital visits related to three major diseases of vestibular dysfunction, Meniere's disease (MD), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and vestibular neuronitis (VN). Our study subject is from Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, which is dynamic cohort consist of 1 million participants representing the Korean population. Among total cohort participants, we used the hospital visit data of 210,000 individuals who resided in Seoul from 2007 to 2010. Time series analysis using the Poisson generalized additive model and case-crossover analysis using conditional logistic regression were used to investigate the association between daily particulate matter levels (PM2.5, particulate matter <2.5μg/m(3); PM10, particulate matter <10μg/m(3); PM10-2.5, PM10- PM2.5) and number of MD, BPPV, and VN hospital visits. Time series analysis showed that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 and PM10-2.5 on lag day 1 was associated with an increased risk of MD hospital visits [relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI), PM10: 1.09 (1.02-1.15); PM10-2.5: 1.06 (1.02-1.10)]. In addition, elderly individuals (≥60 years old) showed an increased risk of MD hospital visits after particulate matter exposure when compared to younger individuals. An IQR increase in particulate matter on lag day 1 was associated with a marginally significant increase in VN hospital visits [RR (95%CI), PM2.5: 1.11 (0.98-1.25); PM10: 1.07 (0.99-1.15); PM10-2.5: 1.04 (0.99-1.09)]. However, no association between particulate matter exposure and BPPV hospital visits was noted. Case-crossover analyses showed similar results to the time-series analysis across all three diseases. MD

  4. [Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1

  5. Driver exposure to particulate matter in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Jinsart, W; Kaewmanee, C; Inoue, M; Hara, K; Hasegawa, S; Karita, K; Tamura, K; Yano, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters > or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10-2.5) exposure levels of drivers and to analyze the proportion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Four bus routes were selected. Measurements were conducted over 10 days in August (rainy season) 2008 and 8 days in January (dry season) 2009. The mean PM2.5 exposure level of the Tuk-tuk drivers was 86 microg/m3 in August and 198 microg/m3 in January. The mean for the non-air-conditioned bus drivers was 63 microg/m3 in August and 125 microg/m3 in January. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposure levels of the drivers in January were approximately twice as high as those in August. The proportion of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 to the PM2.5 level in August (0.97 +/- 0.28 microg/m3) was higher than in January (0.65 +/- 0.13 microg/m3). The proportion of OC in the TC of the PM2.5 in August (0.51 +/- 0.08 microg/m3) was similar to that in January (0.65 +/- 0.07 microg/m3). The TC exposure by PM25 in January (81 +/- 30 microg/m3) remained higher than in August (56-21 microg/m3). The mean level of OC in the PM2.5 was 29 +/- 13 microg/m3 in August and 50 +/- 24 microg/m3 in January. In conclusion, the PM exposure level in Bangkok drivers was higher than that in the general environment, which was already high, and it varied with the seasons and vehicle type. This study also demonstrated that the major component of the PM was carbon, likely derived from vehicles.

  6. Systemic and vascular effects of circulating diesel exhaust particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ni; van Eeden, Stephan F

    2013-11-01

    Numerous studies have found an association between transiently increased particulate matter air pollution and acute adverse cardiovascular health effects; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clear. Translocation of ultra-fine ambient particulate matter has been proposed to play a key role in these acute side effects. This study was designed to determine the contribution of circulating (translocated) diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) to the systemic and vascular effects. C57 mice (10-week) received intravenous DEPs via tail vein injection. Following 1-h post-injection, inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), peripheral blood cell counts, band cell counts, aortic endothelial function and vascular constriction were assessed. Thoracic aortae were isolated, and endothelial function was examined by measuring acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated vascular relaxation using a wire myograph. In addition, phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated vasoconstriction was also measured. The amount of DEPs deposited and trapped in tissues (the spleen, liver, lungs and heart) were quantified. Acute systemic DEP exposure caused a significant increase in TNF-α, peripheral neutrophil and band cell counts. ACh and SNP-induced relaxation were not affected by acute systemic DEP exposure, neither was PE-stimulated constriction. There was a significantly increased DEP deposition in the spleen as well as in the liver. No significantly increased DEPs were detected in the lung and heart. Here we show that circulating DEPs induce a systemic response characterized by increased TNF-α, peripheral granulocytes, but does not impact endothelial function. Our study also suggests that circulating particles are rapidly removed from the circulation and predominantly sequestered in the spleen and liver.

  7. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas.

  8. Ultrafine particulate matter exposure in vitro impairs vasorelaxant response in superoxide dismutase 2 deficient and aged murine aortic rings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies positively associate exposure to inhaled ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure....

  9. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  10. Ultrafine particulate matter exposure in vitro impairs vasorelaxant response in superoxide dismutase 2 deficient and aged murine aortic rings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies positively associate exposure to inhaled ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure....

  11. A Simplified and Rapid Screening Assay using Zebrafish to Assess Cardiac Effects of Air Pollution-derived Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative toxicity assessment of particulate matter (PM) from different sources will potentially inform the understanding of regional differences in PM-induced cardiac health effects by identifying PM sources linked to highest potency components. Conventional low-throughput in...

  12. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  13. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  14. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  15. A Simplified and Rapid Screening Assay using Zebrafish to Assess Cardiac Effects of Air Pollution-derived Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative toxicity assessment of particulate matter (PM) from different sources will potentially inform the understanding of regional differences in PM-induced cardiac health effects by identifying PM sources linked to highest potency components. Conventional low-throughput in...

  16. Foam cell formation by particulate matter (PM) exposure: a review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Long, Jimin; Ji, Yuejia; Chen, Gui; Shen, Yuexin; Gong, Yu; Li, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that exposure of particulate matter (PM) from traffic vehicles, e.g., diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was associated with adverse vascular effects, e.g., acceleration of atherosclerotic plaque progression. By analogy, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) could also induce similar effects. The formation of lipid laden foam cells, derived predominately from macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is closely associated with the development of atherosclerosis and adverse vascular effects. We reviewed current studies about particle exposure-induced lipid laden foam cell formation. In vivo studies using animal models have shown that exposure of air pollution by PM promoted lipid accumulation in alveolar macrophages or foam cells in plaques, which was likely associated with pulmonary inflammation or systemic oxidative stress, but not blood lipid profile. In support of these findings, in vitro studies showed that direct exposure of cultured macrophages to DEP or NP exposure, with or without further exposure to external lipids, promoted intracellular lipid accumulation. The mechanisms remained unknown. Although a number studies found increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) or an adaptive response to oxidative stress, the exact role of oxidative stress in mediating particle-induced foam cell formation requires future research. There is currently lack of reports concerning VSMC as a source for foam cells induced by particle exposure. In the future, it is necessary to explore the role of foam cell formation in particle exposure-induced atherosclerosis development. In addition, the formation of VSMC derived foam cells by particle exposure may also need extensive studies.

  17. Protein oxidation and degradation caused by particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Chun-Nin; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, You-Lan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE) protein adduct was caused by DEPs at 150 μg/ml. Methionine oxidation (MetO) of human albumin proteins was induced by DEPs, UD, and CB; however, the protein repair mechanism that converts MetO back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3) was activated by DEPs and inhibited by UD, suggesting that oxidized protein was accumulating in cells. As to the degradation of oxidized proteins, proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by CB with ubiquitin accumulation, whereas proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by DEPs without ubiquitin accumulation. The results suggest that CB-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-dependent autophagy pathway, whereas DEP-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-independent autophagy pathway. A distinct proteotoxic effect may depend on the physicochemistry of PM. PMID:27644844

  18. Protein oxidation and degradation caused by particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Chun-Nin; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, You-Lan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE) protein adduct was caused by DEPs at 150 μg/ml. Methionine oxidation (MetO) of human albumin proteins was induced by DEPs, UD, and CB; however, the protein repair mechanism that converts MetO back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3) was activated by DEPs and inhibited by UD, suggesting that oxidized protein was accumulating in cells. As to the degradation of oxidized proteins, proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by CB with ubiquitin accumulation, whereas proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by DEPs without ubiquitin accumulation. The results suggest that CB-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-dependent autophagy pathway, whereas DEP-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-independent autophagy pathway. A distinct proteotoxic effect may depend on the physicochemistry of PM.

  19. [Impacts of airborne particulate matter and its components on respiratory system health].

    PubMed

    Cao, L M; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Z; Sun, W W; Mu, G; Chen, W H

    2016-12-06

    Nowadays, particulate air pollution has been a global environmental problem. Numerous studies has shown that long-term exposure to high level of airborne particulate matter (PM) can damage human health. Respiratory system, as a direct portal to contact with particulate matter, can be more susceptible to airborne particulates. Summarizing latest five-year epidemiological research, the present review is focused on the effects of PM on respiratory system health in different age groups. In detail, we investigated the harmful effect of PM, or its components on three common respiratory diseases, including lung function decline, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. The result showed that, to a certain degree, PM could induce the decline of lung function, the development and the exacerbation of COPD and asthma by oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. And it may prompt that exposure to PM can be an improtant risk factor for the respiratory system health.

  20. Diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fire stations.

    PubMed

    Bott, Raymond C; Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B; Reid, Damien A

    2017-09-01

    Firefighters are known to be exposed to a wide variety of combustion products during operational and training firefighting activities. However, the potential for exposure to diesel exhaust emissions, recently classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, also exists within the fire station environment. In this study, concentrations of diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured in the engine bays, duty offices and dormitory areas of eight fire stations in Queensland, Australia. Operation of fire appliances and mechanical equipment during start of shift checks were found to contribute more strongly to overall engine bay diesel particulate matter concentrations than the number of fire appliance departures and returns. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found to be transported further into fire station living environments than diesel particulate matter. This study highlights a number of potential strategies for reducing firefighter exposures to components of diesel engine exhaust in the fire station environment.

  1. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullová, Daša; Đurčanská, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  2. Acute pulmonary toxicity of urban particulate matter and ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, R.; Bjarnason, S. G.; Adamson, I. Y.; Hedgecock, C.; Kumarathasan, P.; Guénette, J.; Potvin, M.; Goegan, P.; Bouthillier, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the acute lung toxicity of urban particulate matter in interaction with ozone. Rats were exposed for 4 hours to clean air, ozone (0.8 ppm), the urban dust EHC-93 (5 mg/m3 or 50 mg/m3), or ozone in combination with urban dust. The animals were returned to clean air for 32 hours and then injected (intraperitoneally) with [3H]thymidine to label proliferating cells and killed after 90 minutes. The lungs were fixed by inflation, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and processed for light microscopy autoradiography. Cell labeling was low in bronchioles (0.14 +/- 0.04%) and parenchyma (0.13 +/- 0.02%) of air control animals. Inhalation of EHC-93 alone did not induce cell labeling. Ozone alone increased (P < 0.05) cell labeling (bronchioles, 0.42 +/- 0.16%; parenchyma, 0.57 +/- 0.21%), in line with an acute reparative cell proliferation. The effects of ozone were clearly potentiated by co-exposure with either the low (3.31 +/- 0.31%; 0.99 +/- 0.18%) or the high (4.45 +/- 0.51%; 1.47 +/- 0.18%) concentrations of urban dust (ozone X EHC-93, P < 0.05). Cellular changes were most notable in the epithelia of terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and did not distribute to the distal parenchyma. Enhanced DNA synthesis indicates that particulate matter from ambient air can exacerbate epithelial lesions in the lungs. This may extend beyond air pollutant interactions, such as to effects of inhaled particles in the lungs of compromised individuals. Images Figure 1 PMID:9403707

  3. [Particulate matter air pollution effects on the incidence of heart diseases among the urban population].

    PubMed

    Tabakaev, M V; Artamonova, G V

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases induces an urgent need to identify and clear delineation of the most important risk factors for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Unlike the second part of XXth century, today the World Health Organization considers particulate matter ambient pollution one of the most important predictors of cardiovascular events. However, results of similar studies conducted in the last decades, is highly fragmented. The authors' objective was to try to understand and organize this massive of accumulated information and analyze it to draw conclusions about the impact of particulate matter on the functioning of human cardiovascular system.

  4. Particulate Matter Promotes In Vitro Receptor-Recognizable Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Dysfunction of Lipid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Sevilla-Tapia, Laura; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Serrano, Jesús; O’Neill, Marie S.; García-Cuellar, Claudia M.; Quintana, Raúl; Vázquez-López, Inés

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter may promote cardiovascular disease, possibly as a consequence of its oxidative potential. Studies using susceptible animals indicate that particulate matter aggravates atherosclerosis by increasing lipid/macrophage content in plaques. Macrophage lipid uptake requires oxidized low-density lipoprotein and scavenger receptors; same receptors are involved in particulate matter uptake. We studied in vitro particulate matter potential to oxidize low-density lipoproteins and subsequent cell uptake through scavenger receptors. Particulate matter-induced low-density lipoproteins oxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid assay. Binding/internalization was tested in wild type and scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, and in RAW264.7 cells using fluorescently labeled low-density lipoproteins. Dose-dependent binding/internalization only occurred in scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and RAW264.7 cells. Competition binding/internalization using particles showed that particulate matter induced decreased binding (~50%) and internalization (~70%) of particle-oxidized low-density lipoproteins and native low-density lipoproteins. Results indicate that particulate matter was capable of oxidizing low-density lipoproteins, favoring macrophage internalization, and also altered scavenger and low-density lipoproteins receptor function. PMID:23297186

  5. Comparative Toxicity of Biodiesel Exhaust and Petroleum Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter Using WKY Rat Alveolar Machrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter <2.5um (PM2.5) can induce airway inflammation, cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel contributes to PM2.5. Possible toxicity caused by inhalation of biodiesel emission particles (BioDEP) h...

  6. Comparative Toxicity of Biodiesel Exhaust and Petroleum Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter Using WKY Rat Alveolar Machrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter <2.5um (PM2.5) can induce airway inflammation, cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel contributes to PM2.5. Possible toxicity caused by inhalation of biodiesel emission particles (BioDEP) h...

  7. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  8. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... matter in excess of 0.67 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still when a catalyst is added to... still when a catalyst is added to the still and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner; and (3... a catalyst; and (4) Particulate matter in excess of 0.64 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to...

  9. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter in excess of 0.67 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still when a catalyst is added to... still when a catalyst is added to the still and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner; and (3... a catalyst; and (4) Particulate matter in excess of 0.64 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to...

  10. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  11. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  12. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  13. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  14. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  15. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  16. Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-02-21

    A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

  17. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62 Section 60.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland...

  18. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.776 Control strategy... Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Region. (b) APC 4-R of Indiana's “Air Pollution Control...

  19. Turkish Primary Students' Conceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter in daily-life events. Five questions were asked of students and interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were conducted with 12 students, four students from each grade, after they finished the formal…

  20. Update - characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for PM2.5, particulate matter whose effective diameter is less than 2.5 microns. PM2.5 is listed as a criteria pollutant in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). All cotton gins across the cotton belt will be impacted by this standar...

  1. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

  2. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

  3. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (Final Report, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

  4. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (Final Report, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

  5. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and e...

  6. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel (excluding...

  7. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel (excluding...

  8. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel (excluding...

  9. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

  10. Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has m...

  11. Concentrations of particulate matter in large cattle feedlots in Kansas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Air quality in communities surrounding cattle feedlots is a growing public concern. Our objective was to quantify emission patterns and weather effects on particulate matter (PM) transport upwind and downwind from two large cattle feedlots (KS1, KS2) in Kansas. The concentrations of PM2.5 (particles...

  12. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  13. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

  14. Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

  15. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  16. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  17. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  18. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  19. Chapter 2: particulate matter (PM10) in the air

    Treesearch

    Cliff F. Hunt; Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the atmospheric conditions in and near the nation forest in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twainin Missoui, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest in Arkansas. This report includes information about particulate matter, visibility, ozone concentrations, and acid deposition in...

  20. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  1. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  2. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  3. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard cubic foot) after correction to a stack gas concentration of 7% oxygen, using procedures... particulate matter standard. (c) Oxygen correction. (1) Measured pollutant levels must be corrected for the amount of oxygen in the stack gas according to the formula: ER30SE99.027 Where: Pc is the...

  4. Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

  5. Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has m...

  6. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  7. Spatial Statistics of atmospheric particulate matter in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongxiang; Wang, Yangjun; Liu, Yulu

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the spatial dynamics of the atmospheric particulate matters (resp. PM10 and PM2.5) are studied using turbulence methodologies. The hourly concentrations of particulate matter were released by the Chinese government (http://www.cnemc.cn). We first processed these data into daily average concentrations. Totally, there are 305 monitor stations with an observations period of 425 days. It is found experimentally that the spatial correlation function ρ(r) shows a log-law on the mesoscale range, i.e., 50 ≤ r ≤ 500 km, with an experimental scaling exponent β = 0.45. The spatial structure function shows a power-law behavior on the mesoscale range 90 ≤ r ≤ 500 km. The experimental scaling exponent ζ(q) is convex, showing that the intermittent correction is relevant in characterizing the spatial dynamics of particulate matter. The measured singularity spectrum f(α) also shows its multifractal nature. Experimentally, the particulate matter is more intermittent than the passive scalar, which could be partially due to the mesoscale movements of the atmosphere, and also due to local sources, such as local industry activities.

  8. AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTEIN MASS OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of ambient particulate matter mass concentrations with the total protein mass concentration has not been performed previously for North Carolina and was the goal of this study. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all inclusive indicator of biologically ...

  9. SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this paper, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipa...

  10. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  11. Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

  12. Particulate matter adjacent to cattle deep-bedded monoslope facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region. Many of these facilities add organic bedding material to the pens once or twice per week. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions from these facilities have not been evaluate...

  13. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0...

  14. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any electric submerged arc furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 0.45... submerged arc furnace and escape the capture system and are visible without the aid of instruments. The...

  15. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any electric submerged arc furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 0.45... submerged arc furnace and escape the capture system and are visible without the aid of instruments. The...

  16. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for <span class=Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...

  17. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0...

  18. Evaluation of a Direct Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Monitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    One aspect of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment study (NCAAES) was to evaluate personal exposures to coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5) and their associated variability. As part of this, we examined the ability of a community-based monitor to act as...

  19. Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

  20. 77 FR 50446 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 )...

  1. STATUS AND PROGRESS IN PARTICULATE MATTER FORECASTING: INITIAL APPLICATION OF THE ETA- CMAQ FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews the status and progress in forecasting particulate matter distributions. The shortcomings in representation of particulate matter formation in current atmospheric chemistry/transport models are presented based on analyses and detailed comparisons with me...

  2. 77 FR 12526 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year...

  3. The potential for delivery of particulate matter through positive airway pressure devices (CPAP/BPAP).

    PubMed

    Kristo, David; Corcoran, Timothy; O'Connell, Nina; Thomas, Kristina; Strollo, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Airborne particulate matter may induce health risk with inhalation. Special concerns exist for deployed military personnel with inhaled particulate matter in desert environments. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) used in obstructive sleep apnea may facilitate inhalation of particulate matter. We evaluated the ability of commercial CPAP filter systems to eliminate inhalation of particulate matter. An ultrasonic medical nebulizer (DeVilbliss Ultraneb, DeVilbliss, Somerset, PA) atomized liquid producing "respirable" aerosol. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid dissolved in water was also aerosolized to quantify aerosol inhalation. A high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter placed at the patient-hose connection port in the bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) device captured the aerosol inbound to the patient. The HEPA filter provided a means to quantify aerosol dose delivered to a simulated patient. Commercial foam and ultrafine filters were assessed with aerosol to determine the simulated patient exposure. Foam and ultrafine filters used together allowed 1.5% or less of aerosol volume to pass through the BPAP system. Foam filters alone allowed an average of 18.9% of aerosol delivered to pass through the BPAP system. Foam and ultrafine filters used together in BPAP systems provide excellent aerosol filtration in this laboratory simulation of BPAP use.

  4. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of urban particulate matter in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumax-Vorzet, Audrey F.; Tate, M.; Walmsley, Richard; Elder, Rhod H.; Povey, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM)-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to a variety of altered cellular outcomes. In this study, three different PM samples from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust standard reference material SRM1649a and air collected in Manchester have been tested for their ability to oxidise DNA in a cell-free assay, to increase intracellular ROS levels and to induce CYP1A1 gene expression in mammalian cells. In addition, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PM were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and alkaline comet assay, respectively. All PM samples catalysed the Fenton reaction in a cell-free assay, but only DEP resulted in the generation of ROS as measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate oxidation in mammalian cells. However, there was no evidence that increased ROS was a consequence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism via CYP1A1 induction as urban dust, the Manchester dust samples but not DEP-induced CYP1A1 expression. Urban dust was more cytotoxic in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) than the other PM samples and also induced expression of GADD45a in the GreenScreen Human Cell assay without S9 activation suggesting the presence of a direct-acting genotoxicant. Urban dust and DEP produced comparable levels of DNA damage, as assessed by the alkaline comet assay, in MEFs at higher levels than those induced by Manchester PM. In conclusion, results from the cytotoxic and genotoxic assays are not consistent with ROS production being the sole determinant of PM-induced toxicity. This suggests that the organic component can contribute significantly to this toxicity and that further work is required to better characterise the extent to which ROS and organic components contribute to PM-induced toxicity. PMID:26113525

  5. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  6. PRELIMINARY PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGITUDINAL PANEL STUDIES "ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES OF HIGH RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO PARTICULATE MATTER"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NERL Particulate Matter Longitudinal Panel Studies were used to characterize temporal variations of personal exposure to PM and related co-pollutants, including that of PM measured at ambient sites. These studies were fundamental in understanding the associations between p...

  7. PRELIMINARY PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGITUDINAL PANEL STUDIES "ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES OF HIGH RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO PARTICULATE MATTER"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NERL Particulate Matter Longitudinal Panel Studies were used to characterize temporal variations of personal exposure to PM and related co-pollutants, including that of PM measured at ambient sites. These studies were fundamental in understanding the associations between p...

  8. 75 FR 17894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... September 11, 2009. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October 2006 by strengthening the 24... particulate matter. DATES: Comments must be received on or before May 10, 2010. ADDRESSES: Submit...

  9. Human bronchial epithelial cell injuries induced by fine particulate matter from sandstorm and non-sandstorm periods: Association with particle constituents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Ning; Deng, Furong; Buglak, Nicholas; Park, George; Su, Shu; Ren, Aiguo; Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the exacerbation of respiratory diseases following sandstorm-derived particulate matter (PM) exposure. The presence of anthropogenic and biological agents on the sandstorm PM and the escalation of PM<2.5μm (PM2.5) pollution in China have led to serious concerns regarding the health effects of PM2.5 during Asian sandstorms. We investigated how changes in PM2.5 composition, as the weather transitioned towards a sandstorm, affected human airway epithelial cells. Six PM2.5 samples covering two sandstorm events and their respective background and transition periods were collected in Baotou, an industrial city near the Gobi Desert in China. PM samples from all three periods had mild cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, which was positively correlated with the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and several metals. All PM samples potently increased the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Endotoxin in all samples contributed significantly to the IL-6 response, with only a minor effect on IL-8. Cr was positively correlated with both IL-6 and IL-8 release, while Si was only associated with the increase of IL-6. Our study suggests that local agricultural and industrial surroundings in addition to the sandstorm play important roles in the respiratory effects of sandstorm-derived PM.

  10. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-03-06

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm(2) of PM10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype.

  11. Research priorities for airborne particulates matter in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.; Wassle, R.; Holmes, K.J.; Abt, E.; Bakshi, K.

    2005-07-15

    Despite substantial progress in reducing air pollution over the past 30 years, particulates remain a poorly understood health concern that requires further study. The article provides a brief overview of the work of an independent National Research Council (NRC) Committee on particulate matter (PM). It highlights the committee's process for developing during its deliberations. It reflects on the committee as a potential model to provide guidance on a broad research area in which findings may have significant policy implications. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, Steven R. . E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-09-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

  13. Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1996-09-01

    As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

  14. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  15. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  16. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  17. Skin Damage Mechanisms Related to Airborne Particulate Matter Exposure.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Natalia D; Muresan, Ximena M; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Cervellati, Franco; Sticozzi, Claudia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Miracco, Clelia; Marchini, Timoteo; Evelson, Pablo; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between increased airborne particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. The mechanisms of PM-health effects are believed to involve oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate the ability of PM promoting skin tissue damage, one of the main organs exposed to outdoor pollutants, we analyzed the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues were exposed to 25 or 100 µg/ml CAPs for 24 or 48 h. Data showed that RHE seems to be more susceptible to CAPs-induced toxicity after 48 h exposure than after 24 h. We found a local reactive O(2) species (ROS) production increase generated from metals present on the particle, which contributes to lipids oxidation. Furthermore, as a consequence of altered redox status, NFkB nucleus translocation was increase upon CAPs exposure, as well as cyclooxygenase 2 and cytochrome P450 levels, which may be involved in the inflammatory response initiated by PM. CAPs also triggered an apoptotic process in skin. Surprisingly, by transition electron microscopy analysis we showed that CAPs were able to penetrate skin tissues. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cutaneous pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by CAPs exposure, where oxidative stress and inflammation may play predominant roles.

  18. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  19. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, James; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Sappok, Alex; Ragaller, Paul; Bromberg, Leslie

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  20. The Adjuvant Effect of Ambient Particulate Matter Is Closely Reflected by the Particulate Oxidant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Bramble, Lori A.; Schmitz, Debra A.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R.; Nel, Andre E.

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization. Redox-active organic chemicals on the particle surface play an important role in PM adverse health effects and may determine the adjuvant effect of different particle types according to their potential to perturb redox equilibrium in the immune system. Objectives We determined whether the adjuvant effect of ambient fine particles versus ultrafine particles (UFPs) is correlated to their prooxidant potential. Methods We have established an intranasal sensitization model that uses ambient PM as a potential adjuvant for sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA), which enhances the capacity for secondary OVA challenge to induce allergic airway inflammation. Results UFPs with a greater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and higher oxidant potential enhanced OVA sensitization more readily than did fine particles. This manifests as enhanced allergic inflammation upon secondary OVA challenge, leading to eosinophilic inflammation and mucoid hyperplasia starting at the nasal turbinates all the way down to the small pulmonary airways. The thiol antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine was able to suppress some of these sensitization events. Conclusions The adjuvant effects of ambient UFP is determined by their oxidant potential, which likely plays a role in changing the redox equilibrium in the mucosal immune system. PMID:19654922

  1. The adjuvant effect of ambient particulate matter is closely reflected by the particulate oxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Bramble, Lori A; Schmitz, Debra A; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R; Nel, Andre E

    2009-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization. Redox-active organic chemicals on the particle surface play an important role in PM adverse health effects and may determine the adjuvant effect of different particle types according to their potential to perturb redox equilibrium in the immune system. We determined whether the adjuvant effect of ambient fine particles versus ultrafine particles (UFPs) is correlated to their prooxidant potential. We have established an intranasal sensitization model that uses ambient PM as a potential adjuvant for sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA), which enhances the capacity for secondary OVA challenge to induce allergic airway inflammation. UFPs with a greater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and higher oxidant potential enhanced OVA sensitization more readily than did fine particles. This manifests as enhanced allergic inflammation upon secondary OVA challenge, leading to eosinophilic inflammation and mucoid hyperplasia starting at the nasal turbinates all the way down to the small pulmonary airways. The thiol antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine was able to suppress some of these sensitization events. The adjuvant effects of ambient UFP is determined by their oxidant potential, which likely plays a role in changing the redox equilibrium in the mucosal immune system.

  2. Light-induced transformations of aza-aromatic pollutants adsorbed on models of atmospheric particulate matter: Acridine and 9(10-H) acridone

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Encarnación, Ideliz; Arce, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the characteristics of the surface on the phototransformation of acridine, one of the most abundant azapolycyclic compounds encountered in urban atmospheres, and of one of its principal photoproducts, acridone, was studied when adsorbed onto models of the atmospherice particulate matter. For this purpose, relative photodegradation rates were determined from absorption or emission intensities as a function of irradiation times, and some products were isolated and characterized. The relative photodegradation rates of adsorbed acridine show the tendency (NH4)2 SO4 > MgO > Al2O3 >SiO2. In general, the rates decrease as the fraction of protonated acridine species on the surface increases in MgO, Al2O3, and SiO2, except for (NH4)2 SO4 where a fast surface reaction occurs. Oxygen reduces the photodestruction rates by as much as 40 to 60% when compared to an inert atmosphere, implying the participation of an acrideine triplet state in the transformation processes on all surfaces except on (NH4)2SO4. Acridone, a major product, undergoes a photoinduced tautomerization to 9-hydroxy acridine. The formation of a dihydrodiol, another photoproduct of acridine, is suggested by comparison to reported spectral properties of these compounds. This is formed through a singlet oxygen reaction. Photoproducts showing the absence of the narrow absorption band of 250 nm, characteristic of the π →π* transition in tricyclic aromatics, were detected in small yields but not identified. These results suggest possible photochemical transformation pathways that could lead to the ultimate fate of these pollutants in the environment. PMID:18836521

  3. Particulate matter formation from photochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Several experiments were performed in the European Photo-reactor - EUPHORE - for studying aerosol formation from organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl. The mass concentration yields obtained (Y) were in the range 5 - 44% for the photo-oxidation reactions in the presence and the absence of NOx. These results confirm the importance of studying pesticides as significant precursors of atmospheric particulate matter due to the serious risks associated to them. The studies based on the use of EUPHORE photoreactor provide useful data about atmospheric degradation processes of organophosphorus pesticides to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the specific degradation products, including the formation of secondary particulate matter, could complete the assessment of their potential impact, since the formation of those degradation products plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry, global climate change, radiative force, and are related to health effects.

  4. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 μm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. PMID:19617562

  5. Organic content of particulate matter in turbine engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.J.; Groth, R.H.; Blasko, T.J.

    1980-03-01

    Research report:Solid particulate matter, mainly carbon, emitted during fossil fuels combustion contains a variety of organic species adsorbed onto it. Studies were conducted to identify the organic compounds generated by a gas turbine engine. Total organics were determined by gas chromatography and flame ionization. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and nitrosamines were present in samples collected from exhaust gases. (1 diagram, 4 references, 11 tables)

  6. Electrically heated particulate matter filter soot control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2016-03-15

    A regeneration system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A control module determines a current soot loading level of the PM filter and compares the current soot loading level to a predetermined soot loading level. The control module permits regeneration of the PM filter when the current soot loading level is less than the predetermined soot loading level.

  7. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  8. Particulate Matter Emissions Factors for Dust from Unique Military Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Plane-Integrated PM10 Mass Concentration PI-SWERL Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Laboratory PM Particulate Matter PNNL Pacific Northwest National...surface material (with respect to the sum of sand , clay, and silt) and M is the vehicle mass in metric tons (Mg). A second emission factor equation for...increased, the particle size of entrained dust converged, but the sand -sized particles entrained by the rotor-wash increased indicating that the

  9. Establishing the origin of particulate matter across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Martijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. In this paper we like to provide an overview of recent source apportionment studies aimed at PM and its precursors carried out at TNO. The source apportionment module that tracks the origin of modelled particulate matter distributions throughout a LOTOS-EUROS simulation will be explained. To optimally apply this technology dedicated emission inventories, e.g. fuel type specific, need to be generated. Applications to Europe shows that in northwestern Europe the contribution of transport and agricultural emissions dominate the PM mass concentrations, especially during episodic events. In eastern Europe, the domestic and energy sector are much more important. In southern Europe the picture is more mixed, although the frequent high levels of desert dust stand out. Evaluation of the source allocation against experimental data and PMF analyses is challenging as there is only a limited availability of source specific tracers or factors that can be used for direct comparison. Nonetheless, for the available tracers such as vanadium for heavy fuel oil combustion an evaluation is very well possible. The source apportionment technique can also be used to interpret particulate matter formation efficiencies. It will be shown that the conversion rates for the secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (NOx, NH3 and SO2) have changed during the last 20 years. A particular problem is related to the fact that CTMs systematically underestimate observed PM levels, which means that the contribution of certain source categories (natural, agriculture, combustion) are underestimated. Future developments needed to improve the source apportionment information concerning process knowledge, data assimilation as well as model implementation will be discussed. Specific challenges concerning the

  10. High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

  11. [Form of the particulate matter ambient air standards in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Ding, Jun-Nan; Wang, Rui-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Meng, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Bin; Lin, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Based on the principles from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States, an analysis was conducted to study the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter in China by methods of statistical regression, proportional rollback and controlling contrast maps, using the monitoring data of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) from 120 cities in China during year 2005 to 2012. It was found that for cities in China, when the annual arithmetic mean of PM10 was equal to the national standard, the non-exceedance rates of daily average PM10 in most cities were higher than 95.0% , and the average rate for all cities was 97.1%. The average non-exceedance rate was 96.3% for cities in North China and Northwest China, 96.6% for Northeast China, 97.2% for East China and Central South China, and 98.1% for Southwest China. When the 97th percentile was chosen as the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter for China, the 24-hour standard had an equal controlling strength with the annual standard. The 24-hour standard will become the controlling standard when larger percentiles were chosen, otherwise the contrary. By considering together the statistical characteristics of PM10 level in China, the robustness of the percentiles and protection of human health, the 95th percentile was suitable as the preferred form of the 24-hour standard of PM10 and PM2.5 in China.

  12. Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

  13. Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzari, E. D.; Clayton, C. A.; Rodes, C. E.; Mason, R. E.; Piper, L. L.; Fort, B.; Pfeifer, G.; Lynam, D.

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is a manganese-based gasoline additive used to enhance automobile performance. MMT has been used in Canadian gasoline for about 20 yr. Because of the potential for increased levels of Mn in particulate matter resulting from automotive exhausts, a large-scale population-based exposure study (˜1000 participant periods) was conducted in Toronto, Canada, to estimate the distribution of 3-day average personal exposures to particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) and Mn. A stratified, three-stage, two-phase probability, longitudinal sample design of the metropolitan population was employed. Residential indoor and outdoor, and ambient levels (at a fixed site and on a roof) of PM 2.5, PM 10, and Mn were also measured. Supplementary data on traffic counts, meteorology, MMT levels in gasoline, personal occupations, and activities (e.g. amount of vehicular usage) were collected. Overall precision (%RSD) for analysis of duplicate co-located samples ranged from 2.5 to 5.0% for particulate matter and 3.1 to 5.5% for Mn. The detection limits were 1.47 and 3.45 μg m -3 for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 fractions, respectively, and 5.50 and 1.83 ng m -3 for Mn in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. These low detection limits permitted the reporting of concentrations for >98% of the samples. For PM 10, the personal particulate matter levels (median 48.5 μg m -3) were much higher than either indoor (23.1 μg m -3) or outdoor levels (23.6 μg m -3). The median levels for PM 2.5 for personal, indoor, and outdoor were 28.4, 15.4 and 13.2 μg m -3, respectively. The correlation between PM 2.5 personal exposures and indoor concentrations was high (0.79), while correlations between personal and the outdoor, fixed site and roof site were low (0.16-0.27). Indoor Mn concentration distributions (in PM 2.5 and PM 10), unlike particulate matter, exhibited much lower and less variable levels that the corresponding outdoor data. The median personal exposure

  14. Ambient fine particulate matter and ozone exposures induce inflammation in epicardial and perirenal adipose tissues in rats fed a high fructose diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathogenesis of inhaled air pollutant-mediated metabolic disease. Inflammation in the adipose tissues niches are widely believed to exert important effects on organ dysfunction. Recent data from both human and animal models suggest a role for inflammation and oxidative stress in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that inhalational exposure to concentrated ambient fine particulates (CAPs) and ozone (O3) exaggerates inflammation and oxidative stress in EAT and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT). Methods Eight- week-old Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or high fructose diet (HFr) for 8 weeks, and then exposed to ambient AIR, CAPs at a mean of 356 μg/m3, O3 at 0.485 ppm, or CAPs (441 μg/m3) + O3 (0.497 ppm) in Dearborn, MI, 8 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 9 days over 2 weeks. Results EAT and PAT showed whitish color in gross, and less mitochondria, higher mRNA expression of white adipose specific and lower brown adipose specific genes than in brown adipose tissues. Exposure to CAPs and O3 resulted in the increase of macrophage infiltration in both EAT and PAT of HFr groups. Proinflammatory genes of Tnf-α, Mcp-1 and leptin were significantly upregulated while IL-10 and adiponectin, known as antiinflammatory genes, were reduced after the exposures. CAPs and O3 exposures also induced an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, and decrease in mitochondrial area in EAT and PAT. We also found significant increases in macrophages of HFr-O3 rats. The synergetic interaction of HFr and dirty air exposure on the inflammation was found in most of the experiments. Surprisingly, exposure to CAPs or O3 induced more significant inflammation and oxidative stress than co-exposure of CAPs and O3 in EAT and PAT. Conclusion EAT and PAT are both white adipose tissues. Short

  15. Ambient fine particulate matter and ozone exposures induce inflammation in epicardial and perirenal adipose tissues in rats fed a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lixian; Liu, Cuiqing; Xu, Xiaohua; Ying, Zhekang; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Wang, Aixia; Allen, Katryn; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Bramble, Lori A; Morishita, Masako; Wagner, James G; Dvonch, J; Sun, Zhichao; Yan, Xiaowei; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Harkema, Jack R; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie

    2013-08-22

    Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathogenesis of inhaled air pollutant-mediated metabolic disease. Inflammation in the adipose tissues niches are widely believed to exert important effects on organ dysfunction. Recent data from both human and animal models suggest a role for inflammation and oxidative stress in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that inhalational exposure to concentrated ambient fine particulates (CAPs) and ozone (O3) exaggerates inflammation and oxidative stress in EAT and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT). Eight- week-old Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or high fructose diet (HFr) for 8 weeks, and then exposed to ambient AIR, CAPs at a mean of 356 μg/m3, O3 at 0.485 ppm, or CAPs (441 μg/m3) + O3 (0.497 ppm) in Dearborn, MI, 8 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 9 days over 2 weeks. EAT and PAT showed whitish color in gross, and less mitochondria, higher mRNA expression of white adipose specific and lower brown adipose specific genes than in brown adipose tissues. Exposure to CAPs and O3 resulted in the increase of macrophage infiltration in both EAT and PAT of HFr groups. Proinflammatory genes of Tnf-α, Mcp-1 and leptin were significantly upregulated while IL-10 and adiponectin, known as antiinflammatory genes, were reduced after the exposures. CAPs and O3 exposures also induced an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, and decrease in mitochondrial area in EAT and PAT. We also found significant increases in macrophages of HFr-O3 rats. The synergetic interaction of HFr and dirty air exposure on the inflammation was found in most of the experiments. Surprisingly, exposure to CAPs or O3 induced more significant inflammation and oxidative stress than co-exposure of CAPs and O3 in EAT and PAT. EAT and PAT are both white adipose tissues. Short-term exposure to CAPs and O3, especially with high

  16. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for DPM. (2) Non-powered, negative-pressure, air purifying, particulate-filter respirators shall use... respirator at the mine. If the PLHCP determines that the miner cannot wear a negative pressure respirator... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter...

  17. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for DPM. (2) Non-powered, negative-pressure, air purifying, particulate-filter respirators shall use... respirator at the mine. If the PLHCP determines that the miner cannot wear a negative pressure respirator... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter...

  18. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, A.M.; Santos, A.G.; Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C.; Arbex, M.A.; Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R.

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  19. Speciation of The Particulate Organic Matter In Three Remote Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masclet, Pierre; Marchand, Nicolas; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Besombes, Jean Luc

    Total particulate matter was collected as part of three programs between 1999 and 2001 (EAAS in Finland, ESOMPTE in Marseille/Fos and POVA in french alpine valleys). The speciation of the particulate organic matter (POM) was performed by Gas Chromatography or HPLC coupled with a mass spectrometer. 13 organic families were identified in the 245 samples collected. The presence of some functional groups (- COOH; - OH and - CHO) and the carbon chain length are used in order to identify the sources of the particulate pollutants and the physicochemical behaviour during the long range atmospheric transport of the aerosol. The composition of the POM differs depending on the season (the secondary fraction reaches 27 % in summer and only 6% in winter) and on the remoteness of the sources. Alkanes are always the most abundant compounds. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, carboxylic acids and monoaromatic hydrocarbons are present in significant abundance. Some alkenes, aldehydes, ether oxydes, ketones and halocompounds are also found. Alcohols are more abundant in aerosols collected close to marine sites. Long carbon chain esters are mostly found in aerosols collected in high density vegetation areas and relatively high concentrations of PAH are measured in aerosols collected close to highly populated areas. These three families are good geochemical tracers, respectively of marine, biogenic and anthropic sources.

  20. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  1. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  2. Elemental analysis of urban stormwater particulate matter by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J. V.; Trompetter, W. J.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-05-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used to determine the average elemental concentrations of various size fractions in the particulate phase of urban stormwater derived from areas with different land-use characteristics. Water samples were filtered through Nucleopore polycarbonate filter papers to separate particulate in the 0.4-60 μm and 60-250 μm fractions and the dry weights determined. Elements such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Ag, Cd and Pb are measured with concentrations ranging from 10 ppm to a few percent in both water sample fractions. For the elements P, S, Cl, Ca and Mn, there was no apparent relationship with land-use in the 0.4-60 μm fraction water particulate. However, in the 60-250 μm fraction particulate, higher concentrations were determined at sampling location number 6 which had the largest percentage of industrial use. Significant increased heavy metal concentrations were measured in samples collected from industrial and commercial land-use areas. Our preliminary study reveals that PIXE can be used to measure the elemental concentrations in different particulate size fractions from water samples.

  3. STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION INVOLVING AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research in the early 1990s focusing on health effects of airborne particulate matter pointed to a statistical association between increases in concentration of particulate in ambient air and increases in daily nonaccidental mortality, particularly among the eld...

  4. An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Esch, R. K.; Schwartz, T. D.; Dean, T. R.; Hays, M. D.; Cho, S. H.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

    The incidences of allergies, allergic diseases and asthma are increasing world wide. Global climate change is likely to impact plants and animals, as well as microorganisms. The World Health Organization, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cite increased allergic reactions due to climate change as a growing concern. Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina (NC), and Denver (CO), were collected and analyzed as the goal of this research. A study of PM 10 (<10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM 2.5 (<2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) fractions of ambient bioaerosols was undertaken for a six month period to evaluate the potential for long-term concentrations. These airborne bioaerosols can induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Three separate sites were monitored, samples were collected and analyzed for mass and biological content (endotoxins, (1,3)-β- D-glucan and protein). Concentrations of these bioaerosols were reported as a function of PM size fraction, mass and volume of air sampled. The results indicated that higher concentrations of biologicals were present in PM 10 than were present in PM 2.5, except when near-roadway conditions existed. This study provides the characterization of ambient bioaerosol concentrations in a variety of areas and conditions.

  5. Particulate Matter Fluxes in Cuenca Alfonso During 2002-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, N.; Aguirre-Bahena, F.

    2007-05-01

    Time-series sediment trap data were collected between 2002 and 2005 from Cuenca Alfonso, a 400m-deep basin in Bahía de La Paz, a large embayment on the southwestern coast of the Gulf of California. Despite the lack of significant land drainage in this semi-dessert environment, terrigenous material, probably wind-born, dominates the sinking particulate matter. Peak lithogenic fluxes appear to be associated with higher frequencies of wind gusts stronger than 5 ms-1. Total mass flux fluctuated from week to week, and between years, averaging 277 gm-2y-1, essentially the same as radiometrically-determined accumulation rates of about 0.4 mmy-1 in cores of the underlying sediment. In 2003, the passage of 2 hurricanes induced high winds and flash flooding and the total mass flux offshore remained very high for two weeks following each event. This unusual sedimentation was equivalent to that of a full year without hurricanes and such events may account for some of the laminations found in cores. During most of 2005, on the other hand, sedimentation rates were lower than average. Although fluxes of all components tended to be highest during late fall and early winter, biogenic fluxes displayed peaks during all seasons of the year in Cuenca Alfonso. This is in contrast to the strong seasonal alternation between terrigenous sedimentation and diatom blooms observed in Guaymas Basin in the central Gulf. Furthermore, calcium carbonate dominated over biogenic silica within the marine component. Average annual fluxes of CaCO3, biogenic silica and POC were 52.5, 32.5 and 13.9 gm-2y-1, respectively.

  6. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient.

  7. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  8. Impact assessment of respirable suspended particulate matter from diesel generator sets used for pumping station.

    PubMed

    Talwar, B; Pipalatkar, P; Gajghate, D G; Nema, P

    2010-10-01

    Prediction of respirable suspended particulate matter impacts of diesel generator sets used for pumping station has been made using meteorological data, information on stack characteristics and emission rate, baseline ambient particulate matter and Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST-3) model. It is observed that particulate matter emission from pumping station-S workplace diesel generator sets ranged from 2.4 to 436.5 mg Nm⁻³ and while at pumping station-C, it ranged from 23.2 to 186.5 mg Nm⁻³. The predicted and ambient respirable suspended particulate matter concentrations are below the national air quality standard for respirable suspended particulate matter in a mixed industrial area. Metals contents in respirable suspended particulate matter indicate the origin of crustal and mobile sources. Therefore, the impact of diesel generator sets used for pumping of crude oil on local air quality would be acceptable.

  9. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources

  10. Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

    2011-10-04

    An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

  11. Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Peyton L.; Morse, John C.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

  12. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms.

    PubMed

    Braniš, Martin; Šafránek, Jiří

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5-1.0)) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM(10-2.5) 4.1-7.4 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 2.0-3.3 μg m(-3)) than indoors (average PM(10-2.5) 13.6-26.7 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 3.7-7.4 μg m(-3)). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM(10-2.5) and 1.4-4.8 for the PM(2.5-1.0) values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM(10-2.5)) and 19.1 (PM(2.5-1.0)). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high

  13. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  14. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  15. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  16. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  17. Fe, Ni and Zn speciation, in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiodjio Sendja, Bridinette; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Vassura, Ivano; Giorgetti, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The study of elemental speciation in atmospheric particulate matter is important for the assessment of the source of the particle as well for the evaluation of its toxicity. XANES data at Fe, Ni, and Zn K-edges are recorded on a sample of urban dust (from the Rimini area of Emilia Romagna region, Italy) deposited on a filter and on the NIST standard reference material 1648. Using linear combination fitting we give an indication of the chemical species of the three metals present in the samples.

  18. Modeling particulate matter emissions during mineral loading process under weak wind simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Chen, Weiping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shuifen

    2013-04-01

    The quantification of particulate matter emissions from mineral handling is an important problem for the quantification of global emissions on industrial sites. Mineral particulate matter emissions could adversely impact environmental quality in mining regions, transport regions, and even on a global scale. Mineral loading is an important process contributing to mineral particulate matter emissions, especially under weak wind conditions. Mathematical models are effective ways to evaluate particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process. The currently used empirical models based on the form of a power function do not predict particulate matter emissions accurately under weak wind conditions. At low particulate matter emissions, the models overestimated, and at high particulate matter emissions, the models underestimated emission factors. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to evaluate the particulate matter emission factors for the mineral loading process. A new approach based on the mathematical form of a logistical function was developed and tested. It provided a realistic depiction of the particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process, accounting for fractions of fine mineral particles, dropping height, and wind velocity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J; Walker, Larry R; Yapaulo, Renato A; Orita, Tetsuo; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai; Foster, David; Akard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

  20. Evaluation of near surface ozone and particulate matter in air ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields without correcting toward higher-resolution observations. The Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model are used to simulate regional climate and air quality over the contiguous United States for 2000–2010. The air quality simulations for that historical period are then compared to observations from four national networks. Comparisons are drawn between defined performance metrics and other published modeling results for predicted ozone, fine particulate matter, and speciated fine particulate matter. The results indicate that the historical air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled meteorology are typically within defined modeling performance benchmarks and are consistent with results from other published modeling studies using finer-resolution meteorology. This indicates that the regional climate and air quality modeling framework utilized here does not introduce substantial bias, which provides confidence in the method’s use for future air quality projections. This paper shows that if emissions inputs and coarse-scale meteorological inputs are reasonably accurate, then air quality can be simulated with acceptable accuracy even wi

  1. [Fine particulate matter and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Li, M; Li, Y M

    2016-09-20

    Fine particulate matter is defined as the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of < 2.5 μm, i.e., PM2.5. Its surface absorbs large amounts of toxic and hazardous substances, which can deposit in pulmonary alveoli through respiration and reach other organs through pulmonary ventilation. Many studies have confirmed that PM2.5 is closely associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)has similar risk factors as these diseases, as well as obesity, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes, and it is considered a part of metabolic syndrome. In this view, many studies focus on the possible association between PM2.5 and NAFLD in recent years, including epidemiological study and experimental study, so as to investigate possible pathogenic mechanisms. With reference to the research advances in PM2.5 and NAFLD, this article reviews the association between PM2.5 and NAFLD from the aspects of lipid deposition, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption on selected solid particulate matter fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Frantisek; Huzlik, Jiri; Pawelczyk, Adam; Hoza, Ignac; Naplavova, Magdalena; Jedlicka, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    This article is directed to evaluating the proportion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) captured on particulate matter (PM) classified as PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, i.e. particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5-10 μm and 2.5 μm. During three week-long and one 2-day campaigns, 22 paired air samples were taken in parallel of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions inside the Mrázovka tunnel in Prague, Czech Republic. Following sample preparation, concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual pairs of each PAH were tested by the nonparametric method using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. At significance level p < 0.01, it was demonstrated that all individual PAHs, including their totals, were bound to the PM2.5 fraction. Exceptions were seen in the cases of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, the concentrations of which fluctuated around the detection limit, where increased measurement error can be expected.

  3. Composition and oxidation state of sulfur in atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Amelia F.; Vine, David J.; King, Laura E.; Oakes, Michelle; Weber, Rodney J.; Huey, Lewis Gregory; Russell, Armistead G.; Ingall, Ellery D.

    2016-10-01

    The chemical and physical speciation of atmospheric sulfur was investigated in ambient aerosol samples using a combination of sulfur near-edge x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (S-NEXFS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the composition and oxidation state of sulfur in common primary emission sources and ambient particulate matter collected from the greater Atlanta area. Ambient particulate matter samples contained two oxidation states: S0 and S+VI. Ninety-five percent of the individual aerosol particles (> 1 µm) analyzed contain S0. Linear combination fitting revealed that S+VI in ambient aerosol was dominated by ammonium sulfate as well as metal sulfates. The finding of metal sulfates provides further evidence for acidic reactions that solubilize metals, such as iron, during atmospheric transport. Emission sources, including biomass burning, coal fly ash, gasoline, diesel, volcanic ash, and aerosolized Atlanta soil, and the commercially available bacterium Bacillus subtilis, contained only S+VI. A commercially available Azotobacter vinelandii sample contained approximately equal proportions of S0 and S+VI. S0 in individual aerosol particles most likely originates from primary emission sources, such as aerosolized bacteria or incomplete combustion.

  4. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment.

  5. California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM10–2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 μm to < 10 μm; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season. PMID:19590679

  6. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  7. Effect of ozonation on particulate matter in broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Wang, L; Oviedo-Rondón, E; Parnell, C B

    2010-10-01

    The effects of ozonation on particulate matter were studied on a commercial broiler farm. The farm consisted of 4 identical tunnel-ventilated houses (12.8×152.4 m): 2 houses were treated with O3 (maximum concentration 0.1 ppm) and the other 2 served as control units. The particle size distributions of total suspended particulate (TSP) samples from both control and treated houses were found to have very similar profiles with no statistical difference. The TSP concentrations were significantly higher in treated houses as compared with those in control houses, and the mean of the differences was 5.50 mg/m3. In both treated and control houses, there were substantial vertical TSP concentration gradients and the concentrations decreased with height. At broiler chicken height (0.28 m), TSP concentrations were 13±3 mg/m3 in control houses and 17±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. At human breathing height (1.55 m), TSP concentrations were 8±4 mg/m3 in control houses and 7±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. Particle phase NH4+ concentrations were higher in treated houses (ranging from 0.59 to 42.01 mg/m3 with mean=17.49 mg/m3) than in control houses (ranging from 0.34 to 13.55 mg/m3 with mean=4.42 mg/m3). The TSP samples from locations in the vicinity of the farm showed higher concentrations downwind than that upwind, but there were no significant differences observed among different ambient locations for TSP NH4+ concentrations. The results from this study did not show that direct application of ozonation technique has beneficial effects for particulate matter control in broiler houses.

  8. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  9. Partitioning of copper onto suspended particulate matter in river waters.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Allen, H E

    2001-09-28

    Suspended particles and river water from the Susquehanna River, White Clay Creek and the Delaware River were collected to experimentally study the partitioning of copper. The effects of many factors that may influence the partitioning coefficient (Kd) including pH, total suspended solids (TSS), total copper concentration ([Cu]T), dissolved organic matter (DOM), particulate organic matter (POM), hardness, and ionic strength were investigated by performing batch adsorption experiments. The results implied that organic matter binding sites in both the aqueous and solid phases play the most important role in controlling copper partitioning. Other major factors governing the partitioning are pH and TSS. Kd increases with pH in the pH range 3-8. TSS increases caused decreases in Kd values, which may be attributed to the decrease in the quantity of available binding sites caused by interparticle interactions, rather than by the redistribution of organic matter between solid and solution phases with the variation of TSS. Kd decreases slightly when total Cu concentration increases; however, Kd can be considered to be independent of Cu concentration when TSS is high. The effects of calcium competition and ionic strength on partitioning are small.

  10. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological, biomedical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yixing; Xu, Xiaohan; Chu, Ming; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is now becoming an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous epidemiological, biomedical and clinical studies indicate that ambient particulate matter (PM) in air pollution is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic stroke, vascular dysfunction, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms for PM-caused cardiovascular disease include directly toxicity to cardiovascular system or indirectly injury by inducing systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in peripheral circulation. Here, we review the linking between PM exposure and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the observed PM induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26904258

  11. Particulate Matter Exposure Impairs Systemic Microvascular Endothelium-Dependent Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Porter, Dale W.; Barger, Mark; Castranova, Vincent; Boegehold, Matthew A.

    2004-01-01

    Acute exposure to airborne pollutants, such as solid particulate matter (PM), increases the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction, but the mechanisms by which PM evokes systemic effects remain to be identified. The purpose of this study was to determine if pulmonary exposure to a PM surrogate, such as residual oil fly ash (ROFA), affects endothelium-dependent dilation in the systemic microcirculation. Rats were intratracheally instilled with ROFA at 0.1, 0.25, 1 or 2 mg/rat 24 hr before experimental measurements. Rats intratracheally instilled with saline or titanium dioxide (0.25 mg/rat) served as vehicle or particle control groups, respectively. In vivo microscopy of the spinotrapezius muscle was used to study systemic arteriolar dilator responses to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, administered by ejection via pressurized micropipette into the arteriolar lumen. We used analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples to monitor identified pulmonary inflammation and damage. To determine if ROFA exposure affected arteriolar nitric oxide sensitivity, sodium nitroprusside was iontophoretically applied to arterioles of rats exposed to ROFA. In saline-treated rats, A23187 dilated arterioles up to 72 ± 7% of maximum. In ROFA- and TiO2-exposed rats, A23187-induced dilation was significantly attenuated. BAL fluid analysis revealed measurable pulmonary inflammation and damage after exposure to 1 and 2 mg ROFA (but not TiO2 or < 1 mg ROFA), as evidenced by significantly higher polymorphonuclear leukocyte cell counts, enhanced BAL albumin levels, and increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in BAL fluid. The sensitivity of arteriolar smooth muscle to NO was similar in saline-treated and ROFA-exposed rats, suggesting that pulmonary exposure to ROFA affected endothelial rather than smooth muscle function. A significant increase in venular leukocyte adhesion and rolling was observed in ROFA-exposed rats, suggesting local inflammation at the systemic microvascular level. These results

  12. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  14. 78 FR 8066 - Method for the Determination of Lead in Total Suspended Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Data used for... in Total Suspended Particulate Matter, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Docket Center (EPA...

  15. 77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Matter 2002 Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions...

  16. 77 FR 12769 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year...

  17. Effect of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Age on the Signaling Pathway of Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Murine Aorta

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ultrafine particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure. Advanced age is one ...

  18. Effect of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Age on the Signaling Pathway of Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Murine Aorta

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ultrafine particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure. Advanced age is one ...

  19. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    SciTech Connect

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art

  20. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  1. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  2. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  3. 40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources... pollution source that emits, or could emit, particulate matter to the atmosphere, unless exempted in... of less than 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) per hour, non-commercial smoke houses, sweat...

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of vegetative environmental buffers in mitigating particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from animal operations have been identified as a major air pollutant source with health and environmental impacts. Nearly 600 million broilers are produced annually on the Delmarva Peninsula, making it a hot spot for particulate matter emissions from poultry houses....

  5. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  6. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency performed a particulate matter (PM) exposure assessment based on data from the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study was a one-year investigation of PM ...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  19. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section 52.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following... particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial County Air Pollution...

  20. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section 52.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following... particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial County Air Pollution...